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Sample records for cells immune response

  1. Cellular immune responses towards regulatory cells.

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    Larsen, Stine Kiær

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results from two published papers identifying spontaneous cellular immune responses against the transcription factors Foxp3 and Foxo3. The tumor microenvironment is infiltrated by cells that hinder effective tumor immunity from developing. Two of these cell types, which have been linked to a bad prognosis for patients, are regulatory T cells (Treg) and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC). Tregs inhibit effector T cells from attacking the tumor through various mechanisms, including secreted factors and cell-to-cell contact. Tregs express the transcription factor Foxp3, which is necessary for their development and suppressive activities. Tolerogenic DCs participate in creating an environment in the tumor where effector T cells become tolerant towards the tumor instead of attacking it. The transcription factor Foxo3 was recently described to be highly expressed by tolerogenic DCs and to programme their tolerogenic influence. This thesis describes for the first time the existence of spontaneous cellular immune responses against peptides derived from Foxp3 and Foxo3. We have detected the presence of cytotoxic T cells that recognise these peptides in an HLA-A2 restricted manner in cancer patients and for Foxp3 in healthy donors as well. In addition, we have demonstrated that the Foxp3- and Foxo3-specific CTLs recognize Foxp3- and Foxo3-expressing cancer cell lines and importantly, suppressive immune cells, namely Tregs and in vitro generated DCs. Cancer immunotherapy is recently emerging as an important treatment modality improving the survival of selected patients. The current progress is largely owing to targeting of the immune suppressive milieu that is dominating the tumor microenvironment. This is being done through immune checkpoint blockade with CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and through lymphodepleting conditioning of patients and ex vivo activation of TILs in adoptive cell transfer. Several strategies are being explored for depletion of

  2. T cell metabolism and the immune response.

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    Verbist, Katherine C; Wang, Ruoning; Green, Douglas R

    2012-12-01

    As T cells respond to pathogens, they must transition from a quiescent, naïve state, to a rapidly proliferating, active effector state, and back again to a quiescent state as they develop into memory cells. Such transitions place unique metabolic demands on the differentiating cells. T cells meet these demands by altering their metabolic profiles, which are, in turn, regulated by distinct signaling cascades and transcriptional programs. Here, we examine the metabolic profiles of T cells during an acute immune response and discuss the signal and transcriptional regulators of these metabolic changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dendritic Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1 Controllers.

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    Martin-Gayo, Enrique; Yu, Xu G

    2017-02-01

    Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined. Recent studies suggest that myeloid DCs from controllers have improved abilities to recognize HIV-1 through cytoplasmic immune sensors, resulting in more potent, cell-intrinsic type I interferon secretion in response to viral infection. This innate immune response may facilitate DC-mediated induction of highly potent antiviral HIV-1-specific T cells. Moreover, protective HLA class I isotypes restricting HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells may influence DC function through specific interactions with innate myelomonocytic MHC class I receptors from the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor family. Bi-directional interactions between dendritic cells and HIV-1-specific T cells may contribute to natural HIV-1 immune control, highlighting the importance of a fine-tuned interplay between innate and adaptive immune activities for effective antiviral immune defense.

  4. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

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    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. PDT-apoptotic tumor cells induce macrophage immune response

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    Zhou, Fei-fan; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) functions as a cancer therapy through two major cell death mechanisms: apoptosis and necrosis. Immunological responses induced by PDT has been mainly associated with necrosis while apoptosis associated immune responses have not fully investigated. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in regulating immune responses. In present study, we studied whether apoptotic tumor cells could induce immune response and how the HSP70 regulates immune response. The endocytosis of tumor cells by the activated macrophages was observed at single cell level by LSM. The TNF-α release of macrophages induced by co-incubated with PDT-apoptotic tumor cells was detected by ELISA. We found that apoptotic tumor cells treated by PDT could activate the macrophages, and the immune effect decreased evidently when HSP70 was blocked. These findings not only show that apoptosis can induce immunological responses, but also show HSP70 may serves as a danger signal for immune cells and induce immune responses to regulate the efficacy of PDT.

  6. Erythroid Suppressor Cells Compromise Neonatal Immune Response against Bordetella pertussis.

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    Dunsmore, Garett; Bozorgmehr, Najmeh; Delyea, Cole; Koleva, Petya; Namdar, Afshin; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-09-15

    Newborns are highly susceptible to infection. The underlying mechanism of neonatal infection susceptibility has generally been associated with neonatal immune cell immaturity. In this study, we challenged this notion and built upon our recent discovery that neonates are physiologically enriched with erythroid TER119(+)CD71(+) cells (Elahi et al. 2013. Nature 504: 158-162). We have used Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract infection, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in newborns. We found that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immune-suppressive properties and suppress innate immune responses against B. pertussis infection. CD71(+) cell ablation unleashed innate immune response and restored resistance to B. pertussis infection. In contrast, adoptive transfer of neonatal CD71(+) cells into adult recipients impaired their innate immune response to B. pertussis infection. Enhanced innate immune response to B. pertussis was characterized by increased production of protective cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12, as well as recruitment of NK cells, CD11b(+), and CD11c(+) cells in the lung. Neonatal and human cord blood CD71(+) cells express arginase II, and this enzymatic activity inhibits phagocytosis of B. pertussis in vitro. Thus, our study challenges the notion that neonatal infection susceptibility is due to immune cell-intrinsic defects and instead highlights active immune suppression mediated by abundant CD71(+) cells in the newborn. Our findings provide additional support for the novel theme in neonatal immunology that immunosuppression is essential to dampen robust immune responses in the neonate. We anticipate that our results will spark renewed investigation in modulating the function of these cells and developing novel strategies for enhancing host defense to infections in newborns. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. The architects of B and T cell immune responses.

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    Lane, Peter J L

    2008-08-15

    Published work links adult lymphoid tissue-inducer cells (LTi) with T cell-dependent antibody responses. In this issue of Immunity, Tsuji et al. (2008) associate LTi with T cell-independent IgA antibody responses in the gut.

  8. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

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    Triozzi, Pierre L., E-mail: triozzp@ccf.org [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Fernandez, Anthony P. [Departments of Dermatology and Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2013-02-28

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies.

  9. Investigating Human Dendritic Cell Immune Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Mason, Lauren M. K.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2018-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that recognize and phagocytose pathogens, and help to orchestrate adaptive immune responses to combat them. DCs are abundant in the skin where Borrelia burgdorferi first enters the body during a tick bite, and are thus critical in

  10. Augmented primary humoral immune response and decreased cell-mediated immunity by Murraya koenigii in rats.

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    Kaur, Inderjit; Bhatia, Sneh; Bhati, Yogendra; Sharma, Vinay; Mediratta, Pramod K; Bhattacharya, Swapan K

    2014-05-01

    Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) (curry patta: Hindi) of the family Rutaceae is used in the traditional Indian system of medicine for its immunomodulatory properties. The essential oil of the leaves of M. koenigii possesses antimicrobial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities and is used for the treatment of amebiasis, diabetes, and hepatitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of M. koenigii on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in rats. Aqueous extract of M. koenigii leaves was administered orally in a dose of 350 mg/kg. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness following sensitization by injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin and subsequent challenge by the same. Humoral immunity was assessed by measurement of hemagglutination titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). In the humoral immune response, the administration of M. koenigii [350 mg/kg per os (p.o.)] from day 1 to day 7 after sensitization with SRBC on day 0 caused a significant increase in the primary anti-SRBC titer. However, the secondary immune response was decreased significantly (pkoenigii (350 mg/kg, p.o.), when administered for 14 days, produced a significant (pkoenigii augments primary humoral immune response and decreases cell-mediated immunity.

  11. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

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    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The induction of specific CD8+ Tlymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. This process is however, often sub-optimal, in part due to tumor-induced DC dysfunction. Instead of DC that can become mature and activated and have a potent antigen-presenting and immune stimulating phenotype, immature dendritic cells (iDC) are often found in tumors and are part of an immunosuppressive milieu including regulatory T-cells and immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL10. We here report on the use of a potent DC activating agent, an oligonucleotide (ODN) that contains a non-methylated CpG motif and acts as an agonist of toll like receptor (TLR) 9. TLR activation is a danger signal to notify the immune system of the presence of invading pathogens. CpG-ODN (but not scrambled non-CpG ODN) increased bone-marrow DC activation after exposure to PDT-killed tumor cells, and significantly increased tumor response to PDT and mouse survival after peri-tumoral administration. CpG may be a valuable immunoadjuvant to PDT especially for tumors that produce DC dysfunction.

  12. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

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    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  13. Human placenta-derived adherent cells induce tolerogenic immune responses

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    Liu, Wei; Morschauser, Andrew; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Xiaohua; Gleason, Joseph; He, Shuyang; Chen, Hong-Jung; Jankovic, Vladimir; Ye, Qian; Labazzo, Kristen; Herzberg, Uri; Albert, Vivian R; Abbot, Stewart E; Liang, Bitao; Hariri, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDAC cells) are a culture expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immunoregulatory properties of PDAC cells, we investigated their effects on immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells (DC) in vitro and in vivo. PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an OT-II T-cell adoptive transfer model, reduced the severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorated inflammation in a delayed type hypersensitivity response model. In vitro, PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation and inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation. Analysis of tissues derived from PDAC cell-treated animals revealed diminished CD86 expression on splenic DC, suggesting that they can also modulate DC populations. Furthermore, PDAC cells modulate the differentiation and maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DC. Similarly, human DC differentiated from CD14+ monocytes in the presence of PDAC cells acquired a tolerogenic phenotype. These tolerogenic DC failed to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation and differentiation toward Th1, but skewed T-cell differentiation toward Th2. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity resulted in a significant, but not complete, abrogation of PDAC cells' effects on DC phenotype and function, implying a role for prostaglandin E2 in PDAC-mediated immunomodulation. This study identifies modulation of DC differentiation toward immune tolerance as a key mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory activities of PDAC cells. PMID:25505962

  14. Cell mediated immune response in human antirabies revaccination

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    Débora Regina Veiga

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of secondary cell mediated immune response (CMI in human antirabies immunization was studied. The Puenzalida & Palácios vaccine was used because it is routinely used in Brazil. CMI was evaluated by lymphoblastic transformation indices obtained in whole blood culture in the presence of rabies and control (nervous tissue antigens. Eleven volunteers submitted to revaccination constituted the group under study, while three other volunteers submitted primo vaccination were utilized as control group. A clear secondary CMI to rabies antigen was detected in all the revaccinated volunteers who showed earlier and more intense response than the control group. Response to the control antigen, however, present in all the components of the first group was not detectable in two out of the three primovaccinated and very low in the third one.

  15. Augmentation of humoral and cell mediated immune responses by Thujone.

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    Siveen, K S; Kuttan, Girija

    2011-12-01

    Thujone, a naturally occurring monoterpene, was found to enhance the total WBC count, bone marrow cellularity, number of α-esterase positive cells, number of plaque forming cells in spleen and circulating antibody titer in Balb/c mice (1mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally for 5 days). Thujone treatment enhanced proliferation of splenocytes and thymocytes, both in the presence and absence of specific mitogens. Administration of Thujone was found to stimulate the cell-mediated immunological response in normal and tumor bearing Balb/c mice. A significant enhancement in natural killer (NK) cell mediated cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent complement mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) in both normal as well as tumor-bearing animals was observed after the administration of Thujone. Production of cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ was significantly enhanced by the administration of Thujone. The stimulatory effect of Thujone on cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation was determined by Winn's neutralization assay using CTL sensitive EL4 thymoma cells. Thujone treatment showed a significant increase in CTL production in both the in vivo and in vitro models, as indicated by a significant increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals. All these results indicate that administration of Thujone could enhance the immune response of mice. There was a significant reduction in solid tumor development, mediated by the presence of alert immune responses during Thujone administration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bystander T cells in human immune responses to dengue antigens

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    Suwannasaen Duangchan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of T cell activation in dengue infection have focused on restriction of specific T cell receptors (TCRs and classical MHC molecules. However, bystander T cell activation, which is TCR independent, occurs via cytokines in other viral infections, both in vitro and in vivo, and enables T cells to bypass certain control checkpoints. Moreover, clinical and pathological evidence has pointed to cytokines as the mediators of dengue disease severity. Therefore, we investigated bystander T cell induction by dengue viral antigen. Results Whole blood samples from 55 Thai schoolchildren aged 13-14 years were assayed for in vitro interferon-gamma (IFN-γ induction in response to inactivated dengue serotype 2 antigen (Den2. The contribution of TCR-dependent and independent pathways was tested by treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA, which inhibits TCR-dependent activation of T cells. ELISA results revealed that approximately 72% of IFN-γ production occurred via the TCR-dependent pathway. The major IFN-γ sources were natural killer (NK (mean ± SE = 55.2 ± 3.3, CD4+T (24.5 ± 3.3 and CD8+T cells (17.9 ± 1.5, respectively, as demonstrated by four-color flow cytometry. Interestingly, in addition to these cells, we found CsA-resistant IFN-γ producing T cells (CD4+T = 26.9 ± 3.6% and CD8+T = 20.3 ± 2.1% implying the existence of activated bystander T cells in response to dengue antigen in vitro. These bystander CD4+ and CD8+T cells had similar kinetics to NK cells, appeared after 12 h and were inhibited by anti-IL-12 neutralization indicating cytokine involvement. Conclusions This study described immune cell profiles and highlighted bystander T cell activation in response to dengue viral antigens of healthy people in an endemic area. Further studies on bystander T cell activation in dengue viral infection may reveal the immune mechanisms that protect or enhance pathogenesis of secondary dengue infection.

  17. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

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    Kara, Ervin E; Comerford, Iain; Fenix, Kevin A; Bastow, Cameron R; Gregor, Carly E; McKenzie, Duncan R; McColl, Shaun R

    2014-02-01

    Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H)1/T(H)2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  18. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

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    Ervin E Kara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H1/T(H2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  19. Balancing immune protection and immune pathology by CD8+ T cell responses to influenza infection

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    Susu eDuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a significant human pathogen causing annual epidemics and periodic pandemics. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated immunity contributes to clearance of virus-infected cells; CTL immunity targeting the conserved internal proteins of IAVs is a key protection mechanism when neutralizing antibodies are absent during heterosubtypic IAV infection. However, CTL infiltration into the airways, their cytotoxicity, and the effects of produced pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause severe lung tissue injury, thereby contributing to immunopathology. Studies have discovered complicated and exquisite stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms that regulate CTL magnitude and effector activities during IAV infection. Here, we review the state of knowledge on the roles of IAV-specific CTLs in immune protection and immunopathology during IAV infection in animal models, highlighting the key findings of various requirements and constraints regulating the balance of immune protection and pathology involved in CTL immunity. We also discuss the evidence of cross-reactive CTL immunity as a positive correlate of cross-subtype protection during secondary IAV infection in both animal and human studies. We argue that the effects of CTL immunity on protection and immunopathology depend on multiple layers of host and viral factors, including complex host mechanisms to regulate CTL magnitude and effector activity, the pathogenic nature of the IAV, the innate response milieu, and the host historical immune context of influenza infection. Future efforts are needed to further understand these key host and viral factors, especially to differentiate those that constrain optimally effective CTL anti-viral immunity from those necessary to restrain CTL-mediated nonspecific immunopathology in the various contexts of IAV infection, in order to develop better vaccination and therapeutic strategies for modifying protective CTL immunity.

  20. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection

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    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-01-01

    abstract Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27078171

  1. Killers and beyond: NK-cell-mediated control of immune responses.

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    Andoniou, Christopher E; Coudert, Jérôme D; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A

    2008-11-01

    Effective immunity requires coordinated activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. NK cells are principal mediators of innate immunity, able to respond to challenge quickly and generally without prior activation. The most acknowledged functions of NK cells are their cytotoxic potential and their ability to release large amounts of cytokines, especially IFN-gamma. Recently, it has become clear that NK cells are more than assassins. Indeed, NK cells play critical roles in shaping adaptive immunity.

  2. Specific and Complex Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism in Myeloid Cells during Innate Immune Responses

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    Stienstra, R.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Riksen, N.P.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Renewed interest in immune cell metabolism has led to the emergence of a research field aimed at studying the importance of metabolic processes for an effective immune response. In addition to the adaptive immune system, cells of the myeloid lineage have been shown to undergo robust metabolic

  3. Specific and Complex Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism in Myeloid Cells during Innate Immune Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Rinke; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Riksen, Niels P.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2017-01-01

    Renewed interest in immune cell metabolism has led to the emergence of a research field aimed at studying the importance of metabolic processes for an effective immune response. In addition to the adaptive immune system, cells of the myeloid lineage have been shown to undergo robust metabolic

  4. Wolbachia surface protein induces innate immune responses in mosquito cells.

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    Pinto, Sofia B; Mariconti, Mara; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Bandi, Claudio; Sinkins, Steven P

    2012-01-18

    Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria are capable of inducing chronic upregulation of insect immune genes in some situations and this phenotype may influence the transmission of important insect-borne pathogens. However the molecules involved in these interactions have not been characterized. Here we show that recombinant Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP) stimulates increased transcription of immune genes in mosquito cells derived from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which is naturally uninfected with Wolbachia; at least two of the upregulated genes, TEP1 and APL1, are known to be important in Plasmodium killing in this species. When cells from Aedes albopictus, which is naturally Wolbachia-infected, were challenged with WSP lower levels of upregulation were observed than for the An. gambiae cells. We have found that WSP is a strong immune elicitor in a naturally Wolbachia-uninfected mosquito species (Anopheles gambiae) while a milder elicitor in a naturally-infected species (Aedes albopictus). Since the WSP of a mosquito non-native (nematode) Wolbachia strain was used, these data suggest that there is a generalized tolerance to WSP in Ae. albopictus.

  5. Wolbachia surface protein induces innate immune responses in mosquito cells

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    Pinto Sofia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria are capable of inducing chronic upregulation of insect immune genes in some situations and this phenotype may influence the transmission of important insect-borne pathogens. However the molecules involved in these interactions have not been characterized. Results Here we show that recombinant Wolbachia Surface Protein (WSP stimulates increased transcription of immune genes in mosquito cells derived from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which is naturally uninfected with Wolbachia; at least two of the upregulated genes, TEP1 and APL1, are known to be important in Plasmodium killing in this species. When cells from Aedes albopictus, which is naturally Wolbachia-infected, were challenged with WSP lower levels of upregulation were observed than for the An. gambiae cells. Conclusions We have found that WSP is a strong immune elicitor in a naturally Wolbachia-uninfected mosquito species (Anopheles gambiae while a milder elicitor in a naturally-infected species (Aedes albopictus. Since the WSP of a mosquito non-native (nematode Wolbachia strain was used, these data suggest that there is a generalized tolerance to WSP in Ae. albopictus.

  6. The immune response of stem cells in subretinal transplantation.

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    Xian, Bikun; Huang, Bing

    2015-09-14

    Stem cell transplantation is a potential curative treatment for degenerative diseases of the retina. Among cell injection sites, the subretinal space (SRS) is particularly advantageous as it is maintained as an immune privileged site by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. Thus, the success of subretinal transplantation depends on maintenance of RPE integrity. Moreover, both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have negligible immunogenicity and in fact are immunosuppressive. Indeed, many studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressive drugs are not necessary for subretinal transplantation of stem cells if the blood-retinal barrier is not breached during surgery. The immunogenicity of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) appears more complex, and requires careful study before clinical application. Despite low rates of graft rejection in animal models, survival rates for ESCs, MSCs, and iPSCs in retina are generally poor, possibly due to resident microglia activated by cell transplantation. To improve graft survival in SRS transplantation, damage to the blood-retinal barrier must be minimized using appropriate surgical techniques. In addition, agents that inhibit microglial activation may be required. Finally, immunosuppressants may be required, at least temporarily, until the blood-retinal barrier heals. We review surgical methods and drug regimens to enhance the likelihood of graft survival after SRS transplantation.

  7. A Delayed Virus Infection Model with Cell-to-Cell Transmission and CTL Immune Response

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    Yang, Yu; Zhang, Tonghua; Xu, Yancong; Zhou, Jinling

    In this paper, a delayed virus infection model with cell-to-cell transmission and CTL immune response is investigated. In the model, time delay is incorporated into the CTL response. By constructing Lyapunov functionals, global dynamical properties of the two boundary equilibria are established. Our results show that time delay in the CTL response process may lead to sustained oscillation. To further investigate the nature of the oscillation, we apply the method of multiple time scales to calculate the normal form on the center manifold of the model. At the end of the paper, numerical simulations are carried out, which support our theoretical results.

  8. Immune response

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    ... viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. Information The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by ... reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Immune System and Disorders Read more Latest Health News Read ...

  9. Cell-mediated immune responses in rainbow trout after DNA immunization against the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utke, Katrin; Kock, Holger; Schuetze, Heike

    2008-01-01

    To identify viral proteins that induce cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-infected cells, rainbow trout were immunized with DNA vectors encoding the glycoprotein G or the nucleocapsid protein N of VHSV. The G protein was a more potent trigger...... of cytotoxic cells than the N protein. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from trout immunized against the G protein killed both VHSV-infected MHC class I matched (RTG-2) and VHSV-infected xenogeneic (EPC) target cells, suggesting the involvement of both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells...... against the VHSV G protein significantly killed VHSV-infected but not infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)-infected targets indicating antigen specificity. Thus, this is the first report on cytotoxic immune responses after DNA vaccination in fish. Furthermore, cells isolated from the inflamed...

  10. Colon cancer cell treatment with rose bengal generates a protective immune response via immunogenic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianzhong; Kunda, Nicholas; Qiao, Guilin; Calata, Jed F; Pardiwala, Krunal; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2017-02-02

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to manage patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies are desired; however, mechanisms to incite tumor-specific immune responses remain to be elucidated. Rose bengal (RB) is toxic at low concentrations to malignant cells and may induce damage-associated molecular patterns; therefore, we investigated its potential as an immunomodulator in colon cancer. Murine and human colon cancer lines were treated with RB (10% in saline/PV-10) for cell cycle, cell death, and apoptosis assays. Damage-associated molecular patterns were assessed with western blot, ELISA, and flow cytometry. In an immunocompetent murine model of colon cancer, we demonstrate that tumors regress upon RB treatment, and that RB induces cell death in colon cancer cells through G2/M growth arrest and predominantly necrosis. RB-treated colon cancer cells expressed distinct hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), including enhanced expression of calreticulin and heat-shock protein 90 on the cell surface, a decrease in intracellular ATP, and the release of HMGB1. To confirm the ICD phenotype, we vaccinated immunocompetent animals with syngeneic colon cancer cells treated with RB. RB-treated tumors served as a vaccine against subsequent challenge with the same CT26 colon cancer tumor cells, and vaccination with in vitro RB-treated cells resulted in slower tumor growth following inoculation with colon cancer cells, but not with syngeneic non-CT26 cancer cells, suggesting a specific antitumor immune response. In conclusion, RB serves as an inducer of ICD that contributes to enhanced specific antitumor immunity in colorectal cancer.

  11. CIP2A Promotes T-Cell Activation and Immune Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Côme

    Full Text Available The oncoprotein Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A (CIP2A is overexpressed in most malignancies and is an obvious candidate target protein for future cancer therapies. However, the physiological importance of CIP2A-mediated PP2A inhibition is largely unknown. As PP2A regulates immune responses, we investigated the role of CIP2A in normal immune system development and during immune response in vivo. We show that CIP2A-deficient mice (CIP2AHOZ present a normal immune system development and function in unchallenged conditions. However when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes, CIP2AHOZ mice display an impaired adaptive immune response that is combined with decreased frequency of both CD4+ T-cells and CD8+ effector T-cells. Importantly, the cell autonomous effect of CIP2A deficiency for T-cell activation was confirmed. Induction of CIP2A expression during T-cell activation was dependent on Zap70 activity. Thus, we reveal CIP2A as a hitherto unrecognized mediator of T-cell activation during adaptive immune response. These results also reveal CIP2AHOZ as a possible novel mouse model for studying the role of PP2A activity in immune regulation. On the other hand, the results also indicate that CIP2A targeting cancer therapies would not cause serious immunological side-effects.

  12. Evasion from NK cell-mediated immune responses by HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Stephanie; Altfeld, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mostly owes its success to its ability to evade host immune responses. Understanding viral immune escape mechanisms is prerequisite to improve future HIV-1 vaccine design. This review focuses on the strategies that HIV-1 has evolved to evade recognition by natural killer (NK) cells. PMID:22626930

  13. Dendritic cells and the intestinal bacterial flora: a role for localized mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Holm H.; Powrie, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    Mammals coexist in an overall symbiotic relationship with a complex array of commensal bacterial flora that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. These intestinal bacteria interface with cells of the mucosal immune system, including DCs. Here we discuss mechanisms of interaction between intestinal bacteria and DCs and the role of localized gastrointestinal immune responses. PMID:12952911

  14. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response to crude antigens of Dermatophilus congolensis during experimental infection of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, A A; Wilkie, B N

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were infected with Dermatophilus congolensis and tested for humoral immune response by indirect haemagglutination and for cell-mediated immune response to crude antigens of D. congolensis. Lymphocyte transformation and macrophage migration inhibition assays were used as in vitro correlates of cell-mediated immune response while cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity was used in vivo. Endo-antigen and whole cell antigen were found to significantly induce cell-mediated immune response. In contrast, humoral responses were found to be more significantly induced by exo-antigen. A biphasic immune response was revealed by the lymphocyte transformation test.

  15. PET probes for distinct metabolic pathways have different cell specificities during immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Gill, Evan; Wiltzius, Stephanie M; Wei, Xiao X; Cheng, Donghui; Riedinger, Mireille; Radu, Caius G; Witte, Owen N

    2010-06-01

    Clinical tools that measure changes in immune cell metabolism would improve the diagnosis and treatment of immune dysfunction. PET, utilizing probes for specific metabolic processes, detects regions of immune activation in vivo. In this study we investigated the immune cell specificity of PET probes for two different metabolic pathways: [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) for glycolysis and [18F]-2-fluoro-D-(arabinofuranosyl)cytosine ([18F]-FAC) for deoxycytidine salvage. We isolated innate and adaptive immune cells from tissues of mice challenged with a retrovirus-induced sarcoma and measured their ability to accumulate FDG and FAC. We determined that the two probes had distinct patterns of accumulation: FDG accumulated to the highest levels in innate immune cells, while FAC accumulated predominantly in CD8+ T cells in a manner that correlated with cellular proliferation. This study demonstrates that innate and adaptive cell types differ in glycolytic and deoxycytidine salvage demands during an immune response and that these differential metabolic requirements can be detected with specific PET probes. Our findings have implications for the interpretation of clinical PET scans that use [18F]-FDG or [18F]-FAC to assess immune function in vivo and suggest potential applications of metabolic PET to monitor the effects of targeted immune modulation.

  16. Understanding the T cell immune response in SARS coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice Oh, Hsueh-Ling; Ken-En Gan, Samuel; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2012-09-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic started in late 2002 and swiftly spread across 5 continents with a mortality rate of around 10%. Although the epidemic was eventually controlled through the implementation of strict quarantine measures, there continues a need to investigate the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and develop interventions should it re-emerge. Numerous studies have shown that neutralizing antibodies against the virus can be found in patients infected with SARS-CoV within days upon the onset of illness and lasting up to several months. In contrast, there is little data on the kinetics of T cell responses during SARS-CoV infection and little is known about their role in the recovery process. However, recent studies in mice suggest the importance of T cells in viral clearance during SARS-CoV infection. Moreover, a growing number of studies have investigated the memory T cell responses in recovered SARS patients. This review covers the available literature on the emerging importance of T cell responses in SARS-CoV infection, particularly on the mapping of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, longevity, polyfunctionality and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association as well as their potential implications on treatment and vaccine development.

  17. Understanding the T cell immune response in SARS coronavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice Oh, Hsueh-Ling; Ken-En Gan, Samuel; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2012-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic started in late 2002 and swiftly spread across 5 continents with a mortality rate of around 10%. Although the epidemic was eventually controlled through the implementation of strict quarantine measures, there continues a need to investigate the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and develop interventions should it re-emerge. Numerous studies have shown that neutralizing antibodies against the virus can be found in patients infected with SARS-CoV within days upon the onset of illness and lasting up to several months. In contrast, there is little data on the kinetics of T cell responses during SARS-CoV infection and little is known about their role in the recovery process. However, recent studies in mice suggest the importance of T cells in viral clearance during SARS-CoV infection. Moreover, a growing number of studies have investigated the memory T cell responses in recovered SARS patients. This review covers the available literature on the emerging importance of T cell responses in SARS-CoV infection, particularly on the mapping of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, longevity, polyfunctionality and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association as well as their potential implications on treatment and vaccine development. PMID:26038429

  18. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what 'immunity' means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first 'immune' cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1-3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide 'layers' of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. B and T cell crosstalk in anti-bacterial immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis shows that phagocytosis of Salmonella by B cells may generate a survival niche and transport vehicle for Salmonella, but that simultaneously Salmonella-infected B cells induce an optimal anti-Salmonella response through activation of multiple arms of the adaptive immune response. The

  20. Mumps virus-induced innate immune responses in mouse Sertoli and Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Shi, Lili; Wang, Qing; Cheng, Lijing; Zhao, Xiang; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Jiang, Qian; Feng, Min; Li, Qihan; Han, Daishu

    2016-01-18

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection frequently causes orchitis and impairs male fertility. However, the mechanisms underlying the innate immune responses to MuV infection in the testis have yet to be investigated. This study showed that MuV induced innate immune responses in mouse Sertoli and Leydig cells through TLR2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling, which result in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, CXCL10, and type 1 interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β). By contrast, MuV did not induce the cytokine production in male germ cells. In response to MuV infection, Sertoli cells produced higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines but lower levels of type 1 IFNs than Leydig cells did. The MuV-induced cytokine production by Sertoli and Leydig cells was significantly reduced by the knockout of TLR2 or the knockdown of RIG-I signaling. The local injection of MuV into the testis triggered the testicular innate immune responses in vivo. Moreover, MuV infection suppressed testosterone synthesis by Leydig cells. This is the first study examining the innate immune responses to MuV infection in testicular cells. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the MuV-induced innate immune responses in the testis.

  1. Complexity of the cell-cell interactions in the innate immune response after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, María I; Ballesteros, Iván; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Moro, María A

    2015-10-14

    In response to brain ischemia a cascade of signals leads to the activation of the brain innate immune system and to the recruitment of blood borne derived cells to the ischemic tissue. These processes have been increasingly shown to play a role on stroke pathogenesis. Here, we discuss the key features of resident microglia and different leukocyte subsets implicated in cerebral ischemia with special emphasis of neutrophils, monocytes and microglia. We focus on how leukocytes are recruited to injured brain through a complex interplay between endothelial cells, platelets and leukocytes and describe different strategies used to inhibit their recruitment. Finally, we discuss the possible existence of different leukocyte subsets in the ischemic tissue and the repercussion of different myeloid phenotypes on stroke outcome. The knowledge of the nature of these heterogeneous cell-cell interactions may open new lines of investigation on new therapies to promote protective immune responses and tissue repair after cerebral ischemia or to block harmful responses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV...

  3. Allogenic iPSC-derived RPE cell transplants induce immune response in pigs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elliott H; Jiao, Chunhua; Kaalberg, Emily; Cranston, Cathryn; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2015-07-03

    Stem cell strategies focused on replacement of RPE cells for the treatment of geographic atrophy are under intense investigation. Although the eye has long been considered immune privileged, there is limited information about the immune response to transplanted cells in the subretinal space of large animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of allogenic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE cells (iPSC-RPE) delivered to the subretinal space of the pig as well as determine whether these cells induce an immune response in non-diseased eyes. GFP positive iPSC-RPE, generated from outbred domestic swine, were injected into the subretinal space of vitrectomized miniature swine. Control eyes received vehicle only. GFP positive iPSC-RPE cells were identified in the subretinal space 3 weeks after injection in 5 of 6 eyes. Accompanying GFP-negative cells positive for IgG, CD45 and macrophage markers were also identified in close proximity to the injected iPSC-RPE cells. All subretinal cells were negative for GFAP as well as cell cycle markers. We found that subretinal injection of allogenic iPSC-RPE cells into wild-type mini-pigs can induce the innate immune response. These findings suggest that immunologically matched or autologous donor cells should be considered for clinical RPE cell replacement.

  4. A combined nucleocapsid vaccine induces vigorous SARS-CD8+ T-cell immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Aucoin, Susan; Tadesse, Helina; Frost, Rita; Ghorbani, Masoud; Soare, Catalina; Naas, Turaya; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that cell-mediated immune responses play a crucial role in controlling viral replication. As such, a candidate SARS vaccine should elicit broad CD8+ T-cell immune responses. Several groups of mice were immunized alone or in combination with SARS-nucleocapsid immunogen. A high level of specific SARS-CD8+ T-cell response was demonstrated in mice that received DNA encoding the SARS-nucleocapsid, protein and XIAP as an adjuvant. We also observed that co-administration of a plasmid expressing nucleocapsid, recombinant protein and montanide/CpG induces high antibody titers in immunized mice. Moreover, this vaccine approach merits further investigation as a potential candidate vaccine against SARS. PMID:16115319

  5. Innate immune CD11b+Gr-1+ cells, suppressor cells, affect the immune response during Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jenna L; Olson, Julie K

    2009-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease is a relevant mouse model for the study of multiple sclerosis. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the CNS which contributes to development of demyelinating disease. We have previously shown that the innate immune response can affect the development and progression of demyelinating disease. In the current studies, we determined that the predominant infiltrating cells during the innate immune response are CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) cells. CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) cells are immature myeloid cells that have exited the bone marrow without maturing and have been shown to suppress CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Therefore, we wanted to determine what role these cells play in development and progression of demyelinating disease. TMEV-infected mice depleted of CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) cells during the innate immune response developed a reduced demyelinating disease which was associated with a decreased myelin-specific CD4(+) T cell response and a decreased inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV-infected mice depleted of CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) cells had increased virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses during early virus infection associated with increased expression of IFN-gamma and IL-17 and decreased expression of IL-10 in the CNS. These results suggest that CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) cells which infiltrate into the CNS during the innate immune response are myeloid-derived suppressor cells that suppress virus-specific T cell responses and contribute to the development of demyelinating disease.

  6. Competition for IL-2 between regulatory and effector T cells to chisel immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHöfer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss how the competition for cytokines between different cells of the immune system can shape the system wide immune response. We focus on interleukin-2 (IL-2 secretion by activated effector T cells (Teff and on the competition for IL-2 consumption between Teff and regulatory T cells (Treg. We discuss the evidence for the mechanism in which the depletion of IL-2 by Treg cells would be sufficient to suppress an autoimmune response, yet not strong enough to prevent an immune response. We present quantitative estimations and summarize our modeling effort to show that the tug-of-war between Treg and Teff cells for IL-2 molecules can be won by Treg cells in the case of weak activation of Teff leading to the suppression of the immune response. Or, for strongly activated Teff cells, it can be won by Teff cells bringing about the activation of the whole adaptive immune system. Finally, we discuss some recent applications attempting to achieve clinical effects through the modulation of IL-2 consumption by Treg compartment.

  7. Anti-inflammatory triterpenoid blocks immune suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and improves immune response in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Srinivas; Youn, Je-In; Weber, Hannah; Iclozan, Cristina; Lu, Lily; Cotter, Matthew J.; Meyer, Colin; Becerra, Carlos R.; Fishman, Mayer; Antonia, Scott; Sporn, Michael B.; Liby, Karen T.; Rawal, Bhupendra; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are one of the major factors responsible for immune suppression in cancer. Therefore it would be important to identify effective therapeutic means to modulate these cells. Experimental Design We evaluated the effect of the synthetic triterpenoid C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9,-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me; bardoxolone methyl) in MC38 colon carcinoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, and EL-4 thymoma mouse tumor models as well as blood samples from patients with renal cell cancer and soft tissue sarcoma. Samples were also analyzed from patients with pancreatic cancer treated with CDDO-Me in combination with gemcitabine. Results CDDO-Me at concentrations of 25-100 nM completely abrogated immune suppressive activity of MDSC in vitro. CDDO-Me reduced reactive oxygen species in MDSC but did not affect their viability or the levels of nitric oxide and arginase. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with CDDO-Me did not affect the proportion of MDSC in the spleens but eliminated their suppressive activity. This effect was independent of antitumor activity. CDDO-Me treatment decreased tumor growth in mice. Experiments with immune-deficient SCID-beige mice indicated that this effect was largely mediated by the immune system. CDDO-Me substantially enhanced the antitumor effect of a cancer vaccines. Treatment of pancreatic cancer patients with CDDO-Me did not affect the number of MDSC in peripheral blood but significantly improved the immune response. Conclusions CDDO-Me abrogated the immune suppressive effect of MDSC and improved immune responses in tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients. It may represent an attractive therapeutic option by enhancing the effect of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:20215551

  8. Influence of Immune Responses in Gene/Stem Cell Therapies for Muscular Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Farini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies (MDs are a heterogeneous group of diseases, caused by mutations in different components of sarcolemma, extracellular matrix, or enzymes. Inflammation and innate or adaptive immune response activation are prominent features of MDs. Various therapies under development are directed toward rescuing the dystrophic muscle damage using gene transfer or cell therapy. Here we discussed current knowledge about involvement of immune system responses to experimental therapies in MDs.

  9. Prostate cancer stem cells are targets of both innate and adaptive immunity and elicit tumor-specific immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jachetti, Elena; Mazzoleni, Stefania; Grioni, Matteo; Ricupito, Alessia; Brambillasca, Chiara; Generoso, Luca; Calcinotto, Arianna; Freschi, Massimo; Mondino, Anna; Galli, Rossella; Bellone, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, therapies that do not target the CSC compartment have limited, if any, chances to eradicate established tumors. While cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have the potential to recognize and kill single neoplastic cells within a tissue, whether CSCs can be targeted by the immune system during spontaneous or vaccination-elicited responses is poorly defined. Here, we provide experimental evidence showing that CSC lines established from the prostate of t...

  10. RAGE Expression in Human T Cells: A Link between Environmental Factors and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akirav, Eitan M.; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Garyu, Justin; Henegariu, Octavian; Clynes, Raphael; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Herold, Kevan C.

    2012-01-01

    The Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) is a scavenger ligand that binds glycated endproducts as well as molecules released during cell death such as S100b and HMGB1. RAGE is expressed on antigen presenting cells where it may participate in activation of innate immune responses but its role in adaptive human immune responses has not been described. We have found that RAGE is expressed intracellularly in human T cells following TCR activation but constitutively on T cells from patients with diabetes. The levels of RAGE on T cells from patients with diabetes are not related to the level of glucose control. It co-localizes to the endosomes. Its expression increases in activated T cells from healthy control subjects but bystander cells also express RAGE after stimulation of the antigen specific T cells. RAGE ligands enhance RAGE expression. In patients with T1D, the level of RAGE expression decreases with T cell activation. RAGE+ T cells express higher levels of IL-17A, CD107a, and IL-5 than RAGE− cells from the same individual with T1D. Our studies have identified the expression of RAGE on adaptive immune cells and a role for this receptor and its ligands in modulating human immune responses. PMID:22509345

  11. Immune response of T cells during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Huan; Wei, Bin

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic member of the alphaherpes virus family, is among the most prevalent and successful human pathogens. HSV-1 can cause serious diseases at every stage of life including fatal disseminated disease in newborns, cold sores, eye disease, and fatal encephalitis in adults. HSV-1 infection can trigger rapid immune responses, and efficient inhibition and clearance of HSV-1 infection rely on both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Multiple strategies have been used to restrict host innate immune responses by HSV-1 to facilitate its infection in host cells. The adaptive immunity of the host plays an important role in inhibiting HSV-1 infections. The activation and regulation of T cells are the important aspects of the adaptive immunity. They play a crucial role in host-mediated immunity and are important for clearing HSV-1. In this review, we examine the findings on T cell immune responses during HSV-1 infection, which hold promise in the design of new vaccine candidates for HSV-1.

  12. Biochemical and Functional Insights into the Integrated Regulation of Innate Immune Cell Responses by Teleost Leukocyte Immune-Type Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Across vertebrates, innate immunity consists of a complex assortment of highly specialized cells capable of unleashing potent effector responses designed to destroy or mitigate foreign pathogens. The execution of various innate cellular behaviors such as phagocytosis, degranulation, or cell-mediated cytotoxicity are functionally indistinguishable when being performed by immune cells isolated from humans or teleost fishes; vertebrates that diverged from one another more than 450 million years ago. This suggests that vital components of the vertebrate innate defense machinery are conserved and investigating such processes in a range of model systems provides an important opportunity to identify fundamental features of vertebrate immunity. One characteristic that is highly conserved across vertebrate systems is that cellular immune responses are dependent on specialized immunoregulatory receptors that sense environmental stimuli and initiate intracellular cascades that can elicit appropriate effector responses. A wide variety of immunoregulatory receptor families have been extensively studied in mammals, and many have been identified as cell- and function-specific regulators of a range of innate responses. Although much less is known in fish, the growing database of genomic information has recently allowed for the identification of several immunoregulatory receptor gene families in teleosts. Many of these putative immunoregulatory receptors have yet to be assigned any specific role(s, and much of what is known has been based solely on structural and/or phylogenetic relationships with mammalian receptor families. As an attempt to address some of these shortcomings, this review will focus on our growing understanding of the functional roles played by specific members of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs, which appear to be important regulators of several innate cellular responses via classical as well

  13. Human cell-mediated immune responses to chlamydial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, L; Schmidt, L; Sharp, M; Stites, D P; Jawetz, E

    1979-02-01

    A reproducible method was developed to determine the ability of chlamydial antigens to stimulate lymphocytes from volunteers. In tests repeated 4 to 14 times, the cells from a given volunteer gave a relatively narrow range of responses, but there were great differences in the mean response of different volunteers. In the entire group of 52 volunteers, lymphocyte stimulation was significantly associated with the presence of antibody, but in a given individual results of one test did not aid in predicting the results of the other. A majority of persons with either antichlamydial antibody or elevated lymphocyte stimulation, or both, did not have a history of signs or symptoms within a spectrum of chlamydial diseases. This may reflect the great frequency of asymptomatic infection with these organisms. The lymphocytes of some individuals were stimulated to a significantly greater degree by antigens of one chlamydial species (Chlamydia trachomatis or C. psittaci) than by the other. These and other cell-mediated reactions in human chlamydial infections, and their possible medical significance, are under continued study.

  14. Specific and Complex Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism in Myeloid Cells during Innate Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienstra, Rinke; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Riksen, Niels P; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G

    2017-07-05

    Renewed interest in immune cell metabolism has led to the emergence of a research field aimed at studying the importance of metabolic processes for an effective immune response. In addition to the adaptive immune system, cells of the myeloid lineage have been shown to undergo robust metabolic changes upon activation. Whereas the specific metabolic requirements of myeloid cells after lipopolysaccharide/TLR4 stimulation have been extensively studied, recent evidence suggested that this model does not represent a metabolic blueprint for activated myeloid cells. Instead, different microbial stimuli, pathogens, or tissue microenvironments lead to specific and complex metabolic rewiring of myeloid cells. Here we present an overview of the metabolic heterogeneity in activated myeloid cells during health and disease. Directions for future research are suggested to ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities. The uniqueness of metabolic signatures accompanying different conditions will require tailor-made interventions to ultimately modulate aberrant myeloid cell activation during disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel subset of helper T cells promotes immune responses by secreting GM-CSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Roberts, A I; Liu, C; Ren, G; Xu, G; Zhang, L; Devadas, S; Shi, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Helper T cells are crucial for maintaining proper immune responses. Yet, they have an undefined relationship with one of the most potent immune stimulatory cytokines, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). By depleting major cytokines during the differentiation of CD4+ T cells in vitro, we derived cells that were found to produce large amounts of GM-CSF, but little of the cytokines produced by other helper T subsets. By their secretion of GM-CSF, this novel subset of helper T cells (which we have termed ThGM cells) promoted the production of cytokines by other T-cell subtypes, including type 1 helper T cell (Th1), type 2 helper T cell (Th2), type 1 cytotoxic T cell (Tc1), type 2 cytotoxic T cell (Tc2), and naive T cells, as evidenced by the fact that antibody neutralization of GM-CSF abolished this effect. ThGM cells were found to be highly prone to activation-induced cell death (AICD). Inhibitors of TRAIL or granzymes could not block AICD in ThGM cells, whereas inhibition of FasL/Fas interaction partially rescued ThGM cells from AICD. Thus, ThGM cells are a novel subpopulation of T helper cells that produce abundant GM-CSF, exhibit exquisite susceptibility to apoptosis, and therefore play a pivotal role in the regulation of the early stages of immune responses. PMID:24076588

  16. The T-Cell Immune Response against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Rebecca C; Mletzko, Salvinia; Gotch, Frances M

    2010-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the aetiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most frequently arising malignancy in individuals with untreated HIV/AIDS. There are several lines of evidence to indicate that Kaposi's sarcoma oncogenesis is associated with loss of T-cell-mediated control of KSHV-infected cells. KSHV can establish life-long asymptomatic infection in immune-competent individuals. However, when T-cell immune control declines, for example, through AIDS or treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, both the prevalence of KSHV infection and the incidence of KS in KSHV carriers dramatically increase. Moreover, a dramatic and spontaneous improvement in KS is frequently seen when immunity is restored, for example, through antiretroviral therapy or the cessation of iatrogenic drugs. In this paper we describe the current state of knowledge on the T-cell immune responses against KSHV.

  17. The T-Cell Immune Response against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Robey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the aetiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, the most frequently arising malignancy in individuals with untreated HIV/AIDS. There are several lines of evidence to indicate that Kaposi's sarcoma oncogenesis is associated with loss of T-cell-mediated control of KSHV-infected cells. KSHV can establish life-long asymptomatic infection in immune-competent individuals. However, when T-cell immune control declines, for example, through AIDS or treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, both the prevalence of KSHV infection and the incidence of KS in KSHV carriers dramatically increase. Moreover, a dramatic and spontaneous improvement in KS is frequently seen when immunity is restored, for example, through antiretroviral therapy or the cessation of iatrogenic drugs. In this paper we describe the current state of knowledge on the T-cell immune responses against KSHV.

  18. Hospicells derived from ovarian cancer stroma inhibit T-cell immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Ludovic; Poupot, Rémy; Mirshahi, Pejman; Rafii, Arash; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Mirshahi, Massoud; Poupot, Mary

    2010-05-01

    With metastatic disease at diagnosis for 70% of patients, ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Ovarian carcinomas are aggressive malignancies that can evade immune surveillance and frequently develop into metastases. The tumor microenvironment is decisive for preventing immune attack but, in the case of ovarian carcinoma, the mechanisms are unclear. We recently isolated a novel type of stromal cell from the ascitis of patients with ovarian carcinoma that interacts with epithelial ovarian cancers conferring them chemoresistance. These cells, called Hospicells, have the cell surface markers CD9, CD10, CD29, CD146 and CD166. Here, we investigated whether Hospicells also have immunomodulatory functions that might interfere with immunity to cancer. We report that Hospicells inhibit the proliferation of human CD4(+), CD8(+) and Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells in vitro and the production of cytokines by these immune cells. The immunosuppression of CD4(+) T cells is independent of direct contact with the Hospicells and is mainly due to nitric oxide produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase and to products of the tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We proposed that Hospicells in the microenvironment of the tumor mediate immunosuppression of T cells and thus allow ovarian cancers to evade immune surveillance. Targeting of Hospicells could be an alternative to strong chemotherapy through the recovery of immune responses against tumor cells.

  19. Dendritic Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Summerfield

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are major players in both innate and adaptive immune responses against influenza virus. These immune responses, as well as the important interface between the innate and adaptive systems, are orchestrated by specialized subsets of DC, including conventional steady-state DC, migratory DC and plasmacytoid DC. The characteristics and efficacy of the responses are dependent on the relative activity of these DC subsets, rendering DC crucial for the development of both naïve and memory immune responses. However, due to their critical role, DC also contribute to the immunopathological processes observed during acute influenza, such as that caused by the pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Therein, the role of different DC subsets in the induction of interferon type I, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses is important for the outcome of interaction between the virus and host immune defences. The present review will present current knowledge on this area, relating to the importance of DC activity for the induction of efficacious humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This will include the main viral elements associated with the triggering or inhibition of DC activation. Finally, the current knowledge on understanding how differences in various vaccines influence the manner of immune defence induction will be presented.

  20. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have described studies that have demonstrated that mast cells can be activated as a consequence of adaptive and innate immune reactions and that these responses can be modified by ligands for other receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. These various stimuli...

  1. Topical treatment of basal cell carcinoma with the immune response modifier imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, Dimitrios; Stockfleth, Eggert

    2015-11-01

    Imiquimod, a TLR7 agonist, is a novel immune response modifier currently widely used in the treatment of actinic keratoses (in situ squamous cell carcinoma). Imiquimod has revolutionized the treatment of field cancerization and has been approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma with the recommendation of a 6-week treatment strategy, offering an alternative to surgery or other destructive treatment strategies.

  2. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D.; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first ‘immune’ cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1–3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide ‘layers’ of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. PMID:25871013

  3. In vivo Ebola virus infection leads to a strong innate response in circulating immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Honko, Anna N; Gire, Stephen K; Winnicki, Sarah M; Melé, Marta; Gerhardinger, Chiara; Lin, Aaron E; Rinn, John L; Sabeti, Pardis C; Hensley, Lisa E; Connor, John H

    2016-09-05

    Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58. Other highly upregulated genes included cytokines CXCL11, CCL7, IL2RA, IL2R1, IL15RA, and CSF2RB, which have not been previously reported to change during Ebola virus infection. Comparing this response in two different models of exposure (intramuscular and aerosol) revealed a similar signature of infection. The strong innate response in the aerosol model was seen not only in circulating cells, but also in primary and secondary target tissues. Conversely, the innate immune response of vaccinated macaques was almost non-existent. This suggests that the innate response is a major aspect of the cellular response to Ebola virus infection in multiple tissues. Ebola virus causes a severe infection in humans that is associated with high mortality. The host immune response to virus infection is thought to be an important aspect leading to severe pathology, but the components of this overactive response are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed how circulating immune cells respond to the virus and found that there is a strong innate response dependent on active virus replication. This finding is in stark contrast to in vitro evidence showing a suppression of innate immune signaling, and it suggests that the strong innate response we observe in infected animals may be an important contributor to pathogenesis.

