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Sample records for cells give rise

  1. Glioblastoma stem-like cells give rise to tumour endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rong; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Wilshire, Jennifer; Kowalik, Urszula; Hovinga, Koos E.; Geber, Adam; Fligelman, Boris; Leversha, Margaret; Brennan, Cameron; Tabar, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is among the most aggressive of human cancers. A key feature of GBMs is the extensive network of abnormal vasculature characterized by glomeruloid structures and endothelial hyperplasia. Yet the mechanisms of angiogenesis and the origin of tumour endothelial cells remain poorly

  2. Human Liver Cells Expressing Albumin and Mesenchymal Characteristics Give Rise to Insulin-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Meivar-Levy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the pancreatic lineage in the liver has been suggested as a potential autologous cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients. Transcription factors-induced liver-to-pancreas reprogramming has been demonstrated in numerous species both in vivo and in vitro. However, human-derived liver cells capable of acquiring the alternate pancreatic repertoire have never been characterized. It is yet unknown whether hepatic-like stem cells or rather adult liver cells give rise to insulin-producing cells. Using an in vitro experimental system, we demonstrate that proliferating adherent human liver cells acquire mesenchymal-like characteristics and a considerable level of cellular plasticity. However, using a lineage-tracing approach, we demonstrate that insulin-producing cells are primarily generated in cells enriched for adult hepatic markers that coexpress both albumin and mesenchymal markers. Taken together, our data suggest that adult human hepatic tissue retains a substantial level of developmental plasticity, which could be exploited in regenerative medicine approaches.

  3. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive

  4. Migrating glioma cells express stem cell markers and give rise to new tumors upon xenografting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Sune; Sørensen, Mia D; Thomassen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor with an overall survival of only 14.6 months. Although these tumors are treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, recurrence is inevitable. A critical population of tumor cells in terms of therapy, the so-called cancer stem......-like phenotype is currently lacking. In the present study, the aim was to characterize the phenotype of migrating tumor cells using a novel migration assay based on serum-free stem cell medium and patient-derived spheroid cultures. The results showed pronounced migration of five different GBM spheroid cultures......-related genes and the HOX-gene list in migrating cells compared to spheroids. Determination of GBM molecular subtypes revealed that subtypes of spheroids and migrating cells were identical. In conclusion, migrating tumor cells preserve expression of stem cell markers and functional CSC characteristics. Since...

  5. Stem/progenitor cells derived from the cochlear sensory epithelium give rise to spheres with distinct morphologies and features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, Marc; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates regenerate lost sensory hair cells by means of asymmetric division of supporting cells. Inner ear or lateral line supporting cells in birds, amphibians, and fish consequently serve as bona fide stem cells resulting in high regenerative capacity of hair cell-bearing organs. Hair cell regeneration does not happen in the mammalian cochlea, but cells with proliferative capacity can be isolated from the neonatal cochlea. These cells have the ability to form clonal floating colonies, so-called spheres, when cultured in nonadherent conditions. We noticed that the sphere population derived from mouse cochlear sensory epithelium cells was heterogeneous, consisting of morphologically distinct sphere types, hereby classified as solid, transitional, and hollow. Cochlear sensory epithelium-derived stem/progenitor cells initially give rise to small solid spheres, which subsequently transition into hollow spheres, a change that is accompanied by epithelial differentiation of the majority of sphere cells. Only solid spheres, and to a lesser extent, transitional spheres, appeared to harbor self-renewing stem cells, whereas hollow spheres could not be consistently propagated. Solid spheres contained significantly more rapidly cycling Pax-2-expressing presumptive otic progenitor cells than hollow spheres. Islet-1, which becomes upregulated in nascent sensory patches, was also more abundant in solid than in hollow spheres. Likewise, hair cell-like cells, characterized by the expression of multiple hair cell markers, differentiated in significantly higher numbers in cell populations derived from solid spheres. We conclude that cochlear sensory epithelium cell populations initially give rise to small solid spheres that have self-renewing capacity before they subsequently convert into hollow spheres, a process that is accompanied by loss of stemness and reduced ability to spontaneously give rise to hair cell-like cells. Solid spheres might, therefore, represent

  6. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends o...

  7. Postnatal Sonic hedgehog (Shh) responsive cells give rise to oligodendrocyte lineage cells during myelination and in adulthood contribute to remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Maria A; Armstrong, Regina C

    2018-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) regulates a wave of oligodendrocyte production for extensive myelination during postnatal development. During this postnatal period of oligodendrogenesis, we fate-labeled cells exhibiting active Shh signaling to examine their contribution to the regenerative response during remyelination. Bitransgenic mouse lines were generated for induced genetic fate-labeling of cells actively transcribing Shh or Gli1. Gli1 transcription is an effective readout for canonical Shh signaling. Shh CreERT2 mice and Gli1 CreERT2 mice were crossed to either R26 tdTomato mice to label cells with red fluorescence, or, R26 IAP mice to label membranes with alkaline phosphatase. When tamoxifen (TMX) was given on postnatal days 6-9 (P6-9), Shh ligand synthesis was prevalent in neurons of Shh CreERT2 ; R26 tdTomato mice and Shh CreERT2 ;R26 IAP mice. In Gli1 CreERT2 crosses, TMX from P6-9 detected Gli1 transcription in cells that populated the corpus callosum (CC) during postnatal myelination. Delaying TMX to P14-17, after the peak of oligodendrogenesis, significantly reduced labeling of Shh synthesizing neurons and Gli1 expressing cells in the CC. Importantly, Gli1 CreERT2 ;R26 tdTomato mice given TMX from P6-9 showed Gli1 fate-labeled cells in the adult (P56) CC, including cycling progenitor cells identified by EdU incorporation and NG2 immunolabeling. Furthermore, after cuprizone demyelination of the adult CC, Gli1 fate-labeled cells incorporated EdU and were immunolabeled by NG2 early during remyelination while forming myelin-like membranes after longer periods for remyelination to progress. These studies reveal a postnatal cell population with transient Shh signaling that contributes to oligodendrogenesis during CC myelination, and gives rise to cells that continue to proliferate in adulthood and contribute to CC remyelination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Pox neuro control of cell lineages that give rise to larval poly-innervated external sensory organs in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanrui; Boll, Werner; Noll, Markus

    2015-01-15

    The Pox neuro (Poxn) gene of Drosophila plays a crucial role in the development of poly-innervated external sensory (p-es) organs. However, how Poxn exerts this role has remained elusive. In this study, we have analyzed the cell lineages of all larval p-es organs, namely of the kölbchen, papilla 6, and hair 3. Surprisingly, these lineages are distinct from any previously reported cell lineages of sensory organs. Unlike the well-established lineage of mono-innervated external sensory (m-es) organs and a previously proposed model of the p-es lineage, we demonstrate that all wild-type p-es lineages exhibit the following features: the secondary precursor, pIIa, gives rise to all three support cells-socket, shaft, and sheath, whereas the other secondary precursor, pIIb, is neuronal and gives rise to all neurons. We further show that in one of the p-es lineages, that of papilla 6, one cell undergoes apoptosis. By contrast in Poxn null mutants, all p-es lineages have a reduced number of cells and their pattern of cell divisions is changed to that of an m-es organ, with the exception of a lineage in a minority of mutant kölbchen that retains a second bipolar neuron. Indeed, the role of Poxn in p-es lineages is consistent with the specification of the developmental potential of secondary precursors and the regulation of cell division but not apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal beta III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  10. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal β III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders

  11. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2012-01-15

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends on pancreas developmental stage. Using temporal genetic labeling approaches we examined the dynamic of endocrine progenitor differentiation and explored the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells throughout development. We found that Neurog3(+) progenitors develop into hormone-expressing cells in a fast process taking less then 10h. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies in heterozygote (Neurog3(CreERT/+)) and Neurog3-deficient (Neurog3(CreERT/CreERT)) embryos revealed that Neurog3-induced cells have different potential over time. At the early bud stage, failed endocrine progenitors can adopt acinar or ductal fate, whereas later in the branching pancreas they do not contribute to the acinar lineage but Neurog3-deficient cells eventually differentiate into duct cells. Thus these results provide evidence that the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells becomes restricted during development. Furthermore these data suggest that during the secondary transition, endocrine progenitor cells arise from bipotent precursors already committed to the duct/endocrine lineages and not from domain of cells having distinct potentialities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation and characterization of p53 null transformed hepatic progenitor cells: oval cells give rise to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumble, Melissa L; Croager, Emma J; Yeoh, George C T; Quail, Elizabeth A

    2002-03-01

    Oval cells are bipotential liver stem cells able to differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelia. In normal adult liver oval cells are quiescent, existing in low numbers around the periportal region, and proliferate following severe, prolonged liver trauma. There is evidence implicating oval cells in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and hence the availability of an immortalized oval cell line would be invaluable for the study of liver cell lineage differentiation and carcinogenesis. A novel approach in the generation of cell lines is the use of the p53 knockout mouse. Absence of p53 allows a cell to cycle past the normal Hayflick limit, rendering it immortalized, although subsequent genetic alterations are thought necessary for transformation. p53 knockout mice were fed a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet, previously shown to increase oval cell numbers in wild-type mice. The oval cells were isolated by centrifugal elutriation and maintained in culture. Colonies of hepatic cells were isolated and characterized with respect to phenotype, growth characteristics and tumorigenicity. Analysis of gene expression by Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry suggests they are oval-like cells by virtue of albumin and transferrin expression, as well as the oval cell markers alpha fetoprotein, M(2)-pyruvate kinase and A6. Injection into athymic nude mice shows the cell lines are capable of forming tumors which phenotypically resemble hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the use of p53 null hepatic cells successfully generated immortalized and tumorigenic hepatic stem cell lines. The results presented support the idea that deleting p53 allows immortalization and contributes to the transformation of the oval-like cell lines. Further, the tumorigenic status of the cell lines is direct evidence for the participation of oval cells in the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Identification and Targeting of Candidate Preexisting Lurker Cells That Give Rise to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    highly (4- to 5-fold) en- riched for organoid formation compared to CD38hi luminal cellsCell Reports 17, 2596–2606, December 6, 2016 2597 Figure 1... riched in CD38lo cells (Figure 3A) but has not been previously associated with PIA. In tissue sections, PSCA expression was observed more commonly in...without a mesenchymal niche . Nature 459, 262–265.2606 Cell Reports 17, 2596–2606, December 6, 2016Sboner, A., Demichelis, F., Calza, S., Pawitan, Y., Setlur

  14. Glycation of low-density lipoproteins by methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde gives rise to the in vitro formation of lipid-laden cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, B E; Dean, R T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous studies have implicated the glycoxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by glucose and aldehydes (apparently comprising both glycation and oxidation), as a causative factor in the elevated levels of atherosclerosis observed in diabetic patients. Such LDL...... or endothelial cells. The extent of lipid accumulation depends on the degree of glycation, with increasing aldehyde concentration or incubation time, giving rise to greater extents of particle modification and lipid accumulation. Modification of lysine residues appears to be a key determinant of cellular uptake...

  15. Response of single bacterial cells to stress gives rise to complex history dependence at the population level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Roland; Ackermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria live in ever-changing environments where periods of stress are common. One fundamental question is whether individual bacterial cells have an increased tolerance to stress if they recently have been exposed to lower levels of the same stressor. To address this question, we worked with the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and asked whether exposure to a moderate concentration of sodium chloride would affect survival during later exposure to a higher concentration. We found that the effects measured at the population level depended in a surprising and complex way on the time interval between the two exposure events: The effect of the first exposure on survival of the second exposure was positive for some time intervals but negative for others. We hypothesized that the complex pattern of history dependence at the population level was a consequence of the responses of individual cells to sodium chloride that we observed: (i) exposure to moderate concentrations of sodium chloride caused delays in cell division and led to cell-cycle synchronization, and (ii) whether a bacterium would survive subsequent exposure to higher concentrations was dependent on the cell-cycle state. Using computational modeling, we demonstrated that indeed the combination of these two effects could explain the complex patterns of history dependence observed at the population level. Our insight into how the behavior of single cells scales up to processes at the population level provides a perspective on how organisms operate in dynamic environments with fluctuating stress exposure. PMID:26960998

  16. Gdf5 progenitors give rise to fibrocartilage cells that mineralize via hedgehog signaling to form the zonal enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Nathaniel A; Breidenbach, Andrew P; Schwartz, Andrea G; Russell, Ryan P; Aschbacher-Smith, Lindsey; Liu, Han; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Jiang, Rulang; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Butler, David L; Rowe, David W

    2015-09-01

    The sequence of events that leads to the formation of a functionally graded enthesis is not clearly defined. The current study demonstrates that clonal expansion of Gdf5 progenitors contributes to linear growth of the enthesis. Prior to mineralization, Col1+ cells in the enthesis appose Col2+ cells of the underlying primary cartilage. At the onset of enthesis mineralization, cells at the base of the enthesis express alkaline phosphatase, Indian hedgehog, and ColX as they mineralize. The mineralization front then extends towards the tendon midsubstance as cells above the front become encapsulated in mineralized fibrocartilage over time. The hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates this process, as Hh-responsive Gli1+ cells within the developing enthesis mature from unmineralized to mineralized fibrochondrocytes in response to activated signaling. Hh signaling is required for mineralization, as tissue-specific deletion of its obligate transducer Smoothened in the developing tendon and enthesis cells leads to significant reductions in the apposition of mineralized fibrocartilage. Together, these findings provide a spatiotemporal map of events - from expansion of the embryonic progenitor pool to synthesis of the collagen template and finally mineralization of this template - that leads to the formation of the mature zonal enthesis. These results can inform future tendon-to-bone repair strategies to create a mechanically functional enthesis in which tendon collagen fibers are anchored to bone through mineralized fibrocartilage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acquired IFNγ resistance impairs anti-tumor immunity and gives rise to T-cell-resistant melanoma lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucker, Antje; Zhao, Fang; Pieper, Natalia; Heeke, Christina; Maltaner, Raffaela; Stadtler, Nadine; Real, Birgit; Bielefeld, Nicola; Howe, Sebastian; Weide, Benjamin; Gutzmer, Ralf; Utikal, Jochen; Loquai, Carmen; Gogas, Helen; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Zeschnigk, Michael; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Trilling, Mirko; Horn, Susanne; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G.; Paschen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma treatment has been revolutionized by antibody-based immunotherapies. IFNγ secretion by CD8+ T cells is critical for therapy efficacy having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Our study demonstrates a genetic evolution of IFNγ resistance in different melanoma patient models. Chromosomal alterations and subsequent inactivating mutations in genes of the IFNγ signalling cascade, most often JAK1 or JAK2, protect melanoma cells from anti-tumour IFNγ activity. JAK1/2 mutants further evolve into T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions with genes involved in antigen presentation silenced and no longer inducible by IFNγ. Allelic JAK1/2 losses predisposing to IFNγ resistance development are frequent in melanoma. Subclones harbouring inactivating mutations emerge under various immunotherapies but are also detectable in pre-treatment biopsies. Our data demonstrate that JAK1/2 deficiency protects melanoma from anti-tumour IFNγ activity and results in T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions. Screening for mechanisms of IFNγ resistance should be considered in therapeutic decision-making. PMID:28561041

  18. Identification and Targeting of Candidate Pre-Existing Lurker Cells that Give Rise to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    castration-resistance of each subset in humans. We also measured castration-resistance of isolated subsets in vitro in the presence or absence of DHT in...microns). In vitro growth in the absence of DHT also demonstrates castration-resistant properties of the intermediate/luminal progenitor cells...subsets without DHT compared to DHT -containing media, demonstrating castration-resistance). 4 4) other achievements: We found that tumors

  19. Identification and Targeting of Candidate Pre-Existing Lurker Cells that Give Rise to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    carcinoma with different signaling pathways characteristic of each histo- logical pattern. eIF4E-driven protein translation pathway is el - evated in...and 4EBP1 ( Epitomics ); Histone H3, AKT, and p4EBP1 (Thr37/46); pErk1/ 2 (T202/Y204), pSTAT3 (Y705), Sox2, MTA1, Src, and pSrc (Y416) (Cell Signaling

  20. Engineered photoproteins that give rise to photosynthetically-incompetent bacteria are effective as photovoltaic materials for biohybrid photoelectrochemical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juntai; Friebe, Vincent M; Swainsbury, David J K; Crouch, Lucy I; Szabo, David A; Frese, Raoul N; Jones, Michael R

    2018-04-17

    Reaction centre/light harvesting proteins such as the RCLH1X complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides carry out highly quantum-efficient conversion of solar energy through ultrafast energy transfer and charge separation, and these pigment-proteins have been incorporated into biohybrid photoelectrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In this work we demonstrate that, despite not being able to support normal photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an engineered variant of this RCLH1X complex lacking the PufX protein and with an enlarged light harvesting antenna is unimpaired in its capacity for photocurrent generation in two types of bio-photoelectrochemical cells. Removal of PufX also did not impair the ability of the RCLH1 complex to act as an acceptor of energy from synthetic light harvesting quantum dots. Unexpectedly, the removal of PufX led to a marked improvement in the overall stability of the RCLH1 complex under heat stress. We conclude that PufX-deficient RCLH1 complexes are fully functional in solar energy conversion in a device setting and that their enhanced structural stability could make them a preferred choice over their native PufX-containing counterpart. Our findings on the competence of RCLH1 complexes for light energy conversion in vitro are discussed with reference to the reason why these PufX-deficient proteins are not capable of light energy conversion in vivo.

  1. A versatile class of cell surface directional motors gives rise to gliding motility and sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Wartel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells utilize an arsenal of processive transport systems to deliver macromolecules to specific subcellular sites. In prokaryotes, such transport mechanisms have only been shown to mediate gliding motility, a form of microbial surface translocation. Here, we show that the motility function of the Myxococcus xanthus Agl-Glt machinery results from the recent specialization of a versatile class of bacterial transporters. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Agl motility motor is modular and dissociates from the rest of the gliding machinery (the Glt complex to bind the newly expressed Nfs complex, a close Glt paralogue, during sporulation. Following this association, the Agl system transports Nfs proteins directionally around the spore surface. Since the main spore coat polymer is secreted at discrete sites around the spore surface, its transport by Agl-Nfs ensures its distribution around the spore. Thus, the Agl-Glt/Nfs machineries may constitute a novel class of directional bacterial surface transporters that can be diversified to specific tasks depending on the cognate cargo and machinery-specific accessories.

  2. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability? (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  3. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  4. Vascular wall-resident CD44+ multipotent stem cells give rise to pericytes and smooth muscle cells and contribute to new vessel maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Klein

    Full Text Available Here, we identify CD44(+CD90(+CD73(+CD34(-CD45(- cells within the adult human arterial adventitia with properties of multipotency which were named vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells (VW-MPSCs. VW-MPSCs exhibit typical mesenchymal stem cell characteristics including cell surface markers in immunostaining and flow cytometric analyses, and differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes under culture conditions. Particularly, TGFß1 stimulation up-regulates smooth muscle cell markers in VW-MPSCs. Using fluorescent cell labelling and co-localisation studies we show that VW-MPSCs differentiate to pericytes/smooth muscle cells which cover the wall of newly formed endothelial capillary-like structures in vitro. Co-implantation of EGFP-labelled VW-MPSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells into SCID mice subcutaneously via Matrigel results in new vessels formation which were covered by pericyte- or smooth muscle-like cells generated from implanted VW-MPSCs. Our results suggest that VW-MPSCs are of relevance for vascular morphogenesis, repair and self-renewal of vascular wall cells and for local capacity of neovascularization in disease processes.

  5. Do spinors give rise to a frame-dragging effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randono, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the intrinsic spin of a fundamental spinor field on the surrounding spacetime geometry. We show that despite the lack of a rotating stress-energy source (and despite claims to the contrary) the intrinsic spin of a spin-half fermion gives rise to a frame-dragging effect analogous to that of orbital angular momentum, even in Einstein-Hilbert gravity where torsion is constrained to be zero. This resolves a paradox regarding the counter-force needed to restore Newton's third law in the well-known spin-orbit interaction. In addition, the frame-dragging effect gives rise to a long-range gravitationally mediated spin-spin dipole interaction coupling the internal spins of two sources. We argue that despite the weakness of the interaction, the spin-spin interaction will dominate over the ordinary inverse square Newtonian interaction in any process of sufficiently high energy for quantum field theoretical effects to be non-negligible.

  6. Non-cultured adipose-derived CD45(-) side population cells are enriched for progenitors that give rise to myofibres in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Schrøder, Henrik D; Jensen, Charlotte H

    2008-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells are highly able to exclude the Hoechst 33342 dye through membrane transporters, a feature associated with cell immaturity and therefore proposed as a marker of stem cells. Herein we demonstrate that the adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains...... skeletal muscle repair mainly relies on the satellitecell, several reports have shown that vessel-associated cells may adopt a myogenic phenotype when exposed to a muscle environment. In accordance with these findings, we also observed invitro myogenic specification of SPCD45(-) cells when cocultured...... a novel population of non-haematopoietic "side population" (SPCD45(-)) cells. Simultaneous qRT-PCR of 64 genes revealed that the freshly isolated SPCD45(-) was highly enriched for cells expressing genes related to stem cells, the Notch pathway, and early vascular precursors. Notably, the expression...

  7. Magma chamber interaction giving rise to asymmetric oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwer, D.; Ghil, M.; Calais, E.

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic time series at four volcanoes (Okmok, Akutan, Shishaldin, and Réunion) are processed using Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) and reveal sawtooth-shaped oscillations ; the latter are characterized by short intervals of fast inflations followed by longer intervals of slower deflations. At Okmok and Akutan, the oscillations are first damped and then accentuated. At Okmok, the increase in amplitude of the oscillations is followed by an eruption. We first show that the dynamics of these four volcanoes bears similarities with that of a simple nonlinear, dissipative oscillator, indicating that the inflation-deflation episodes are relaxation oscillations. These observations imply that ab initio dynamical models of magma chambers should possess an asymmetric oscillatory regime. Next, based on the work of Whitehead and Helfrich [1991], we show that a model of two magma chambers — connected by a cylindrical conduit in which the magma viscosity depends on temperature — gives rise to asymmetric overpressure oscillations in the magma reservoirs. These oscillations lead to surface deformations that are consistent with those observed at the four volcanoes in this study. This relaxation oscillation regime occurs only when the vertical temperature gradient in the host rock between the two magma chambers is large enough and when the magma flux entering the volcanic system is sufficiently high. The magma being supplied by a deeper source region, the input flux depends on the pressure difference between the source and the deepest reservoir. When this difference is not sufficiently high, the magma flux exponentially decreases, leading to damped oscillations as observed at Akutan and Okmok. The combination of observational and modeling results clearly supports the role of relaxation oscillations in the dynamics of volcanic systems.

  8. Immunoregulatory T cells in man. Histamine-induced suppressor T cells are derived from a Leu 2+ (T8+) subpopulation distinct from that which gives rise to cytotoxic T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, P.; Silverman, E.D.; Khan, M.M.; Melmon, K.L.; Engleman, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    One mechanism of histamine-mediated inhibition of the immune response in man is to activate T suppressor cells that bear the Leu 2 (OKT8) marker. The current study was undertaken to characterize the histamine-induced suppressor cell using a monoclonal antibody (9.3) shown previously to distinguish cytotoxic T cells from antigen-specific suppressor T cells. Leu 2+ cells isolated from peripheral blood were further separated with antibody 9.3 into Leu 2+, 9.3+, and Leu 2+, 9.3- subsets and each subset was incubated with different concentrations of histamine before determining their ability to suppress immune responses in vitro. The results indicate that the Leu 2+, 9.3- subpopulation includes all histamine-induced suppressor cells, that 10(-4) M histamine is the optimal concentration for suppressor cell induction, and that exposure of Leu 2+, 9.3- cells to histamine for 30 s is sufficient to initiate the induction process. After treatment with histamine these cells inhibit both phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation and pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation. The suppression of phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation was resistant to x-irradiation with 1,200 rad, either before or after histamine exposure, suggesting that Leu 2+, 9.3- cells need not proliferate to become suppressor cells or exert suppression. Moreover, suppression by these cells was not due to altered kinetics of the response. Finally, a histamine type 2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine) but not a type 1 receptor antagonist (mepyramine) blocked the induction of suppressor cells. On the basis of these results and our previous studies of antigen specific suppressor cells, we conclude that Leu 2+ suppressor cells in man are derived from a precursor pool that is phenotypically distinct from cells that can differentiate into cytotoxic T cells

  9. Royal Order of 28 March 1969 listing occupational diseases giving rise to compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This Royal Order, made in implementation of the Act of 24 December 1963 on compensation for damage resulting from occupational diseases and prevention thereof, as amended by an Act fo 24 December 1968, lists the occupational diseases giving rise to compensation and includes those caused by ionizing radiations. The Order came into force on 1 July 1969 and repealed a previous Order of 18 January 1964 which laid down a first list of such diseases giving rise to compensation. (NEA) [fr

  10. Purposeful Goal-Directed Movements Give Rise to Higher Tactile Discrimination Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Juravle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tactile perception is inhibited during goal-directed reaching movements (sensory suppression. Here, participants performed simple reaching or exploratory movements (where contact with the table surface was maintained. We measured tactile discrimination thresholds for vibratory stimuli delivered to participants' wrists while executing the movement, and while at rest. Moreover, we measured discrimination performance (in a same vs. different task for the materials covering the table surface, during the execution of the different movements. The threshold and discrimination tasks could be performed either singly or together, both under active movement and passive conditions (ie, no movement required, but with tactile stimulation. Thresholds measured at rest were significantly lower than thresholds measured during both active movements and passive touches. This provides a clear indication of sensory suppression during movement execution. Moreover, the discrimination data revealed main effects of task (single vs. dual, movement execution type (passive vs. active, and movement type (reach vs. exploration: Discrimination performance was significantly higher under conditions of single-tasking, active movements, as well as exploratory movements. Therefore, active movement of the hand with the purpose of gaining tactual information about the surface of the table gives rise to enhanced performance, thus suggesting that we feel more when we need to; It would appear that tactual information is prioritized when relevant for the movement being executed.

  11. Transitional paternalism: how shared normative powers give rise to the asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Neil C

    2015-02-01

    In many jurisdictions, adolescents acquire the right to consent to treatment; but in some cases their refusals - e.g. of life-saving treatment - may not be respected. This asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal seems puzzling, even incoherent. The aim here is to offer an original explanation, and a justification, of this asymmetry. Rather than trying to explain the asymmetry in terms of a variable standard of competence - where the adolescent is competent to consent to, but not refuse, certain interventions - the account offered here focuses more closely on the normative power to render actions permissible. Where normative powers are shared they can readily give rise to an asymmetry between consent and refusal. We then turn to why it is justifiable that normative powers be shared in adolescence. Transitional paternalism holds that the acquisition of normative powers by competent adolescents should not be an instant one, achieved in a single step, but that there should be a transitional period where paternalistic protection is rolled back, but not entirely withdrawn until a later date. Transitional paternalism could be implemented without generating the asymmetry between consent and refusal but, it is argued, the asymmetric version of transitional paternalism is to be preferred insofar as it offers a greater respect for the adolescent's decisions than the symmetrical alternative. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Jagged gives endothelial tip cells an edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchting, Steven; Eichmann, Anne

    2009-06-12

    Sprouting blood vessels have tip cells that lead and stalk cells that follow. Benedito et al. (2009) now show that competition between endothelial cells for the tip position is regulated by glycosylation of Notch receptors and by the opposing actions of the Notch ligands Jagged1 and Delta-like 4.

  13. Protein and peptide alkoxyl radicals can give rise to C-terminal decarboxylation and backbone cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gamma-irradiation of some free amino acids in the presence of oxygen gives high yields of side-chain hydroperoxides. It is shown in the present study that N-acetyl amino acids and peptides also give high levels of hydroperoxides on gamma-irradiation, even...

  14. IODP Expedition 324: Ocean Drilling at Shatsky Rise Gives Clues about Oceanic Plateau Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Geldmacher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 324 cored Shatsky Rise at five sites (U1346–U1350 to study processes of oceanic plateau formation and evolution. Site penetrations ranged from 191.8 m to 324.1 m with coring of 52.6 m to 172.7 m into igneous basement at four of the sites. Average recovery in basement was 38.7%–67.4%. Cored igneous sections consist mainly of variably evolved tholeiiticbasalts emplaced as pillows or massive flows. Massive flows are thickest and make up the largest percentage of section on the largest and oldest volcano, late Jurassic age Tamu Massif; thus, it may have formed at high effusion rates. Such massive flows are characteristic of flood basalts, and similar flows were cored at Ontong Java Plateau. Indeed, the similarity of igneous sections at Site U1347 with that cored on Ontong Java Plateau implies similar volcanic styles for these two plateaus. On younger, smaller Shatsky Rise volcanoes, pillow flows are common and massive flows thinner andfewer, which might mean volcanism waned with time. Cored sediments from summit sites contain fossils and structures implying shallow water depths or emergence at the time of eruption and normal subsidence since. Summit sites also show pervasive alteration that could be due to high fluid fluxes. A thick section of volcaniclastics cored on Tamu Massif suggests that shallow, explosive submarine volcanism played a significant role in the geologic development of the plateau summit. Expedition 324 results imply that Shatsky Risebegan with massive eruptions forming a huge volcano and that subsequent eruptions waned in intensity, forming volcanoes that are large, but which did not erupt with unusually high effusionrates. Similarities of cored sections on Tamu Massif with those ofOntong Java Plateau indicate that these oceanic plateaus formed insimilar fashion.

  15. On the merging rates of envelope-deprived components of binary systems which can give rise to supernova events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornambe, Amedo

    1989-01-01

    We derive theoretical rates of mergings of envelope-deprived components of binary systems, which can give rise to supernova events. The effects of the various assumptions one is forced to make on the physical properties of the progenitor system and of its evolutionary behaviour through common envelope phases are discussed. Four cases have been analysed: CO-CO, He-CO, He-He double degenerate mergings and He star-CO dwarf merging. (author)

  16. Macromolecular crowding gives rise to microviscosity, anomalous diffusion and accelerated actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rafi; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Raghunath, Michael; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-04-30

    Macromolecular crowding (MMC) has been used in various in vitro experimental systems to mimic in vivo physiology. This is because the crowded cytoplasm of cells contains many different types of solutes dissolved in an aqueous medium. MMC in the extracellular microenvironment is involved in maintaining stem cells in their undifferentiated state (niche) as well as in aiding their differentiation after they have travelled to new locations outside the niche. MMC at physiologically relevant fractional volume occupancies (FVOs) significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during chemically induced adipogenesis. The mechanism by which MMC produces this enhancement is not entirely known. In the context of extracellular collagen deposition, we have recently reported the importance of optimizing the FVO while minimizing the bulk viscosity. Two opposing properties will determine the net rate of a biochemical reaction: the negative effect of bulk viscosity and the positive effect of the excluded volume, the latter being expressed by the FVO. In this study we have looked more closely at the effect of viscosity on reaction rates. We have used fluorimetry to measure the rate of actin polymerization and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure diffusion of various probes in solutions containing the crowder Ficoll at physiological concentrations. Similar to its effect on collagen, Ficoll enhanced the actin polymerization rate despite increasing the bulk viscosity. Our FCS measurements reveal a relatively minor component of anomalous diffusion. In addition, our measurements do suggest that microviscosity becomes relevant in a crowded environment. We ruled out bulk viscosity as a cause of the rate enhancement by performing the actin polymerization assay in glycerol. These opposite effects of Ficoll and glycerol led us to conclude that microviscosity becomes relevant at the length scale of the reacting

  17. Macromolecular crowding gives rise to microviscosity, anomalous diffusion and accelerated actin polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rafi; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Raghunath, Michael; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    Macromolecular crowding (MMC) has been used in various in vitro experimental systems to mimic in vivo physiology. This is because the crowded cytoplasm of cells contains many different types of solutes dissolved in an aqueous medium. MMC in the extracellular microenvironment is involved in maintaining stem cells in their undifferentiated state (niche) as well as in aiding their differentiation after they have travelled to new locations outside the niche. MMC at physiologically relevant fractional volume occupancies (FVOs) significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during chemically induced adipogenesis. The mechanism by which MMC produces this enhancement is not entirely known. In the context of extracellular collagen deposition, we have recently reported the importance of optimizing the FVO while minimizing the bulk viscosity. Two opposing properties will determine the net rate of a biochemical reaction: the negative effect of bulk viscosity and the positive effect of the excluded volume, the latter being expressed by the FVO. In this study we have looked more closely at the effect of viscosity on reaction rates. We have used fluorimetry to measure the rate of actin polymerization and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure diffusion of various probes in solutions containing the crowder Ficoll at physiological concentrations. Similar to its effect on collagen, Ficoll enhanced the actin polymerization rate despite increasing the bulk viscosity. Our FCS measurements reveal a relatively minor component of anomalous diffusion. In addition, our measurements do suggest that microviscosity becomes relevant in a crowded environment. We ruled out bulk viscosity as a cause of the rate enhancement by performing the actin polymerization assay in glycerol. These opposite effects of Ficoll and glycerol led us to conclude that microviscosity becomes relevant at the length scale of the reacting

  18. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  19. On the merging rates of envelope-deprived components of binary systems which can give rise to supernova events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambe, Amedeo

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical rates of mergings of envelope-deprived components of binary systems, which can give rise to supernova events are described. The effects of the various assumptions on the physical properties of the progenitor system and of its evolutionary behavior through common envelope phases are discussed. Four cases have been analyzed: CO-CO, He-CO, He-He double degenerate mergings and He star-CO dwarf merging. It is found that, above a critical efficiency of the common envelope action in system shrinkage, the rate of CO-CO mergings is not strongly sensitive to the efficiency. Below this critical value, no CO-CO systems will survive for times larger than a few Gyr. In contrast, He-CO dwarf systems will continue to merge at a reasonable rate up to 20 Gyr, and more, also under extreme conditions.

  20. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eHanuschkin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop a correlation-based theory of interactions between a sensory and a motor area. We show that a simple eligibility-weighted Hebbian learning rule, operating within a sensorimotor loop during motor explorations and stabilized by heterosynaptic competition, naturally gives rise to mirror neurons as well as control theoretic inverse models encoded in the synaptic weights from sensory to motor neurons. Crucially, we find that the correlational structure or stereotypy of the neural code underlying motor explorations determines the nature of the learned inverse model: Random motor codes lead to causal inverses that map sensory activity patterns to their motor causes; such inverses are maximally useful, they allow for imitating arbitrary sensory target sequences. By contrast, stereotyped motor codes lead to less useful predictive inverses that map sensory activity to future motor actions.Our theory generalizes previous work on inverse models by showing that such models can be learned in a simple Hebbian framework without the need for error signals or backpropagation, and it makes new conceptual connections between the causal nature of inverse models, the statistical structure of motor variability, and the time-lag between sensory and motor responses of mirror neurons. Applied to bird song learning, our theory can account for puzzling aspects of the song system, including necessity of sensorimotor gating and selectivity of auditory responses to bird’s own song

  1. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuschkin, A; Ganguli, S; Hahnloser, R H R

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map-desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop a correlation-based theory of interactions between a sensory and a motor area. We show that a simple eligibility-weighted Hebbian learning rule, operating within a sensorimotor loop during motor explorations and stabilized by heterosynaptic competition, naturally gives rise to mirror neurons as well as control theoretic inverse models encoded in the synaptic weights from sensory to motor neurons. Crucially, we find that the correlational structure or stereotypy of the neural code underlying motor explorations determines the nature of the learned inverse model: random motor codes lead to causal inverses that map sensory activity patterns to their motor causes; such inverses are maximally useful, by allowing the imitation of arbitrary sensory target sequences. By contrast, stereotyped motor codes lead to less useful predictive inverses that map sensory activity to future motor actions. Our theory generalizes previous work on inverse models by showing that such models can be learned in a simple Hebbian framework without the need for error signals or backpropagation, and it makes new conceptual connections between the causal nature of inverse models, the statistical structure of motor variability, and the time-lag between sensory and motor responses of mirror neurons. Applied to bird song learning, our theory can account for puzzling aspects of the song system, including necessity of sensorimotor gating and selectivity of auditory responses to bird's own song (BOS) stimuli.

  2. Histone H1- and other protein- and amino acid-hydroperoxides can give rise to free radicals which oxidize DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxford, C; Morin, B; Dean, R T

    1999-01-01

    analysis has demonstrated that radicals from histone H1-hydroperoxides, and other protein and amino acid hydroperoxides, can also oxidize both free 2'-deoxyguanosine and intact calf thymus DNA to give the mutagenic oxidized base 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxod......Exposure of amino acids, peptides and proteins to radicals, in the presence of oxygen, gives high yields of hydroperoxides. These materials are readily decomposed by transition metal ions to give further radicals. We hypothesized that hydroperoxide formation on nuclear proteins, and subsequent...... decomposition of these hydroperoxides to radicals, might result in oxidative damage to associated DNA. We demonstrate here that exposure of histone H1 and model compounds to gamma-radiation in the presence of oxygen gives hydroperoxides in a dose-dependent manner. These hydroperoxides decompose to oxygen...

  3. Differential receptive field organizations give rise to nearly identical neural correlations across three parallel sensory maps in weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Volker; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding how neural populations encode sensory information thereby leading to perception and behavior (i.e., the neural code) remains an important problem in neuroscience. When investigating the neural code, one must take into account the fact that neural activities are not independent but are actually correlated with one another. Such correlations are seen ubiquitously and have a strong impact on neural coding. Here we investigated how differences in the antagonistic center-surround receptive field (RF) organization across three parallel sensory maps influence correlations between the activities of electrosensory pyramidal neurons. Using a model based on known anatomical differences in receptive field center size and overlap, we initially predicted large differences in correlated activity across the maps. However, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that, contrary to modeling predictions, electrosensory pyramidal neurons across all three segments displayed nearly identical correlations. To explain this surprising result, we incorporated the effects of RF surround in our model. By systematically varying both the RF surround gain and size relative to that of the RF center, we found that multiple RF structures gave rise to similar levels of correlation. In particular, incorporating known physiological differences in RF structure between the three maps in our model gave rise to similar levels of correlation. Our results show that RF center overlap alone does not determine correlations which has important implications for understanding how RF structure influences correlated neural activity.

  4. How effects of chemicals might differ from those of radiations in giving rise to genetic ill-health in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible differences between the effects of the two groups of agents are considered. Two types of genetic damage are discussed. The first type involves mutational changes induced in germ cells or germ cell precursors which are then transmitted to the products of conception and to any resultant offspring and their descendants. The second kind is that damage sustained by the genome in somatic cells which is transmitted to daughter cells. Such somatic mutations are not heritable in the familiar sense, but they are transmitted to descendant cells within the body. It is concluded that a greater heterogeneity is expected in mutagenic response to chemical mutagens than to radiations in human populations, that the spectrum of mutations following chemical exposure may be quite different from that following radiation exposure, and that for many chemical agents, and in contrast to ionising radiations, one might expect a greater burden of genetic ill-health due to increased frequencies of mildly deleterious recessive and polygenic mutations. (Auth.)

  5. Conditions giving rise to intense visible room temperature photoluminescence in SrWO4 thin films: the role of disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, E.; Anicete-Santos, M.; Maurera, M.A.M.A.; Pontes, F.M.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Souza, A.G.; Varela, J.A.; Pizani, P.S.; Longo, E.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of intense visible photoluminescence at room temperature of SrWO 4 (SWO) non-crystalline thin films is discussed in the light of experimental results and theoretical calculations. The SWO thin films were synthesized by the polymeric precursors method. Their structural properties have been obtained by X-ray diffraction data and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been measured. The UV-vis optical spectra measurements suggest the creation of localized states in the disordered structure. The photoluminescence measurements reveal that the PL changes with the degree of disorder in the SWO thin film. To understand the origin of visible PL at room temperature in disordered SWO, we performed quantum-mechanical calculations on crystalline and disordered SWO periodic models. Their electronic structures are analyzed in terms of DOS, band dispersion and charge densities. We used DFT method with the hybrid non-local B3LYP approximation. The polarization induced by the symmetry break and the existence of localized levels favors the creation of trapped holes and electrons, giving origin to the room temperature photoluminescence phenomenon in the SWO thin films

  6. An Unusual Ligand Coordination Gives Rise to a New Family of Rhodium Metalloinsertors with Improved Selectivity and Potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rhodium metalloinsertors are octahedral complexes that bind DNA mismatches with high affinity and specificity and exhibit unique cell-selective cytotoxicity, targeting mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cells over MMR-proficient cells. Here we describe a new generation of metalloinsertors with enhanced biological potency and selectivity, in which the complexes show Rh–O coordination. In particular, it has been found that both Δ- and Λ-[Rh(chrysi)(phen)(DPE)]2+ (where chrysi =5,6 chrysenequinone diimmine, phen =1,10-phenanthroline, and DPE = 1,1-di(pyridine-2-yl)ethan-1-ol) bind to DNA containing a single CC mismatch with similar affinities and without racemization. This is in direct contrast with previous metalloinsertors and suggests a possible different binding disposition for these complexes in the mismatch site. We ascribe this difference to the higher pKa of the coordinated immine of the chrysi ligand in these complexes, so that the complexes must insert into the DNA helix with the inserting ligand in a buckled orientation; spectroscopic studies in the presence and absence of DNA along with the crystal structure of the complex without DNA support this assignment. Remarkably, all members of this new family of compounds have significantly increased potency in a range of cellular assays; indeed, all are more potent than cisplatin and N-methyl-N′-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, a common DNA-alkylating chemotherapeutic agent). Moreover, the activities of the new metalloinsertors are coupled with high levels of selective cytotoxicity for MMR-deficient versus proficient colorectal cancer cells. PMID:25254630

  7. A Hypomorphic PALB2 Allele Gives Rise to an Unusual Form of FA-N Associated with Lymphoid Tumour Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Byrd

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with biallelic truncating mutations in PALB2 have a severe form of Fanconi anaemia (FA-N, with a predisposition for developing embryonal-type tumours in infancy. Here we describe two unusual patients from a single family, carrying biallelic PALB2 mutations, one truncating, c.1676_1677delAAinsG;(p.Gln559ArgfsTer2, and the second, c.2586+1G>A; p.Thr839_Lys862del resulting in an in frame skip of exon 6 (24 amino acids. Strikingly, the affected individuals did not exhibit the severe developmental defects typical of FA-N patients and initially presented with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The expressed p.Thr839_Lys862del mutant PALB2 protein retained the ability to interact with BRCA2, previously unreported in FA-N patients. There was also a large increased chromosomal radiosensitivity following irradiation in G2 and increased sensitivity to mitomycin C. Although patient cells were unable to form Rad51 foci following exposure to either DNA damaging agent, U2OS cells, in which the mutant PALB2 with in frame skip of exon 6 was induced, did show recruitment of Rad51 to foci following damage. We conclude that a very mild form of FA-N exists arising from a hypomorphic PALB2 allele.

  8. How thoughts give rise to action - conscious motor intention increases the excitability of target-specific motor circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker R Zschorlich

    Full Text Available The present study shows evidence for conscious motor intention in motor preparation prior to movement execution. We demonstrate that conscious motor intention of directed movement, combined with minimally supra-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the motor cortex, determines the direction and the force of resulting movements, whilst a lack of intention results in weak and omni-directed muscle activation. We investigated changes of consciously intended goal directed movements by analyzing amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials of the forearm muscle, flexor carpi radialis (FCR, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR, induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right motor cortex and their motor outcome. Right-handed subjects were asked to develop a strong intention to move their left wrist (flexion or extension, without any overt motor output at the wrist, prior to brain stimulation. Our analyses of hand acceleration and electromyography showed that during the strong motor intention of wrist flexion movement, it evoked motor potential responses that were significantly larger in the FCR muscle than in the ECR, whilst the opposite was true for an extension movement. The acceleration data on flexion/extension corresponded to this finding. Under no-intention conditions again, which served as a reference for motor evoked potentials, brain stimulation resulted in undirected and minimally simultaneous extension/flexion innervation and virtually no movement. These results indicate that conscious intentions govern motor function, which in turn shows that a neuronal activation representing an "intention network" in the human brain pre-exists, and that it functionally represents target specific motor circuits. Until today, it was unclear whether conscious motor intention exists prior to movement, or whether the brain constructs such an intention after movement initiation. Our study gives evidence that motor intentions become aware before

  9. How Thoughts Give Rise to Action - Conscious Motor Intention Increases the Excitability of Target-Specific Motor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschorlich, Volker R.; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    The present study shows evidence for conscious motor intention in motor preparation prior to movement execution. We demonstrate that conscious motor intention of directed movement, combined with minimally supra-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex, determines the direction and the force of resulting movements, whilst a lack of intention results in weak and omni-directed muscle activation. We investigated changes of consciously intended goal directed movements by analyzing amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials of the forearm muscle, flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and extensor carpi radialis (ECR), induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right motor cortex and their motor outcome. Right-handed subjects were asked to develop a strong intention to move their left wrist (flexion or extension), without any overt motor output at the wrist, prior to brain stimulation. Our analyses of hand acceleration and electromyography showed that during the strong motor intention of wrist flexion movement, it evoked motor potential responses that were significantly larger in the FCR muscle than in the ECR, whilst the opposite was true for an extension movement. The acceleration data on flexion/extension corresponded to this finding. Under no-intention conditions again, which served as a reference for motor evoked potentials, brain stimulation resulted in undirected and minimally simultaneous extension/flexion innervation and virtually no movement. These results indicate that conscious intentions govern motor function, which in turn shows that a neuronal activation representing an “intention network” in the human brain pre-exists, and that it functionally represents target specific motor circuits. Until today, it was unclear whether conscious motor intention exists prior to movement, or whether the brain constructs such an intention after movement initiation. Our study gives evidence that motor intentions become aware before any motor

  10. A homozygote splice site PMS2 mutation as cause of Turcot syndrome gives rise to two different abnormal transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursen, Wenche; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Engebretsen, Lars F; Fjelland, Kristine; Halvorsen, Tore; Myrvold, Helge E

    2009-01-01

    Turcot syndrome is a rare, inherited disease predisposing of tumours in the central nerve system and in the colorectal system. This report describes a Turcot patient with an extraordinary clinical history. The patient is still alive at the age of 43. She was operated at the age of 10 by brain tumour and at the age of 16 by colorectal cancer. She has since then been treated for multiple cancers (gastrointestinal, endometrial, basal cell carcinomas), and removal of adenomatous polyps at several occasions. The aim of this work was to investigate if there was any specific genotype that explains her remarkable clinical history. Microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry analysis for four DNA mismatch repair proteins were performed. DNA mutation analysis was done for genes involved in polyposis and mismatch repair by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and sequencing. cDNA analysis was carried out for the mismatch repair gene PMS2. The patients genotype was found to be a homozygous splice site mutation in the PMS2 gene, c.989-1G

  11. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which NaV channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of NaV1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of NaV1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in NaV1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in NaV1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the NaV1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to NaV channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage–sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2. PMID:22450487

  12. Beta-scission of alkoxyl radicals on peptides and proteins can give rise to backbone cleavage and loss of side-chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headlam, H.A.; Davies, M.J.; Mortimer, A.; Easton, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O 2 brings about multiple changes including side-chain oxidation, backbone fragmentation, cross-linking, unfolding, changes in hydrophobicity and conformation, altered susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes and formation of new reactive groups (e.g. hydroperoxides and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). All of these processes can result in loss of structural or enzymatic activity. The mechanisms that give rise to backbone cleavage are only partly understood. Whilst it is known that direct hydrogen atom abstraction at a-carbon sites gives backbone cleavages it has also been proposed that initial attack at side-chain sites might also give rise to backbone cleavage. In this study we have examined whether initial attack at the β- (C-3) position can give rise to α-carbon radicals (and hence backbone cleavage) via the formation, and subsequent β- scission, of C-3 alkoxyl radicals. This process has been observed previously with protected amino acids in organic solvents (J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 1997, 503-507) but the occurrence of such reactions with proteins in aqueous solution has not been explored. Alkoxyl radicals were generated at the C-3 position of a variety of protected amino acids and small peptides by two methods: metal-ion catalysed decomposition of hydroperoxides formed as a result of γ-radiolysis in the presence of O 2 , and UV photolysis of nitrate esters. In most cases radicals have been detected by EPR spectroscopy using nitroso and nitrone spin traps, which can be assigned by comparison with literature data to α-carbon radicals; in some case assignments were confirmed by the generation of the putative species by other routes. With Ala peptide hydroperoxides and nitrate esters, and MNP as the spin trap, the major radical detected in each case has been assigned to the adduct of an α-carbon radical with partial structure - NH- . CH-C(O) - consistent with the rapid occurrence of the above

  13. A Set of Regioselective O-Methyltransferases Gives Rise to the Complex Pattern of Methoxylated Flavones in Sweet Basil1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Anna; Hyatt, David C.; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Polymethoxylated flavonoids occur in a number of plant families, including the Lamiaceae. To date, the metabolic pathways giving rise to the diversity of these compounds have not been studied. Analysis of our expressed sequence tag database for four sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) lines afforded identification of candidate flavonoid O-methyltransferase genes. Recombinant proteins displayed distinct substrate preferences and product specificities that can account for all detected 7-/6-/4′-methylated, 8-unsubstituted flavones. Their biochemical specialization revealed only certain metabolic routes to be highly favorable and therefore likely in vivo. Flavonoid O-methyltransferases catalyzing 4′- and 6-O-methylations shared high identity (approximately 90%), indicating that subtle sequence changes led to functional differentiation. Structure homology modeling suggested the involvement of several amino acid residues in defining the proteins’ stringent regioselectivities. The roles of these individual residues were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, revealing two discrete mechanisms as a basis for the switch between 6- and 4′-O-methylation of two different substrates. These findings delineate major pathways in a large segment of the flavone metabolic network and provide a foundation for its further elucidation. PMID:22923679

  14. Local infection of opium poppy leaves by Peronospora somniferi sporangia can give rise to systemic infections and seed infection in resistant cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Borrego, M.; Muñoz-Ledesma, F.J.; Jiménez-Díaz, R.M.; Landa, B.B.

    2017-07-01

    Downy mildew (DM) of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) caused by Peronospora somniferi is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop due to the systemic nature of infection as compared with local infections caused by Peronospora meconopsidis, the other downy mildew pathogen of this crop. We developed an inoculation method using Peronospora somniferi sporangia as inoculum and demonstrated for the first time that local infection of leaves by sporangia give rise to systemic infections in the plant as well as of seeds. Our results also showed that this inoculation protocol was very effective in reproducing disease symptoms and assessing the resistance response to DM in opium poppy genotypes under field conditions. More interestingly, results indicate that up to 100% of seed samples from some genotypes showing a complete (symptomless) resistant phenotype were infected by the pathogen when seeds were analyzed by a P. somniferi-specific nested-PCR protocol. This latter aspect deserves further attention while breeding opium poppy for resistance to P. somniferi.

  15. Local infection of opium poppy leaves by Peronospora somniferi sporangia can give rise to systemic infections and seed infection in resistant cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes-Borrego, M.; Muñoz-Ledesma, F.J.; Jiménez-Díaz, R.M.; Landa, B.B.

    2017-01-01

    Downy mildew (DM) of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) caused by Peronospora somniferi is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop due to the systemic nature of infection as compared with local infections caused by Peronospora meconopsidis, the other downy mildew pathogen of this crop. We developed an inoculation method using Peronospora somniferi sporangia as inoculum and demonstrated for the first time that local infection of leaves by sporangia give rise to systemic infections in the plant as well as of seeds. Our results also showed that this inoculation protocol was very effective in reproducing disease symptoms and assessing the resistance response to DM in opium poppy genotypes under field conditions. More interestingly, results indicate that up to 100% of seed samples from some genotypes showing a complete (symptomless) resistant phenotype were infected by the pathogen when seeds were analyzed by a P. somniferi-specific nested-PCR protocol. This latter aspect deserves further attention while breeding opium poppy for resistance to P. somniferi.

  16. Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oikonomou

    Full Text Available Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering.This 'quantitative model' makes predictions for the effect of locking cyclin at fixed levels for a protracted period: at low cyclin levels, early events should occur rapidly, while late events should be slow, defective, or highly variable (depending on threshold mechanism. We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. These events require increasingly more Clb2 according to their normal order of occurrence. Events occur efficiently and with low variability at fixed Clb2 levels similar to those observed when the events normally occur. A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. Moderate (<2-fold overexpression of Clb2 accelerates all events of mitosis, resulting in consistently rapid sequential cell cycles. However, this moderate overexpression also causes a significant frequency of premature mitoses leading to inviability, suggesting that Clb2 expression level is optimized to balance the fitness costs of variability and catastrophe.We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological processes a graded input must be translated into discrete outputs. In such systems, expression of the central regulator is likely to be tuned to an optimum level, as we

  17. Can molluscan assemblages give insights into Holocene environmental changes other than sea level rise? A case study from a macrotidal bay (Marennes-Oleron, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier, Clement; Sauriau, Pierre-guy; Chaumillon, Eric; Allard, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    During the Late Holocene, the rate of sea level rise decreased and climate changes, hydrodynamic processes or anthropogenic impacts became predominant parameters governing the sedimentary infill of estuarine environments. The aim of this study is to describe the response of past benthic mollusc communities to these forcing factors. Mollusc skeletal remains were sampled from three 8000, 5500 and 2600 year-long sedimentary records in the Marennes-Oleron Bay (Atlantic Coast, France), where envir...

  18. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Stem cell science on the rise in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Weiping; Sipp, Douglas; Wang, Zack Z; Deng, Hongkui; Pei, Duanqing; Zhou, Qi; Cheng, Tao

    2012-01-06

    China's output in fundamental stem cell research has increased markedly in recent years. Vigorous public investment and infrastructure development have enabled major productivity gains, but challenges in regulation, governance, and the management of clinical expectations must be addressed to ensure scientific quality and sustainable growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mini-Review: Limbal Stem Cells Deficiency in Companion Animals: Time to Give Something Back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rick F; Daniels, Julie T

    2016-04-01

    Experimental animals have been used extensively in the goal of developing sight-saving therapies for humans. One example is the development of transplantation of cultured limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) to restore vision following ocular surface injury or disease. With clinical trials of cultured LESC therapy underway in humans and a potential companion animal population suffering from similar diseases, it is perhaps time to give something back. Comparatively to humans, what is known about the healthy limbus and corneal surface physiology of companion animals is still very little. Blinding corneal diseases in animals such as symblepharon in cats with Feline Herpes Virus-1 infections require a basic understanding of the functional companion animal limbus and corneal stem cells. Our understanding of many other vision threatening conditions such as scarring of the cornea post-inflammation with lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltrate in dogs (aka chronic superficial keratitis) or pigment proliferation with Pigmentary Keratitis of Pugs would benefit from a better understanding of the animal cornea in health and disease. This is also vital when new therapeutic approaches are considered. This review will explore the current challenges and future research directions that will be required to increase our understanding of corneal diseases in animals and consider the potential development and delivery of cultured stem cell therapy to veterinary ocular surface patients.

  1. Invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a teaching case giving rise to the genuine diagnostic difficulty on an inadequate cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Sohsuke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A history of a recent rapid increase in long-standing swelling mass was presented in the right parotid gland of an 85-year-old male. The inadequate cytologic specimens contained few small clusters of three-dimensional malignant epithelial cells having hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, adjacent to a cluster of benign monomorphic myoepithelial cells. We first interpreted it merely as an adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. A radical parotidectomy was performed, and gross examination revealed an encapsulated and firm tumor lesion, looking grayish-blue to yellowish-white, focally associated with extracapsular invasion. On microscopic examination, the tumor was predominantly composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, often arranged in a Roman-bridge appearance with foci of comedo necrosis, alternating with extensive infiltration to adjacent stroma in a trabecular or alveolar fashion with severe vessel permeation. Within the background of pleomorphic adenoma, the carcinoma cells sometimes replaced ductal luminal cells while retaining an intact-like myoepithelial layer. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We should be aware that owing to its characteristic features, cytopathologists might be able to determine correct diagnosis, based on multiple and adequate samplings. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2126158270695815

  2. Accuracy of formulas used to predict post-transfusion packed cell volume rise in anemic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jacqueline L; Diehl, Shenandoah; Seshadri, Ravi; Serrano, Sergi

    2012-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of published formulas used to guide packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions in anemic dogs and to compare the predicted rise in packed cell volume (PCV) to the actual post-transfusion rise in PCV. Prospective observational study from April 2009 through July 2009. A small animal emergency and specialty hospital. Thirty-one anemic client-owned dogs that received pRBC transfusions for treatment of anemia. None Four formulas were evaluated to determine their predictive ability with respect to rise in PCV following transfusion with pRBC. Post-transfusion rise in PCV were compared to calculated rise in PCV using 4 different formulas. Bias and limits of agreement were investigated using Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy of existing formulas to predict rise in PCV following transfusion varied significantly. Formula 1 (volume to be transfused [VT] [mL] = 1 mL × % PCV rise × kg body weight [BW]) overestimated the expected rise in PCV (mean difference, 6.30), while formula 2 (VT [mL] = 2 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) underestimated the rise in PCV (mean difference, -3.01). Formula 3 (VT [mL] = 90 mL × kg BW × [(desired PCV - Patient PCV)/PCV of donor blood]) and formula 4 (VT [mL] = 1.5 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) performed well (mean difference 0.23 and 0.09, respectively) in predicting rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion. Agreement between 2 formulas, "VT (mL) = kg BW × blood volume (90 mL) × [(desired PCV - recipient PCV)/Donor PCV]" and "VT (mL) = 1.5 ×desired rise in PCV × kg BW," was found when they were compared to the actual rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion in anemic dogs. Further research is warranted to determine whether these formulas perform similarly well for other species. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  3. Very low temperature rise laser annealing of radiation-damaged solar cells in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulek, V.

    1988-01-01

    Solar cells of all space objects are damaged by radiation in orbit. This damage, however, can be removed by laser annealing. A new in-orbit laser regeneration system for both body- and spin-stabilized space objects is proposed. For successful annealing of solar cells damaged by 10 years' radiation dose in orbit it is necessary for the temperature rise in the incidence point of the laser beam to reach about 400 0 C. By continuous regeneration, however, between two annealing cycles the solar cells are hit by about two orders of magnitude lower radiation dose. This makes it possible to carry out the regeneration at a temperature rise well under 1 0 C! If an optimal laser regeneration system is used, such low temperature rise laser annealing of radiation-damaged solar cells is possible. A semiconductor GaAlAs diode laser with output power up to 10 mW CW was used for annealing. Some results of the very low temperature rise annealing experiment are given in this paper. (author)

  4. Giving presentations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  5. The Rise of CRISPR/Cas for Genome Editing in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Shui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic manipulation is a powerful tool to establish the causal relationship between a genetic lesion and a particular pathological phenotype. The rise of CRISPR/Cas9 genome-engineering tools overcame the traditional technical bottleneck for routine site-specific genetic manipulation in cells. To create the perfect in vitro cell model, there is significant interest from the stem cell research community to adopt this fast evolving technology. This review addresses this need directly by providing both the up-to-date biochemical rationale of CRISPR-mediated genome engineering and detailed practical guidelines for the design and execution of CRISPR experiments in cell models. Ultimately, this review will serve as a timely and comprehensive guide for this fast developing technology.

  6. Noticeable rise in incidence of Hurthle cell carcinoma - Are we paying the Chernobyl toll ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojicic, J.; Popadic, S.; Malesevic, M.; Kermeci, K.; Peter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Oncology in Sremska Kamenica is a reference centre for radioiodine treatment of different thyroid cancer (DTC) in our country. The majority of patients operated for DTC throughout the country are sent to us for further diagnostics and/or therapy. In our practice, we noticed a rising incidence of Hurthle cell cancer (HCC) during the past several years. We wanted to determine if there is statistically significant difference in the incidence of Hurthle cell cancer between several previous years. Data from the patients referred to our institution for 131-I whole body scanning and/or therapy between January 1998 and August 2003 were used to determine the incidence of HCC, which was presented as the percentage of total number of patients who were diagnosed to have DTC in the specific year. χ 2 test was used to test for significance of differences between the years. In the aforementioned period, there was a total number of 394 DTC patients among whom 17 with follicular carcinoma of oxyphyllic type (so called Hurthle cell carcinoma). Presented in percentage, the distribution of HCC throughout the years is as follows: 1998-0%; 1999-0%; 2000-3.85%; 2001-4.55%; 2002-5.3%; 2003-7.6%. We found significant difference (p<0.05 or less) between the incidence of HCC in year 2003 and all the previous years; also between years 1998 and 1999 and year of 2002 (p<0.05). These results show a rising incidence of Hurthle cell carcinoma over the past several years, with a significant peak in the year of 2003. Since these tumors also tend to show more aggressive clinical behaviour than they used to, our belief is that we might now be paying the toll of the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  7. Cytosolic calcium rises and related events in ergosterol-treated Nicotiana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Parul; Chiltz, Annick; Luini, Estelle; Vandelle, Elodie; Pugin, Alain; Roblin, Gabriel

    2011-07-01

    The typical fungal membrane component ergosterol was previously shown to trigger defence responses and protect plants against pathogens. Most of the elicitors mobilize the second messenger calcium, to trigger plant defences. We checked the involvement of calcium in response to ergosterol using Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi cells expressing apoaequorin in the cytosol. First, it was verified if ergosterol was efficient in these cells inducing modifications of proton fluxes and increased expression of defence-related genes. Then, it was shown that ergosterol induced a rapid and transient biphasic increase of free [Ca²⁺](cyt) which intensity depends on ergosterol concentration in the range 0.002-10 μM. Among sterols, this calcium mobilization was specific for ergosterol and, ergosterol-induced pH and [Ca²⁺](cyt) changes were specifically desensitized after two subsequent applications of ergosterol. Specific modulators allowed elucidating some events in the signalling pathway triggered by ergosterol. The action of BAPTA, LaCl₃, nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, U73122 and ruthenium red suggested that the first phase was linked to calcium influx from external medium which subsequently triggered the second phase linked to calcium release from internal stores. The calcium influx and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase depended on upstream protein phosphorylation. The extracellular alkalinization and ROS production depended on calcium influx but, the ergosterol-induced MAPK activation was calcium-independent. ROS were not involved in cytosolic calcium rise as described in other models, indicating that ROS do not systematically participate in the amplification of calcium signalling. Interestingly, ergosterol-induced ROS production is not linked to cell death and ergosterol does not induce any calcium elevation in the nucleus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Rising Intracellular Zinc by Membrane Depolarization and Glucose in Insulin-Secreting Clonal HIT-T15 Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira G. Slepchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn2+ appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30–60 mM was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  9. Rising intracellular zinc by membrane depolarization and glucose in insulin-secreting clonal HIT-T15 beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Li, Yang V

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30-60 mM) was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM) induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  10. Human development VIII: a theory of "deep" quantum chemistry and cell consciousness: quantum chemistry controls genes and biochemistry to give cells and higher organisms consciousness and complex behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-11-14

    Deep quantum chemistry is a theory of deeply structured quantum fields carrying the biological information of the cell, making it able to remember, intend, represent the inner and outer world for comparison, understand what it "sees", and make choices on its structure, form, behavior and division. We suggest that deep quantum chemistry gives the cell consciousness and all the qualities and abilities related to consciousness. We use geometric symbolism, which is a pre-mathematical and philosophical approach to problems that cannot yet be handled mathematically. Using Occam's razor we have started with the simplest model that works; we presume this to be a many-dimensional, spiral fractal. We suggest that all the electrons of the large biological molecules' orbitals make one huge "cell-orbital", which is structured according to the spiral fractal nature of quantum fields. Consciousness of single cells, multi cellular structures as e.g. organs, multi-cellular organisms and multi-individual colonies (like ants) and human societies can thus be explained by deep quantum chemistry. When biochemical activity is strictly controlled by the quantum-mechanical super-orbital of the cell, this orbital can deliver energetic quanta as biological information, distributed through many fractal levels of the cell to guide form and behavior of an individual single or a multi-cellular organism. The top level of information is the consciousness of the cell or organism, which controls all the biochemical processes. By this speculative work inspired by Penrose and Hameroff we hope to inspire other researchers to formulate more strict and mathematically correct hypothesis on the complex and coherence nature of matter, life and consciousness.