  4. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  5. Toll-like receptor 11-initiated innate immune response in male mouse germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenghui; Yan, Keqin; Zhao, Shutao; Han, Daishu

    2014-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may infect the testis and impair testicular function. Mechanisms underlying testicular innate immune response to these two pathogens remain to be clarified. The present study examined the function of TLR11, which can be recognized by T. gondii-derived profilin and UPEC, in initiating innate immune response in male mouse germ cells. TLR11 is predominantly expressed in spermatids. Profilin and UPEC induced the expressions of different inflammatory cytokine profiles in the germ cells. In particular, profilin induced the expressions of macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), interleukin 12 (IL12), and interferon gamma (IFNG) through nuclear factor KB (NFKB) activation. UPEC induced the expressions of MCP1, IL12, and IFNG, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), IL6, and IFNB, through the activation of NFKB, IFN regulatory factor 3, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Evidence showed that profilin induced the innate response in male germ cells through TLR11 signaling, and UPEC triggered the response through TLR11 and other TLR-signaling pathways. We also provided evidence that local injection of profilin or UPEC induces the innate immune response in the germ cells. Data describe TLR11-mediated innate immune function of male germ cells in response to T. gondii profilin and UPEC stimulations. This system may play a role in testicular defense against T. gondii and UPEC infections in mice.

  6. STAT3-blocked whole-cell hepatoma vaccine induces cellular and humoral immune response against HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuju Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell tumor vaccines have shown much promise; however, only limited success has been achieved for the goal of eliciting robust tumor-specific T-cell responses. Methods Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells, H22 and Hepa1–6, were modified by blocking the STAT3 signaling pathway with a STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide, and the immunogenicity and possibility of using these cell lysates as a vaccine were evaluated. Results STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates inhibited tumor growth and tumorigenesis, and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates stimulated the activation of T cells and natural killer (NK cells, and enhanced the infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in the tumor tissues. In addition, the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs was enhanced, which promoted the generation of immunological memory against HCC. Furthermore, secondary immune responses could be primed as soon as these immunized mice were challenged with HCC cells, accompanied by T cell and NK cell activation and infiltration. Additionally, immunization with this vaccine decreased the generation of Tregs and the production of TGF-β and IL-10. Importantly, STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates prevented HCC-mediated exhaustion of T cells and NK cells, showing low expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and TIGIT on T cells and NK cells in the immunized mice. Conclusions The newly generated STAT3-blocked whole-cell HCC vaccine has potential for cancer cell vaccination.

  7. Imaging immune response of skin mast cells in vivo with two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiang; Pastila, Riikka K.; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Imaging the BMMCs engraftment in tissue reveals the mast cells development and the efficiency of BMMCs reconstitution. We observed the reconstitution process for 6 weeks in the ear skin of mast cell-deficient Kit wsh/ w-sh mice by two-photon imaging. Our finding is the first instance of imaging mast cells in vivo with endogenous contrast.

  8. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...... IL-10 genotypes. Enhanced IL-10 secretion and reduced antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IFN-gamma responses were found in subjects with IL-10 -1082 GG genotype when compared to those with -1082 AA genotype. CD14+ monocytes were main source of IL-10 indicating that these cells...... are important regulators of the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses during active C trachomatis infection. We conclude that impaired cell-mediated response to C trachomatis is associated with IL-10 genotype in subjects with high IL-10 producing capacity. A comparison of immune markers between subjects...

  9. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  10. Granulocytes: effector cells or immunomodulators in the immune response to helminth infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, E T; Lawrence, R A

    2010-01-01

    Granulocytes are effector cells in defence against helminth infections. We review the current evidence for the role of granulocytes in protective immunity against different helminth infections and note that for each parasite species the role of granulocytes as effector cells can vary. Emerging evidence also points to granulocytes as immunomodulatory cells able to produce many cytokines, chemokines and modulatory factors which can bias the immune response in a particular direction. Thus, the role of granulocytes in an immunomodulatory context is discussed including the most recent data that points to an important role for basophils under this guise.

  11. T-cell immune responses to Bordetella pertussis infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Giorgio; Cassone, Antonio; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2015-10-01

    The recent immunological investigations, stemming from the studies performed in the nineties within the clinical trials of the acellular pertussis vaccines, have highlighted the important role played by T-cell immunity to pertussis in humans. These studies largely confirmed earlier investigations in the murine respiratory infection models that humoral immunity alone is not sufficient to confer protection against Bordetella pertussis infection and that T-cell immunity is required. Over the last years, knowledge of T-cell immune response to B. pertussis has expanded broadly, taking advantage of the general progress in the understanding of anti-bacterial immunity and of refinements in methods to approach immunological investigations. In particular, experimental models of B. pertussis infection highlighted the cooperative role played by T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells for protection. Furthermore, the new baboon experimental model suggested a plausible explanation for the differences observed in the strength and persistence of protective immunity induced by the acellular or whole-cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection in humans, contributing to explain the upsurge of recent pertussis outbreaks. Despite the progress, open questions remain, the answer to them will possibly provide better tools to fight one of the hardest-to-control vaccine preventable disease. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. HIF-mediated innate immune responses: cell signaling and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris AJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alison J Harris, AA Roger Thompson, Moira KB Whyte, Sarah R Walmsley Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Abstract: Leukocytes recruited to infected, damaged, or inflamed tissues during an immune response must adapt to oxygen levels much lower than those in the circulation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs are key mediators of cellular responses to hypoxia and, as in other cell types, HIFs are critical for the upregulation of glycolysis, which enables innate immune cells to produce adenosine triphosphate anaerobically. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that hypoxia also regulates many other innate immunological functions, including cell migration, apoptosis, phagocytosis of pathogens, antigen presentation and production of cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic and antimicrobial factors. Many of these functions are mediated by HIFs, which are not only stabilized posttranslationally by hypoxia, but also transcriptionally upregulated by inflammatory signals. Here, we review the role of HIFs in the responses of innate immune cells to hypoxia, both in vitro and in vivo, with a particular focus on myeloid cells, on which the majority of studies have so far been carried out. Keywords: hypoxia, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages

  13. Myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response by regulatory T cells

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    Sunyoung Joo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy for patients who have intractable muscle disorders may require highly regenerative cells from young, healthy allogeneic donors. Mesenchymal stem cells are currently under clinical investigation because they are known to induce muscle regeneration and believed to be immune privileged, thus making them suitable for allogeneic applications. However, it is unclear whether allogeneic and myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells retain their immunomodulatory characteristics. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation on the immune characteristics of cells in vitro. We investigated the immunologic properties of mesenchymal stem cells after myogenic induction. Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from C57BL/6 mice and the C3H/10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cell line. Two different 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine doses (0.5 and 3 µM were evaluated for their effects on mesenchymal stem cell skeletal myogenic differentiation potential, immune antigen expression, and mixed lymphocytic reactions. Using a mixed lymphocytic reaction, we determined the optimal splenocyte proliferation inhibition dose. The induction of regulatory T cells was markedly increased by the addition of 3 µM 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine–treated mesenchymal stem cells. Myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells do not elicit alloreactive lymphocyte proliferative responses and are able to modulate immune responses. These findings support the hypothesis that myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells may be transplantable across allogeneic barriers.

  14. The CD28-related molecule ICOS is required for effective T cell-dependent immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, A J; Lehar, S; Lloyd, C; Tian, J; Delaney, T; Manning, S; Nguyen, T; Burwell, T; Schneider, H; Gonzalo, J A; Gosselin, M; Owen, L R; Rudd, C E; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C

    2000-07-01

    While CD28 is critical for expansion of naive T cells, recent evidence suggests that the activation of effector T cells is largely independent of CD28/B7. We suggest that ICOS, the third member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family, plays an important role in production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IFNgamma from recently activated T cells and contributes to T cell-dependent B help in vivo. Inhibition of ICOS attenuates lung mucosal inflammation induced by Th2 but not Th1 effector populations. Our data indicate a critical function for the third member of the CD28 family in T cell-dependent immune responses.

  15. Memory B-Cell and Antibody Responses Induced by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahrendorf, W.; Scholzen, A.; Bijker, E.M.; Teirlinck, A.C.; Bastiaens, G.J.H.; Schats, R.; Hermsen, C.C.; Visser, L.G.; Langhorne, J.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunization of healthy volunteers during receipt of chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS-immunization) induces sterile protection from malaria. Antibody responses have long been known to contribute to naturally acquired immunity against malaria, but their

  16. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  17. Cell-mediated immune response in rotavirus-infected calves: leucocyte migration inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R S; Singh, N P

    1992-07-01

    The cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was determined in rotavirus-infected calves by leucocyte migration inhibition assay with blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestinal lymphocytes. The inhibition of migration was more prominent in intestinal and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes than in spleen and blood. In rotavirus-infected calves, the assay indicated the presence of CMI response which was more prominent at the local site of infection.

  18. Letting Our Cells Do the Fighting: Flight-Induced Changes in the Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The organisms that make us ill, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are like attacking armies. We now know a great deal more about this unseen world of microscopic invaders. Fortunately for us, the human immune system is ever vigilant against them. Microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi occupy almost every corner of the Earth, and even parts of the human body. Some organisms are beneficial to us, helping to produce milk, cheese or yogurt. Others are potentially harmful, yet we don#t always develop illnesses from them; they are kept in check by the sentinels of our immune system. Our immune system is routinely challenged by these organisms every day. When the immune response is diminished, our ability to fight off these "bugs" is lowered. And that's when we become ill. Space flight presents a challenge to the immune system. Scientists believe that the stressful conditions of space flight - launch into orbit, adapting to microgravity, heavy workloads, and isolation from family and friends, to name but a few - reduce the astronauts' immunity. This immune suppression makes them more susceptible to common illnesses from bacteria and to re-infections from latent viruses in the body. In addition, risk of spreading illness in the confined environment of the Space Shuttle is high. Understanding changes in immune function will help scientists develop ways to keep astronauts healthy in space. This knowledge can also benefit earthbound populations. This experiment will give scientists insight into the immune system by comparing how certain cells of astronauts' innate immune system - the first line of defense against invaders - function after flight compared to before flight.

  19. Neonatal immune response to rhinovirus A16 has diminished dendritic cell function and increased B cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow-Anacker, Amanda; Bochkov, Yury; Gern, James; Seroogy, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    Rhinovirus infections during infancy account for the majority of respiratory illness health care utilization and are an associated risk factor for subsequent development of allergic asthma. Neonatal type I interferon production is diminished compared to adults after stimulation with TLR agonists. However, broad profiling of immune cell responses to infectious rhinovirus has not been undertaken and we hypothesized that additional immune differences can be identified in neonates. In this study, we undertook a comparative analysis of neonatal and adult blood immune cell responses after in vitro incubation with infectious RV-A16 for 6 and 24 hours. Intracellular proinflammatory and type I interferon cytokines along with expression of surface co-stimulatory and maturation markers were measured using multi-parameter flow cytometry. Both circulating myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) frequency were lower in cord blood. Qualitative and quantitative plasmacytoid dendritic cell IFN-alpha + TNF- alpha responses to rhinovirus were significantly lower in cord pDCs. In cord blood samples, the majority of responsive pDCs were single-positive TNF-alpha producing cells, whereas in adult samples rhinovirus increased double-positive TNF-alpha+IFN-alpha+ pDCs. Rhinovirus upregulated activation and maturation markers on monocytes, mDCs, pDCs, and B cells, but CD40+CD86+ monocytes, mDCs, and pDCs cells were significantly higher in adult samples compared to cord samples. Surprisingly, rhinovirus increased CD40+CD86+ B cells to a significantly greater extent in cord samples compared to adults. These findings define a number of cell-specific differences in neonatal responses to rhinovirus. This differential age-related immune response to RV may have implications for the immune correlates of protection to viral respiratory illness burden and determination of potential biomarkers for asthma risk.

  20. Salmonella Modulates B Cell Biology to Evade CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Medina, Marcela; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2014-01-01

    Although B cells and antibodies are the central effectors of humoral immunity, B cells can also produce and secrete cytokines and present antigen to helper T cells. The uptake of antigen is mainly mediated by endocytosis; thus, antigens are often presented by MHC-II molecules. However, it is unclear if B cells can present these same antigens via MHC-I molecules. Recently, Salmonella bacteria were found to infect B cells, allowing possible antigen cross-processing that could generate bacterial peptides for antigen presentation via MHC-I molecules. Here, we will discuss available knowledge regarding Salmonella antigen presentation by infected B cell MHC-I molecules and subsequent inhibitory effects on CD8+ T cells for bacterial evasion of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:25484884

  1. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Can Regulate the Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Poggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells’ growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells’ behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. This leads to an altered microenvironment, where reparative mechanisms, in the presence of sub-acute inflammation, are not able to reconstitute healthy tissue. Carcinoma cells can undergo epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, a key step to generate metastasis; these mesenchymal-like cells display the functional behavior of MSC. Furthermore, MSC can support the survival and growth of leukemic cells within bone marrow participating in the leukemic cell niche. Notably, MSC can inhibit the anti-tumor immune response through either carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells. Experimental data have indicated their relevance in regulating cytolytic effector lymphocytes of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Herein, we will discuss some of the evidence in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In particular, we will focus our attention on the means by which it is conceivable to inhibit MSC-mediated immune suppression and trigger anti-tumor innate immunity.

  2. PET probes for distinct metabolic pathways have different cell specificities during immune responses in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nair-Gill, Evan; Wiltzius, Stephanie M.; Wei, Xiao X.; Cheng, Donghui; Riedinger, Mireille; Radu, Caius G.; Witte, Owen N.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical tools that measure changes in immune cell metabolism would improve the diagnosis and treatment of immune dysfunction. PET, utilizing probes for specific metabolic processes, detects regions of immune activation in vivo. In this study we investigated the immune cell specificity of PET probes for two different metabolic pathways: [18F]–2-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) for glycolysis and ...

  3. Cloned, CD117 selected human amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Moorefield

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem (AFS cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. AFS cells resemble MSCs in many respects including surface marker expression and differentiation potential. We therefore hypothesized that AFS cells may exhibit similar immunomodulatory capabilities. We present data to demonstrate that direct contact with AFS cells inhibits lymphocyte activation. In addition, we show that cell-free supernatants derived from AFS cells primed with total blood monocytes or IL-1β, a cytokine released by monocytes and essential in mediation of the inflammatory response, also inhibited lymphocyte activation. Further investigation of AFS cell-free supernatants by protein array revealed secretion of multiple factors in common with MSCs that are known to be involved in immune regulation including growth related oncogene (GRO and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP family members as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6. AFS cells activated by PBMCs released several additional cytokines as compared to BM-MSCs, including macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α, MIP-1α and Activin. AFS cells also released higher levels of MCP-1 and lower levels of MCP-2 compared to BM-MSCs in response to IL-1β activation. This suggests that there may be some AFS-specific mechanisms of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Our results indicate that AFS cells are able to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and that soluble factors are an essential component in the communication between lymphocytes and AFS cells. Their extensive self-renewal capacity, possibility for banking and

  4. Splenic Dendritic Cells Survey Red Blood Cells for Missing Self-CD47 to Trigger Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tangsheng; Li, Jianhua; Chen, Hsin; Wu, Jiaxi; An, Jinping; Xu, Ying; Hu, Yongmei; Lowell, Clifford A; Cyster, Jason G

    2015-10-20

    Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) have long been used as a model antigen for eliciting systemic immune responses, yet the basis for their adjuvant activity has been unknown. Here, we show that SRBCs failed to engage the inhibitory mouse SIRPα receptor on splenic CD4(+) dendritic cells (DCs), and this failure led to DC activation. Removal of the SIRPα ligand, CD47, from self-RBCs was sufficient to convert them into an adjuvant for adaptive immune responses. DC capture of Cd47(-/-) RBCs and DC activation occurred within minutes in a Src-family-kinase- and CD18-integrin-dependent manner. These findings provide an explanation for the adjuvant mechanism of SRBCs and reveal that splenic DCs survey blood cells for missing self-CD47, a process that might contribute to detecting and mounting immune responses against pathogen-infected RBCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. IFNβ produced by TLR4-activated tumor cells is involved in improving the antitumoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Nicolás Gonzalo; Andreani, Virginia; Crespo, María Inés; Nocera, David Andrés; Breser, María Laura; Morón, Gabriel; Dejager, Lien; Libert, Claude; Rivero, Virginia; Maccioni, Mariana

    2012-02-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands may be a valuable tool to promote antitumor responses by reinforcing antitumor immunity. In addition to their expression in immune cells, functional TLRs are also expressed by many cancer cells, but their significance has been controversial. In this study, we examined the action of TLR ligands on tumor pathophysiology as a result of direct tumor cell effects. B16 murine melanoma cells were stimulated in vitro with a TLR4 ligand (LPS-B16) prior to inoculation into TLR4-deficient mice (Tlr4 (lps-del)). Under such conditions, B16 cells yielded smaller tumors than nonstimulated B16 cells. The apoptosis/proliferation balance of the cells was not modified by TLR ligand treatment, nor was this effect compromised in immunocompromised nude mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that IFNβ was the critical factor produced by TLR4-activated tumor cells in mediating their in vivo outgrowth. Transcriptional analysis showed that TLR4 activation on B16 cells induced changes in the expression of type I IFN and type I IFN-related genes. Most importantly, culture supernatants from LPS-B16 cells improved the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from TLR4-deficient mice, upregulating the expression of interleukin-12 and costimulatory molecules on those cells. BMDC maturation was blunted by addition of an IFNβ-neutralizing antibody. Moreover, tumor growth inhibition observed in LPS-B16 tumors was abrogated in IFNAR1-deficient mice lacking a functional type I IFN receptor for binding IFN. Together, our findings show that tumor cells can be induced through the TLR4 pathway to produce IFN and positively contribute to the antitumoral immune response. ©2012 AACR.

  6. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ceftaroline modulates the innate immune and host defense responses of immunocompetent cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

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    Bruno, A; Cipollina, C; Di Vincenzo, S; Siena, L; Dino, P; Di Gaudio, F; Gjomarkaj, M; Pace, E

    2017-09-05

    Cigarette smoke, the principal risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), negatively influences the effectiveness of the immune system's response to a pathogen. The antibiotic ceftaroline exerts immune-modulatory effects in bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke. The present study aims to assess the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 expression, LPS binding and TNF-α and human beta defensin (HBD2) release in an undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated human monocyte cell line (THP-1) exposed or not to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE). TLR2, TLR4, and LPS binding were assessed by flow cytometry, TNF-α and HBD2 release were evaluated by ELISA. The constitutive expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and LPS binding were higher in differentiated compared to undifferentiated THP-1 cells. In undifferentiated THP-1 cells, CSE increased TLR2 and TLR4 protein levels, LPS binding and TNF-α release and reduced HBD2 release and ceftaroline counteracted all these effects. In differentiated THP-1, CSE did not significantly affect TLR2 and TLR4 expression and LPS binding but reduced HBD2 release and increased TNF-α release. Ceftaroline counteracted the effects of CSE on HBD2 release in differentiated THP-1. Ceftaroline counteracts the effect of CSE in immune cells by increasing the effectiveness of the innate immune system. This effect may also assist in reducing pathogen activity and recurrent exacerbations in COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Myeloid cell TRAF3 regulates immune responses and inhibits inflammation and tumor development in mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Almin I.; Moore, Carissa R.; Luo, Chang; Kreider, Benjamin Z.; Liu, Yan; Morse, Herbert C.; Xie, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, are crucial players in innate immunity and inflammation. These cells constitutively or inducibly express a number of receptors of the TNF receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) families, whose signals are transduced by TRAF molecules. In vitro studies showed that TRAF3 is required for TLR-induced type I interferon production, but the in vivo function of TRAF3 in myeloid cells remains unknown. Here we report the generation and characterization of myeloid cell-specific TRAF3-deficient (M-TRAF3−/−) mice, which allowed us to gain insights into the in vivo functions of TRAF3 in myeloid cells. We found that TRAF3 ablation did not affect the maturation or homeostasis of myeloid cells in young adult mice, even though TRAF3-deficient macrophages and neutrophils exhibited constitutive NF-κB2 activation. However, in response to injections with LPS (a bacterial mimic) or polyI:C (a viral mimic), M-TRAF3−/− mice exhibited an altered profile of cytokine production. M-TRAF3−/− mice immunized with T cell-independent (TI) and -dependent (TD) antigens displayed elevated TI IgG3 as well as TD IgG2b responses. Interestingly, 15–22 month old M-TRAF3−/− mice spontaneously developed chronic inflammation or tumors, often affecting multiple organs. Taken together, our findings indicate that TRAF3 expressed in myeloid cells regulates immune responses in myeloid cells and acts to inhibit inflammation and tumor development in mice. PMID:25422508

  9. Merck Ad5/HIV induces broad innate immune activation that predicts CD8⁺ T-cell responses but is attenuated by preexisting Ad5 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Daniel E; Andersen-Nissen, Erica; Peterson, Eric R; Sato, Alicia; Hamilton, M Kristina; Borgerding, Joleen; Krishnamurty, Akshay T; Chang, Joanne T; Adams, Devin J; Hensley, Tiffany R; Salter, Alexander I; Morgan, Cecilia A; Duerr, Ann C; De Rosa, Stephen C; Aderem, Alan; McElrath, M Juliana

    2012-12-11

    To better understand how innate immune responses to vaccination can lead to lasting protective immunity, we used a systems approach to define immune signatures in humans over 1 wk following MRKAd5/HIV vaccination that predicted subsequent HIV-specific T-cell responses. Within 24 h, striking increases in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression associated with inflammation, IFN response, and myeloid cell trafficking occurred, and lymphocyte-specific transcripts decreased. These alterations were corroborated by marked serum inflammatory cytokine elevations and egress of circulating lymphocytes. Responses of vaccinees with preexisting adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) neutralizing antibodies were strongly attenuated, suggesting that enhanced HIV acquisition in Ad5-seropositive subgroups in the Step Study may relate to the lack of appropriate innate activation rather than to increased systemic immune activation. Importantly, patterns of chemoattractant cytokine responses at 24 h and alterations in 209 peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcripts at 72 h were predictive of subsequent induction and magnitude of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. This systems approach provides a framework to compare innate responses induced by vectors, as shown here by contrasting the more rapid, robust response to MRKAd5/HIV with that to yellow fever vaccine. When applied iteratively, the findings may permit selection of HIV vaccine candidates eliciting innate immune response profiles more likely to drive HIV protective immunity.

  10. Tetherin promotes the innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune response against retrovirus infection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sam X; Barrett, Bradley S; Heilman, Karl J; Messer, Ronald J; Liberatore, Rachel A; Bieniasz, Paul D; Kassiotis, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J; Santiago, Mario L

    2014-07-01

    Tetherin/BST-2 is a host restriction factor that could directly inhibit retroviral particle release by tethering nascent virions to the plasma membrane. However, the immunological impact of Tetherin during retrovirus infection remains unknown. We now show that Tetherin influences antiretroviral cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast to the direct antiviral effects of Tetherin, which are dependent on cell surface expression, the immunomodulatory effects are linked to the endocytosis of the molecule. Mice encoding endocytosis-competent C57BL/6 Tetherin exhibited lower viremia and pathology at 7 d postinfection with Friend retrovirus (FV) compared with mice encoding endocytosis-defective NZW/LacJ Tetherin. Notably, antiretroviral protection correlated with stronger NK cell responses. In addition, Friend retrovirus infection levels were significantly lower in wild-type C57BL/6 mice than in Tetherin knockout mice at 2 wk postinfection, and antiretroviral protection correlated with stronger NK cell and virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses. The results demonstrate that Tetherin acts as a modulator of the cell-mediated immune response against retrovirus infection in vivo.

  11. Immune cell-based screening assay for response to anticancer agents: applications in pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frick A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amber Frick,1 Yuri Fedoriw,2 Kristy Richards,3,4 Blossom Damania,3,5 Bethany Parks,6 Oscar Suzuki,1 Cristina S Benton,1 Emmanuel Chan,1 Russell S Thomas,7 Tim Wiltshire1,3 1Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 3Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, 4Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 7Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: Interpatient variability in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely due to complex genetic differences and is difficult to ascertain in humans. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at examining interstrain differences in viability on normal, noncancerous immune cells following chemotherapeutic cytotoxic insult. Drug effects were investigated by comparing selective chemotherapeutic agents, such as BEZ-235 and selumetinib, against conventional cytotoxic agents targeting multiple pathways, including doxorubicin and idarubicin. Methods: Splenocytes were isolated from 36 isogenic strains of mice using standard procedures. Of note, the splenocytes were not stimulated to avoid attributing responses to pathways involved with cellular stimulation rather than toxicity. Cells were incubated with compounds on a nine-point logarithmic dosing scale ranging from 15 nM to 100 µM (37°C, 5% CO2. At 4 hours posttreatment, cells were labeled with antibodies and physiological indicator dyes and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cellular phenotypes (eg, viability were collected and analyzed using flow cytometry. Dose-response curves with response normalized to the zero dose as a function of log concentration

  12. Expression of Drosophila adenosine deaminase in immune cells during inflammatory response.

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    Milena Novakova

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular adenosine is an important regulator of inflammatory responses. It is generated from released ATP by a cascade of ectoenzymes and degraded by adenosine deaminase (ADA. There are two types of enzymes with ADA activity: ADA1 and ADGF/ADA2. ADA2 activity originates from macrophages and dendritic cells and is associated with inflammatory responses in humans and rats. Drosophila possesses a family of six ADGF proteins with ADGF-A being the main regulator of extra-cellular adenosine during larval stages. Herein we present the generation of a GFP reporter for ADGF-A expression by a precise replacement of the ADGF-A coding sequence with GFP using homologous recombination. We show that the reporter is specifically expressed in aggregating hemocytes (Drosophila immune cells forming melanotic capsules; a characteristic of inflammatory response. Our vital reporter thus confirms ADA expression in sites of inflammation in vivo and demonstrates that the requirement for ADA activity during inflammatory response is evolutionary conserved from insects to vertebrates. Our results also suggest that ADA activity is achieved specifically within sites of inflammation by an uncharacterized post-transcriptional regulation based mechanism. Utilizing various mutants that induce melanotic capsule formation and also a real immune challenge provided by parasitic wasps, we show that the acute expression of the ADGF-A protein is not driven by one specific signaling cascade but is rather associated with the behavior of immune cells during the general inflammatory response. Connecting the exclusive expression of ADGF-A within sites of inflammation, as presented here, with the release of energy stores when the ADGF-A activity is absent, suggests that extra-cellular adenosine may function as a signal for energy allocation during immune response and that ADGF-A/ADA2 expression in such sites of inflammation may regulate this role.

  13. Natural Killer Cell Functions during the Innate Immune Response to Pathogenic Streptococci

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    Paul Lemire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs and NK cells play a crucial role in the first phase of host defense against infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS and Streptococcus suis are encapsulated streptococci causing severe systemic inflammation, leading to septicemia and meningitis. Yet, the involvement of NK cells in the innate immune response to encapsulated bacterial infection is poorly characterized. Here, it was observed that these two streptococcal species rapidly induce the release of IFN-γ and that NK cells are the major cell type responsible for this production during the acute phase of the infection. Albeit S. suis capacity to activate NK cells was lower than that of GBS, these cells partially contribute to S. suis systemic infection; mainly through amplification of the inflammatory loop. In contrast, such a role was not observed during GBS systemic infection. IFN-γ release by NK cells required the presence of DCs, which in turn had a synergistic effect on DC cytokine production. These responses were mainly mediated by direct DC-NK cell contact and partially dependent on soluble factors. Though IL-12 and LFA-1 were shown to be critical in S. suis-mediated activation of the DC-NK cell crosstalk, different or redundant molecular pathways modulate DC-NK interactions during GBS infection. The bacterial capsular polysaccharides also differently modulated NK cell activation. Together, these results demonstrated a role of NK cells in the innate immune response against encapsulated streptococcal infections; yet the molecular pathways governing NK activation seem to differ upon the pathogen and should not be generalized when studying bacterial infections.

  14. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  15. Defining T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Rotavirus-Infected Juvenile Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Sestak, K.; McNeal, M M; Choi, A.; Cole, M. J.; Ramesh, G.; Alvarez, X.; Aye, P. P.; Bohm, R P; Mohamadzadeh, M.; Ward, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    The appearance of virus-specific CD4+ and/or CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of captive juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was observed following rotavirus infection. These cell-mediated immune responses were measured following experimental or natural infection after rotavirus was isolated from stool specimens of asymptomatic animals. The virus isolated was a new strain of simian rotavirus that we named TUCH (for Tulane University and Cincinnati Children's Hospital). Restimulati...

  16. Metabolic regulation of immune responses: therapeutic opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Assmann, Nadine; Finlay, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cell metabolism is dynamically regulated in parallel with the substantial changes in cellular function that accompany immune cell activation. While these changes in metabolism are important for facilitating the increased energetic and biosynthetic demands of activated cells, immune cell metabolism also has direct roles in controlling the functions of immune cells and shaping the immune response. A theme is emerging wherein nutrients, metabolic enzymes, and metabolites can act as an ext...

  17. Cigarette smoke inhibits airway epithelial cell innate immune responses to bacteria.

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    Kulkarni, Ritwij; Rampersaud, Ryan; Aguilar, Jorge L; Randis, Tara M; Kreindler, James L; Ratner, Adam J

    2010-05-01

    The human upper respiratory tract, including the nasopharynx, is colonized by a diverse array of microorganisms. While the host generally exists in harmony with the commensal microflora, under certain conditions, these organisms may cause local or systemic disease. Respiratory epithelial cells act as local sentinels of the innate immune system, responding to conserved microbial patterns through activation of signal transduction pathways and cytokine production. In addition to colonizing microbes, these cells may also be influenced by environmental agents, including cigarette smoke (CS). Because of the strong relationship among secondhand smoke exposure, bacterial infection, and sinusitis, we hypothesized that components in CS might alter epithelial cell innate immune responses to pathogenic bacteria. We examined the effect of CS condensate (CSC) or extract (CSE) on signal transduction and cytokine production in primary and immortalized epithelial cells of human or murine origin in response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. We observed that epithelial production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 in response to bacterial stimulation was significantly inhibited in the presence of CS (P 0.05 compared to cells without CSC treatment). These results identify a novel oxidant-mediated immunosuppressive role for CS in epithelial cells.

  18. The Role of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Alpha Herpes Virus Infections

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    Philipp Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, two independent groups identified plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC as major type I interferon- (IFN- producing cells in the blood. Since then, evidence is accumulating that PDC are a multifunctional cell population effectively coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses. This paper focuses on the role of different immune cells and their interactions in the surveillance of alpha herpes virus infections, summarizes current knowledge on PDC surface receptors and their role in direct cell-cell contacts, and develops a risk factor model for the clinical implications of herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus reactivation. Data from studies involving knockout mice and cell-depletion experiments as well as human studies converge into a “spider web”, in which the direct and indirect crosstalk between many cell populations tightly controls acute, latent, and recurrent alpha herpes virus infections. Notably, cells involved in innate immune regulations appear to shape adaptive immune responses more extensively than previously thought.

  19. Immune Cell Responses and Cytokine Profile in Intestines of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis

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    Jing Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal phase is critical for trichinellosis caused by Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis, as it determines both process and consequences of the disease. Several previous studies have reported that T. spiralis induces the initial predominance of a Th1 response during the intestine stage and a subsequent predominance of a Th2 response during the muscle stage. In the present study, immune cells and cytokine profile were investigated in the intestine of mice infected with T. spiralis. The results showed that the number of eosinophils, goblet cells, mucosal mast cells, and 33D1+ dendritic cells (DCs increased during the intestinal phase of the infection. Among these, eosinophils, goblet cells, and mucosal mast cells continued to increase until 17 days post infection (dpi, and the number of 33D1+ DCs increased compared to wild type; however, it did not change with the days of infection. The mRNA and protein levels of Th1 cytokines IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ and the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-β were all increased in the tissues of the small intestine in infected mice; however, in general, Th2 cytokines increased more than Th1 cytokines. In conclusion, our findings suggest that T. spiralis infection can induce an increase of small intestine mucosal immune cells and add further evidence to show that the intestinal mucosal immune system of infected mice was induced toward mixed Th1/Th2 phenotypes with the predominance of Th2 response at the early stage of infection.

  20. Sulforaphane Epigenetically Regulates Innate Immune Responses of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Induced with Lipopolysaccharide

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    Qu, Xueqi; Pröll, Maren; Neuhoff, Christiane; Zhang, Rui; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Hossain, Md. Munir; Tesfaye, Dawit; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Hölker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation, regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling gene expressions. Although dendritic cells (DCs) are playing pivotal roles in host immune responses, the effect of epigenetic modulation of DCs immune responses remains unknown. Sulforaphane (SFN) as a HDAC inhibitor has anti-inflammatory properties, which is used to investigate the epigenetic regulation of LPS-induced immune gene and HDAC family gene expressions in porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). SFN was found to inhibit the lipopolysaccharide LPS induced HDAC6, HDAC10 and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT3a) gene expression, whereas up-regulated the expression of DNMT1 gene. Additionally, SFN was observed to inhibit the global HDAC activity, and suppressed moDCs differentiation from immature to mature DCs through down-regulating the CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression and led further to enhanced phagocytosis of moDCs. The SFN pre-treated of moDCs directly altered the LPS-induced TLR4 and MD2 gene expression and dynamically regulated the TLR4-induced activity of transcription factor NF-κB and TBP. SFN showed a protective role in LPS induced cell apoptosis through suppressing the IRF6 and TGF-ß1 production. SFN impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1ß secretion into the cell culture supernatants that were induced in moDCs by LPS stimulation, whereas SFN increased the cellular-resident TNF-α accumulation. This study demonstrates that through the epigenetic mechanism the HDAC inhibitor SFN could modulate the LPS induced innate immune responses of porcine moDCs. PMID:25793534

  1. What roles do regulatory T cells play in the control of the adaptive immune response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melvin

    2008-09-01

    The immune system, like many systems responsive to specific stimuli, requires feedback regulation. The key regulatory element determining antigen-specific responsiveness is the effector T helper. As the response tends to overshoot, a feedback control of the magnitude of the response is critical to avoid immunopathology. This is the proposed role of the effector T suppressor (T(s)). The reasons for this interpretation of the data are discussed as are the reasons that the competing postulate is ruled out, namely that T(s) function in determining the self-non-self-discrimination. The regulatory T cell family consists of two lineages, T helpers and T(s). Differentiated derivatives of the T helper lineage drive the expression and amplification of specific classes of defensive effector cells. T(s) feedback to limit the magnitude of the process so that debilitating immunopathology is acceptably infrequent.

  2. Glycosylation of Candida albicans cell wall proteins is critical for induction of innate immune responses and apoptosis of epithelial cells.

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    Jeanette Wagener

    Full Text Available C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.

  3. Nifurtimox-induced alterations in the cell-mediated immune response to PPD tin guinea-pigs.

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    Lelchuk, R; Cardoni, R L; Levis, S

    1977-01-01

    Positive skin reactions to PPD in guinea-pigs immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) were reversed after treatment with 10 mg/kg/day nifurtimox for 12 days. The in vitro migration of peripheral blood leucocytes from FCA-immunized guinea-pigs was inhibited with PPD, but it returned to normal values after nifurtimox treatment. Furthermore, the cell-free supernatant from PPD-stimulated lymphocytes from FCA-immunized nifurtimox-treated guinea-pigs did not inhibit the migration of normal cells. Thus the administration of nifurtimox impaired the specific cell-mediated immune response to PPD both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:414870

  4. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses against Schistosoma spindale in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechatangkit, B; Dhaliwal, J S; Ambu, S

    1994-03-01

    (BALB/c mice were infected with cercariae of Schistosoma spindale by tail immersion technique and by dropping some cercariae from a pipet onto the outer surface of the pinna of the ears. Groups of mice were removed on Days 10, 20 and 30 and tested for humoral and cell mediated immune responses using either adult worm or cercarial antigen. On Day 50 the mice were sacrificed and the worm burden was determined for each mouse. This method resulted in an infectivity rate of 89.7%. There was a significant increase in antibody titer to the adult worm antigen while no significant increase was observed for cercarial antigen over the period of the study. Results obtained for cell mediated immunity were more dramatic. There was a significant increase in foot pad swelling for adult worm antigen compared to a significant decrease for cercarial antigen during the course of the infection.

  5. Cell mediated immune response of Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus (Amphibia, Anura) to mycobacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, E L; Salibian, A

    1984-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test was applied to the study of cell mediated immune (CMI) response in vitro to mycobacterial antigens in Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus previously inoculated with a suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The stimulated samples of blood both in B. arenarum and L. ocellatus showed a significant increase in the percent of blastic dedifferentiation (almost 100% with respect to controls) suggesting the presence of a positive CMI response to PPD. The differences were observed on the fifth day of incubation and lasted until the seventh day.

  6. Mouse Model of Devil Facial Tumour Disease establishes that an effective immune response can be generated against the cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L Pinfold

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii is facing extinction in the wild due to a transmissible cancer known as Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD. DFTD is a clonal cell line transmitted from host to host with 100% mortality and no known immunity. While it was first considered that low genetic diversity of the population of devils enabled the allograft transmission of DFTD recent evidence reveals that genetically diverse animals succumb to the disease. The lack of an immune response against the DFTD tumor cells may be due to a lack of immunogenicity of the tumor cells. This could facilitate transmission between devils. To test immunogenicity, mice were injected with viable DFTD cells and anti-DFTD immune responses analyzed. A range of antibody isotypes against DFTD cells was detected, indicating that as DFTD cells can induce an immune response they are immunogenic. This was supported by cytokine production, when splenocytes from mice injected with DFTD cells were cultured in vitro with DFTD cells and the supernatant analyzed. There was a significant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α following the first injection with DFTD cells and a significant production of IL-6 and IL-10 following the second injection. Splenocytes from naïve or immunized mice killed DFTD cells in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Thus they are also targets for immunological destruction. We conclude that as an immune response can be generated against DFTD cells they would be suitable targets for a vaccine.

  7. Defining T-cell-mediated immune responses in rotavirus-infected juvenile rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, K; McNeal, M M; Choi, A; Cole, M J; Ramesh, G; Alvarez, X; Aye, P P; Bohm, R P; Mohamadzadeh, M; Ward, R L

    2004-10-01

    The appearance of virus-specific CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of captive juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was observed following rotavirus infection. These cell-mediated immune responses were measured following experimental or natural infection after rotavirus was isolated from stool specimens of asymptomatic animals. The virus isolated was a new strain of simian rotavirus that we named TUCH (for Tulane University and Cincinnati Children's Hospital). Restimulation of peripheral T lymphocytes by inactivated double- or triple-layered TUCH rotavirus particles containing either VP6 or VP4 and VP7 on their respective surfaces resulted in increased quantities of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-12 in cell culture supernatants. Recall responses to rotavirus by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were associated with accumulation of intracellular IL-6 and gamma interferon. Antigen presentation of TUCH rotavirus to lymphocytes was mediated via differentiated cultures of monocyte-derived dendritic (HLA-DR(+)) cells. This is the first report demonstrating cell-mediated immune responses to rotavirus in nonhuman primates. Further exploration of rhesus macaques in vaccine trials with human rotavirus vaccine candidates is the major objective of future studies.

  8. Gene Therapy for Modulation of T Cell Mediated Immune Response Provoked by Corneal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastak, Marko; Kleff, Veronika; Saban, Daniel Raphael; Czugala, Marta; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Ergün, Süleyman; Singer, Bernhard; Fuchsluger, Thomas Armin

    2017-10-07

    Corneal transplantation (=keratoplasty) is the most common type of tissue replacement in the world. The increased rate of graft rejection after keratoplasty is a central problem for repeated transplantations and in inflamed host corneas. It has been shown that apoptosis of grafted epithelium has a role in corneal allograft rejection. Our study focused on the T cell response triggered in BALB/c mice after allogeneic corneal transplantation with and without anti-apoptotic p35-transduced epithelium. To restrict p35 expression to the epithelial cells we created modified allogeneic composite grafts. As a result we found that the proportion of alloreactive CD4+ T cells in postoperatively removed cervical lymph nodes was reduced in the p35-transduced group compared to the allogeneic control group. Diminished priming of the CD4+ T cells was supported by significantly decreased proliferation and lower interferon gamma secretion when compared to allogeneic engraftments. The reduced priming of CD4+ lymphocytes is the first confirmation of the functionality of p35 in the epithelium of corneal grafts to alter the development of the recipient's immune response. Thus, modification of allosensibilization seems to be a promising tool for reducing graft-mediated immune response following corneal transplantation.

  9. A Major Cell Surface Antigen of Coccidioides immitis Which Elicits Both Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chiung-Yu; Ampel, Neil M.; Christian, Lara; Seshan, Kalpathi R.; Cole, Garry T.

    2000-01-01

    Multinucleate parasitic cells (spherules) of Coccidioides immitis isolates produce a membranous outer wall component (SOW) in vitro which has been reported to be reactive with antibody from patients with coccidioidal infection, elicits a potent proliferative response of murine immune T cells, and has immunoprotective capacity in a murine model of coccidioidomycosis. To identify the antigenic components of SOW, the crude wall material was first subjected to Triton X-114 extraction, and a water-soluble fraction derived from this treatment was examined for protein composition and reactivity in humoral and cellular immunoassays. Protein electrophoresis revealed that the aqueous fraction of three different isolates of C. immitis each contained one or two major glycoproteins (SOWgps), distinguished by their molecular sizes, which ranged from 58 to 82 kDa. The SOWgps, however, showed identical N-terminal amino acid sequences, and each was recognized by sera from patients with C. immitis infection. Antibody raised against the purified 58-kDa glycoprotein (SOWgp58) of the Silveira isolate was used for Western blot and immunolocalization analyses. Expression of SOWgp was shown to be parasitic phase specific, and the antigen was localized to the membranous SOW. The water-soluble fraction of SOW and the purified SOWgp58 were tested for the ability to stimulate proliferation of human peripheral monocytic cells (PBMC). The latter were obtained from healthy volunteers with positive skin test reaction to spherulin, a parasitic-phase antigen of C. immitis, and from volunteers who showed no skin test reaction to the same antigen. The SOW preparations stimulated proliferation of PBMC from skin test-positive but not skin test-negative donors, and the activated cells secreted gamma interferon, which is indicative of a T helper 1 pathway of immune response. Results of this study suggest that SOWgp is a major parasitic cell surface-expressed antigen that elicits both humoral and cellular

  10. Participation of mesenchymal stem cells in the regulation of immune response and cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elena Castro-Manrreza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the microenvironment in the initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer has been postulated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been identified as important components of the tumor stroma, which are capable of affecting the development of cancer through various mechanisms. In particular, MSCs immunosuppressive properties play an important role. It has been shown that bone marrow-derived and other healthy tissues-derived MSCs are capable of regulating the immune response by affecting the activation, maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function of cells of the immune system, such as neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK and T-lymphocytes. Similar mechanisms have been identified in MSCs associated with different types of tumors, where they generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment by decreasing the cytotoxic activity of T-lymphocytes and NK cells, skew macrophage differentiation towards an M2 phenotype, and decrease the secretion of Th1-type cytokines. Also, the cytokines, chemokines, and factors secreted by the transformed cells or other cells from the tumor stroma are capable of modulating the functions of MSCs.

  11. Epithelial-intrinsic IKKα expression regulates group 3 innate lymphoid cell responses and antibacterial immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, Paul R.; Moy, Ryan H.; Noti, Mario; Osborne, Lisa C.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Alenghat, Theresa; Liu, Bigang; McCorkell, Kelly A.; Troy, Amy E.; Rak, Gregory D.; Hu, Yinling; May, Michael J.; Ma, Hak-Ling; Fouser, Lynette A.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical for maintaining epithelial barrier integrity at mucosal surfaces; however, the tissue-specific factors that regulate ILC responses remain poorly characterized. Using mice with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)–specific deletions in either inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK)α or IKKβ, two critical regulators of NFκB activation, we demonstrate that IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression selectively regulates group 3 ILC (ILC3)–dependent antibacterial immunity in the intestine. Although IKKβΔIEC mice efficiently controlled Citrobacter rodentium infection, IKKαΔIEC mice exhibited severe intestinal inflammation, increased bacterial dissemination to peripheral organs, and increased host mortality. Consistent with weakened innate immunity to C. rodentium, IKKαΔIEC mice displayed impaired IL-22 production by RORγt+ ILC3s, and therapeutic delivery of rIL-22 or transfer of sort-purified IL-22–competent ILCs from control mice could protect IKKαΔIEC mice from C. rodentium–induced morbidity. Defective ILC3 responses in IKKαΔIEC mice were associated with overproduction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by IECs, which negatively regulated IL-22 production by ILC3s and impaired innate immunity to C. rodentium. IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression was similarly critical for regulation of intestinal inflammation after chemically induced intestinal damage and colitis. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for epithelial cell–intrinsic IKKα expression and TSLP in regulating ILC3 responses required to maintain intestinal barrier immunity. PMID:26371187

  12. Beyond the basics: immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krost, William S; Mistovich, Joseph J; Limmer, Daniel D

    2008-06-01

    The human immune response is arguably among the most difficult processes for an EMS provider to understand. The immune system provides front-line defense to any potentially inflammatory process, with the goal of destroying or inactivating pathogens, abnormal cells and foreign substances. The system includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues (as in the GI tract and bone marrow), macrophages, lymphocytes, including B and T cells, and antibodies, among others. On the surface, the skin and stomach acid serve as physical barriers to invasion. This article will primarily concentrate on the immune response to allergies, but will discuss some other immune disorders to illustrate the role of the immune system in common disease processes.

  13. Burkholderia pseudomallei Differentially Regulates Host Innate Immune Response Genes for Intracellular Survival in Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutha Malar Vellasamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis poses a serious threat to humankind. B. pseudomallei secretes numerous virulence proteins that alter host cell functions to escape from intracellular immune sensors. However, the events underlying disease pathogenesis are poorly understood.We determined the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 human lung epithelial cells, and also investigated the early transcriptional responses using an Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 microarray platform, after three hours of exposure to live B. pseudomallei (BCMS and its secreted proteins (CCMS.We found that the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly correlated with increase of multiplicity of infection and duration of contact. Activation of host carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis as well as suppression of amino acid metabolism and innate immune responses both by live bacteria and its secreted proteins were evident. These early events might be linked to initial activation of host genes directed towards bacterial dissemination from lungs to target organs (via proposed in vivo mechanisms or to escape potential sensing by macrophages.Understanding the early responses of A549 cells toward B. pseudomallei infection provide preliminary insights into the likely pathogenesis mechanisms underlying melioidosis, and could contribute to development of novel intervention strategies to combat B. pseudomallei infections.

  14. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  15. Isoflavones, Genistein and Daidzein, Regulate Mucosal Immune Response by Suppressing Dendritic Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, John; Bhatt, Shiven; Chang, Lisa M.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Masilamani, Madhan

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, has been shown to have a strong adjuvant effect towards inhaled antigens contributing to airway inflammation. Isoflavones are anti-inflammatory molecules present in abundant quantities in soybeans. We investigated the effect of isoflavones on human dendritic cell (DC) activation via LPS stimulation and subsequent DC-mediated effector cell function both in vitro and in a mouse model of upper airway inflammation. Human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC) were matured with LPS (or TNF-α) +/− isoflavones (genistein or daidzein). The surface expression levels of DC activation markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mature DCs +/− isoflavones were washed and cultured with freshly-isolated allogenic naïve CD4+ T cells for 5 days or with autologous natural killer (NK) cells for 2 hours. The percentages of proliferating IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells and cytokine levels in culture supernatants were assessed. NK cell degranulation and DC cytotoxicity were measured by flow cytometry. Isoflavones significantly suppressed the activation-induced expression of DC maturation markers (CD83, CD80, CD86) and MHC class I but not MHC class II molecules in vitro. Isoflavone treatment inhibited the ability of LPS-DCs to induce IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells. NK cell degranulation and the percentage of dead DCs were significantly increased in isoflavone-treated DC-NK co-culture experiments. Dietary isoflavones suppressed the mucosal immune response to intra-nasal sensitization of mice to ovalbumin. Similar results were obtained when isoflavones were co-administered during sensitization. These results demonstrate that soybean isoflavones suppress immune sensitization by suppressing DC-maturation and its subsequent DC-mediated effector cell functions. PMID:23110148

  16. Isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, regulate mucosal immune response by suppressing dendritic cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wei

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, has been shown to have a strong adjuvant effect towards inhaled antigens contributing to airway inflammation. Isoflavones are anti-inflammatory molecules present in abundant quantities in soybeans. We investigated the effect of isoflavones on human dendritic cell (DC activation via LPS stimulation and subsequent DC-mediated effector cell function both in vitro and in a mouse model of upper airway inflammation. Human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC were matured with LPS (or TNF-α +/- isoflavones (genistein or daidzein. The surface expression levels of DC activation markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mature DCs +/- isoflavones were washed and cultured with freshly-isolated allogenic naïve CD4⁺ T cells for 5 days or with autologous natural killer (NK cells for 2 hours. The percentages of proliferating IFN-γ⁺ CD4⁺ T cells and cytokine levels in culture supernatants were assessed. NK cell degranulation and DC cytotoxicity were measured by flow cytometry. Isoflavones significantly suppressed the activation-induced expression of DC maturation markers (CD83, CD80, CD86 and MHC class I but not MHC class II molecules in vitro. Isoflavone treatment inhibited the ability of LPS-DCs to induce IFN-γ in CD4⁺ T cells. NK cell degranulation and the percentage of dead DCs were significantly increased in isoflavone-treated DC-NK co-culture experiments. Dietary isoflavones suppressed the mucosal immune response to intra-nasal sensitization of mice to ovalbumin. Similar results were obtained when isoflavones were co-administered during sensitization. These results demonstrate that soybean isoflavones suppress immune sensitization by suppressing DC-maturation and its subsequent DC-mediated effector cell functions.