  11. Progressive rise in red blood cell distribution width predicts mortality and cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Kim, Sung Jun; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Yang, Chul Woo; Shin, Seok Joon

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a robust marker of adverse clinical outcomes in various populations. However, the clinical significance of a progressive rise in RDW is undetermined in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic importance of a change in RDW in ESRD patients. Three hundred twenty-six incident dialysis patients were retrospectively analyzed. Temporal changes in RDW during 12 months after dialysis initiation were assessed by calculating the coefficients by linear regression. Patients were divided into two groups: an RDW-decreased group who had negative coefficient values (n = 177) and an RDW-increased group who had positive values (n = 149). The associations between rising RDW and mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events were investigated. During a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range, 1.0-7.7 years), 75 deaths (24.0%) and 60 non-fatal CV events (18.4%) occurred. The event-free survival rate for the composite of end-points was lower in the RDW-increased group (P = 0.004). After categorizing patients according to baseline RDW, the event-free survival rate was lowest in patients with a baseline RDW >14.9% and increased RDW, and highest in patients with a baseline RDW ≤14.9% and decreased RDW (P = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, rising RDW was independently associated with the composite of end-points (hazard ratio = 1.75, P = 0.007), whereas the baseline RDW was not. This study shows that a progressive rise in RDW independently predicted mortality and CV events in ESRD patients. Rising RDW could be an additive predictor for adverse CV outcomes ESRD patients.

  12. Molecular dissection of the C-terminal regulatory domain of the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA2: Mapping of residues that when altered give rise to an activated enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, K.B.; Venema, K.; Jah, T.

    1999-01-01

    in an extension of the C-terminus unique to plant H+-ATPases, Alteration of residues in both regions led to increased binding of yeast 14-3-3 protein to the plasma membrane of transformed cells. Taken together, our data suggest that modification of residues in two regions of the C-terminal regulatory domain......The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a proton pump belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily and is important for nutrient acquisition in plants, The H+-ATPase is controlled by an autoinhibitory C-terminal regulatory domain and is activated by 14-3-3 proteins which bind to this part of the enzyme......+-ATPase. The enzymes were characterized by their ability to promote growth in acidic conditions and to promote H+ extrusion from intact cells, both of which are measures of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity, and were also characterized with respect to kinetic properties such as affinity for H+ and ATP. Residues...

  13. The investigation of minoxidil-induced [Ca2+]i rises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Shu; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Chen, Fu-An; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2017-02-01

    Minoxidil is clinically used to prevent hair loss. However, its effect on Ca 2+ homeostasis in prostate cancer cells is unclear. This study explored the effect of minoxidil on cytosolic-free Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Minoxidil at concentrations between 200 and 800 μM evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca 2+ signal was inhibited by 60% by removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ influx was confirmed by Mn 2+ -induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Pre-treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X, PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), nifedipine and SKF96365 inhibited minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ signal in Ca 2+ containing medium by 60%. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-ditert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in Ca 2+ -free medium abolished minoxidil-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Conversely, treatment with minoxidil abolished BHQ-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished minoxidil-evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Overnight treatment with minoxidil killed cells at concentrations of 200-600 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca 2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent minoxidil's cytotoxicity. Together, in PC3 cells, minoxidil induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises that involved Ca 2+ entry through PKC-regulated store-operated Ca 2+ channels and PLC-dependent Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Minoxidil-induced cytotoxicity in a Ca 2+ -independent manner.

  14. Epithelioid schwannoma of the skin displaying unique histopathological features: a teaching case giving rise to diagnostic difficulties on a morphological examination of a resected specimen, with a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Kirishima, Mari; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Higashi, Michiyo; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Tanimoto, Akihide

    2017-01-19

    Epithelioid schwannoma as a rare variant poses a challenge to all pathologists, as this uncommon entity is extremely difficult to conclusively diagnose by morphological analyses on a resected sample alone owing to its unique histopathological features. However, few papers have described the detailed clinicopathological characteristics of epithelioid schwannoma. A 65-year-old female presented with a history of a flat and slightly elevated firm and tan plaque accompanied by occasional tenderness, measuring 10 × 8 mm, in the right joint of her hand 1 year before resection. A gross examination of a locally resected specimen revealed an encapsulated nodular lesion, yellow-whitish in color, partly filled with blood. A microscopic examination showed that the tumor predominantly consisted of a solid proliferation of epithelioid cells having mildly enlarged and round to partially spindled nuclei and abundant vacuolated or clear cytoplasm with very few mitotic figures and modest nuclear size variation, associated with focal hyalinized, cystic and hemorrhagic degeneration. This well-demarcated tumor was surrounded by dense, hyalinized and layered fibrocollagenous stroma. Immunohistochemically, these tumor cells were diffusely positive for S-100 protein and had a very low MIB-1 labeling index, and type IV collagen was strongly reactive with reduplicated basal lamina of them. We ultimately made a diagnosis of cutaneous epithelioid schwannoma. We should be aware that, since pathologists might misinterpret epithelioid schwannoma as other soft tissue tumors, including its malignant counterpart, a wide panel of immunohistochemical antibodies can be powerful supplementary tools for identifying a very rare entity of conventional schwannoma.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Rising Concerns over Their Application in Treatment of Type One Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Seyed Jafar; Kouhnavard, Marjan; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder that leads to beta cell destruction and lowered insulin production. In recent years, stem cell therapies have opened up new horizons to treatment of diabetes mellitus. Among all kinds of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to be an interesting therapeutic option based on their immunomodulatory properties and differentiation potentials confirmed in various experimental and clinical trial studies. In this review, we discuss MSCs differential potentials in differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from various sources and also have an overview on currently understood mechanisms through which MSCs exhibit their immunomodulatory effects. Other important issues that are provided in this review, due to their importance in the field of cell therapy, are genetic manipulations (as a new biotechnological method), routes of transplantation, combination of MSCs with other cell types, frequency of transplantation, and special considerations regarding diabetic patients' autologous MSCs transplantation. At the end, utilization of biomaterials either as encapsulation tools or as scaffolds to prevent immune rejection, preparation of tridimensional vascularized microenvironment, and completed or ongoing clinical trials using MSCs are discussed. Despite all unresolved concerns about clinical applications of MSCs, this group of stem cells still remains a promising therapeutic modality for treatment of diabetes. PMID:26576437

  16. Increased numbers of P63-positive/CD117-positive cells in advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma give a poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study consisted of two parts. One part was to analyze the survival rates of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC in Chinese and explain the difference between our data and the literature. The other was to analyze the relationship between the expression of CD117 and the histological grade and the prognosis. Methods A retrospective study of 80 ACC patients was performed. Clinical data were collected, and p63, CD117 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Eighty patients received follow-ups 3 to 216 months after initial diagnosis. ACC occurred in the lacrimal gland (26.3%, n = 21, nasal cavity and parasinus (33.8%, n = 27 and other sites (40.0%, n = 33. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 66.41% and 10.16%, respectively. Over expression of CD117 was detected in p63-negative cells in 94.3% of cases and in p63-positive cells in 45.8%. The expression of CD117 in p63-positive cells was significantly associated with the histological grade (P Conclusions ACC had a good 5-year survival but poor 10-year survival in Chinese, which differed from the occidental data. More p63+/CD117+ cells were associated with a higher histological grade and poorer outcome. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1701457278762097

  17. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease: the demise of alchemy and rise of pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadczyk, T; Faulkner, A; Madeddu, P

    2013-05-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise as a way of addressing the limitations of current treatments of ischaemic disease. In preclinical models, transplantation of different types of stem cells or progenitor cells results in improved recovery from ischaemia. Furthermore, experimental studies indicate that cell therapy influences a spectrum of processes, including neovascularization and cardiomyogenesis as well as inflammation, apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Thus, distinct strategies might be required for specific regenerative needs. Nonetheless, clinical studies have so far investigated a relatively small number of options, focusing mainly on the use of bone marrow-derived cells. Rapid clinical translation resulted in a number of small clinical trials that do not have sufficient power to address the therapeutic potential of the new approach. Moreover, full exploitation has been hindered so far by the absence of a solid theoretical framework and inadequate development plans. This article reviews the current knowledge on cell therapy and proposes a model theory for interpretation of experimental and clinical outcomes from a pharmacological perspective. Eventually, with an increased association between cell therapy and traditional pharmacotherapy, we will soon need to adopt a unified theory for understanding how the two practices additively interact for a patient's benefit. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. JAK2V617F expression in mice amplifies early hematopoietic cells and gives them a competitive advantage that is hampered by IFNα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salma; Lacout, Catherine; Marty, Caroline; Cuingnet, Marie; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Villeval, Jean-Luc

    2013-08-22

    The acquired gain-of-function V617F mutation in the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2(V617F)) is the main mutation involved in BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but its effect on hematopoietic stem cells as a driver of disease emergence has been questioned. Therefore, we reinvestigated the role of endogenous expression of JAK2(V617F) on early steps of hematopoiesis as well as the effect of interferon-α (IFNα), which may target the JAK2(V617F) clone in humans by using knock-in mice with conditional expression of JAK2(V617F) in hematopoietic cells. These mice develop a MPN mimicking polycythemia vera with large amplification of myeloid mature and precursor cells, displaying erythroid endogenous growth and progressing to myelofibrosis. Interestingly, early hematopoietic compartments [Lin-, LSK, and SLAM (LSK/CD48-/CD150+)] increased with the age. Competitive repopulation assays demonstrated disease appearance and progressive overgrowth of myeloid, Lin-, LSK, and SLAM cells, but not lymphocytes, from a low number of engrafted JAK2(V617F) SLAM cells. Finally, IFNα treatment prevented disease development by specifically inhibiting JAK2(V617F) cells at an early stage of differentiation and eradicating disease-initiating cells. This study shows that JAK2(V617F) in mice amplifies not only late but also early hematopoietic cells, giving them a proliferative advantage through high cell cycling and low apoptosis that may sustain MPN emergence but is lost upon IFNα treatment.

  19. Duality gives rise to Chaplygin cosmologies with a big rip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We consider modifications to the Friedmann equation motivated by recent proposals along these lines pursuing an explanation to the observed late time acceleration. Here we show that these approaches can be framed within a theory with modified gravity, and we discuss the construction of the duals of the cosmologies generated within that framework. We then investigate the modifications required to generate extended, generalized and modified Chaplygin cosmologies, and then show that their duals belong to a larger family of cosmologies we call enlarged Chaplygin cosmologies. Finally, by letting the parameters of these models take values not earlier considered in the literature we show that some representatives of that family of cosmologies display sudden future singularities. This fact indicates that the behaviour of these spacetimes is rather different from that of generalized or modified Chaplygin gas cosmologies. This reinforces the idea that modifications of gravity can be responsible for unexpected evolutionary features in the universe

  20. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  1. The human elements in phenomena giving rise to nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.; Raggenbass, A.

    1977-01-01

    In its search for a high degree of safety, the nuclear industry should take into account the human parameters, which play an important role. This role is reflected in the individual records kept on incidents and analysis of these records, as has been carried out in conventional industry, represents a first attempt to allow for this factor. The first inquiries covering the background of incidents led to a series of studies and action in respect of individual staff members: on the part of operators, education of personnel in relation to their duties (for example, simulation of reactor control) and attempts to find objective selection criteria for certain specific posts; on the part of those responsible for safety, ergonomic studies and studies on human reliability. For effective prevention of accidents it is necessary to move backwards along the causality chains and therefore to study a nuclear facility as a man-machine system in order to discover the greatest number of potential accident factors. The nuclear facility is introduced into an environment which imposes its rules, constraints and checks and a full study of the human element in safety implies that they should be taken into account. The programme of the Nuclear Safety Department of the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety includes not only systematic updating of incident records but also special ergonomic studies (maintenance in a radioactive environment), studies of human reliability and overall studies known as safety management studies. (author)

  2. The rise and fall of red cell mass measurement in polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew

    2005-05-01

    The total blood volume (BV) consists of the part occupied by red blood cells (RBC), which is referred to as red cell mass (RCM), and that occupied by plasma (ie, plasma volume). Quantitative laboratory measurements that are pertinent to RBC, including RBC count, hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hgb) are expressed in reference to a given volume of whole blood and are therefore influenced by plasma volume. Consequently, a "direct" RCM measurement has been promoted as a more accurate indicator of the body's red cell content. In accordance with this view, an international group of investigators, then identified as the Polycythemia Vera Study Group (PVSG), recommended that RCM be measured and only if elevated should a patient be considered for participation in a series of clinical trials in PV that were conducted more than 30 years ago. By default, the 'study eligibility' criteria used in these studies became 'diagnostic' criteria without any systematic evaluation for diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, over the years, it has become evident that RCM measurement is a cumbersome and costly test that is also suboptimal in its diagnostic accuracy. As a result, the specific procedure has been abandoned by the majority of hematologists in certain countries and instead physicians are increasingly using bone marrow histology, serum erythropoietin level, and other disease-characteristic biologic markers as diagnostic tools.

  3. Investigation of Rising-Sun Magnetrons Operated at Relativistic Voltages Using Three Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, R.W.; Genoni, T.C.; Spencer, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    This work is an attempt to elucidate effects that may limit efficiency in magnetrons operated at relativistic voltages (V ∼ 500 kV). Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate the behavior of 14 and 22 cavity, cylindrical, rising-sun magnetrons. Power is extracted radially through a single iris located at the end of every other cavity. Numerical results show that in general output power and efficiency increase approximately linearly with increasing iris width (decreasing vacuum Q) until the total Q becomes too low for stable oscillation in the n-mode to be maintained. Beyond this point mode competition and/or switching occur and efficiency decreases. Results reveal that the minimum value of Q (maximum efficiency) that can be achieved prior to the onset of mode competition is significantly affected by the magnitude of the 0-space-harmonic of the π-mode, a unique characteristic of rising-suns, and by the magnitude of the electron current density (space-charge effects). By minimizing these effects, up to 3.7 GW output power has been produced at an efficiency of 40%

  4. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  5. Localised electrochemical impedance measurements of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell using a reference electrode array to give cathode-specific measurements and examine membrane hydration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Erik; Hinds, Gareth; Meyer, Quentin; Mason, Tom; Brightman, Edward; Castanheira, Luis; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2018-04-01

    Advances in bespoke diagnostic techniques for polymer electrolyte fuel cells continue to provide unique insight into the internal operation of these devices and lead to improved performance and durability. Localised measurements of current density have proven to be extremely useful in designing better fuel cells and identifying optimal operating strategies, with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) now routinely used to deconvolute the various losses in fuel cells. Combining the two techniques provides another dimension of understanding, but until now each localised EIS has been based on 2-electrode measurements, composed of both the anode and cathode responses. This work shows that a reference electrode array can be used to give individual electrode-specific EIS responses, in this case the cathode is focused on to demonstrate the approach. In addition, membrane hydration dynamics are studied under current load steps from open circuit voltage. A three-stage process is identified associated with an initial rapid reduction in membrane resistance after 10 s of applying a current step, followed by a slower ramp to approximately steady state, which was achieved after ∼250 s. These results support previously published work that has looked at membrane swelling dynamics and reveal that membrane hydration/membrane resistance is highly heterogeneous.

  6. Packed red blood cell transfusion causes greater hemoglobin rise at a lower starting hemoglobin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Kahn, Marc J; Soong, Wayne; Green, David; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Each unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is expected to raise circulating hemoglobin (HGB) by approximately 1 g/dL. There are few data on modifiers of this relationship other than gender and body mass index (BMI). We recorded HGB before and after PRBC transfusion in a retrospective cohort of 103 patients and a prospective cohort of 93 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the retrospective cohort, 48 of 103 patients were transfused, and in the prospective cohort, 56 of 93 patients were transfused. In both groups, lower pre-transfusion HGB was associated with a larger increase in HGB (P rise in HGB (P < 0.001) after correction for number of units of PRBCs given, gender, and BMI in repeated measures analysis. Pre-transfusion HGB explained an additional 12% of variance in the data (P < 0.001). In both cohorts, the magnitude of the effect was similar. In patients with SAH, transfusion at lower HGB leads to a greater increase in HGB. Transfusion at lower HGB may be relatively more cost-effective, and this should be balanced against any potential benefit from higher HGB in SAH. One rather than 2 units of PRBCs are likely to be sufficient for most HGB targets after SAH, especially in patients with more severe anemia.

  7. Progressive rise in red cell distribution width is associated with poor outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Nay; Dworakowski, Rafal; Byrne, Jonathan; Alcock, Emma; Deshpande, Ranjit; Rajagopal, Kailasam; Brickham, Beth; Monaghan, Mark J; Okonko, Darlington O; Wendler, Olaf; Maccarthy, Philip A

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of baseline and temporal changes in red cell distribution width (RDW) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Single-centre retrospective observational study. Tertiary cardiac centre. 175 patients undergoing TAVI were included in this study. Survival. We analysed data from 175 TAVI patients (mean (± SD) age 83 ± 7 years, 49% men, mean Logistic EuroSCORE 23 ± 1, 66% preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)). Immediately pre-TAVI, mean RDW was 14.6 ± 1.6% with an RDW>15% in 29% of patients. Over median follow-up of 12 months, the median rate of change in RDW was 0.2% per month, and 51 (29%) patients died. On multivariate survival analyses, baseline RDW ≥ 15.5% predicted death (adjusted HR 2.70, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.22, p=0.003) independently of LVEF, transfemoral approach, baseline pulmonary artery systolic pressure, moderate/severe mitral regurgitation and body mass index. A greater rate of increase in RDW over time was associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.18, p=0.001) independently of baseline RDW and other significant temporal variables including a change in creatinine, bilirubin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration or urea. An increase in RDW>0.1%/month was associated with a twofold increased risk of mortality. Baseline RDW ≥ 15.5% and a rising RDW over time strongly correlate to an increased risk of death post-TAVI, and could be used to refine risk stratification. Investigating and ameliorating the causes of RDW expansion may improve survival.

  8. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  9. IMGT/GeneInfo: T cell receptor gamma TRG and delta TRD genes in database give access to all TR potential V(D)J recombinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Thierry-Pascal; Hierle, Vivien; Pasqual, Nicolas; Bellahcene, Fatena; Chaume, Denys; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne; Marche, Patrice Noël; Demongeot, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Background Adaptative immune repertoire diversity in vertebrate species is generated by recombination of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) genes in the immunoglobulin (IG) loci of B lymphocytes and in the T cell receptor (TR) loci of T lymphocytes. These V-J and V-D-J gene rearrangements at the DNA level involve recombination signal sequences (RSS). Whereas many data exist, they are scattered in non specialized resources with different nomenclatures (eg. flat files) and are difficult to extract. Description IMGT/GeneInfo is an online information system that provides, through a user-friendly interface, exhaustive information resulting from the complex mechanisms of T cell receptor V-J and V-D-J recombinations. T cells comprise two populations which express the αβ and γδ TR, respectively. The first version of the system dealt with the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus TRA and TRB loci whose gene rearrangements allow the synthesis of the αβ TR chains. In this paper, we present the second version of IMGT/GeneInfo where we complete the database for the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus TRG and TRD loci along with the introduction of a quality control procedure for existing and new data. We also include new functionalities to the four loci analysis, giving, to date, a very informative tool which allows to work on V(D)J genes of all TR loci in both human and mouse species. IMGT/GeneInfo provides more than 59,000 rearrangement combinations with a full gene description which is freely available at . Conclusion IMGT/GeneInfo allows all TR information sequences to be in the same spot, and are now available within two computer-mouse clicks. This is useful for biologists and bioinformaticians for the study of T lymphocyte V(D)J gene rearrangements and their applications in immune response analysis. PMID:16640788

  10. IMGT/GeneInfo: T cell receptor gamma TRG and delta TRD genes in database give access to all TR potential V(DJ recombinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouvin-Marche Evelyne

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptative immune repertoire diversity in vertebrate species is generated by recombination of variable (V, diversity (D and joining (J genes in the immunoglobulin (IG loci of B lymphocytes and in the T cell receptor (TR loci of T lymphocytes. These V-J and V-D-J gene rearrangements at the DNA level involve recombination signal sequences (RSS. Whereas many data exist, they are scattered in non specialized resources with different nomenclatures (eg. flat files and are difficult to extract. Description IMGT/GeneInfo is an online information system that provides, through a user-friendly interface, exhaustive information resulting from the complex mechanisms of T cell receptor V-J and V-D-J recombinations. T cells comprise two populations which express the αβ and γδ TR, respectively. The first version of the system dealt with the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus TRA and TRB loci whose gene rearrangements allow the synthesis of the αβ TR chains. In this paper, we present the second version of IMGT/GeneInfo where we complete the database for the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus TRG and TRD loci along with the introduction of a quality control procedure for existing and new data. We also include new functionalities to the four loci analysis, giving, to date, a very informative tool which allows to work on V(DJ genes of all TR loci in both human and mouse species. IMGT/GeneInfo provides more than 59,000 rearrangement combinations with a full gene description which is freely available at http://imgt.cines.fr/GeneInfo. Conclusion IMGT/GeneInfo allows all TR information sequences to be in the same spot, and are now available within two computer-mouse clicks. This is useful for biologists and bioinformaticians for the study of T lymphocyte V(DJ gene rearrangements and their applications in immune response analysis.

  11. Progressive rise in red cell distribution width is associated with disease progression in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthen, Clay A; Tong, Wilson; Jain, Anil; Tang, W H Wilson

    2012-02-01

    Single red cell distribution width (RDW) assessment is a consistent prognostic marker of poor outcomes in heart failure as well as in other patient cohorts. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic value of sequential RDW assessment in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure. We reviewed 6,159 consecutive ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure between 2001-2006 and examined changes in RDW values from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Clinical, demographic, laboratory, and ICD-9 coding data were extracted from electronic health records, and all-cause mortality was followed over a mean follow-up of 4.4 ± 2.4 years. In this study cohort, median baseline RDW was 14.9%. RDW >16% at baseline (18.5% of cohort) was associated with a higher mortality rates than RDW ≤16%. For each +1% increment of baseline RDW, the risk ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.19; P < .0001). At 12-month follow-up (n = 1,601), a large majority of subjects (68% in first tertile, 56% in second tertile of baseline RDW) showed rising RDW and correspondingly higher risk for all-cause mortality (risk ratio for +1% increase in changes in RDW was 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.13; P = .001). This effect was independent of anemia status or other baseline cardiac or renal indices, and particularly strong in those with lower baseline RDW. In our ambulatory cohort of patients with chronic heart failure, baseline and serial increases in RDW were associated with poor long-term outcomes independently from standard cardiac, hematologic, and renal indices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Giving behavior of millionaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Paul; Bauer, Rob; Gneezy, Uri

    2015-08-25

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other participant has no power, than in a strategic setting, where the other participant can punish unfair behavior. Moreover, the level of giving by millionaires is higher than in any other previous study. Our findings have important implications for charities and financial institutions that deal with wealthy individuals.

  13. Giving Back, Moving Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Fortmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While reflecting on her own experience with giving back in Zimbabwe, Fortmann considers how the idea of “giving back” sits at the intersection of feminist theory, participatory research, and the democratization of science. From feminist theory arises the question of how to reciprocate to those who have contributed to our research. The participatory research and democratization of science literature push us to recognize and consider the collaborative nature of our research. Fortmann concludes by identifying three categories of reciprocity in research: material, intellectual, and personal. Sharing must occur, regardless of the kind of research taking place.

  14. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  15. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  16. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  17. Legal implications of translational promises of unproven stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... multipotent stem cells are haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which give rise ... include diseases such as arthritis, heart attacks, multiple sclerosis, diabetes ... regard to autologous stem cell therapy, where a patient's own stem.

  18. Human Development VIII: A Theory of “Deep” Quantum Chemistry and Cell Consciousness: Quantum Chemistry Controls Genes and Biochemistry to Give Cells and Higher Organisms Consciousness and Complex Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep quantum chemistry is a theory of deeply structured quantum fields carrying the biological information of the cell, making it able to remember, intend, represent the inner and outer world for comparison, understand what it “sees”, and make choices on its structure, form, behavior and division. We suggest that deep quantum chemistry gives the cell consciousness and all the qualities and abilities related to consciousness. We use geometric symbolism, which is a pre-mathematical and philosophical approach to problems that cannot yet be handled mathematically. Using Occam’s razor we have started with the simplest model that works; we presume this to be a many-dimensional, spiral fractal. We suggest that all the electrons of the large biological molecules’ orbitals make one huge “cell-orbital”, which is structured according to the spiral fractal nature of quantum fields. Consciousness of single cells, multi cellular structures as e.g. organs, multi-cellular organisms and multi-individual colonies (like ants and human societies can thus be explained by deep quantum chemistry. When biochemical activity is strictly controlled by the quantum-mechanical super-orbital of the cell, this orbital can deliver energetic quanta as biological information, distributed through many fractal levels of the cell to guide form and behavior of an individual single or a multi-cellular organism. The top level of information is the consciousness of the cell or organism, which controls all the biochemical processes. By this speculative work inspired by Penrose and Hameroff we hope to inspire other researchers to formulate more strict and mathematically correct hypothesis on the complex and coherence nature of matter, life and consciousness.

  19. CD4 T cell-mediated protection from lethal influenza: perforin and antibody-mediated mechanisms give a one-two punch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deborah M; Dilzer, Allison M; Meents, Dana L; Swain, Susan L

    2006-09-01

    The mechanisms whereby CD4 T cells contribute to the protective response against lethal influenza infection remain poorly characterized. To define the role of CD4 cells in protection against a highly pathogenic strain of influenza, virus-specific TCR transgenic CD4 effectors were generated in vitro and transferred into mice given lethal influenza infection. Primed CD4 effectors conferred protection against lethal infection over a broad range of viral dose. The protection mediated by CD4 effectors did not require IFN-gamma or host T cells, but did result in increased anti-influenza Ab titers compared with untreated controls. Further studies indicated that CD4-mediated protection at high doses of influenza required B cells, and that passive transfer of anti-influenza immune serum was therapeutic in B cell-deficient mice, but only when CD4 effectors were present. Primed CD4 cells also acquired perforin (Pfn)-mediated cytolytic activity during effector generation, suggesting a second mechanism used by CD4 cells to confer protection. Pfn-deficient CD4 effectors were less able to promote survival in intact BALB/c mice and were unable to provide protection in B cell-deficient mice, indicating that Ab-independent protection by CD4 effectors requires Pfn. Therefore, CD4 effectors mediate protection to lethal influenza through at least two mechanisms: Pfn-mediated cytotoxicity early in the response promoted survival independently of Ab production, whereas CD4-driven B cell responses resulted in high titer Abs that neutralized remaining virus.

  20. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ibuprofen are available in similar forms. How to Give When giving ibuprofen, refer to the following dosage ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  1. Correlation between membrane fluidity cellular development and stem cell differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Noutsi, Bakiza Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes are made up of a complex structure of lipids and proteins that diffuse laterally giving rise to what we call membrane fluidity. During cellular development, such as neuronal differentiation, cell membranes undergo dramatic structural

  2. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  3. Systematic aging of commercial LiFePO4|Graphite cylindrical cells including a theory explaining rise of capacity during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Münnix, Jens; Schmalstieg, Johannes; Käbitz, Stefan; Knips, Marcus; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-03-01

    The contribution introduces a new theory explaining the capacity increase that is often observed in early stages of life of lithium-ion batteries. This reversible and SOC-depending capacity rise is explained by the passive electrode effect in this work. The theory assumes a slow, compensating flow of active lithium between the passive and the active part of the anode, where the passive part represents the geometric excess anode with respect to the cathode. The theory is validated using a systematic test of 50 cylindrical 8 Ah LiFePO4|Graphite battery cells analyzed during cyclic and calendaric aging. The cyclic aging has been performed symmetrically at 40 °C cell temperature, varying current rates and DODs. The calendar aging is executed at three temperatures and up to four SOCs. The aging is dominated by capacity fade while the increase of internal resistance is hardly influenced. Surprisingly shallow cycling between 45 and 55% SOC shows stronger aging than aging at higher DOD and tests at 4 C exhibit less aging than aging at lower C-rates. Aging mechanisms at 60 °C seem to deviate from those at 40 °C or lower. The data of this aging matrix is used for further destructive and non-destructive characterization in future contributions.

  4. The rise of developmental genetics - a historical account of the fusion of embryology and cell biology with human genetics and the emergence of the Stem Cell Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, S H; Ballo, R; Greenberg, L J

    2016-05-25

    Genetics and cell biology are very prominent areas of biological research with rapid advances being driven by a flood of theoretical, technological and informational knowledge. Big biology and small biology continue to feed off each other. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the productive interactions that have taken place between human geneticists and cell biologists at UCT, and credit is given to the enabling environment created led by Prof. Peter Beighton. The growth of new disciplines and disciplinary mergers that have swept away division of the past to make new exciting syntheses are discussed. We show how our joint research has benefitted from worldwide advances in developmental genetics, cloning and stem cell technologies, genomics, bioinformatics and imaging. We conclude by describing the role of the UCT Stem Cell Initiative and show how we are using induced pluripotent cells to carry out disease-in-the- dish studies on retinal degeneration and fibrosis.

  5. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  6. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  7. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or

  8. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  9. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  10. The New Planned Giving Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

  11. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    and workings of microfinance. We illustrate how market-like elements are productively and problematically deployed in philanthropic giving and address the need to consider a broader range of socio-material relations involved in the framing of transactions. A complex network of actors and (trans)actions needs...

  12. Stem Cell, Regenerative Medicine and Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the estimated trillion cells that build up our bodies, only a little number can self-renew and give rise to many different cell types. These unspecialized cells are called stem cells. Stem cell division and differentiation is fundamental to the development of the mature organism. Stem cells have recently attracted significant attention largely due to their potential medical

  13. Producers give prices a boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  14. FGF signalling controls the specification of hair placode-derived SOX9 positive progenitors to Merkel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Binh; Cohen, Idan; Kumar, Vinod; Xu, Zijian; Bar, Carmit; Dauber-Decker, Katherine L; Tsai, Pai-Chi; Marangoni, Pauline; Klein, Ophir D; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Chen, Ting; Mikkola, Marja L; Ezhkova, Elena

    2018-06-13

    Merkel cells are innervated mechanosensory cells responsible for light-touch sensations. In murine dorsal skin, Merkel cells are located in touch domes and found in the epidermis around primary hairs. While it has been shown that Merkel cells are skin epithelial cells, the progenitor cell population that gives rise to these cells is unknown. Here, we show that during embryogenesis, SOX9-positive (+) cells inside hair follicles, which were previously known to give rise to hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) and cells of the hair follicle lineage, can also give rise to Merkel Cells. Interestingly, while SOX9 is critical for HFSC specification, it is dispensable for Merkel cell formation. Conversely, FGFR2 is required for Merkel cell formation but is dispensable for HFSCs. Together, our studies uncover SOX9(+) cells as precursors of Merkel cells and show the requirement for FGFR2-mediated epithelial signalling in Merkel cell specification.

  15. Analysis gives sensibility two models gives migration and transport gives radionuclides in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Berdeguez, M. B.; Gil Castillo, R.; Peralta Vidal, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    An sensibility analysis it was applied two models, the first one, a model compressible for the near field (I finish source) The second, a simple model gives migration and transport radionuclides in the geosphere. The study was developed varying the securities ed simultaneously at the same time each parameter and observing the results in changes in the output and input. The intention in analysis it is to determine the parameter that but it influences in the variation the concentration. The statistical technique Regression it was employee in the study. This statistical method is used to analyze the dependence between a dependent variable and an or but independent variables

  16. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  17. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  18. From cell differentiation to cell collectives : Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In

  19. Human natural killer cell committed thymocytes and their relation to the T cell lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, M. J.; Spits, H.; Lanier, L. L.; Phillips, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mature natural killer (NK) cells can be grown from human triple negative (TN; CD3-, CD4-, CD8-) thymocytes, suggesting that a common NK/T cell precursor exists within the thymus that can give rise to both NK cells and T cells under appropriate conditions. In the

  20. Wandering towards a goal how can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intention?

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Brendan; Merali, Zeeya

    2018-01-01

    This collection of prize-winning essays addresses the controversial question of how meaning and goals can emerge in a physical world governed by mathematical laws. What are the prerequisites for a system to have goals? What makes a physical process into a signal? Does eliminating the homunculus solve the problem? The three winning essays, by Larissa Albantakis, Carlo Rovelli and Jochen Szangolies tackle exactly these challenges, while many other aspects (agency, the role of the observer, causality versus teleology, ghosts in the machine etc.) put in an appearance in the other award winning contributions. These seventeen imaginative, stimulating and often entertaining essays are enhanced versions of the prize-winning entries to the FQXi essay competition in 2017. The Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of physics and cosmology, particularly new frontiers and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality, but unlik...