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  18. Metabolic regulation of immune responses: therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Nadine; Finlay, David K

    2016-06-01

    Immune cell metabolism is dynamically regulated in parallel with the substantial changes in cellular function that accompany immune cell activation. While these changes in metabolism are important for facilitating the increased energetic and biosynthetic demands of activated cells, immune cell metabolism also has direct roles in controlling the functions of immune cells and shaping the immune response. A theme is emerging wherein nutrients, metabolic enzymes, and metabolites can act as an extension of the established immune signal transduction pathways, thereby adding an extra layer of complexity to the regulation of immunity. This Review will outline the metabolic configurations adopted by different immune cell subsets, describe the emerging roles for metabolic enzymes and metabolites in the control of immune cell function, and discuss the therapeutic implications of this emerging immune regulatory axis.

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cells engage complement and complement receptor bearing innate effector cells to modulate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Moll

    Full Text Available Infusion of human third-party mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs appears to be a promising therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD. To date, little is known about how MSCs interact with the body's innate immune system after clinical infusion. This study shows, that exposure of MSCs to blood type ABO-matched human blood activates the complement system, which triggers complement-mediated lymphoid and myeloid effector cell activation in blood. We found deposition of complement component C3-derived fragments iC3b and C3dg on MSCs and fluid-phase generation of the chemotactic anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. MSCs bound low amounts of immunoglobulins and lacked expression of complement regulatory proteins MCP (CD46 and DAF (CD55, but were protected from complement lysis via expression of protectin (CD59. Cell-surface-opsonization and anaphylatoxin-formation triggered complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18-mediated effector cell activation in blood. The complement-activating properties of individual MSCs were furthermore correlated with their potency to inhibit PBMC-proliferation in vitro, and both effector cell activation and the immunosuppressive effect could be blocked either by using complement inhibitor Compstatin or by depletion of CD14/CD11b-high myeloid effector cells from mixed lymphocyte reactions. Our study demonstrates for the first time a major role of the complement system in governing the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs and elucidates how complement activation mediates the interaction with other immune cells.

  20. Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Immune Responses against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghaug, Christina Skår; Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2015-09-16

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4(+) T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4(+) effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4(+) EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4(+) T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4(+) EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Immune Responses against Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4+ T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4+ effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4+ EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4+ T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4+ EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component. PMID:26376930

  2. T Cell Factor 1-Expressing Memory-like CD8(+) T Cells Sustain the Immune Response to Chronic Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Daniel T; Charmoy, Mélanie; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Pousse, Laurène; Ferreira, Daniela Pais; Calderon-Copete, Sandra; Danilo, Maxime; Alfei, Francesca; Hofmann, Maike; Wieland, Dominik; Pradervand, Sylvain; Thimme, Robert; Zehn, Dietmar; Held, Werner

    2016-08-16

    Chronic infections promote the terminal differentiation (or "exhaustion") of T cells and are thought to preclude the formation of memory T cells. In contrast, we discovered a small subpopulation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that sustained the T cell response during chronic infections. These cells were defined by, and depended on, the expression of the transcription factor Tcf1. Transcriptome analysis revealed that this population shared key characteristics of central memory cells but lacked an effector signature. Unlike conventional memory cells, Tcf1-expressing T cells displayed hallmarks of an "exhausted" phenotype, including the expression of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 and Lag-3. This population was crucial for the T cell expansion that occurred in response to inhibitory receptor blockade during chronic infection. These findings identify a memory-like T cell population that sustains T cell responses and is a prime target for therapeutic interventions to improve the immune response in chronic infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of immune response cells in the pelvic urethra and the prepuce of rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acosta-Dibarrat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathogens of the reproductive system in the male can penetrate and establish by ascending route, from to the prepuce to the urethra, accessory glands, epididymis and testicles. The aim of this paper is determine the distribution and number of cells involved in the immune response in prepuce and pelvic urethra of rams, without apparent clinical alterations in testicle, epididymis and prepuce. The distribution of some of the cells involved in the immune response at the level of the prepuce and the pelvic urethra was quantified in four one-year-old rams seronegative for B. ovis and A. seminis and without apparent lesions in the testicles, the epididymis, and the prepuce. At the moment of slaughter, samples were taken from the preputial fornix and the pelvic urethra and placed in 10% formalin and under freezing conditions. CD4, CD8, WC1, CD45RO, CD14 and CD1b cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, and immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC of the IgA, IgG and IgM classes were demonstrated by immunofluorescence. The labeled cells present in the mucosa of both organs were counted with an image analyzer. The total number of cells was compared between both tissues and differentially between the epithelium and the connective tissue of the mucosa. Significant differences were found in the total number of CD4, CD45RO, and WC1 lymphocytes, in CD14 macrophages, and CD1b dendritic cells, with mean values being greater in the fornix than in the urethra (p<0.05 in all cases. Only dendritic cells were found in the prepuce. No differences were found in the number of CD8 lymphocytes between both organs. The ratio between each cell type in the connective and the intraepithelial tissues and between organs was 10/1 for CD4 in the fornix (p<0.05, against 7/1 in the urethra (p<0.05, while CD8 had a 1/1 distribution in both mucosae. The WC1 ratio was 5/1 in both mucosae (p<0.05. CD45RO labeling was 19/1 in the prepuce (p<0.05 and 1/1 in the urethra. Ig

  4. Intravaginal immunization with HPV vectors induces tissue-resident CD8+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Graham, Barney S; Buck, Christopher B; Kines, Rhonda C; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Day, Patricia M; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2012-12-01

    The induction of persistent intraepithelial CD8+ T cell responses may be key to the development of vaccines against mucosally transmitted pathogens, particularly for sexually transmitted diseases. Here we investigated CD8+ T cell responses in the female mouse cervicovaginal mucosa after intravaginal immunization with human papillomavirus vectors (HPV pseudoviruses) that transiently expressed a model antigen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M/M2, in cervicovaginal keratinocytes. An HPV intravaginal prime/boost with different HPV serotypes induced 10-fold more cervicovaginal antigen-specific CD8+ T cells than priming alone. Antigen-specific T cell numbers decreased only 2-fold after 6 months. Most genital antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were intra- or subepithelial, expressed αE-integrin CD103, produced IFN-γ and TNF-α, and displayed in vivo cytotoxicity. Using a sphingosine-1-phosphate analog (FTY720), we found that the primed CD8+ T cells proliferated in the cervicovaginal mucosa upon HPV intravaginal boost. Intravaginal HPV prime/boost reduced cervicovaginal viral titers 1,000-fold after intravaginal challenge with vaccinia virus expressing the CD8 epitope M2. In contrast, intramuscular prime/boost with an adenovirus type 5 vector induced a higher level of systemic CD8+ T cells but failed to induce intraepithelial CD103+CD8+ T cells or protect against recombinant vaccinia vaginal challenge. Thus, HPV vectors are attractive gene-delivery platforms for inducing durable intraepithelial cervicovaginal CD8+ T cell responses by promoting local proliferation and retention of primed antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.

  5. Immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, A; Berntsen, A; Svane, I M

    2009-01-01

    , serum concentrations of IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-18 from these patients and additional thirteen HLA-A2 positive mRCC patients treated with autologous DC pulsed with survivin and telomerase peptides were analysed during vaccination to identify systemic immune responses and potential response....../TH2 balance was unchanged during vaccination also when tumour lysate specific T cell responses increased. An increase in IL-12, IL-17 and IL-18 serum concentrations was observed during vaccination but no difference between patients with SD and PD was observed. IL-10 or IL-15 was not measurable...

  6. Anti-Donor Immune Responses Elicited by Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Extracellular Vesicles: Are We Still Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lohan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous MSC may be the safer choice in terms of avoiding unwanted immune responses, factors including donor comorbidities may preclude these cells from use. In these situations, allogeneic MSC derived from genetically unrelated individuals must be used. While allogeneic MSC were initially believed to be immune-privileged, substantial evidence now exists to prove otherwise with multiple studies documenting specific cellular and humoral immune responses against donor antigens following administration of these cells. In this article, we will review recent published studies using non-manipulated, inflammatory molecule-activated (licensed and differentiated allogeneic MSC, as well as MSC extracellular vesicles focusing on the immune responses to these cells and whether or not such responses have an impact on allogeneic MSC-mediated safety and efficacy.

  7. A cell-based systems biology assessment of human blood to monitor immune responses after influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Kristen L; Samir, Parimal; Howard, Leigh M; Niu, Xinnan; Prasad, Nripesh; Galassie, Allison; Liu, Qi; Allos, Tara M; Floyd, Kyle A; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Levy, Shawn E; Joyce, Sebastian; Edwards, Kathryn M; Link, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an approach to comprehensively study complex interactions within a biological system. Most published systems vaccinology studies have utilized whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to monitor the immune response after vaccination. Because human blood is comprised of multiple hematopoietic cell types, the potential for masking responses of under-represented cell populations is increased when analyzing whole blood or PBMC. To investigate the contribution of individual cell types to the immune response after vaccination, we established a rapid and efficient method to purify human T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), monocytes, and neutrophils from fresh venous blood. Purified cells were fractionated and processed in a single day. RNA-Seq and quantitative shotgun proteomics were performed to determine expression profiles for each cell type prior to and after inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. Our results show that transcriptomic and proteomic profiles generated from purified immune cells differ significantly from PBMC. Differential expression analysis for each immune cell type also shows unique transcriptomic and proteomic expression profiles as well as changing biological networks at early time points after vaccination. This cell type-specific information provides a more comprehensive approach to monitor vaccine responses.

  8. Nutritional imbalances and infections affect the thymus: consequences on T-cell-mediated immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Wilson; Dardenne, Mireille

    2010-11-01

    The thymus gland, where T lymphocyte development occurs, is targeted in malnutrition secondary to protein energy deficiency. There is a severe thymic atrophy, resulting from massive thymocyte apoptosis (particularly affecting the immature CD4+CD8+ cell subset) and decrease in cell proliferation. The thymic microenvironment (the non-lymphoid compartment that drives intrathymic T-cell development) is also affected in malnutrition: morphological changes in thymic epithelial cells were found, together with a decrease of thymic hormone production, as well as an increase of intrathymic contents of extracellular proteins. Profound changes in the thymus can also be seen in deficiencies of vitamins and trace elements. Taking Zn deficiency as an example, there is a substantial thymic atrophy. Importantly, marginal Zn deficiency in AIDS subjects, children with diarrhoea and elderly persons, significantly impairs the host's immunity, resulting in an increased risk of opportunistic infections and mortality; effects that are reversed by Zn supplementation. Thymic changes also occur in acute infectious diseases, including a severe thymic atrophy, mainly due to the depletion of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, decrease in thymocyte proliferation, in parallel to densification of the epithelial network and increase in the extracellular matrix contents, with consequent disturbances in thymocyte migration and export. In conclusion, the thymus is targeted in several conditions of malnutrition as well as in acute infections. These changes are related to the impaired peripheral immune response seen in malnourished and infected individuals. Thus, strategies inducing thymus replenishment should be considered as adjuvant therapeutics to improve immunity in malnutrition and/or acute infectious diseases.

  9. Maternal alloantibodies induce a postnatal immune response that limits engraftment following in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Demetri J.; Tiblad, Eleonor; Santore, Matthew T.; Todorow, Carlyn A.; Laje, Pablo; Endo, Masayuki; Zoltick, Philip W.; Flake, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of fetal immune responses to foreign antigens, i.e., fetal immunologic tolerance, is the most compelling rationale for prenatal stem cell and gene therapy. However, the frequency of engraftment following in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) in the murine model is reduced in allogeneic, compared with congenic, recipients. This observation supports the existence of an immune barrier to fetal transplantation and challenges the classic assumptions of fetal tolerance. Here, we present evidence that supports the presence of an adaptive immune response in murine recipients of IUHCT that failed to maintain engraftment. However, when IUHCT recipients were fostered by surrogate mothers, they all maintained long-term chimerism. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the cells responsible for rejection of the graft were recipient in origin. Our observations suggest a mechanism by which IUHCT-dependent sensitization of the maternal immune system and the subsequent transmission of maternal alloantibodies to pups through breast milk induces a postnatal adaptive immune response in the recipient, which, in turn, results in the ablation of engraftment after IUHCT. Finally, we showed that non-fostered pups that maintained their chimerism had higher levels of Tregs as well as a more suppressive Treg phenotype than their non-chimeric, non-fostered siblings. This study resolves the apparent contradiction of induction of an adaptive immune response in the pre-immune fetus and confirms the potential of actively acquired tolerance to facilitate prenatal therapeutic applications. PMID:19652363

  10. Leishmania exosomes modulate innate and adaptive immune responses through effects on monocytes and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Judith Maxwell; Clos, Joachim; Horakova, Eva; Wang, Adele Y; Wiesgigl, Martina; Kelly, Isabelle; Lynn, Miriam A; McMaster, W Robert; Foster, Leonard J; Levings, Megan K; Reiner, Neil E

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the properties of leishmania exosomes with respect to influencing innate and adaptive immune responses. Exosomes from Leishmania donovani modulated human monocyte cytokine responses to IFN-γ in a bimodal fashion by promoting IL-10 production and inhibiting that of TNF-α. Moreover, these vesicles were inhibitory with respect to cytokine responses (IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-10) by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Exosomes from wild-type (WT) L. donovani failed to prime monocyte-derived dendritic cells to drive the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. In contrast, vesicles from heat shock protein (HSP)100(-/-) L. donovani showed a gain-of-function and proinflammatory phenotype and promoted the differentiation of naive CD4 lymphocytes into Th1 cells. Proteomic analysis showed that exosomes from WT and HSP100(-/-) leishmania had distinct protein cargo, suggesting that packaging of proteins into exosomes is dependent in part on HSP100. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with WT L. donovani exosomes prior to challenge with WT organisms exacerbated infection and promoted IL-10 production in the spleen. In contrast, HSP100(-/-) exosomes promoted spleen cell production of IFN-γ and did not adversely affect hepatic parasite burdens. Furthermore, the proparasitic properties of WT exosomes were not species specific because BALB/c mice exposed to Leishmania major exosomes showed increased Th2 polarization and exacerbation of disease in response to infection with L. major. These findings demonstrate that leishmania exosomes are predominantly immunosuppressive. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first evidence to suggest that changes in the protein cargo of exosomes may influence the impact of these vesicles on myeloid cell function.

  11. Cell-mediated immune response of synovial fluid lymphocytes to ureaplasma antigen in Reiter's syndrome

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    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Reiter's syndrome (RS is an seronegative arthritis that occurs after urogenital or enteric infection which in addition with occular and/or mucocutaneous manifestations presents complete form of disease. According to previous understanding arthritis in the RS is the reactive one, which means that it is impossible to isolate its causative agent. However, there are the more and more authors suggesting that arthritis in the urogenital form of disease is caused by the infective agent in the affected joint. This suggestion is based on numerous studies on the presence of Chlmaydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the inflamed joint by using new diagnostic methods in molecular biology published in the recent literature [1-3]. Besides, numerous studies of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response to "triggering" bacteria in the affected joint have supported previous suggestions [4-7]. Aim of the study was to determine whether synovial fluid T-cells specifically recognize the "triggering" bacteria presumably responsible for the Reiter's syndrome. METHOD The 3H-thymidine uptake procedure for measuring lymphocyte responses was applied to lymphocytes derived concurrently from synovial fluid (SF and from peripheral blood (PB [8]. Ureaplasma antigen and mitogen PHA stimulated lymphocytes in 24 RS patients (24 PB samples, 9 SF samples and the results were compared with those found in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA (10 PB samples, 5 SF samples. Preparation of ureaplasma antigen. Ureaplasma was cultured on cell-free liquid medium [9]. Sample of 8 ml was heat-inactivated for 15 minutes at 601C and permanently stirred with magnetic mixer. The sample was centrifuged at 2000 x g for 40 minutes and than deposits carefully carried to other sterile glass tubes (Corex and recentrifuged at 9000 x g for 30 minutes. The deposit was washed 3 times in sterile 0.9% NaCl, and final sediment was resuspended in 1.2 ml sterile 0.9% Na

  12. Stem Cell Transplantation for Muscular Dystrophy: The Challenge of Immune Response

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    Sara Martina Maffioletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating muscle disorders poses several challenges to the rapidly evolving field of regenerative medicine. Considerable progress has been made in isolating, characterizing, and expanding myogenic stem cells and, although we are now envisaging strategies to generate very large numbers of transplantable cells (e.g., by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells, limitations directly linked to the interaction between transplanted cells and the host will continue to hamper a successful outcome. Among these limitations, host inflammatory and immune responses challenge the critical phases after cell delivery, including engraftment, migration, and differentiation. Therefore, it is key to study the mechanisms and dynamics that impair the efficacy of cell transplants in order to develop strategies that can ultimately improve the outcome of allogeneic and autologous stem cell therapies, in particular for severe disease such as muscular dystrophies. In this review we provide an overview of the main players and issues involved in this process and discuss potential approaches that might be beneficial for future regenerative therapies of skeletal muscle.

  13. Elevated humoral response to cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected individuals with poor CD4+ T-cell immune recovery.

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    Elisabet Gómez-Mora

    Full Text Available Some HIV-infected c-ART-suppressed individuals show incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, abnormal T-cell activation and higher mortality. One potential source of immune activation could be coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV. IgG and IgM levels, immune activation, inflammation and T-cell death in c-ART-suppressed individuals with CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordant, n = 133 or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordant, n = 95 were analyzed to evaluate the effect of CMV humoral response on immune recovery. In total, 27 HIV-uninfected individuals were included as controls. In addition, the presence of CMV IgM antibodies was retrospectively analyzed in 58 immunoconcordant individuals and 66 immunodiscordant individuals. Increased CMV IgG levels were observed in individuals with poor immune reconstitution (p = 0.0002. Increased CMV IgG responses were significantly correlated with lower nadir and absolute CD4+ T-cell counts. In contrast, CMV IgG responses were positively correlated with activation (HLA-DR+ and death markers in CD4+ T-cells and activated memory CD8+ T-cells (CD45RA-CD38+. Longitudinal subanalysis revealed an increased frequency of IgM+ samples in individuals with poor CD4+ T-cell recovery, and an association was observed between retrospective IgM positivity and the current level of IgG. The magnitude of the humoral immune response to CMV is associated with nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, inflammation, immune activation and CD4+ T-cell death, thus suggesting that CMV infection may be a relevant driving force in the increased morbidity/mortality observed in HIV+ individuals with poor CD4+ T-cell recovery.

  14. Cell-mediated immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum purified soluble antigens in sickle-cell trait subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayoumi, R A; Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible differences in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum between sickle-cell trait (Hb AS) and normal haemoglobin (Hb AA) individuals, we examined 35 Hb AS and 24 Hb AA subjects matched for age and microenvironment. Their age was 2-55 years and all lived in a malaria...... individuals (P less than 0.025). Responses of BMNCs to PPD and PHA were also higher among Hb AS individuals and correlated positively with responses to SPAg. These findings support the hypotheses that the sickle-cell trait protects individuals from P. falciparum infections, at least in part, by modulating...... endemic area 300 km south of Khartoum. Antibodies to ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA) and to circumsporozoite (CS) protein (anti-NANP40) indicated equal exposure to falciparum malaria. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs) from 20/35 (57%) Hb AS subjects compared with 10/24 (42...

  15. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C enhances dendritic cell migration and boosts the immune responses against Leishmania major.

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    Romain Ballet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1 response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2 response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response.

  16. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C enhances dendritic cell migration and boosts the immune responses against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballet, Romain; Emre, Yalin; Jemelin, Stéphane; Charmoy, Mélanie; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Imhof, Beat A

    2014-12-01

    The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1) response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2) response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response.

  17. Adaptive Immune Response Impairs the Efficacy of Autologous Transplantation of Engineered Stem Cells in Dystrophic Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzia, Clementina; Farini, Andrea; Jardim, Luciana; Razini, Paola; Belicchi, Marzia; Cassinelli, Letizia; Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Parolini, Daniele; Bella, Pamela; da Silva Bizario, Joao Carlos; Garcia, Luis; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Meregalli, Mirella; Torrente, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common genetic muscular dystrophy. It is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, leading to absence of muscular dystrophin and to progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle. We have demonstrated that the exon skipping method safely and efficiently brings to the expression of a functional dystrophin in dystrophic CD133+ cells injected scid/mdx mice. Golden Retriever muscular dystrophic (GRMD) dogs represent the best preclinical model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mimicking the human pathology in genotypic and phenotypic aspects. Here, we assess the capacity of intra-arterial delivered autologous engineered canine CD133+ cells of restoring dystrophin expression in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy. This is the first demonstration of five-year follow up study, showing initial clinical amelioration followed by stabilization in mild and severe affected Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. The occurrence of T-cell response in three Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs, consistent with a memory response boosted by the exon skipped-dystrophin protein, suggests an adaptive immune response against dystrophin. PMID:27506452

  18. Co-delivery of PLGA encapsulated invariant NKT cell agonist with antigenic protein induce strong T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, Y.; Kreutz, M.; Gileadi, U.; Tel, J.; Vasaturo, A.; Dinther, E.A.W. van; Hout-Kuijer, M.A. van; Cerundolo, V.; Figdor, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor immunity can be enhanced by the coordinated release and delivery of antigens and immune-stimulating agents to antigen-presenting cells via biodegradable vaccine carriers. So far, encapsulation of TLR ligands and tumor-associated antigens augmented cytotoxic T cell (CTLs) responses. Here,

  19. Axl Mediates ZIKA Virus Entry in Human Glial Cells and Modulates Innate Immune Responses

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    Laurent Meertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection. During entry, the ZIKV/Gas6 complex activates Axl kinase activity, which downmodulates interferon signaling and facilitates infection. ZIKV infection of human glial cells is inhibited by MYD1, an engineered Axl decoy receptor, and by the Axl kinase inhibitor R428. Our results highlight the dual role of Axl during ZIKV infection of glial cells: promoting viral entry and modulating innate immune responses. Therefore, inhibiting Axl function may represent a potential target for future antiviral therapies.

  20. Cell-mediated immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs injected with inactivated chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyk, G; Sharp, M; Stites, D P; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1980-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to chlamydial antigens was readily induced in guinea pigs by a single injection of Betaprone-inactivated chlamydiae in complete Freund adjuvant. The CMI was measured in vivo by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, and in vitro by inhibition of migration of peritoneal exudate cells and by proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes. There was an overall correlation between in vivo and in vitro responses. Of the in vitro assays, migration inhibition reflected the state of sensitization, as judged by skin tests, more uniformly than lymphocyte stimulation. Extensive inter- and intra-species cross-reactivity was noted between LB-1, a strain of C. trachomatis, and three strains of C. psittaci, 6BC, GPIC, and 562F. Cross-reactivity between LB-1 and 6BC was one-way only, by all three parameters: LB-1 elicited strong cross-reactions in 6BC-immunized animals but not vice versa. Antichlamydial antibodies could not be demonstrated in any of the animals by microimmunofluorescence.

  1. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Junping Ren

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  2. Social stress in laboratory rats: hormonal responses and immune cell distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, V

    2000-05-01

    Previous experiments with chronically coexisting groups of Long-Evans rats indicated differences in many aspects of blood cellular immunity between winner and loser rats. The present study investigated the specific hormonal response patterns of winners and losers in relation to changes in numbers of blood immune cells. At the beginning of a 7 day period of chronic confrontation, a partition wall was removed between two neighboring rat groups, each containing a male-female pair. Fights for dominance between the males resulted in fast establishment of stable dominance relationships. At day 7 of the confrontation, winner males showed stable concentrations of CBG (corticosteroid-binding globulin) and even reduced titers of total CORT (corticosterone). In contrast, a marked decrease in CBG and unaffected total CORT concentrations were determined in loser males. Increased norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) titers were evident only in losers. In addition, reduced testosterone titers were observed in the bitten loser male subgroup. All male subgroups lost body mass with most pronounced reductions in loser males. Confrontation caused a marked granulocytosis, especially in loser males. NE concentrations in loser males correlated with the percentage of granulocytes. Numbers of CD4 T-cells were lowered in all loser males and in non-biting winners. In not-bitten losers also a reduced number of CD8 T-cells was determined. Interestingly, higher pre-confrontational NE titers were detected in future bitten loser and future biting winner males relatively to not-bitten losers and non-biting winners. The present report indicates that differential hormonal response patterns may play an important role in some of the immunological differences observed between winner and loser males under stressful social conditions.

  3. Monitoring of immune cell response to B cell depletion therapy and nerve root injury using SPIO enhanced MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorek, Daniel L.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is a robust platform for non-invasive, high-resolution anatomical imaging. However, MR imaging lacks the requisite sensitivity and contrast for imaging at the cellular level. This represents a clinical impediment to greater diagnostic accuracy. Recent advances have allowed for the in vivo visualization of populations and even of individual cells using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) MR contrast agents. These nanoparticles, commonly manifested as a core of a single iron oxide crystal or cluster of crystals coated in a biocompatible shell, function to shorten proton relaxation times. In MR imaging these constructs locally dephase protons, resulting in a decrease in signal (hypointensity) localized to the region of accumulation of SPIO. In the context of immune cell imaging, SPIO can provide insight into the cellular migration patterns, trafficking, temporal dynamics and progression of diseases and their related pathological states. Furthermore, by visualizing the presence and activity of immune cells, SPIO-enabled cellular imaging can help evaluate the efficacy of therapy in immune disorders. This thesis examines the production, modification and application of SPIO in a range of in vitro and in vivo immune-response-relevant cellular systems. The role of different nanoparticle characteristics including diameter, surface charge and concentration are investigated in the labeling of T cells in culture. Following optimization of SPIO loading conditions for lymphocytes, the effect these particles have on the activation of primary B cells are elucidated. B cells are tracked using a variety of modalities, with and without the application of B cell depleting therapy. This is to evaluate the efficacy of SPIO as in vivo marker for B cell distribution. Unmodified SPIO were applied to monitor macrophage infiltration in a transient nerve root compression model, with implications for neck pain diagnosis and treatment. Nanoparticle accumulation and MR

  4. Immunoregulatory mechanisms in Chagas disease: modulation of apoptosis in T-cell mediated immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Ana Thereza; de Assis Silva Gomes Estanislau, Juliana; Fiuza, Jacqueline Araújo; Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Ferreira, Karine Silvestre; Fares, Rafaelle Christine Gomes; Guimarães, Pedro Henrique Gazzinelli; de Souza Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Morato, Maria José; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Costa Rocha, Manoel Otávio; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-04-30

    Chronic Chagas disease presents different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic (namely indeterminate) to severe cardiac and/or digestive. Previous results have shown that the immune response plays an important role, although no all mechanisms are understood. Immunoregulatory mechanisms such as apoptosis are important for the control of Chagas disease, possibly affecting the morbidity in chronic clinical forms. Apoptosis has been suggested to be an important mechanism of cellular response during T. cruzi infection. We aimed to further understand the putative role of apoptosis in Chagas disease and its relation to the clinical forms of the disease. Apoptosis of lymphocytes, under antigenic stimuli (soluble T. cruzi antigens - TcAg) where compared to that of non-stimulated cells. Apoptosis was evaluated using the expression of annexin and caspase 3(+) by T cells and the percentage of cells positive evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition activation and T cell markers were used for the identification of TCD4(+) and TCD8(+) subpopulations. The presence of intracellular and plasma cytokines were also evaluated. Analysis of the activation status of the peripheral blood cells showed that patients with Chagas disease presented higher levels of activation determined by the expression of activation markers, after TcAg stimulation. PCR array were used to evaluate the contribution of this mechanism in specific cell populations from patients with different clinical forms of human Chagas disease. Our results showed a reduced proliferative response associated a high expression of T CD4(+)CD62L(-) cells in CARD patients when compared with IND group and NI individuals. We also observed that both groups of patients presented a significant increase of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets in undergoing apoptosis after in vitro stimulation with T. cruzi antigens. In CARD patients, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing TNF-α were highly susceptible to undergo apoptosis

  5. Hepatitis C virus-induced innate immune responses in human iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Fuminori; Kunito, Takemaru; Takayama, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Rina; Tachibana, Masashi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Wakita, Takaji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. In order to develop effective remedies for hepatitis C, it is important to understand the HCV infection profile and host-HCV interaction. HCV-induced innate immune responses play a crucial role in spontaneous HCV clearance; however, HCV-induced innate immune responses have not been fully evaluated in hepatocytes, partly because there are few in vitro models of HCV-induced innate immunity. Recently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have received much attention as an in vitro model of infection with various pathogens, including HCV. We previously established highly functional hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human iPS cells (iPS-HLCs). Here, we examined the potential of iPS-HLCs as an in vitro HCV infection model, especially for evaluation of the relationship between HCV infection levels and HCV-induced innate immunity. Significant expressions of type I and III interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were induced following transfection with HCV genomic replicon RNA in iPS-HLCs. Following inoculation with the HCV JFH-1 strain in iPS-HLCs, peaks of HCV genome replication and HCV protein expression were observed on day 2, and then both the HCV genome and protein levels gradually declined, while the mRNA levels of type III IFNs and ISGs peaked at day 2 following inoculation. These results suggest that the HCV genome efficiently replicates in iPS-HLCs, resulting in HCV genome-induced up-regulation of IFNs and ISGs, and thereafter, HCV genome-induced up-regulation of IFNs and ISGs mediates a reduction in the HCV genome and protein levels in iPS-HLCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Original encounter with antigen determines antigen-presenting cell imprinting of the quality of the immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Abadie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining a certain multi-functionality of cellular immunity for the control of infectious diseases is a burning question in immunology and in vaccine design. Early events, including antigen shuttling to secondary lymphoid organs and recruitment of innate immune cells for adaptive immune response, determine host responsiveness to antigens. However, the sequence of these events and their impact on the quality of the immune response remain to be elucidated. Here, we chose to study Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA which is now replacing live Smallpox vaccines and is proposed as an attenuated vector for vaccination strategies against infectious diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vivo mechanisms triggered following intradermal (i.d. and intramuscular (i.m. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA administration. We demonstrated significant differences in the antigen shuttling to lymphoid organs by macrophages (MPhis, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs, and neutrophils (PMNs. MVA i.d. administration resulted in better antigen distribution and more sustained antigen-presenting cells (APCs recruitment into draining lymph nodes than with i.m. administration. These APCs, which comprise both DCs and MPhis, were differentially involved in T cell priming and shaped remarkably the quality of cytokine-producing virus-specific T cells according to the entry route of MVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms of antigen delivery and their consequences on the quality of immune responses and provides new insights for vaccine development.

  7. Enhanced CD8+ T cell immune responses and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei malaria by prime boost immunization regimens using a novel attenuated fowlpox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard J; Hannan, Carolyn M; Gilbert, Sarah C; Laidlaw, Stephen M; Sheu, Eric G; Korten, Simone; Sinden, Robert; Butcher, Geoffrey A; Skinner, Michael A; Hill, Adrian V S

    2004-03-01

    Sterile immunity can be provided against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria by IFN-gamma-secreting CD8(+) T cells that recognize parasite-infected hepatocytes. In this study, we have investigated the use of attenuated fowlpox virus (FPV) strains as recombinant vaccine vectors for eliciting CD8(+) T cells against Plasmodium berghei. The gene encoding the P. berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) protein was inserted into an FPV vaccine strain licensed for use in chickens, Webster's FPV, and the novel FPV vaccine strain FP9 by homologous recombination. The novel FP9 strain proved more potent as a vaccine for eliciting CD8(+) T cell responses against the PbCS Ag. Sequential immunization with rFP9 and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Anakara (MVA) encoding the PbCS protein, administered by clinically acceptable routes, elicited potent CD8(+) T cell responses against the PbCS protein. This immunization regimen elicited substantial protection against a stringent liver-stage challenge with P. berghei and was more immunogenic and protective than DNA/MVA prime/boost immunization. However, further improvement was not achieved by sequential (triple) immunization with a DNA vaccine, FP9, and MVA.

  8. Testing the 'toxin hypothesis of allergy': mast cells, IgE, and innate and acquired immune responses to venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Work in mice indicates that innate functions of mast cells, particularly degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, can enhance resistance to certain arthropod or reptile venoms. Recent reports indicate that acquired Th2 immune responses associated with the production of IgE antibodies, induced by Russell's viper venom or honeybee venom, or by a component of honeybee venom, bee venom phospholipase 2 (bvPLA2), can increase the resistance of mice to challenge with potentially lethal doses of either of the venoms or bvPLA2. These findings support the conclusion that, in contrast to the detrimental effects associated with allergic type 2 (Th2) immune responses, mast cells and IgE-dependent immune responses to venoms can contribute to innate and adaptive resistance to venom-induced pathology and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell mediated immune responses following revaccination with an influenza A/H5N1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbawuike, Innocent N; Atmar, Robert L; Patel, Shital M; Corry, David B; Winokur, Patricia L; Brady, Rebecca C; Chen, Wilbur H; Edwards, Kathryn M; Creech, C Buddy; Walter, Emmanuel B; Frey, Sharon E; Belshe, Robert B; Goll, Johannes B; Hill, Heather; Keitel, Wendy A

    2016-01-20

    The study aims were to determine whether inactivated influenza A/H5N1 vaccine administration elicited cell mediated immune (CMI) responses and the impact of adjuvant, vaccine dose and subject age on these responses. Adults who were previously primed with either adjuvanted or unadjuvanted, inactivated, A/H5N1/Vietnam/1203/2004 (Clade 1) vaccine or unprimed (received placebo) in previous vaccine studies were randomized to receive one (primed) or two (unprimed) 15- or 90-mcg doses of inactivated, A/H5N1/Indonesia/05/05 (Clade 2) vaccine. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected and analyzed from a subset of vaccinees to assess CMI responses using IFN-γ and granzyme B ELISPOT assays. Cytokine measurements were performed on PBMC supernatants after stimulation with H5N1 virus. PBMCs were available from 177 participants; 88 and 89 received 15-mcg and 90-mcg of unadjuvanted clade 2 vaccine, respectively. Following H5N1 clade 1 stimulation, IFN-γ but not granzyme B normalized spot-forming cell numbers had statistically significant increased numbers at each of the post-vaccination timepoints compared to baseline in pooled analyses of all vaccine doses and age groups. Clade 2 stimulation resulted in statistically significant increased numbers of IFN-γ cells only 180 days following the last vaccination. Responses were similar among younger and older study participants, as were responses among those primed with alum-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted clade 1 H5N1 vaccines. The dosage of clade 2 vaccine did not impact CMI responses among primed subjects, but responses were statistically significantly greater in unprimed recipients of the 90-mcg dosage compared to unprimed recipients of the 15-mcg dosage. IFN-γ levels in the supernatants of stimulated PBMC were strongly correlated with IFN-γ ELISPOT results. CMI responses occur in adults administered influenza A/H5N1 inactivated influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit murine syngeneic anti-tumor immune responses by attenuating inflammation and reorganizing the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Jaime F; Lindborg, Beth A; McElmurry, Ron T; Lewellen, Mitzi; Forster, Colleen L; Zamora, Edward A; Schaack, Jerome; Bellgrau, Donald; O'Brien, Timothy D; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to inhibit anti-tumor immunity is becoming increasingly well recognized, but the precise steps affected by these cells during the development of an anti-tumor immune response remain incompletely understood. Here, we examined how MSCs affect the steps required to mount an effective anti-tumor immune response following administration of adenovirus Fas ligand (Ad-FasL) in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LL3) model. Administration of bone marrow-derived MSCs with LL3 cells accelerated tumor growth significantly. MSCs inhibited the inflammation induced by Ad-FasL in the primary tumors, precluding their rejection; MSCs also reduced the consequent expansion of tumor-specific T cells in the treated hosts. When immune T cells were transferred to adoptive recipients, MSCs impaired, but did not completely abrogate the ability of these T cells to promote elimination of secondary tumors. This impairment was associated with a modest reduction in tumor-infiltrating T cells, with a significant reduction in tumor-infiltrating macrophages, and with a reorganization of the stromal environment. Our data indicate that MSCs in the tumor environment reduce the efficacy of immunotherapy by creating a functional and anatomic barrier that impairs inflammation, T cell priming and expansion, and T cell function-including recruitment of effector cells.

  11. Innate and adaptive immune responses both contribute to pathological CD4 T cell activation in HIV-1 infected Ugandans.

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    Michael A Eller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disease progression is associated with persistent immune activation. However, the nature of this association is incompletely understood. Here, we investigated immune activation in the CD4 T cell compartment of chronically HIV-1 infected individuals from Rakai, Uganda. Levels of CD4 T cell activation, assessed as co-expression of PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR, correlated directly to viral load and inversely to CD4 count. Deeper characterization of these cells indicated an effector memory phenotype with relatively frequent expression of Ki67 despite their PD-1 expression, and levels of these cells were inversely associated with FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. We therefore use the term deregulated effector memory (DEM cells to describe them. CD4 T cells with a DEM phenotype could be generated by antigen stimulation of recall responses in vitro. Responses against HIV-1 and CMV antigens were enriched among the DEM CD4 T cells in patients, and the diverse Vβ repertoire of DEM CD4 T cells suggested they include diverse antigen-specificities. Furthermore, the levels of DEM CD4 T cells correlated directly to soluble CD14 (sCD14 and IL-6, markers of innate immune activation, in plasma. The size of the activated DEM CD4 T cell subset was predictive of the rate of disease progression, whereas IL-6 was only weakly predictive and sCD14 was not predictive. Taken together, these results are consistent with a model where systemic innate immune activation and chronic antigen stimulation of adaptive T cell responses both play important roles in driving pathological CD4 T cell immune activation in HIV-1 disease.

  12. Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobarzo, Ariel; Stonier, Spencer W; Herbert, Andrew S; Ochayon, David E; Kuehne, Ana I; Eskira, Yael; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C; Egesa, Moses; Cose, Stephen; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Yavelsky, Victoria; Dye, John M; Lobel, Leslie

    2016-05-11

    Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000-2001). Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.

  13. Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors

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    Ariel Sobarzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000–2001. Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.

  14. Mechanisms underlying the induction of regulatory T cells and its relevance in the adaptive immune response in parasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Fragoso, Gladis; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill its function, the immune system must detect and interpret a wide variety of signals and adjust the magnitude, duration, and specific traits of each response during the complex host-parasite relationships in parasitic infections. Inflammation must be tightly regulated since uncontrolled inflammation may be as destructive as the triggering stimulus and leads to immune-mediated tissue injury. During recent years, increasing evidence points to regulatory T cells (Tregs) as key anti-inflammatory cells, critically involved in limiting the inflammatory response. Herein, we review the published information on the induction of Tregs and summarize the most recent findings on Treg generation in parasitic diseases.

  15. Human rhinovirus induced cytokine/chemokine responses in human airway epithelial and immune cells.

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    Devi Rajan

    Full Text Available Infections with human rhinovirus (HRV are commonly associated with acute upper and lower respiratory tract disease and asthma exacerbations. The role that HRVs play in these diseases suggests it is important to understand host-specific or virus-specific factors that contribute to pathogenesis. Since species A HRVs are often associated with more serious HRV disease than species B HRVs, differences in immune responses they induce should inform disease pathogenesis. To identify species differences in induced responses, we evaluated 3 species A viruses, HRV 25, 31 and 36 and 3 species B viruses, HRV 4, 35 and 48 by exposing human PBMCs to HRV infected Calu-3 cells. To evaluate the potential effect of memory induced by previous HRV infection on study responses, we tested cord blood mononuclear cells that should be HRV naïve. There were HRV-associated increases (significant increase compared to mock-infected cells for one or more HRVs for IP-10 and IL-15 that was unaffected by addition of PBMCs, for MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IFN-α, and HGF only with addition of PBMCs, and for ENA-78 only without addition of PBMCs. All three species B HRVs induced higher levels, compared to A HRVs, of MIP-1α and MIP-1β with PBMCs and ENA-78 without PBMCs. In contrast, addition of CBMCs had less effect and did not induce MIP-1α, MIP-1β, or IFN-α nor block ENA-78 production. Addition of CBMCs did, however, increase IP-10 levels for HRV 35 and HRV 36 infection. The presence of an effect with PBMCs and no effect with CBMCs for some responses suggest differences between the two types of cells possibly because of the presence of HRV memory responses in PBMCs and not CBMCs or limited response capacity for the immature CBMCs relative to PBMCs. Thus, our results indicate that different HRV strains can induce different patterns of cytokines and chemokines; some of these differences may be due to differences in memory responses induced by past HRV infections, and other differences

  16. LONG-LIVED BONE MARROW PLASMA CELLS DURING IMMUNE RESPONSE TO ALPHA (1→3 DEXTRAN

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    I. N. Chernyshova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production kinetics and some functional properties of long-lived marrow plasma cells were studied in mice immunized with T-independent type 2 antigens. Alpha (1→3 dextran was used as an antigen for immunization. The mice were immunized by dextran, and the numbers of IgM antibody producing cells were determined by ELISPOT method. The cell phenotype was determined by cytofluorimetric technique. In the area of normal bone marrow lymphocytes ~4% of T and ~85% of B cells were detected. About 35% of the cells expressed a plasmocyte marker (CD138; 3% were CD138+IgM+, and about 6% of the lymphocytes were double-positive for CD138+IgA+. Among spleen lymphocytes, 50% of T and 47% of B cells were detected. About 1.5% lymphocytes were CD138+, and 0.5% were positive for CD138 and IgM. Time kinetics of antibody-producing cells in bone marrow and spleen was different. In spleen populations, the peak amounts of antibody-secreting cells have been shown on the day 4; the process abated by the day 28. Vice versa, the numbers of the antibody-producing cells in bone marrow started to increase on the day 4. The process reached its maximum on day 14, and after 28th day became stationary. The in vitro experiments have shown that supplementation of bone marrow cells from immune mice with dextran did not influence their functional activity. It was previously shown for cells responding to T-dependent antigens only. A specific marker for the long-lived plasma cells is still unknown. However, these cells possess a common CD138 marker specific for all plasma cells. A method for isolation of bone marrow CD138+ cells was developed. The CD138+ cells were of 87-97% purity, being enriched in long-lived bone marrow cells, and produced monospecific antibodies. 

  17. Inflammation in lung after acute myocardial infarction is induced by dendritic cell-mediated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L J; Ren, W Y; Shen, Q J; Ji, H Y; Zhu, L

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to describe the changes of lung tissues in mice with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and also explain the cell mechanism involved in inflammation in lung. AMI was established by left coronary ligation in mice. Then mice were divided into three groups: control group, MW1 group (sampling after surgery for one week) and MW2 group (sampling after surgery for two weeks). Afterwards, measurement of lung weight and lung histology, cell sorting in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and detection of several adhesive molecules, inflammatory molecules as well as enzyme associated with inflammation were performed. Moreover, dendritic cells (DCs) were isolated from bone marrow of C57B/L6 mice. After incubating with necrotic myocardium, the expression of antigen presenting molecules, co-stimulatory molecules and inflammatory molecules were detected by flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry in DCs. We also detected T-cell proliferation after incubating with necrotic myocardium-treated DCs. AMI induced pathological changes of lung tissue and increased inflammatory cell amount in BAL fluid. AMI also increased the expression of several inflammatory factors, adhesive molecules and enzymes associated with inflammation. CD11c and TLR9, which are DC surface markers, showed a significantly increased expression in mice with AMI. Additionally, necrotic myocardium significantly increased the expression of co-stimulatory factors including CD83 and CD80, inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ and NF-κB in DCs. Furthermore, DCs treated with necrotic myocardium also significantly promoted T-cell proliferation. AMI induced inflammation in lung and these pathological changes were mediated by DC-associated immune response.

  18. Platelets are versatile cells: New discoveries in hemostasis, thrombosis, immune responses, tumor metastasis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong Ruby; Zhang, Dan; Oswald, Brigitta Elaine; Carrim, Naadiya; Wang, Xiaozhong; Hou, Yan; Zhang, Qing; Lavalle, Christopher; McKeown, Thomas; Marshall, Alexandra H; Ni, Heyu

    2016-12-01

    documented for more than half a century as essential for platelet aggregation, recent studies demonstrated that fibrinogen-independent platelet aggregation occurs in both gene deficient animals and human patients under physiological and pathological conditions (non-anti-coagulated blood). This indicates that other unidentified platelet ligands may play important roles in thrombosis and might be novel antithrombotic targets. In addition to their critical roles in hemostasis and thrombosis, emerging evidence indicates that platelets are versatile cells involved in many other pathophysiological processes such as innate and adaptive immune responses, atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, lymphatic vessel development, liver regeneration and tumor metastasis. This review summarizes the current knowledge of platelet biology, highlights recent advances in the understanding of platelet production and clearance, molecular and cellular events of thrombosis and hemostasis, and introduces the emerging roles of platelets in the immune system, vascular biology and tumorigenesis. The clinical implications of these basic science and translational research findings will also be discussed.

  19. Salidroside liposome formulation enhances the activity of dendritic cells and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojuan; Lu, Yu; Tao, Yang; Huang, Yee; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Yu, Yun; Liu, Cui

    2013-12-01

    Salidroside, the important composition, of Rhodiola rosea L. has been reported to have various pharmacological properties. Liposome is known to be effective as drug carriers and immune adjuvant. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate immunological adjuvant activity of salidroside liposome. Here we reported the preparation, the effect on DCs in vitro and the immune response in vivo. The immunological adjuvant activity of salidroside liposome formulation was compared with that of salidroside and liposome. The result showed that salidroside liposome formulation not only could promote the maturation of DCs, the stimulation of DCs on MLR proliferation and the antigen presenting ability, but also induced the sustained cellular immune and humoral immune response. Overall, the results showed that salidroside liposome formulation had the potential to act as effective sustained release vaccine delivery systems. © 2013.

  20. Whole blood assay to access T cell-immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in healthy Brazilian individuals

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    Paulo RZ Antas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of interferon gamma (IFNgamma guarantees effective T cell-mediated immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In the present study, we simply compare the in vitro immune responses to Mycobacterium antigens in terms of IFNg production in a total of 10 healthy Brazilian volunteers. Whole blood and mononuclear cells were cultivated in parallel with PPD, Ag85B, and M. bovis hsp65, and five-days supernatants were harvested for cytokine detection by ELISA. The inter-assay result was that the overall profile of agreement in response to antigens was highly correlated (r² = 0.9266; p = 0.0102. Potential analysis is in current progress to dictate the usefulness of this method to access the immune responses also in tuberculosis patients and its contacts.

  1. Role of B-1 cells in the immune response against an antigen encapsulated into phosphatidylcholine-containing liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Machado, Yoan; López-Requena, Alejandro; Canet, Liem; Laborde, Rady; Álvares, Anuska Marcelino; Lucatelli Laurindo, María F; Santo Tomas, Julio F; Alonso, María E; Alvarez, Carlos; Mortara, Renato A; Popi, Ana F; Mariano, Mario; Pérez, Rolando; Lanio, María E

    2014-08-01

    B-1 lymphocytes comprise a unique subset of B cells that differ phenotypically, ontogenetically and functionally from conventional B-2 cells. A frequent specificity of the antibody repertoire of peritoneal B-1 cells is phosphatidylcholine. Liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine have been studied as adjuvants and their interaction with dendritic cells and macrophages has been demonstrated. However, the role of B-1 cells in the adjuvanticity of liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine has not been explored. In the present work, we studied the contribution of B-1 cells to the humoral response against ovalbumin (OVA) encapsulated into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol-containing liposomes. BALB/X-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice, which are deficient in B-1 cells, showed quantitative and qualitative differences in the anti-OVA antibody response compared with wild-type animals after immunization with these liposomes. The OVA-specific immune response was significantly increased in the BALB/xid mice when reconstituted with B-1 cells from naive BALB/c mice. Our results indicate the internalization of DPPC-containing liposomes by these cells and their migration from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen. Phosphatidylcholine significantly contributed to the immunogenicity of liposomes, as DPPC-containing liposomes more effectively stimulated the anti-OVA response compared with vesicles composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. In conclusion, we present evidence for a cognate interaction between B-1 cells and phosphatidylcholine liposomes, modulating the immune response to encapsulated antigens. This provides a novel targeting approach to assess the role of B-1 cells in humoral immunity. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Immune responses in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  3. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  4. Transient complement inhibition promotes a tumor-specific immune response through the implication of natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelle, Valérie; Langlois, Marie-Pierre; Tarrab, Esther; Lapierre, Pascal; Poliquin, Laurent; Lamarre, Alain

    2014-03-01

    Although the role of the complement system in cancer development has been studied, its involvement in the development of an antitumoral immune response remains poorly understood. Using cobra venom factor (CVF) to inhibit the complement cascade via C3 molecule exhaustion in immunocompetent mice bearing B16gp33 melanoma tumors, we show that transient inhibition of the complement system allowed for the development of a more robust gp33-specific antitumoral CD8(+) T-cell response. This immune response proved to be natural killer (NK) dependent, suggesting an interaction of complement proteins with this cellular subset leading to T lymphocyte activation and enhanced cytotoxic T-cell activity against tumor cells. This study demonstrates for the first time the implication of the complement system in the development of NK-mediated cytotoxic T-cell-dependent antitumoral immune responses. The complement pathway could therefore be a potent therapeutic target to improve NK-dependent antitumoral immune responses in patients with cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Differential and site specific impact of B cells in the protective immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse.

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    Egídio Torrado

    Full Text Available Cell-mediated immune responses are known to be critical for control of mycobacterial infections whereas the role of B cells and humoral immunity is unclear. B cells can modulate immune responses by secretion of immunoglobulin, production of cytokines and antigen-presentation. To define the impact of B cells in the absence of secreted immunoglobulin, we analyzed the progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection in mice that have B cells but which lack secretory immunoglobulin (AID(-/-µS(-/-mice. AID(-/-µS(-/- mice accumulated a population of activated B cells in the lungs when infected and were more susceptible to aerosol Mtb when compared to wild type (C57BL/6 mice or indeed mice that totally lack B cells. The enhanced susceptibility of AID(-/-µS(-/- mice was not associated with defective T cell activation or expression of a type 1 immune response. While delivery of normal serum to AID(-/-µS(-/- mice did not reverse susceptibility, susceptibility in the spleen was dependent upon the presence of B cells and susceptibility in the lungs of AID(-/-µS(-/-mice was associated with elevated expression of the cytokines IL-6, GM-CSF, IL-10 and molecules made by alternatively activated macrophages. Blocking of IL-10 signaling resulted in reversal of susceptibility in the spleens and lungs of AID(-/-µS(-/- mice. These data support the hypothesis that B cells can modulate immunity to Mtb in an organ specific manner via the modulation of cytokine production and macrophage activation.

  6. Chitinase effects on immune cell response in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Jorge; Fiol, Marcela

    2011-05-01

    Recent studies conducted in arthritis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease suggest that chitinases are important in inflammatory processes and tissue remodeling. To investigate the role of chitinases in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Levels of chitotriosidase, acid mammalian chitinase (AMCase), and chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) were measured using ELISA, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in serum from 24 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS, 24 patients with secondary progressive (SP) MS, 12 patients with NMO, 24 patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND), and 24 healthy controls (HCs). The number of anti-MOG cytokine-secreting cells was studied using ELISPOT. Eotaxins, MCP-1, RANTES, and IL-8 were assessed using ELISA. Cell transmigration was determined using an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model, in the presence and absence of chitinases. CSF chitinase levels were significantly increased in patients with RRMS and NMO compared with HCs and patients with SPMS and OIND. In contrast, no significant differences were detected in serum chitinase levels between groups. Chitinase CSF levels showed correlation with anti-MOG IL-13-producing cells, and eotaxin levels. In vitro experiments showed macrophage chitinase secretion was significantly increased by IL-13, but not by IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, or IFN-γ. Moreover, chitinases enhanced IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1, and eotaxin production, increasing migratory capacity in eosinophils, T cells, and macrophages across an in vitro BBB model. Chitinases increased in the CSF from patients with NMO in response to IL-13. These enhanced levels could contribute to central nervous system inflammation by increasing immune cell migration across the BBB.

  7. Transcription Factor Networks derived from Breast Cancer Stem Cells control the immune response in the Basal subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silveira, W A; Palma, P V B; Sicchieri, R D

    2017-01-01

    of these networks in patient tumours is predictive of engraftment success. Our findings point out a potential molecular mechanism underlying the balance between immune surveillance and EMT activation in breast cancer. This molecular mechanism may be useful to the development of new target therapies.......Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and metastatic dissemination is the principal factor related to death by this disease. Breast cancer stem cells (bCSC) are thought to be responsible for metastasis and chemoresistance. In this study, based on whole transcriptome analysis...... and IKZF3 transcription factors which correspond to immune response modulators. Immune response network expression is correlated with pathological response to chemotherapy, and in the Basal subtype is related to better recurrence-free survival. In patient-derived xenografts, the expression...

  8. Enhanced innate immune responsiveness and intolerance to intestinal endotoxins in human biliary epithelial cells contributes to chronic cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Tobias; Beutler, Claudia; Picó, Almudena Hurtado; Shibolet, Oren; Pratt, Daniel S; Pascher, Andreas; Neuhaus, Peter; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Berg, Thomas; Podolsky, Daniel K

    2011-11-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) orchestrate the innate immune defence in human biliary epithelial cells (BECs). Tight control of PRR signalling provides tolerance to physiological amounts of intestinal endotoxins in human bile to avoid constant innate immune activation in BECs. We wanted to determine whether inappropriate innate immune responses to intestinal endotoxins contribute to the development and perpetuation of chronic biliary inflammation. We examined PRR-mediated innate immune responses and protective endotoxin tolerance in primary BECs isolated from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), alcoholic liver disease and patients without chronic liver disease. Expression studies comprised northern blots, RT-PCR, Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Functional studies comprised immuno-precipitation Western blots, FACS for endotoxin uptake, and NF-κB activation assays and ELISA for secreted IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Primary BECs from explanted PSC livers showed reversibly increased TLR and NOD protein expression and activation of the MyD88/IRAK signalling complex. Consecutively, PSC BECs exhibited inappropriate innate immune responses to endotoxins and did not develop immune tolerance after repeated endotoxin exposures. This endotoxin hyper-responsiveness was probably because of the stimulatory effect of abundantly expressed IFN-γ and TNF-α in PSC livers, which stimulated TLR4-mediated endotoxin signalling in BECs, leading to increased TLR4-mediated endotoxin incorporation and impaired inactivation of the TLR4 signalling cascade. As TNF-α inhibition partly restored protective innate immune tolerance, endogenous TNF-α secretion probably contributed to inappropriate endotoxin responses in BECs. Inappropriate innate immune responses to intestinal endotoxins and subsequent endotoxin intolerance because of enhanced PRR signalling in BECs probably contribute to chronic cholangitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Oral immunization with a live coxsackievirus/HIV recombinant induces gag p24-specific T cell responses.

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    Rui Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine has proven to be elusive. Because human vaccine trials have not yet demonstrated efficacy, new vaccine strategies are needed for the HIV vaccine pipeline. We have been developing a new HIV vaccine platform using a live enterovirus, coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4 vector. Enteroviruses are ideal candidates for development as a vaccine vector for oral delivery, because these viruses normally enter the body via the oral route and survive the acidic environment of the stomach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a live coxsackievirus B4 recombinant, CVB4/p24(73(3, that expresses seventy-three amino acids of the gag p24 sequence (HXB2 and assessed T cell responses after immunization of mice. The CVB4 recombinant was physically stable, replication-competent, and genetically stable. Oral or intraperitoneal immunization with the recombinant resulted in strong systemic gag p24-specific T cell responses as determined by the IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay and by multiparameter flow cytometry. Oral immunization with CVB4/p24(73(3 resulted in a short-lived, localized infection of the gut without systemic spread. Because coxsackieviruses are ubiquitous in the human population, we also evaluated whether the recombinant was able to induce gag p24-specific T cell responses in mice pre-immunized with the CVB4 vector. We showed that oral immunization with CVB4/p24(73(3 induced gag p24-specific immune responses in vector-immune mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CVB4/p24(73(3 recombinant retained the physical and biological characteristics of the parental CVB4 vector. Oral immunization with the CVB4 recombinant was safe and resulted in the induction of systemic HIV-specific T cell responses. Furthermore, pre-existing vector immunity did not preclude the development of gag p24-specific T cell responses. As the search continues for new vaccine strategies, the present study suggests that live CVB4/HIV recombinants are

  10. Cytomegalovirus infection impairs immune responses and accentuates T-cell pool changes observed in mice with aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Cicin-Sain

    Full Text Available Prominent immune alterations associated with aging include the loss of naïve T-cell numbers, diversity and function. While genetic contributors and mechanistic details in the aging process have been addressed in multiple studies, the role of environmental agents in immune aging remains incompletely understood. From the standpoint of environmental infectious agents, latent cytomegalovirus (CMV infection has been associated with an immune risk profile in the elderly humans, yet the cause-effect relationship of this association remains unclear. Here we present direct experimental evidence that mouse CMV (MCMV infection results in select T-cell subset changes associated with immune aging, namely the increase of relative and absolute counts of CD8 T-cells in the blood, with a decreased representation of the naïve and the increased representation of the effector memory blood CD8 T-cells. Moreover, MCMV infection resulted in significantly weaker CD8 responses to superinfection with Influenza, Human Herpes Virus I or West-Nile-Virus, even 16 months following MCMV infection. These irreversible losses in T-cell function could not be observed in uninfected or in vaccinia virus-infected controls and were not due to the immune-evasive action of MCMV genes. Rather, the CD8 activation in draining lymph nodes upon viral challenge was decreased in MCMV infected mice and the immune response correlated directly to the frequency of the naïve and inversely to that of the effector cells in the blood CD8 pool. Therefore, latent MCMV infection resulted in pronounced changes of the T-cell compartment consistent with impaired naïve T-cell function.

  11. The early interaction of Leishmania with macrophages and dendritic cells and its influence on the host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude E

    2012-01-01

    The complicated interactions between Leishmania and the host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have fundamental effects on the final outcome of the disease. Two major APCs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), play critical roles in mediating resistance and susceptibility during Leishmania infection. Macrophages are the primary resident cell for Leishmania: they phagocytose and permit parasite proliferation. However, these cells are also the major effector cells to eliminate infection. The effective clearance of parasites by macrophages depends on activation of appropriate immune response, which is usually initiated by DCs. Here, we review the early interaction of APCs with Leishmania parasites and how these interactions profoundly impact on the ensuing adaptive immune response. We also discuss how the current knowledge will allow further refinement of our understanding of the interplay between Leishmania and its hosts that leads to resistance or susceptibility.

  12. Comparison of RECIST to immune-related response criteria in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Heo, Mi Hwa; Lee, Han Sang; Sun, Jong-Mu; Lee, Se-Hoon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Keunchil; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2017-07-21

    Given that immune-related response in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well evaluated, we assessed tumor response using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1) and immune-related response criteria (irRC) to identify atypical responses in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with immunotherapeutic agents. Patients received immune-checkpoint inhibitors (pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, nivolumab, and durvalumab plus tremelimumab) to treat metastatic or recurrent NSCLC after failed platinum-based chemotherapy. Tumor response was assessed according to both RECIST v1.1 and irRC. Responses by 41 patients were analyzed. The overall response rate (ORR) was 29.2% (95% CI 17.6-44.5) assessed by RECIST v1.1 and 34.1% (95% CI 21.6-49.4) by irRC, showing similar results from the two methods (p = 0.923). Two patients (4.9%) were defined as having progressive disease as assessed by RECIST but not by irRC. The patients eventually experienced tumor regression, suggesting delayed pseudoprogression. For all patients, the median PFS was 5.1 months (95% CI 3.4-6.7) and OS was 18.3 months (95% CI 6.7-29.8). In multivariate analysis, ex- or current smokers (HR 0.34, p = 0.14) and EGFR mutation negativity (HR 0.16, p = 0.05) were associated with significantly longer PFS. Our study found that pseudoprogression was not frequently observed in NSCLC. Conventional RECIST v1.1 might underestimate the benefit of immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Given the small number of patients studied, further study is warranted on whether treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors beyond RECIST progression benefits patients with advanced NSCLC.

  13. The Impact of Ly49-NK Cell-Dependent Recognition of MCMV Infection on Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Pyzik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data indicate that a subset of innate lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, plays a crucial role in the response against herpesviruses, especially cytomegaloviruses (CMV. Indeed, in mice, NK cells, due to the expression of germline encoded Ly49 receptors, possess multiple mechanisms to recognize CMV infection. Classically, this results in NK cell activation and the destruction of the infected cells. More recently, however, this unique host-pathogen interaction has permitted the discovery of novel aspects of NK cell biology, implicating them in the regulation of adaptive immune responses as well as in the development of immunological memory. Here, we will concisely review the newly acquired evidence pertaining to NK cell Ly49-dependent recognition of MCMV-infected cell and the ensuing NK cell regulatory responses.

  14. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  15. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobergslien, Anne; Vasovic, Vlada; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Westby, Phuong; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Peng, Qian; Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-01-01

    Given their safe use in humans and inherent adjuvanticity, Lactic Acid Bacteria may offer several advantages over other mucosal delivery strategies for cancer vaccines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immune responses in mice after oral immunization with Lactobacillus (L) plantarum WCFS1 expressing a cell-wall anchored tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. And to investigate the immunostimulatory potency of this new candidate vaccine on human dendritic cells (DCs). L. plantarum displaying NY-ESO-1 induced NY-ESO-1 specific antibodies and T-cell responses in mice. By contrast, L. plantarum displaying conserved proteins such as heat shock protein-27 and galectin-1, did not induce immunity, suggesting that immune tolerance to self-proteins cannot be broken by oral administration of L. plantarum. With respect to immunomodulation, immature DCs incubated with wild type or L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secreted a large amount of interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-α, but not IL-4. Moreover, they upregulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors such as IL-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Although L. plantarum-matured DCs expressed inhibitory molecules, they stimulated allogeneic T cells in-vitro. Collectively, the data indicate that L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 can evoke antigen-specific immunity upon oral administration and induce DC maturation, raising the potential of its use in cancer immunotherapies.

  16. Effect of response to backtest and housing condition on cell-mediated and humoral immunity in adult pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geverink, N A; Parmentier, H K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Schouten, W G P; Gort, G; Wiegant, V M

    2004-01-01

    Several recent studies in juvenile pigs demonstrated a relationship between the degree of resistance displayed early in life in a so-called "backtest" and parameters of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Some of the immune characteristics were reported to depend on the interaction between backtest classification and housing system. In the present study, the effects of backtest classification and housing condition on immune reactivity in adult gilts were examined. At 10 and 17 days of age, female piglets were subjected to the backtest. In this test, each piglet is restrained on its back for 1 min and the number of escape attempts is scored. Pigs classified as high resisting (HR) or low resisting (LR) were selected and housed in groups of six gilts. At 7 months of age, half of the gilts were housed in individual stalls. At 12 months of age, gilts were challenged by immunization with DNP-KLH. Control gilts were treated similarly with a placebo. Blood samples were drawn prior to immunization (Day 0) and weekly thereafter until Day 28. No significant effects of backtest type on cellular and humoral responses against KLH were found. Furthermore, being housed in stalls as compared to groups had no consequences for the immune response and did not induce differences between HR and LR gilts. Differences in behavior and physiology found previously between HR and LR gilts, particularly in gilts in stall housing, may thus be of relatively little importance for immune-related health.

  17. Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme in myelomonocytic cells enhances the immune response [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Bernstein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE converts angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and thereby plays an important role in blood pressure control. However, ACE is relatively non-specific in its substrate specificity and cleaves many other peptides. Recent analysis of mice overexpressing ACE in monocytes, macrophages, and other myelomonocytic cells shows that these animals have a marked increase in resistance to experimental melanoma and to infection by Listeria monocytogenes or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Several other measures of immune responsiveness, including antibody production, are enhanced in these animals. These studies complement a variety of studies indicating an important role of ACE in the immune response.

  18. Flow cytometric assessment of chicken T cell-mediated immune responses after Newcastle disease virus vaccination and challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, T. S.; Norup, L. R.; Pedersen, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use flow cytometry to assess chicken T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study two inbred genetic chicken lines (L130 and L133) were subjected to two times vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and a subsequent challenge by ND virus (NDV) infection....... Furthermore, peripheral lymphocytes from L133 exhibited a significantly higher expression of CD44 and CD45 throughout the experiment. Interestingly, also vaccine-induced differences were observed in L133 as immune chickens had a significantly higher CD45 expression on their lymphocytes than the naïve controls....... Immune chickens from both lines had a significantly higher frequency of circulating γδ T cells than the naïve controls both after vaccination and challenge. Finally, the proliferative capacity of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ cells specific for NDV was addressed 3 weeks after vaccination and 1 week after...

  19. Lymphoid tissue inducer cells: architects of CD4 immune responses in mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-Y; Kim, K-S; McConnell, F; Lane, P

    2009-07-01

    In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the multiple functions of the mouse lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells in: (i) the development of organized lymphoid tissue, (ii) the generation and maintenance of CD4-dependent immunity in adult lymphoid tissues; and (iii) the regulation of central tolerance in thymus. By contrast with mouse LTi cells, which have been well described, the human equivalent is only just beginning to be characterized. Human LTi-like cells expressing interleukin (IL)-22 have been identified recently and found to differentiate into natural killer (NK) cells. The relationship of LTi cells to NK cells is discussed in the light of several studies reporting a close relationship in the mouse between LTi cells and transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor gammat-dependent IL-22 producing NK cells in the gut. We also outline our data suggesting that these cells are present in adult human lymphoid tissues.

  20. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D J; Ostler, H B; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1981-04-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infection even without the re-inoculation of the infectious agent. Extensive cross-reactions among the three chlamydial antigens during the cell-mediated immune response appeared to be due to shared species-specific and group-reactive antigens. Serum antibody response was pronounced and uniform to GPIC; it was less marked to 6BC and LB-1, with fewer cross-reactions than seen in tests for cell-mediated immunity.

  1. Visualization of Immune Responses in the Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Victor L

    2017-11-01

    The eye has become a useful site for the investigation and understanding of local and systemic immune responses. The ease of access and transparency of the cornea permits direct visualization of ocular structures, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels, allowing for the tracking of normal and pathological biological processes in real time. As a window to the immune system, we have used the eye to dissect the mechanisms of corneal inflammatory reactions that include innate and adaptive immune responses. We have identified that the ocular microenvironment regulates these immune responses by recruiting different populations of inflammatory cells to the cornea through local production of selected chemokines. Moreover, crosstalk between T cells and macrophages is a common and crucial step in the development of ocular immune responses to corneal alloantigens. This review summarizes the data generated by our group using intravital fluorescent confocal microscopy to capture the tempo, magnitude, and function of innate and adaptive corneal immune responses.

  2. Innate Responses Induced by Whole Inactivated Virus or Subunit Influenza Vaccines in Cultured Dendritic Cells Correlate with Immune Responses In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, Maaike; Pool - Kramer, Judith; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Fatiha; Bijl, Maarten; Andeweg, Arno C.; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine development involves time-consuming and expensive evaluation of candidate vaccines in animal models. As mediators of both innate and adaptive immune responses dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be highly important for vaccine performance. Here we evaluated how far the response of DCs to

  3. Levamisole enhances immune response by affecting the activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-Y; Lin, Y-L; Chiang, B-L

    2008-01-01

    Levamisole is a synthetic phenylimidazolthiazole that was first introduced in 1966 as an anti-helmintic agent. Current studies have been focused upon its effect on immune response and on cancer treatment. We examined the molecular mechanisms of levamisole in the activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and human T cells. Treatment of DC with levamisole increased the presentation of CD80, CD86, CD83 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) molecules on the cell membrane, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-10. Levamisole-treated human DC also enhanced T cell activation towards type 1 T helper immune response by inducing interferon-γ secretion. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 inhibited levamisole-induced production of IL-12 p40 and IL-10, suggesting a vital role for TLR-2 in signalling DC upon incubation with levamisole. The inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinases pathways also prevented the effects of levamisole on DC in producing IL-12 p40 or IL-10. Taken together, levamisole could enhance immune response towards T helper 1 development through the activation of dendritic cells or T cell aspects. PMID:18005262

  4. Role of Lymphocyte Subsets in the Immune Response to Primary B Cell-Derived Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunderson, Sarah C; McLellan, Alexander D

    2017-10-01

    Exosomes are lipid nanovesicles released after fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigated the requirement for CD4 T cells, B cells, and NK cells to provide help for CD8 T cell-mediated response to B cell-derived exosomes. CTL responses to Ag-loaded exosomes were dependent on host MHC class I, with a critical role for splenic langerin(+) CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in exosomal Ag cross-presentation. In addition, there was an absolute dependence on the presence of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells, where the loss of any one of these subsets led to a complete loss of CTL response. Interestingly, NK cell depletion experiments demonstrated a critical cutoff point for depletion efficacy, with low-level residual NK cells providing sufficient help to allow optimal CD8 T cell proliferative responses to exosomal protein. Despite the potential role for B cells in the response to B cell-derived exosomal proteins, B cell depletion did not alter the exosome-induced CTL response. Similarly, a possible role for the BCR or circulating Ab in mediating CTL responses to B cell-derived exosomes was ruled out using DHLMP2A mice, which lack secreted and membrane-bound Ab, yet harbor marginal zone and follicular B cells. In contrast, CTL responses to DC-derived exosomes were significantly inhibited within Ab-deficient DHLMP2A mice compared with wild-type mice. However, this response was not restored upon serum transfer, implicating a role for the BCR, but not circulating Ab, in DC-derived exosome responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Cell-mediated immune responses differentiate infections with Brucella suis from Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jungersen, Gregers

    2007-01-01

    Due to almost identical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigens, infections with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9 (YeO:9) cause false positive serological reactions (FPSR) in tests for Brucella and thus cause problems in National Brucella surveillance programs. As LPS are strong inducers...... of antibody responses it was hypothesized that cell-mediated immune responses to non-LPS antigens of the two bacteria can be used to separate immune responses to these two biologically very different infections. Following subclinical experimental infections with Brucella suis biovar 2, high interferon......-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay responses with a commercial Brucella melitensis antigen preparation (Brucellergene OCB) preceded the development of antibodies. High IFN-gamma responses in the seven B. suis inoculated pigs with serological evidence of infection were consistent throughout a 20-week postinoculation...

  6. Growth differentiation factor-15 suppresses maturation and function of dendritic cells and inhibits tumor-specific immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Zhou

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a key role in the initiation stage of an antigen-specific immune response. A variety of tumor-derived factors (TDFs can suppress DC maturation and function, resulting in defects in the tumor-specific immune response. To identify unknown TDFs that may suppress DCs maturation and function, we established a high-throughput screening technology based on a human liver tumor T7 phage cDNA library and screened all of the proteins derived from hepatoma cells that potentially interact with immature DCs. Growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 was detected and chosen for further study. By incubation of DCs cultures with GDF-15, we demonstrate that GDF-15 can inhibit surface protrusion formation during DC maturation; suppress the membrane expression of CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on DCs; enhance phagocytosis by DCs; reduce IL-12 and elevate TGF-β1 secretion by DCs; inhibit T cell stimulation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activation by DCs. By building tumor-bearing mouse models, we demonstrate that GDF-15 can inhibit the ability of DCs to stimulate a tumor-specific immune response in vivo. These results indicate that GDF-15 may be one of the critical molecules that inhibit DC maturation and function and are involved in tumor immune escape. Thus, GDF-15 may be a novel target in tumor immunotherapy.

  7. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated...... that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD......8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity....

  8. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  9. Role of pathogen-derived cell wall carbohydrates and prostaglandin E2 in immune response and suppression of fish immunity by the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Rodrigo; Wang, Tiehui; Duncan, Gary J; Skaar, Ida; Mélida, Hugo; Bulone, Vincent; van West, Pieter; Secombes, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Saprolegnia parasitica is a freshwater oomycete that is capable of infecting several species of fin fish. Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by this microbe, has a substantial impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. No sustainable treatment against saprolegniosis is available, and little is known regarding the host response. In this study, we examined the immune response of Atlantic salmon to S. parasitica infection and to its cell wall carbohydrates. Saprolegnia triggers a strong inflammatory response in its host (i.e., induction of interleukin-1β1 [IL-1β1], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), while severely suppressing the expression of genes associated with adaptive immunity in fish, through downregulation of T-helper cell cytokines, antigen presentation machinery, and immunoglobulins. Oomycete cell wall carbohydrates were recognized by fish leukocytes, triggering upregulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response, similar to what is observed during infection. Our data suggest that S. parasitica is capable of producing prostaglandin [corrected] E2 (PGE2) in vitro, a metabolite not previously shown to be produced by oomycetes, and two proteins with homology to vertebrate enzymes known to play a role in prostaglandin biosynthesis have been identified in the oomycete genome. Exogenous PGE2 was shown to increase the inflammatory response in fish leukocytes incubated with cell wall carbohydrates while suppressing genes involved in cellular immunity (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and the IFN-γ-inducible protein [γ-IP]). Inhibition of S. parasitica zoospore germination and mycelial growth by two cyclooxygenase inhibitors (aspirin and indomethacin) also suggests that prostaglandins may be involved in oomycete development. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Specific antitumor immune response induced by infusion of Capan-2 pancreatic cancer cells and dendritic cells: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the specific antitumor immune response induced by the infusion of Capan-2 pancreatic cancer cells and dendritic cells (DC. MethodsDC were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC derived from 6 patients with pancreatic cancer and cultured. The DC obtained were divided into three groups. In group 1, PEG-DMSO was used for induction, and DC and Capan-2 cells were fused to bear tumor antigens. In group 2, DC were cultured with Capan-2 cells. In group 3, DC were cultured alone. Flow cytometry was used to detect PE-MUC4/FITC-CD86 double-labeled cells and assess the fusion rate, and MTT assay was used to determine the changes in viability of DCs in each group. IFNγ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the activation reactions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs induced by DCs. The 51Cr standard cytotoxicity test was used to determine the killing effect of antigen-specific CTLs induced by DCs on in vitro pancreatic cancer cells. An analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups. The LSD-t test was used for comparision between any two groups. ResultsThe DC- Capan-2 fused cells expressed DC phenotype (CD86 and MUC4 molecules and had a significantly higher double-positive rate for CD86 and MUC4 than the co-cultured group (3830%±7.30% vs 7.21%±1.06%. In the fusion group, the viability of DCs decreased in a time-dependent manner and reached 6281% at 96 hours after transfection, while in the co-cultured group, the viability of DCs was maintained above 80%. The viability of DC showed a significant difference between these two groups (P<0.05. The release of IFNγ showed a significant difference between CTLs induced by DC-Capan-2 fused cells and those induced by DCs in the co-cultured group (85.34±2.97 U/ml vs 19.07±4.25 U/ml, P<0.05. The specific CTLs induced by DC-Capan-2 fused cells could effectively identify identified and killed the HLA-A2+/MUC4+ Capan-2 cells and

  11. Suppression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by an interleukin-2-immunoglobulin fusion protein in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzendorf, U; Pohl, T; Bulfone-Paus, S; Krause, H; Notter, M; Onu, A; Walz, G; Diamantstein, T

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a pivotal role in the cellular and humoral immune responses directed against foreign antigens. We characterized the in vitro and in vivo properties of a chimeric protein consisting of mouse IL-2 fused to the mouse IgG2b Fc domains. This fusion protein binds to IL-2 and Fc receptors and supports IL-2-dependent cell proliferation but does not mediate lysis of IL-2 receptor-positive cells in the presence of murine complement in vitro. However, in vivo the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein suppresses both cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization with sheep erythrocytes. Surprisingly, delayed hypersensitivity is inhibited despite a dramatic increase of splenic CD3+ and NK1.1+ lymphocytes, indicating that altered homing of IL2-IgG2b-activated lymphocytes rather than cytolysis prevents these cells from accumulating in areas of inflammation. Although in vitro the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein does not alter proliferation of B cells in response to mitogenic stimulation, IgM production in response to sheep erythrocytes is profoundly inhibited in mice treated with the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein. Since no side effects are observed, the IL2-IgG2b fusion protein may expand the therapeutic repertoire of reagents used for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune diseases. PMID:8636431

  12. Immune response of Th17-associated cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Milena S; Santos, Taciana P S; Santos, Priscila L; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Isabela S; Pereira, Ariana B; Atta, Ajax M; Sousa-Atta, Maria Luiza B

    2017-09-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection causes severe cellular immune dysfunction. Here, we investigated the production of Th17-associated cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of untreated patients with HCV, patients presenting an early virologic response (EVR) after 12weeks of treatment with interferon-α plus ribavirin with or without HCV protease inhibitors, and patients who were nonresponders to HCV therapy. PBMCs were stimulated with HCV core and nonstructural antigens, and the production of Th17-associated cytokines was measured with a Milliplex MAP immunoassay. Core-stimulated PBMCs from both untreated and nonresponder patients produced interleukin (IL)-17A, and vigorous production of IL-17A in response to NS3 antigen was only verified in the untreated group. Nonresponder patients also produced IL-17F after core antigen stimulation. IL-21 production was unaltered in the three groups of patients, whereas IL-17E and IL-22 were not detected. The production of Th17 cytokines by cells from patients showing an EVR was insignificant. IL-17A and IL-17F levels were not correlated with alanine aminotransferase levels or viremia. However, advanced fibrosis was associated with higher IL-17A production in T0 cells stimulated with core antigen. Untreated patients with HCV and patients who were nonresponders to antiviral treatment differed in their PBMC immune responses of Th17-associated cytokines. The early virological response to antiviral treatment dramatically decreased Th17 immune responses to HCV antigens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral Vaccination with Lipid-Formulated BCG Induces a Long-lived, Multifunctional CD4+ T Cell Memory Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancelet, Lindsay R.; Aldwell, Frank E.; Rich, Fenella J.; Kirman, Joanna R.

    2012-01-01

    Oral delivery of BCG in a lipid formulation (Liporale™-BCG) targets delivery of viable bacilli to the mesenteric lymph nodes and confers protection against an aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The magnitude, quality and duration of the effector and memory immune response induced by Liporale™-BCG vaccination is unknown. Therefore, we compared the effector and memory CD4+ T cell response in the spleen and lungs of mice vaccinated with Liporale™-BCG to the response induced by subcutaneous BCG vaccination. Liporale™-BCG vaccination induced a long-lived CD4+ T cell response, evident by the detection of effector CD4+ T cells in the lungs and a significant increase in the number of Ag85B tetramer-specific CD4+ T cells in the spleen up to 30 weeks post vaccination. Moreover, following polyclonal stimulation, Liporale™-BCG vaccination, but not s.c. BCG vaccination, induced a significant increase in both the percentage of CD4+ T cells in the lungs capable of producing IFNγ and the number of multifunctional CD4+ T cells in the lungs at 30 weeks post vaccination. These results demonstrate that orally delivered Liporale™-BCG vaccine induces a long-lived multifunctional immune response, and could therefore represent a practical and effective means of delivering novel BCG-based TB vaccines. PMID:23049885

  14. Xenogeneic cell-based vaccine therapy for colorectal cancer: Safety, association of clinical effects with vaccine-induced immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seledtsova, G V; Shishkov, A A; Kaschenko, E A; Seledtsov, V I

    2016-10-01

    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that xenogeneic vaccines can be very effective in breaking the immune tolerance to human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). We assessed adverse effects, as well as clinical and immune responses induced by a lyophilized xenogeneic polyantigenic vaccine (XPV) prepared from murine melanoma B16 and carcinoma LLC cells in 60 stage IV colorectal cancer patients. Neither grade III/IV toxicities, nor laboratory and clinical signs of systemic severe autoimmune disorders were documented in any XPV-treated patient. Clinical effects of various grades (complete response, partial response and disease stabilization) with duration of no shorter than 6 months was observed in 25 (41.67%) vaccinated patients. The average survival time of the XPV-treated patients was markedly longer than that of the clinically matched control patients (20 vs. 7 months). The overall 3-year survival rate in the XPV-treated and control group was 16.7% (10 patients) and 0%, respectively. Following a course of ten XPV vaccinations, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assays revealed increased T-cell immune responses to human Caco-2 colon adenocarcinoma-associated antigens. In addition, relative contents of CD25+ FoxP3+regulatory T-cells in patients with proven immunotherapy-mediated clinical effects (responders) were significantly decreased in the blood, which was paralleled by marked increases in serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-alpha (IFN-α), IFN-ɣ, and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, and IL-6 were not affected in both responder and non-responder patients. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the safety, clinical feasibility and immunogenicity of xenogeneic composite cell vaccine administration in colorectal cancer patients. This is the first demonstration that clinical effects of such a vaccine are associated with vaccine-induced, proinflammatory

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate the Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Dampening Arthritis Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent stem cells that are able to immunomodulate cells from both the innate and the adaptive immune systems promoting an anti-inflammatory environment. During the last decade, MSCs have been intensively studied in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal model of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Based on these studies, MSCs are currently widely used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA characterized by complex deregulation of the immune systems. However, the therapeutic properties of MSCs in arthritis are still controverted. These controversies might be due to the diversity of MSC sources and isolation protocols used, the time, the route and dose of MSC administration, the variety of the mechanisms involved in the MSCs suppressive effects, and the complexity of arthritis pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of the interactions between MSCs and the different immune cells associated with arthritis pathogenesis and the possible means described in the literature that could enhance MSCs therapeutic potential counteracting arthritis development and progression.

  16. Characterization of the B-cell immune response elicited in BALB/c mice challenged with Neospora caninum tachyzoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Marques, Andreia; Meireles, Carla Sofia; Seabra, Ana Rita; Rodrigues, Diana; Madureira, Pedro; Faustino, Augusto M R; Silva, Carolina; Ribeiro, Adília; Ferreira, Paula; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Canada, Nuno; Vilanova, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Activation of B cells occurring in hosts infected with protozoan parasites has been implicated either in protective or parasite-evasion immune-mediated mechanisms. Intraperitoneal inoculation of Neospora caninum tachyzoites into BALB/c mice induces an acute response characterized by a rapid increase in the numbers of CD69-expressing peritoneal and splenic B cells. This early B-cell stimulatory effect preceded an increase in the numbers of total and immunoglobulin-secreting splenic B cells and a rise in serum levels of N. caninum-specific immunoglobulins, predominantly of the immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and IgM isotypes. Increased numbers of B cells expressing the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 were also observed in the N. caninum-infected mice. The B-cell stimulatory effect observed in mice challenged with N. caninum tachyzoites was reduced in mice challenged with γ-irradiated parasites. Contrasting with the peripheral B-cell expansion, a depletion of B-lineage cells was observed in the bone-marrow of the N. caninum-infected mice. Intradermal immunization of BALB/c mice with diverse N. caninum antigenic preparations although inducing the production of parasite-specific antibodies nevertheless impaired interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression and caused lethal susceptibility to infection in mice inoculated with a non-lethal parasitic inoculum. This increased susceptibility to N. caninum was not observed in naïve mice passively transferred with anti-N. caninum antibodies. Taken together, these results show that N. caninum induces in BALB/c mice a parasite-specific, non-polyclonal, B-cell response, reinforce previous observations made by others showing that immunization with N. caninum whole structural antigens increases susceptibility to murine neosporosis and further stress the role of IFN-γ in the host protective immune mechanisms against this parasite. PMID:16108816

  17. Transcriptome Signatures Reveal Rapid Induction of Immune-Responsive Genes in Human Memory CD8(+) T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Khanniche, Asma; DiSpirito, Joanna R; Ji, Ping; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Ying; Shen, Hao

    2016-05-31

    Memory T cells (TM) play a prominent role in protection and auto-immunity due to their ability to mount a more effective response than naïve T cells (TN). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced functionality of TM are not well defined, particularly in human TM. We examined the global gene expression profiles of human CD8(+) TN and TM before and after stimulation. There were 1,284, 1,373 and 1,629 differentially expressed genes between TN and TM at 0 hr, 4 hr and 24 hr after stimulation, respectively, with more genes expressed to higher levels in TM. Genes rapidly up-regulated in TN cells were largely involved in nitrogen, nucleoside and amino acid metabolisms. In contrast, those in CD8(+) TM were significantly enriched for immune-response-associated processes, including cytokine production, lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis. Multiple cytokines were rapidly up-regulated in TM cells, including effector cytokines known to be produced by CD8(+) T cells and important for their functions, as well as regulatory cytokines, both pro- and anti-inflammatory, that are not typically produced by CD8(+) T cells. These results provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced functionality of human CD8(+) TM and their prominent role in protection and auto-immunity.

  18. Aberrant function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in experimental colitis and in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaki, Eleni; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Tzardi, Maria; Mouzas, Ioannis A; Papadakis, Konstantinos A; Verginis, Panayotis

    2017-05-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) encompass a novel population of suppressor cells and a potential candidate for cell-based therapies in inflammatory diseases. Herein, we investigated their immunomodulatory properties in experimental inflammatory colitis and T cell-mediated immune responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. MDSCs (defined as CD14 - HLA - DR -/low CD33 + CD15 + ) numbers were determined in peripheral blood (PB) from IBD patients. PB MDSC function was assessed in vitro. Experimental colitis was induced upon 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) treatment and MDSCs were characterized by flow cytometry. The in vivo suppressive potential of bone marrow (BM)-derived MDSCs (BM-MDSCs) was tested by using both depleting and adoptive transfer strategies. MDSCs were enriched in the periphery of IBD patients during active disease. TNBS colitis induced amplification of MDSCs, particularly of the granulocytic (Ly6G + ) subset during the effector phase of disease. Of interest, BM-MDSCs potently suppressed CD4 +  T cell responses under steady state but failed to control colitis-associated immune responses in vivo. Mechanistically, under the colonic inflammatory milieu MDSCs switched phenotype (decreased proportion of Gr1 high and increased numbers of Gr1 low ) and downregulated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPβ) expression, a critical transcription factor for the suppressive function of MDSCs. In accordance with the murine data, human CD33  +  CD15 +  MDSCs from peripheral blood of IBD patients not only failed to suppress autologous T cell responses but instead enhanced T cell proliferation in vitro. Our findings demonstrate an aberrant function of MDSCs in experimental inflammatory colitis and in IBD-associated immune responses in vitro. Delineation of the mechanisms that underlie the loss of MDSCs function in IBD may provide novel therapeutic targets.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis regulates innate immune barrier integrity and mediates cytokine and antimicrobial responses in human uterine ECC-1 epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukura, Lucy Rudo; Hickey, Danica K; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Fahey, John V; Wira, Charles R

    2017-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide and known to increase the risk for HIV acquisition. Few studies have investigated how infection of epithelial cells compromises barrier integrity and antimicrobial response. ECC-1 cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line, were treated with live and heat-killed C. trachomatis. Epithelial barrier integrity measured as transepithelial resistance (TER), chemokines antimicrobial levels, and antimicrobial mRNA expression was measured by ELISA and Real-time RT-PCR. Epithelial barrier integrity was compromised when cells were infected with live, but not with heat-killed, C. trachomatis. IL-8 secretion by ECC-1 cells increased in response to live and heat-killed C. trachomatis, while MCP-1, HBD2 and trappin2/elafin secretion decreased with live C. trachomatis. Live C. trachomatis suppresses ECC-1 innate immune responses by compromising the barrier integrity, inhibiting secretion of MCP-1, HBD2, and trappin-2/elafin. Differential responses between live and heat-killed Chlamydia indicate which immune responses are dependent on ECC-1 infection rather than the extracellular presence of Chlamydia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clinical responses to adoptive T-cell transfer can be modeled in an autologous immune-humanized mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Henrik; Lindberg, Mattias F; Donia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of autologous tumor-infiltrating T cells have shown durable responses in patients with melanoma. To study ACT and immunotherapies in a humanized model, we have developed PDXv2.0 - a melanoma PDX model where tumor cells and tumor......-infiltrating T cells from the same patient are transplanted sequentially in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient/common gamma chain (NOG/NSG) knockout mouse. Key to T-cell survival/effect in this model is the continuous presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Tumors that grow in PDXv2.0 are eradicated...... if the autologous tumor cells and T cells come from a patient that exhibited an objective response to ACT in the clinic. However, T cells from patients that are non-responders to ACT cannot kill tumor cells in PDXv2.0. Taken together, PDXv2.0 provides the potential framework to further model genetically diverse...

  1. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  2. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D.J.; Ostler, H. B.; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E.

    1981-01-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infe...

  3. Regulatory T cells contribute to the impaired immune response in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Jeroen N; van der Molen, Renate G; Baan, Carla C; van der Laan, Luc J W; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kusters, Johannes G; Janssen, Harry L A

    2005-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a weak immune response to HBV. Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) can suppress the function of effector T cells and may thus be key players in this impaired immune response. Changes in the functionality or number of T(reg) could explain the decreased antiviral response in chronic HBV patients. To investigate the role of T(reg) in chronic HBV infection, we compared the proportional frequency and functionality of T(reg) in peripheral blood of 50 chronic HBV patients, 23 healthy controls, and 9 individuals with a resolved HBV infection. A higher percentage of T(reg), defined as CD4, CD25, CD45RO, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-positive cells, was detected within the population of CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood of chronic HBV patients compared with healthy controls and individuals with a resolved HBV infection. Accordingly, chronic HBV patients displayed a higher FoxP3 messenger RNA level than healthy controls. Depletion of CD25(+) cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of chronic HBV patients resulted in an enhanced proliferation after stimulation with HBV core antigen. Reconstitution of these depleted PBMC with CD4(+)CD25(+) T(reg) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of both HBV-specific proliferation and interferon gamma production. In conclusion, chronic HBV patients harbor an increased percentage of T(reg) in peripheral blood compared with controls. T(reg) have an immunosuppressive effect on HBV-specific T helper cells. The presence of HBV-specific T(reg) could contribute to an inadequate immune response against the virus, leading to chronic infection.

  4. Navigating the immune system: Improving CD8+ T cell responses for vaccine design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, A.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805613

    2016-01-01

    Most vaccines rely on the protective effect of the humoral response. In case of intracellular- or rapidly mutating pathogens, humoral responses are less protective and the cellular response, mainly CD8+ T cells, can convey protection. However, vaccine efficacy is hampered by insufficient knowledge

  5. Overnight Resting of PBMC Changes Functional Signatures of Antigen Specific T- Cell Responses: Impact for Immune Monitoring within Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Sarah; Dembek, Claudia J.; Deckert, Simone; Russo, Carolina; Körber, Nina; Bogner, Johannes R.; Geisler, Fabian; Umgelter, Andreas; Neuenhahn, Michael; Albrecht, Julia; Cosma, Antonio; Protzer, Ulrike; Bauer, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Polyfunctional CD4 or CD8 T cells are proposed to represent a correlate of immune control for persistent viruses as well as for vaccine mediated protection against infection. A well-suited methodology to study complex functional phenotypes of antiviral T cells is the combined staining of intracellular cytokines and phenotypic marker expression using polychromatic flow cytometry. In this study we analyzed the effect of an overnight resting period at 37°C on the quantity and functionality of HIV-1, EBV, CMV, HBV and HCV specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in a cohort of 21 individuals. We quantified total antigen specific T cells by multimer staining and used 10-color intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) to determine IFNγ, TNFα, IL2 and MIP1β production. After an overnight resting significantly higher numbers of functionally active T cells were detectable by ICS for all tested antigen specificities, whereas the total number of antigen specific T cells determined by multimer staining remained unchanged. Overnight resting shifted the quality of T-cell responses towards polyfunctionality and increased antigen sensitivity of T cells. Our data suggest that the observed effect is mediated by T cells rather than by antigen presenting cells. We conclude that overnight resting of PBMC prior to ex vivo analysis of antiviral T-cell responses represents an efficient method to increase sensitivity of ICS-based methods and has a prominent impact on the functional phenotype of T cells. PMID:24146841

  6. Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 modulate innate antiviral immune response in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Albarracin, Leonardo; Kobayashi, Hisakazu; Iida, Hikaru; Komatsu, Ryoya; Humayun Kober, A K M; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Suda, Yoshihito; Aso, Hisashi; Makino, Seiya; Kano, Hiroshi; Saito, Tadao; Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2017-08-08

    Previous studies demonstrated that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii OLL1073R-1 (LDR-1) improve antiviral immunity, especially in the systemic and respiratory compartments. However, it was not studied before whether those EPSs are able to beneficially modulate intestinal antiviral immunity. In addition, LDR-1-host interaction has been evaluated mainly with immune cells while its interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was not addressed before. In this work, we investigated the capacity of EPSs from LDR-1 to modulate the response of porcine IECs (PIE cells) to the stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 agonist poly(I:C) and the role of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effect. We showed that innate immune response triggered by TLR3 activation in porcine IECs was differentially modulated by EPS from LDR-1. EPSs treatment induced an increment in the expression of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β in PIE cells after the stimulation with poly(I:C) as well as the expression of the antiviral factors MxA and RNase L. Those effects were related to the reduced expression of A20 in EPS-treated PIE cells. EPS from LDR-1 was also able to reduce the expression of IL-6 and proinflammatory chemokines. Although further in vivo studies are needed, our results suggest that these EPSs or a yogurt fermented with LDR-1 have potential to improve intestinal innate antiviral response and protect against intestinal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histological Architecture Underlying Brain-Immune Cell-Cell Interactions and the Cerebral Response to Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae

    2017-01-01

    Although the brain is now known to actively interact with the immune system under non-inflammatory conditions, the site of cell-cell interactions between brain parenchymal cells and immune cells has been an open question until recently. Studies by our and other groups have indicated that brain structures such as the leptomeninges, choroid plexus stroma and epithelium, attachments of choroid plexus, vascular endothelial cells, cells of the perivascular space, circumventricular organs, and astrocytic endfeet construct the histological architecture that provides a location for intercellular interactions between bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage cells and brain parenchymal cells under non-inflammatory conditions. This architecture also functions as the interface between the brain and the immune system, through which systemic inflammation-induced molecular events can be relayed to the brain parenchyma at early stages of systemic inflammation during which the blood-brain barrier is relatively preserved. Although brain microglia are well known to be activated by systemic inflammation, the mechanism by which systemic inflammatory challenge and microglial activation are connected has not been well documented. Perturbed brain-immune interaction underlies a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including ischemic brain injury, status epilepticus, repeated social defeat, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Proinflammatory status associated with cytokine imbalance is involved in autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and depression. In this article, we propose a mechanism connecting systemic inflammation, brain-immune interface cells, and brain parenchymal cells and discuss the relevance of basic studies of the mechanism to neurological disorders with a special emphasis on sepsis-associated encephalopathy and preterm brain injury.

  8. LEI0258 microsatellite variability and its association with humoral and cell mediated immune responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailnejad, Atefeh; Nikbakht Brujeni, Gholamreza; Badavam, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has a profound influence on disease resistance or susceptibility, productivity and important economic traits in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. The tandem repeat LEI0258 is a genetic marker which is located within the B locus of chicken MHC and strongly associated with serologically defined haplotypes. LEI0258 microsatellite marker was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism in Ross 308 broiler chicken (N=104). Association of LEI0258 alleles with humoral and cell mediated immune responses to Newcastle disease (ND), Infectious bursal disease (IBD) and Avian influenza (AI) vaccines were also examined. LEI0258 polymorphism was determined by PCR-based fragment analysis, and association of LEI0258 alleles with immune responses were evaluated using multivariate regression analysis and GLM procedures. A total of seven alleles ranging from 195 to 448bp were found, including two novel alleles (263 and 362bp) that were unique in Ross 308 broiler population. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on humoral and cellular immune responses in Ross population (Pimmune responses to Infectious bursal disease vaccine, and allele 263bp was significantly correlated with elevated antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine. Results obtained from this study confirmed the important role of MHC as a candidate gene marker for immune responses that could be used in genetic improvement of disease-resistant traits and resource conservation in broiler population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of cold stress on immune responses and body weight of chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangalapura, B N; Nieuwland, M G B; de Vries Reilingh, G; Heetkamp, M J W; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B; Parmentier, H K

    2003-11-01

    Effects of cold stress (CS) on the immune system of chicken lines divergently selected for high (H line) and low (L line) antibody responses to SRBC next to a randombred control (C) line were studied. Three- to four-week-old growing chicks of the three lines were feed-restricted at 80% ad libitum and subjected to CS at 10 degrees C continuously for 7, 5, 3, 1, or 0 d prior to immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Specific and natural antibodies were measured in the three chicken lines subjected to or not subjected to various durations of CS prior to immunization. In addition to antibodies we also measured in vitro lymphocyte proliferation as a measure of cell-mediated immunity (CMI), zymosan-induced reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) production as a measure of phagocytosis, and BW gain as a measure of production trait. In general, significantly higher antibody responses to KLH and natural antigens were found in the H line as compared to the other two lines. Specific antibody responses to KLH were not significantly affected by CS, but an acute transient increase in natural antibody titers to ovalbumin was found in H line birds subjected to 1 d of CS, which was not found in C or L line birds. On the other hand, an acute significant increase in natural antibody titers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found in C and L line birds subjected to 1 d CS but not in H line birds. Cold stress enhanced the ROI production. In addition, 7 d of CS significantly enhanced cellular immunity in vitro, but no significant line effects with respect to cellular immunity were found. BW gain was negatively affected by CS, especially when CS was applied for longer periods. We concluded that birds responded immediately to CS with enhanced innate (phagocyte and natural antibody) immunity, irrespective of genetic background. When CS is prolonged, the cellular adaptive immune response is affected also. Although reallocation of energy was not measured, our data suggested that under

  10. Carbon anhydrase IX specific immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma potentially cured by interleukin-2 based immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Johannes W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) show high and homogeneous expression levels of the tumor associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy can lead to cure in patients with metastatic renal cell...... of disease (NED) following treatment with IL-2 based immunotherapy, and thus potentially cured. Immune reactivity in these patients was compared with samples from patients with dramatic tumor response obtained immediately at the cessation of therapy, samples from patients that experienced progressive disease...... carcinoma (mRCC). However, the involvement of CAIX specific CD8+ T cells and/or NK cells in the tumor eradication is unknown. We investigated T cell and antibody reactivity against overlapping 15-mer CAIX-peptides as well as HLA haplotype frequency and NK cell cytotoxicity in 11 patients with no evidence...

  11. Importance of Salmonella Typhi-Responsive CD8+ T Cell Immunity in a Human Typhoid Fever Challenge Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnay, Stephanie; McArthur, Monica A; Magder, Laurence S; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we report that high levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T cells at baseline significantly correlate with an increased risk of disease in humans challenged with a high dose (~104 CFU) wild-type S. Typhi. Typhoid fever development was associated with higher multifunctional S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T effector memory cells at baseline. Early decreases of these cells in circulation following challenge were observed in both S. Typhi-responsive integrin α4β7- and integrin α4β7+ CD8+ T effector memory (TEM) cells, suggesting their potential to home to both mucosal and extra-intestinal sites. Participants with higher baseline levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T memory cells had a higher risk of acquiring disease, but among those who acquired disease, those with a higher baseline responses took longer to develop disease. In contrast, protection against disease was associated with low or absent S. Typhi-responsive T cells at baseline and no changes in circulation following challenge. These data highlight the importance of pre-existing S. Typhi-responsive immunity in predicting clinical outcome following infection with wild-type S. Typhi and provide novel insights into the complex mechanisms involved in protective immunity to natural infection in a stringent human model with a high challenge dose. They also contribute important information on the immunological responses to be assessed in the appraisal and selection of new generation typhoid vaccines.

  12. Tryptophan and the immune response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Ma Aryan

    2003-01-01

    ... that break down tryptophan through this pathway are found in numerous cell types, including cells of the immune system. Some of these enzymes are induced by immune activation, including the rate limiting enzyme present in macrophages and dendritic cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). It has recently been found that inhibition of IDO can ...