  1. An explanatory heuristic gives rise to the belief that words are well suited for their referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    The mappings between the words of a language and their meanings are arbitrary. There is, for example, nothing inherently dog-like about the word dog. And yet, building on prior evidence (e.g., Brook, 1970; Piaget, 1967), the six studies reported here (N=1062) suggest that both children and (at least to some extent) adults see a special "fit" between objects and their names, as if names were particularly suitable or appropriate for the objects they denote. These studies also provide evidence for a novel proposal concerning the source of these nominal fit beliefs. Specifically, beliefs about nominal fit may be a byproduct of the heuristic processes that people use to make sense of the world more generally (Cimpian & Salomon, 2014a). In sum, the present studies provide new insights into how people conceive of language and demonstrate that these conceptions are rooted in the processes that underlie broader explanatory reasoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Condensation of Counterions Gives Rise to Contraction Transitions in a One-Dimensional Polyelectrolyte Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S. Manning

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium volume of a polyelectrolyte gel results from a balance between the tendency to swell caused by outbound polymer/counterion diffusion along with Coulomb interactions on the one hand; and, on the other, the elastic resilience of the cross-linked polymer network. Direct Coulomb forces contribute both to non-ideality of the equilibrated Donnan osmotic pressure, but also to stretching of the network. To isolate the effect of polyelectrolyte expansion, we have analyzed a “one-dimensional” version of a gel, a linear chain of charged beads connected by Hooke’s law springs. As in the range of weak Coulomb strengths previously studied, the springs are significantly stretched by the repulsive interactions among the beads even when the Coulomb strength is strong enough to cause condensation of counterions. There is a quasi-abrupt transition from a stretched state to a partially collapsed state in a transition range between weak and strong Coulomb strengths. Fluctuations between stretched and contracted conformations occur within the transition range. As the solvent quality decreases past the transition range, a progressive collapse can result if the condensed counterions strengthen the spring constant.

  3. An extension to Galilean relativity gives rise to quantum mechanics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Simon

    The presented scheme for quantum mechanics appeared from considering Cellular Automaton Universe in view of the hidden energy associated with the property of inertia. Galilean relativity states that all inertial frames are equivalent. Our consideration reveals one seemingly small exception - the original frame of reference for the material formations of the Cellular Automaton infrastructure is not isotropic. This frame of reference has a distinctive direction as long as elementary particles of matter are generated by cellular automaton relocations As a result, Cellular Automaton Universe basically complying with the laws of macrophysics for bulk bodies, could exhibit peculiar characteristics for microphysics.. Why the states of microobjects are described by complex numbers is obscure. The observables are presented by real numbers through corresponding macro manipulations. In the inertial frame with unidirectional anisotropy isolated particles are characterized by two numbers; magnitude of their velocity and inclination angle to motion direction. So, these quantum states are mapped to a complex Hilbert space with zero vector representing bulk bodies. The effect of spin may be associated with the sign of the inclination angle trending separations for Stern-Gerlach output and Paul Principle. Emeritus.

  4. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the “red planet” sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examinat...

  5. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-09-16

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the "red planet" sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examination.

  6. Driven to distraction: A lack of change gives rise to mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Myrthe; Radvansky, Gabriel A; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2018-04-01

    How does the dynamic structure of the external world direct attention? We examined the relationship between event structure and attention to test the hypothesis that narrative shifts (both theoretical and perceived) negatively predict attentional lapses. Self-caught instances of mind wandering were collected while 108 participants watched a 32.5 min film called The Red Balloon. We used theoretical codings of situational change and human perceptions of event boundaries to predict mind wandering in 5-s intervals. Our findings suggest a temporal alignment between the structural dynamics of the film and mind wandering reports. Specifically, the number of situational changes and likelihood of perceiving event boundaries in the prior 0-15 s interval negatively predicted mind wandering net of low-level audiovisual features. Thus, mind wandering is less likely to occur when there is more event change, suggesting that narrative shifts keep attention from drifting inwards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 45 CFR 77.3 - Conditions that may give rise to remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cash management system fails to comply with generally accepted accounting principles or Departmental regulations or demonstrates irregularities, misrepresentations, fraud, or abuse in its operation. ...

  8. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  9. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  10. To give or not to give, that's the question: How methodology is destiny in Dutch giving data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Wiepking, P.

    2006-01-01

    In research on giving, methodology is destiny. The volume of donations estimated from sample surveys strongly depends on the length of the questionnaire used to measure giving. By comparing two giving surveys from the Netherlands, the authors show that a short questionnaire on giving not only

  11. To Give or Not to Give, That Is the Question : How Methodology Is Destiny in Dutch Giving Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Wiepking, Pamala

    2006-01-01

    In research on giving, methodology is destiny. The volume of donations estimated from sample surveys strongly depends on the length of the questionnaire used to measure giving. By comparing two giving surveys from the Netherlands, the authors show that a short questionnaire on giving not only

  12. Modelling cell division and endoreduplication in tomato fruit pericarp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apri, M.; Kromdijk, J.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Gee, de M.; Molenaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many developing plant tissues and organs, differentiating cells switch from the classical cell cycle to an alternative partial cycle. This partial cycle bypasses mitosis and allows for multiple rounds of genome duplication without cell division, giving rise to cells with high ploidy numbers. This

  13. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  14. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  15. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  16. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Characterization of HSCs ...

  17. Plasma membrane proteomics of human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Braam, S.R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are of immense interest in regenerative medicine as they can self-renew indefinitely and can give rise to any adult cell type. Human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs) are the malignant counterparts of hESCs found in testis tumors. hESCs that have acquired

  18. Phase I/II trial of dendritic cell-based active cellular immunotherapy with DCVAC/PCa in patients with rising PSA after primary prostatectomy or salvage radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucikova, Jitka; Podrazil, Michal; Jarolim, Ladislav; Bilkova, Pavla; Hensler, Michal; Becht, Etienne; Gasova, Zdenka; Klouckova, Jana; Kayserova, Jana; Horvath, Rudolf; Fialova, Anna; Vavrova, Katerina; Sochorova, Klara; Rozkova, Daniela; Spisek, Radek; Bartunkova, Jirina

    2018-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer has the potential to be effective mostly in patients with a low tumour burden. Rising PSA (prostate-specific antigen) levels in patients with prostate cancer represents such a situation. We performed the present clinical study with dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy in this patient population. The single-arm phase I/II trial registered as EudraCT 2009-017259-91 involved 27 patients with rising PSA levels. The study medication consisted of autologous DCs pulsed with the killed LNCaP cell line (DCVAC/PCa). Twelve patients with a favourable PSA response continued with the second cycle of immunotherapy. The primary and secondary objectives of the study were to assess the safety and determine the PSA doubling time (PSADT), respectively. No significant side effects were recorded. The median PSADT in all treated patients increased from 5.67 months prior to immunotherapy to 18.85 months after 12 doses (p PSA-reacting T lymphocytes were increased significantly already after the fourth dose, and a stable frequency was detected throughout the remainder of DCVAC/PCa treatment. Long-term immunotherapy of prostate cancer patients experiencing early signs of PSA recurrence using DCVAC/PCa was safe, induced an immune response and led to the significant prolongation of PSADT. Long-term follow-up may show whether the changes in PSADT might improve the clinical outcome in patients with biochemical recurrence of the prostate cancer.

  19. Whether and How Much to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik

    This study evaluates whether factors known to foster charitable giving have a uniform influence on both (1) the decision to give and (2) the decision of how much to give. I establish that these two decisions are independent by dismissing the widely used Tobit model, which assumes a singe decision...

  20. Stem cells and the evolving notion of cellular identity

    OpenAIRE

    Daley, George Q.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are but one class of the myriad types of cells within an organism. With potential to self-renew and capacity to differentiate, stem cells play essential roles at multiple stages of development. In the early embryo, pluripotent stem cells represent progenitors for all tissues while later in development, tissue-restricted stem cells give rise to cells with highly specialized functions. As best understood in the blood, skin and gut, stem cells are the seeds that sustain tissue homeost...

  1. Mapping the imaginary of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2012-01-01

    The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative m...... across relatively stable assemblages of conceptions of poverty, donors, end-recipients and charitable giving. These assemblages are suggested to form a multifaceted imaginary that is both cultural (shared) and personal (individually performed).......The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative...

  2. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  3. Rising from Plagiarising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Muralee; Shetty, Deepthi; Shetty, Tripthi; Pandya, Kalpa

    2015-09-01

    Amongst the various forms of scientific misconduct, plagiarism has become increasingly prevalent in today's scientific process. Plagiarism is copying another author's ideas or words and portraying them as your own. Inclusion of another source's contents without giving credit to the source results in this unethical practice. Text derived directly from a source must always be put under quotation marks. Decreased awareness about plagiarism and what exactly constitutes it results in unintentional plagiarism. Plagiarism can be that of the ideas in which the author projects others' ideas as his own. It can also be that of the text also known as word to word plagiarism. Mosaic plagiarism is another form. Various guidelines formulated by esteemed scientific bodies such as World Association of Medical Editors, Committee on publication Ethics have provided an insight to authors, editors, publishers and peer reviewers into the practice of ethical writing. By understanding the true essence of plagiarism and following strict guidelines, it is certainly possible to avoid plagiarism. Various softwares are available to detect plagiarism. These softwares have a wide database which is scanned to reveal any kind of malpractice. If detected, it can have grave consequences causing not only retraction of the article but also loss of dignity. Failure to detect plagiarism reflects negatively on a journal. Originality is the true essence of any research or scientific paper. Any violation of this fact is an unforgivable offence. Thus, this review article attempts to cover the meaning, types, risks and ways to avoid plagiarism.

  4. The charophycean green algae as model systems to study plant cell walls and other evolutionary adaptations that gave rise to land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Doyle, Jeff J.

    2012-01-01

    for terrestrial colonization. The nature and molecular bases of such traits are still being determined, but one critical adaptation is thought to have been the evolution of a complex cell wall. Very little is known about the identity, origins and diversity of the biosynthetic machinery producing the major suites......, during times of radical habitat changes. Orders of the CGA span early diverging taxa retaining more ancestral characters, through complex multicellular organisms with morphological characteristics resembling those of land plants. Examination of gene diversity and evolution within the CGA could help...

  5. Time course of the rise in UV fluorescence intensity following irradiation and experimental conditions for the determination of this parameter in vital Ehrlich-ascitic tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the impulse cytophotometric method of measurement in the UV region of the spectrum has allowed to determine the change of primary fluorescence intensity on vital unstained cells without the influence of UV exposure or other factors affecting the measuring result in an uncontrollable way. The studies on the influence of storage time and -temperature have shown that a storage time of up to 25 min at 20 0 C has no effect on the fluorescence intensity of Ehrlich ascites cells. On day 11 after inoculation the fluorescence level is about 20% higher than on day 8, but is much better reproducible at the latter date. After 600 rads gamma irradiation applied on the 6th day, this parameter starts oscillating around normal values and is stabilized within 20 hrs after irradiation; these values remain constant in the next 40 hrs. Even after exposure to 100, 200 and 300 rads gamma radiation a constant UV fluorescence intensity is registered in this time interval. Measurements of this parameter in the phase of relative constancy allow a clear-cut interpretation of the results of further radiobiological investigations. (author)

  6. Pathological modifications of plant stem cell destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    In higher plants, the shoot apex contains undifferentiated stem cells that give rise to various tissues and organs. The fate of these stem cells determines the pattern of plant growth as well as reproduction; and such fate is genetically preprogrammed. We found that a bacterial infection can derai...

  7. How to Give a Good Talk?

    OpenAIRE

    Legout , Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Why should you give great talks? How to make great slides? How to give a talk? How to make good presentations?; 3rd cycle; Warning: download the powerpoint version to get animations. Animated slides in the PDF version may look cluttered.

  8. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  9. New Rising Infection: Human Herpesvirus 6 Is Frequent in Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation after Induction Therapy with Bortezomib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netanel Horowitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 infection is a common complication during immunosuppression. Its significance for multiple myeloma (MM patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT after treatment with novel agents affecting immune system remains undetermined. Data on 62 consecutive MM patients receiving bortezomib-dexamethasone (VD (; 66% or thalidomide-dexamethasone (TD (, 34% induction, together with melphalan 200 mg/m2 autograft between 01.2005 and 09.2010, were reviewed. HHV-6 reactivation was diagnosed in patients experiencing postengraftment unexplained fever (PEUF in the presence of any level of HHHV-6 DNA in blood. There were no statistically significant differences in patient characteristics between the groups, excluding dexamethasone dosage, which was significantly higher in patients receiving TD. Eight patients in TD and 18 in VD cohorts underwent viral screening for PEUF. HHV-6 reactivation was diagnosed in 10 patients of the entire series (16%, accounting for 35% of those screened; its incidence was 19.5% ( in the VD group versus 9.5% ( in the TD group. All patients recovered without sequelae. In conclusion, HHV-6 reactivation is relatively common after ASCT, accounting for at least a third of PEUF episodes. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether bortezomib has an impact on HHV-6 reactivation development.

  10. Whether and How Much to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Charitable giving involves two seemingly distinct decisions: whether to give and how much to give. However, many researchers methodologically assume that these decisions are one and the same. The present study supports the argument that this is an incorrect assumption that is likely to generate...... misleading conclusions, in part, since the second decision is much more financial in nature than the first. The argument that charitable giving entails two distinct decisions is validated by empirically dismissing the prevailing Tobit model, which assumes a single decision, in favor of less restrictive two......-stage approaches: Cragg’s model and the Heckman model. Most importantly, it is shown that only by adopting a two-stage approach may it be uncovered that common determinants of charitable giving such as income and gender affect the two decisions at hand very differently. Data comes from a high-quality 2012 Danish...

  11. Spontaneous transient rise of CD34 cells in peripheral blood after 72 hours in patients suffering from advanced malignancy with anemia: effect and prognostic implications of treatment with placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N

    2006-01-01

    Cord blood, because of its rich mix of fetal and adult hemoglobin, platelet and WBC counts, and a plasma filled with cytokine and growth factors, as well as its hypoantigenic nature and altered metabolic profile, has all the potential of a real and safe alternative to adult blood during emergencies or any etiology of blood loss. In the present study transfusion-related CD34 levels of the peripheral blood from six randomly selected patients suffering from advanced clinical Stage IV malignancy were analyzed between 16 August 1999 and 16 May 2001. This study attempts to ascertain the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (CD34) after placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion, as assessed from the peripheral blood CD34 level 72 hours after cord blood transfusion in sex- and HLA-randomized patients. Among the six cases, Case 2 (breast sarcoma) received the lowest amount of card blood (6 units), while Case 6 (breast cancer) received the largest amount (32 units). The youngest patient, suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Case 3), was a 16-year-old boy who received eight units of cord blood to combat anemia. Other patients received amounts varying from 7-15 units: Case 4 received 15 units (metachronous lymph node metastatsis), Case 1 received 14 units (breast cancer), and Case 5 received seven units (lung cancer). There was no transfusion-related clinical immunological or nonimmunological reaction. Studies of CD34 levels showed an initial rise followed by a fall in two cases, two cases registered very little effect on the CD34 level, i.e., no change from the baseline, and one case demonstrated a very slow rise from the baseline. However, one case showed a frequent steep rise up to 99% and a sustained high CD34 level. This patient is alive with clinical remission of the disease. It appears from this preliminary study that freshly collected cord blood transfusion may cause a transient transplant impact of transfused cord blood CD34 stem cells on the host without

  12. Children are sensitive to norms of giving

    OpenAIRE

    McAuliffe, K.; Raihani, N. J.; Dunham, Y.

    2017-01-01

    People across societies engage in costly sharing, but the extent of such sharing shows striking cultural variation, highlighting the importance of local norms in shaping generosity. Despite this acknowledged role for norms, it is unclear when they begin to exert their influence in development. Here we use a Dictator Game to investigate the extent to which 4- to 9-year-old children are sensitive to selfish (give 20%) and generous (give 80%) norms. Additionally, we varied whether children were ...

  13. System for the chemical professing and evaluation gives the residual thickness the gives detecting for gives appearances LR115 type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Prendes Alonso, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the system is described built in the CPHR for the homogeneous chemical processing gives detecting gives nuclear appearances. A new developed method is exposed, based on the application gives the technique optical densitometry, for the precise estimate gives the residual thickness, gives detecting, gives nuclear appearances LR115 type 2 after the process gives chemical engraving

  14. Skeletal Muscle-derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Muscular Dystrophy Therapy by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Asakura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    For postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle, satellite cells, a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells, give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells that contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. In addition to this key myogenic cell class, adult skeletal muscle also contains hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell populations which can be purified as a side population (SP) fraction or as a hematopoietic marker CD45-positive cell population. These muscle-derived he...

  15. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  16. The giving standard: conditional cooperation in the case of charitable giving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wiepking (Pamala); M. Heijnen (Merijn)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, we make a first attempt to investigate the mechanisms of conditional cooperation in giving outside experiments, using retrospective survey data on charitable giving (the Giving the Netherlands Panel Study 2005 (GINPS05, 2005 ; N  = 1474)). Our results show that in the case

  17. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    increased 5.4 fold over the 18 year period from 1986 until 2003. Rates were highest in people over the age of 65. Recommended treatment with curative intent includes excision of the primary tumour with wide margins, excision of the sentinel node, computed tomogram (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET...

  18. Thinkers and feelers: Emotion and giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Katie E

    2015-07-01

    Voluntary organizations, such as religious congregations, ask their members to contribute money as a part of membership and rely on these contributions for their survival. Yet often only a small cadre of members provides the majority of the contributions. Past research on congregational giving focuses on cognitive rational processes, generally neglecting the role of emotion. Extending Collins' (2004) interaction ritual theory, I predict that individuals who experience positive emotions during religious services will be more likely to give a higher proportion of their income to their congregation than those who do not. Moreover, I argue that this effect will be amplified in congregational contexts characterized by high aggregate levels of positive emotion, strictness, dense congregational networks, and expressive rituals. Using data from the 2001 U.S. Congregational Life Survey and multilevel modeling, I find support for several of these hypotheses. The findings suggest that both cognitive and emotional processes underlie congregational giving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Repair and regeneration: opportunities for carcinogenesis from tissue stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Perryman, Scott V; Sylvester, Karl G

    2007-01-01

    This review will discuss the mechanisms of repair and regeneration in various tissue types and how dysregulation of these mechaisms may lead to cancer. Normal homeostasis involves a careful balance between cell loss and cell renewal. Stem and progenitor cells perform these biologic processes as the functional units of regeneration during both tissue homeostasis and repair. The concept of tissue stem cells capable of giving rise to all differentiated cells within a given tissue led to the conc...

  20. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Retinoic acid: an educational "vitamin elixir" for gut-seeking T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J Rodrigo; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2004-10-01

    T cell priming by dendritic cells (DC) from gut-associated lymphoid tissues gives rise to effector cells with pronounced gut tropism. The mechanism for DC-dependent imprinting of gut specificity has remained unknown. New findings point to retinoic acid, which is uniquely produced by intestinal DC, but not by DC from other lymphoid organs.

  2. X-ray-induced in vitro neoplastic transformation of human diploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1980-01-01

    The neoplastic transformation, in vitro, of human diploid cells by x-ray irradiation into cells which can progress, in vitro, into advanced stages of neoplastic development is described. The cells are shown to form colonies in agar and to give rise to tumours when injected into nude mice. (U.K.)

  3. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  4. The economic impact of giving up nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnot, N.; Gallon, St.

    2001-01-01

    French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite de France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value and would penalize its shareholders, the State. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas-price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially-amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (author)

  5. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  6. Children are sensitive to norms of giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Raihani, Nichola J; Dunham, Yarrow

    2017-10-01

    People across societies engage in costly sharing, but the extent of such sharing shows striking cultural variation, highlighting the importance of local norms in shaping generosity. Despite this acknowledged role for norms, it is unclear when they begin to exert their influence in development. Here we use a Dictator Game to investigate the extent to which 4- to 9-year-old children are sensitive to selfish (give 20%) and generous (give 80%) norms. Additionally, we varied whether children were told how much other children give (descriptive norm) or what they should give according to an adult (injunctive norm). Results showed that children generally gave more when they were exposed to a generous norm. However, patterns of compliance varied with age. Younger children were more likely to comply with the selfish norm, suggesting a licensing effect. By contrast, older children were more influenced by the generous norm, yet capped their donations at 50%, perhaps adhering to a pre-existing norm of equality. Children were not differentially influenced by descriptive or injunctive norms, suggesting a primacy of norm content over norm format. Together, our findings indicate that while generosity is malleable in children, normative information does not completely override pre-existing biases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. They Make Space and Give Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. They Make Space and Give Time The Engineer as Poet. Gangan Prathap. Book Review Volume 3 ... Author Affiliations. Gangan Prathap1. National Aerospace Laboratories and the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research in Bangalore.

  8. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to

  9. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to

  10. Why healthcare workers give prelacteal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuse, R M; Obinya, E A

    2002-08-01

    Because prelacteal feeds can adversely affect breastfeeding, UNICEF/WHO discourage their use unless medically indicated. The study was carried out to determine the proportion of healthcare workers who routinely give prelacteal feeds, and their reasons for doing so; further, to determine whether any differences exist between medically and non-medically trained healthcare workers in their administration of prelacteal feeds. Survey. Primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities in Kaduna township Nigeria. Of 1100 healthcare workers sampled, 747 (68%) responded. Of these 80% had received medical training, 20% had not. Use of a pretested validated questionnaire. Large proportions of both medical and non-medically trained healthcare workers stated they routinely give prelacteal feeds (doctors, 68.2%; nurses, 70.2%; and non-medical, 73.6%). However their reasons for doing so differed significantly (P=0.00001). Nurses gave mainly for perceived breast milk insufficiency, doctors for prevention of dehydration, hypoglycaemia and neonatal jaundice and non-medical staff to prepare the gastrointestinal tract for digestion and to quench thirst. Most healthcare workers (medical and non-medical) routinely and unnecessarily give prelacteal feeds. Therefore training and retraining programmes in lactation management are necessary and must include non-medical staff. These programmes, while emphasizing the danger of giving prelacteal feeds, must deal with the misconceptions of each group. Deliberate efforts have to be made to incorporate clinical training in breastfeeding in curricula of Schools of Medicine and Nursing.

  11. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  12. Male and female stem cells and sex reversal in Hydra polyps

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Thomas C. G.; David, Charles N.

    1986-01-01

    Single interstitial stem cells of male polyps of Hydra magnipapillata give rise to clones that differentiate either male or female gametes. To test the sexual stability of these clones, stem cells were recloned. The results indicate that stem cells from female clones are stable in their sexual differentiation capacity; male stem cells, by comparison, switch sexual phenotype at the rate of 10-2 per cell per generation. As a result, female polyps contain only female stem cells; male polyps cont...

  13. The Rise of Blog Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the growth of blogs in popular culture, and the fact that they are becoming more widely accepted in the media industry. The rise and popularity of blogs--short for "Web logs"--are causing journalism educators to overhaul their teachings. In fact, blogging's influence varies from one university program to the next, just like…

  14. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  15. How to give a good talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Uri

    2009-10-23

    We depend on talks to communicate our work, and we spend much of our time as audience members in talks. However, few scientists are taught the well-established principles of giving good talks. Here, I describe how to prepare, present, and answer questions in a scientific talk. We will see how a talk prepared with a single premise and delivered with good eye contact is clear and enjoyable.

  16. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan; Mona Abdel Kader Salem; Nahla Mohamed Gamal Farahat; Ahmad Fathy El-Koraie; Ghaly Abd Al-Rahim Mohammed Kotb

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Char...

  17. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  18. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... entitlements initially may be considered unclear. We find that the share of positive transfers depends on the choice set even when there is no uncertainty about entitlements, and that this choice-set effect is robust across a heterogenous group of participants recruited from the general adult population...

  20. Non-Random Chromosome Segregation in Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Conboy, Michael J; Karasov, Ariela O; Rando, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Decades ago, the "immortal strand hypothesis" was proposed as a means by which stem cells might limit acquiring mutations that could give rise to cancer, while continuing to proliferate for the life of an organism. Originally based on observations in embryonic cells, and later studied in terms of stem cell self-renewal, this hypothesis has remained largely unaccepted because of few additional reports, the rarity of the cells displaying template strand segregation, and alternative interpretati...

  1. Hello handsome! Male's facial attractiveness gives rise to female's fairness bias in Ultimatum Game scenarios-An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Qian, Da; Hu, Linfeng; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The current study delineated how male proposers' facial attractiveness affect female responders' fairness considerations and their subsequent decision outcome during the Ultimatum Game (UG). Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 17 female subjects, who played the role as responders and had to decide whether to accept offers from either attractive or unattractive male proposers. Behavioral data (Acceptance Ratio and Response time) revealed that, more offers were accepted from attractive-face conditions; subjects typically responded quicker to unfair offers from unattractive proposers as compared with slower to unfair offers from attractive proposers. The ERP data demonstrated similar N2 amplitudes elicited by both attractive and unattractive faces, and a larger early frontal LPP elicited by the attractive faces compared with unattractive ones, but no significant differences of both late posterior LPP and typical parietal LPP amplitudes were observed between these two face conditions, which was different from our previous study with similar paradigm but male participants. The results suggest that, in comparison to males, females might not experience the potential attention bias towards unattractive opposite-sex faces and are less likely to possess an enhanced processing and evaluation of those faces. This phenomenon might be explained by endogenous gender differences in mate preference. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 responses during an offer presentation were further measured in both attractive-face and unattractive-face conditions and the results demonstrated that the amplitudes elicited by fair and unfair offers were not statistically different in the former condition, but were different in the latter condition. More specifically, unfair offers generated larger FRN and smaller P300 than fair ones in the unattractive-face condition. Findings suggest that, although females tend to possess less salient evaluation of male's facial attractiveness, the attractiveness of male proposers would still attenuate female responders' fairness consideration during the UG.

  2. Protein Crowding in Lipid Bilayers Gives Rise to Non-Gaussian Anomalous Lateral Diffusion of Phospholipids and Proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeon, J. H.; Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Metzler, R.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 021006. ISSN 2160-3308 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : protein crowding * membranes * simulations * diffusion * non-Gaussian anomalous diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.789, year: 2016 http://journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevX.6.021006

  3. Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Gonon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is often a huge gap between neurobiological facts and firm conclusions stated by the media. Data misrepresentation in the conclusions and summaries of neuroscience articles might contribute to this gap. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, we identified three types of misrepresentation. The first relies on prominent inconsistencies between results and claimed conclusions and was observed in two scientific reports dealing with ADHD. Only one out of the 61 media articles echoing both scientific reports adequately described the results and, thus questioned the claimed conclusion. The second type of misrepresentation consists in putting a firm conclusion in the summary while raw data that strongly limit the claim are only given in the results section. To quantify this misrepresentation we analyzed the summaries of all articles asserting that polymorphisms of the gene coding for the D4 dopaminergic receptor are associated with ADHD. Only 25 summaries out of 159 also mentioned that this association confers a small risk. This misrepresentation is also observed in most media articles reporting on ADHD and the D4 gene. The third misrepresentation consists in extrapolating basic and pre-clinical findings to new therapeutic prospects in inappropriate ways. Indeed, analysis of all ADHD-related studies in mice showed that 23% of the conclusions were overstated. The frequency of this overstatement was positively related with the impact factor of the journal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Data misrepresentations are frequent in the scientific literature dealing with ADHD and may contribute to the appearance of misleading conclusions in the media. In synergy with citation distortions and publication biases they influence social representations and bias the scientific evidence in favor of the view that ADHD is primarily caused by biological factors. We discuss the social consequences and the causes of data misrepresentations and suggest a few corrective actions.

  4. Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, Francois; Bezard, Erwan; Boraud, Thomas

    2011-01-31

    There is often a huge gap between neurobiological facts and firm conclusions stated by the media. Data misrepresentation in the conclusions and summaries of neuroscience articles might contribute to this gap. Using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we identified three types of misrepresentation. The first relies on prominent inconsistencies between results and claimed conclusions and was observed in two scientific reports dealing with ADHD. Only one out of the 61 media articles echoing both scientific reports adequately described the results and, thus questioned the claimed conclusion. The second type of misrepresentation consists in putting a firm conclusion in the summary while raw data that strongly limit the claim are only given in the results section. To quantify this misrepresentation we analyzed the summaries of all articles asserting that polymorphisms of the gene coding for the D4 dopaminergic receptor are associated with ADHD. Only 25 summaries out of 159 also mentioned that this association confers a small risk. This misrepresentation is also observed in most media articles reporting on ADHD and the D4 gene. The third misrepresentation consists in extrapolating basic and pre-clinical findings to new therapeutic prospects in inappropriate ways. Indeed, analysis of all ADHD-related studies in mice showed that 23% of the conclusions were overstated. The frequency of this overstatement was positively related with the impact factor of the journal. Data misrepresentations are frequent in the scientific literature dealing with ADHD and may contribute to the appearance of misleading conclusions in the media. In synergy with citation distortions and publication biases they influence social representations and bias the scientific evidence in favor of the view that ADHD is primarily caused by biological factors. We discuss the social consequences and the causes of data misrepresentations and suggest a few corrective actions.

  5. Assess the dominant circumstances and factors giving rise to accidents in the gold and platinum mining industries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashworth, SGE

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available This report summarises both the statistical analysis of accident data and detailed accident case studies in attempt to make a complete conclusions of what causes the accidents in gold and platinum mines. And also discusses the recommendations...

  6. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Jiovany Ramírez-Nava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro, and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro. The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations.

  7. Congenital unilateral absence of the upper extremity may give rise to a specific kind of thoracolumbar curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Z Deniz; Demirkiran, Gokhan; Polly, David; Yazici, Muharrem

    2018-03-01

    There is an increased incidence of scoliosis in patients with congenital malformations of the upper extremity even in the absence of overt vertebral abnormalities. In this case series, we summarize the curve characteristics of four patients presenting to two spine surgery clinics with unilateral amelia or phocomelia and a progressive scoliotic curve with the apex on the side of deficiency. All patients required orthopedic intervention for their curves. Amelia and phocomelia are severe congenital malformations of the upper limb affecting trunk balance and, conceivably, causing scoliosis with the absence of counterbalancing weight on the affected side. The combination of upper limb absence and same-sided scoliosis in these patients may provide a clue of the mechanical factors causing scoliosis in other disorders. In this article, we attempt to define this exceptional deformity, theorize on its etiology, and draw attention to this particular combination of problems. Case series; Level IV.

  8. Impact of Technology on Work : Technical Functionalities that Give Rise to New Job Designs in Industry 4.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waschull, S.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Wortmann, J.C.; Lödding, Hermann; Riedel, Ralph; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Von Cieminski, Gregor; Kiritsis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    With rapid advancements in the application of Industry 4.0 technologies throughout industries, a collection of different views on its potential implications for workers are emerging. Various authors agree that these technologies and their application in manufacturing systems is structurally

  9. Coffee bean extracts rich and poor in kahweol both give rise to elevation of liver enzymes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Evert G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee oil potently raises serum cholesterol levels in humans. The diterpenes cafestol and kahweol are responsible for this elevation. Coffee oil also causes elevation of liver enzyme levels in serum. It has been suggested that cafestol is mainly responsible for the effect on serum cholesterol levels and that kahweol is mainly responsible for the effect on liver enzyme levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether coffee oil that only contains a minute amount of kahweol indeed does not cause elevation of liver enzyme levels. Methods The response of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT to Robusta coffee oil (62 mg/day cafestol, 1.6 mg/day kahweol was measured in 18 healthy volunteers. Results After nine days one subject was taken off Robusta oil treatment due to an ALAT level of 3.6 times the upper limit of normal (ULN. Another two subjects stopped treatment due to other reasons. After 16 days another two subjects were taken off Robusta oil treatment. One of those subjects had levels of 5.8 ULN for ALAT and 2.0 ULN for ASAT; the other subject had an ALAT level of 12.4 ULN and an ASAT level of 4.7 ULN. It was then decided to terminate the study. The median response of subjects to Robusta oil after 16 days was 0.27 ULN (n = 15, 25th,75th percentile: 0.09;0.53 for ALAT and 0.06 ULN (25th,75th percentile -0.06;0.22 for ASAT. Conclusions We conclude that the effect on liver enzyme levels of coffee oil containing hardly any kahweol is similar to that of coffee oil containing high amounts of kahweol. Therefore it is unlikely that kahweol is the component of coffee oil that is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, we conclude that otherwise unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels observed in patients might be caused by a switch from consumption of filtered coffee to unfiltered coffee.

  10. Population Density Modulates Drug Inhibition and Gives Rise to Potential Bistability of Treatment Outcomes for Bacterial Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Karslake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The inoculum effect (IE is an increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of an antibiotic as a function of the initial size of a microbial population. The IE has been observed in a wide range of bacteria, implying that antibiotic efficacy may depend on population density. Such density dependence could have dramatic effects on bacterial population dynamics and potential treatment strategies, but explicit measures of per capita growth as a function of density are generally not available. Instead, the IE measures MIC as a function of initial population size, and population density changes by many orders of magnitude on the timescale of the experiment. Therefore, the functional relationship between population density and antibiotic inhibition is generally not known, leaving many questions about the impact of the IE on different treatment strategies unanswered. To address these questions, here we directly measured real-time per capita growth of Enterococcus faecalis populations exposed to antibiotic at fixed population densities using multiplexed computer-automated culture devices. We show that density-dependent growth inhibition is pervasive for commonly used antibiotics, with some drugs showing increased inhibition and others decreased inhibition at high densities. For several drugs, the density dependence is mediated by changes in extracellular pH, a community-level phenomenon not previously linked with the IE. Using a simple mathematical model, we demonstrate how this density dependence can modulate population dynamics in constant drug environments. Then, we illustrate how time-dependent dosing strategies can mitigate the negative effects of density-dependence. Finally, we show that these density effects lead to bistable treatment outcomes for a wide range of antibiotic concentrations in a pharmacological model of antibiotic treatment. As a result, infections exceeding a critical density often survive otherwise effective treatments.

  11. Different selection pressures give rise to distinct ethnic phenomena : a functionalist framework with illustrations from the Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena's co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes.

  12. Reversible conformational transition gives rise to 'zig-zag' temperature dependence of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky VYu; Melik-Nubarov, N S; Siksnis, V A; Grinberg VYa; Burova, T V; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1994-01-15

    We have obtained unusual 'zig-zag' temperature dependencies of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation (k(in)) of enzymes (alpha-chymotrypsin, covalently modified alpha-chymotrypsin, and ribonuclease) in a plot of log k(in) versus reciprocal temperature (Arrhenius plot). These dependencies are characterized by the presence of both ascending and descending linear portions which have positive and negative values of the effective activation energy (Ea), respectively. A kinetic scheme has been suggested that fits best for a description of these zig-zag dependencies. A key element of this scheme is the temperature-dependent reversible conformational transition of enzyme from the 'low-temperature' native state to a 'high-temperature' denatured form; the latter form is significantly more stable against irreversible thermoinactivation than the native enzyme. A possible explanation for a difference in thermal stabilities is that low-temperature and high-temperature forms are inactivated according to different mechanisms. Existence of the suggested conformational transition was proved by the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of delta H and delta S for this transition, determined from calorimetric experiments, are highly positive; this fact underlies a conclusion that this heat-induced transition is caused by an unfolding of the protein molecule. Surprisingly, in the unfolded high-temperature conformation, alpha-chymotrypsin has a pronounced proteolytic activity, although this activity is much smaller than that of the native enzyme.

  13. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models

    OpenAIRE

    Hanuschkin, A.; Ganguli, S.; Hahnloser, R. H. R.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map-desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop...

  14. Unfolding transitions in myosin give rise to the double-hyperbolic force-velocity relation in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an extension to a recent model of muscle contraction that was based on entropic elasticity (Nielsen 2002 J. Theor Biol. 219 99-119). By using entropic elasticity as the origin of muscle force, various possibilities emerge that can account for the presence of the double......-hyperbolic force-velocity relation in muscle that was observed by Edman (1988 J. Physiol. 404 301-21). In the present work, it will be argued that a slight change (elongation) of the contour length of the entropic springs involved in their high-force regions is sufficient to produce such a double...

  15. The many ways to make a luminal cell and a prostate cancer cell

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Douglas W; Goldstein, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Research in the area of stem/progenitor cells has led to the identification of multiple stem-like cell populations implicated in prostate homeostasis and cancer initiation. Given that there are multiple cells that can regenerate prostatic tissue and give rise to prostate cancer, our focus should shift to defining the signaling mechanisms that drive differentiation and progenitor self-renewal. In this article, we will review the literature, present the evidence and raise important unanswered q...

  16. The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Llanes, R.

    1998-01-01

    From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

  17. The Luxury of Igniting Change by Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Rosa; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the phenomenon of luxury from a consumer perspective, by means of multisited phenomenological inquiry. The findings expand the pervasive view of luxury as accumulation of highly valued goods by offering a transformative perspective of luxury as transforming the life...... the giver with a sense of luxury in terms of pleasure, purpose, and connection with humankind. Thus, the findings not only extend the traditional conceptualization of luxury from having to giving, but also challenge current conceptualizations of sharing out as a non-reciprocal pro-social behavior...... by illustrating how ‘the luxury of giving’ relies on both pro-social and pro-ego consumption rationales, which implicitly include circular reciprocation....

  18. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  19. Giving up nuclear energy. Obstacles, conditions, consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegel-Dorfs, H.

    1990-01-01

    Life on this earth is not possible without using energy. The resources of the energies used so far are limited and their utilization carries certain risks which have now become obvious: climatic problems on the one hand, safety problems on the other. Chernobyl, Wackersdorf, tornados and population growth are issues mentioned all the time in the fight for the best solution. Even church synodes have spoken up and demanded to give up nuclear energy. The energy issue, however, has become a question of survival. This study, worked out by a group of scientists (natural science, energy science, lawyers, theologians) analyses the obstacles, conditions and consequences of such a step. The possible solution of rational energy utilization and substitution of energy services and regenerative energies is discussed in depth. The book concludes that problems can only be coped with if there is a feeling of joint responsibility and global social consensus. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Shapes and rising velocities of single bubbles rising through an inner subchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Akio; Nakahara, Yusuke; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Shapes and velocities of single air bubbles rising through stagnant and flowing waters in an inner subchannel are measured by making use of fluorocarbon tubes. It is confirmed that (1) bubble shapes and motions in the subchannel are by far different from those in simple geometry, and they depend on the ratio λ of the bubble diameter to the subchannel hydraulic diameter, (2) when λ > 0.9, a part of a bubble intrudes into neighboring subchannels, and thereby a kind of void drift takes place even with a single bubble, (3) the terminal velocity V T of a small bubble (λ T for cell-Taylor bubbles (λ > 0.9) is presented, and (5) the rising velocity V B in laminar an turbulent flow conditions are well evaluated by substituting the proposed V T models and the ratio of the maximum liquid velocity to the mean liquid velocity into the Nicklin correlation. (author)

  1. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Matthis, Andrea L.; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K.; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R.; Hong, Christian I.; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5+ cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells ...

  2. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  3. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  4. Epigenetic control of root and nodule development : the role of plant-specific histone deacetylases and LHP1 in root cell reprogramming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilderink, S.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, unlike in animals, most organs develop post embryonically. These organs originate from clusters of undifferentiated dividing cells that form so-called meristems. Differentiated cells can be re-activated to enter the cell cycle and to ultimately give rise to new meristems. These

  5. No-call NIPT gives important information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldbjerg, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on cell free fetal DNA fragments in maternal serum samples (cffDNA) is a well-established method for Downs-screening in early pregnancy. The sensitivity is above 99%. However, when used for screening of younger women without risk factors, the positive pr...

  6. Plasticity of spermatogonial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Cooke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant breakthroughs over the past decade in the development and use of pluripotent stem cells as a potential source of cells for applications in regenerative medicine. It is likely that this methodology will begin to play an important role in human clinical medicine in the years to come. This review describes the plasticity of one type of pluripotent cell, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, and their potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and male infertility. Normally, SSCs give rise to sperm when in the testis. However, both human and murine SSCs can give rise to cells with embryonic stem (ES cell-like characteristics that can be directed to differentiate into tissues of all three embryonic germ layers when placed in an appropriate inductive microenvironment, which is in contrast to other postnatal stem cells. Previous studies have reported that SSCs expressed an intermediate pluripotent phenotype before differentiating into a specific cell type and that extended culture was necessary for this to occur. However, recent studies from our group using a tissue recombination model demonstrated that SSCs differentiated rapidly into another tissue, in this case, prostatic epithelium, without expression of pluripotent ES cell markers before differentiation. These results suggest that SSCs are capable of directly differentiating into other cell types without going through an intermediate ES cell-like stage. Because SSCs do not require reprogramming to achieve a pluripotent state, they are an attractive source of pluripotent cells for use in regenerative medicine.

  7. Chemoresistance and chemotherapy targeting stem-like cells in malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mia Dahl; Fosmark, Sigurd; Hellwege, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma remains a tumor with a dismal prognosis because of failure of current treatment. Glioblastoma cells with stem cell (GSC) properties survive chemotherapy and give rise to tumor recurrences that invariably result in the death of the patients. Here we summarize the current knowledge on ...

  8. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  9. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  10. Maintaining clinical governance when giving telephone advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Agarwal, Kosh; Suddle, Abid; Aluvihare, Varuna; Heneghan, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Delivering excellent healthcare depends on accurate communication between professionals who may be in different locations. Frequently, the first point of contact with the liver unit at King's College Hospital (KCH) is through a telephone call to a specialist registrar or liver fellow, for whom no case notes are available in which to record information. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical governance of telephone referrals and to generate contemporaneous records that could be easily retrieved and audited. An electronic database for telephone referrals and advice was designed and made securely available to registrars in our unit. Service development in a tertiary liver centre that receives referrals from across the UK and Europe. Demographic and clinical data were recorded prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Data from 350 calls were entered during 5 months. The information included the nature and origin of the call (200 from 75 different institutions), disease burden and severity of disease among the patients discussed with KCH, and outcome of the call. The majority of cases were discussed with consultants or arrangements were made for formal review at KCH. A telephone referrals and advice database provides clinical governance, serves as a quality indicator and forms a contemporaneous record at the referral centre. Activity data and knowledge of disease burden help to tailor services to the needs of referrers and commissioners. We recommend implementation of similar models in other centres that give extramural verbal advice.

  11. Cultivating gratitude and giving through experiential consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jesse; Kumar, Amit; Gilovich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Gratitude promotes well-being and prompts prosocial behavior. Here, we examine a novel way to cultivate this beneficial emotion. We demonstrate that 2 different types of consumption-material consumption (buying for the sake of having) and experiential consumption (buying for the sake of doing)-differentially foster gratitude and giving. In 6 studies we show that reflecting on experiential purchases (e.g., travel, meals out, tickets to events) inspires more gratitude than reflecting on material purchases (e.g., clothing, jewelry, furniture), and that thinking about experiences leads to more subsequent altruistic behavior than thinking about possessions. In Studies 1-2b, we use within-subject and between-subjects designs to test our main hypothesis: that people are more grateful for what they've done than what they have. Study 3 finds evidence for this effect in the real-world setting of online customer reviews: Consumers are more likely to spontaneously mention feeling grateful for experiences they have bought than for material goods they have bought. In our final 2 studies, we show that experiential consumption also makes people more likely to be generous to others. Participants who contemplated a significant experiential purchase behaved more generously toward anonymous others in an economic game than those who contemplated a significant material purchase. It thus appears that shifting spending toward experiential consumption can improve people's everyday lives as well as the lives of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Giving what one should: explanations for the knowledge-behavior gap for altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning. I conclude that self-regulation, social distance, and social learning show the most promising evidence for understanding the mechanisms that can close the gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  14. Superphenix set to rise again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Superphenix, France's seemingly jinxed fast breeder reactor, which has not produced a single kilowatt of energy in more than 3 years, looks set to rise up next year like the mythical bird it is named after. The $5 billion reactor, the largest fast breeder in the world, has just been given the seal of approval by a public commission ordered by the government to look at the pros and cons of restarting. It still has hoops to jump through: a safety check and approval from the ministries of industries and environment. But the consortium of French, Italian, and German power utilities that run the plant are confident they can get it running by next summer. The Superphenix that rises out of the ashes will, however, be a different species of bird from the one planned 20 years ago. The consortium plans to turn the reactor into a debreeder, one that will incinerate more plutonium than it produces and so eat into Europe's plutonium stockpile. Calculations by Superphenix staff and the Atomic Energy Commission indicate that a plutonivorous fast breeder could incinerate 15 to 25 kilograms of plutonium while producing 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity-scarcely enough to make a dent in the tonnes of plutonium produced by Electricite de France's reactors each year. The Superphenix consortium is anxious to get the reactor back on line. The annual cost of upkeep and repair of the idle plant and salaries for its 700 staff may reach $140 million this year, 20% more than if the plant was running normally. If restarted, the existing core and a second one ready on the shelf will generate electricity worth $1.3 billion

  15. Giving in Europe : The state of research on giving in 20 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolwerf, L.K.; Schuyt, T.N.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study is in intitial attempt to map philanthropy in Europe and presents a first overall estimation of the European philanthropic sector. Containing an overview of what we know about research on the philanthropy sector, it provides data and and assesment of the data on giving by households,

  16. The Bony Side of Endothelial Cells in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jia; Kang, Yibin

    2017-06-05

    Prostate cancer bone metastases are primarily osteoblastic, but the source of bone-forming cells in these lesions remains poorly defined. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Lin et al. (2017) demonstrate that tumor-associated endothelial cells can give rise to osteoblasts in prostate cancer through endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  18. Tbx1 coordinates addition of posterior second heart field progenitor cells to the arterial and venous poles of the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rana, M. Sameer; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; de Bono, Christopher; Mesbah, Karim; Francou, Alexandre; Rammah, Mayyasa; Domínguez, Jorge N.; Roux, Marine; Laforest, Brigitte; Anderson, Robert H.; Mohun, Timothy; Zaffran, Stephane; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Kelly, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells from the second heart field (SHF) contribute to rapid growth of the embryonic heart, giving rise to right ventricular and outflow tract (OFT) myocardium at the arterial pole of the heart, and atrial myocardium at the venous pole. Recent clonal analysis and cell-tracing

  19. Teratoma Formation by Human Embryonic Stem Cells is site-dependent and enhanced by the presence of Matrigel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Harkness, Linda M; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    When implanted into immunodeficient mice, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) give rise to teratoma, tumour-like formations containing tissues belonging to all three germ layers. The ability to form teratoma is a sine qua non characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. However, limited data...

  20. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  1. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  2. Asymmetry and aging of mycobacterial cells leads to variable growth and antibiotic susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, Bree B.; Fernandez-Suarez, Marta; Heller, Danielle; Ambravaneswaran, Vijay; Irimia, Daniel; Toner, Mehmet; Fortune, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cells use both deterministic and stochastic mechanisms to generate cell–to-cell heterogeneity, which enables the population to better withstand environmental stress. Here we show that, within a clonal population of mycobacteria, there is significant deterministic heterogeneity in elongation rate that arises because mycobacteria grow in an unusual, unipolar fashion. Division of the asymmetrically growing mother cell gives rise to daughter cells that differ in elongation rate and size. Because ...

  3. Rethinking the social and cultural dimensions of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2009-01-01

    -giving and focuses on charitable gifts as an emblem of postmodern gift-giving to distant others. Historical evidence and sociological theory on postmodern solidarity are combined to shed light on the fluid duality of contemporary giving and the importance of the imaginary in charitable giving. The outlined socially...... symbolic dimensions of charitable giving are critically examined in light of postmodern consumer culture and the recent social corporate responsibility trends. By openly engaging the proposed complexities of gift-giving, our vocabulary and understanding of postmodern giving can be revised so as to invite...

  4. Should a carbon tax rise or fall over time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulph, Alistair; Ulph, David; Pezzey, John

    1991-01-01

    A carbon tax has been proposed as one possible way of reducing the emissions of ''greenhouse gases''. Much of the recent work on carbon taxation has concentrated on analysing the effects of introducing such a tax at a level which would meet certain emission targets at some fixed date. Less attention has been devoted to the time profile of this tax. Yet in securing international agreement on the introduction of a carbon tax it could matter greatly whether what is being proposed is a tax which is initially low but rising, or initially high but falling. We show that in a wide class of cases the optimal time path of the tax will be that it initially rises and then falls as the exhaustion constraint starts to bite. However there are few general conclusions, and much depends on more detailed modelling assumptions on which the scientific evidence gives no firm guidance. (author)

  5. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  6. Relativistic rise measurement by cluster counting method in time expansion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walenta, A.H.

    1979-10-01

    A new approach to the measurement of the ionization energy loss for the charged particle identification in the region of the relativistic rise was tested experimentally. The method consists of determining in a special drift chamber (TEC) the number of clusters of the primary ionization. The method gives almost the full relativistic rise and narrower landau distribution. The consequences for a practical detector are discussed

  7. Parallel and convergent processing in grid cell, head-direction cell, boundary cell, and place cell networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark P; Koenig, Julie; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The brain is able to construct internal representations that correspond to external spatial coordinates. Such brain maps of the external spatial topography may support a number of cognitive functions, including navigation and memory. The neuronal building block of brain maps are place cells, which are found throughout the hippocampus of rodents and, in a lower proportion, primates. Place cells typically fire in one or few restricted areas of space, and each area where a cell fires can range, along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus, from 30 cm to at least several meters. The sensory processing streams that give rise to hippocampal place cells are not fully understood, but substantial progress has been made in characterizing the entorhinal cortex, which is the gateway between neocortical areas and the hippocampus. Entorhinal neurons have diverse spatial firing characteristics, and the different entorhinal cell types converge in the hippocampus to give rise to a single, spatially modulated cell type-the place cell. We therefore suggest that parallel information processing in different classes of cells-as is typically observed at lower levels of sensory processing-continues up into higher level association cortices, including those that provide the inputs to hippocampus. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:207-219. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1272 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  9. [Gift giving and the ethics of the caregiver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Modern societies establish relationships on a contract basis, but the caregiver relationship invariably involves the notion of a gift. Caring engages the giving / receiving / giving back circle of reciprocity. The caregiving relationship requires a gift ethic which gives meaning to the nurse/patient contract.

  10. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  11. Regional approaches in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconopisceva, O. G.; Proskurin, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    The evolutionary process of high-rise construction is in the article focus. The aim of the study was to create a retrospective matrix reflecting the tasks of the study such as: structuring the most iconic high-rise objects within historic boundaries. The study is based on contemporary experience of high-rise construction in different countries. The main directions and regional specifics in the field of high-rise construction as well as factors influencing the further evolution process are analyzed. The main changes in architectural stylistics, form-building, constructive solutions that focus on the principles of energy efficiency and bio positivity of "sustainable buildings", as well as the search for a new typology are noted. The most universal constructive methods and solutions that turned out to be particularly popular are generalized. The new typology of high-rises and individual approach to urban context are noted. The results of the study as a graphical scheme made it possible to represent the whole high-rise evolution. The new spatial forms of high-rises lead them to new role within the urban environments. Futuristic hyperscalable concepts take the autonomous urban space functions itself and demonstrate us how high-rises can replace multifunctional urban fabric, developing it inside their shells.

  12. Quantification of healthy and atretic germ cells and follicles in the developing and post-natal ovary of the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus: evidence of continuous rise of the germinal reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, P I F; Leopardo, N P; Willis, M A; Freysselinard, A L; Vitullo, A D

    2014-02-01

    The female germ line in mammals is subjected to massive cell death that eliminates 60-85% of the germinal reserve by birth and continues from birth to adulthood until the exhaustion of the germinal pool. Germ cell demise occurs mainly through apoptosis by means of a biased expression in favour of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 gene family. By contrast, the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, exhibits sustained expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 gene throughout gestation and a low incidence of germ cell apoptosis. This led to the proposal that, in the absence of death mechanisms other than apoptosis, the female germ line should increase continuously from foetal life until after birth. In this study, we quantified all healthy germ cells and follicles in the ovaries of L. maximus from early foetal life to day 60 after birth using unbiased stereological methods and detected apoptosis by labelling with TUNEL assay. The healthy germ cell population increased continuously from early-developing ovary reaching a 50 times higher population number by the end of gestation. TUNEL-positive germ cells were develops in the absence of constitutive massive germ cell elimination.

  13. Blood on the tracks: hematopoietic stem cell-endothelial cell interactions in homing and engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Julie R; Sporrij, Audrey; Zon, Leonard I

    2017-08-01

    Cells of the hematopoietic system undergo rapid turnover. Each day, humans require the production of about one hundred billion new blood cells for proper function. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells that reside in specialized niches and are required throughout life to produce specific progenitor cells that will replenish all blood lineages. There is, however, an incomplete understanding of the molecular and physical properties that regulate HSC migration, homing, engraftment, and maintenance in the niche. Endothelial cells (ECs) are intimately associated with HSCs throughout the life of the stem cell, from the specialized endothelial cells that give rise to HSCs, to the perivascular niche endothelial cells that regulate HSC homeostasis. Recent studies have dissected the unique molecular and physical properties of the endothelial cells in the HSC vascular niche and their role in HSC biology, which may be manipulated to enhance hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapies.

  14. Reconciling projections of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tamsin; Holden, Philip; Edwards, Neil; Wernecke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Two recent studies of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise this century had best estimates that differed by an order of magnitude (around 10 cm and 1 m by 2100). The first, Ritz et al. (2015), used a model calibrated with satellite data, giving a 5% probability of exceeding 30cm by 2100 for sea level rise due to Antarctic instability. The second, DeConto and Pollard (2016), used a model evaluated with reconstructions of palaeo-sea level. They did not estimate probabilities, but using a simple assumption here about the distribution shape gives up to a 5% chance of Antarctic contribution exceeding 2.3 m this century with total sea level rise approaching 3 m. If robust, this would have very substantial implications for global adaptation to climate change. How are we to make sense of this apparent inconsistency? How much is down to the data - does the past tell us we will face widespread and rapid Antarctic ice losses in the future? How much is due to the mechanism of rapid ice loss ('cliff failure') proposed in the latter paper, or other parameterisation choices in these low resolution models (GRISLI and PISM, respectively)? How much is due to choices made in the ensemble design and calibration? How do these projections compare with high resolution, grounding line resolving models such as BISICLES? Could we reduce the huge uncertainties in the palaeo-study? Emulation provides a powerful tool for understanding these questions and reconciling the projections. By describing the three numerical ice sheet models with statistical models, we can re-analyse the ensembles and re-do the calibrations under a common statistical framework. This reduces uncertainty in the PISM study because it allows massive sampling of the parameter space, which reduces the sensitivity to reconstructed palaeo-sea level values and also narrows the probability intervals because the simple assumption about distribution shape above is no longer needed. We present reconciled probabilistic

  15. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Ethics of trial drug use: to give or not to give?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebunoluwa, Oduwole O; Kareem, Fayemi A

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola viral disease in some West African countries, which later spread to the USA and Spain, has continued to be a subject of global public health debate. While there is no approved vaccine or drug for Ebola cure yet, moral questions of bioethical significance are emerging even as vaccine studies are at different clinical trial phases. This paper, through a normative and critical approach, focuses on the question of whether it is ethical to give any experimental drugs to Ebola victims in West Africa or not. Given the global panic and deadly contagious nature of Ebola, this paper argues on three major compassionate grounds that it is ethical to use experimental drugs on the dying African victims of Ebola. Besides respecting patients and family consent in the intervention process, this paper argues that the use of Ebola trial drugs on West African population will be ethical if it promotes the common good, and does not violate the fundamental principles of transparency and integrity in human research ethics. Using Kantian ethical framework of universality as a basis for moral defense of allowing access to yet approved drugs. This paper provides argument to strengthen the compassionate ground provisional recommendation of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) on Ebola vaccines and vaccination.

  17. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  18. Placenta - organ important for fetus and interesting for the rise of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Syndrome - interdisciplinary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, Viktor; Foltinova, Janka; Neu, Eva; Morvova, Marcela; Lettrichova, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This work is aiming at broadening knowledge about placenta and giving evidence that lead penetrates through transplacental barrier. We have intended to find further possible reasons of the rise of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and to suggest ways of preventing development of this syndrome. For revealing presence of lead in placenta and umbilical cord blood we used histochemical methods, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of element composition and infrared spectroscopy. We are presenting new findings that emphasize importance of Hofbauer cells. These cells have high phagocyting activity and form filter regulating entering lead into umbilical cord blood and thus influence possibility of the ADHD rise. We found positivity on lipids in placenta. Importance of this finding consists in the fact that lead is lipophilic metal and tissue containing lipid is available path for the transport of lead. We explained why just striatum is affected with toxic action of lead in case of ADHD syndrome. We have also shown that more blood elements circulate in umbilical cord blood than in a common circulation. High number of patients with the ADHD syndrome inspired us to suggest establishment of centers where these children would be registered. Staff of specialists consisting of psychologist, physician and physicist (responsible for application of methods of early diagnosis) will take care of the development of their health conditions and further treatment.

  19. Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Darja; Campos, Iván Marcos; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Koren, Ana; Petridis, Petros; Zhang, Geping; Spitalnik, Patrice F.; Grayson, Warren L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In extensive bone defects, tissue damage and hypoxia lead to cell death, resulting in slow and incomplete healing. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can give rise to all specialized lineages found in healthy bone and are therefore uniquely suited to aid regeneration of damaged bone. We show that the cultivation of hESC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on 3D osteoconductive scaffolds in bioreactors with medium perfusion leads to the formation of large and compact bone constructs. Notably, the i...

  20. X-ray-induced in vitro neoplastic transformation of human diploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have recently been developed to identify and score quantitatively neoplastic transformation caused by x-rays in cultured cells derived from rodents. The present report describes for the first time the neoplastic transformation in vitro of human diploid cells by x-ray irradiation into cells which can progress in vitro into advanced stages of neoplastic development, namely, to form colonies in agar and give rise to tumors when injected into nude mice

  1. Rising tides, rising gates: The complex ecogeomorphic response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise and human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven G.; Rodríguez, José F.; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia M.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to submergence due to sea-level rise, as shown by predictions of up to 80% of global wetland loss by the end of the century. Coastal wetlands with mixed mangrove-saltmarsh vegetation are particularly vulnerable because sea-level rise can promote mangrove encroachment on saltmarsh, reducing overall wetland biodiversity. Here we use an ecogeomorphic framework that incorporates hydrodynamic effects, mangrove-saltmarsh dynamics, and soil accretion processes to assess the effects of control structures on wetland evolution. Migration and accretion patterns of mangrove and saltmarsh are heavily dependent on topography and control structures. We find that current management practices that incorporate a fixed gate for the control of mangrove encroachment are useful initially, but soon become ineffective due to sea-level rise. Raising the gate, to counteract the effects of sea level rise and promote suitable hydrodynamic conditions, excludes mangrove and maintains saltmarsh over the entire simulation period of 100 years

  2. My Dog's Cheeks: A PBL Project on Collagen for Cell Biology and Genetics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Students often have an oversimplified view of biological facts, which may hinder subsequent understanding when conceptual complexity gives rise to cognitive conflicts. To avoid this situation here, we present a PBL approach for the analysis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), which integrates a variety of topics in cell biology, genetics, and…

  3. Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yung Hae; Larsen, Hjalte List; Rué, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine...

  4. The many ways to make a luminal cell and a prostate cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Douglas W; Goldstein, Andrew S

    2015-12-01

    Research in the area of stem/progenitor cells has led to the identification of multiple stem-like cell populations implicated in prostate homeostasis and cancer initiation. Given that there are multiple cells that can regenerate prostatic tissue and give rise to prostate cancer, our focus should shift to defining the signaling mechanisms that drive differentiation and progenitor self-renewal. In this article, we will review the literature, present the evidence and raise important unanswered questions that will help guide the field forward in dissecting critical mechanisms regulating stem-cell differentiation and tumor initiation. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Differential expression of neural cell adhesion molecule and cadherins in pancreatic islets, glucagonomas, and insulinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, C J; Christgau, S; Williamson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The endocrine cells of the pancreas develop from the endoderm and yet display several characteristics of a neuronal phenotype. During embryonic life, ductal epithelial cells give rise to first the glugagon-producing cells (alpha-cells) and then cells that express insulin (beta-cells), somatostatin...... primary islet cells at all ages express unsialylated NCAM and E-cadherin, as do insulinomas, the glucagonomas express the polysialylated NCAM, which is characteristic for developing neurons. The glucagonomas also lose E-cadherin expression and instead express a cadherin which is similar to N...

  6. Modulating Leukemia-Initiating Cell Quiescence to Improve Leukemia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    T- cells and in innate immunity (Lacorazza et al., 2002). It controls the proliferation and homing of CD8+ T- cells via the Kruppel-like factors...Lin2Sca12IL7R2Kit1FccRII/ IIIhighCD34high), megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cell (MEP) (Lin2Sca12IL7R2Kit1FccRII/IIIlowCD34low), and common lymphoid ...to this model, the first wave gives rise exclusively to innate immune B cells in early embryonic life and may be derived from progenitor cells

  7. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  8. Inequality and redistribution behavior in a give-or-take game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Michael M.; Scheve, Kenneth F.

    2018-01-01

    Political polarization and extremism are widely thought to be driven by the surge in economic inequality in many countries around the world. Understanding why inequality persists depends on knowing the causal effect of inequality on individual behavior. We study how inequality affects redistribution behavior in a randomized “give-or-take” experiment that created equality, advantageous inequality, or disadvantageous inequality between two individuals before offering one of them the opportunity to either take from or give to the other. We estimate the causal effect of inequality in representative samples of German and American citizens (n = 4,966) and establish two main findings. First, individuals imperfectly equalize payoffs: On average, respondents transfer 12% of the available endowments to realize more equal wealth distributions. This means that respondents tolerate a considerable degree of inequality even in a setting in which there are no costs to redistribution. Second, redistribution behavior in response to disadvantageous and advantageous inequality is largely asymmetric: Individuals who take from those who are richer do not also tend to give to those who are poorer, and individuals who give to those who are poorer do not tend to take from those who are richer. These behavioral redistribution types correlate in meaningful ways with support for heavy taxes on the rich and the provision of welfare benefits for the poor. Consequently, it seems difficult to construct a majority coalition willing to back the type of government interventions needed to counter rising inequality. PMID:29555734

  9. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  10. HiRISE: The People's Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/). Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/) and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish/), opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  11. 14 CFR 221.140 - Method of giving concurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Conflicting authority to be avoided. Care should be taken to avoid giving authority to two or more carriers... Aviation shall be used by a carrier to give authority to another carrier to issue and file with the... used as authority to file joint fares or charges in which the carrier to whom the concurrence is given...

  12. Principle of Care and Giving to Help People in Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, René; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Theories of moral development posit that an internalized moral value that one should help those in need-the principle of care-evokes helping behaviour in situations where empathic concern does not. Examples of such situations are helping behaviours that involve cognitive deliberation and planning, that benefit others who are known only in the abstract, and who are out-group members. Charitable giving to help people in need is an important helping behaviour that has these characteristics. Therefore we hypothesized that the principle of care would be positively associated with charitable giving to help people in need, and that the principle of care would mediate the empathic concern-giving relationship. The two hypotheses were tested across four studies. The studies used four different samples, including three nationally representative samples from the American and Dutch populations, and included both self-reports of giving (Studies 1-3), giving observed in a survey experiment (Study 3), and giving observed in a laboratory experiment (Study 4). The evidence from these studies indicated that a moral principle to care for others was associated with charitable giving to help people in need and mediated the empathic concern-giving relationship. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology.

  13. Characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama agama lizard ...

  14. The notion of gift-giving and organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrand, Nicole

    1994-04-01

    The analogy between gift-giving and organ donation was first suggested at the beginning of the transplantation era, when policy makers and legislators were promoting voluntary organ donation as the preferred procurement procedure. It was believed that the practice of gift-giving had some features which were also thought to be necessary to ensure that an organ procurement procedure would be morally acceptable, namely voluntarism and altruism. Twenty-five years later, the analogy between gift-giving and organ donation is still being made in the literature and used in organ donation awareness campaigns. In this paper I want to challenge this analogy. By examining a range of circumstances in which gift-giving occurs, I argue that the significant differences between the various types of gift-giving and organ donation makes any analogy between the two very general and superficial, and I suggest that a more appropriate analogy can be found elsewhere.