  13. Role and contribution of pulmonary CD103+ dendritic cells in the adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Vanessa Hui Qi; Ng, See Liang; Ang, Michelle Lay Teng; Lin, Wenwei; Ruedl, Christiane; Alonso, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Despite international control programmes, the global burden of tuberculosis remains enormous. Efforts to discover novel drugs have largely focused on targeting the bacterium directly. Alternatively, manipulating the host immune response may represent a valuable approach to enhance immunological clearance of the bacilli, but necessitates a deeper understanding of the immune mechanisms associated with protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here, we examined the various dendritic cells (DC) subsets present in the lung and draining lymph nodes (LN) from mice intra-tracheally infected with M. tuberculosis. We showed that although limited in number, pulmonary CD103+ DCs appeared to be involved in the initial transport of mycobacteria to the draining mediastinal LN and subsequent activation of T cells. Using CLEC9A-DTR transgenic mice enabling the inducible depletion of CD103+ DCs, we established that this DC subset contributes to the control of mycobacterial burden and plays a role in the early activation of T cells, in particular CD8+ T cells. Our findings thus support a previously unidentified role for pulmonary CD103+ DCs in the rapid mobilization of mycobacteria from the lungs to the draining LN soon after exposure to M. tuberculosis, which is a critical step for the development of the host adaptive immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Caloric Restriction reduces inflammation and improves T cell-mediated immune response in obese mice but concomitant consumption of curcumin/piperine adds no further benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and impaired immune response. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to inhibit inflammatory response and enhance cell-mediated immune function. Curcumin, the bioactive phenolic component of turmeric spice, is proposed to have anti-obesity and anti-...

  15. B-cell depletion is protective against anti-AAV capsid immune response: a human subject case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy strategies for congenital myopathies may require repeat administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors due to aspects of the clinical application, such as: (i administration of doses below therapeutic efficacy in patients enrolled in early phase clinical trials; (ii progressive reduction of the therapeutic gene expression over time as a result of increasing muscle mass in patients treated at a young age; and (iii a possibly faster depletion of pathogenic myofibers in this patient population. Immune response triggered by the first vector administration, and to subsequent doses, represents a major obstacle for successful gene transfer in young patients. Anti-capsid and anti-transgene product related humoral and cell-mediated responses have been previously observed in all preclinical models and human subjects who received gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT for congenital myopathies. Immune responses may result in reduced efficacy of the gene transfer over time and/or may preclude for the possibility of re-administration of the same vector. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of a Pompe patient dosed with an AAV1-GAA vector after receiving Rituximab and Sirolimus to modulate reactions against ERT. A key finding of this single subject case report is the observation that B-cell ablation with rituximab prior to AAV vector exposure results in non-responsiveness to both capsid and transgene, therefore allowing the possibility of repeat administration in the future. This observation is significant for future gene therapy studies and establishes a clinically relevant approach to blocking immune responses to AAV vectors.

  16. Activated human T cells secrete exosomes that participate in IL-2 mediated immune response signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wahlgren

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that nano-meter sized vesicles (30-100 nm, exosomes, secreted by antigen presenting cells can induce T cell responses thus showing the potential of exosomes to be used as immunological tools. Additionally, activated CD3⁺ T cells can secrete exosomes that have the ability to modulate different immunological responses. Here, we investigated what effects exosomes originating from activated CD3⁺ T cells have on resting CD3⁺ T cells by studying T cell proliferation, cytokine production and by performing T cell and exosome phenotype characterization. Human exosomes were generated in vitro following CD3⁺ T cell stimulation with anti-CD28, anti-CD3 and IL-2. Our results show that exosomes purified from stimulated CD3⁺ T cells together with IL-2 were able to generate proliferation in autologous resting CD3⁺ T cells. The CD3⁺ T cells stimulated with exosomes together with IL-2 had a higher proportion of CD8⁺ T cells and had a different cytokine profile compared to controls. These results indicate that activated CD3⁺ T cells communicate with resting autologous T cells via exosomes.

  17. Mucosal immune responses induced by transcutaneous vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L B; Clements, J D; Freytag, L C

    2012-01-01

    The skin has been investigated as a site for vaccine delivery only since the late 1990s. However, much has been discovered about the cell populations that reside in the skin, their active role in immune responses, and the fate of trans- cutaneously applied antigens. Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a safe, effective means of inducing immune responses against a number of pathogens. One of the most notable benefits of TCI is the induction of immune responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. This chapter focuses on the transport of antigen into and beyond intact skin, the cutaneous sentinel cell populations that play a role in TCI, and the types of mucosal immune responses that have been generated. A number of in vivo studies in murine models have provided information about the broad responses induced by TCI. Cellular and humoral responses and protection against challenge have been noted in the gastrointestinal, reproductive, and respiratory tracts. Clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of this vaccine delivery route in humans. As with other routes of immunization, the type of vaccine formulation and choice of adjuvant may be critical for achieving appropriate responses and can be tailored to activate specific immune-responsive cells in the skin to increase the efficacy of TCI against mucosal pathogens.

  18. Innate immunity in multiple sclerosis: myeloid dendritic cells in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis are activated and drive a proinflammatory immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karni, Arnon; Abraham, Michal; Monsonego, Alon; Cai, Guifang; Freeman, Gordon J; Hafler, David; Khoury, Samia J; Weiner, Howard L

    2006-09-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is postulated to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized clinically by a relapsing-remitting (RR) stage followed by a secondary progressive (SP) phase. The progressive phase is felt to be secondary to neuronal degenerative changes triggered by inflammation. The status of the innate immune system and its relationship to the stages of MS is not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that are central cells of the innate immune system and have the unique capacity to induce primary immune responses. We investigated circulating myeloid DCs isolated directly from the blood to determine whether there were abnormalities in myeloid DCs in MS and whether they were related to disease stage. We found that SP-MS subjects had an increased percentage of DCs expressing CD80, a decreased percentage expressing PD-L1, and an increased percentage producing IL-12 and TNF-alpha compared with RR-MS or controls. A higher percentage of DCs from both RR and SP-MS patients expressed CD40 compared with controls. We then investigated the polarization effect of DCs from MS patients on naive T cells taken from cord blood using a MLR assay. Whereas DCs from RR-MS induced higher levels of Th1 (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-13) cytokines compared with controls, DCs from SP-MS only induced a polarized Th1 response. These results demonstrate abnormalities of DCs in MS and may explain the immunologic basis for the different stages and clinical patterns of MS.

  19. HPV-E7 Delivered by Engineered Exosomes Elicits a Protective CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Response

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    Paola Di Bonito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut, which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity.

  20. Hyperreactive Onchocerciasis is Characterized by a Combination of Th17-Th2 Immune Responses and Reduced Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katawa, Gnatoulma; Layland, Laura E.; Debrah, Alex Y.; von Horn, Charlotte; Batsa, Linda; Kwarteng, Alexander; Arriens, Sandra; W. Taylor, David; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations in onchocerciasis range from generalized onchocerciasis (GEO) to the rare but severe hyperreactive (HO)/sowda form. Since disease pathogenesis is associated with host inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether Th17 responses could be related to aggravated pathology in HO. Using flow cytometry, filarial-specific cytokine responses and PCR arrays, we compared the immune cell profiles, including Th subsets, in individuals presenting the two polar forms of infection and endemic normals (EN). In addition to elevated frequencies of memory CD4+ T cells, individuals with HO showed accentuated Th17 and Th2 profiles but decreased CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ regulatory T cells. These profiles included increased IL-17A+, IL-4+, RORC2+ and GATA3+CD4+ T cell populations. Flow cytometry data was further confirmed using a PCR array since Th17-related genes (IL-17 family members, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-22) and Th2-related (IL-4, IL-13, STAT6) genes were all significantly up-regulated in HO individuals. In addition, stronger Onchocerca volvulus-specific Th2 responses, especially IL-13, were observed in vitro in hyperreactive individuals when compared to GEO or EN groups. This study provides initial evidence that elevated frequencies of Th17 and Th2 cells form part of the immune network instigating the development of severe onchocerciasis. PMID:25569210

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  2. Long-lived plasma cells are generated in mucosal immune responses and contribute to the bone marrow plasma cell pool in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, A; Kraft, M; Roth, K; Riedel, R; Lammerding, D; Hauser, A E

    2016-01-01

    During systemic immune responses, plasma blasts are generated in secondary lymphoid organs and migrate to the bone marrow, where they can become long-lived, being responsible for the maintenance of long-term antibody titers. Plasma blasts generated in mucosal immune responses of the small intestine home to the lamina propria (LP), producing mainly immunoglobulin A. The migration of these antibody-secreting cells is well characterized during acute immune responses. Less is known about their lifetime and contribution to the long-lived bone marrow compartment. Here we investigate the lifetime of plasma cells (PCs) and the relationship between the PC compartments of the gut and bone marrow after oral immunization. Our findings indicate that PCs in the LP can survive for extended time periods. PCs specific for orally administered antigens can be detected in the bone marrow for at least 9 months after immunization, indicating that the mucosal PC compartment can contribute to the long-lived PC pool in this organ, independent of the participation of splenic B cells. Our findings suggest that the compartmentalization between mucosal and systemic PC pools is less strict than previously thought. This may have implications for the development of vaccines as well as for autoantibody-mediated diseases.

  3. Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract on weight, hematology and cell-mediated immune response of newborn goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Shokrollahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different levels of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract on growth rate, hematology and cell-mediated immune response in Markhoz newborn goat kids. Twenty four goat kids (aged 7±3 days were randomly allotted to four groups with six replicates. The groups included: control, T1, T2 and T3 groups which received supplemented-milk with 0, 100, 200 and 400mg aqueous rosemary extract per kg of live body weight per day for 42 days. Body weights of kids were measured weekly until the end of the experiment. On day 42, 10 ml blood samples were collected from each kid through the jugular vein. Cell-mediated immune response was assessed through the double skin thickness after intradermal injection of phyto-hematoglutinin (PHA at day 21 and 42. No significant differences were seen in initial body weight, average daily gain (ADG and total gain. However, significant differences in globulin (P<0.05, and white blood cells (WBC (P<0.001 were observed. There were no significant differences in haemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBC, lymphocytes and neutrophils between the treatments. Skin thickness in response to intra dermal injection of PHA significantly increased in the treated groups as compared to the control group at day 42 (P<0.01 with the T3 group showing the highest response to PHA injection. In conclusion, the results indicated that aqueous rosemary extract supplemented-milk had a positive effect on immunity and skin thickness of newborn goat kids.

  4. Human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are sensitive to low dose cyclophosphamide: implications for the immune response.

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    Daniel Heylmann

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Treg play a pivotal role in the immune system since they inhibit the T cell response. It is well known that cyclophosphamide applied at low dose is able to stimulate the immune response while high dose cyclophosphamide exerts inhibitory activity. Data obtained in mice indicate that cyclophosphamide provokes a reduction in the number of Treg and impairs their suppressive activity, resulting in immune stimulation. Here, we addressed the question of the sensitivity of human Treg to cyclophosphamide, comparing Treg with cytotoxic T cells (CTL and T helper cells (Th. We show that Treg are more sensitive than CTL and Th to mafosfamide, which is an active derivative of cyclophosphamide, which does not need metabolic activation. The high sensitivity of Treg was due to the induction of apoptosis. Treg compared to CTL and Th were not more sensitive to the alkylating drugs temozolomide and nimustine and also not to mitomycin C, indicating a specific Treg response to mafosfamide. The high sensitivity of Treg to mafosfamide resulted not only in enhanced cell death, but also in impaired Treg function as demonstrated by a decline in the suppressor activity of Treg in a co-culture model with Th and Helios positive Treg. Treatment of Treg with mafosfamide gave rise to a high level of DNA crosslinks, which were not repaired to the same extent as observed in Th and CTL. Also, Treg showed a low level of γH2AX foci up to 6 h and a high level 24 h after treatment, indicating alterations in the DNA damage response. Overall, this is the first demonstration that human Treg are, in comparison with Th and CTL, hypersensitive to cyclophosphamide, which is presumably due to a DNA repair defect.

  5. Estrogen receptor signal in regulation of B cell activation during diverse immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaba, Josaine; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; Kindy, Mark; Dasgupta, Subhajit

    2015-11-01

    The role of signalling through oestrogen receptors (ERs) in the regulation of B cell activation is an area of growing importance not only in terms protective immunity but also in the determination of the mechanisms of the onset of autoimmune disorders and cancers. The mode of signalling action of this single chain nuclear receptor protein molecule depends on its ability to bind to the promoters of Pax5, HOXC4 and apolipoprotein B RNA-editing enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) genes. ER-mediated transcriptional regulation induces class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (VH) to DH-JH genes and somatic hypermutation in developing B cells. The mode of action of ER is associated with BCR-signal pathways that involve the regulator proteins BAFF and APRIL. Additionally, the plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor-1 (GEPR1) directs diverse cell signalling events in B cells that involve the MAPK pathways. These signals are immensely important during progenitor and precursor B cell activation. We have focused our goals on the medicinal aspects of ER-signalling mechanisms and their effects on polyclonal B cell activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J; Bilate, Angelina M; Duarte, Joao N; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2015-05-12

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with (18)F or (64)Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked.

  7. Simultaneous presence of endogenous retrovirus and herpes virus antigens has profound effect on cell-mediated immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Christensen, Tove; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Retroviruses have been suggested as possible pathogenic factors in multiple sclerosis (MS), supported by the observation that endogenous retroviruses are activated in MS patients. Different members of the herpes family of which several are neurotropic have also been suggested as factors in MS...... pathogenesis. Further, interactions between retroviruses and herpes viruses have been implied in the development of MS. The objective of the study was investigation of cell-mediated immune responses of MS patients to retrovirus and herpes virus antigens, particularly antigen combinations, with analyses...... retrovirus HERV-H and herpes virus antigens resulted in highly increased cellular immune responses among both the MS patients and healthy subjects. The increase was synergistic in character in most samples. Very pronounced effects were obtained using HHV-6A and HSV-1 antigens. Blast transformation assays...

  8. Innate Immune Responses in Viral Hepatitis: the role of Kupffer cells and liver-derived monocytes in shaping intrahepatic immunity in mice using the LCMV infection model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Movita (Dowty)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This study was performed to elucidate the immunological role of the liver in viral hepatitis. The immune functions of the liver are shaped by the intrahepatic cells present during steady state condition, as well as the recruited immune cells during liver

  9. Remune. Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Derhsing; Jones, Taff

    2002-03-01

    The Immune Response Corp (IRC) is developing Remune, a potential HIV therapeutic vaccine. Remune is based on the Salk Immunogen, which is derived from an HIV isolate which has been inactivated by chemical depletion of glycoprotein 120 (gp120). Preliminary data suggested that Remune, in combination with antiviral drug therapy, results in undetectable levels of HIV. Phase III trials commenced in May 1997 and it was initially expected that registration filings would be made in 1999. However, following interim analysis of the 2500-patient, multicenter, double-blind, pivotal phase III study (study 806) in May 1999, an independent panel recommended concluding the clinical endpoint trial and IRC and licensee, Agouron, decided to pursue alternative regulatory strategies, including initiating two additional phase III surrogate marker trials. Despite this, Agouron gave IRC notice of termination of its continued development in July 2001. In August 2001, IRC informed Agouron that, due to the total number of endpoints to date falling short of that previously assumed by Agouron, it did not intend to continue Agouron's Study 202 of Remune. In July 2001, licensee Trinity Medical Group filed an NDA with the governing health authorities in Thailand for Remune. The Thai FDA certified Immune Response's Remune manufacturing facility as being in compliance with GMP standards, following an on site inspection by Thai officials in November 2001 that was performed as a requirement of Trinity's Thai NDA. As a result of this certification, Trinity expected that a "timely determination" could be made by the Thai FDA. Rhĵne-Poulenc Rorer discontinued its part in the development of Remune, with all manufacturing, marketing and distribution rights reverting to IRC. After Agouron returned rights to Remune in July 2001, IRC heldfull rights in the US, Europe and Japan, while collaborating with its partners Trinity Medical Group and Roemmers Laboratory in the Southeast Asian and Latin American

  10. β-Glucan Size Controls Dectin-1-Mediated Immune Responses in Human Dendritic Cells by Regulating IL-1β Production

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    Matthew J. Elder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dectin-1/CLEC7A is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β-1,3 glucans, and its stimulation initiates signaling events characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines from human dendritic cells (DCs required for antifungal immunity. β-glucans differ greatly in size, structure, and ability to activate effector immune responses from DC; as such, small particulate β-glucans are thought to be poor activators of innate immunity. We show that β-glucan particle size is a critical factor contributing to the secretion of cytokines from human DC; large β-glucan-stimulated DC generate significantly more IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 compared to those stimulated with the smaller β-glucans. In marked contrast, the secretion of TSLP and CCL22 were found to be insensitive to β-glucan particle size. Furthermore, we show that the capacity to induce phagocytosis, and the relative IL-1β production determined by β-glucan size, regulates the composition of the cytokine milieu generated from DC. This suggests that β-glucan particle size is critically important in orchestrating the nature of the immune response to fungi.

  11. Sensitizer localization and immune response in photodynamic therapy of B16 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, S.-F.; Ion, R.-M.; Neagu, M.; Constantin, C.

    2011-03-01

    This paper proposes to extend the exploration of mouse melanoma B16 cells death by photodynamic therapy (PDT), under irradiation with different light sources and in the presence of 5,10,15,20-tetrap-sulphonato-phenyl-porphyrin (TSPP). The viability studies showed that B16 mouse melanoma is sensitive to photodynamic damage induced by TSPP 1 mM for either one, two, three or four hours. The control had TSPP added immediately prior to timelapse imaging (no incubation). They were then irradiated with red light He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm, energy 180 J/cm2 for 20 min). Also, it has been used a laser diode GaInAs 25 mW/cm2, λ = 650 nm. The cells demonstrated clear morphological changes associated with apoptosis by mitochondrial pathway. There were changes in texture, as expected. Changes appeared to occur more quickly at lamp irradiation than at HeNe and GaInAs diode laser. Addition of TSPP just prior to exposure and observation, with no incubation, did not result in changes in cell morphology or cell death. Also, the proteins changes have been observed, because those with high molecular weights have been scissored under irradiation and this could be reason of the proteins concentrating in the area of low molecular weights, and the dissapearing of the proteic band of 75 kDa in the electrophoregramm. The immunized animals with B16-TSPP had the highest survival rate (40 days) by comparison with the control (death at 20 days) or with immunized animals with supernatants B16 (death at 25 days).

  12. Fast, continuous recirculation of germinal center B cell populations enhances robustness of immune response towards varying pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or-Guil, Michal

    2009-03-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are dynamic microstructures that form in lymphatic tissues during immune responses. There, B cells undergo rapid proliferation and mutation of their B cell receptors (BCRs). Selection of B cells bearing BCRs that bind to the pathogen causing the immune response ultimately leads to BCRs that, when secreted as antibodies, form a new, effective, and pathogen specific antibody repertoire. However, the details of this evolutionary process are poorly understood, since currently available experimental techniques do not allow for direct observation of the prevailing mechanisms [Or-Guil et al., Imm.Rev. 2007]. Based on optimality considerations, we put forward the assumption that GCs are not isolated entities where evolutionary processes occur independently, but interconnected structures which allow for continuous exchange of B cells. We show that this architecture leads to a system whose response is much more robust towards different antigen variants than a set of independently working GCs could ever be. We test this hypothesis by generating our own experimental data (time course of 3-D volume distribution of GCs, analysis of high-throughput BCR sequences), and show that available data is consistent with the outlined hypothesis.

  13. Identification of genetic loci in Lactobacillus plantarum that modulate the immune response of dendritic cells using comparative genome hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Meijerink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial mucosal immunomodulatory effects. Beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotics have been established in the treatment and prevention of various intestinal disorders, including allergic diseases and diarrhea. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and the strain-dependent factors involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to identify gene loci in the model probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 that modulate the immune response of host dendritic cells. The amounts of IL-10 and IL-12 secreted by dendritic cells (DCs after stimulation with 42 individual L. plantarum strains were measured and correlated with the strain-specific genomic composition using comparative genome hybridisation and the Random Forest algorithm. This in silico "gene-trait matching" approach led to the identification of eight candidate genes in the L. plantarum genome that might modulate the DC cytokine response to L. plantarum. Six of these genes were involved in bacteriocin production or secretion, one encoded a bile salt hydrolase and one encoded a transcription regulator of which the exact function is unknown. Subsequently, gene deletions mutants were constructed in L. plantarum WCFS1 and compared to the wild-type strain in DC stimulation assays. All three bacteriocin mutants as well as the transcription regulator (lp_2991 had the predicted effect on cytokine production confirming their immunomodulatory effect on the DC response to L. plantarum. Transcriptome analysis and qPCR data showed that transcript level of gtcA3, which is predicted to be involved in glycosylation of cell wall teichoic acids, was substantially increased in the lp_2991 deletion mutant (44 and 29 fold respectively. CONCLUSION: Comparative genome hybridization led to the identification of gene loci in L

  14. The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

    2011-05-01

    Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-γ. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

  15. The Bacterial Species Campylobacter jejuni Induce Diverse Innate Immune Responses in Human and Avian Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. John

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter remain the major cause of human gastroenteritis in the Developed World causing a significant burden to health services. Campylobacter are pathogens in humans and chickens, although differences in mechanistic understanding are incomplete, in part because phenotypic strain diversity creates inconsistent findings. Here, we took Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 100 from multi-locus sequence typed collections to assess their pathogenic diversity, through their inflammatory, cytotoxicity, adhesion, invasion and signaling responses in a high-throughput model using avian and human intestinal epithelial cells. C. jejuni induced IL-8 and CXCLi1/2 in human and avian epithelial cells, respectively, in a MAP kinase-dependent manner. In contrast, IL-10 responses in both cell types were PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent. C. jejuni strains showed diverse levels of invasion with high invasion dependent on MAP kinase signaling in both cell lines. C. jejuni induced diverse cytotoxic responses in both cell lines with cdt-positive isolates showing significantly higher toxicity. Blockade of endocytic pathways suggested that invasion by C. jejuni was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent but caveolae- independent in both cells. In contrast, IL-8 (and CXCLi1/2 production was dependent on clathrin, dynamin, and caveolae. This study is important because of its scale, and the data produced, suggesting that avian and human epithelial cells use similar innate immune pathways where the magnitude of the response is determined by the phenotypic diversity of the Campylobacter species.

  16. The Bacterial Species Campylobacter jejuni Induce Diverse Innate Immune Responses in Human and Avian Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Daniel A.; Williams, Lisa K.; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Humphrey, Thomas J.; Wilkinson, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter remain the major cause of human gastroenteritis in the Developed World causing a significant burden to health services. Campylobacter are pathogens in humans and chickens, although differences in mechanistic understanding are incomplete, in part because phenotypic strain diversity creates inconsistent findings. Here, we took Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 100) from multi-locus sequence typed collections to assess their pathogenic diversity, through their inflammatory, cytotoxicity, adhesion, invasion and signaling responses in a high-throughput model using avian and human intestinal epithelial cells. C. jejuni induced IL-8 and CXCLi1/2 in human and avian epithelial cells, respectively, in a MAP kinase-dependent manner. In contrast, IL-10 responses in both cell types were PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent. C. jejuni strains showed diverse levels of invasion with high invasion dependent on MAP kinase signaling in both cell lines. C. jejuni induced diverse cytotoxic responses in both cell lines with cdt-positive isolates showing significantly higher toxicity. Blockade of endocytic pathways suggested that invasion by C. jejuni was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent but caveolae- independent in both cells. In contrast, IL-8 (and CXCLi1/2) production was dependent on clathrin, dynamin, and caveolae. This study is important because of its scale, and the data produced, suggesting that avian and human epithelial cells use similar innate immune pathways where the magnitude of the response is determined by the phenotypic diversity of the Campylobacter species. PMID:29033908

  17. Multivalent TB vaccines targeting the esx gene family generate potent and broad cell-mediated immune responses superior to BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Daniel O; Walters, Jewell; Laddy, Dominick J; Yan, Jian; Weiner, David B

    2014-01-01

    Development of a broad-spectrum synthetic vaccine against TB would represent an important advance to the limited vaccine armamentarium against TB. It is believed that the esx family of TB antigens may represent important vaccine candidates. However, only 4 esx antigens have been studied as potential vaccine antigens. The challenge remains to develop a vaccine that simultaneously targets all 23 members of the esx family to induce enhanced broad-spectrum cell-mediated immunity. We sought to investigate if broader cellular immune responses could be induced using a multivalent DNA vaccine representing the esx family protein members delivered via electroporation. In this study, 15 designed esx antigens were created to cross target all members of the esx family. They were distributed into groups of 3 self-processing antigens each, resulting in 5 trivalent highly optimized DNA plasmids. Vaccination with all 5 constructs elicited robust antigen-specific IFN-γ responses to all encoded esx antigens and induced multifunctional CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cell responses. Importantly, we show that when all constructs are combined into a cocktail, the RSQ-15 vaccine, elicited substantial broad Ag-specific T cell responses to all esx antigens as compared with vaccination with BCG. Moreover, these vaccine-induced responses were highly cross-reactive with BCG encoded esx family members and were highly immune effective in a BCG DNA prime-boost format. Furthermore, we demonstrate the vaccine potential and immunopotent profile of several novel esx antigens never previously studied. These data highlight the likely importance of these novel immunogens for study as preventative or therapeutic synthetic TB vaccines in combination or as stand alone antigens.

  18. Depletion of alloreactive T-cells in vitro using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib preserves the immune response against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Belén; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Santamaría, Carlos; Inogés, Susana; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Current graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) inhibition approaches lead to abrogation of pathogen-specific T-cell responses. We propose an approach to inhibit GVHD without hampering immunity against pathogens: in vitro depletion of alloreactive T cells with the preoteasome inhibitor bortezomib. We show that PBMCs stimulated with allogeneic cells and treated with bortezomib greatly reduce their ability to produce IFN-γ when re-stimulated with the same allogeneic cells, but mainly preserve their ability to respond to citomegalovirus stimulation. Unlike in vivo administration of immunosuppressive drugs or other strategies of allodepletion, in vitro allodepletion with bortezomib maintains pathogen-specific T cells, representing a promising alternative for GVHD prophylaxis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin A supplementation in early life enhances the intestinal immune response of rats with gestational vitamin A deficiency by increasing the number of immune cells.

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    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune

  20. The Ebola Interferon Inhibiting Domains Attenuate and Dysregulate Cell-Mediated Immune Responses.

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    Ndongala Michel Lubaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV infections are characterized by deficient T-lymphocyte responses, T-lymphocyte apoptosis and lymphopenia. We previously showed that disabling of interferon-inhibiting domains (IIDs in the VP24 and VP35 proteins effectively unblocks maturation of dendritic cells (DCs and increases the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Here, we investigated the role of IIDs in adaptive and innate cell-mediated responses using recombinant viruses carrying point mutations, which disabled IIDs in VP24 (EBOV/VP24m, VP35 (EBOV/VP35m or both (EBOV/VP35m/VP24m. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from cytomegalovirus (CMV-seropositive donors were inoculated with the panel of viruses and stimulated with CMV pp65 peptides. Disabling of the VP35 IID resulted in increased proliferation and higher percentages of CD4+ T cells secreting IFNγ and/or TNFα. To address the role of aberrant DC maturation in the IID-mediated suppression of T cell responses, CMV-stimulated DCs were infected with the panel of viruses and co-cultured with autologous T-lymphocytes. Infection with EBOV/VP35m infection resulted in a significant increase, as compared to wt EBOV, in proliferating CD4+ cells secreting IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2. Experiments with expanded CMV-specific T cells demonstrated their increased activation following co-cultivation with CMV-pulsed DCs pre-infected with EBOV/VP24m, EBOV/VP35m and EBOV/VP35m/VP24m, as compared to wt EBOV. Both IIDs were found to block phosphorylation of TCR complex-associated adaptors and downstream signaling molecules. Next, we examined the effects of IIDs on the function of B cells in infected PBMC. Infection with EBOV/VP35m and EBOV/VP35m/VP24m resulted in significant increases in the percentages of phenotypically distinct B-cell subsets and plasma cells, as compared to wt EBOV, suggesting inhibition of B cell function and differentiation by VP35 IID. Finally, infection with EBOV/VP35m increased activation of NK cells, as

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis α-Actinin 2 Modulates Host Immune Responses by Inducing Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells via IL-10 Production from Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Juri; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Park, Soon-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogen that triggers severe immune responses in hosts. T. vaginalis α-actinin 2, Tvα-actinin 2, has been used to diagnose trichomoniasis. This study was undertaken to examine the role of Tvα-actinin 2 as an antigenic molecule to induce immune responses from humans. Western blot analysis using anti-Tvα-actinin 2 antibodies indicated its presence in the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis. ELISA was employed to measure cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells, prostate cells, mouse dendritic cells (DCs), or T cells stimulated with T. vaginalis or Tvα-actinin 2 protein. Both T. vaginalis and rTvα-actinin 2 induced cytokine production from epithelial cell lines, including IL-10. Moreover, CD4+CD25− regulatory T cells (Treg cells) incubated with rTvα-actinin 2-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-10. These data indicate that Tvα-actinin 2 modulates immune responses via IL-10 production by Treg cells. PMID:28877568

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis α-Actinin 2 Modulates Host Immune Responses by Inducing Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells via IL-10 Production from Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Juri; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Park, Soon-Jung

    2017-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogen that triggers severe immune responses in hosts. T. vaginalis α-actinin 2, Tvα-actinin 2, has been used to diagnose trichomoniasis. This study was undertaken to examine the role of Tvα-actinin 2 as an antigenic molecule to induce immune responses from humans. Western blot analysis using anti-Tvα-actinin 2 antibodies indicated its presence in the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis. ELISA was employed to measure cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells, prostate cells, mouse dendritic cells (DCs), or T cells stimulated with T. vaginalis or Tvα-actinin 2 protein. Both T. vaginalis and rTvα-actinin 2 induced cytokine production from epithelial cell lines, including IL-10. Moreover, CD4+CD25- regulatory T cells (Treg cells) incubated with rTvα-actinin 2-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-10. These data indicate that Tvα-actinin 2 modulates immune responses via IL-10 production by Treg cells.

  3. HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROHORMONES AND IMMUNE RESPONSES

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    J. Luis eQuintanar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the current literature describing the neural-immune interactions, with emphasis on the most recent findings of the effects of neurohormones on immune system. Particularly, the role of hypothalamic hormones such as Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In the past few years, interest has been raised in extrapituitary actions of these neurohormones due to their receptors have been found in many non-pituitary tissues. Also, the receptors are present in immune cells, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine role within the immune system. In general, these neurohormones have been reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on cell proliferation, immune mediators release and cell function. The implications of these findings in understanding the network of hypothalamic neuropeptides and immune system are discussed.

  4. Interferon-γ Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses

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    Pestano Linda A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-γ has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-γ in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-γ plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-γ at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-γ co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-γ secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-γ during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-γ co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Characterization of cellular immune response and innate immune signaling in human and nonhuman primate primary mononuclear cells exposed to Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shahabuddin; Amemiya, Kei; Bernhards, Robert C; Ulrich, Robert G; Waag, David M; Saikh, Kamal U

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei infection causes melioidosis and is often characterized by severe sepsis. Although rare in humans, Burkholderia mallei has caused infections in laboratory workers, and the early innate cellular response to B. mallei in human and nonhuman primates has not been characterized. In this study, we examined the primary cellular immune response to B. mallei in PBMC cultures of non-human primates (NHPs), Chlorocebus aethiops (African Green Monkeys), Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque), and Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) and humans. Our results demonstrated that B. mallei elicited strong primary pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) equivalent to the levels of B. pseudomallei in primary PBMC cultures of NHPs and humans. When we examined IL-1β and other cytokine responses by comparison to Escherichia coli LPS, African Green Monkeys appears to be most responsive to B. mallei than Cynomolgus or Rhesus. Characterization of the immune signaling mechanism for cellular response was conducted by using a ligand induced cell-based reporter assay, and our results demonstrated that MyD88 mediated signaling contributed to the B. mallei and B. pseudomallei induced pro-inflammatory responses. Notably, the induced reporter activity with B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, or purified LPS from these pathogens was inhibited and cytokine production was attenuated by a MyD88 inhibitor. Together, these results show that in the scenario of severe hyper-inflammatory responses to B. mallei infection, MyD88 targeted therapeutic intervention may be a successful strategy for therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effect of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae aqueous extract on antibody response to Bothrops asper venom and immune cell response

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    Fernando Chaves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM. In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.Se estudió in vivo, el efecto del extracto acuoso de las raíces de Echinacea purpurea en la respuesta de los anticuerpos murinos al veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper. El grupo 1 control, fue tratado con el veneno y PBS. El grupo 2 con veneno y alginato de sodio (método utilizado en el Instituto Clodomiro Picado, y el grupo 3 o experimental, con veneno y extracto acuoso de las raíces de E. purpurea. En todos los grupos, la primera inmunización fue hecha con FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. En las muestras correspondientes a la segunda sangría, los ratones del grupo 3 mostraron un marcado incremento en el nivel de anticuerpos, en comparación con los ratones de los otros grupos. También se determinó la proliferación de células inmunes in vitro, como respuesta al extracto acuoso de la raíz de E. purpurea, utilizando linfocitos humanos activados con

  7. Host immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Miwa; Pradipta, Ariel; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2018-02-02

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect homoeothermic animals including humans and cause lethal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. When hosts are infected with T. gondii, the cells induce immune responses against T. gondii. The pathogen infection is recognized by immune sensors that directly detect T. gondii structural components, leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells strongly activate T cells and induce development of Th1 cells and antigen-specific killer CD8 T cells. These T cells and Group 1 innate lymphoid cells are main producers of IFN-γ, which robustly stimulates cell-autonomous immunity in cells infected with T. gondii. IFN-γ-inducible effectors such as IFN-inducible GTPases, inducible nitric oxide synthase and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase differentially play important roles in suppression of T. gondii growth and its direct killing in anti-T. gondii cell-autonomous immune responses. In this review, we will describe our current knowledge of innate, adaptive and IFN-γ-mediated cell-autonomous immunity against T. gondii infection. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cellular immune response in intraventricular experimental neurocysticercosis.

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    Moura, Vania B L; Lima, Sarah B; Matos-Silva, Hidelberto; Vinaud, Marina C; Loyola, Patricia R A N; Lino, Ruy S

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. Its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental NCC with Taenia crassiceps. The in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune response were evaluated through the cytokines quantification at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after inoculation and histopathological analysis. All cysticerci were found within the cerebral ventricles. There was a discrete intensity of inflammatory cells of mixed immune profile, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, at the beginning of the infection and predominance of mononuclear cells at the end. The systemic immune response showed a significant increase in all the analysed cytokines and predominance of the Th2 immune profile cytokines at the end of the infection. These results indicate that the location of the cysticerci may lead to ventriculomegaly. The acute phase of the infection showed a mixed Th1/Th17 profile accompanied by high levels of IL-10 while the late phase showed a Th2 immune profile.

  9. T-cell autophagy deficiency increases mortality and suppresses immune responses after sepsis.

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    Chih-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Although the role of autophagy in sepsis has been characterized in several organs, its role in the adaptive immune system remains to be ascertained. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in sepsis-induced T cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, using knockout mice with T cell specific deletion of autophagy essential gene Atg7.Sepsis was induced in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP model, with T-cell-specific Atg7-knockout mice compared to control mice. Autophagic vacuoles examined by electron microscopy were decreased in the spleen after CLP. Autophagy proteins LC3-II and ATG7, and autophagosomes and autolysosomes stained by Cyto-ID Green and acridine orange were decreased in CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes at 18 h and 24 h after CLP. This decrease in autophagy was associated with increased apoptosis of CD4+ and CD8+ after CLP. Moreover, mice lacking Atg7 in T lymphocytes showed an increase in sepsis-induced mortality, T cell apoptosis and loss of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, in comparison to control mice. This was accompanied by suppressed cytokine production of Th1/Th2/Th17 by CD4+ T cells, reduced phagocytosis in macrophages and decreased bacterial clearance in the spleen after sepsis.These results indicated that sepsis led to down-regulation of autophagy in T lymphocytes, which may result in enhanced apoptosis induction and decreased survival in sepsis. Autophagy may therefore play a protective role against sepsis-induced T lymphocyte apoptosis and immunosuppression.

  10. Delivery of siRNAs to Dendritic Cells Using DEC205-Targeted Lipid Nanoparticles to Inhibit Immune Responses.

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    Katakowski, Joseph A; Mukherjee, Gayatri; Wilner, Samantha E; Maier, Keith E; Harrison, Michael Travis; DiLorenzo, Teresa P; Levy, Matthew; Palliser, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Due to their ability to knock down the expression of any gene, siRNAs have been heralded as ideal candidates for treating a wide variety of diseases, including those involving "undruggable" targets. However, the therapeutic potential of siRNAs remains severely limited by a lack of effective delivery vehicles. Recently, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing ionizable cationic lipids have been developed for hepatic siRNA delivery. However, their suitability for delivery to other cell types has not been determined. We have modified LNPs for preferential targeting to dendritic cells (DCs), central regulators of immune responses. To achieve directed delivery, we coated LNPs with a single-chain antibody (scFv; DEC-LNPs), specific to murine DEC205, which is highly expressed on distinct DC subsets. Here we show that injection of siRNAs encapsulated in DEC-LNPs are preferentially delivered to DEC205(+) DCs. Gene knockdown following uptake of DEC-LNPs containing siRNAs specific for the costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86 dramatically decreases gene expression levels. We demonstrate the functionality of this knockdown with a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Overall, we report that injection of LNPs modified to restrict their uptake to a distinct cell population can confer profound gene knockdown, sufficient to inhibit powerful immune responses like the MLR.

  11. Immune roles of dendritic cells in stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liao, Wenwei; Liu, Furong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoshun; Hu, Anbin

    2017-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and initial stimulators for immune response. DCs can shape their functions based on their immune states, which are crucial for the balance of immunity and tolerance to preserve homeostasis. In the immune response involved in stem cell transplantation, DCs also play important roles in inducing immune tolerance and antitumor immunity. After the rapid development of stem cell transplantation technology in recent years, the risks of graft rejection, tumor recurrence, and tumorigenicity are still present after stem cell transplantation. It is important to understand the mechanisms of DC-mediated immune tolerance and stimulation during stem cell transplantation. In this review, we will summarize and analyze the regulatory mechanisms of DCs in stem cell transplantation and their application in clinical settings. It may help to promote the innovation in basic theories and therapeutic approaches of stem cell transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  13. Forced expression of stabilized c-Fos in dendritic cells reduces cytokine production and immune responses in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Kimura, Akihiro; Shichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroshi [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan); Shimoda, Kouji [Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshimura@a6.keio.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos produced less inflammatory cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos activated T cells less efficiently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transgenic mice expressing stabilized c-Fos were resistant to EAE model. -- Abstract: Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) suppresses innate immunity by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytic cells. We have shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is responsible for cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production, and that c-Fos protein is stabilized by IKK{beta}-mediated phosphorylation. We found that S308 is one of the major phosphorylation sites, and that the S308D mutation prolongs c-Fos halflife. To investigate the role of stabilized c-Fos protein in dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, we generated CD11c-promoter-deriven c-FosS308D transgenic mice. As expected, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from these Tg mice produced smaller amounts of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-12, and IL-23, but higher levels of IL-10, in response to LPS, than those from wild-type (Wt) mice. When T cells were co-cultured with BMDCs from Tg mice, production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was reduced, although T cell proliferation was not affected. Tg mice demonstrated more resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) than did Wt mice. These data suggest that c-Fos in DCs plays a suppressive role in certain innate and adaptive immune responses.

  14. Leishmania infantum FML pulsed-dendritic cells induce a protective immune response in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholam-Reza; Sarkari, Bahador; Kamali-Sarvestani, Eskandar

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of FML loaded dendritic cells (DCs) in protection against visceral leishmaniasis. Mice were immunized with FML- or soluble Leishmania antigen-loaded DCs as well as FML or soluble Leishmania antigen in saponin and challenged with parasite. The levels of cytokines before and after challenge were detected by ELISA. Parasite burden (total Leishman-Donovan unit) was determined after parasite challenge. FML-saponin induced the highest IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio among vaccinated groups, though this ratio was higher in FML-loaded DCs group subsequent to challenge with Leishmania infantum. Moreover, the greatest reduction in parasite number was detected in mice vaccinated with FML-loaded DCs compared with phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice (p = 0.002). FML-loaded DCs are one of the promising tools for protection against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. Transient suppression of the humoral immune response mediated by a factor derived from specifically activated, doubly primed lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, K E; Rubin, A S

    1977-08-01

    In cultures of sheep erythrocyte- (SRBC) stimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) and horse erythrocytes (HRBC) 30 to 90 days earlier, the addition of both HRBC (day 0) and TT (day 2) resulted in significant suppression of the anti-SRBC plaque-forming cell (PFC) response compared to the response of similar cultures maintained without the priming antigens. The observed inhibition was due to the presence of a soluble factor that was released into the supernatant fluid of the specifically stimulated, primed population of lymphoid cells between 72 and 120 hr after culture initiation. The active mediator, a macromolecule of approximately 24,000 daltons as determined by gel filtration over Sephadex G-150 and Ultrogel AcA 44, was suppressive when added within 24 hr, but not 48 hr, of assay for PFC against the reference SRBC antigen. The transiently acting soluble suppressor (TASS) was not overtly cytotoxic since total cell recovery and viability were unaffected in its presence. The results presented here are discussed in relation to a possible mechanism of action in which the negative regulation of immunoglobulin production is favored once a minimum level of immune reactivity is reached.

  16. [Immune effects of specific CTLs response induced by dendritic cells pulsed with NY-ESO-1 peptide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J W; Lu, X; Yang, Z M; Deng, L J; Yang, L

    2017-10-18

    To explore the potential of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with caner/testis antigen NY-ESO-1 peptides in inducing specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTLs) response and antineoplastic immune function of specific CTLs. Fifteen patients with II to III stage positive HLA -A0201 + and NY-ESO-1 + were enrolled in the Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences on the basis of preclinical experiments from November 2014 to October 2015, and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were isolated. The PBMCs were induced into DCs and pulsed with NY-ESO-1 peptide. The phenotypes of DCs were stained with antibodies against HLA-DR + CD11c + ,CD80 + ,CD83 + and CD86 + , and subsequently analyzed by multichannel flow cytometry (FCM). The killing effects of CTLs pulsed with HLA-A0201-binding peptide NY-ESO-1 and the potential of autologous DCs pulsed with NY-ESO-1 peptides in inducing specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responses were determined. The patients were administered two infusions of auto-logous CTLs for 1 time every two weeks. The total infusion was with 2 times. The immunological responses and clinical responses were examined in 1 week after the final administration. The immunophenotype of DCs pulsed with NY-ESO-1 peptide was analyzed, HLA-DR + CD11c + cells (93.6%±1.2%), CD80 + cells (87.3%±3.6%), CD83 + cells (82.8%±2.5%) and CD86 + cells (93.4%±6.4%). PBLs isolated from patients primed by DCs pulsed with NY-ESO-1 peptide proliferated continuously and the proliferation index (PI) of the PBLs were analyzed. There was significant difference between the DCs loaded with polypeptides and those unloaded, though it could promote the proliferation of PBLs, but the PI was significantly lower than that of the DCs loaded with NY-ESO-1 peptide (PESO-1 peptides was significantly higher than that in the control group (5.2%±1.2% vs. 0.4%±0.1%). CTLs induced by NY-ESO-1 pulsed DCs exerted a stronger killing

  17. iNKT Cells Are Responsible for the Apoptotic Reduction of Basophils That Mediate Th2 Immune Responses Elicited by Papain in Mice Following γPGA Stimulation.

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    Hyun Jung Park

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis-derived poly-gamma glutamic acid (γPGA treatment suppresses the development of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD. Although basophils, an innate immune cell, are known to play critical roles in allergic immune responses and repeated long-term administration of γPGA results in decreased splenic basophils in an AD murine model, the underlying mechanisms by which γPGA regulates basophil frequency remain unclear. To investigate how γPGA modulates basophils, we employed basophil-mediated Th2 induction in vivo model elicited by the allergen papain protease. Repeated injection of γPGA reduced the abundance of basophils and their production of IL4 in mice, consistent with our previous study using NC/Nga AD model mice. The depletion of basophils by a single injection of γPGA was dependent on the TLR4/DC/IL12 axis. CD1d-dependent Vα14 TCR invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are known to regulate a variety of immune responses, such as allergy. Because iNKT cell activation is highly sensitive to IL12 produced by DCs, we evaluated whether the effect of γPGA on basophils is mediated by iNKT cell activation. We found that in vivo γPGA treatment did not induce the reduction of basophils in iNKT cell-deficient CD1d KO mice, suggesting the critical role of iNKT cells in γPGA-mediated basophil depletion at the early time points. Furthermore, increased apoptotic basophil reduction triggered by iNKT cells upon γPGA stimulation was mainly attributed to Th1 cytokines such as IFNγ and TNFα, consequently resulting in inhibition of papain-induced Th2 differentiation via diminishing basophil-derived IL4. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that γPGA-induced iNKT cell polarization toward the Th1 phenotype induces apoptotic basophil depletion, leading to the suppression of Th2 immune responses. Thus, elucidation of the crosstalk between innate immune cells will contribute to

  18. Fucoidan can function as an adjuvant in vivo to enhance dendritic cell maturation and function and promote antigen-specific T cell immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-O Jin

    Full Text Available Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae, has a variety of immune-modulation effects, including promoting antigen uptake and enhancing anti-viral and anti-tumor effects. However, the effect of fucoidan in vivo, especially its adjuvant effect on in vivo anti-tumor immune responses, was not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on the function of spleen dendritic cells (DCs and its adjuvant effect in vivo. Systemic administration of fucoidan induced up-regulation of CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen cDCs. Fucoidan also promoted the generation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in an IL-12-dependent manner. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with ovalbumin (OVA antigen, fucoidan promoted OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-γ production in OVA-specific T cells. Moreover, fucoidan enhanced OVA-induced up-regulation of MHC class I and II on spleen cDCs and strongly prompted the proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, OVA immunization with fucoidan as adjuvant protected mice from the challenge with B16-OVA tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that fucoidan can function as an adjuvant to induce Th1 immune response and CTL activation, which may be useful in tumor vaccine development.

  19. Leptin induces the phagocytosis and protective immune response in Leishmania donovani infected THP-1 cell line and human PBMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Alti; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Veronica, Jalaja; Maurya, Radheshyam

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease responsible for several deaths in malnourished children due to impaired cell-mediated immunity, which is accompanied by low circulating leptin levels. The cytokine function of leptin is implicated for several immune regulation activities such as hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, innate and adaptive immunity. Its deficiency associated with polarization of Th2 response, which coincides with VL pathogenesis. To determine the cytokine role of leptin in case of experimental VL, we tested the leptin associated Th1/Th2 type cytokine profile at mRNA level from Leishmania donovani infected human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested the effect of leptin on macrophages activation (viz. studying the phosphorylation of signaling moieties), phagocytic activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during infection. We observed that leptin induced Th1 specific response by upregulation of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α in THP-1 and IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2 in PBMCs. We also observed the downregulation of Th2 type cytokine i.e. IL-10 in THP-1 and unaltered expression of cytokines i.e. TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-4 in PBMCs. In addition, leptin stimulates the macrophages by inducing phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt which are usually dephosphorylated in L. donovani infection. In concordance, leptin also induces the macrophage phagocytic activity by enhancing the intracellular ROS generation which helps in phagolysosome formation and oxidative killing of the parasite. In compilation, leptin is able to maintain the defensive environment against L. donovani infection through the classical macrophage activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The agr Inhibitors Solonamide B and Analogues Alter Immune Responses to Staphylococccus aureus but Do Not Exhibit Adverse Effects on Immune Cell Functions.

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    Mara Baldry

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance with the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA strains such as USA300 being of particular concern. The inhibition of bacterial virulence has been proposed as an alternative approach to treat multi-drug resistant pathogens. One interesting anti-virulence target is the agr quorum-sensing system, which regulates virulence of CA-MRSA in response to agr-encoded autoinducing peptides. Agr regulation confines exotoxin production to the stationary growth phase with concomitant repression of surface-expressed adhesins. Solonamide B, a non-ribosomal depsipeptide of marine bacterial origin, was recently identified as a putative anti-virulence compound that markedly reduced expression of α-hemolysin and phenol-soluble modulins. To further strengthen solonamide anti-virulence candidacy, we report the chemical synthesis of solonamide analogues, investigation of structure-function relationships, and assessment of their potential to modulate immune cell functions. We found that structural differences between solonamide analogues confer significant differences in interference with agr, while immune cell activity and integrity is generally not affected. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus with selected solonamides was found to only marginally influence the interaction with fibronectin and biofilm formation, thus addressing the concern that application of compounds inducing an agr-negative state may have adverse interactions with host factors in favor of host colonization.

  1. Acyclovir Therapy Reduces the CD4+ T Cell Response against the Immunodominant pp65 Protein from Cytomegalovirus in Immune Competent Individuals.

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    Annette Pachnio

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infects the majority of the global population and leads to the development of a strong virus-specific immune response. The CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response can comprise between 10 and 50% of the T cell pool within peripheral blood and there is concern that this may impair immunity to other pathogens. Elderly individuals with the highest magnitude of CMV-specific immune response have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of mortality and there is increasing interest in interventions that may serve to moderate this. Acyclovir is an anti-viral drug with activity against a range of herpes viruses and is used as long term treatment to suppress reactivation of herpes simplex virus. We studied the immune response to CMV in patients who were taking acyclovir to assess if therapy could be used to suppress the CMV-specific immune response. The T cell reactivity against the immunodominant late viral protein pp65 was reduced by 53% in people who were taking acyclovir. This effect was seen within one year of therapy and was observed primarily within the CD4+ response. Acyclovir treatment only modestly influenced the immune response to the IE-1 target protein. These data show that low dose acyclovir treatment has the potential to modulate components of the T cell response to CMV antigen proteins and indicate that anti-viral drugs should be further investigated as a means to reduce the magnitude of CMV-specific immune response and potentially improve overall immune function.

  2. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

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    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  3. A cell wall protein-based vaccine candidate induce protective immune response against Sporothrix schenckii infection.