  15. OPINION GIVING SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF CONSUMER INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wyrwisz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.

  16. Wnt Signalling in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. Flanagan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling regulates several cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration, and is critical for embryonic development. Stem cells are defined by their ability for self-renewal and the ability to be able to give rise to differentiated progeny. Consequently, they are essential for the homeostasis of many organs including the gastrointestinal tract. This review will describe the huge advances in our understanding of how stem cell functions in the gastrointestinal tract are regulated by Wnt signalling, including how deregulated Wnt signalling can hijack these functions to transform cells and lead to cancer.

  17. Multiplicity of Buc copies in Atlantic salmon contrasts with loss of the germ cell determinant in primates, rodents and axolotl

    OpenAIRE

    Skugor, Adrijana; Tveiten, Helge; Johnsen, Hanne; Andersen, Øivind

    2016-01-01

    Background The primordial germ cells (PGCs) giving rise to gametes are determined by two different mechanisms in vertebrates. While the germ cell fate in mammals and salamanders is induced by zygotic signals, maternally delivered germ cell determinants specify the PGCs in birds, frogs and teleost fish. Assembly of the germ plasm in the oocyte is organized by the single Buc in zebrafish, named Velo1 in Xenopus, and by Oskar in Drosophila. Secondary loss of oskar in several insect lineages coin...

  18. Effect of atomic noise on optical squeezing via polarization self-rotation in a thermal vapor cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, M.T.L.; Hetet, G.; Peng, A.

    2006-01-01

    The traversal of an elliptically polarized optical field through a thermal vapor cell can give rise to a rotation of its polarization axis. This process, known as polarization self-rotation (PSR), has been suggested as a mechanism for producing squeezed light at atomic transition wavelengths. We ...

  19. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Michael; Ivanova, Zinaida

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author's sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  20. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don’t provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers’ behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  1. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Michael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author’s sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  2. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  3. Growth factors and medium hyperglycemia induce Sox9+ ductal cell differentiation into β cells in mice with reversal of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Lin, Qing; Qi, Tong; Wang, Tiankun; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Riggs, Arthur D.; Zeng, Defu

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that long-term administration of a low dose of gastrin and epidermal growth factor (GE) augments β-cell neogenesis in late-stage diabetic autoimmune mice after eliminating insulitis by induction of mixed chimerism. However, the source of β-cell neogenesis is still unknown. SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9+ (Sox9+) ductal cells in the adult pancreas are clonogenic and can give rise to insulin-producing β cells in an in vitro culture. Whether Sox9+ ductal cells in the adult pancreas can give rise to β cells in vivo remains controversial. Here, using lineage-tracing with genetic labeling of Insulin- or Sox9-expressing cells, we show that hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL) is required for inducing Sox9+ ductal cell differentiation into insulin-producing β cells, and medium hyperglycemia (300–450 mg/dL) in combination with long-term administration of low-dose GE synergistically augments differentiation and is associated with normalization of blood glucose in nonautoimmune diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Short-term administration of high-dose GE cannot augment differentiation, although it can augment preexisting β-cell replication. These results indicate that medium hyperglycemia combined with long-term administration of low-dose GE represents one way to induce Sox9+ ductal cell differentiation into β cells in adult mice. PMID:26733677

  4. [The rise and fall of an physician entrepreneur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnyei, Sándor

    2002-01-01

    In 1927 one of the most up-to-date and most beautiful sanatoriums of Central Europe was built on the hills of Buda by László Jakab MD (1875-1940), who at that time had already run - since 1909 - a successful health-resort, the rather popular and successful "Liget-Sanatorium": following a period of expansion and flourishing, his enterprise bankrupted. (The building itself was renewed after World War II - it served first as a hospital for tuberculosis patients and later as a university clinic for internal medicine.) This article tells the story of an entrepreneur physician, including his former and more successful attempts to run a health-care business, and gives detailed account of the rise and fall of private health-resort in prewar Hungary.

  5. Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S Y; Bai, Mei; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Gullotta, Justin; He, Ping; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Peggs, Steve; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smart, Loralie; Snydstrup, Louis; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

  6. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  7. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA

  9. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  10. The accompanying adult: authority to give consent in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Seema Madhur Lata; Parekh, Susan; Mason, Carol; Roberts, Graham

    2007-05-01

    Children may be accompanied by various people when attending for dental treatment. Before treatment is started, there is a legal requirement that the operator obtain informed consent for the proposed procedure. In the case of minors, the person authorized to give consent (parental responsibility) is usually a parent. To ascertain if accompanying persons of children attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the Eastman Dental Hospital, London were empowered to give consent for the child's dental treatment. A total of 250 accompanying persons of children attending were selected, over a 6-month period. A questionnaire was used to establish whether the accompanying person(s) were authorized to give consent. The study showed that 12% of accompanying persons had no legal authority to give consent for the child's dental treatment. Clinicians need to be aware of the status of persons accompanying children to ensure valid consent is obtained.

  11. When may doctors give nurses telephonic treatment instructions?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When is it legal for doctors to give nurses telephonic treatment instructions? ... telemedicine? Telemedicine is defined as 'the practice of medicine, from a distance, ... [6] Therefore, if in such circumstances the doctors cannot reach the patients in ...

  12. Markel senior vice president to give Wachovia Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2008-01-01

    Markel Corporation's senior vice president and chief financial officer Richard R. Whitt will give a talk on Thursday, Nov. 13, as the Wachovia Distinguished Speaker in the Pamplin College of Business.

  13. developing skills of giving and receiving feedbacks between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    could be by developing the skill of giving and receiving feedbacks among the individuals involved in the ... education rather than damaging their self esteem against to improve the teaching – process (David ..... A better skill of communication.

  14. Reciprocity revisited: Give and take in Dutch and immigrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, A.; Schans, J.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Classical theory suggests that "generalized reciprocity," giving without clear expectations of returns, is characteristic for exchange within the family. Modern theory assumes differences between Western, "individualistic" cultures, and non-Western, more "collectivistic" cultures, presumably leading

  15. Benefits of Giving (A Book Review Using Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamdar Arraiyyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a book review. It discusses a book entitled Give and Take. The book introduces a new approach to success. It makes three categories of people in doing interaction or communication. They are takers, matchers, and givers. The writer of the book, Adam Grant, explains the principles and characteristics of each category. He shows a lot of facts to prove that being a giver brings benefits for people and the doer as well. The objects of giving here comprise different kinds help like wealth, ideas, knowledge, skills and information. Therefore, he motivates people to become givers. In this connection, the reviewer would like to show that Islamic religion also motivates its followers to give helps to others. Though, there are some similarities and differences between the benefits of giving mentioned in the book and the verses of the Holy Qur’an and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him.

  16. Secret handshakes: cell-cell interactions and cellular mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel J; Nelson, W James

    2018-02-01

    Cell-cell junctions, acting as 'secret handshakes', mediate cell-cell interactions and make multicellularity possible. Work over the previous century illuminated key players comprising these junctions including the cadherin superfamily, nectins, CAMs, connexins, notch/delta, lectins, and eph/Ephrins. Recent work has focused on elucidating how interactions between these complex and often contradictory cues can ultimately give rise to large-scale organization in tissues. This effort, in turn, has enabled bioengineering advances such as cell-mimetic interfaces that allow us to better probe junction biology and to develop new biomaterials. This review details exciting, recent developments in these areas as well as providing both historical context and a discussion of some topical challenges and opportunities for the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lgr5 Identifies Progenitor Cells Capable of Taste Bud Regeneration after Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Takeda

    Full Text Available Taste buds are composed of a variety of taste receptor cell types that develop from tongue epithelium and are regularly replenished under normal homeostatic conditions as well as after injury. The characteristics of cells that give rise to regenerating taste buds are poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested that Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 identifies taste bud stem cells that contribute to homeostatic regeneration in adult circumvallate and foliate taste papillae, which are located in the posterior region of the tongue. Taste papillae in the adult anterior region of the tongue do not express Lgr5. Here, we confirm and extend these studies by demonstrating that Lgr5 cells give rise to both anterior and posterior taste buds during development, and are capable of regenerating posterior taste buds after injury induced by glossopharyngeal nerve transection.

  18. Lgr5 Identifies Progenitor Cells Capable of Taste Bud Regeneration after Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Norifumi; Jain, Rajan; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Lu, Min Min; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are composed of a variety of taste receptor cell types that develop from tongue epithelium and are regularly replenished under normal homeostatic conditions as well as after injury. The characteristics of cells that give rise to regenerating taste buds are poorly understood. Recent studies have suggested that Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5) identifies taste bud stem cells that contribute to homeostatic regeneration in adult circumvallate and foliate taste papillae, which are located in the posterior region of the tongue. Taste papillae in the adult anterior region of the tongue do not express Lgr5. Here, we confirm and extend these studies by demonstrating that Lgr5 cells give rise to both anterior and posterior taste buds during development, and are capable of regenerating posterior taste buds after injury induced by glossopharyngeal nerve transection.

  19. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  20. The Rise of the Digital Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shift to digital offerings among public libraries. Libraries increasingly are fulfilling roles as technology hubs for their communities, with high demand for technology and career development training resources. Ebooks and other digital materials are on the rise, while print is being scaled back. More libraries are turning to…

  1. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  2. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  3. Rising Political Consciousness: Transformational Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Mazalan; Muhamad, Mazanah

    As part of a larger study (not discussed) ten educated Malaysian citizens were interviewed to find whether their rising political consciousness, over a ten year period (1988-1999), indicated that their transformation was influenced by their culture. The subjects were between 35-45 years old, married, with an average of four children. All were…

  4. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  5. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  6. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  7. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  8. The economic consequences of oil price rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The author discusses the possible consequences of oil barrel price rise. First, he discusses the main results of analysis's which have been performed for thirty years regarding the impact of oil price on economical activity. He proposes interpretations of these studies and of their conclusions, and tries to draw lessons regarding effects which can be expected from the recent evolutions of energy markets

  9. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  10. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  11. From Rising Bubble to RNA/DNA and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Roman; Cieszyńska, Agata; Wereszka, Marzena; Borkowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    In this study we have focused on the movement of rising bubbles in a salty water body. Experiments reviled that free buoyancy movement of bubbles forces displacement of ions, located on the outer side of the bubble wall curvatures. During the short moment of bubble passage, all ions in the vicinity of rising bubble, are separated into anions that are gathered on the bubble upper half sphere and cations that slip along the bottom concave half-sphere of a bubble and develop a sub-bubble vortex. The principle of ions separation bases on the differences in displacement resistance. In this way, relatively heavier and larger, thus more resistant to displacement anions are gathered on the rising bubble upper half sphere, while smaller and lighter cations are assembled on the bottom half sphere and within the sub-bubble vortex. The acceleration of motion generates antiparallel rotary of bi-ionic domains, what implies that anions rotate in clockwise (CW) and cationic in counter-clockwise (CCW) direction. Then, both rotational systems may undergo splicing and extreme condensing by bi-pirouette narrowing of rotary. It is suggested that such double helix motion of bi-ionic domains creates RNA/DNA molecules. Finally, when the bubble reaches the water surface it burst and the preprocessed RNA/DNA matter is ejected into the droplets. Since that stage, droplet is suspended in positively charged troposphere, thus the cationic domain is located in the droplet center, whilst negative ions are attracted to configure the outer areola. According to above, the present study implies that the rising bubbles in salty waters may incept synergistic processing of matter resulting in its rotational/spherical organization that led to assembly of RNA/DNA molecules and bacteria cells.

  12. Multipotent embryonic isl1+ progenitor cells lead to cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Alessandra; Caron, Leslie; Nakano, Atsushi; Lam, Jason T; Bernshausen, Alexandra; Chen, Yinhong; Qyang, Yibing; Bu, Lei; Sasaki, Mika; Martin-Puig, Silvia; Sun, Yunfu; Evans, Sylvia M; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Chien, Kenneth R

    2006-12-15

    Cardiogenesis requires the generation of endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells, thought to arise from distinct embryonic precursors. We use genetic fate-mapping studies to document that isl1(+) precursors from the second heart field can generate each of these diverse cardiovascular cell types in vivo. Utilizing embryonic stem (ES) cells, we clonally amplified a cellular hierarchy of isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitors, which resemble the developmental precursors in the embryonic heart. The transcriptional signature of isl1(+)/Nkx2.5(+)/flk1(+) defines a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor, which can give rise to cells of all three lineages. These studies document a developmental paradigm for cardiogenesis, where muscle and endothelial lineage diversification arises from a single cell-level decision of a multipotent isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitor cell (MICP). The discovery of ES cell-derived MICPs suggests a strategy for cardiovascular tissue regeneration via their isolation, renewal, and directed differentiation into specific mature cardiac, pacemaker, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell types.

  13. Stomach Organ and Cell Lineage Differentiation: From?Embryogenesis to Adult Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Willet, Spencer G.; Mills, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecularâcellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we highlight the current state of the literature relating to specificat...

  14. Dynamic Interactions between Pit-1 and C/EBPα in the Pituitary Cell Nucleus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Demarco, Ignacio A.; Voss, Ty C.; Booker, Cynthia F.; Day, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    The homeodomain (HD) transcription factors are a structurally conserved family of proteins that, through networks of interactions with other nuclear proteins, control patterns of gene expression during development. For example, the network interactions of the pituitary-specific HD protein Pit-1 control the development of anterior pituitary cells and regulate the expression of the hormone products in the adult cells. Inactivating mutations in Pit-1 disrupt these processes, giving rise to the s...

  15. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A; Vemuri, Mohan C; Boucher, Shayne E; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Kerr, Candace

    2013-02-01

    The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing for altruism and social pressure in charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaVigna, Stefano; List, John A; Malmendier, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Every year, 90% of Americans give money to charities. Is such generosity necessarily welfare enhancing for the giver? We present a theoretical framework that distinguishes two types of motivation: individuals like to give, for example, due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, for example, due to social pressure. We design a door-to-door fund-raiser in which some households are informed about the exact time of solicitation with a flyer on their doorknobs. Thus, they can seek or avoid the fund-raiser. We find that the flyer reduces the share of households opening the door by 9% to 25% and, if the flyer allows checking a Do Not Disturb box, reduces giving by 28% to 42%. The latter decrease is concentrated among donations smaller than $10. These findings suggest that social pressure is an important determinant of door-to-door giving. Combining data from this and a complementary field experiment, we structurally estimate the model. The estimated social pressure cost of saying no to a solicitor is $3.80 for an in-state charity and $1.40 for an out-of-state charity. Our welfare calculations suggest that our door-to-door fund-raising campaigns on average lower the utility of the potential donors.

  18. Social Relations of Fieldwork: Giving Back in a Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The project of this special issue emerged from the guest editors' experiences as field researchers in sub-Saharan Africa. During this time both researchers faced the difficult question of "giving back" to the communities in which, and with whom, they worked—communities that were often far less privileged than the researchers were in terms of wealth, mobility, education, and access to health care. Returning from their field sites, both researchers felt a combination of guilt and frustration that they had not done enough or had not done things right. Thus emerged the idea of bringing together a group of researchers, from a range of disciplines, to discuss the topic of giving back in field research. This editorial describes the idea and process that led to the present collection of articles. The guest editors situate the project in the literature on feminist studies and briefly summarize each of the four thematic sections in this special issue. They conclude by emphasizing that their collection is not a guide to giving back. Rather than lay out hard and fast rules about what, how much, and to whom field researchers should give, their collection offers a series of examples and considerations for giving back in fieldwork.

  19. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Molecular dosimetry of DNA damage caused by alkylation. I. Single-strand breaks induced by ethylating agents in cultured mammalian cells in relation to survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbondandolo, A.; Dogliotti, E.; Lohman, P.H.M.; Berends, F.

    1982-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with ethylating agents. DNA lesions giving rise to single-strand breaks (ssb) or alkali-labile sites were measured by centrifugation in alkaline sucrose gradients after lysis in alkali. 4 agents with different tendencies to ethylate preferentially

  1. Authorization gives the personnel he/she gives the center he/she gives Isotopes for the acting he/she gives tied functions with the security and the radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Pijuan, S.; Hernandez Alvarez, R.; Peres Reyes, Y.; Venegas Bernal, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The conception is described used in a center production labelled compound and radiopharmaceuticals for the authorization to the support, operation and supervision personnel The approaches are exposed used to define the excellent positions for the security the installation. The are described the training programs, designed starting from the indentification the specific competitions for each duty station and with particular emphasis in the development gives abilities you practice. It is used for the administration and evaluation gives the programs training the Automated System Administration Programs Training (GESAT)

  2. Gift-giving in the medical student--patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Yassar Abdullah S

    2012-08-01

    There is paucity in the published literature that provides any ethical guidance guiding gift-giving within the student--patient relationship. This is perhaps because the dynamics of the medical student--patient relationship have not yet been explored as extensively as the doctor--patient relationship. More importantly, however, gift--giving in the doctor-patient relationship has traditionally been from the patient to the doctor and not vice versa. This article examines the literature published in this vicinity reflecting on an encounter with a patient.

  3. EVALUATION OF SERVICE QUALITY OF AIRWAY COMPANIES GIVING DOMESTIC SERVICES IN TURKEY WITH FUZZY SET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Handan DEMIR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, service quality has become a major phenomenon with the requirement of meeting consumer demands in the best way brought along with the rising competition between companies. Airway transportation is preferred more and more during the recent years. Many qualitative and quantitative criteria are considered while evaluating service criteria in airway transportation. In this context, evaluation of service quality is a decisionmaking problem with many criteria. The purpose of this study is to evaluate service quality of domestic airway companies in Turkey. In this study; fuzzy TOPSIS method which is one of the most preferred fuzzy MCDM methods, extension of multi criteria decision making methods in fuzzy environments, considering qualitative and quantitative criteria together and giving opportunity to make group decisions in fuzzy environments. As a result, evaluation was made based on service quality criteria for the most preferred airways companies in Turkey and these companies were ranked according to their levels of service quality.

  4. The risks associated with consumer magazines giving advice on complementary therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, Fiona

    The increased popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has led to increased demand for information on it, giving rise to the concept of "new experts". However, there is concern about the quality and accuracy of this information, much of which is published in popular magazines and written by contributors with no medical qualifications. To examine the extent of CAM product advice in women's and health magazines, and the potential for adverse drug/herbal interaction. Fifteen women's magazines were examined over one month. A total of 150 articles were identified, of which 131 were written by non-medically qualified contributors, mainly journalists. Out of the 150, 95 discussed ingested herbs which had the potential for adverse interactions and are contraindicated for certain groups. The findings have legal and ethical implications. The re-evaluation of the journalists' code of conduct to reflect this development in journalism should be considered.

  5. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  6. High and rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  7. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  8. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  9. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  10. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  11. Colony, hanging drop, and methylcellulose three dimensional hypoxic growth optimization of renal cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Damian; Brodaczewska, Klaudia K; Lipiec, Monika; Szymanski, Łukasz; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2017-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of the common urologic malignancies, comprising 3% of all human neoplasms, and the incidence of kidney cancer is rising annually. We need new approaches to target tumor cells that are resistant to current therapies and that give rise to recurrence and treatment failure. In this study, we focused on low oxygen tension and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture incorporation to develop a new RCC growth model. We used the hanging drop and colony formation methods, which are common in 3D culture, as well as a unique methylcellulose (MC) method. For the experiments, we used human primary RCC cell lines, metastatic RCC cell lines, human kidney cancer stem cells, and human healthy epithelial cells. In the hanging drop assay, we verified the potential of various cell lines to create solid aggregates in hypoxic and normoxic conditions. With the semi-soft agar method, we also determined the ability of various cell lines to create colonies under different oxygen conditions. Different cell behavior observed in the MC method versus the hanging drop and colony formation assays suggests that these three assays may be useful to test various cell properties. However, MC seems to be a particularly valuable alternative for 3D cell culture, as its higher efficiency of aggregate formation and serum independency are of interest in different areas of cancer biology.

  12. Satellite Cell Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Lorenzo; Parisi, Alice; Le Grand, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells to maintain the stem cell population throughout life. This process is controlled by cell-intrinsic transcription factors regulated by cell-extrinsic signals from the niche and the microenvironment. This chapter provides an overview about the general aspects of satellite cell biology and focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects of satellite cell self-renewal. To date, we are still far from understanding how a very small proportion of the satellite cell progeny maintain their stem cell identity when most of their siblings progress through the myogenic program to construct myofibers. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Progenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaye, Aurélie P; Bergemann, David; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Estefania; Flasse, Lydie C; Von Berg, Virginie; Peers, Bernard; Voz, Marianne L; Manfroid, Isabelle

    2015-09-02

    In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In

  14. Sea-level rise: towards understanding local vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Projections of global sea-level rise into the future have become more pessimistic over the past five years or so. A global rise by more than one metre by the year 2100 is now widely accepted as a serious possibility if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated. That is witnessed by the scientific assessments that were made since the last IPCC report was published in 2007. The Delta Commission of the Dutch government projected up to 1.10 m as a 'high-end' scenario (Vellinga et al 2009). The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) projected up to 1.40 m (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research 2009), and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) gives a range of 0.90-1.60 m in its 2011 report (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 2011). And recently the US Army Corps of Engineers recommends using a 'low', an 'intermediate' and a 'high' scenario for global sea-level rise when planning civil works programmes, with the high one corresponding to a 1.50 m rise by 2100 (US Army Corps of Engineers 2011). This more pessimistic view is based on a number of observations, most importantly perhaps the fact that sea level has been rising at least 50% faster in the past decades than projected by the IPCC (Rahmstorf et al 2007, IPCC 2007). Also, the rate of rise (averaged over two decades) has accelerated threefold, from around 1 mm yr-1 at the start of the 20th century to around 3 mm yr-1 over the past 20 years (Church and White 2006), and this rate increase closely correlates with global warming (Rahmstorf et al 2011). The IPCC projections, which assume almost no further acceleration in the 20th century, thus look less plausible. And finally the observed net mass loss of the two big continental ice sheets (Van den Broeke et al 2011) calls into question the assumption that ice accumulation in Antarctica would largely balance ice loss from Greenland in the course of further global warming (IPCC 2007). With such a serious sea-level rise on the horizon

  15. Better by the Year. The FRI Annual Giving Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. Jane

    Designed for a nonprofit organization executive, this book suggests how to start and run an increasingly profitable program for attracting the kind of gifts that will be repeated year after year. Preliminary preparations, the launch and administration of a campaign, four ways to reach higher goals, and annual giving ideas from education, health…

  16. Give me a break!: Informal caregiver attitudes towards respite care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Exel, J..; de Graaf, G.; Brouwer, W.B.F.

    2009-01-01

    Background/objective: Because informal health care is now recognized to be indispensable to health care systems, different forms of respite care have been developed and publicly funded that supposedly alleviate caregivers' perceived burdens and help prolong the care giving task. Nonetheless, the use

  17. Improving Evidence on Private Giving in Emerging Economies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... gaps on amounts and sources. There is also a lack of research on regulations and policies that support or discourage private giving. This research project will explore philanthropic cooperation in emerging and developing country contexts by quantifying financial flows from emerging economies to developing countries.

  18. Why do firms give away their patents for free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, Nicole; Gassmann, Oliver; Friesike, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Within the trend of increasing patent commercialisation and open innovation, a recent phenomenon where firms give away their patents free of charge can be observed. This seems contradictory to the original intention of the patent system (enabling firms to create temporary monopolies to appropriate

  19. Giving Voice: A Course on American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouse, Susan Applegate

    1997-01-01

    Presents the story of the creation of an undergraduate course on the traditional and contemporary roles of women in North American Indian cultures. Notes that the course was designed around experiential learning precepts and the idea of "giving voice" to American Indian women. Lists texts used and evaluates course strengths. (DSK)

  20. A Conversation Model Enabling Intelligent Agents to Give Emotional Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently talk to others to help them deal with negative emotions. To some extent, everybody is capable of comforting other people, but so far conversational agents are unable to deal with this type of situation. To provide intelligent agents with the capability to give

  1. Giving Back — IDRC photo contest winner shares prize with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-28

    Jan 28, 2011 ... Giving Back — IDRC photo contest winner shares prize with Senegalese colleagues ... South or the developed world are tackling the challenges of urban living. ... Upon his return to Canada, the 26-year-old wrote to IDRC the ...

  2. Advice-giving in the English lingua franca classroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important pragmatic differences between the ways in which advice is given by native speakers and ... gender differences and that teacher modeling may have an effect on which available form of advice-giving a ... nation wishes to participate in global enterprises such as international finance, multi-national corporations, and ...

  3. Neurocultural evidence that ideal affect match promotes giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, BoKyung; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian; Tsai, Jeanne L

    2017-07-01

    Why do people give to strangers? We propose that people trust and give more to those whose emotional expressions match how they ideally want to feel ("ideal affect match"). European Americans and Koreans played multiple trials of the Dictator Game with recipients who varied in emotional expression (excited, calm), race (White, Asian) and sex (male, female). Consistent with their culture's valued affect, European Americans trusted and gave more to excited than calm recipients, whereas Koreans trusted and gave more to calm than excited recipients. These findings held regardless of recipient race and sex. We then used fMRI to probe potential affective and mentalizing mechanisms. Increased activity in the nucleus accumbens (associated with reward anticipation) predicted giving, as did decreased activity in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ; associated with reduced belief prediction error). Ideal affect match decreased rTPJ activity, suggesting that people may trust and give more to strangers whom they perceive to share their affective values. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives communities a better future. October 26 ... Organized into small cooperatives, the women produce and market argan oil using a mix of traditional and modern methods. At the same time ... arts and craft. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.

  5. Reprint of: Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to

  6. Reprint of : Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to

  7. Mensurations give the radioactivity natural gamma, radon in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamarra, J.; Stuardo, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, are presented the methods for measurement, calculate and you discusses the results, in each studied area, in the mark the respective world averages. None the averages evaluated annual effective dose they surpassed these world averages effective dose or level gives intervention, corresponding

  8. Exploring gender differences in charitable giving : The Dutch Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, Arjen; Bekkers, René

    2016-01-01

    Women’s philanthropy has drawn much attention during recent years, mostly in studies from the United States or the United Kingdom. Relevant issues are to what extent gender differences in charitable giving exist in another national context and how these differences can be explained. In this study,

  9. The good news about giving bad news to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Neil J; Urban, Susan Y; Collier, Virginia U; Weiner, Joan; Polite, Ronald G; Davis, Elizabeth B; Boyer, E Gil

    2002-12-01

    There are few data available on how physicians inform patients about bad news. We surveyed internists about how they convey this information. We surveyed internists about their activities in giving bad news to patients. One set of questions was about activities for the emotional support of the patient (11 items), and the other was about activities for creating a supportive environment for delivering bad news (9 items). The impact of demographic factors on the performance of emotionally supportive items, environmentally supportive items, and on the number of minutes reportedly spent delivering news was analyzed by analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. More than half of the internists reported that they always or frequently performed 10 of the 11 emotionally supportive items and 6 of the 9 environmentally supportive items while giving bad news to patients. The average time reportedly spent in giving bad news was 27 minutes. Although training in giving bad news had a significant impact on the number of emotionally supportive items reported (P woman, unmarried, and having a history of major illness were also associated with reporting a greater number of emotionally supportive activities. Internists report that they inform patients of bad news appropriately. Some deficiencies exist, specifically in discussing prognosis and referral of patients to support groups. Physician educational efforts should include discussion of prognosis with patients as well as the availability of support groups.

  10. Using "The Giving Tree" To Teach Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remler, Nancy Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Argues that introducing students to literary criticism while introducing them to literature boosts their confidence and abilities to analyze literature, and increases their interest in discussing it. Describes how the author, in her college-level introductory literature course, used Shel Silverstein's "The Giving Tree" (a children's…

  11. Reciprocity Revisited : Give and Take in Dutch and Immigrant Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, Aafke; Schans, Djamila

    2008-01-01

    The idea that reciprocity is the basic principle underlying forms of social organization, among which the family, is as old as classical anthropology and sociology. The essence of the principle is that giving prompts receiving, thereby creating forms of ongoing exchange and durable cooperation.

  12. The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis, by Steenstrup in 1857 for a specimen stranded on the Danish coast in 1853. In 1880, Verrill gave the first description of the genus. Pfeffer (1912) related this history and also mentioned that traditional narratives and illustrations of the 16th century had.

  13. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of changes seen in this “egalitarian” evolutionary transition is compared with those that apply in “fraternal” transitions, such as the evolution of multicellularity in animals. PMID:26286983

  14. Informal care giving to more disabled people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert J; Radin, Dagmar; Chakravorty, Bonnie J; Tyry, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    About 30% of the people with multiple sclerosis (MS) require some form of home care assistance and 80% of that assistance is provided by informal or unpaid care givers. This study focusses on the care givers for 530 more disabled people with MS, with the objective of learning more about informal care giving to people with greater dependency and need for assistance. The data presented in this study were collected in a national survey of 530 people who provided informal care to more disabled people with MS. Almost half of these care givers reported that they provided more than 20 h of care per week to the person with MS, with more than 9 in 10 shopping for groceries, doing indoor housework, preparing meals or providing transportation for the person with MS. More than 4 in 10 employed care givers reduced the amount of time worked in the previous 12 months because of their care giving responsibilities. Although more than half of the MS care givers in our study reported that care giving was demanding, time consuming or challenging, about 90% of these MS care givers were happy that they could help. About two in three of these MS care givers found that care giving was rewarding, with more than 8 in 10 proud of the care they provided. More than a quarter of the informal care givers to people with MS thought they would benefit from treatment or counselling provided by mental health professionals. Not only it is necessary to provide access to mental health services for people with MS, but it is also important to assure that their informal care givers also have access to appropriate mental health care, given the scope of their care giving responsibilities.

  15. Give me a break! Informal caregiver attitudes towards respite care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Exel, Job; de Graaf, Gjalt; Brouwer, Werner

    2008-10-01

    Because informal health care is now recognized to be indispensable to health care systems, different forms of respite care have been developed and publicly funded that supposedly alleviate caregivers' perceived burdens and help prolong the care giving task. Nonetheless, the use of respite care services is low even among substantially strained caregivers. To throw light on this low usage, this paper explores the associations between attitudes towards respite care, characteristics of the care giving situation, and the need and use of respite care. The survey, administered to a sample of 273 informal caregivers, addressed caregiver, care recipient, and care giving situation characteristics, as well as the familiarity and use of respite care services. It also included a sub-set of 12 statements eliciting attitudes towards respite care from an earlier study [Van Exel NJA, De Graaf G, Brouwer WBF. Care for a break? An investigation of informal caregivers' attitudes toward respite care using Q-methodology. Health Policy 2007;83(2/3):332-42]. Associations between variables were measured using univariate statistics and multinomial logistic regression. We found three caregiver attitudes, distributed fairly equally in the sample, that are apparently associated with caregiver educational level, employment status, health and happiness, as well as care recipient gender, duration and intensity of care giving, relationship, co-residence, need for surveillance, and subjective burden and process utility of care giving. However, the relation between attitude and familiarity with and use of respite care services is ambiguous. Although further exploration is needed of the mix of Q-methodology and survey analysis, the overall results indicate that a considerable portion of the caregiver population needs but does not readily ask for support or respite care. This finding has important policy implications in the context of an ageing population.

  16. The effects of the Boussinesq model to the rising of the explosion clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoli; Zheng Yi

    2010-01-01

    It is to study the rising of the explosion clouds in the normal atmosphere using Boussinesq model and the Incompressible model, the numerical model is based on the assumption that effects the clouds are gravity and buoyancy. By comparing the evolvement of different density cloud, and gives the conclusion-the Boussinesq model and the Incompressible model is accord when the cloud's density is larger compared to the density of the environment. (authors)

  17. Photo-oxidation of cells generates long-lived intracellular protein peroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Adam; Hawkins, Clare Louise; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is generated by several cellular, enzymatic, and chemical reactions as well as by exposure to UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer. Consequently, this oxidant has been proposed to be a damaging agent many pathologies. Proteins are major targets for singlet oxygen...... as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study, we show that illumination of viable rose bengal-loaded THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells with visible light gives rise to intracellular protein-derived peroxides. The peroxide yield increases with illumination time, requires....../2) about 4 h at 37 degrees C. Decomposition of protein peroxides formed within cells, or on isolated cellular proteins, by metal ions gives rise to radicals as detected by EPR spin trapping. These studies demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to visible light in the presence of a sensitizer leads...

  18. Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Brown, B E; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    . In this study it is shown that HOBr induces red blood cell lysis at approximately 10-fold lower concentrations than HOCl, whereas with monocyte (THP1) and macrophage (J774) cells HOCl and HOBr induce lysis at similar concentrations. The role of radical formation during lysis has been investigated by EPR spin...... trapping, and it is shown that reaction of both oxidants with each cell type generates cell-derived radicals. Red blood cells exposed to nonlytic doses of HOCl generate novel nitrogen-centered radicals whose formation is GSH dependent. In contrast, HOBr gives rise to nitrogen-centered, membrane......-derived protein radicals. With lytic doses of either oxidant, protein (probably hemoglobin)-derived, nitrogen-centered radicals are observed. Unlike the red blood cells, treatment of monocytes and macrophages with HOCl gives significant radical formation only under conditions where cell lysis occurs concurrently...

  19. Processes give selection location like fundamental approach gives the security for the repositories radioactive waste (radioactive installation) in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vidal, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.O.; Chales Suarez, G.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.

    1998-01-01

    On the base for the best international practice, the requirements given by the IAEA, specialized national experience, the technician economic conditions and social matters give Cuba, it has been documented in the country the process the documented location for evacuation and storage the worn-out fuel lingeringly

  20. Short-lived, transitory cell-cell interactions foster migration-dependent aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Pope

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, motile cells aggregate into cohesive groups, which give rise to tissues and organs. The role of cell migration in regulating aggregation is unclear. The current paradigm for aggregation is based on an equilibrium model of differential cell adhesivity to neighboring cells versus the underlying substratum. In many biological contexts, however, dynamics is critical. Here, we provide evidence that multicellular aggregation dynamics involves both local adhesive interactions and transport by cell migration. Using time-lapse video microscopy, we quantified the duration of cell-cell contacts among migrating cells that collided and adhered to another cell. This lifetime of cell-cell interactions exhibited a monotonic decreasing dependence on substratum adhesivity. Parallel quantitative measurements of cell migration speed revealed that across the tested range of adhesive substrata, the mean time needed for cells to migrate and encounter another cell was greater than the mean adhesion lifetime, suggesting that aggregation dynamics may depend on cell motility instead of the local differential adhesivity of cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, aggregate size exhibited a biphasic dependence on substratum adhesivity, matching the trend we observed for cell migration speed. Our findings suggest a new role for cell motility, alongside differential adhesion, in regulating developmental aggregation events and motivate new design principles for tuning aggregation dynamics in tissue engineering applications.

  1. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  2. A Childhood Rich in Culture Gives a Socioeconomic Bonus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austring, Bennye Düranc

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen ridser den nyeste forskning op inden for feltet 'art rich learning', altså æstetiske læreprocesser af god kvalitet. In the book ”Art and Culture Give Children a Life that Works” 60 (Danish and non-Danish) experts, practitioners, artists and several Ministers from the Danish Government fo...... focus on the significance of Art and Culture for children. The book provides lots of inspiration for teachers, pedagogues and cultural mediators and contains many examples of specific cultural activities, links and bibliographic references.......Artiklen ridser den nyeste forskning op inden for feltet 'art rich learning', altså æstetiske læreprocesser af god kvalitet. In the book ”Art and Culture Give Children a Life that Works” 60 (Danish and non-Danish) experts, practitioners, artists and several Ministers from the Danish Government...

  3. Framing charitable donations as exceptional expenses increases giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Abigail B; Sharma, Eesha; Alter, Adam L

    2015-06-01

    Many articles have examined the psychological drivers of charitable giving, but little is known about how people mentally budget for charitable gifts. The present research aims to address this gap by investigating how perceptions of donations as exceptional (uncommon and infrequent) rather than ordinary (common and frequent) expenses might affect budgeting for and giving to charity. We provide the first demonstration that exceptional framing of an identical item can directly influence mental budgeting processes, and yield societal benefits. In 5 lab and field experiments, exceptional framing increased charitable behavior, and diminished the extent to which people considered the effect of the donation on their budgets. The current work extends our understanding of mental accounting and budgeting for charitable gifts, and demonstrates practical techniques that enable fundraisers to enhance the perceived exceptionality of donations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The economic consequences of rising oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, F.

    2006-05-01

    In the context of rising crude oil prices observed in the last five years, this paper attempts to shed light on the possible consequences of a costlier barrel. We shall begin with a brief presentation of the main results of the analyses conducted in the last 30 years, concerning the impact of energy prices on economic activity. We shall then interpret these analyses and their conclusions, and try to draw a number of lessons about the anticipated effects of the recent trend in energy prices. (author)

  5. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  6. The rise and fall of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Recent data from heavy ion collisions at RHIC show unexpectedly large near-angle correlations that broaden longitudinally with centrality. The amplitude of this ridge-like correlation rises rapidly with centrality, reaches a maximum, and then falls in the most central collisions. In this talk we explain how this behavior can be easily understood in a picture where final momentum-space correlations are driven by initial coordinate space density fluctuations. We propose {nu}{sub n}{sup 2}/{epsilon}{sub n,part}{sup 2} as a useful way to study these effects and explain what it tells us about the collision dynamics.

  7. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  8. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  9. Hydrodynamics in a swarm of rising bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboux, G.

    2007-04-01

    In many applications, bubbles are used to agitate a liquid in order to enhance mixing and transfer. This work is devoted to the study of the hydrodynamics in a stable bubble column. Experimentally, we have determined the properties of the velocity fluctuations inside and behind a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles for different bubble sizes and gas volume fractions α: self-similarity in α 0,4 , spectrum in k -3 and integral length scale controlled by buoyancy. Numerically, we have reproduced these properties by means of large-scale simulations, the bubbles being modeled by volume-forces. This confirms that the dynamics is controlled by wake interactions. (author)

  10. The rising home birth trend in America

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlan Aliyev; Chastidy Roldan; Bulent Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US). Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of h...

  11. Nuclear costs: why do they keep rising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power has performed badly in recent years as a new investment everywhere except Japan and Korea. This has mainly been for orthodox financial and economic reasons. Among the factors contributing to this loss of competitiveness, persistently rising real capital costs have been particularly important. While the nuclear industry has believed it could control and reduce capital costs, increasing regulatory stringency has made designs more complex and correspondingly more costly. These cost increasing factors have far outweighed traditional cost reducing factors (like learning). The only lasting way to meet increasing stringency in safety at acceptably low cost is likely to be the development of new and simpler reactor designs. (author)

  12. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  13. Self gift Giving: A New Widespread Consumption Culture

    OpenAIRE

    KAR, Yrd.Doç.Dr. Altan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The meanings derived from consumption goods have an increasing impact on the psychological formation of individuals Hence to understand the complex nature of consumer behavior a multidisciplinary approach is needed Consumption goods become magical fetish objects which satisfy individual pleasures The gift in this concept becomes a token that the individual gives her himself and evolves from being a collective system to an individual form of consumption The aim of this study...

  14. Laser techniques for radioactive decontamination gives metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Alracon, L.; Molina, G.; Vizuet Gonzalez, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it presented the prototype for system decontamination at diverse component with removable superficial contamination, using the technique gives laser ablation, for the evaporation at the pollutant. It discusses the principle in the fact that system, as well as the different elements that compose it. The are presented the obtained results when irradiating with a laser a surface without radioactive contamination to verify the system operation

  15. Giving an account of one's pain in the anthropological interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I analyze the illness stories narrated by a mother and her 13-year-old son as part of an ethnographic study of child chronic pain sufferers and their families. In examining some of the moral, relational and communicative challenges of giving an account of one's pain, I focus on what is left out of some accounts of illness and suffering and explore some possible reasons for these elisions. Drawing on recent work by Judith Butler (Giving an Account of Oneself, 2005), I investigate how the pragmatic context of interviews can introduce a form of symbolic violence to narrative accounts. Specifically, I use the term "genre of complaint" to highlight how anthropological research interviews in biomedical settings invoke certain typified forms of suffering that call for the rectification of perceived injustices. Interview narratives articulated in the genre of complaint privilege specific types of pain and suffering and cast others into the background. Giving an account of one's pain is thus a strategic and selective process, creating interruptions and silences as much as moments of clarity. Therefore, I argue that medical anthropologists ought to attend more closely to the institutional structures and relations that shape the production of illness narratives in interview encounters.

  16. Network models predict that reduced excitatory fluctuations can give rise to hippocampal network hyper-excitability in MeCP2-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest C Y Ho

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a severe pediatric neurological disorder caused by loss of function mutations within the gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. Although MeCP2 is expressed near ubiquitously, the primary pathophysiology of Rett syndrome stems from impairments of nervous system function. One alteration within different regions of the MeCP2-deficient brain is the presence of hyper-excitable network responses. In the hippocampus, such responses exist despite there being an overall decrease in spontaneous excitatory drive within the network. In this study, we generated and used mathematical, neuronal network models to resolve this apparent paradox. We did this by taking advantage of previous mathematical modelling insights that indicated that decreased excitatory fluctuations, but not mean excitatory drive, more critically explain observed changes in hippocampal network oscillations from MeCP2-null mouse slices. Importantly, reduced excitatory fluctuations could also bring about hyper-excitable responses in our network models. Therefore, these results indicate that diminished excitatory fluctuations may be responsible for the hyper-excitable state of MeCP2-deficient hippocampal circuitry.

  17. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  18. Characteristics of the polar cap at ionospheric levels and present understanding of the physical processes that give rise to these characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationship between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and various polar cap current systems, such as the DP2-system and the S /SUB q/ P-system. The disagreements concerning these systems are examined. Topics considered include the polar cap (a result of an open magnetosphere); studies of the polar cap magnetic field variations; the DP2-current system and its relation to the IMF; the polar cap current system during a northward IMF; the azimuthal component of IMF and its influence on the polar cap magnetic field variations; the electric potential distribution on the polar cap; rocket observations of the polar cap electric field; the auroral arcs as a visible trace of the ionospheric convection; neutral wind measurements in the polar cap F-region; and further studies of polar cap dynamics. The focus is on the polar region inside the auroral oval. It is suggested that more research is needed of the polar cap current system in order to understand the magnetosphereionosphere coupling, with the polar cap ionospheric conductivity distribution being the most crucial parameter

  19. Classification of real Lie superalgebras based on a simple Lie algebra, giving rise to interesting examples involving {mathfrak {su}}(2,2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, H.; Hernández, I.; Sánchez-Valenzuela, O. A.

    2014-09-01

    Finite dimensional semisimple real Lie superalgebras are described via finite dimensional semisimple complex Lie superalgebras. As an application of these results, finite dimensional real Lie superalgebras mathfrak {m}=mathfrak {m}_0 oplus mathfrak {m}_1 for which mathfrak {m}_0 is a simple Lie algebra are classified up to isomorphism.

  20. Acute disseminated melioidosis giving rise to pneumonia and renal abscesses complicated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a post partum woman: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewickrama, Piyumi Sachindra Alwis; Weerakoon, Rohini

    2017-11-29

    Melioidosis is an established endemic infection in Sri Lanka, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram negative bacterium distributed in saprophytes in soil and surface water. Main mode of transmission is via percutaneous inoculation. Pneumonia is the most common presentation in acute disease. We report a 33 year old previously healthy Sinhalese female with an occupational exposure to surface water in paddy fields, who was on postpartum day 6 following an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery via an elective caesarian section. She presented with a 1 day history of breathlessness, preceded by a brief episode of fever. She had occasional right side coarse crackles and pitting oedema of both lower limbs. Shortly after admission, she developed type one respiratory failure needing invasive mechanical ventilation. Initial chest x-ray revealed slight obliteration of right medial diaphragmatic border while echocardiogram revealed moderate pulmonary hypertension. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram excluded a pulmonary embolism, but revealed bilateral multi-lobar consolidation. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated bilateral pyelonephritis with renal abscesses. As initial cultures were inconclusive, melioidosis antibody levels were done due to high degree of suspicion, which was found to be positive with a titer of 1:2560. A diagnosis of melioidosis was made based on the suggestive clinical picture, exposure history and the highly positive antibody level. She developed left side focal seizures together with thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anemia, suggestive of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain was negative for cerebral abscesses but revealed extensive minute haemorrhagic foci throughout the cerebrum. Thus, the final diagnosis was acute melioidosis causing pneumonia and renal abscesses, complicated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and sepsis. She demonstrated dramatic response to high dose meropenem and co-trimoxazole along with plasmapheresis. Four weeks after treatment, the antibody titer came down to 1:320. Melioidosis antibody was absent in the baby. This case was challenging as it was an atypical presentation of melioidosis during postpartum leading to a diagnostic conundrum. This highlights the need to look into the effect of pregnancy and postpartum as added risk factors. High index of suspicion is necessary to avoid diagnostic delays.

  1. Nitrosylation of Nitric-Oxide-Sensing Regulatory Proteins Containing [4Fe-4S] Clusters Gives Rise to Multiple Iron-Nitrosyl Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Pauline N. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis CA 95616 USA; Wang, Hongxin [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis CA 95616 USA; Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Crack, Jason C. [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7TJ UK; Prior, Christopher [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7TJ UK; Hutchings, Matthew I. [School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ UK; Thomson, Andrew J. [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7TJ UK; Kamali, Saeed [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahome TN 37388-9700 USA; Yoda, Yoshitaka [Research and Utilization Division, SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo Hyogo 679-5198 Japan; Zhao, Jiyong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Hu, Michael Y. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Alp, Ercan E. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Oganesyan, Vasily S. [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7TJ UK; Le Brun, Nick E. [Centre for Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park Norwich NR4 7TJ UK; Cramer, Stephen P. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis CA 95616 USA; Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA

    2016-10-25

    The reaction of protein-bound iron–sulfur (Fe-S) clusters with nitric oxide (NO) plays key roles in NO-mediated toxicity and signaling. Elucidation of the mechanism of the reaction of NO with DNA regulatory proteins that contain Fe-S clusters has been hampered by a lack of information about the nature of the iron-nitrosyl products formed. Herein, we report nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations that identify NO reaction products in WhiD and NsrR, regulatory proteins that use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to sense NO. This work reveals that nitrosylation yields multiple products structurally related to Roussin's Red Ester (RRE, [Fe2(NO)4(Cys)2]) and Roussin's Black Salt (RBS, [Fe4(NO)7S3]. In the latter case, the absence of 32S/34S shifts in the Fe-S region of the NRVS spectra suggest that a new species, Roussin's Black Ester (RBE), may be formed, in which one or more of the sulfide ligands is replaced by Cys thiolates.

  2. Registry-based randomized controlled trials merged the strength of randomized controlled trails and observational studies and give rise to more pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Buehn, Stefanie; Prengel, Peggy; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the features of registry-based randomized trials (rRCTs). We systematically searched PubMed for rRCTs. Study selection was performed independently by two reviewers. We extracted all data in standardized tables and prepared descriptive summary statistics. The search resulted in 1,202 hits. We included 71 rRCTs. Most rRCTs were from Denmark and Sweden. Chronic conditions were considered in 82.2%. A preventive intervention was examined in 45.1%. The median of included patients was 2,000 (range: 69-246,079). Definition of the study population was mostly broad. Study procedures were regularly little standardized. The number of included and analyzed patients was the same in 82.1%. In half of the rRCTs, more than one registry was utilized. Various linkage techniques were used. In median, two outcomes were collected from the registry/ies. The median follow-up of the rRCTs was 5.3 years (range: 6 weeks to 27 years). Information on quality of registry data was reported in 11.3%. rRCTs can provide valid (randomization, low lost-to-follow-up rates, generalizable) patient important long-term comparative-effectiveness data for relative little effort. Researchers planning an RCT should always check whether existing registries can be used for data collection. Reporting on data quality must be improved for use in evidence synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  4. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A.; van der Sleen, Peter; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Griffin, Daniel; Sydeman, William J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Safeeq, Mohammad; Arismendi, Ivan; Bograd, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

  5. The Emerging Cell Biology of Thyroid Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Minsky, Noga C.; Ma, Risheng

    2011-01-01

    Context: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the property of self-renewal and give rise to highly specialized cells under appropriate local conditions. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases, including those of the thyroid gland. Evidence Acquisition: This review focuses on the progress that has been made in thyroid stem cell research including an overview of cellular and molecular events (most of which were drawn from the period 1990–2011) and discusses the remaining problems encountered in their differentiation. Evidence Synthesis: Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells, based on normal developmental processes, have generated thyroid-like cells but without full thyrocyte function. However, agents have been identified, including activin A, insulin, and IGF-I, which are able to stimulate the generation of thyroid-like cells in vitro. In addition, thyroid stem/progenitor cells have been identified within the normal thyroid gland and within thyroid cancers. Conclusions: Advances in thyroid stem cell biology are providing not only insight into thyroid development but may offer therapeutic potential in thyroid cancer and future thyroid cell replacement therapy. PMID:21778219

  6. MRO's HiRISE Education and Public Outreach during the Primary Science Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Davatzes, A. K.; Deardorff, G.; Kanefsky, B.; Conrad, L. B.; HiRISE Team

    2008-12-01

    Looking back over one Mars year, we report on the accomplishments of the HiRISE EPO program during the primary science phase of MRO. A highlight has been our student image suggestion program, conducted in association with NASA Quest as HiRISE Image Challenges (http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/challenges/hirise/). During challenges, students, either individually or as part of a collaborative classroom or group, learn about Mars through our webcasts, web chats and our educational material. They use HiWeb, HiRISE's image suggestion facility, to submit image suggestions and include a short rationale for why their target is scientifically interesting. The HiRISE team gives priority to obtaining a sampling of these suggestions as quickly as possible so that the acquired images can be examined by the students. During the challenge, a special password-protected web site allows participants to view their returned images before they are released to the public (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/hirise/quest/). Students are encouraged to write captions for the returned images. Finished captions are then posted and highlighted on the HiRISE web site (http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu) along with their class, teacher's name and the name of their school. Through these HiRISE challenges, students and teachers become virtual science team members, participating in the same process (selecting and justifying targets, analyzing and writing captions for acquired images), and using the same software tools as the HiRISE team. Such an experience is unique among planetary exploration EPO programs. To date, we have completed three HiRISE challenges and a fourth is currently ongoing. More than 200 image suggestions were submitted during the previous challenges and over 85 of these image requests have been acquired so far. Over 675 participants from 45 states and 42 countries have registered for the previous challenges. These participants represent over 8000 students in grades 2 through 14 and consist

  7. Soil Structure Interaction Effect on High Rise and Low Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Pathak; PAresh H. SHAH

    2000-01-01

    Effect of supporting soil on the response of structure has been analyzed in the present study. A low rise (G+ 5 storey) and a high rise (G+12 storey) building has been taken for the analysis. For both type of buildings, the response of building with and without consideration of soil structure interaction effect has been compared.Without interaction case is the case in which ends of the structure are assumed to be fixed while in interaction case, structure is assumed to be...

  8. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  9. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Park, Doo-Jae; Jeong, Mun-Seok; Choi, Geun-Chang; Lee, Seung-Gol; Byeon, Clare-Chisu; Choi, Soo-Bong

    2014-01-01

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  10. Cancer cell imaging by stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope with resonance tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Doo-Jae; Jeong, Mun-Seok [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Geun-Chang [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Gol [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Clare-Chisu [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo-Bong [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We report on a successful topographical and optical imaging of various cancer cells in liquid and in air by using a stable wet near-field scanning optical microscope that utilizes a resonance tracking method. We observed a clear dehydration which gives rise to a decrease in the cell volume down to 51%. In addition, a micro-ball lens effect due to the round-shaped young cancer cells was observed from near-field imaging, where the refractive index of young cancer cells was deduced.

  11. MicroRNAs as Regulators of Adipogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Dana; Ali, Dalia; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute complex regulatory network, fine tuning the expression of a myriad of genes involved in different biological and physiological processes, including stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma......, and the stroma of many other tissues, and can give rise to a number of mesoderm-type cells including adipocytes and osteoblasts, which form medullary fat and bone tissues, respectively. The role of bone marrow fat in bone mass homeostasis is an area of intensive investigation with the aim of developing novel...

  12. Wind load effects on high rise buildings in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Z.; Thang, K. C.; Haider, B.; Shariff, M.

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a randomly varying dynamic phenomenon composed of a multitude of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics along a general stream of air moving relative to the ground. These eddies give wind its gustiness, creating fluctuation and results in a complex flow characteristics. The wind vector at any point can be regarded as the sum of mean wind vector and the fluctuation components. These components not only vary with height but also dependant on the approach terrain and topography. Prevailing wind exerts pressure onto the structural surfaces. The effects of wind pressure in the form of shear and bending moments are found to be a major problem in structural failure. This study aims to study the effects of wind load on a fifteen-storey high rise building using EN 1991-1-4 code and MS1553:2002. The simulation results showed that by increasing the wind speed, the storey resultant forces, namely storey shear and storey moment increases significantly. Furthermore, simulation results according to EN 1991-1-4 yield higher values compared to the simulation results according to MS1553:2002.

  13. Fast rise time IR detectors for lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, A.; Bini, S.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostics is a fundamental issue for accelerators whose demands are continuously increasing. In particular bunch-by-bunch diagnostics is a key challenge for the latest generation of lepton colliders and storage rings. The Frascati Φ-factory, DAΦNE, colliding at 1.02 GeV in the centre of mass, hosts in the main rings few synchrotron radiation beamlines and two of them collect the synchrotron radiation infrared emission: SINBAD from the electron ring and 3+L from the positron ring. At DAΦNE each bucket is 2.7 ns long and particles are gathered in bunches emitting pulsed IR radiation, whose intensity in the long wavelength regime is directly proportional to the accumulated particles. Compact uncooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been tested in both beamlines using dedicated optical layouts. Actually, the fast rise time of HgCdTe semiconductors give us the chance to test bunch-by-bunch devices for both longitudinal and transverse diagnostics. For the longitudinal case, single pixel detectors have been used, while for the transverse diagnostics, multi-pixel array detectors, with special custom design, are under test. This contribution will briefly describe the status of the research on fast IR detectors at DAΦNE, the results obtained and possible foreseen developments.

  14. Projections of tsunami inundation area coupled with impacts of sea level rise in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursina, Syamsidik, Kato, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    In a long term, sea level rise is anticipated to give devastating effects on Banda Aceh, as one of the coastal cities in the northern tip of Sumatra. The growth of the population and buildings in the city has come to the stage where the coastal area is vulnerable to any coastal hazard. Some public facilities and settlements have been constructed and keep expanding in the future. According to TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite images, 7 mm/year the sea level has been risen between 1992 and 2015 in this area. It is estimated that in the next 100 years, there will be 700 mm additional sea level rise which will give a setback more over to a rather flat area around the coast. This research is aim at investigating the influence of sea level rise toward the tsunami inundation on the land area particularly the impacts on Banda Aceh city. Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) simulation numerically generated tsunami propagation. Topography and bathymetry data were collected from GEBCO and updated with the available nautical chart (DISHIDROS, JICA, and field measurements). Geological movement of the underwater fault was generated using Piatanesi and Lorito of 9.15 Mw 2004 multi-fault scenario. The inundation area produced by COMCOT revealed that the inundation area was expanded to several hundred meters from the shoreline. To investigate the impacts of tsunami wave on Banda Aceh, the inundation area were digitized and analyzed with Quantum GIS spatial tools. The Quantum GIS analyzed inundations area affected by the projected tsunami. It will give a new tsunami-prone coastal area map induced by sea level rise in 100 years.

  15. Exploring the unprecedented rise in Danish burglary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David W.M.

    2012-01-01

    burglary increased so dramatically. This paper explores four sets of possible explanations for the increase, namely: Changes in public reporting, police recording and insurance practices; changes in population age, drug use and economic recession; increasing crime tourism; and impediments policing caused...... by the National Police Reform of 2007. While some or all of these factors may have contributed to the overall rise, none of them come close to explaining it on their own. This absence of evidence is especially interesting in light of widespread assumptions in the media and among some police about foreign burglary......-year period 2005-2010, plus data on long term crime trends (1990-2010) and other social indicators....

  16. Is the Kingdom of Bicycles Rising Again?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Christensen, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on new types of cycling in postsocialist China, especially mountain and sports biking, and on the particular entanglements of gender and class brought with them. The shift in mobility and biking from the Mao era to the postsocialist China is analyzed in the contexts of cultural......-analytical notions of global assemblages and gendered interpellations. Based on Chinese newspaper materials and fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, the article examines the social and gendered implications of the new biking cultures. These new biking practices mainly interpellate new middle-class men...... and masculinities as part of an exclusive leisure culture. If the “Kingdom of the Bicycles” is going to rise again, there is a need for a broader scope that addresses access for all, including women and families, as smart bikers, as well as biking as a daily mode of transportation....

  17. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  18. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...... in the literature, the authors suggest an analytical framework for understanding African business performance, underlining the interplay between contextual specificities, firm capabilities, and firm strategy....

  19. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  20. Sox5 Functions as a Fate Switch in Medaka Pigment Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takao; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Seki, Ryoko; Adachi, Tomoko; Inoue, Chikako; Omae, Yoshihiro; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Hara, Ikuyo; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Wakamatsu, Yuko; Kelsh, Robert N.; Hibi, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms generating diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors are crucial for normal development. Neural crest cells (NCCs) are multipotent stem cells that give rise to numerous cell-types, including pigment cells. Medaka has four types of NCC-derived pigment cells (xanthophores, leucophores, melanophores and iridophores), making medaka pigment cell development an excellent model for studying the mechanisms controlling specification of distinct cell types from a multipotent progenitor. Medaka many leucophores-3 (ml-3) mutant embryos exhibit a unique phenotype characterized by excessive formation of leucophores and absence of xanthophores. We show that ml-3 encodes sox5, which is expressed in premigratory NCCs and differentiating xanthophores. Cell transplantation studies reveal a cell-autonomous role of sox5 in the xanthophore lineage. pax7a is expressed in NCCs and required for both xanthophore and leucophore lineages; we demonstrate that Sox5 functions downstream of Pax7a. We propose a model in which multipotent NCCs first give rise to pax7a-positive partially fate-restricted intermediate progenitors for xanthophores and leucophores; some of these progenitors then express sox5, and as a result of Sox5 action develop into xanthophores. Our results provide the first demonstration that Sox5 can function as a molecular switch driving specification of a specific cell-fate (xanthophore) from a partially-restricted, but still multipotent, progenitor (the shared xanthophore-leucophore progenitor). PMID:24699463

  1. Sox5 functions as a fate switch in medaka pigment cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nagao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms generating diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors are crucial for normal development. Neural crest cells (NCCs are multipotent stem cells that give rise to numerous cell-types, including pigment cells. Medaka has four types of NCC-derived pigment cells (xanthophores, leucophores, melanophores and iridophores, making medaka pigment cell development an excellent model for studying the mechanisms controlling specification of distinct cell types from a multipotent progenitor. Medaka many leucophores-3 (ml-3 mutant embryos exhibit a unique phenotype characterized by excessive formation of leucophores and absence of xanthophores. We show that ml-3 encodes sox5, which is expressed in premigratory NCCs and differentiating xanthophores. Cell transplantation studies reveal a cell-autonomous role of sox5 in the xanthophore lineage. pax7a is expressed in NCCs and required for both xanthophore and leucophore lineages; we demonstrate that Sox5 functions downstream of Pax7a. We propose a model in which multipotent NCCs first give rise to pax7a-positive partially fate-restricted intermediate progenitors for xanthophores and leucophores; some of these progenitors then express sox5, and as a result of Sox5 action develop into xanthophores. Our results provide the first demonstration that Sox5 can function as a molecular switch driving specification of a specific cell-fate (xanthophore from a partially-restricted, but still multipotent, progenitor (the shared xanthophore-leucophore progenitor.

  2. Regulation of spindle orientation and neural stem cell fate in the Drosophila optic lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Andrea H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of a stem cell to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically has profound consequences for development and disease. Unregulated symmetric division promotes tumor formation, whereas inappropriate asymmetric division affects organ morphogenesis. Despite its importance, little is known about how spindle positioning is regulated. In some tissues cell fate appears to dictate the type of cell division, whereas in other tissues it is thought that stochastic variation in spindle position dictates subsequent sibling cell fate. Results Here we investigate the relationship between neural progenitor identity and spindle positioning in the Drosophila optic lobe. We use molecular markers and live imaging to show that there are two populations of progenitors in the optic lobe: symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells and asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts. We use genetically marked single cell clones to show that neuroepithelial cells give rise to neuroblasts. To determine if a change in spindle orientation can trigger a neuroepithelial to neuroblast transition, we force neuroepithelial cells to divide along their apical/basal axis by misexpressing Inscuteable. We find that this does not induce neuroblasts, nor does it promote premature neuronal differentiation. Conclusion We show that symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells give rise to asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts in the optic lobe, and that regulation of spindle orientation and division symmetry is a consequence of cell type specification, rather than a mechanism for generating cell type diversity.

  3. Gender inequalities in care-giving in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, J M; Jordan-Simpson, D A; Adams, O

    1992-01-01

    In Canada today, as in the past, men and women devote different amounts of time and effort to providing health care to their family and in the broader community. This paper examines "the social distinction between masculinity and femininity" in care-giving. Issues of gender inequality in care-giving have the potential to affect the formal health care system as the burden of caring will increase over the next few decades with the aging of society. This increase in need for care is occurring at a time when primary care providers--women--have additional demand on their time. Canadian society has been facing a series of social, demographic and economic shifts such as a higher divorce rate, two-income families, women's increasing professional commitments and first pregnancies at later ages, these factors may not affect women's willingness to care for others. However women may need support to provide the care. Assuming present trends, increasing need for families to care for elderly relatives may be inevitable. Perhaps society will recognize this need and provide support to those providing informal care. This could take the form of allowing individuals more time to provide care through child care leave, leave to care for parents and job-sharing. Support to those providing informal care might also be facilitated through community support services such as respite care, household maintenance, psychological support to care-givers, support groups, informal networks within a community and consideration of unconventional support methods.

  4. The influence of relationship beliefs on gift giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Dipankar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People have fundamental beliefs about what constitutes a good relationship, known as implicit theories of relationship, where some people have destiny beliefs whereas others have growth beliefs. People with destiny beliefs believe that potential partners are meant either for each other or not, whereas people with growth beliefs believe that successful relationships are cultivated and developed. This research shows that different implicit theories of relationship influence consumers’ gift choice to their significant others. We demonstrate, through two studies, that consumers with destiny beliefs prefer giving gifts that are more feasible in nature, whereas consumers with growth beliefs prefer giving gifts that are more desirable in nature. We show that this effect is mediated by desirability-feasibility considerations. Specifically, consumers with destiny beliefs focus on feasibility considerations, which leads them to choose a highly feasible gift. Conversely, consumers with growth beliefs focus on desirability considerations, which leads them to choose a highly desirable gift. We also discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of our research.

  5. Regeneration of alveolar type I and II cells from Scgb1a1-expressing cells following severe pulmonary damage induced by bleomycin and influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahai Zheng

    Full Text Available The lung comprises an extensive surface of epithelia constantly exposed to environmental insults. Maintaining the integrity of the alveolar epithelia is critical for lung function and gaseous exchange. However, following severe pulmonary damage, what progenitor cells give rise to alveolar type I and II cells during the regeneration of alveolar epithelia has not been fully determined. In this study, we have investigated this issue by using transgenic mice in which Scgb1a1-expressing cells and their progeny can be genetically labeled with EGFP. We show that following severe alveolar damage induced either by bleomycin or by infection with influenza virus, the majority of the newly generated alveolar type II cells in the damaged parenchyma were labeled with EGFP. A large proportion of EGFP-expressing type I cells were also observed among the type II cells. These findings strongly suggest that Scgb1a1-expressing cells, most likely Clara cells, are a major cell type that gives rise to alveolar type I and II cells during the regeneration of alveolar epithelia in response to severe pulmonary damage in mice.