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    Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Martínez, Damiana Téllez; Polesi, Marisa Campos; Duarte, Roberta Aparecida; de Paula E Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco de; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2016-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by several closely related thermo-dimorphic fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, affecting humans and other mammals. In the last few years, new strategies have been proposed for controlling sporotrichosis owning to concerns about its growing incidence in humans, cats, and dogs in Brazil, as well as the toxicity and limited efficacy of conventional antifungal drugs. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective properties of two aluminum hydroxide (AH)-adsorbed S. schenckii cell wall protein (ssCWP)-based vaccine formulations in a mouse model of systemic S. schenckii infection. Fractioning by SDS-PAGE revealed nine protein bands, two of which were functionally characterized: a 44kDa peptide hydrolase and a 47kDa enolase, which was predicted to be an adhesin. Sera from immunized mice recognized the 47kDa enolase and another unidentified 71kDa protein, whereas serum from S. schenckii-infected mice recognized both these proteins plus another unidentified 9.4kDa protein. Furthermore, opsonization with the anti-ssCWP sera led to markedly increased phagocytosis and was able to strongly inhibit the fungus' adhesion to fibroblasts. Immunization with the higher-dose AH-adjuvanted formulation led to increased ex vivo release of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17, whereas only IL-12 and IFN-γ were induced by the higher-dose non-adjuvanted formulation. Lastly, passive transference of the higher-dose AH-adjuvanted formulation's anti-ssCWP serum was able to afford in vivo protection in a subsequent challenge with S. schenckii, becoming a viable vaccine candidate for further testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles on gingipain-mediated detachment of cultured oral epithelial cells and immune responses.

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    Nakao, Ryoma; Takashiba, Shogo; Kosono, Saori; Yoshida, Minoru; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major etiological agent of periodontal diseases and the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) contain virulence factors such as LPS and gingipains. In this study, we investigated the potential role of the OMVs in host immune response and tissue destruction during P. gingivalis infection. Firstly, we found that sera from periodontitis patients had significantly stronger reactivity against an OMV-producing wild type strain than the isogenic OMV-depleted strain. OMVs were found to be highly antigenic, as absorption of patient sera with OMVs greatly reduced reactivity with whole cells of P. gingivalis. LC-MS/MS analysis of OMVs revealed multiple forms of gingipains and several gingipain-related proteins. Western blots of OMVs using patient sera revealed a conserved immunoreactive antigen profile resembling the profile of OMV antigens that were recognized by gingipain antiserum, suggesting a potential role of OMV-associated gingipains in triggering antibody-mediated immune responses to P. gingivalis infection. When OMVs were added to a monolayer of an oral squamous epithelial cell line, OMVs caused cell detachment, which was inhibited by preincubating OMVs with anti-gingipain antiserum. These data suggest that gingipain-laden OMVs may contribute to tissue destruction in periodontal diseases by serving as a vehicle for the antigens and active proteases. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. IgE/FcεRI-Mediated Antigen Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells Enhances Anti-Tumor Immune Responses

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    Barbara Platzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies discovered an inverse association between immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated allergies and cancer, implying tumor-protective properties of IgE. However, the underlying immunologic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs is of key importance for anti-tumor immunity because it induces the generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs with specificity for tumor antigens. We demonstrate that DCs use IgE and FcεRI, the high-affinity IgE receptor, for cross-presentation and priming of CTLs in response to free soluble antigen at low doses. Importantly, IgE/FcεRI-mediated cross-presentation is a distinct receptor-mediated pathway because it does not require MyD88 signals or IL-12 induction in DCs. Using passive immunization with tumor antigen-specific IgE and DC-based vaccination experiments, we demonstrate that IgE-mediated cross-presentation significantly improves anti-tumor immunity and induces memory responses in vivo. Our findings suggest a cellular mechanism for the tumor-protective features of IgE and expand the known physiological functions of this immunoglobulin.

  6. Innate responses induced by whole inactivated virus or subunit influenza vaccines in cultured dendritic cells correlate with immune responses in vivo.

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    Maaike Stoel

    Full Text Available Vaccine development involves time-consuming and expensive evaluation of candidate vaccines in animal models. As mediators of both innate and adaptive immune responses dendritic cells (DCs are considered to be highly important for vaccine performance. Here we evaluated how far the response of DCs to a vaccine in vitro is in line with the immune response the vaccine evokes in vivo. To this end, we investigated the response of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to whole inactivated virus (WIV and subunit (SU influenza vaccine preparations. These vaccine preparations were chosen because they differ in the immune response they evoke in mice with WIV being superior to SU vaccine through induction of higher virus-neutralizing antibody titers and a more favorable Th1-skewed response phenotype. Stimulation of DCs with WIV, but not SU vaccine, resulted in a cytokine response that was comparable to that of DCs stimulated with live virus. Similarly, the gene expression profiles of DCs treated with WIV or live virus were similar and differed from that of SU vaccine-treated DCs. More specifically, exposure of DCs to WIV resulted in differential expression of genes in known antiviral pathways, whereas SU vaccine did not. The stronger antiviral and more Th1-related response of DCs to WIV as compared to SU vaccine correlates well with the superior immune response found in mice. These results indicate that in vitro stimulation of DCs with novel vaccine candidates combined with the assessment of multiple parameters, including gene signatures, may be a valuable tool for the selection of vaccine candidates.

  7. Oct2 and Obf1 as facilitators of B:T cell collaboration during a humoral immune response

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    Lynn M Corcoran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oct2 protein, encoded by the Pou2f2 gene, was originally predicted to act as a DNA binding transcriptional activator of immunoglobulin (Ig in B lineage cells. This prediction flowed from the earlier observation that an 8 bp sequence, the octamer motif, was a highly conserved component of most Ig gene promoters and enhancers, and evidence from over-expression and reporter assays confirmed Oct2-mediated, octamer-dependent gene expression. Complexity was added to the story when Oct1, an independently encoded protein, ubiquitously expressed from the Pou2f 1 gene, was characterised and found to bind to the octamer motif with almost identical specificity, and later, when the co-activator Obf1 (OCA-B, Bob.1, encoded by the Pou2af1 gene, was cloned. Obf1 joins Oct2 (and Oct1 on the DNA of a subset of octamer motifs to enhance their transactivation strength. While these proteins variously carried the mantle of determinants of Ig gene expression in B cells for many years, such a role has not been borne out for them by characterisation of mice lacking functional copies of the genes, either as single or as compound mutants. Instead, we and others have shown that Oct2 and Obf1 are required for B cells to mature fully in vivo, for B cells to respond to the T cell cytokines IL5 and IL4, and for B cells to produce IL6 normally during a T cell dependent immune response. We show here that Oct2 affects Syk gene expression, thus influencing B cell receptor signalling, and that Oct2 loss blocks Slamf1 expression in vivo as a result of incomplete B cell maturation. Upon IL4 signalling, Stat6 up-regulates Obf1, indirectly via Xbp1, to enable plasma cell differentiation. Thus, Oct2 and Obf1 enable B cells to respond normally to antigen receptor signals, to express surface receptors that mediate physical interaction with T cells, or to produce and respond to cytokines that are critical drivers of B cell and T cell differentiation during a humoral immune response.

  8. Leishmania braziliensis infection induces dendritic cell activation, ISG15 transcription, and the generation of protective immune responses.

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    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Xin, Lijun; Soong, Lynn

    2008-06-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in South America, and the latter is a severe and disfiguring form of the disease. Our understanding of how L. braziliensis parasites interact with dendritic cells (DCs) is limited, partially due to the difficulty in generating axenic amastigotes. In this study, we successfully generated axenic amastigotes of L. braziliensis and used them to test the hypothesis that L. braziliensis infection efficiently triggers innate responses in DCs and the subsequent adaptive immune responses for parasite clearance. This study has revealed unique immunological features of L. braziliensis infection. Firstly, axenic amastigotes showed higher infectivity and the potential to stimulate C57BL/6 (B6) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to produce IL-12p40 when compared with their promastigote counterparts. Both parasite-carrying and bystander DCs displayed an activated (CD11c(high)CD45RB(-)CD83(+)CD40(+)CD80(+)) phenotype. Secondly, L. braziliensis infection triggered transcription and phosphorylation of STAT molecules and IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15). Finally, the self-healing of the infection in mice was correlated to the expansion of IFN-gamma- and IL-17-producing CD4(+) cells, suggesting the existence of active mechanisms to regulate local inflammation. Collectively, this study supports the view that innate responses at the DC level determine parasite-specific T cell responses and disease outcomes.

  9. Leishmania braziliensisInfection Induces Dendritic Cell Activation, ISG15 Transcription, and the Generation of Protective Immune Responses

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    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A.; Xin, Lijun; Soong, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in South America, and the latter is a severe and disfiguring form of the disease. Our understanding of how L. braziliensis parasites interact with dendritic cells (DCs) is limited, partially due to the difficulty in generating axenic amastigotes. In this study, we successfully generated axenic amastigotes of L. braziliensis and used them to test the hypothesis that L. braziliensis infection efficiently triggers innate responses in DCs and the subsequent adaptive immune responses for parasite clearance. This study has revealed unique immunological features of L. braziliensis infection. Firstly, axenic amastigotes showed higher infectivity and the potential to stimulate C57BL/6 (B6) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to produce IL-12p40 when compared with their promastigote counterparts. Both parasite-carrying and bystander DCs displayed an activated (CD11chighCD45RB-CD83+CD40+CD80+) phenotype. Secondly, L. braziliensis infection triggered transcription and phosphorylation of STAT molecules and IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15). Finally, the self-healing of the infection in mice was correlated to the expansion of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing CD4+ cells, suggesting the existence of active mechanisms to regulate local inflammation. Collectively, this study supports the view that innate responses at the DC level determine parasite-specific T cell responses and disease outcomes. PMID:18490754

  10. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

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    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  11. Specific immune response to Parietaria judaica plant profilin: a low T cell proliferative response supports high IgE and skin prick test.

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    Benítez, D; García-Ortega, P; Picado, C; Milà, J; Vives, J; Martínez, J; Vilella, R

    2002-01-01

    allergic disease caused by Parietaria judaica (Pj) has been widely documented in Mediterranean area. Profilins have been identified as widely distributed allergenic proteins. The role of Pj profilin in specific immune response in Pj-sensitized patients is unknown. skin prick test and determination of specific and total IgE levels in serum were performed in all patients (n = 28) and non-allergic controls (n = 18). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from both groups and stimulated with crude extract or highly purified Pj profilin. The production of type I and type II cytokines was determined by specific and polyclonal stimuli in patients and controls. T-cell lines specific to Pj profilin were established and cross-reactivity with another highly purified profilin from Phleum pratense (Phl p) was evaluated. Pj profilin-sensitized patients showed a small but significantly increased in T-cell proliferative response to this profilin compared with non-atopic controls. The production of interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ in response to the specific stimulus was undetectable. However, the production of IL-4 in response to a polyclonal stimulus [phytohemagglutinin (PHA)] was significantly higher in atopic patients than in controls. The T-cell response did not correlate with the magnitude of response to skin prick tests with Pj profilin or with Pj-specific serum IgE levels. In addition, the production of IL-4 in response to a polyclonal stimulus (PHA) did not correlate with the individual skin prick tests to Pj profilin or with Pj-specific IgE levels in serum. The T-cell lines tested showed no cross-reactivity with Phl p profilin. our results suggest that Pj profilin is partly responsible for the T-cell-mediated response in patients allergic to Pj. The high skin reactivity to Pj profilin is these patients was accompanied by a small increase in the T-cell response to this profilin. The response was highly specific since Pj profilin specific T-cell

  12. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

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    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  13. Immune Response to Snake Envenoming and Treatment with Antivenom; Complement Activation, Cytokine Production and Mast Cell Degranulation

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    Stone, Shelley F.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Shahmy, Seyed; Mohamed, Fahim; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harendra; Ariaratnam, Ariaranee; Jacoby-Alner, Tamara E.; Cotterell, Claire L.; Brown, Simon G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities worldwide. In addition to the clinical effects of envenoming, treatment with antivenom frequently causes serious adverse reactions, including hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis) and pyrogenic reactions. We aimed to investigate the immune responses to Sri Lankan snake envenoming (predominantly by Russell's viper) and antivenom treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI), anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a; markers of complement activation), mast cell tryptase (MCT), and histamine were measured in 120 Sri Lankan snakebite victims, both before and after treatment with antivenom. Immune mediator concentrations were correlated with envenoming features and the severity of antivenom-induced reactions including anaphylaxis. Envenoming was associated with complement activation and increased cytokine concentrations prior to antivenom administration, which correlated with non-specific systemic symptoms of envenoming but not with coagulopathy or neurotoxicity. Typical hypersensitivity reactions to antivenom occurred in 77/120 patients (64%), satisfying criteria for a diagnosis of anaphylaxis in 57/120 (48%). Pyrogenic reactions were observed in 32/120 patients (27%). All patients had further elevations in cytokine concentrations, but not complement activation, after the administration of antivenom, whether a reaction was noted to occur or not. Patients with anaphylaxis had significantly elevated concentrations of MCT and histamine. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated that Sri Lankan snake envenoming is characterized by significant complement activation and release of inflammatory mediators. Antivenom treatment further enhances the release of inflammatory mediators in all patients, with anaphylactic reactions characterised by high levels of mast

  14. Immune response to snake envenoming and treatment with antivenom; complement activation, cytokine production and mast cell degranulation.

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    Shelley F Stone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities worldwide. In addition to the clinical effects of envenoming, treatment with antivenom frequently causes serious adverse reactions, including hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis and pyrogenic reactions. We aimed to investigate the immune responses to Sri Lankan snake envenoming (predominantly by Russell's viper and antivenom treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI, anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a; markers of complement activation, mast cell tryptase (MCT, and histamine were measured in 120 Sri Lankan snakebite victims, both before and after treatment with antivenom. Immune mediator concentrations were correlated with envenoming features and the severity of antivenom-induced reactions including anaphylaxis. Envenoming was associated with complement activation and increased cytokine concentrations prior to antivenom administration, which correlated with non-specific systemic symptoms of envenoming but not with coagulopathy or neurotoxicity. Typical hypersensitivity reactions to antivenom occurred in 77/120 patients (64%, satisfying criteria for a diagnosis of anaphylaxis in 57/120 (48%. Pyrogenic reactions were observed in 32/120 patients (27%. All patients had further elevations in cytokine concentrations, but not complement activation, after the administration of antivenom, whether a reaction was noted to occur or not. Patients with anaphylaxis had significantly elevated concentrations of MCT and histamine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that Sri Lankan snake envenoming is characterized by significant complement activation and release of inflammatory mediators. Antivenom treatment further enhances the release of inflammatory mediators in all patients, with anaphylactic reactions characterised by high

  15. Bordetella pertussis infection induces a mucosal IL-17 response and long-lived Th17 and Th1 immune memory cells in nonhuman primates.

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    Warfel, J M; Merkel, T J

    2013-07-01

    Despite near universal vaccine coverage, the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis has re-emerged as a major public health concern. We recently developed a baboon (Papio anubis) model of pertussis that provides an excellent model of human pertussis. Using this model, the immune response to pertussis was characterized by measuring cytokines in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of infected baboons. Notably, we observed mucosal expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) as well as IL-6, IL-23, and several cytokines and chemokines that are orchestrated by IL-17 immune responses. We also found substantial populations of circulating B. pertussis-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in convalescent animals >2 years post-infection consistent with a role in immunological memory to pertussis. Collectively, these data shed important light on the innate and adaptive immune responses to pertussis in a primate infection model and suggest that Th17 and Th1 immune responses contribute to the immunity conferred by natural pertussis infection.

  16. Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Could It Be Related to Cell-Mediated Immunity Defect in Response to Candida Antigen?

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    Zahra Talaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC is a common cause of morbidity affecting millions of women worldwide. Patients with RVVC are thought to have an underlying immunologic defect. This study has been established to evaluate cell-mediated immunity defect in response to candida antigen in RVVC cases. Materials and Methods Our cross-sectional study was performed in 3 groups of RVVC patients (cases, healthy individuals (control I and known cases of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC (control II. Patients who met the inclusion criteria of RVVC were selected consecutively and were allocated in the case group. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and labeled with CFSE and proliferation rate was measured in exposure to candida antigen via flow cytometry. Results T lymphocyte proliferation in response to candida was significantly lower in RVVC cases (n=24 and CMC patients (n=7 compared to healthy individuals (n=20, P0.05. Family history of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID differed significantly among groups (P=0.01, RVVC patients has family history of PID more than control I (29.2 vs. 0%, P=0.008 but not statistically different from CMC patients (29.2 vs. 42.9%, P>0.05. Prevalence of atopy was greater in RVVC cases compared to healthy individuals (41.3 vs. 15%, P=0.054. Lymphoproliferative activity and vaginal symptoms were significantly different among RVVC cases with and without allergy (P=0.01, P=0.02. Conclusion Our findings revealed that T cells do not actively proliferate in response to Candida antigen in some RVVC cases. So it is concluded that patients with cell-mediated immunity defect are more susceptible to recurrent fungal infections of vulva and vagina. Nonetheless, some other cases of RVVC showed normal function of T cells. Further evaluations showed that these patients suffer from atopy. It is hypothesized that higher frequency of VVC in patients with history of atopy might be due to allergic response

  17. Antigen-Experienced CD4lo T Cells Are Linked to Deficient Contraction of the Immune Response in Autoimmune Diabetes

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    Sean Linkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following proper activation, naïve “CD4lo” T cells differentiate into effector T cells with enhanced expression of CD4 -“CD4hi” effectors. Autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice display a unique set of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells that persist after primary stimulation. Here, we report that a population of such cells remained after secondary and tertiary TCR stimulation and produced cytokines upon antigenic challenge. However, when NOD blasts were induced in the presence of rIL-15, the number of antigen-experienced “CD4lo” T cells was significantly reduced. Clonal contraction, mediated in part by CD95-dependent activation-induced cell death (AICD, normally regulates the accumulation of “CD4hi” effectors. Interestingly, CD95 expression was dramatically reduced on the AICD-resistant NOD “CD4lo” T cells. Thus, while autoimmune disease has often been attributed to the engagement of robust autoimmunity, we suggest that the inability to effectively contract the immune response distinguishes benign autoimmunity from progressive autoimmune diseases that are characterized by chronic T cell-mediated inflammation.

  18. Live Imaging of the Skin Immune Responses: Visualization of the Contact Hypersensitivity Response.

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    Egawa, Gyohei; Honda, Tetsuya; Kabashima, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    A variety of immune cells are involved in cutaneous immune responses. Over the last decade, intravital imaging has become an important technique used to capture the dynamic behavior of immune cells in the physiological context. In this chapter, we describe essential techniques for visualizing immune cells in the skin, focusing on the contact hypersensitivity response. Using fluorescent dyes and transgenic reporter animals, many kinds of immune cells and skin components can be visualized in three dimensions and in a noninvasive manner.

  19. Pasteurella multocida and immune cells.

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    Kubatzky, Katharina F

    2012-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida was first discovered by Perroncito in 1878 and named after Louis Pasteur who first isolated and described this Gram-negative bacterium as the cause of fowl disease in 1880. Subsequently, P. multocida was also found to cause atrophic rhinitis in pigs, haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and respiratory diseases in many other animals. Among other factors such as lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane proteins and its capsule, the protein toxin (PMT) of P. multocida is an important virulence factor that determines the immunological response of the host's immune system. However, the exact molecular mechanisms taking place in cells of the innate and adaptive immune system are largely unknown for any of these virulence factors. Due to the obvious function of PMT on cells of the porcine skeletal system where it causes bone destruction, PMT was regarded as an osteolytic protein toxin. However, it remained unclear what the actual benefit for the bacteria would be. Recently, more attention was drawn to the osteoimmunological effects of PMT and the interplay between bone and immune cells. This review summarises the knowledge of effects of P. multocida virulence factors on the host's immune system.

  20. Immune responses to influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Fouchier, R A M; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2011-12-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of respiratory tract infection with attack rates of 5-10%. This means that humans are infected repeatedly with intervals of, on average, 10-20 years. Upon each infection subjects develop innate and adaptive immune responses which aim at clearing the infection. Strain-specific antibody responses are induced, which exert selective pressure on circulating influenza viruses and which drive antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, especially in the hemagglutinin molecule. This antigenic drift necessitates updating of seasonal influenza vaccines regularly in order to match the circulating strains. Upon infection also virus-specific T cell responses are induced, including CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. These cells are mainly directed to conserved proteins and therefore display cross-reactivity with a variety of influenza A viruses of different subtypes. T cell mediated immunity therefore may contribute to so-called heterosubtypic immunity and may afford protection against antigenically distinct, potentially pandemic influenza viruses. At present, novel viral targets are identified that may help to develop broad-protective vaccines. Here we review the various arms of the immune response to influenza virus infections and their viral targets and discuss the possibility of developing universal vaccines. The development of such novel vaccines would imply that also new immune correlates of protection need to be established in order to facilitate assessment of vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [The impact of conservative and hypervariable immunodominant epitopes in internal proteins of the influenza A virus on cytotoxic T-cell immune responses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikhin, A N; Losev, I V

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic T-cell immune response plays an important role in the prevention of influenza infection and reducing of the illness severity. The knowledge about mechanisms of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cell induction in humans is necessary for better understanding of influenza epidemiology and vaccine development. Due to application of new immunological and genetic methods in last years, considerable amount of.data became available in the literature about CD8+ T-cell immune responses to different influenza A viruses. This review summarizes these data. The main attention is paid to (i) heterosubtypic CTL responses to conservative immunodominant sites; (ii) mechanisms of viral escape from the virus-specific CTLs by means of evolutional escape-mutations; (iii) influence of the HLA haplotype on CD8+ T-cell immune responses. The importance of these data for immunology and vaccinology is discussed.

  2. Targeting the Immune System’s Natural Response to Cell Death to Improve Therapeutic Response in Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    tumor associated macrophages 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC...AXL/MerTK family, is expressed in myeloid lineage cells in which it acts to suppress proinflammatory cytokines following ingestion of apoptotic...expression of the proto- oncogene Mer in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia . Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(9):2662–2669. 19. Keating AK, et al

  3. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl α-glucosides contribute to its pathogenicity and immune response by natural killer T cells.

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    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Approximately 10-15% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori will develop ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer, while most people infected with H. pylori will be asymptomatic. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic partly due to the inhibition of synthesis of cholesteryl α-glucosides in H. pylori cell wall by α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin O-glycans, which are expressed in the deeper portion of gastric mucosa. However, it has not been determined how cholesteryl α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT, which forms cholesteryl α-glucosides, functions in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here, we show that the activity of αCgT from H. pylori clinical isolates is highly correlated with the degree of gastric atrophy. We investigated the role of cholesteryl α-glucosides in various aspects of the immune response. Phagocytosis and activation of dendritic cells were observed at similar degrees in the presence of wild-type H. pylori or variants harboring mutant forms of αCgT showing a range of enzymatic activity. However, cholesteryl α-glucosides were recognized by invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells, eliciting an immune response in vitro and in vivo. Following inoculation of H. pylori harboring highly active αCgT into iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18(-/- or wild-type mice, bacterial recovery significantly increased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, cytokine production characteristic of Th1 and Th2 cells dramatically decreased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that cholesteryl α-glucosides play critical roles in H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and precancerous atrophic gastritis.

  4. Immune response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, R D

    1989-01-01

    In general, fungi are saprophytes that are well adapted to grow in nature supported by diverse nutritional substrates. For fungi, in contrast to many other microorganisms that infect humans, parasitism is an accidental phenomenon rather than an obligatory requirement for survival. Thus, with progressive improvement in our capabilities to prolong survival of patients with global defects in host defense mechanisms, clinical experience suggests that human tissues may support growth of numerous species of saprophytic fungi that share the capacity to grow at 37 degrees C. Normally, however, a broad array of natural and acquired host defense mechanisms make the occurrence of progressive, systemic, life-threatening mycoses extremely rare events. When one or another of these host defense mechanisms is compromised, one of a variety of significant fungal infections may then progress. Mycoses may be broadly categorized into those controlled largely by natural cellular defenses vs. acquired cell-mediated immunity. Notwithstanding data that permit such general classification of host factors controlling one or another invasive mycosis, the diverse structural and antigenic properties of individual fungi create unique patterns of infections in individual, characteristic host settings. Thus, while some broad generalizations are possible, definition of predisposing factors for specific individual mycoses (and, ultimately, prospects for corrective immunotherapy) requires careful characterization of diverse features of fungal forms mediating divergent immune responses.

  5. NLRP3 Is a Critical Regulator of Inflammation and Innate Immune Cell Response during Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Jesus A; Chang, Te-Hung; Winter, Vicki T; Coalson, Jacqueline J; Cagle, Marianna P; Pandranki, Lavanya; Bose, Santanu; Baseman, Joel B; Kannan, Thirumalai R

    2018-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterial respiratory pathogen known to cause a range of airway inflammation and lung and extrapulmonary pathologies. We recently reported that an M. pneumoniae -derived ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin is capable of triggering NLRP3 (NLR-family, leucine-rich repeat protein 3) inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in macrophages. However, it is unclear whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is important for the immune response during M. pneumoniae acute infection. In the current study, we utilized in vitro and in vivo models of M. pneumoniae infection to characterize the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome during acute infection. M. pneumoniae- infected macrophages deficient for inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain), or caspase-1 failed to process and secrete IL-1β. The MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was found to be critical for proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages infected with M. pneumoniae C57BL/6 mice deficient for NLRP3 expression were unable to produce IL-1β in the airways during acute infection, and lack of this inflammatory response led to deficient immune cell activation and delayed bacterial clearance. These findings are the first to report the importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in regulating the inflammatory response and influencing the progression of M. pneumoniae during acute infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. DNA Damage Response and Radiosensitivity of Immune Cells from Subjects Undergoing Confinement in the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) represents an analog for simulation of isolation, confinement and remote conditions of mission exploration scenarios. HERA aims at investigating team performance and cooperation, reaction to stress, signs of early depression, anxiety and anger and their impact on human health. HERA is a collaborative project involving experts in different fields. Not only psychological but also clinical biomarkers of stress, e.g. adrenaline has been measured. It is known that stress hormones induce DNA strand breaks thus, within this project, my tasks was to determine the level of DNA strand breaks as well as expression of genes involved in DNA damage response in immune cells obtained from HERA subjects. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the cells to ex vivo radiation was also assessed.

  7. Differential Impact of LPG-and PG-Deficient Leishmania major Mutants on the Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells.

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    Michelle A Favila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection induces robust interleukin-12 (IL12 production in human dendritic cells (hDC, ultimately resulting in Th1-mediated immunity and clinical resolution. The surface of Leishmania parasites is covered in a dense glycocalyx consisting of primarily lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycan-containing molecules (PGs, making these glycoconjugates the likely pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS responsible for IL12 induction.Here we explored the role of parasite glycoconjugates on the hDC IL12 response by generating L. major Friedlin V1 mutants defective in LPG alone, (FV1 lpg1-, or generally deficient for all PGs, (FV1 lpg2-. Infection with metacyclic, infective stage, L. major or purified LPG induced high levels of IL12B subunit gene transcripts in hDCs, which was abrogated with FV1 lpg1- infections. In contrast, hDC infections with FV1 lpg2- displayed increased IL12B expression, suggesting other PG-related/LPG2 dependent molecules may act to dampen the immune response. Global transcriptional profiling comparing WT, FV1 lpg1-, FV1 lpg2- infections revealed that FV1 lpg1- mutants entered hDCs in a silent fashion as indicated by repression of gene expression. Transcription factor binding site analysis suggests that LPG recognition by hDCs induces IL-12 in a signaling cascade resulting in Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF mediated transcription.These data suggest that L. major LPG is a major PAMP recognized by hDC to induce IL12-mediated protective immunity and that there is a complex interplay between PG-baring Leishmania surface glycoconjugates that result in modulation of host cellular IL12.

  8. Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Exposed to Microorganisms Involved in Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Induce a Th1-Polarized Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallandre, Jean-René; Borg, Christophe; Loeffert, Sophie; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Millon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunoallergic disease characterized by a prominent interstitial infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytes secreting inflammatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a pivotal role in the lymphocytic response. However, their cross talk with microorganisms that cause HP has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the initial interactions between human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and four microorganisms that are different in nature (Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula [actinomycetes], Mycobacterium immunogenum [mycobacteria], and Wallemia sebi and Eurotium amstelodami [filamentous fungi]) and are involved in HP. Our objectives were to determine the cross talk between MoDCs and HP-causative agents and to determine whether the resulting immune response varied according to the microbial extract tested. The phenotypic activation of MoDCs was measured by the increased expression of costimulatory molecules and levels of cytokines in supernatants. The functional activation of MoDCs was measured by the ability of MoDCs to induce lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation in a mixed lymphocytic reaction (MLR). E. amstelodami-exposed (EA) MoDCs expressed higher percentages of costimulatory molecules than did W. sebi-exposed (WS), S. rectivirgula-exposed (SR), or M. immunogenum-exposed (MI) MoDCs (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). EA-MoDCs, WS-MoDCs, SR-MoDCs, and MI-MoDCs induced CD4+ T cell proliferation and a Th1-polarized immune response. The present study provides evidence that, although differences were initially observed between MoDCs exposed to filamentous fungi and MoDCs exposed to bacteria, a Th1 response was ultimately promoted by DCs regardless of the microbial extract tested. PMID:23720369

  9. Waddlia chondrophila infects and multiplies in ovine trophoblast cells stimulating an inflammatory immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus. This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity.Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i. and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1β expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways.W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms.

  10. T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abschuetz, Oliver [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Osen, Wolfram [Division of Translational Immunology, German Cancer Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Frank, Kathrin [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Kato, Masashi [Unit of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Schadendorf, Dirk [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45122 (Germany); Umansky, Viktor, E-mail: v.umansky@dkfz.de [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2012-04-26

    Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA) tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy.

  11. Myeloid dendritic cells stimulated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin promote Th2 immune responses and the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

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    Masaki Yamauchi

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by subepithelial T-cell infiltration. Recent studies reported that specific T helper (Th subsets, especially Th2 cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP is mainly secreted by epithelial cells and potently activates myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs to induce Th2-mediated inflammation. Here, we investigated the expression of TSLP and related molecules in OLP. Buccal mucosa specimens from patients with OLP, hyperkeratosis, and ulcer were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of TSLP, its receptor (TSLPR, and inflammatory cells. TSLP was detected in/around the epithelium of patients with OLP and hyperkeratosis, whereas TSLPR, CD11c (mDC, and GATA3 (Th2 were strongly expressed in the subepithelial layer only in OLP patients. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that TSLPR expression mainly co-localized with CD11c. Moreover, the number of CD11c- and GATA-3 positive cells was correlated in OLP patients. In lesions selectively extracted by laser microdissection, the mRNA expression of Th2 (IL-4, MDC, TARC, GATA3- and Th17 (IL-17, RORγt-related molecules in OLP patients was significantly higher than in other groups. These results suggest that CD11c+ mDCs expressing TSLPR contribute to aberrant Th2 immune responses and the pathogenesis of OLP via TSLP stimulation.

  12. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells and extracts derived from the placenta on trophoblast invasion and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Jung, Jieun; Na, Kyu-Hwan; Cho, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Tae Ki; Kim, Gi Jin

    2014-01-15

    Tightly regulated trophoblast invasion and immunomodulation at the feto-maternal interface is important during implantation and fetal development. Although trophoblasts as a pregnancy-specific cell has been reported to be a key factor capable of regulating certain events during implantation, however, its regulatory mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) and human placenta extract (hPE) isolated from human normal placentas on trophoblasts invasion and immune responses. We investigated the effects of CP-MSCs, hPE treatment, and their combination on trophoblasts invasion and on T-cells suppression through human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) expression. Trophoblasts invasion was significantly increased by co-culture of CP-MSCs or by hPE treatment (Ptrophoblasts and T-cells depending on CP-MSCs co-culture and hPE treatment. Interestingly, the concentration of soluble HLA-G was increased by CP-MSCs co-culture, by hPE treatment and by combination of them on trophoblasts and activated T-cells (Ptrophoblasts invasion and T-cell by alteration of HLA-G expression. These results will provide understandings of trophoblasts invasion and the immunological network at the feto-maternal interface during pregnancy and contribute to the foundation of a new treatment strategy for pregnancy disorders.

  13. Damage signals in the insect immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eKrautz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are shared between insect and mammalian immune systems including the mode of activation by commonly shared microbial (nonself patterns and the recognition of these patterns by dedicated receptors. It is unclear how metazoan parasites in insects, which lack these shared motifs, are recognized. Research in recent years has demonstrated that during entry into the insect host, many eukaryotic pathogens leave traces that alert potential hosts of the damage they have afflicted. In accordance with terminology used in the mammalian immune systems, these signals have been dubbed danger- or damage-associated signals. Damage signals are necessary byproducts generated during entering hosts either by mechanical or proteolytic damage. Here, we briefly review the current stage of knowledge on how wound closure and wound healing during mechanical damage is regulated and how damage-related signals contribute to these processes. We also discuss how sensors of proteolytic activity induce insect innate immune responses. Strikingly damage-associated signals are also released from cells that have aberrant growth, including tumor cells. These signals may induce apoptosis in the damaged cells, the recruitment of immune cells to the aberrant tissue and even activate humoral responses. Thus, this ensures the removal of aberrant cells and compensatory proliferation to replace lost tissue. Several of these pathways may have been co-opted from wound healing and developmental processes.

  14. Effect of response to backtest and housing condition on cell-mediated and humoral immunity in adult pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Gort, G.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several recent studies in juvenile pigs demonstrated a relationship between the degree of resistance displayed early in life in a so-called "backtest" and parameters of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Some of the immune characteristics were reported to depend on the interaction between backtest

  15. Effect of administration timing of postchemotherapy granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on host-immune cell recovery and CD8+T-cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Labib; Nassef, Mohamed; Abdel Salam, Soha G R; Zidan, Abdelaziz; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; Rubinstein, Mark; Cole, David

    2016-11-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a hematopoietic growth factor, is a standard supportive therapy given during cancer treatment. It induces acceleration in neutrophil recovery through stimulation of mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors. Given that the latter is also induced by chemotherapy itself, the timing of administration of G-CSF postchemotherapy might impact the resultant overall effects. The present study aimed to determine the optimal timing of G-CSF postchemotherapy to exert its optimal effects on the immune cell recovery and its impact on antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell response. B6 mice were treated once with cyclophosphamide (4 mg/mouse; CTX) and then daily with G-CSF (5 g/mouse) from Days 1-5, 2-5 or 5-9 post-CTX treatment. The total numbers of various immune cell types were analyzed on Days 7, 9 and 12 post-CTX treatment. To evaluate effects on CD8 + T-cell response, a pmel-1 transgenic mouse model was used in combination with prime boost peptide vaccination therapy. The total number of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes and dendritic cells (DC) were significantly increased after G-CSF treatment in particular when G-CSF was administered from Days 2-5 post-CTX treatment. Application of this timing of G-CSF and CTX treatment after adoptive transfer of T-cells followed by prime-boost vaccination with antigenic peptide did not block the expansion of the donor pmel-1 CD8 + T-cells. In conclusion, adjusting the timing of treatment with G-CSF postchemotherapy can optimize its promoting effects on recovery of myeloid cells without altering the associated antigen-specific immunity.

  16. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Carey, Hannah V.

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a

  17. Immune Regulation of sickle Cell Alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Karina; Shaz, Beth H; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion remains an important treatment for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and the majority of patients receive transfusions by adulthood. However, SCD patients are at a high risk of alloimmunization, which can cause life-threatening complications. The high rate of alloimmunization can in part be explained by chronic inflammatory condition in SCD characterized by significant immune and inflammatory activation. Heightened immune effector cell responses and/or impaired regulatory networks are likely to drive alloantibody production in alloimmunized SCD patients. In support of this, altered T cell immunoregulation, known to control antibody responses, have been reported in alloimmunized SCD patients. In addition, stronger follicular help T cell responses that help antibody production by B cells were described in alloimmunized as compared to non-alloimmunized SCD patients. Furthermore, several innate immune abnormalities have been identified in alloimmunized SCD patients, including a compromised anti-inflammatory response against extracellular cell free heme. The data support a model in which alloimmunized SCD patients are unable to switch off their proinflammatory state in response to the ongoing hemolytic state characteristic of SCD, placing this patient subset at a higher risk to develop a strong immune response against allogeneic determinants on transfused RBCs, thus increasing the risk of further alloimmunization. A detailed mechanistic understanding of innate immune abnormalities that can contribute to pathogenic T cell responses in alloimmunized SCD patients will lay the foundation for identification of biomarkers of alloimmunization with the goal that this information will ultimately help guide therapy in these patients.

  18. Nano-Pulse Stimulation induces immunogenic cell death in human papillomavirus-transformed tumors and initiates an adaptive immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G Skeate

    Full Text Available Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS is a non-thermal pulsed electric field modality that has been shown to have cancer therapeutic effects. Here we applied NPS treatment to the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16-transformed C3.43 mouse tumor cell model and showed that it is effective at eliminating primary tumors through the induction of immunogenic cell death while subsequently increasing the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment. In vitro NPS treatment of C3.43 cells resulted in a doubling of activated caspase 3/7 along with the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, indicating programmed cell death activity. Tumor-bearing mice receiving standard NPS treatment showed an initial decrease in tumor volume followed by clearing of tumors in most mice, and a significant increase in overall survival. Intra-tumor analysis of mice that were unable to clear tumors showed an inverse correlation between the number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and the size of the tumor. Approximately half of the mice that cleared established tumors were protected against tumor re-challenge on the opposite flank. Selective depletion of CD8+ T cells eliminated this protection, suggesting that NPS treatment induces an adaptive immune response generating CD8+ T cells that recognize tumor antigen(s associated with the C3.43 tumor model. This method may be utilized in the future to not only ablate primary tumors, but also to induce an anti-tumor response driven by effector CD8+ T cells capable of protecting individuals from disease recurrence.

  19. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II......) genes as some of the most significant differences between germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like DLBCL with full-length FOXP1 protein expression versus activated B-cell (ABC)-like DLBCL expressing predominantly short FOXP1 isoforms. In an independent primary DLBCL microarray data set, multiple MHC II genes......, including human leukocyte antigen DR alpha chain (HLA-DRA), were inversely correlated with FOXP1 transcript expression (PDLBCL cells led to increased cell-surface expression of HLA-DRA and CD74. In R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone...

  20. Commensal Bacteria Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Vaginal Epithelial Cell Multilayer Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914

  1. Commensal bacteria modulate innate immune responses of vaginal epithelial cell multilayer cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Rose

    Full Text Available The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives.

  2. IFN-gamma and IL-10 mediate parasite-specific immune responses of cord blood cells induced by pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brustoski, K.; Moller, U.; Kramer, M.; Petelski, A.; Brenner, S.; Palmer, D.; Bongartz, M.; Kremsner, P.G.; Luty, A.J.F.; Krzych, U.

    2005-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that immune cells from neonates born to mothers with placental Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection are sensitized to parasite Ag in utero but have reduced ability to generate protective Th1 responses. In this study, we detected Pf Ag-specific IFN-gamma(+) T cells in cord

  3. Trappin-2/elafin modulate innate immune responses of human endometrial epithelial cells to PolyI:C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Drannik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upon viral recognition, innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses are initiated by genital epithelial cells (ECs to eradicate or contain viral infection. Such responses, however, are often accompanied by inflammation that contributes to acquisition and progression of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Hence, interventions/factors enhancing antiviral protection while reducing inflammation may prove beneficial in controlling the spread of STIs. Serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr and its cleaved form, elafin (E, are alarm antimicrobials secreted by multiple cells, including genital epithelia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether and how each Tr and E (Tr/E contribute to antiviral defenses against a synthetic mimic of viral dsRNA, polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C and vesicular stomatitis virus. We show that delivery of a replication-deficient adenovector expressing Tr gene (Ad/Tr to human endometrial epithelial cells, HEC-1A, resulted in secretion of functional Tr, whereas both Tr/E were detected in response to polyI:C. Moreover, Tr/E were found to significantly reduce viral replication by either acting directly on virus or through enhancing polyI:C-driven antiviral protection. The latter was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory factors IL-8, IL-6, TNFα, lowered expression of RIG-I, MDA5 and attenuated NF-κB activation. Interestingly, enhanced polyI:C-driven antiviral protection of HEC-Ad/Tr cells was partially mediated through IRF3 activation, but not associated with higher induction of IFNβ, suggesting multiple antiviral mechanisms of Tr/E and the involvement of alternative factors or pathways. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first evidence of both Tr/E altering viral binding/entry, innate recognition and mounting of antiviral and inflammatory responses in genital ECs that could have significant implications for homeostasis of the female genital tract.

  4. Antibody responses to vaccination and immune function in patients with haematological malignancies - studies in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia autologous stem cell recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.M.T. van der

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the antibody responses to vaccination and immune function of patients with several forms of haematological diseases. Antibody responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and in autologous stem cell transplant recipients were studied. In the autologous stem

  5. Multiple linear epitopes (B-cell, CTL and Th) of JEV expressed in recombinant MVA as multiple epitope vaccine induces a protective immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan; Feng, Xiuli; Zheng, Qisheng; Hou, Hongyan; Cao, Ruibing; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Qingtao; Liu, Xiaodong; Pang, Ran; Zhao, Jin; Deng, Wenlei; Chen, Puyan

    2012-09-17

    Epitope-based vaccination might play an important role in the protective immunity against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the immune characteristics of recombinant MVA carrying multi-epitope gene of JEV (rMVA-mep). The synthetic gene containing critical epitopes (B-cell, CTL and Th) of JEV was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pGEM-K1L, and the rMVA-mep was prepared. BALB/c mice were immunized with different dosages of purified rMVA-mep and the immune responses were determined in the form of protective response against JEV, antibodies titers (IgG1 and IgG2a), spleen cell lymphocyte proliferation, and the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 cytokines. The results showed that live rMVA-mep elicited strongly immune responses in dose-dependent manner, and the highest level of immune responses was observed from the groups immunized with 107 TCID50 rMVA-mep among the experimental three concentrations. There were almost no difference of cytokines and neutralizing antibody titers among 107 TCID50 rMVA-mep, recombinant ED3 and inactivated JEV vaccine. It was noteworthy that rMVA-mep vaccination potentiates the Th1 and Th2-type immune responses in dose-dependent manner, and was sufficient to protect the mice survival against lethal JEV challenge. These findings demonstrated that rMVA-mep can produce adequate humoral and cellular immune responses, and protection in mice, which suggested that rMVA-mep might be an attractive candidate vaccine for preventing JEV infection.

  6. Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune response with intranasal immunization of mice with HIV peptides entrapped in PLG microparticles in combination with Ulex Europaeus-I lectin as M cell target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Monika; Pal, Pramod Chandra; Chitralekha, K T; Thomas, Beena Elizabeth; Tripathi, Vinita; Gupta, Siddhartha Dutta; Paranjape, Ramesh; Kulkarni, Smita; Rao, D Nageswara

    2005-12-01

    The predominant route of HIV infection is through the sexual transmission via M cells. Most of the peptide and protein vaccines show poor transport across the epithelial barrier and are commonly administered by parenteral route. In the present study four HIV peptides from envelope (gp 41-LZ (leucine zipper), gp 41-FD (fusion domain) and gp120-C2) and regulatory (Nef) region in poly lactic-co-glycolide (PLG) micro-particle delivery were evaluated in mice of outbred and with different genetic background to compare immune response versus MHC restriction. Out of the combinational and single routes of immunization attempted, the single route maintained the IgG, IgA and sIgA in sera and washes for longer duration as compared to combinational routes in which the response was declined. The study demonstrated that single intranasal immunization offered significantly higher immune response (pPP>or=SP. The cytokine measurement profile of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-6 and low levels of IL-4 in the cultural supernatants of SP, PP and LP showed mixed CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 immune response. The p24 assay showed high percent inhibition of HIV-IIIB virus with sera and washes obtained from intranasal route. Thus, overall the study highlighted the combination of UEA-1 lectin with HIV peptides in micro-particles through intranasal immunization generated systemic as well as mucosal immune response.

  7. Vaccines against Human Carcinomas: Strategies to Improve Antitumor Immune Responses

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    Claudia Palena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple observations in preclinical and clinical studies support a role for the immune system in controlling tumor growth and progression. Various components of the innate and adaptive immune response are able to mediate tumor cell destruction; however, certain immune cell populations can also induce a protumor environment that favors tumor growth and the development of metastasis. Moreover, tumor cells themselves are equipped with various mechanisms that allow them to evade surveillance by the immune system. The goal of cancer vaccines is to induce a tumor-specific immune response that ultimately will reduce tumor burden by tipping the balance from a protumor to an antitumor immune environment. This review discusses common mechanisms that govern immune cell activation and tumor immune escape, and some of the current strategies employed in the field of cancer vaccines aimed at enhancing activation of tumor-specific T-cells with concurrent reduction of immunosuppression.

  8. CHARACTERISATION OF CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS IN A CLINICAL CHALLENGE EXPERIMENT OF A VACCINE AGAINST MYCOPLASMA HYOSYNOVIAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Josephine Skovgaard; Riber, Ulla; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll

    Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (Mhs) is an extracellular parasitizing bacterium that causes arthritis in swine. The infection is widespread in modern pig production. An effective immunoprophylaxis is not available. In an experimental infection study (Lauritsen, K. T., et al., 2009. 3rd EVIW Poster, Berlin...... (Germany) September 10-13, 2009), testing a new vaccine (formalin inactivated Mhs and EMULSIGEN-BCL® (MVP Laboratories)), cell-mediated immune response was measured in the vaccine group (n=13) and not in the placebo group (n=13). In an IFN-γ assay, where whole-blood was co-cultured with Mhs......-antigen and recombinant IL-18, significantly higher level of IFN-γ was produced in the vaccine group compared to the placebo group one day before challenge with Mhs. In contrast, significantly higher level of IFN-γ was measured in the placebo group compared to the vaccine group at day 6 after challenge. The latter could...

  9. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Wang, Chaoyuan [College of Life Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Su, Hanwen, E-mail: suhanwen-1@163.com [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Meixian, E-mail: xiangmeixian99@163.com [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  10. Primary vaccination with the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish) produces a cell-mediated immune response which is still present 1 year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Javier; Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Schreiber, Paul; Martin, Virginie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie

    2014-04-15

    Canine leishmaniasis, an important zoonotic disease of dogs, is the result of an ineffective and inappropriate immune response to infection with Leishmania infantum. It is widely accepted that the appropriate immune response is characterised by a T-helper (Th)1-dominated profile in an overall mixed Th1/Th2 response. The absence of a strong Th1 response is associated with progression to the clinical disease. Thus, there is a need for an effective vaccine that could modulate the immune response to a more appropriate profile against the parasite. In this study we measured the impact of the LiESP/QA-21 canine vaccine, recently launched commercially in Europe, on selected humoral and cellular immune markers for one year after a primary vaccination course. The humoral response to vaccination was characterised by a predominantly IgG2 profile. Vaccinated dogs developed long-lasting cell-mediated immune responses against L. infantum, specifically with a stronger ability of macrophages to reduce intracellular parasite burdens in co-culture with autologous lymphocytes compared to control dogs (p=0.0002), which was correlated with induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) derivatives. These results confirm that vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 is capable of inducing an appropriate Th1-dominated immune profile which persists for a full year. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondria: A master regulator in macrophage and T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Ho, Ping-Chih

    2017-11-14

    Orchestrating biological activities of immune cells through metabolic reprogramming reveals a new approach to harnessing immune responses. Increasing evidence reveals that the mitochondrion is a central regulator for modulating metabolic reprogramming and controlling immune cell activation and functions. In addition to supporting bioenergetic demands, the mitochondrion serves as a signaling platform through the generation of reactive oxygen species and metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to modulate signaling cascades controlling immune cell activation and immune responses. Herein, we discuss the mechanisms through which the mitochondrion acts as a master regulator to fine-tune immune responses elicited by macrophages and T cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Injury-induced immune responses in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Yvan; Buzgariu, Wanda; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The impact of injury-induced immune responses on animal regenerative processes is highly variable, positive or negative depending on the context. This likely reflects the complexity of the innate immune system that behaves as a sentinel in the transition from injury to regeneration. Early-branching invertebrates with high regenerative potential as Hydra provide a unique framework to dissect how injury-induced immune responses impact regeneration. A series of early cellular events likely require an efficient immune response after amputation, as antimicrobial defence, epithelial cell stretching for wound closure, migration of interstitial progenitors toward the wound, cell death, phagocytosis of cell debris, or reconstruction of the extracellular matrix. The analysis of the injury-induced transcriptomic modulations of 2636 genes annotated as immune genes in Hydra identified 43 genes showing an immediate/early pulse regulation in all regenerative contexts examined. These regulations point to an enhanced cytoprotection via ROS signaling (Nrf, C/EBP, p62/SQSMT1-l2), TNFR and TLR signaling (TNFR16-like, TRAF2l, TRAF5l, jun, fos-related, SIK2, ATF1/CREB, LRRC28, LRRC40, LRRK2), proteasomal activity (p62/SQSMT1-l1, Ced6/Gulf, NEDD8-conjugating enzyme Ubc12), stress proteins (CRYAB1, CRYAB2, HSP16.2, DnaJB9, HSP90a1), all potentially regulating NF-κB activity. Other genes encoding immune-annotated proteins such as NPYR4, GTPases, Swap70, the antiproliferative BTG1, enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (5-lipoxygenase, ACSF4), secreted clotting factors, secreted peptidases are also pulse regulated upon bisection. By contrast, metalloproteinases and antimicrobial peptide genes largely follow a context-dependent regulation, whereas the protease inhibitor α2macroglobulin gene exhibits a sustained up-regulation. Hence a complex immune response to injury is linked to wound healing and regeneration in Hydra. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  13. Association of immune response to endothelial cell growth factor with early disseminated and late manifestations of Lyme disease but not posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin S; Klempner, Mark S; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Alaedini, Armin

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cell growth factor has been recently proposed as a potential autoantigen in manifestations of Lyme disease that are thought to involve immune-mediated mechanisms. Our findings indicate that a humoral immune response to this protein is not associated with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mosaic vaccines elicit CD8+ T cell responses in monkeys that confer immune coverage of diverse HIV strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Will [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Creation of a successful HIV vaccine will require the development of a strategy to generate cellular immunity with sufficient cross-clade breadth to deal with the extreme genetic diversity of the virus. Polyvalent mosaic immunogens derived from in silica recombination of natural strains of HIV are designed to induce cellular immune responses that maximally cover the sequence diversity of circulating virus isolates. Immunization of rhesus monkeys with plasmid DNA and recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine constructs expressing either consensus immunogens or polyvalent mosaic immunogens elicited a CD4+ T lymphocyte-biased response with comparably broad epitope-specific total T lymphocyte specificities. However, immunization with the mosaic immunogens induced HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses with markedly greater depth and breadth. Therefore, the use of polyvalent mosaic immunogens is a promising strategy for a global vaccine for HIV.

  15. Long-term central and effector SHIV-specific memory T cell responses elicited after a single immunization with a novel lentivector DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Arrode-Brusés

    Full Text Available Prevention of HIV acquisition and replication requires long lasting and effective immunity. Given the state of HIV vaccine development, innovative vectors and immunization strategies are urgently needed to generate safe and efficacious HIV vaccines. Here, we developed a novel lentivirus-based DNA vector that does not integrate in the host genome and undergoes a single-cycle of replication. Viral proteins are constitutively expressed under the control of Tat-independent LTR promoter from goat lentivirus. We immunized six macaques once only with CAL-SHIV-IN- DNA using combined intramuscular and intradermal injections plus electroporation. Antigen-specific T cell responses were monitored for 47 weeks post-immunization (PI. PBMCs were assessed directly ex vivo or after 6 and 12 days of in vitro culture using antigenic and/or homeostatic proliferation. IFN-γ ELISPOT was used to measure immediate cytokine secretion from antigen specific effector cells and from memory precursors with high proliferative capacity (PHPC. The memory phenotype and functions (proliferation, cytokine expression, lytic content of specific T cells were tested using multiparametric FACS-based assays. All immunized macaques developed lasting peripheral CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses mainly against Gag and Nef antigens. During the primary expansion phase, immediate effector cells as well as increasing numbers of proliferating cells with limited effector functions were detected which expressed markers of effector (EM and central (CM memory phenotypes. These responses contracted but then reemerged later in absence of antigen boost. Strong PHPC responses comprising vaccine-specific CM and EM T cells that readily expanded and acquired immediate effector functions were detected at 40/47 weeks PI. Altogether, our study demonstrated that a single immunization with a replication-limited DNA vaccine elicited persistent vaccine-specific CM and EM CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with immediate and

  16. Effects of ceftaroline on the innate immune and on the inflammatory responses of bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, E; Ferraro, M; Di Vincenzo, S; Siena, L; Gjomarkaj, M

    2016-09-06

    The tobacco smoking habit interferes with the innate host defence system against infections. Recurrent infections accelerated the functional respiratory decline. The present study assessed the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 and on pro-inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells (16HBE cell line and primary bronchial epithelial cells) with or without cigarette smoke extracts (CSE 10%). TLR2, TLR4, LPS binding and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) were assessed by flow cytometry, NFkB nuclear translocation by western blot analysis, IL-8 and HBD2 mRNA by Real Time PCR; the localization of NFkB on the HBD2 and IL-8 promoters by ChiP Assay. CSE increased TLR4, TLR2 expression, LPS binding and IL-8 mRNA; CSE decreased HBD2 (protein and mRNA), activated NFkB and promoted the localization of NFkB on IL-8 promoter and not on HBD2 promoter. Ceftaroline counteracted the CSE effect on TLR2 expression, on LPS binding, on IL-8 mRNA, HBD2 and NFkB in 16HBE. The effects of ceftaroline on HBD2 protein and on IL-8 mRNA were confirmed in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In conclusion, ceftaroline is able to counteract the effects of CSE on the innate immunity and pro-inflammatory responses modulating TLR2, LPS binding, NFkB activation and activity, HBD2 and IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. T cell immunity using transgenic B lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloni, Mara; Rizzi, Marta; Castiglioni, Paola; Zanetti, Maurizio

    2004-03-01

    Adaptive immunity exists in all vertebrates and plays a defense role against microbial pathogens and tumors. T cell responses begin when precursor T cells recognize antigen on specialized antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into effector cells. Currently, dendritic cells are considered the only cells capable of stimulating T lymphocytes. Here, we show that mature naïve B lymphocytes can be genetically programmed by using nonviral DNA and turned into powerful antigen-presenting cells with a dual capacity of synthesis and presentation of antigen to T cells in vivo. A single i.v. injection of transgenic lymphocytes activates T cell responses reproducibly and specifically even at very low cell doses (102). We also demonstrate that T cell priming can occur in the absence of dendritic cells and results in immunological memory with protective effector functions. These findings disclose aspects in the regulation of adaptive immunity and indicate possibilities for vaccination against viruses and cancer in humans.

  18. RNAi-mediated c-Rel silencing leads to apoptosis of B cell tumor cells and suppresses antigenic immune response in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Tian

    Full Text Available c-Rel is a member of the Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor family and is predominantly expressed in lymphoid and myeloid cells, playing a critical role in lymphocyte proliferation and survival. Persistent activation of the c-Rel signal transduction pathway is associated with allergies, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and a variety of human malignancies. To explore the potential of targeting c-Rel as a therapeutic agent for these disorders, we designed a small interfering RNA (siRNA to silence c-Rel expression in vitro and in vivo. C-Rel-siRNA expression via a retroviral vector in a B cell tumor cell line leads to growth arrest and apoptosis of the tumor cells. Silencing c-Rel in primary B cells in vitro compromises their proliferative and survival response to CD40 activation signals, similar to the impaired response of c-Rel knockout B cells. Most important, in vivo silencing of c-Rel results in significant impairment in T cell-mediated immune responses to antigenic stimulation. Our study thus validates the efficacy of c-Rel-siRNA, and suggests the development of siRNA-based therapy, as well as small molecular inhibitors for the treatment of B cell tumors as well as autoimmune diseases.

  19. Dendritic-cell-based immunotherapy evokes potent anti-tumor immune responses in CD105+ human renal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Weng, De-Sheng; Pan, Ke; Zhou, Zi-Qi; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Chen, Chang-Long; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Chang, Alfred E; Wicha, Max S; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Li, Qiao; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapeutic agents; they are usually less sensitive to conventional cancer therapies, and could cause tumor relapse. An ideal therapeutic strategy would therefore be to selectively target and destroy CSCs, thereby preventing tumor relapse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with antigen derived from CD105+ human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) CSCs against renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified "stem-like" characteristics of CD105+ cells in two human RCC cell lines: A498 and SK-RC-39. Loading with cell lysates did not change the characteristics of the DCs. However, DCs loaded with lysates derived from CD105+ CSCs induced more functionally specific active T cells and specific antibodies against CSCs, and clearly depressed the tumor growth in mice. Our results could form the basis for a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy for human RCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immune Responses after Immunization of Calves with a Recombinant Multiantigenic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Subunit Vaccine at Different Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Neonates and juvenile ruminants are very susceptible to paratuberculosis infection. This is likely due to a high degree of exposure from their dams and an immature immune system. To test the influence of age on vaccine-induced responses, a cocktail of recombinant Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratu...

  1. Toll-like Receptors 4 and 5 Cooperatively Initiate the Innate Immune Responses to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Mouse Epididymal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijing; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Wu, Han; Wang, Qing; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Han, Daishu

    2016-03-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may cause epididymitis and impair male fertility. The mechanisms underlying the innate immune responses to UPEC infection in the epididymis are not fully understood. This study showed that UPEC induced innate immune responses in mouse epididymal epithelial cells (EECs) through the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR5. Infection with UPEC significantly induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, in EECs through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Moreover, UPEC induced the production of type 1 interferons by EECs through the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3. The UPEC-induced innate immune responses were significantly reduced in the EECs of Tlr4 or Tlr5 knockout mice. The innate immune responses were further reduced in Tlr4 and Tlr5 double-knockout EECs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR4 and TLR5 cooperatively initiated the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection in vivo. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abildgaard Steffensen

    Full Text Available Adenoviral vectors have shown a great potential for vaccine development due to their inherent ability to induce potent and protective CD8 T-cell responses. However, a critical issue regarding the use of these vectors is the existence of inhibitory immunity against the most commonly used Ad5 vector in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated invariant chain (Ii. To further evaluate the potential of this system, the concept of pre-existing inhibitory immunity to adenoviral vectors was revisited to investigate whether the inhibition previously seen with the Ad5 vector also applied to the optimized vector system. We found this to be the case, and antibodies dominated as the mechanism underlying inhibitory vector immunity. However, presence of CD8 T cells directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity.

  3. Orchestrating an immune response against cancer with engineered immune cells expressing αβTCRs, CARs, and innate immune receptors : an immunological and regulatory challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Moniek A; Kierkels, Guido J J; Straetemans, Trudy; Britten, Cedrik M; Kuball, Jürgen

    Over half a century ago, the first allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) initiated cellular immunotherapy. For several decades, little progress was made, and toxicity of allo-SCT remained a major challenge. However, recent breakthroughs have opened new avenues to further develop this

  4. Immune responsiveness in a mouse model of combined adoptive immunotherapy with NK and dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: NK cells and DCs adoptive immunotherapy targeted the tumor and exhibited improved therapeutic efficacy as compared to that of the cells given alone. This strategy could induce tumorigenic immunological memory and suggests that mixed NK cells and DCs adoptive immunotherapy offers therapeutic options against cancer.

  5. Antibody-secreting cell responses and protective immunity assessed in gnotobiotic pigs inoculated orally or intramuscularly with inactivated human rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L; Kang, S Y; Ward, L A; To, T L; Saif, L J

    1998-01-01

    Newborn gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated twice perorally (p.o.) (group 1) or intramuscularly (i.m.) (group 2) or three times i.m. (group 3) with inactivated Wa strain human rotavirus and challenged with virulent Wa human rotavirus 20 to 24 days later. To assess correlates of protection, antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were enumerated in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues from pigs in each group at selected postinoculation days (PID) or postchallenge days. Few virus-specific ASC were detected in any tissues of group 1 pigs prior to challenge. By comparison, groups 2 and 3 had significantly greater numbers of virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) ASC in intestinal and splenic tissues at PID 8 and significantly greater numbers of virus-specific IgG ASC and IgG memory B cells in spleen and blood at challenge. However, as for group 1, few virus-specific IgA ASC or IgA memory B cells were detected in any tissues of group 2 and 3 pigs. Neither p.o. nor i.m. inoculation conferred significant protection against virulent Wa rotavirus challenge (0 to 6% protection rate), and all groups showed significant anamnestic virus-specific IgG and IgA ASC responses. Hence, high numbers of IgG ASC or memory IgG ASC in the systemic lymphoid tissues at the time of challenge did not correlate with protection. Further, our findings suggest that inactivated Wa human rotavirus administered either p.o. or parenterally is significantly less effective in inducing intestinal IgA ASC responses and conferring protective immunity than live Wa human rotavirus inoculated orally, as reported earlier (L. Yuan, L. A. Ward, B. I. Rosen, T. L. To, and L. J. Saif, J. Virol. 70:3075-3083, 1996). Thus, more efficient mucosal delivery systems and rotavirus vaccination strategies are needed to induce intestinal IgA ASC responses, identified previously as a correlate of protective immunity to rotavirus.

  6. HMBPP-deficient Listeria mutant immunization alters pulmonary/systemic responses, effector functions, and memory polarization of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencher, James T.; Shen, Hongbo; Yan, Lin; Wilson, Jessica O.; Freitag, Nancy E.; Rizzo, Alicia N.; Chen, Crystal Y.; Chen, Zheng W.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas infection or immunization of humans/primates with microbes coproducing HMBPP/IPP can remarkably activate Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, in vivo studies have not been done to dissect HMBPP- and IPP-driven expansion, pulmonary trafficking, effector functions, and memory polarization of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. We define these phosphoantigen-host interplays by comparative immunizations of macaques with the HMBPP/IPP-coproducing Listeria ΔactA prfA* and HMBPP-deficient Listeria ΔactAΔgcpE prfA* mutant. The HMBPP-deficient ΔgcpE mutant shows lower ability to expand Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in vitro than the parental HMBPP-producing strain but displays comparably attenuated infectivity or immunogenicity. Respiratory immunization of macaques with the HMBPP-deficient mutant elicits lower pulmonary and systemic responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells compared with the HMBPP-producing vaccine strain. Interestingly, HMBPP-deficient mutant reimmunization or boosting elicits enhanced responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, but the magnitude is lower than that by HMBPP-producing listeria. HMBPP-deficient listeria differentiated fewer Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells capable of coproducing IFN-γ and TNF-α and inhibiting intracellular listeria than HMBPP-producing listeria. Furthermore, HMBPP deficiency in listerial immunization influences memory polarization of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Thus, both HMBPP and IPP production in listerial immunization or infection elicit systemic/pulmonary responses and differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, but a role for HMBPP is more dominant. Findings may help devise immune intervention. PMID:25114162

  7. Identification of cell proliferation, immune response and cell migration as critical pathways in a prognostic signature for HER2+:ERα- breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Liu

    Full Text Available Multi-gene prognostic signatures derived from primary tumor biopsies can guide clinicians in designing an appropriate course of treatment. Identifying genes and pathways most essential to a signature performance may facilitate clinical application, provide insights into cancer progression, and uncover potentially new therapeutic targets. We previously developed a 17-gene prognostic signature (HTICS for HER2+:ERα- breast cancer patients, using genes that are differentially expressed in tumor initiating cells (TICs versus non-TICs from MMTV-Her2/neu mammary tumors. Here we probed the pathways and genes that underlie the prognostic power of HTICS.We used Leave-One Out, Data Combination Test, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA, Correlation and Substitution analyses together with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to identify critical biological pathways within HTICS. Publically available cohorts with gene expression and clinical outcome were used to assess prognosis. NanoString technology was used to detect gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues.We show that three major biological pathways: cell proliferation, immune response, and cell migration, drive the prognostic power of HTICS, which is further tuned by Homeostatic and Glycan metabolic signalling. A 6-gene minimal Core that retained a significant prognostic power, albeit less than HTICS, also comprised the proliferation/immune/migration pathways. Finally, we developed NanoString probes that could detect expression of HTICS genes and their substitutions in FFPE samples.Our results demonstrate that the prognostic power of a signature is driven by the biological processes it monitors, identify cell proliferation, immune response and cell migration as critical pathways for HER2+:ERα- cancer progression, and defines substitutes and Core genes that should facilitate clinical application of HTICS.

  8. Comparison of host cell gene expression in cowpox, monkeypox or vaccinia virus-infected cells reveals virus-specific regulation of immune response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquain, Daniel; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Nitsche, Andreas

    2013-02-20

    Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. The disease caused by each virus differs in terms of symptoms and severity, but little is yet know about the reasons for these varying phenotypes. They may be explained by the unique repertoire of immune and host cell modulating factors encoded by each virus. In this study, we analysed the specific modulation of the host cell's gene expression profile by cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infection. We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or specific to certain orthopoxvirus species, allowing a more detailed description of differences in virus-host cell interactions between individual orthopoxviruses. To this end, we analysed changes in host cell gene expression of HeLa cells in response to infection with cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non-infected cells. Despite a dominating non-responsiveness of cellular transcription towards orthopoxvirus infection, we could identify several clusters of infection-modulated genes. These clusters are either commonly regulated by orthopoxvirus infection or are uniquely regulated by infection with a specific orthopoxvirus, with major differences being observed in immune response genes. Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected cells, which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. Despite their close genetic relationship, the expression profiles induced by infection with different orthopoxviruses vary significantly. It may be speculated that these differences at the cellular level contribute to the individual characteristics of cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species.

  9. Low antigen dose formulated in CAF09 adjuvant Favours a cytotoxic T-cell response following intraperitoneal immunization in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2017-01-01

    in order to generate a certain type of immune response. To investigate this area further, we used Göttingen minipigs asan animal model especially due to the similar body size and high degree of immunome similarity between humans and pigs. In this study, we show that both a humoral and a cell......-dose immunization. Independent of antigen dose, intraperitoneal administration of antigen increased the amount of TT-specific cytotoxic CD8β+ T cells within the cytokine-producing T-cell pool when compared to the non-cytokine producing T-cell compartment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a full...... protein formulated in the CAF09 adjuvant and administered to pigs via the intraperitoneal route effectively generates a cytotoxic T-cell response. Moreover, we confirm the inverse relationship between the antigen dose and the induction of polyfunctional T cells in a large animal model. These finding can...

  10. HPV - immune response to infection and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HPV infection in the genital tract is common in young sexually active individuals, the majority of whom clear the infection without overt clinical disease. However most of those who develop benign lesions eventually mount an effective cell mediated immune (CMI response and the lesions regress. Failure to develop effective CMI to clear or control infection results in persistent infection and, in the case of the oncogenic HPVs, an increased probability of progression to CIN3 and invasive carcinoma. The prolonged duration of infection associated with HPV seems to be associated with effective evasion of innate immunity thus delaying the activation of adaptive immunity. Natural infections in animals show that neutralising antibody to the virus coat protein L1 is protective suggesting that this would be an effective prophylactic vaccine strategy. The current prophylactic HPV VLP vaccines are delivered i.m. circumventing the intra-epithelial immune evasion strategies. These vaccines generate high levels of antibody and both serological and B cell memory as evidenced by persistence of antibody and robust recall responses. However there is no immune correlate - no antibody level that correlates with protection. Recent data on how HPV infects basal epithelial cells and how antibody can prevent this provides a mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of HPV VLP vaccines.

  11. The effect of arginine dietary supplementation in broiler breeder hens on offspring humoral and cell-mediated immune responses

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    AE Murakami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of supplementing the diet of broiler breeder hens with arginine (Arg on their offspring's humoral and cell-mediated immune response was evaluated in two experiments. In experiments I and II, breeder hens were fed diets containing graded levels of Arg (0.943, 1.093, 1.243, 1.393 and 1.543% digestible Arg. In experiment I, the offspring was randomly grouped according to the treatment received by the breeder hens, with five levels of Arg in the maternal diet and six replicates, giving a total 30 experimental units. In experiment II, the offspring were grouped in accordance with the treatment received by the breeder hens; however, Arg was added to the starter diet (1.300, 1.450, 1.600, 1.750 and 1.900% digestible Arg and also the growing diet (1.150, 1.300, 1.450, 1.600 and 1.750% digestible Arg. Supplementation of the broiler breeder hen diet did not influence (p > 0.05 the development of the lymphoid organs (cloacal bursa, thymus and spleen of the offspring, whether their diet were supplemented or not. Nevertheless, greater weight and dimensions cloacal bursa were found in the supplemented offspring in comparison with the nonsupplemented offspring. Macrophage phagocytic activity was found to be unaffected (p > 0.05, independently of the Arg supplementation. The offspring fed with supplemented diets showed a linear reduction in the antibody titer against Newcastle Disease (p 0.05 by the breeder hen diet. This study concluded that supplementing the breeder hen diet with arginine is insufficient to improve the humoral and cellular immune response, requiring supplementation of the offspring diet.

  12. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

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    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  13. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Fatou; Martino, Cyrille Di; Bon, Fabienne; Charpilienne, Annie; Cachia, Claire; Poncet, Didier; Clements, John D.; Basset, Christelle; Kohli, Evelyne

    2010-01-01

    LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP) and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (re)stimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP), the adjuvant (LT-R192G) or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols. PMID:22069670

  14. Unexpected modulation of recall B and T cell responses after immunization with rotavirus-like particles in the presence of LT-R192G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Fatou; Martino, Cyrille Di; Bon, Fabienne; Charpilienne, Annie; Cachia, Claire; Poncet, Didier; Clements, John D; Basset, Christelle; Kohli, Evelyne

    2010-08-01

    LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP) and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) helper T cells after in vitro (re)stimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP), the adjuvant (LT-R192G) or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) nor Foxp3(+) T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(-) and Foxp3(+) T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  15. Blockage of Core Fucosylation Reduces Cell-Surface Expression of PD-1 and Promotes Anti-tumor Immune Responses of T Cells

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    Masahiro Okada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 is highly expressed on exhausted T cells and inhibits T cell activation. Antibodies that block the interaction between PD-1 and its ligand prevent this inhibitory signal and reverse T cell dysfunction, providing beneficial anti-tumor responses in a substantial number of patients. Mechanisms for the induction and maintenance of high PD-1 expression on exhausted T cells have not been fully understood. Utilizing a genome-wide loss-of-function screening method based on the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we identified genes involved in the core fucosylation pathway as positive regulators of cell-surface PD-1 expression. Inhibition of Fut8, a core fucosyltransferase, by genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition reduced cell-surface expression of PD-1 and enhanced T cell activation, leading to more efficient tumor eradication. Taken together, our findings suggest that blocking core fucosylation of PD-1 can be a promising strategy for improving anti-tumor immune responses.

  16. Modulation of the cellular immune response during Plasmodium falciparum infections in sickle cell trait individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Theander, T G; Abdulhadi, N H

    1992-01-01

    Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from P. falciparum-infected individuals with and without the sickle cell trait at diagnosis and 7 days after treatment. HbAA and HbAS patients were compared for levels of plasma soluble IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) and the in vitro...

  17. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  18. MAVS Is Essential for Primary CD4+ T Cell Immunity but Not for Recall T Cell Responses following an Attenuated West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huanle; Winkelmann, Evandro; Xie, Guorui; Fang, Rong; Peng, Bi-Hung; Li, Li; Lazear, Helen M; Paessler, Slobodan; Diamond, Michael S; Gale, Michael; Barrett, Alan D; Wang, Tian

    2017-03-15

    The use of pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) agonists and the molecular mechanisms involved have been the major focus of research in individual vaccine development. West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant has several features for an ideal vaccine candidate, including significantly reduced neuroinvasiveness, induction of strong adaptive immunity, and protection of mice from wild-type (WT) WNV infection. Here, we determined the role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), the adaptor protein for RIG-I-like receptor in regulating host immunity against the NS4B-P38G vaccine. We found that Mavs-/- mice were more susceptible to NS4B-P38G priming than WT mice. Mavs-/- mice had a transiently reduced production of antiviral cytokines and an impaired CD4+ T cell response in peripheral organs. However, antibody and CD8+ T cell responses were minimally affected. NS4B-P38G induced lower type I interferon (IFN), IFN-stimulating gene, and proinflammatory cytokine responses in Mavs-/- dendritic cells and subsequently compromised the antigen-presenting capacity for CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, Mavs-/- mice surviving NS4B-P38G priming were all protected from a lethal WT WNV challenge. NS4B-P38G-primed Mavs-/- mice exhibited equivalent levels of protective CD4+ T cell recall response, a modestly reduced WNV-specific IgM production, but more robust CD8+ T cell recall response. Taken together, our results suggest that MAVS is essential for boosting optimal primary CD4+ T cell responses upon NS4B-P38G vaccination and yet is dispensable for host protection and recall T cell responses during secondary WT WNV infection.IMPORTANCE The production of innate cytokines induced by the recognition of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) via their cognate ligands are critical for enhancing antigen-presenting cell functions and influencing T cell responses during microbial infection. The use of PRR agonists and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been the major

  19. Induction of antigen-positive cell death by the expression of perforin, but not DTa, from a DNA vaccine enhances the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Tessa; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Garrod, Tamsin J; Yu, Wenbo; Miller, Darren; Major, Lee; Wesselingh, Steve; Suhrbier, Andreas; Gowans, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    The failure of traditional protein-based vaccines to prevent infection by viruses such as HIV or hepatitis C highlights the need for novel vaccine strategies. DNA vaccines have shown promise in small animal models, and are effective at generating anti-viral T cell-mediated immune responses; however, they have proved to be poorly immunogenic in clinical trials. We propose that the induction of necrosis will enhance the immune response to vaccine antigens encoded by DNA vaccines, as necrotic cells are known to release a range of intracellular factors that lead to dendritic cell (DC) activation and enhanced cross-presentation of antigen. Here we provide evidence that induction of cell death in DNA vaccine-targeted cells provides an adjuvant effect following intradermal vaccination of mice; however, this enhancement of the immune response is dependent on both the mechanism and timing of cell death after antigen expression. We report that a DNA vaccine encoding the cytolytic protein, perforin, resulted in DC activation, enhanced broad and multifunctional CD8 T-cell responses to the HIV-1 antigen GAG and reduced viral load following challenge with a chimeric virus, EcoHIV, compared with the canonical GAG DNA vaccine. This effect was not observed for a DNA vaccine encoding an apoptosis-inducing toxin, DTa, or when the level of perforin expression was increased to induce cell death sooner after vaccination. Thus, inducing lytic cell death following a threshold level of expression of a viral antigen can improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines, whereas apoptotic cell death has an inhibitory effect on the immune response.

  20. Natural killer cells enhance the immune surveillance of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    NOUROZ, FAISAL; Bibi, Farzana; Noreen, Shumaila; Masood, Nosheen

    2016-01-01

    Immune system (IS) is comprised of molecules, cells, tissues and organs involved in host defense mechanism from infectious agents or tumor cells. On crossing the cell barriers by these infectious agents, the defense mechanism is alerted by the immune system to respond against these invading microbes. Innate immune response (IIR) and acquired immune response (AIR) are working in parallel to control these invading microbes. IIR is composed of various types of phagocytes and lymphocytes, while A...

  1. Skin CCR10+ CD8+ T cells support resident Treg cells through the B7.2/receptor axis to regulate local immune homeostasis and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yaoyao; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Na

    2016-01-01

    Resident T cells in barrier tissues are important in protecting against foreign agents but could also contribute to inflammatory diseases if dysregulated. How T cell homeostasis is maintained in barrier tissues is still poorly understood. Herein we report that resident CD8+ T cells directly support maintenance of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the skin to promote immune homeostasis. Impaired establishment of resident CD8+ T cells due to knockout of the skin-homing chemokine receptor CCR10 resulted in altered balance of resident Treg and CD4+ effector T (Teff) cells in the skin and over-reactive inflammatory responses to cutaneous stimulations. Furthermore, B7.2 expressed on skin CD8+ T cells is involved in supporting survival of Treg cells, likely through interaction with its receptor CTLA-4, which is highly expressed on skin Treg cells. Our findings provide novel insight into T cell homeostatic regulation in the skin and may help understand pathobiology of tissue inflammatory diseases. PMID:27183612

  2. Interferon-Beta Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis Patients Improves the Responsiveness of T Cells for Immune Suppression by Regulatory T Cells

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    Bettina Trinschek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by imbalanced immune regulatory networks, and MS patient-derived T effector cells are inefficiently suppressed through regulatory T cells (Treg, a phenomenon known as Treg resistance. In the current study we investigated T cell function in MS patients before and after interferon-beta therapy. We compared cytokine profile, responsiveness for Treg-mediated suppression ex vivo and evaluated reactivity of T cells in vivo using a humanized mouse model. We found that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of therapy-naive MS patients were resistant to Treg-mediated suppression. Treg resistance is associated with an augmented IL-6 production, enhanced IL-6 receptor expression, and increased PKB/c-Akt phosphorylation. These parameters as well as responsiveness of T cells to Treg-mediated suppression were restored after interferon-beta therapy of MS patients. Following transfer into immunodeficient mice, MS T cells induced a lethal graft versus host disease (GvHD and in contrast to T cells of healthy volunteers, this aggressive T cell response could not be controlled by Treg, but was abolished by anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies. However, magnitude and lethality of GvHD induced by MS T cells was significantly decreased after interferon-beta therapy and the reaction was prevented by Treg activation in vivo. Our data reveals that interferon-beta therapy improves the immunoregulation of autoaggressive T effector cells in MS patients by changing the IL-6 signal transduction pathway, thus restoring their sensitivity to Treg-mediated suppression.

  3. Decidual Stromal Cell Response to Paracrine Signals from the Trophoblast: Amplification of Immune and Angiogenic Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, AP; Hamilton, AE; Talbi, S

    2007-01-01

    During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important fo...

  4. Divergence of primary cognate B- and T-cell proliferative responses to subcutaneous and intravenous immunization with virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temchura, Vladimir; Kalinin, Svetlana; Nabi, Ghulam; Tippler, Bettina; Niezold, Thomas; Uberla, Klaus

    2014-08-22

    A major advantage of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines against HIV is their structural identity to wild-type viruses, ensuring that antigen-specific B-cells encounter the envelope protein in its natural conformation. For the induction of affinity-matured antibodies, the B-cells must also obtain help from T-cells that are restricted by linear epitopes. Using B- and T-cell transgenic mouse models, we compared the efficacy of modified HIV-VLPs delivered by subcutaneous and intravenous immunization to stimulate primary B- and T-cell proliferative responses in different lymphoid organs. VLPs containing an influenza virus hemagglutinin epitope within the HIV-Gag protein induced comparable primary cognate T-cell proliferative responses in the draining lymph node and the spleen, irrespective of the delivery route. In contrast, after subcutaneous immunization with HIV-Gag VLPs containing hen egg lysozyme (HEL) on their surface, the proliferative response of transgenic HEL-specific B-cells was restricted to the draining lymph nodes, while intravenous VLP immunization primarily induced a B-cell proliferative response in the spleen. In vitro co-culture experiments further revealed that the presentation of VLP-associated surface antigens by dendritic cells to cognate B-cells is inefficient. This is consistent with a direct triggering of the B-cell proliferative response by the VLPs and suggests that HIV VLPs may indeed be suitable to directly promote the expansion of B-cells specific for conformational epitopes that are unique to functionally-active Env spikes on the virion. Further investigations are warranted to explore potential differences in the quality and protective potency of HIV-specific antibody responses induced by the two routes.

  5. Divergence of Primary Cognate B- and T-Cell Proliferative Responses to Subcutaneous and Intravenous Immunization with Virus-Like Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Temchura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A major advantage of virus-like particle (VLP vaccines against HIV is their structural identity to wild-type viruses, ensuring that antigen-specific B-cells encounter the envelope protein in its natural conformation. For the induction of affinity-matured antibodies, the B-cells must also obtain help from T-cells that are restricted by linear epitopes. Using B- and T-cell transgenic mouse models, we compared the efficacy of modified HIV-VLPs delivered by subcutaneous and intravenous immunization to stimulate primary B- and T-cell proliferative responses in different lymphoid organs. VLPs containing an influenza virus hemagglutinin epitope within the HIV-Gag protein induced comparable primary cognate T-cell proliferative responses in the draining lymph node and the spleen, irrespective of the delivery route. In contrast, after subcutaneous immunization with HIV-Gag VLPs containing hen egg lysozyme (HEL on their surface, the proliferative response of transgenic HEL-specific B-cells was restricted to the draining lymph nodes, while intravenous VLP immunization primarily induced a B-cell proliferative response in the spleen. In vitro co-culture experiments further revealed that the presentation of VLP-associated surface antigens by dendritic cells to cognate B-cells is inefficient. This is consistent with a direct triggering of the B-cell proliferative response by the VLPs and suggests that HIV VLPs may indeed be suitable to directly promote the expansion of B-cells specific for conformational epitopes that are unique to functionally-active Env spikes on the virion. Further investigations are warranted to explore potential differences in the quality and protective potency of HIV-specific antibody responses induced by the two routes.

  6. SjCRT, a recombinant Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin, induces maturation of dendritic cells and a Th1-polarized immune response in mice

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    Lizhen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. Methods The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The effect of recombinant SjCRT (rSjCRT on mouse dendritic cells (DCs was determined by FACS, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. We also analyzed the effects of SjCRT on the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with rSjCRT by detecting lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine profiles of splenocytes. Results We found that the expression level of SjCRT in the cells from RA larvae was significantly higher than that in cells from normal schistosomula at early stages of development (day 4. The results of effect of rSjCRT on mouse DCs showed that rSjCRT could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and SjCRT bound to the surface of DCs through the CD91 receptor and could be engulfed by DCs. The results of activation of splenocytes from mice immunized with rSjCRT also demonstrate that rSjCRT can effectively stimulate the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes, elicit splenocytes from immunized mice to secrete high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4, and activate CD4+ T cells to produce high levels of IFN-γ. Conclusion SjCRT is one of the immunostimulatory molecules released from RA schistosomula cells, might play a crucial role in conferring a Th1-polarized immune response induced by RA cercariae/schistosomula in mice, and is a candidate molecule responsible for the high levels of protective immunity induced by RA schistosomula.

  7. Levamisole promotes murine bone marrow derived dendritic cell activation and drives Th1 immune response in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yubing; Wang, Ting; Xiu, Lei; Shi, Xiaojie; Bian, Ziyao; Zhang, Yongli; Ruhan, A; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Our lab previously found that levamisole (LMS) as an adjuvant enhanced the efficacy of vaccine against infectious pathogens. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In this study, we showed that BALB/c bone marrow-derived DC stimulated with LMS resulted in enhanced cell-surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC class II, as well as enhanced production of IL-12p70, TNF-α and IL-1β. Interestingly, the LMS activated DCs were able to stimulate CD4(+) T cell proliferation and facilitated Th1 differentiation by increasing the secretion of IFN-γ in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Furthermore, to confirm the in vitro data, we investigated the effect of LMS on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Immunization with LMS plus OVA showed that anti-OVA IgG2a and IFN-γ were increased significantly compared with OVA alone in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, our results suggested that murine bone marrow-derived DC, played a crucial role in the effect of LMS on the induction of Th1 responses, which probably was due to its ability to promote DC maturation and secrete proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary Human Blood Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy—Tailoring the Immune Response by Dendritic Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P. Sittig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC-based cancer vaccines hold the great promise of tipping the balance from tolerance of the tumor to rejection. In the last two decades, we have gained tremendous knowledge about DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation of DCs has proven indispensable to induce immunogenic T cell responses. We review the insights gained from the development of maturation cocktails in monocyte derived DC-based trials. More recently, we have also gained insights into the functional specialization of primary human blood DC subsets. In peripheral human blood, we can distinguish at least three primary DC subsets, namely CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs. We reflect the current knowledge on maturation and T helper polarization by these blood DC subsets in the context of DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation stimulus in combination with the DC subset will determine the type of T cell response that is induced. First trials with these natural DCs underline their excellent in vivo functioning and mark them as promising tools for future vaccination strategies.

  9. Induction of robust immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus is supported by the inherent tropism of adeno-associated virus type 5 for dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ke-Qin; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Urabe, Masashi; Toda, Yoshihiko; Shinoda, Kaori; Yoshida, Atsushi; Oomura, Kenji; Kojima, Yoshitsugu; Ichino, Motohide; Klinman, Dennis; Ozawa, Keiya; Okuda, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    The ability of adeno-associated virus serotype 1 to 8 (AAV1 to AAV8) vectors expressing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env gp160 (AAV-HIV) to induce an immune response was evaluated in BALB/c mice. The AAV5 vector showed a higher tropism for both mouse and human dendritic cells (DCs) than did the AAV2 vector, whereas other AAV serotype vectors transduced DCs only poorly. AAV1, AAV5, AAV7, and AAV8 were more highly expressed in muscle cells than AAV2. An immunogenicity study of AAV serotypes indicates that AAV1, AAV5, AAV7, and AAV8 vectors expressing the Env gp160 gene induced higher HIV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses than the AAV2 vector did, with the AAV5 vector producing the best responses. Furthermore, mice injected with DCs that had been transduced ex vivo with an AAV5 vector expressing the gp160 gene elicited higher HIV-specific cell-mediated immune responses than did DCs transduced with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors. We also found that AAV vectors produced by HEK293 cells and insect cells elicit similar levels of antigen-specific immune responses. These results demonstrate that the immunogenicity of AAV vectors depends on their tropism for both antigen-presenting cells (such as DCs) and non-antigen-presenting cells (such as muscular cells) and that AAV5 is a better vector than other AAV serotypes. These results may aid in the development of AAV-based vaccine and gene therapy.

  10. Mumps virus induces innate immune responses in mouse ovarian granulosa cells through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Han; Cheng, Lijing; Yan, Keqin; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Fei; Chen, Yongmei; Li, Qihan; Han, Daishu

    2016-11-15

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection may lead to oophoritis and perturb ovarian function. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of innate immune responses to MuV infection in the ovary have not been investigated. This study showed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) cooperatively initiate innate immune responses to MuV infection in mouse ovarian granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells infected with MuV significantly produced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and type 1 interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β). Knockdown of RIG-I significantly decreased MuV-induced cytokine expression. TLR2 deficiency reduced the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 but did not affect the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β in granulosa cells after infection with MuV. Intraperitoneal injection of MuV induced the ovarian innate immune responses in vivo, which suppressed estradiol synthesis and induced granulosa cell apoptosis. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying MuV-induced innate immune responses in the mouse ovary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  12. The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD200R identifies cells involved in type 2 immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars H; Martel, Britta C; Larsen, Lau F

    2017-01-01

    , were stimulated (14-16h) with peanut extract to detect peanut-specific CD4(+) CD154(+) T-cells. Biopsies were obtained for transcriptomic analysis from healthy controls and patients with extrinsic or intrinsic atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. RESULTS: Expression analysis of >300 surface proteins...... cells. Finally, transcriptomic analysis revealed up-regulation of CD200R in lesional skin from subjects with an extrinsic atopic dermatitis phenotype compared to healthy skin. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that CD200R expression strongly correlates with Th2 pathology; though, the mechanism...

  13. Burn Wound gammadelta T-Cells Support a Th2 and Th17 Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    penicillin and 50 μg/ml streptomycin (GIBCO, Grand Island, NY). Skin tissues were collected in a 60-mm petri dish (Corning, Tewksbury, MA) and minced...U/ml penicillin and 50 μg/ml strep- tomycin (GIBCO) supplemented with 10 U/ml murine recombinant IL-2 (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Cells were...Bhavsar D, Mailänder P. The biology of burn in- jury. Exp Dermatol 2010;19:777–83. 6. Romagnani S. T-cell subsets (Th1 versus Th2). Ann Allergy Asthma

  14. Aging of myelinating glial cells predominantly affects lipid metabolism and immune response pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdier, V.; Csárdi, G.; de Preux-Charles, A.S.; Médard, J.J.; Smit, A.B.; Verheijen, M.H.G.; Bergmann, S.; Chrast, R.

    2012-01-01

    Both the central and the peripheral nervous systems are prone to multiple age-dependent neurological deficits, often attributed to still unknown alterations in the function of myelinating glia. To uncover the biological processes affected in glial cells by aging, we analyzed gene expression of the

  15. Pleiotropic effects of cell wall amidase LytA on Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitivity to the host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Sevillano, Elisa; Urzainqui, Ana; Campuzano, Susana; Moscoso, Miriam; González-Camacho, Fernando; Domenech, Mirian; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Brown, Jeremy S; García, Ernesto; Yuste, Jose

    2015-02-01

    The complement system is a key component of the host immune response for the recognition and clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we demonstrate that the amidase LytA, the main pneumococcal autolysin, inhibits complement-mediated immunity independently of effects on pneumolysin by a complex process of impaired complement activation, increased binding of complement regulators, and direct degradation of complement C3. The use of human sera depleted of either C1q or factor B confirmed that LytA prevented activation of both the classical and alternative pathways, whereas pneumolysin inhibited only the classical pathway. LytA prevented binding of C1q and the acute-phase protein C-reactive protein to S. pneumoniae, thereby reducing activation of the classical pathway on the bacterial surface. In addition, LytA increased recruitment of the complement downregulators C4BP and factor H to the pneumococcal cell wall and directly cleaved C3b and iC3b to generate degradation products. As a consequence, C3b deposition and phagocytosis increased in the absence of LytA and were markedly enhanced for the lytA ply double mutant, confirming that a combination of LytA and Ply is essential for the establishment of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis in a murine model of infection. These data demonstrate that LytA has pleiotropic effects on complement activation, a finding which, in combination with the effects of pneumolysin on complement to assist with pneumococcal complement evasion, confirms a major role of both proteins for the full virulence of the microorganism during septicemia. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied the association between birth-order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Method: Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3/CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of ...

  17. Nuclear hormone receptors enable macrophages and dendritic cells to sense their lipid environment and shape their immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Laszlo; Szanto, Attila; Szatmari, Istvan; Széles, Lajos

    2012-04-01

    A key issue in the immune system is to generate specific cell types, often with opposing activities. The mechanisms of differentiation and subtype specification of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells are critical to understand the regulatory principles and logic of the immune system. In addition to cytokines and pathogens, it is increasingly appreciated that lipid signaling also has a key role in differentiation and subtype specification. In this review we explore how intracellular lipid signaling via a set of transcription factors regulates cellular differentiation, subtype specification, and immune as well as metabolic homeostasis. We introduce macrophages and dendritic cells and then we focus on a group of transcription factors, nuclear receptors, which regulate gene expression upon receiving lipid signals. The receptors we cover are the ones with a recognized physiological function in these cell types and ones which heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor. These are as follows: the receptor for a metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid: retinoic acid receptor (RAR), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), the fatty acid receptor: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor (LXR), and their obligate heterodimeric partner, the retinoid X receptor (RXR). We discuss how they can get activated and how ligand is generated and eliminated in these cell types. We also explore how activation of a particular target gene contributes to biological functions and how the regulation of individual target genes adds up to the coordination of gene networks. It appears that RXR heterodimeric nuclear receptors provide these cells with a coordinated and interrelated network of transcriptional regulators for interpreting the lipid milieu and the metabolic changes to bring about gene expression changes leading to subtype and functional specification. We also show that these networks are implicated in various immune diseases

  18. Cell-mediated immune response to Leishmania chagasi experimental infection of BALB/c immunosuppressed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, presents a significant impact on immunosupressed patients. This study aimed to evaluate Leishmania chagasi infection in BALB/c mice immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spleen cells stimulated or not with L. chagasi were cultured for cytokine quantification (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 by sandwich ELISA. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were determined by means of culture microtitration. Immunosuppressed groups showed statistically lower spleen weight and CD4-cell percentage in blood on the day of infection and produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines on other days of the study. The other infected groups, weather immunosupressed or not, also produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were not statistically different among the groups. It was concluded that L. chagasi infection was not affected by dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression, probably due the reversible effect of the treatment.

  19. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  20. The innate and early immune response to pathogen challenge in the female genital tract and the pivotal role of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, A J

    2002-01-01

    The female reproductive tract is immunologically unique in its requirement for tolerance to allogeneic sperm and, in the upper tract, to the conceptus. However, it must also be appropriately protected from, and respond to, a diverse array of sexually transmitted pathogens. Some of these infections can be lethal (e.g. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)), and others (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) can have potentially devastating reproductive sequelae. Interactions between a host and a pathogen are complex, diverse and regulated, and are a function of the individual pathogen, and host immunity. Although there is undoubtedly commonality in the mucosal immune response, there is also evidence of a degree of site-specificity in immune mechanisms, dependent upon the function and anatomical location of an organ. In this article, we review the evidence on the pivotal role of epithelial cells in the innate and early immune response to pathogen challenge in female genital tract tissues, and examine the evidence that the 'sterile' upper and the 'non-sterile' lower female genital tract may maintain a different immunological surveillance milieu, and may also respond differentially to pathogen challenge. We also review the unique characteristics, and subsequent ramifications of the acute cervical immune response to C. trachomatis, and discuss how natural antimicrobial mediators of immunity may be utilized to decrease the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

  1. Splenectomy inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by modulating anti-tumor adaptive and innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Liran; Mishalian, Inbal; Bayuch, Rachel; Zolotarov, Lida; Michaeli, Janna; Fridlender, Zvi G

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that inhibitors of the immune system reside in the spleen and inhibit the endogenous antitumor effects of the immune system. We hypothesized that splenectomy would inhibit the growth of relatively large non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors by modulating the systemic inhibition of the immune system, and in particular Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC). The effect of splenectomy was evaluated in several murine lung cancer models. We found that splenectomy reduces tumor growth and the development of lung metastases, but only in advanced tumors. In immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice the effect of splenectomy on tumor growth and metastatic spread disappeared. Splenectomy significantly reduced the presence of MDSC, and especially monocytic-MDSC in the circulation and inside the tumor. Specific reduction of the CCR2+ subset of monocytic MDSC was demonstrated, and the importance of the CCL2-CCR2 axis was further shown by a marked reduction in CCL2 following splenectomy. These changes were followed by changes in the macrophages contents of the tumors to become more antitumorigenic, and by increased activation of CD8+ Cytotoxic T-cells (CTL). By MDSC depletion, and adoptive transfer of MDSCs, we demonstrated that the effect of splenectomy on tumor growth was substantially mediated by MDSC cells. We conclude that the spleen is an important contributor to tumor growth and metastases, and that splenectomy can blunt this effect by depletion of MDSC, changing the amount and characteristics of myeloid cells and enhancing activation of CTL. PMID:26137413

  2. Altered immune response of immature dendritic cells upon dengue virus infection in the presence of specific antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Silvia; Flipse, Jacky; Upasani, Vinit C.; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    Dengue virus (DENV) replication is known to prevent maturation of infected dendritic cells (DCs) thereby impeding the development of adequate immunity. During secondary DENV infection, dengue-specific antibodies can suppress DENV replication in immature DCs (immDCs), however how dengue-antibody

  3. Immune Response to Exercise During Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radom-Aizik, Shlomit

    2017-02-01

    Two papers were selected for this commentary. The first paper (Citation 1) suggests that a 10-week, moderate-intensity exercise program performed early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is feasible in this fragile population, and might improve cell cytotoxicity by redistributing subpopulations of NK cells. This study adds to the growing evidence that enhancing immune cell surveillance (e.g., NK cells) in response to exercise could benefit cancer patients. The second paper (Citation 2) studied neutrophil-related mediators of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in response to exercise in children compared with adults. The authors found age/maturation-related differences in these responses. The paper provides a valuable introduction to the current knowledge of maturational changes in immune mediators' response to exercise. Data about leukocyte function in response to exercise in healthy children and in children with clinical conditions is scant. The need for prospective large scale pediatric clinical exercise studies is clear. Molecular approaches to understand the mechanisms through which physical activity can improve health will help to shape guidelines that optimize the mode, frequency, intensity, and duration of the training intervention.

  4. Morbidity from malaria and immune responses to defined Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children with sickle cell trait in The Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, S J; Bennett, S; Riley, E M

    1993-01-01

    Morbidity from Plasmodium falciparum malaria and humoral and in vitro cellular immune responses to defined malaria antigens were measured in rural Gambian children with haemoglobin phenotype AS (HbAS) and in those with a normal haemoglobin (HbAA). In a survey undertaken during the dry season, HbA...

  5. Significance of senescence for virus-specific memory T cell responses: rapid ageing during chronic stimulation of the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, Debbie; Tsegaye, Aster; Miedema, Frank; Akbar, Arne

    2005-01-01

    There is a generalized age-related decline in immune responses which leads to increased susceptibility of elderly to infection and, possibly, to autoimmune disease and cancer. This is associated with phenotypic changes of CD8+ T lymphocytes that include the loss of costimulatory molecules CD28 and

  6. Targeting Peripheral-Derived Regulatory T Cells as a Means of Enhancing Immune Responses Directed against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    that mice that lack pTregs are insensitive to tumor- mediated immune suppression. Therefore, major aims of this research project are to: 1) determine...not succumb to lethal cancer (Figure 2). Considering that TRAMP; Lck-cre; Klf2fl/fl mice continue to express transformed cells throughout their...and has agreed to complete this study. Importantly, work in Year 2 fully supports the hypothesis that pTregs are crucial for transformed cells to

  7. LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting integration-deficient ZVexTM-based lentiviral vector encoding NY-ESO-1, induces potent anti-tumor immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Chang Albershardt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8 T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1.

  8. LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting integration-deficient ZVex(TM)-based lentiviral vector encoding NY-ESO-1, induces potent anti-tumor immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; Ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1.

  9. LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting integration-deficient ZVexTM-based lentiviral vector encoding NY-ESO-1, induces potent anti-tumor immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1. PMID:27626061

  10. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) shapes both innate and CD8(+) T cell immune responses against West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, James D; Daffis, Stephane; Lazear, Helen M; Cho, Hyelim; Suthar, Mehul S; Gale, Michael; Diamond, Michael S

    2011-09-01

    Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 is an immunomodulatory transcription factor that functions downstream of pathogen recognition receptor signaling and has been implicated as a regulator of type I interferon (IFN)-αβ expression and the immune response to virus infections. However, this role for IRF-1 remains controversial because altered type I IFN responses have not been systemically observed in IRF-1(-/-) mice. To evaluate the relationship of IRF-1 and immune regulation, we assessed West Nile virus (WNV) infectivity and the host response in IRF-1(-/-) cells and mice. IRF-1(-/-) mice were highly vulnerable to WNV infection with enhanced viral replication in peripheral tissues and rapid dissemination into the central nervous system. Ex vivo analysis revealed a cell-type specific antiviral role as IRF-1(-/-) macrophages supported enhanced WNV replication but infection was unaltered in IRF-1(-/-) fibroblasts. IRF-1 also had an independent and paradoxical effect on CD8(+) T cell expansion. Although markedly fewer CD8(+) T cells were observed in naïve animals as described previously, remarkably, IRF-1(-/-) mice rapidly expanded their pool of WNV-specific cytolytic CD8(+) T cells. Adoptive transfer and in vitro proliferation experiments established both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic effects of IRF-1 on the expansion of CD8(+) T cells. Thus, IRF-1 restricts WNV infection by modulating the expression of innate antiviral effector molecules while shaping the antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response.

  11. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1 shapes both innate and CD8(+ T cell immune responses against West Nile virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Brien

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor (IRF-1 is an immunomodulatory transcription factor that functions downstream of pathogen recognition receptor signaling and has been implicated as a regulator of type I interferon (IFN-αβ expression and the immune response to virus infections. However, this role for IRF-1 remains controversial because altered type I IFN responses have not been systemically observed in IRF-1(-/- mice. To evaluate the relationship of IRF-1 and immune regulation, we assessed West Nile virus (WNV infectivity and the host response in IRF-1(-/- cells and mice. IRF-1(-/- mice were highly vulnerable to WNV infection with enhanced viral replication in peripheral tissues and rapid dissemination into the central nervous system. Ex vivo analysis revealed a cell-type specific antiviral role as IRF-1(-/- macrophages supported enhanced WNV replication but infection was unaltered in IRF-1(-/- fibroblasts. IRF-1 also had an independent and paradoxical effect on CD8(+ T cell expansion. Although markedly fewer CD8(+ T cells were observed in naïve animals as described previously, remarkably, IRF-1(-/- mice rapidly expanded their pool of WNV-specific cytolytic CD8(+ T cells. Adoptive transfer and in vitro proliferation experiments established both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic effects of IRF-1 on the expansion of CD8(+ T cells. Thus, IRF-1 restricts WNV infection by modulating the expression of innate antiviral effector molecules while shaping the antigen-specific CD8(+ T cell response.

  12. Quality of the transgene-specific CD8+ T cell response induced by adenoviral vector immunization is critically influenced by virus dose and route of vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Ørskov, Cathrine; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been widely used for experimental gene therapy and vaccination, yet there is a surprising lack of knowledge connecting the route and dose of adenovirus administration to the induced transgene-specific immune response. We have recently demonstrated polyfunctional CD8(+) T...... effector functions, accumulated in the spleen. These findings indicate that the localization of the adenoviral inoculum and not the total Ag load determines the quality of the CD8(+) T cell response induced with adenoviral vaccines....

  13. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber inhibits intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to cell cycle and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Lizárraga, Daneida; Miranda, Anibal; Vinardell, Maria P; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Torres, Josep L; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Capellà, Gabriel; Cascante, Marta

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that fiber and phenolic compounds might have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Accordingly, we assessed the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of a lyophilized red grape pomace containing proanthocyanidin (PA)-rich dietary fiber [grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF)] on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. Mice were fed a standard diet (control group) or a 1% (w/w) GADF-supplemented diet (GADF group) for 6 weeks. GADF supplementation greatly reduced intestinal tumorigenesis, significantly decreasing the total number of polyps by 76%. Moreover, size distribution analysis showed a considerable reduction in all polyp size categories [diameter 2mm (87%)]. In terms of polyp formation in the proximal, middle and distal portions of the small intestine, a decrease of 76, 81 and 73% was observed, respectively. Putative molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of intestinal tumorigenesis were investigated by comparison of microarray expression profiles of GADF-treated and non-treated mice. We observed that the effects of GADF are mainly associated with the induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of genes related to the immune response and inflammation. Our findings show for the first time the efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of GADF against intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting its potential for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  14. Importance of TLR2 on hepatic immune and non-immune cells to attenuate the strong inflammatory liver response during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Antonio Carrera-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLR and cytokines play a central role in the pathogen clearance as well as in pathological processes. Recently, we reported that TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 are differentially modulated in injured livers from BALB/c and C57BL/6 (B6 mice during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in local immune response remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we demonstrate that hepatic leukocytes from infected B6 mice produced higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice, whereas IL10 and TGFβ were only released by hepatic leukocytes from BALB/c. Strikingly, a higher expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in hepatocytes of infected BALB/c mice. However, in infected B6 mice, the strong pro-inflammatory response was associated with a high and sustained expression of TLR9 and iNOS in leukocytes and hepatic tissue respectively. Additionally, co-expression of gp91- and p47-phox NADPH oxidase subunits were detected in liver tissue of infected B6 mice. Notably, the pre-treatment previous to infection with Pam3CSK4, TLR2-agonist, induced a significant reduction of transaminase activity levels and inflammatory foci number in livers of infected B6 mice. Moreover, lower pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased TGFβ levels were detected in purified hepatic leukocytes from TLR2-agonist pre-treated B6 mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results describe some of the main injurious signals involved in liver immune response during the T. cruzi acute infection. Additionally we show that the administration of Pam3CSk4, previous to infection, can attenuate the exacerbated inflammatory response of livers in B6 mice. These results could be useful to understand and design novel immune strategies in controlling liver pathologies.

  15. Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Zagon, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Production of immunospecific egg yolk antibodies (IgY antibodies) in egg laying hens through oral immunization is an attractive alternative to conventional antibody production in mammals for economic reasons as well as for animal welfare reasons. Oral immunization results in a systemic humoral...... of the immunization in week 18, demonstrating the presence of memory cells following the two initial oral immunizations. Considering that oral immunization results in approximately ten times lower concentrations of immunospecific antibodies in the egg yolk, compared to traditional subcutaneous immunization schemes...... response, but oral booster immunizations lack efficiency. The aim of the present study was to develop immunization schemes in which the concentration of immunospecific IgY would increase following oral booster immunizations. Two groups of egg laying hens (5 in each group) were immunized orally (each...

  16. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura De Simone

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in

  17. Low antigen dose formulated in CAF09 adjuvant Favours a cytotoxic T-cell response following intraperitoneal immunization in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2017-01-01

    in order to generate a certain type of immune response. To investigate this area further, we used Göttingen minipigs asan animal model especially due to the similar body size and high degree of immunome similarity between humans and pigs. In this study, we show that both a humoral and a cell...... protein formulated in the CAF09 adjuvant and administered to pigs via the intraperitoneal route effectively generates a cytotoxic T-cell response. Moreover, we confirm the inverse relationship between the antigen dose and the induction of polyfunctional T cells in a large animal model. These finding can...

  18. T Cell Metabolic Fitness in Anti-Tumor Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Siska, Peter J.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    T cell metabolism plays a central role to support and shape immune responses and may play a key role in anti-tumor immunity. T cell metabolism is normally held under tight regulation in an immune response of glycolysis to promote effector T cell expansion and function. However, tumors may deplete nutrients, generate toxic products, or stimulate conserved negative feedback mechanisms, such as through PD-1, to impair effector T cell nutrient uptake and metabolic fitness. In addition, regulatory...

  19. Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Adnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

  20. Targeting the tumor microenvironment to enhance antitumor immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jeught, Kevin; Bialkowski, Lukasz; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Broos, Katrijn; Goyvaerts, Cleo; Renmans, Dries; Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-specific antigens and the immune responses directed against them has instigated the development of therapies to enhance antitumor immune responses. Most of these cancer immunotherapies are administered systemically rather than directly to tumors. Nonetheless, numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoral therapy is an attractive approach, both for immunization and immunomodulation purposes. Injection, recruitment and/or activation of antigen-presenting cells in the tumor nest have been extensively studied as strategies to cross-prime immune responses. Moreover, delivery of stimulatory cytokines, blockade of inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint blockade have been explored to restore immunological fitness at the tumor site. These tumor-targeted therapies have the potential to induce systemic immunity without the toxicity that is often associated with systemic treatments. We review the most promising intratumoral immunotherapies, how these affect systemic antitumor immunity such that disseminated tumor cells are eliminated, and which approaches have been proven successful in animal models and patients. PMID:25682197

  1. Immune responses to Dermatophilus congolensis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, N; Lloyd, D; Maillard, J C

    1999-07-01

    Complex mechanisms underly the establishment of dermatophilosis, an exudative and proliferative skin disease of ruminants. This multicomponent system involves the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis, transmission by various routes including flies, host genetic factors and immunosuppression by Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Here, Nick Ambrose and colleagues summarize recent evidence for an association between A. variegatum and severe chronic dermatophilosis in cattle. Breed-based differences in resistance to dermatophilosis are probably related to immunity to ticks or resistance to the immunosuppressive effects of ticks. Immunity to dermatophilosis might involve non-classic responses mediated by CD1 antigen presentation and gammadelta T cells. Progress towards vaccination is further complicated by strain-specific acquired immunity to D. congolensis.

  2. CD8 T Cells in Innate Immune Responses: Using STAT4-Dependent but Antigen-Independent Pathways to Gamma Interferon during Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ramirez, Jenny E.; Tarrio, Margarite L.; Kim, Kwangsin; Demers, Delia A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ), with antimicrobial and immunoregulatory functions, can be produced by T cells following stimulation through their T cell receptors (TCRs) for antigen. The innate cytokines type 1 IFNs and interleukin-12 (IL-12) can also stimulate IFN-γ production by natural killer (NK) but not naive T cells. High basal expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4), used by type 1 IFN and IL-12 to induce IFN-γ as well as CD25, contributes to the NK cell responses. During acute viral infections, antigen-specific CD8 T cells are stimulated to express elevated STAT4 and respond to the innate factors with IFN-γ production. Little is known about the requirements for cytokine compared to TCR stimulation. Primary infections of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) demonstrated that although the elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells acquired STAT4-dependent innate cytokine responsiveness for IFN-γ and CD25 induction ex vivo, TCR stimulation induced these through STAT4-independent pathways. During secondary infections, LCMV-immune CD8 T cells had STAT4-dependent IFN-γ expression at times of innate cytokine induction but subsequently expanded through STAT4-independent pathways. At times of innate cytokine responses during infection with the antigen-distinct murine cytomegalovirus virus (MCMV), NK and LCMV-immune CD8 T cells both had activation of pSTAT4 and IFN-γ. The T cell IFN-γ response was STAT4 and IL-12 dependent, but antigen-dependent expansion was absent. By dissecting requirements for STAT4 and antigen, this work provides novel insights into the endogenous regulation of cytokine and proliferative responses and demonstrates conditioning of innate immunity by experience. PMID:25336459

  3. OMOLOGICAL AND HETEROLOGICAL ANTIBODY AND T CELL IMMUNE RESPONSES TO LIVE ATTENUATED INFLUENZA VACCINE A (H5N2 AND A (H7N3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Naykhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of 21th century outbreaks of H5, H7 and H9 avian flu are registered from time to time. These viruses are considered as one of the possible causes of the next pandemia. The development of avian influenza vaccines is one of the WHO priorities. The aim of this work was to study antibody and cellular immune responses to avian A (H5N2 and A (H7N3 live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs. We examined serum antibodies (HAI assay, microneutralization assay, ELISA, local antibodies (ELISA and virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ central memory and effector memory T cells. Two doses vaccination of healthy volunteers with A (H5N2 and A (H7N3 LAIVs induced homological antibody and cellular immune responses (i. e. serum and local antibody conversions, virus-specific memory T cell growth. These vaccines also stimulated heterological immunity (heterological serum and local antibodies and T cells. Heterological immune response intensity depended on antigenic structure of vaccine strain and heterological virus, particularly on HA type. 

  4. Maternal allergic disease does not affect the phenotype of T and B cells or the immune response to allergens in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindsjö, E; Joerink, M; Johansson, C; Bremme, K; Malmström, V; Scheynius, A

    2010-07-01

    It is hypothesized that the in utero environment in allergic mothers can affect the neonatal immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of maternal allergic disease on cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) phenotype and proliferative responses upon allergen stimulation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 allergic and 14 nonallergic mothers and CBMC from their children were analysed. In the mothers, we determined cell proliferation, production of IL-4 and expression of FOXP3 in response to allergen stimulation. In the children, we evaluated cell proliferation and FOXP3 expression following allergen stimulation. Furthermore, expression of different homing markers on T cells and regulatory T cells and maturity of the T cells and B cell subsets were evaluated directly ex vivo. The timothy- and birch-allergic mothers responded with increased proliferation and/or IL-4 production towards timothy and birch extract, respectively, when compared to nonallergic mothers. This could not be explained by impairment of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells in the allergic mothers. CBMC proliferation and FOXP3 expression in response to allergens were not affected by the allergic status of the mother. Also, phenotype of T cells, FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells and B cells was not affected by the allergic status of the mother. Our results suggest that maternal allergic disease has no effect on the neonatal response to allergens or the phenotype of neonatal lymphocytes. The factors studied here could, however, still affect later development of allergy.

  5. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2004-01-01

    B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto's thyroidi......B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto...

  6. Frequent adaptive immune responses against arginase-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Mortensen, Rasmus Erik Johansson; Hansen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme arginase-1 reduces the availability of arginine to tumor-infiltrating immune cells, thus reducing T-cell functionality in the tumor milieu. Arginase-1 is expressed by some cancer cells and by immune inhibitory cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated...

  7. Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prebensen

    Full Text Available Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV-associated immune activation and improve IgG responses to T cell-dependent vaccines. In this follow-up study, we included 56 HIV-infected adults, 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and 28 on ART with undetectable plasma viremia but CD4 counts below 500 cells/μL. Patients in each of the two study groups were randomized to receive 90 mg qd of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib for six months, two weeks or to a control arm, respectively. T cell activation status, HIV Gag-specific T cell responses and plasma inflammatory markers, tryptophan metabolism and thrombin generation were analyzed at baseline and after four months. In addition, patients received tetanus toxoid, conjugated pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccines, to which IgG responses were determined after four weeks. In ART-naïve patients, etoricoxib reduced the density of the activation marker CD38 in multiple CD8+ T cell subsets, improved Gag-specific T cell responses, and reduced in vitro plasma thrombin generation, while no effects were seen on plasma markers of inflammation or tryptophan metabolism. No significant immunological effects of etoricoxib were observed in ART-treated patients. Patients receiving long-term etoricoxib treatment had poorer tetanus toxoid and conjugated pneumococcal vaccine responses than those receiving short-course etoricoxib. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may attenuate harmful immune activation in HIV-infected patients without access to ART.

  8. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce epitope-specific T cell responses but confers non-specific protective immunity in a malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H Apte

    Full Text Available Vaccines against many pathogens for which conventional approaches have failed remain an unmet public health priority. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines offer an attractive alternative to whole protein and whole organism vaccines, particularly for complex pathogens that cause chronic infection. Previously, we have reported a promising lipid core peptide (LCP vaccine delivery system that incorporates the antigen, carrier, and adjuvant in a single molecular entity. LCP vaccines have been used to deliver several peptide subunit-based vaccine candidates and induced high titre functional antibodies and protected against Group A streptococcus in mice. Herein, we have evaluated whether LCP constructs incorporating defined CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ T cell epitopes could induce epitope-specific T cell responses and protect against pathogen challenge in a rodent malaria model. We show that LCP vaccines failed to induce an expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells following primary immunization or by boosting. We further demonstrated that the LCP vaccines induced a non-specific type 2 polarized cytokine response, rather than an epitope-specific canonical CD8(+ T cell type 1 response. Cytotoxic responses of unknown specificity were also induced. These non-specific responses were able to protect against parasite challenge. These data demonstrate that vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce canonical epitope-specific T cell responses, at least in our rodent model, but can nonetheless confer non-specific protective immunity against Plasmodium parasite challenge.

  10. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

    2013-07-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

  11. Anti-CD20 as the B cells targeting agent in the combined therapy to modulate anti-factor VIII immune responses in hemophilia A inhibitor mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lien eLiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibody formation against transgene products can represent a major complication following gene therapy with treatment of genetic diseases, such as hemophilia A. Although successful approaches have been developed to prevent the formation of anti-factor VIII (FVIII antibodies, innovative strategies to overcome pre-existing anti-FVIII immune responses in FVIII-primed subjects are still lacking. Anti-FVIII neutralizing antibodies circulate for long periods in part due to persistence of memory B cells. Anti-CD20 targets a variety of B cells (pre-B cells to mature/memory cells; therefore, we investigated the impact of B cell depletion on anti-FVIII immune responses in hemophilia A mice using anti-CD20 combined with regulatory T (Treg cell expansion using IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes plus rapamycin. We found that anti-CD20 alone can partially modulate anti-FVIII immune responses in both unprimed and FVIII-primed hemophilia A mice. Moreover, in mice treated with anti-CD20 + IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes + rapamycin + FVIII, anti-FVIII antibody titers were significantly reduced in comparison to mice treated with regimens targeting only B or T cells. In addition, titers remained low after a second challenge with FVIII plasmid . Treg cells and activation markers were transiently and significantly increased in the groups treated with IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes ; however,significant B cell depletion was obtained in anti-CD20-treated groups. Importantly, both FVIII-specific antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells were significantly reduced in mice treated with combination therapy. This study demonstrates that a combination regimen is highly promising as a treatment option for modulating anti-FVIII antibodies and facilitating induction of long-term tolerance to FVIII in hemophilia A mice.

  12. Selection of attenuated dengue 4 viruses by serial passage in primary kidney cells. V. Human response to immunization with a candidate vaccine prepared in fetal rhesus lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, K H; Scott, R M; Bancroft, W H; Brown, J; Dubois, D R; Summers, P L; Russell, P K; Halstead, S B

    1984-07-01

    A dengue 4 (strain H241, PDK35-TD3 FRhL p3) vaccine attenuated by passage in primary dog kidney cells followed by passage and final vaccine preparation in DBS-FRhL-2 cells was tested in five yellow fever-immune volunteers. Only two volunteers seroconverted by producing hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies. Mild illness, compatible with dengue infection was found only in the individuals who later developed antibodies. Both volunteers developed a rash by the 8th day following vaccination, coinciding with a slight elevation in temperature and leukopenia. Additionally, several serum enzymes were elevated during the observation period. Dengue 4 virus was isolated from the blood of the two infected volunteers starting as early as day 5 post vaccination. During the viremic period, which lasted 5 days, phenotypically-changed virus was recovered, indicating genetic instability of the vaccine virus. The clinical disease and immune response in the two infected individuals was probably related to replication of the variant virus. Further testing of this vaccine in its present form is not indicated.

  13. Risk factors for discordant immune response among HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... Background. The therapeutic goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is sustained immune recovery and viral suppression. However, some patients experience poor CD4 cell count responses despite achieving viral suppression. Such discordant immune responses have been associated with poor clinical ...

  14. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A randomized trial of ex vivo CD40L activation of a dendritic cell vaccine in colorectal cancer patients: tumor-specific immune responses are associated with improved survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barth, Jr, Richard J; Fisher, Dawn A; Wallace, Paul K; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Noelle, Randolph J; Gui, Jiang; Ernstoff, Marc S

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine could induce antitumor immune responses in patients after resection of colorectal cancer metastases and whether these responses could be enhanced by activating DCs with CD40L...

  16. Immune Response in Thyroid Cancer: Widening the Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura Sterian

    2014-01-01

    The association between thyroid cancer and thyroid inflammation has been repeatedly reported and highly debated in the literature. In fact, both molecular and epidemiological data suggest that these diseases are closely related and this association reinforces that the immune system is important for thyroid cancer progression. Innate immunity is the first line of defensive response. Unlike innate immune responses, adaptive responses are highly specific to the particular antigen that induced them. Both branches of the immune system may interact in antitumor immune response. Major effector cells of the immune system that directly target thyroid cancer cells include dendritic cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes. A mixture of immune cells may infiltrate thyroid cancer microenvironment and the balance of protumor and antitumor activity of these cells may be associated with prognosis. Herein, we describe some evidences that immune response may be important for thyroid cancer progression and may help us identify more aggressive tumors, sparing the vast majority of patients from costly unnecessary invasive procedures. The future trend in thyroid cancer is an individualized therapy. PMID:25328756

  17. Coinhibitory Receptor Expression and Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Maintaining a Balance in CD8+ T Cell Responses to Chronic Viral Infections and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel S. Okoye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called “immune checkpoints” by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer. With the paucity of therapeutic vaccines against chronic infections such as HIV, HPV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, such adjunct checkpoint blockade strategies are required including the blockade of other inhibitory receptors such as T cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin (Ig and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domains, T cell Ig and mucin-domain containing-3, lymphocyte activation gene 3, and V-domain Ig-containing suppressor of T cell activation. The nature of different chronic viral infections and cancers is likely to influence the level, composition, and pattern of inhibitory receptors expressed by responding T cells. This will have implications for checkpoint antibody blockade strategies employed for treating tumors and chronic viral infections. Here, we review recent advances that provide a clearer insight into the role of coinhibitory receptor expression in T cell exhaustion and reveal novel antibody-blockade therapeutic targets for chronic viral infections and cancer. Understanding the mechanism of T cell exhaustion in response to chronic virus infections and cancer as well as the nature of restored T cell responses will contribute to further improvement of immune checkpoint blockade strategies.

  18. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484117X

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  19. The Bidirectional Relationship between Metabolism and Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Forum M; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    Immunometabolism investigates the multiple links between the immune system and metabolism. One main focus of immunometabolism investigates how obesity impacts the immune system and pro-inflammatory immune cell function, leading to metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The second focus stresses the metabolic changes that dictate immune cell activation. Several groups have studied these two arms of the field individually, but work that integrates both topics will be required to develop an accurate understanding of how immune cells and metabolic pathways collaborate in obesity and obesity-associated T2D. Investigations of the relationships among obesity-induced changes in the nutritional environment, immune cell activation, and immune cell metabolism may lead to novel and efficacious therapies for obesity-associated disorders such as insulin resistance (IR) and T2D. This review outlines recent insights into two related processes: 1. the role that energy utilization plays in immune responses and 2. the immune cell functions that drive obesity and T2D. Herein, we begin to consider how shifts in available fuel sources in obesity and T2D impact the immune response to both pathogens and chronic over nutrition.

  20. Odontoblasts in the dental pulp immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Keller, Jean-François; Carrouel, Florence; Durand, Stephanie H; Romeas, Annick; Bleicher, Françoise; Lebecque, Serge; Staquet, Marie-Jeanne

    2009-07-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp cells sense pathogens and elicit innate and/or adaptive immunity. Particular attention has been paid to odontoblasts that are situated at the pulp-dentin interface and constitute the first line of defense to cariogenic bacteria entering dentin after enamel disruption. In this review, recent in vitro and in vivo data suggesting that odontoblasts initiate immune/inflammatory events within the dental pulp in response to cariogenic bacteria are discussed. These data include sensing of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), production of chemokines upon cell stimulation with microbial by-products and induction of dendritic cell migration. Additional results presented here reveal that all TLR genes are expressed in the healthy human dental pulp that is thus well equipped to combat pathogens entering the tissue. Seventeen chemokine genes including CXCL12, CCL2, CXCL9, CX3CL1, CCL8, CXCL10, CCL16, CCL5, CXCL2, CCL4, CXCL11 and CCL3, and 9 chemokine receptor genes including CXCR4, CCR1, CCR5, CX3CR1, CCR10 and CXCR3, are also expressed in pulp. TLR2, CCL2 and CXCL1 are upregulated in odontoblasts both under caries lesions and upon stimulation with pathogen by-products. These molecules thus appear as preferential targets for the design of therapeutic agents able to reduce the immune/inflammatory response to cariogenic bacteria and favor pulp healing. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF Bioactivity at the Site of an Acute Cell-Mediated Immune Response Is Preserved in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Responding to Anti-TNF Therapy

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    Rachel Byng-Maddick

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF therapies on inducible TNF-dependent activity in humans has never been evaluated in vivo. We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients responding to anti-TNF treatments exhibit attenuated TNF-dependent immune responses at the site of an immune challenge. We developed and validated four context-specific TNF-inducible transcriptional signatures to quantify TNF bioactivity in transcriptomic data. In anti-TNF treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, we measured the expression of these biosignatures in blood, and in skin biopsies from the site of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs as a human experimental model of multivariate cell-mediated immune responses. In blood, anti-TNF therapies attenuated TNF bioactivity following ex vivo stimulation. However, at the site of the TST, TNF-inducible gene expression and genome-wide transcriptional changes associated with cell-mediated immune responses were comparable to that of RA patients receiving methotrexate only. These data demonstrate that anti-TNF agents in RA patients do not inhibit inducible TNF activity at the site of an acute inflammatory challenge in vivo, as modeled by the TST. We hypothesize instead that their therapeutic effects are limited to regulating TNF activity in chronic inflammation or by alternative non-canonical pathways.

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Bioactivity at the Site of an Acute Cell-Mediated Immune Response Is Preserved in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Responding to Anti-TNF Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byng-Maddick, Rachel; Turner, Carolin T; Pollara, Gabriele; Ellis, Matthew; Guppy, Naomi J; Bell, Lucy C K; Ehrenstein, Michael R; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapies on inducible TNF-dependent activity in humans has never been evaluated in vivo. We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients responding to anti-TNF treatments exhibit attenuated TNF-dependent immune responses at the site of an immune challenge. We developed and validated four context-specific TNF-inducible transcriptional signatures to quantify TNF bioactivity in transcriptomic data. In anti-TNF treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we measured the expression of these biosignatures in blood, and in skin biopsies from the site of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) as a human experimental model of multivariate cell-mediated immune responses. In blood, anti-TNF therapies attenuated TNF bioactivity following ex vivo stimulation. However, at the site of the TST, TNF-inducible gene expression and genome-wide transcriptional changes associated with cell-mediated immune responses were comparable to that of RA patients receiving methotrexate only. These data demonstrate that anti-TNF agents in RA patients do not inhibit inducible TNF activity at the site of an acute inflammatory challenge in vivo, as modeled by the TST. We hypothesize instead that their therapeutic effects are limited to regulating TNF activity in chronic inflammation or by alternative non-canonical pathways.

  3. Production of immune response mediators by HT-29 intestinal cell-lines in the presence of Bifidobacterium-treated infant microbiota.

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    Arboleya, S; Bahrami, B; Macfarlane, S; Gueimonde, M; Macfarlane, G T; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G

    2015-01-01

    The colonisation and establishment of the intestinal microbiota starts immediately at birth and is essential for the development of the intestine and the immune system. This microbial community gradually increases in number and diversity until the age of two or three years when it becomes a stable ecosystem resembling that of adults. This period constitutes a unique window of opportunity to modulate it through probiotic action, with a potential impact in later health. In the present work we have investigated how putative bifidobacterial probiotics modify the metabolic profiles and immune-modulatory properties of faecal microbiotas. An in vitro pH-controlled single-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) inoculated with infant faeces was employed to characterise the effects of two Bifidobacterium species on the intestinal microbiotas in three children, together with the effects of these modified microbiotas on cytokine production by HT-29 cells. Intestinal bacterial communities, production of short-chain fatty acids and lactate were determined by quantitative PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Cytokines production by HT-29 cells was measured by ELISA. The combination of CCS with infant faeces and human intestinal cells provided a suitable model to evaluate the specific modulation of the intestinal microbiota and immune system by probiotics. In the CCS, infant faecal microbiotas were influenced by the addition of bifidobacteria, resulting in changes in their ability to induce the production of immune mediators by HT-29 cells. The different metabolic and immunological responses induced by the bifidobacterial species tested indicate the need to assess potential probiotics in model systems including complex intestinal microbiotas. Potential probiotic bifidobacteria can modulate the infant microbiota and its ability to induce the production of mediators of the immune response by intestinal cells.

  4. Using Zebrafish Models of Human Influenza A Virus Infections to Screen Antiviral Drugs and Characterize Host Immune Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Con; Jurcyzszak, Denise; Goody, Michelle F; Gabor, Kristin A; Longfellow, Jacob R; Millard, Paul J; Kim, Carol H

    2017-01-20

    Each year, seasonal influenza outbreaks profoundly affect societies worldwide. In spite of global efforts, influenza remains an intractable healthcare burden. The principle strategy to curtail infections is yearly vaccination. In individuals who have contracted influenza, antiviral drugs can mitigate symptoms. There is a clear and unmet need to develop alternative strategies to combat influenza. Several animal models have been created to model host-influenza interactions. Here, protocols for generating zebrafish models for systemic and localized human influenza A virus (IAV) infection are described. Using a systemic IAV infection model, small molecules with potential antiviral activity can be screened. As a proof-of-principle, a protocol that demonstrates the efficacy of the antiviral drug Zanamivir in IAV-infected zebrafish is described. It shows how disease phenotypes can be quantified to score the relative efficacy of potential antivirals in IAV-infected zebrafish. In recent years, there has been increased appreciation for the critical role neutrophils play in the human host response to influenza infection. The zebrafish has proven to be an indispensable model for the study of neutrophil biology, with direct impacts on human medicine. A protocol to generate a localized IAV infection in the Tg(mpx:mCherry) zebrafish line to study neutrophil biology in the context of a localized viral infection is described. Neutrophil recruitment to localized infection sites provides an additional quantifiable phenotype for assessing experimental manipulations that may have therapeutic applications. Both zebrafish protocols described faithfully recapitulate aspects of human IAV infection. The zebrafish model possesses numerous inherent advantages, including high fecundity, optical clarity, amenability to drug screening, and availability of transgenic lines, including those in which immune cells such as neutrophils are labeled with fluorescent proteins. The protocols detailed here

  5. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (PPPNP was not significant (P>0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of tissue distribution, developmental phenotype, and intestinal homing receptor expression of antigen-specific B cells during the murine anti-rotavirus immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Kenneth R; Franco, Manuel A; Kuklin, Nelly A; Rott, Lusijah S; Butcher, Eugene C; Greenberg, Harry B

    2002-03-01

    The intestinal homing receptor, alpha(4)beta(7), helps target lymphocytes to Peyer's patches (PP) and intestinal lamina propria (ILP). We have previously shown that protective immunity to rotavirus (RV), an intestinal pathogen, resides in memory B cells expressing alpha(4)beta(7). In this study, using a novel FACS assay, we have directly studied the phenotype of B cells that express surface RV-specific Ig during the in vivo RV immune response. During primary infection, RV-specific B cells first appear as large IgD(-)B220(low)alpha(4)beta(7)(-)and alpha(4)beta(7)(+) cells (presumptive extrafollicular, Ab-secreting B cells), and then as large and small IgD(-)B220(high)alpha(4)beta(7)(-)cells (presumptive germinal center B cells). The appearance of B cells with the phenotype of large IgD(-)B220(low)alpha(4)beta(7)(+) cells in PP and most notably in mesenteric lymph nodes coincides with the emergence of RV-specific Ab-secreting cells (ASC) in the ILP. Thus, these B lymphocytes are good candidates for the migratory population giving rise to the RV-specific ASC in the ILP. RV-specific long-term memory B cells preferentially accumulate in PP and express alpha(4)beta(7). Nine months after infection most RV-specific IgA ASC are found in PP and ILP and at lower frequency in bone marrow and spleen. This study is the first to follow changes in tissue-specific homing receptor expression during Ag-specific B cell development in response to a natural host, tissue-specific pathogen. These results show that alpha(4)beta(7) is tightly regulated during the Ag-specific B cell response to RV and is expressed concurrently with the specific migration of memory and effector B cells to intestinal tissues.

  7. Generalized immune activation and innate immune responses in simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosinger, Steven E; Sodora, Donald L; Silvestri, Guido

    2011-09-01

    Chronic immune activation is a key factor driving the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. During pathogenic HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections, innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses contribute to chronic immune activation. In contrast, nonpathogenic SIV infections of natural hosts such as sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys (AGMs) are characterized by low immune activation despite similarly high viremia. This review focuses on the role of innate immune responses in SIV infection. Several studies have examined the role of innate immune responses to SIV as potential drivers of immune activation. The key result of these studies is that both pathogenic SIV infection of macaques and nonpathogenic SIV infections of natural hosts are associated with strong innate immune responses to the virus, high production of type I interferons by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, SIV-infected sooty mangabeys and AGMs (but not SIV-infected macaques) rapidly downmodulate the interferon response within 4-6 weeks of infection, thus resulting in a state of limited immune activation during chronic infection. Studies in nonhuman primates suggest that chronic innate/interferon responses may contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Further, the ability of natural host species to resolve innate immune responses after infection provides a novel avenue for potential immunotherapy.

  8. Functional characterization of Foxp3-specific spontaneous immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Susanne Købke; Munir, S; Andersen, Anders Woetmann

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with an impaired prognosis in several cancers. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) is generally expressed in Tregs. Here, we identify and characterize spontaneous cytotoxic immune responses to Foxp3-expressing cells...... in peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cancer patients. These immune responses were directed against a HLA-A2-restricted peptide epitope derived from Foxp3. Foxp3-reactive T cells were characterized as cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. These cells recognized dendritic cells incubated with recombinant Foxp3 protein...... readily killed by the Foxp3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The spontaneous presence of Foxp3-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses suggest a general role of such T cells in the complex network of immune regulation as such responses may eliminate Tregs, that is, suppression of the suppressors...

  9. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) of rotavirus infection as a new model for the study of innate immune responses to rotaviruses and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangning; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Cao, Dianjun; Zhang, Yanming; Yuan, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies of epithelial immune responses to rotavirus infection have been conducted in transformed cell lines. In this study, we evaluated a non-transformed porcine jejunum epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) as an in-vitro model of rotavirus infection and probiotic treatment. Cell-culture-adapted porcine rotavirus (PRV) OSU strain, or human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain, along with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were used to inoculate IPEC-J2 cells. LA or LGG treatment was applied pre- or post-rotavirus infection. We demonstrated that IPEC-J2 cells were productively infected by PRV. LA or LGG treatment of the cells did not reduce virus replication. PRV infection increased MUC3 mucin secretion. LGG treatment post-rotavirus infection reduced the mucin secretion response induced by PRV; LGG alone increased the production of membrane-associated MUC3 mucin. LA treatment prior to rotavirus infection significantly increased PRV replication and the IL-6 response to PRV infection, which is consistent with the adjuvant effect of LA. LGG treatment post-rotavirus infection downregulated the IL-6 response, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect of LGG. IPEC-J2 cells expressed toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3, and TLR9 constitutively. TLR2 expression was upregulated by LGG and peptidoglycan, corresponding to the decreased IL-6 response, indicating that the protective effect of LGG is associated with upregulation of TLR2 expression on intestinal epithelial cells. The IPEC-J2 cell model of PRV infection is a completely homologous system. It is a valuable model for studying the interactions among rotavirus-host-probiotics, and the mechanisms behind the immunomodulating effect of probiotic bacteria on innate immune responses.

  10. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J

    2013-09-15

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most of these escapes evolve early, and that the rate of immune escape slows down considerably. To investigate why the evolution of immune escape slows down over the time of infection, we have extended a consensus mathematical model to allow several immune responses to control the virus together. In the extended model, most escapes also occur early, and the immune escape rate becomes small later, and typically only a minority of the epitopes escape. We show that escaping one of the many immune responses provides little advantage after viral setpoint has been approached because the total killing rate hardly depends on the breadth of the immune response. If the breadth of the immune response slowly wanes during disease progression, the model predicts an increase in the rate of immune escape at late stages of infection. Overall, the most striking prediction of the model is that HIV evolves a small number of immune escapes, in both relative and absolute terms, when the CTL immune response is broad.

  11. Pilot Study on the Use of DNA Priming Immunization to Enhance Y. pestis LcrV-Specific B Cell Responses Elicited by a Recombinant LcrV Protein Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that DNA immunization is powerful in eliciting antigen-specific antibody responses in both animal and human studies. However, there is limited information on the mechanism of this effect. In particular, it is not known whether DNA immunization can also enhance the development of antigen-specific B cell development. In this report, a pilot study was conducted using plague LcrV immunogen as a model system to determine whether DNA immunization is able to enhance LcrV-specific B cell development in mice. Plague is an acute and often fatal infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis. Humoral immune responses provide critical protective immunity against plague. Previously, we demonstrated that a DNA vaccine expressing LcrV antigen can protect mice from lethal mucosal challenge. In the current study, we further evaluated whether the use of a DNA priming immunization is able to enhance the immunogenicity of a recombinant LcrV protein vaccine, and in particular, the development of LcrV-specific B cells. Our data indicate that DNA immunization was able to elicit high-level LcrV antibody responses when used alone or as part of a prime-boost immunization approach. Most significantly, DNA immunization was also able to increase the levels of LcrV-specific B cell development. The finding that DNA immunization can enhance antigen-specific B cell responses is highly significant and will help guide similar studies in other model antigen systems.

  12. Natural functional SNPs in miR-155 alter its expression level, blood cell counts and immune responses

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    Congcong Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus and humans (Homo sapiens. In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B. Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3' terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans.

  13. Dual microRNA Screens Reveal That the Immune-Responsive miR-181 Promotes Henipavirus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Chwan Hong; Rootes, Christina L.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Gould, Cathryn M.; Klein, Reuben; Riddell, Sarah J.; Middleton, Deborah; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Bean, Andrew G. D.; Stewart, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection. miR-181 also promoted Nipah virus infection, but did not affect infection by paramyxoviruses from other genera, indicating specificity in the virus-host interaction. Infection promotion was primarily mediated via the ability of miR-181 to significantly enhance henipavirus-induced membrane fusion. Cell signalling receptors of ephrins, namely EphA5 and EphA7, were identified as novel negative regulators of henipavirus fusion. The expression of these receptors, as well as EphB4, were suppressed by miR-181 overexpression, suggesting that simultaneous inhibition of several Ephs by the miRNA contributes to enhanced infection and fusion. Immune-responsive miR-181 levels was also up-regulated in the biofluids of ferrets and horses infected with Hendra virus, suggesting that the host innate immune response may promote henipavirus spread and exacerbate disease severity. This study is the first genome-wide screen of miRNAs influencing infection by a clinically significant mononegavirus and nominates select miRNAs as targets for future anti-viral therapy development. PMID:27783670

  14. Dual microRNA Screens Reveal That the Immune-Responsive miR-181 Promotes Henipavirus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwan Hong Foo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection. miR-181 also promoted Nipah virus infection, but did not affect infection by paramyxoviruses from other genera, indicating specificity in the virus-host interaction. Infection promotion was primarily mediated via the ability of miR-181 to significantly enhance henipavirus-induced membrane fusion. Cell signalling receptors of ephrins, namely EphA5 and EphA7, were identified as novel negative regulators of henipavirus fusion. The expression of these receptors, as well as EphB4, were suppressed by miR-181 overexpression, suggesting that simultaneous inhibition of several Ephs by the miRNA contributes to enhanced infection and fusion. Immune-responsive miR-181 levels was also up-regulated in the biofluids of ferrets and horses infected with Hendra virus, suggesting that the host innate immune response may promote henipavirus spread and exacerbate disease severity. This study is the first genome-wide screen of miRNAs influencing infection by a clinically significant mononegavirus and nominates select miRNAs as targets for future anti-viral therapy development.

  15. Co-incubation with IL-18 potentiates antigen-specific IFN-γ response in a whole-blood stimulation assay for measurement of cell-mediated immune responses in pigs experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2011-01-01

    The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult to evalu......The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult...

  16. The agr inhibitors solonamide B and analogues alter immune responses to Staphylococccus aureus but do not exhibit adverse effects on immune cell functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldry, Mara; Kitir, Betül; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance with the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains such as USA300 being of particular concern. The inhibition of bacterial virulence has been proposed...... with concomitant repression of surface-expressed adhesins. Solonamide B, a non-ribosomal depsipeptide of marine bacterial origin, was recently identified as a putative anti-virulence compound that markedly reduced expression of α-hemolysin and phenol-soluble modulins. To further strengthen solonamide anti...... with agr, while immune cell activity and integrity is generally not affected. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus with selected solonamides was found to only marginally influence the interaction with fibronectin and biofilm formation, thus addressing the concern that application of compounds inducing...

  17. Long-Term immune responses to Coxiella burnetii after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Self, Joshua S; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Massung, Robert F

    2013-02-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Infection with C. burnetii results in humoral and cellular immune responses, both of which are thought to contribute to protection against subsequent infection. Whole-cell formalin-inactivated vaccines have also been shown to induce both humoral and cellular immunity and provide protection. Whether measurement of cellular or humoral immunity is a better indicator of immune protection is not known, and the duration of immunity induced by natural infection or vaccination is also poorly understood. To better understand the measurement and duration of C. burnetii immunity, 16 people vaccinated against Q fever (0.2 to 10.3 years before analysis) and 29 controls with a low risk of Q fever exposure were tested for immune responses to C. burnetii by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA) to measure circulating antibody and by a gamma interferon release assay (IGRA) to measure cellular immunity. Among vaccinated subjects, the IFA detected antibodies in 13/16, and the IGRA also detected positive responses in 13/16. All of the vaccinated subjects had a positive response in at least one of the assays, whereas 8/29 control subjects were positive in at least one assay. There was not a correlation between time since vaccination and responses in these assays. These results show that IFA and IGRA perform similarly in detection of C. burnetii immune responses and that Q fever vaccination establishes long-lived immune responses to C. burnetii.

  18. Lichenoid reaction as a potential immune response marker of intratreatment histological response during successful vismodegib treatment for a giant basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosko, Scott W; Chu, Melinda B; Mattox, Adam R; Richart, John M; Burkemper, Nicole M; Slutsky, Jordan B

    2015-01-01

    We report an 83 year-old patient with a 13 × 7.5 cm(2) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) successfully treated with the combination of vismodegib and minimal surgery. On Day 109, a 0.9 cm papule suspicious for residual BCC was seen centrally within a large pink atrophic plaque. This lesion was excised; pathology confirmed BCC with negative surgical margins. Simultaneously, suspecting noncontiguous histologic response, we performed 21 biopsies at the periphery of the pretreatment tumor location. Seventeen (17/21, 81%) revealed lichenoid dermatitis. No tumor was seen on any. We believe the lichenoid dermatitis observed is a novel finding for two reasons. First, it may be considered a marker of a positive intratreatment response. This may help guide clinicians on the optimal treatment duration of vismodegib to maximize efficacy and mitigate side effects. Second, we think it suggests an additional mechanism of vismodegib action, possibly via local immune effects. Further investigations are warranted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Systemic expression of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 during mycobacterial infection alters the T cell immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Schaller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (DLL4 is known to fine-tune the CD4+ T cell cytokine response. DLL4 is expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells in a MyD88 dependent manner. We found that DLL4 expression was upregulated on bone marrow progenitor cells and antigen presenting cells in mice infected with BCG mycobacterium. Transfer of DLL4+ progenitor cells from infected hosts resulted in an increase DLL4+ myeloid cells in the spleen, indicating that expression of the dll4 gene is propagated throughout hematopoiesis. We also found an increase in DLL4+ monocytes from individuals that were infected with M. tuberculosis. In latent individuals, DLL4 expression correlated with increased cytokine production from T cells in response to PPD stimulation. Finally, antibody blockade of DLL4 reduced T cell cytokine production from naïve T cells stimulated with antigen. These results demonstrate that the Notch ligand DLL4 can influence T cell cytokine production in both humans and mice, and further reveal that expression of DLL4 is upregulated on early hematopoietic progenitors in response to chronic mycobacterial infection. These data suggest that widespread DLL4 expression may occur as a result of mycobacterial infection, and that this expression may alter CD4+ T cell responses to both previously encountered and novel antigens.

  20. ESAT-6- and CFP-10-specific Th1, Th22 and Th17 cells in tuberculous pleurisy may contribute to the local immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, D; Yang, B Y; Li, L; Ma, J J; Zhang, X L; Lao, S H; Wu, C Y

    2011-04-01

    Th1 cell-mediated adaptive immune response is very important but may not be sufficient to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection. The roles of the various T cell subsets and cytokines in the inflammatory processes are not clearly elucidated. We investigated whether Th1, Th22 and Th17 cells mediated cellular immunity at the local site of M. tuberculosis infection in patients with tuberculous pleurisy (TBP). The results showed that the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-22 but not IL-17 were elevated in tubercular pleural fluid. Following stimulation with immune-dominant peptides of early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) or Bacille Calmette-Guerin, pleural fluid mononuclear cells expressed high levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-22 and IL-17 as revealed by mRNA and protein measurements. In addition, we showed that cytokines IFN-γ, IL-22 and IL-17 were produced in M. tuberculosis-specific immune response by distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells with the phenotype of CD45RA-CD62L-CCR7+CD27+ . Our results demonstrated for the first time that ESAT-6- and CFP-10-specific Th1, Th22 and Th17 cells existed in the patients with TBP and might play an essential role against M. tuberculosis infection. The findings of this study raised the possibility of unravelling the critical targets for therapeutic intervention in chronic inflammatory diseases such as TBP. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus triggers antiviral immune response in rainbow trout red blood cells, despite not being infective [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nombela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some fish viruses, such as piscine orthoreovirus and infectious salmon anemia virus, target red blood cells (RBCs, replicate inside them and induce an immune response. However, the roles of RBCs in the context of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV infection  have not been studied yet. Methods: Ex vivo rainbow trout RBCs were obtained from peripheral blood, Ficoll purified and exposed to IPNV in order to analyze infectivity and immune response using RT-qPCR, immune fluorescence imaging, flow cytometry and western-blotting techniques. Results: IPNV could not infect RBCs; however, IPNV increased the expression of the INF1-related genes ifn-1, pkr and mx genes. Moreover, conditioned media from IPNV-exposed RBCs conferred protection against IPNV infection in CHSE-214 fish cell line. Conclusions: Despite not being infected, rainbow trout RBCs could respond to IPNV with increased expression of antiviral genes. Fish RBCs could be considered as mediators of the antiviral response and therefore targets of new strategies against fish viral infections. Further research is ongoing to completely understand the molecular mechanism that triggers this antiviral response in rainbow trout RBCs.

  2. In Situ Microscopy Analysis Reveals Local Innate Immune Response Developed around Brucella Infected Cells in Resistant and Susceptible Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copin, Richard; Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Machelart, Arnaud; De Trez, Carl; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Magez, Stefan; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Carlier, Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that chronically infect humans and animals causing brucellosis. Brucella are able to invade and replicate in a broad range of cell lines in vitro, however the cells supporting bacterial growth in vivo are largely unknown. In order to identify these, we used a Brucella melitensis strain stably expressing mCherry fluorescent protein to determine the phenotype of infected cells in spleen and liver, two major sites of B. melitensis growth in mice. In both tissues, the majority of primary infected cells expressed the F4/80 myeloid marker. The peak of infection correlated with granuloma development. These structures were mainly composed of CD11b+ F4/80+ MHC-II+ cells expressing iNOS/NOS2 enzyme. A fraction of these cells also expressed CD11c marker and appeared similar to inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs). Analysis of genetically deficient mice revealed that differentiation of iNOS+ inflammatory DC, granuloma formation and control of bacterial growth were deeply affected by the absence of MyD88, IL-12p35 and IFN-γ molecules. During chronic phase of infection in susceptible mice, we identified a particular subset of DC expressing both CD11c and CD205, serving as a reservoir for the bacteria. Taken together, our results describe the cellular nature of immune effectors involved during Brucella infection and reveal a previously unappreciated role for DC subsets, both as effectors and reservoir cells, in the pathogenesis of brucellosis. PMID:22479178

  3. Saccharomyces uvarum mannoproteins stimulate a humoral immune response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Patrícia Brito Darpossolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts discarded in industrial processes can be used as a nutritional supplement and to extract cellular components with biotechnological aims. In this study, the humoral immune response of Swiss mice treated with mannoproteins (MP from the yeast Saccharomyces uvarum was evaluated. The mice were treated with MPs at different doses and times and inoculated with 2% sheep red blood cells. An increase in total Ig in mice treated with 100 μg of MP at the time of immunization or 24 h before was observed in the primary immune response; in the secondary immune response, an increase was observed in total Ig values for all groups, and an increase of IgG was observed in the mice treated with MPs (100 μg at the time of immunization or 24 h before. These results show that S. uvarum MPs present an immunostimulatory action on the humoral immune response in mice.

  4. Intestinal dysbiosis and innate immune responses in axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Francesco; Ferrante, Angelo; Triolo, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory innate and adaptive immune cell responses to commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of human chronic inflammatory diseases. Intestinal dysbiosis has been described in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and seems to be correlated with histologic and immunologic alterations. Purpose of this review is to discuss the relationship occurring between intestinal dysbiosis and innate immune responses in patients with axial SpA. Intestinal dysbiosis and differential activation of intestinal immune responses in patients with SpA have been demonstrated. Furthermore, innate cells that appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of SpA may control intestinal homeostasis through induction of apoptotic cell death and deletion of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Although the evidence shows that dysbiosis occurs in SpA, it is not clear the role of dysbiosis in regulating innate immune responses in SpA. Relationships between cause and effect remain to be answered. http://links.lww.com/COR/A34.

  5. Hierarchical signaling transduction of the immune and muscle cell crosstalk in muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjun; Hu, Ping

    2017-08-24

    The muscle regeneration is a complicated bioprocess that involved in many cell types, including necrotic muscle cells, satellite cells, mesenchymal cells, pericytes, immune cells, and other cell types present at the injury site. Immune cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses regulate the progress of muscle regeneration. In this review, we discussed the roles of different immune cells in muscle regeneration. The immune cells regulate muscle regeneration through cytokine production, cell-cell contacts, and general immune environment regulation. We also describe the current known mechanism of how immune cells regulating muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Restimulation-induced T-cell death through NTB-A/SAP signaling pathway is impaired in tuberculosis patients with depressed immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Pino, Rodrigo E; Pellegrini, Joaquín M; Rovetta, Ana I; Peña, Delfina; Álvarez, Guadalupe I; Rolandelli, Agustín; Musella, Rosa M; Palmero, Domingo J; Malbran, Alejandro; Pasquinelli, Virginia; García, Verónica E

    2017-09-01

    Production of IFN-γ contributes to host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We previously demonstrated that Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) expression on cells from tuberculosis (TB) patients was inversely correlated with IFN-γ production. Here we first investigated the role of NK, T- and B-cell antigen (NTB-A)/SAP pathway in the regulation of Th1 response against Mtb. Upon antigen stimulation, NTB-A phosphorylation rapidly increases and afterwards modulates IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion. To sustain a healthy immune system, controlled expansion and contraction of lymphocytes, both during and after an adaptive immune response, is essential. Besides, restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) results in an essential homeostatic mechanism for precluding excess T-cell accumulation and associated immunopathology during the course of certain infections. Accordingly, we found that the NTB-A/SAP pathway was required for RICD during active tuberculosis. In low responder (LR) TB patients, impaired RICD was associated with diminished FASL levels, IL-2 production and CD25(high) expression after cell-restimulation. Interestingly, we next observed that SAP mediated the recruitment of the Src-related kinase FYNT, only in T cells from LR TB patients that were resistant to RICD. Together, we showed that the NTB-A/SAP pathway regulates T-cell activation and RICD during human TB. Moreover, the NTB-A/SAP/FYNT axis promotes polarization to an unfavorable Th2-phenotype.

  7. The Immune Response to Tumors as a Tool toward Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pandolfi

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy of tumors has developed several techniques: immune cell transfer, vaccines, immunobiological molecules such as monoclonal antibodies that improve the immune responses to tumors. This can be achieved by blocking pathways limiting the immune response, such as CTLA-4 or Tregs. Immunotherapy may also use cytokines especially proinflammatory cytokines to enhance the activity of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs derived from tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs. The role of newly discovered cytokines remains to be investigated. Alternatively, an other mechanism consists in enhancing the expression of TAAs on tumor cells. Finally, monoclonal antibodies may be used to target oncogenes.

  8. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down?

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Feifei; Liang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Huazhen; Zeng, Yu-Qun; Hou, Sh