  6. Rising workload or rising work pressure in general practice in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Hutten, J.B.F.; Steultjens, M.; Schellevis, F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: General practice in the Netherlands seems to be in a crisis. Worries about shortages of GP's, the first strike of general practitioners in 2001 and the rapid increase of triage systems in out of hours care are signs that work pressure and/or workload are rising. But systematic evidence

  7. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Volarevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

  8. Lin- CD34hi CD117int/hi FcεRI+ cells in human blood constitute a rare population of mast cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Malinovschi, Andrei; Öhrvik, Helena; Sandelin, Martin; Janson, Christer; Alving, Kjell; Hallgren, Jenny

    2016-01-28

    Mast cells are rare tissue-resident immune cells that are involved in allergic reactions, and their numbers are increased in the lungs of asthmatics. Murine lung mast cells arise from committed bone marrow-derived progenitors that enter the blood circulation, migrate through the pulmonary endothelium, and mature in the tissue. In humans, mast cells can be cultured from multipotent CD34(+) progenitor cells. However, a population of distinct precursor cells that give rise to mast cells has remained undiscovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human lineage-negative (Lin(-)) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) progenitor cells, which represented only 0.0053% of the isolated blood cells in healthy individuals. These cells expressed integrin β7 and developed a mast cell-like phenotype, although with a slow cell division capacity in vitro. Isolated Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells had an immature mast cell-like appearance and expressed high levels of many mast cell-related genes as compared with human blood basophils in whole-transcriptome microarray analyses. Furthermore, serglycin, tryptase, and carboxypeptidase A messenger RNA transcripts were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Altogether, we propose that the Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells are closely related to human tissue mast cells and likely constitute an immediate precursor population, which can give rise to predominantly mast cells. Furthermore, asthmatics with reduced lung function had a higher frequency of Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood mast cell progenitors than asthmatics with normal lung function. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Who Is Giving Feedback To Whom In Entrepreneurship Education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle Elmholdt, Stine; Warhuus, Jan; Blenker, Per

    evaluate and provide feedback on, with regard to both the teaching and the learning that takes place in these types of courses. We therefore ask: Who is giving feedback to whom in entrepreneurship education - and for what purpose?The intent of the paper is to develop and explore the system of feedback......The question we care about (objectives):When entrepreneurship is taught through the process of practicing entrepreneurship and based on experiential learning, a need arises for different forms of assessment, evaluation, and feedback procedures than those applied to traditional forms of higher...... is at play that involves both feedback among educators and students and between educators and students;3. that the complexity is further increased when it is acknowledged that the subject of the feedback may concern the learning, the teaching, the process, the object of the process (the entrepreneurial...

  10. Uranium oxide recycling to give more sustainable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagger, R.; Garner, D.S.J.; Beaumont, D.M.; Hesketh, K.

    2001-01-01

    In broad terms there are two routes for irradiated nuclear fuel, the closed cycle involving recycling and the open cycle culminating in direct disposal. The benefits of following the closed cycle are presented. The environmental burdens associated with open and closed cycles are compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for non-active burdens and human irradiation. Consideration is given to the extension of the nuclear fuel cycle to include a proportion of MOX fuel elements within a reactor core, and the impact in terms of total activity, waste volumes and Integrated Toxic Potential (ITP) discussed. The potential of moving to a fast reactor cycle is also raised in support of the recycling of spent nuclear fuel giving sustainable power generation. (author)

  11. Conditions needed to give meaning to rad-equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1980-01-01

    To legislate on mutagenic chemical pollution the problem to be faced is similar to that tackled about 30 years ago regarding pollution by ionizing radiations. It would be useful to benefit from the work of these 30 years by establishing equivalences, if possible, between chemical mutagens and radiations. Inevitable mutagenic pollutions are considered here, especially those associated with fuel based energy production. As with radiations the legislation must derive from a compromise between the harmful and beneficial effects of the polluting system. When deciding on tolerance doses it is necessary to safeguard the biosphere without inflicting excessive restrictions on industry and on the economy. The present article discusses the conditions needed to give meaning to the notion of rad-equivalence. Some examples of already established equivalences are given, together with the first practical consequences which emerge [fr

  12. IMPACT OF THE “GIVING CIGARETTES IS GIVING HARM” CAMPAIGN ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF CHINESE SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F.; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chang, Yvette; Walsemann, Katrina M.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To date there is limited published evidence on the efficacy of tobacco control mass media campaigns in China. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign “Giving Cigarettes is Giving Harm” (GCGH) on Chinese smokers’ knowledge of smoking-related harms and attitudes toward cigarette gifts. Methods Population-based, representative data were analyzed from a longitudinal cohort of 3,709 adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control China Survey conducted in six Chinese cities before and after the campaign. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between campaign exposure and attitudes about cigarettes as gifts measured post-campaign. Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the effects of campaign exposure on post-campaign knowledge, adjusting for pre-campaign knowledge. Findings Fourteen percent (n=335) of participants recalled the campaign within the cities where the GCGH campaign was implemented. Participants in the intervention cities who recalled the campaign were more likely to disagree that cigarettes are good gifts (71% vs. 58%, pcampaign-targeted knowledge than those who did not recall the campaign (Mean=1.97 vs. 1.62, pcampaign-targeted knowledge were similar in both cities, perhaps due to a secular trend, low campaign recall, or contamination issues. Conclusions These findings suggest that the GCGH campaign increased knowledge of smoking harms, which could promote downstream cessation. Findings provide evidence to support future campaign development to effectively fight the tobacco epidemic in China. PMID:24813427

  13. Can salt marshes survive sea level rise ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambroni, N.; Seminara, G.

    2008-12-01

    Stability of salt marshes is a very delicate issue depending on the subtle interplay among hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and ecology. In fact, the elevation of the marsh platform depends essentially on three effects: i) the production of soil associated with sediments resuspended by tidal currents and wind waves in the adjacent tidal flats, advected to the marsh and settling therein; ii) production of organic sediments by the salt marsh vegetation; iii) soil 'loss' driven by sea level rise and subsidence. In order to gain insight into the mechanics of the process, we consider a schematic configuration consisting of a salt marsh located at the landward end of a tidal channel connected at the upstream end with a tidal sea, under different scenarios of sea level rise. We extend the simple 1D model for the morphodynamic evolution of a tidal channel formulated by Lanzoni and Seminara (2002, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 107, C1) allowing for sediment resuspension in the channel and vegetation growth in the marsh using the depth dependent model of biomass productivity of Spartina proposed by Morris et al. (2002, Ecology, 83, pp. 2869 - 2877). We first focus on the case of a tide dominated salt marsh neglecting wind driven sediment resuspension in the shoal. Results show that the production of biomass plays a crucial role on salt marsh stability and, provided productivity is high enough, it may turn out to be sufficient to counteract the effects of sea level rise even in the absence of significant supply of mineral sediments. The additional effect of wind resuspension is then introduced. Note that the wind action is twofold: on one hand, it generates wind waves the amplitude of which is strongly dependent on shoal depth and wind fetch; on the other hand, it generates currents driven by the surface setup induced by the shear stress acting on the free surface. Here, each contribution is analysed separately. Results show that the values of bottom stress induced by

  14. Scanning the cell surface proteome of cancer cells and identification of metastasis-associated proteins using a subtractive immunization strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nicolaj; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2009-01-01

    and technologically challenging, and no ideal method is currently available. Here, we describe a strategy that allows scanning of the entire cell surface and identification of molecules that exhibit altered expression between two cell types. Concurrently, this method gives rise to valuable reagents for further...... characterization of the identified proteins. The strategy is based on subtractive immunization of mice, and we used the two isogenic cell lines, NM-2C5 and M-4A4, derived from the MDA-MB-435 cancer cell line, as a model system. Although the two cell lines are equally tumorigenic, only M-4A4 has metastatic...... capabilities. Our results yielded a large panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognized cell surface markers preferentially or exclusively expressed on metastatic vs nonmetastatic cancer cells. Four mAbs and their corresponding antigens were further characterized. Importantly, analysis on an extended...

  15. Stem Cells from Dental Pulp: What Epigenetics Can Do with Your Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz A. Rodas-Junco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells have attracted scientific attention because they are able to self-renew and differentiate into several specialized cell types. In this context, human dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDT-MSCs have emerged as a possible solution for repairing or regenerating damaged tissues. These cells can be isolated from primary teeth that are naturally replaced, third molars, or other dental tissues and exhibit self-renewal, a high proliferative rate and a great multilineage potential. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine lineage specification are still largely unknown. It is known that a change in cell fate requires the deletion of existing transcriptional programs, followed by the establishment of a new developmental program to give rise to a new cell lineage. Increasing evidence indicates that chromatin structure conformation can influence cell fate. In this way, reversible chemical modifications at the DNA or histone level, and combinations thereof can activate or inactivate cell-type-specific gene sequences, giving rise to an alternative cell fates. On the other hand, miRNAs are starting to emerge as a possible player in establishing particular somatic lineages. In this review, we discuss two new and promising research fields in medicine and biology, epigenetics and stem cells, by summarizing the properties of hDT-MSCs and highlighting the recent findings on epigenetic contributions to the regulation of cellular differentiation.

  16. The Global Experience of Deployment of Energy-Efficient Technologies in High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potienko, Natalia D.; Kuznetsova, Anna A.; Solyakova, Darya N.; Klyueva, Yulia E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to examine issues related to the increasing importance of energy-efficient technologies in high-rise construction. The aim of the paper is to investigate modern approaches to building design that involve implementation of various energy-saving technologies in diverse climates and at different structural levels, including the levels of urban development, functionality, planning, construction and engineering. The research methodology is based on the comprehensive analysis of the advanced global expertise in the design and construction of energy-efficient high-rise buildings, with the examination of their positive and negative features. The research also defines the basic principles of energy-efficient architecture. Besides, it draws parallels between the climate characteristics of countries that lead in the field of energy-efficient high-rise construction, on the one hand, and the climate in Russia, on the other, which makes it possible to use the vast experience of many countries, wholly or partially. The paper also gives an analytical review of the results arrived at by implementing energy efficiency principles into high-rise architecture. The study findings determine the impact of energy-efficient technologies on high-rise architecture and planning solutions. In conclusion, the research states that, apart from aesthetic and compositional interpretation of architectural forms, an architect nowadays has to address the task of finding a synthesis between technological and architectural solutions, which requires knowledge of advanced technologies. The study findings reveal that the implementation of modern energy-efficient technologies into high-rise construction is of immediate interest and is sure to bring long-term benefits.

  17. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongzhi; Sadovski, Alexey; Jeffress, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical...

  18. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 undergo the stochastic cardiomyogenic fate and behave like transient amplifying cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoji; Sakurada, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Yukiji; Gojo, Satoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2007-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells can give rise to cardiomyocytes as well as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro. The existence of mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed, but it remains unclear if a single-cell-derived stem cell stochastically commits toward a cardiac lineage. By single-cell marking, we performed a follow-up study of individual cells during the differentiation of 9-15c mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow cells. Three types of cells, i.e., cardiac myoblasts, cardiac progenitors and multipotent stem cells were differentiated from a single cell, implying that cardiomyocytes are generated stochastically from a single-cell-derived stem cell. We also demonstrated that overexpression of Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4, precardiac mesodermal transcription factors, enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of 9-15c cells, and the frequency of cardiomyogenic differentiation was increased by co-culturing with fetal cardiomyocytes. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 behaved like cardiac transient amplifying cells, and still retained their plasticity in vivo

  19. Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselingh, Frank; Flecker, Rachel; Wilke, Thomas; Leroy, Suzanne; Krijgsman, Wout; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    In the past two million years, the region of the Black Sea Basin, Caspian Basin and adjacent Anatolia and the Balkans were the stage of the evolution of a unique brackish water fauna, the so-called Pontocaspian fauna. The fauna is the result of assembly of genera with a Paratethyan origin and Anatolian origins during the Early Pleistocene. The rapid diversification of the Pontocaspian fauna is the result of the very dynamic nature of the lakes (the Caspian Sea is technically a lake) and seas in the region in the past two million years. In most times the various lake basins were isolated (like today), but in other episodes connections existed. Regional and global climate as well as the regional tectonic regimes were main drivers of lake basin evolution. Over the past 80 years a major biodiversity crisis is hitting the Pontocaspian faunas due to environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species. In the new EU-ETN PRIDE (Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise)we will be documenting the geological context of past diversifications and turnover events. We present examples of rapid turnover (biodiversity crises) in the Quaternary, assess driving forces and draw implications for the nature of the current human-mediated biodiversity crisis in the region.

  20. Gas demand to rise in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Could US consumption of natural gas rise by as much as 13 quadrillion Btu (quads) over the next 20 years? A new study conducted for the American Gas Foundation by Washington Policy and Analysis says it's certainly a possibility if appropriate policies are implemented. 'Fueling the Future: Natural Gas and New Technologies for a Cleaner 21. Century', confirms what natural gas industry professionals have long suspected: changes in US energy policy that favor increased use of natural gas could improve air quality, conserve energy and reduce reliance on imported oil from politically unstable countries. Consequently, the study forecasts that the environmental, economic and efficiency advantages of natural gas-combined with advances in gas-related technologies and the introduction of new end-use technologies - could help push. US gas consumption into the 35-quad range over the next two decades. Currently, American gas demand is close to 22 quads a year. The study tracks two scenarios: a 'current projection', which shows gas demand reaching nearly 30 quads by 2020, and an 'accelerated projection', which foresees demand topping 35 quads by then based on the adoption of national policies encouraging greater use of natural gas. (authors)

  1. The Rise of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya al-Mughni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the emergence of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait, based on the writings and personal accounts of leading Islamist women activists.  It begins with an analysis of the socio-political factors that led to the creation of Islamic groups in the 1980s. It then outlines the role of women in the growth of the Islamic movement and shows how the contradictions between women’s contributions to the Islamic cause and the secondary role they play within the Islamic organizations controlled by men were conducive to the rise of Islamic feminism in the 1990s. The paper also demonstrates how the involvement of islamist women in the struggle for suffrage forging a coalition with liberal women activists had played a decisive role in changing the position of islamist groups towards the enfranchisement of women. The last two sections of the paper look at the participation of islamist women activists in the re-definition of the dichotomy between the public and private spheres and at their involvement in the process of interpretation of Islamic sources, known as Ijtihâd. The paper concludes that the engagement of islamist women activists in the discourse of women’s rights can be powerful agent of change towards a more egalitarian society.

  2. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  3. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  4. Temperature rise of cyclicly loaded power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakelmann, H

    1984-09-01

    A calculation method for the current ratings of cyclicly loaded power cables is introduced, taking into account optional shapes of the load cycle as well as the drying-out of the soil. The method is based on the Fourier-analysis of the loss cycle, representing an extension of the calculation method of VDE 0298. It is shown, that the ''VDE-method'' gives good results for the thermal resistances, if an ''utility load cycle'' in accordance with VDE 0298 is supposed. Only for cycles deviating essentially from the utility load cycle, the thermal resistances calculated by the ''VDE-method'' may be too great. In these cases the represented method is advantageous and can be processed by the aid of microcomputers.

  5. Lgr5-EGFP marks taste bud stem/progenitor cells in posterior tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karen K; Li, Yan; Redding, Kevin M; Iwatsuki, Ken; Margolskee, Robert F; Jiang, Peihua

    2013-05-01

    Until recently, reliable markers for adult stem cells have been lacking for many regenerative mammalian tissues. Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) has been identified as a marker for adult stem cells in intestine, stomach, and hair follicle; Lgr5-expressing cells give rise to all types of cells in these tissues. Taste epithelium also regenerates constantly, yet the identity of adult taste stem cells remains elusive. In this study, we found that Lgr5 is strongly expressed in cells at the bottom of trench areas at the base of circumvallate (CV) and foliate taste papillae and weakly expressed in the basal area of taste buds and that Lgr5-expressing cells in posterior tongue are a subset of K14-positive epithelial cells. Lineage-tracing experiments using an inducible Cre knockin allele in combination with Rosa26-LacZ and Rosa26-tdTomato reporter strains showed that Lgr5-expressing cells gave rise to taste cells, perigemmal cells, along with self-renewing cells at the bottom of trench areas at the base of CV and foliate papillae. Moreover, using subtype-specific taste markers, we found that Lgr5-expressing cell progeny include all three major types of adult taste cells. Our results indicate that Lgr5 may mark adult taste stem or progenitor cells in the posterior portion of the tongue. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Cytomegalovirus infection induces a stem cell phenotype in human primary glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornara, O; Bartek, J; Rahbar, A

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with poor prognosis despite aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, this standard therapy does not target glioma cancer stem cells (GCSCs), a subpopulation of GBM cells that can give rise to recurrent tumors. GBMs express...... human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins, and previously we found that the level of expression of HCMV immediate-early (IE) protein in GBMs is a prognostic factor for poor patient survival. In this study, we investigated the relation between HCMV infection of GBM cells and the presence of GCSCs. Primary...... GBMs were characterized by their expression of HCMV-IE and GCSCs marker CD133 and by patient survival. The extent to which HCMV infection of primary GBM cells induced a GCSC phenotype was evaluated in vitro. In primary GBMs, a large fraction of CD133-positive cells expressed HCMV-IE, and higher co...

  7. Enhanced performance of high current discharges in JET produced by ICRF heating during the current rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bures, M.; Bhatnagar, V.; Christiansen, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of high current discharges can be improved by applying central ICRF heating before or shortly after the onset of sawtooth activity in the plasma current rise phase. Long sawtooth-free periods have been obtained which result in a transiently-enhanced discharge performance. High T c (0) = 9-10.5 keV with peaked profile T e (0)/ e > = 3-4 were obtained giving values of N e (0)T e (0) up to 6 x 10 20 (keV m -3 ). Improvements in T i (0) and neutron production are observed. A best value of n Dd (0)T i (0)τ E = 1.65 x 10 20 (m -3 keV s) was achieved. Local transport simulation shows that the electron and ion thermal diffusivities do not differ substantially in the two cases of current-rise (CR) and flat-top (FT) heating, the performance of the central plasma region being enhanced, in the case of current-rise, entirely by the elimination of the sawtooth instability. The maximum D-D reaction rate is enhanced by a factor of 2 compared to the flat-top value. An appreciable part of the reaction rate is attributed to 2nd harmonic deuterium (2ω CD ) heating. In all current-rise discharges radiation amounts to 25-50% of total power and Ζ eff remains roughly constant. (author)

  8. Force acting on a spherical bubble rising through a quiescent liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    1996-01-01

    The direct numerical simulation is performed on the spherical bubble unsteadily rising through a quiescent liquid. The method is based on a finite-volume solution of the equations on an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. The calculations are performed for a bubble rising through a clean liquid and contaminated one. Following the former experimental results, the tangential stress free condition is given for a clean bubble, and no-slip condition for contaminated one. The numerical results are compared with those of the model equation of the translational motion of the bubble, which is often used in numerical models of a bubbly flow. The steady drag, added mass and history terms are checked up by the comparison. It is revealed that the history force effect is negligible for a bubble rising through the clean liquid beyond Re=O(50). From the numerical point of view, the fact that the history force is negligible is quite important, because it reduces the calculation time and memory for a bubbly flow model. For a contaminated bubble, history force effect is not negligible even though the Reynolds number is high enough. It is found that the expression of the history force by Basset kernel gives an over-estimation of the history force for the bubble rising at moderate Reynolds number. This error becomes larger with increasing Reynolds number and it reduces the accuracy to calculate the bubble motion by the model equation. (author)

  9. Isolation, Culture, and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Osteoclast Progenitors from Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridas, David E; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Le, Phuong T; Rosen, Clifford J

    2018-01-06

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) constitute a cell population routinely used as a representation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. They reside within the bone marrow cavity alongside hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which can give rise to red blood cells, immune progenitors, and osteoclasts. Thus, extractions of cell populations from the bone marrow results in a very heterogeneous mix of various cell populations, which can present challenges in experimental design and confound data interpretation. Several isolation and culture techniques have been developed in laboratories in order to obtain more or less homogeneous populations of BMSCs and HSCs invitro. Here, we present two methods for isolation of BMSCs and HSCs from mouse long bones: one method that yields a mixed population of BMSCs and HSCs and one method that attempts to separate the two cell populations based on adherence. Both methods provide cells suitable for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation experiments as well as functional assays.

  10. LOCAL IMMUNITY BY TISSUE-RESIDENT CD8+ MEMORY T CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGebhardt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infection primes a CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response that gives rise to a long-lived population of circulating memory cells able to provide protection against systemic reinfection. Despite this, effective CD8+ T cell surveillance of barrier tissues such as skin and mucosa typically wanes with time, resulting in limited T cell-mediated protection in these peripheral tissues. However, recent evidence suggests that a specialized subset of CD103+ memory T cells can permanently lodge and persist in peripheral tissues, and that these cells can compensate for the loss of peripheral immune surveillance by circulating memory T cells. Here, we review evolving concepts regarding the generation and long-term persistence of these tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM in epithelial and neuronal tissues. We further discuss the role of TRM cells in local infection control and their contribution to localized immune phenomena, in both mice and humans.

  11. The good engineer: giving virtue its due in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E

    2008-06-01

    During the past few decades, engineering ethics has been oriented towards protecting the public from professional misconduct by engineers and from the harmful effects of technology. This "preventive ethics" project has been accomplished primarily by means of the promulgation of negative rules. However, some aspects of engineering professionalism, such as (1) sensitivity to risk (2) awareness of the social context of technology, (3) respect for nature, and (4) commitment to the public good, cannot be adequately accounted for in terms of rules, certainly not negative rules. Virtue ethics is a more appropriate vehicle for expressing these aspects of engineering professionalism. Some of the unique features of virtue ethics are the greater place it gives for discretion and judgment and also for inner motivation and commitment. Four of the many professional virtues that are important for engineers correspond to the four aspects of engineering professionalism listed above. Finally, the importance of the humanities and social sciences in promoting these virtues suggests that these disciplines are crucial in the professional education of engineers.

  12. Nasal nicotine solution: a potential aid to giving up smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Fernö, O

    1983-01-01

    A nasal solution was developed containing 2 mg nicotine for use as a kind of liquid snuff. Its absorption was studied in three subjects. An average peak of plasma nicotine concentrations of 86.9 nmol/l (14.1 ng/ml) was reached seven and a half minutes after taking the solution. This compared with an average peak of 158.4 nmol/l (25.7 ng/ml) one and a half minutes after completing (but seven and a half minutes after starting) a middle tar cigarette (1.4 mg nicotine) and an average peak of 52.4 nmol/l (8.5 ng/ml) after chewing nicotine gum (2 mg nicotine) for 30 minutes. The more rapid and efficient absorption of nicotine from the nasal nicotine solution than from nicotine chewing gum suggests that it might prove a useful aid to giving up smoking. Nasal nicotine solution might be particularly useful in smokers for whom the gum is less suitable on account of dentures or peptic ulcers or who experience nausea and dyspeptic symptoms from the gum. PMID:6402202

  13. Does friendship give us non-derivative partial reasons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reisner

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One way to approach the question of whether there are non-derivative partial reasons of any kind is to give an account of what partial reasons are, and then to consider whether there are such reasons. If there are, then it is at least possible that there are partial reasons of friendship. It is this approach that will be taken here, and it produces several interesting results. The first is a point about the structure of partial reasons. It is at least a necessary condition of a reason’s being partial that it has an explicit relational component. This component, technically, is a relatum in the reason relation that itself is a relation between the person to whom the reason applies and the person whom the action for which there is a reason concerns. The second conclusion of the paper is that this relational component is also required for a number of types of putatively impartial reasons. In order to avoid trivialising the distinction between partial and impartial reasons, some further sufficient condition must be applied. Finally, there is some prospect for a way of distinguishing between impartial reasons that contain a relational component and partial reasons, but that this approach suggests that the question of whether ethics is partial or impartial will be settled at the level of normative ethical discourse, or at least not at the level of discourse about the nature of reasons for action.

  14. Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+CD41(+CD45(- phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.

  15. New approaches of organizing care and work: giving way to participation, mobilization, and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Chantal; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Leclerc, Martine Mayrand; Brabant, Louise Hamelin

    2005-01-01

    Quebec's health network has undertaken large-scale organizational changes to ensure the continuity, accessibility, and quality of health care and services for the population. This article describes the optimal approach for making changes to the organization of care and work for patients, health care workers, and organizations. This participative action research was carried out by means of interviews and document analysis. One hundred participants were involved, describing a total of 34 projects for significant organizational change. Results include an optimal approach broken down into 4 phases, each of which includes steps, facilitating factors, and potential difficulties. The phases of this approach are: (1) sharing the vision, mission, and values of the organization and identifying the purpose and need underlying the change; (2) building alliances and validating the involvement of the various players; (3) conceptualizing and planning the project; and (4) implementing changes and continuing evaluation. It is possible to rise to the challenge of finding new approaches to organize care and work by giving way to participation, mobilization, and innovation.

  16. Enhanced performance on high current discharges in JET produced by ICRF heating during the current rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bures, M.; Bhatnagar, V.; Cotrell, G.; Corti, S.; Christiansen, J.P.; Hellsten, T.; Jacquinot, J.; Lallia, P.; Lomas, P.; O'Rourke, J.; Taroni, A.; Tibone, F.; Start, D.F.H.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of high current discharges can be increased by applying central ICRF heating before or shortly after the onset of sawtooth activity in the plasma current rise phase. Sawtooth-free periods have been obtained resulting in the enhanced discharge performance. High T e (0) 9 - 10.5 keV with peaked profiles T e (0)/ e > = 3 - 4 were obtained giving values of n e (0)T e (0) up to 6x10 20 (keV m -3 ). Improvements in T i (0) and neutron production are observed. A 60 % enhancement in D-D reaction rate from 2nd harmonic deuterium (2ω CD ) heating appears to be present. In all current rise (CR) discharges radiation amounts to 25-50 % of total power. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs

  17. Rising utilization of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sunitha V; Rodean, Jonathan; Bekmezian, Arpi; Hall, Matt; Shah, Samir S; Mahant, Sanjay; Parikh, Kavita; Morse, Rustin; Puls, Henry; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Clinical pathways are detailed care plans that operationalize evidence-based guidelines into an accessible format for health providers. Their goal is to link evidence to practice to optimize patient outcomes and delivery efficiency. It is unknown to what extent inpatient pediatric asthma pathways are being utilized nationally. (1) Describe inpatient pediatric asthma pathway design and implementation across a large hospital network. (2) Compare characteristics of hospitals with and without pathways. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, survey study of hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network (75% children's hospitals, 25% community hospitals). Our survey determined if each hospital used a pathway and pathway characteristics (e.g. pathway elements, implementation methods). Hospitals with and without pathways were compared using Chi-square tests (categorical variables) and Student's t-tests (continuous variables). Surveys were distributed to 3-5 potential participants from each hospital and 302 (74%) participants responded, representing 86% (106/123) of surveyed hospitals. From 2005-2015, the proportion of hospitals utilizing inpatient asthma pathways increased from 27% to 86%. We found variation in pathway elements, implementation strategies, electronic medical record integration, and compliance monitoring across hospitals. Hospitals with pathways had larger inpatient pediatric programs [mean 12.1 versus 6.1 full-time equivalents, p = 0.04] and were more commonly free-standing children's hospitals (52% versus 23%, p = 0.05). From 2005-2015, there was a dramatic rise in implementation of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways. We found variation in many aspects of pathway design and implementation. Future studies should determine optimal implementation strategies to better support hospital-level efforts in improving pediatric asthma care and outcomes.

  18. The rise and fall of gluten!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Branchi, Federica; Sanders, David S

    2015-08-01

    Mankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the last 10,000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Wheat was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent (South Western Asia) with a farming expansion that lasted from about 9000BC to 4000BC. Thus it could be considered that wheat (and gluten) is a novel introduction to man's diet! Prior to 1939 the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat. This goal was achieved and by the end of the 20th century, global wheat output had expanded 5-fold. Perhaps as a result the epidemiology of coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy has changed. CD is a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD now affects 1 % or more of all adults, for which the treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show that a far greater proportion of individuals without coeliac disease are taking a gluten-free diet of their own volition. This clinical entity has been termed non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the condition is fraught with complexities due to overlap with other gluten-based constituents that can also trigger similar clinical symptoms. This review will explore the relationship between gluten, the rising prevalence of modern coeliac disease, and the new entity of NCGS along with its associated uncertainties.

  19. Control of the proportion of inner cells by asymmetric divisions and the ensuing resilience of cloned rabbit embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranthon, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian embryo cloning by nuclear transfer has a low success rate. This is hypothesized to correlate with a high variability of early developmental steps that segregate outer cells, which are fated to extra-embryonic tissues, from inner cells, which give rise to the embryo proper. Exploring the cell lineage of wild-type embryos and clones, imaged in toto until hatching, highlights the respective contributions of cell proliferation, death and asymmetric divisions to phenotypic variability. Preferential cell death of inner cells in clones, probably pertaining to the epigenetic plasticity of the transferred nucleus, is identified as a major difference with effects on the proportion of inner cell. In wild type and clones, similar patterns of outer cell asymmetric divisions are shown to be essential to the robust proportion of inner cells observed in wild type. Asymmetric inner cell division, which is not described in mice, is identified as a regulator of the proportion of inner cells and likely gives rise to resilient clones. PMID:29567671

  20. Cell therapy for pediatric disorders of glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albuquerque Osório, Maria Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    The childhood disorders of glia comprise a group of diseases that include the pediatric leukodystrophies and lysosomal storage disorders, cerebral palsies and perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies, and selected neurodevelopmental disorders of glial origin. Essentially, all of these disorders...... (GPCs) and their derivatives, the glial disorders may be uniquely attractive targets for cell-based therapeutic strategies, and the pediatric disorders especially so. As a result, GPCs, which can distribute throughout the neuraxis and give rise to new astrocytes and myelinogenic oligodendrocytes, have...... become of great interest as candidates for the therapeutic restoration of normal glial architecture and function, as well as new myelin, to the pediatric brain....

  1. Studying apoptotic cell death by flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormerod, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Programmed cell death (PCD) is of fundamental importance in the normal development of an animal and also in tumour biology and radiation biology. During PCD a sequence of changes occurs in cells giving rise to an apoptotic cascade of events. The main elements of this cascade are rapidly being elucidated. Flow cytometry has been used to follow many of these changes. It also has been used to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in a culture and, more recently, in clinical samples. In this review, the properties of apoptotic cells and the main feature of apoptotic cascade will be described. How flow cytometry can be used to follow changes during the apoptotic cascade will be discussed

  2. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective. Part I. The rise of chromosome territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally accepted that chromosomes in the cell nucleus are organized in distinct domains, first called chromosome territories in 1909 by the great cytologist Theodor Boveri. Yet, even today chromosomes have remained enigmatic individuals, whose structures, arrangements and functions in cycling and post-mitotic cells still need to be explored in full detail. Whereas numerous recent reviews describe present evidence for a dynamic architecture of chromosome territories and discuss the potential significance within the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus, a comprehensive historical account of this important concept of nuclear organization was lacking so far. Here, we describe the early rise of chromosome territories within the context of the discovery of chromosomes and their fundamental role in heredity, covering a period from the 1870th to the early 20th century (part I, this volume. In part II (next volume we review the abandonment of the chromosome territory concept during the 1950th to 1980th and the compelling evidence, which led to its resurrection during the 1970th to 1980th.

  3. Saving reed lands by giving economic value to reed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Croon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the need for renewable energy, the need for nature conservation, the need to double the world’s food production to eliminate hunger, the need to reduce carbon dioxide emission, and the wish to reduce dependency on dwindling oil resources, show that these issues are intimately related and sometimes mutually exclusive. The use of food crops for the production of renewable fuels has resulted in the energy vs. food debate; the use of scarce land and fresh water for the dedicated production of biomass conflicts with food production and nature conservation; the collection of harvest residues and forest wastes as biomass to produce renewable fuels is complex and leaves a CO2 footprint. The several species of reed that grow naturally in deltas, river plains etc. can provide large amounts of biomass but are hardly mentioned in the debates. Harvesting reed does not threaten the nature and the natural functions of reed lands, which are carbon neutral or carbon dioxide sinks. Reed production does not need extensive infrastructure or complex cultivation and does not compete with food production for land and fresh water. Reed lands in many places are under threat of reclamation for economic activities and urbanisation. This trend can be countered if reed is seen to have a proven economic value. In this article I argue that giving a sustainable economic value to reed lands can only be realised if the exploitation is recognised as being environmentally acceptable, commercially feasible and a source of economic gains for all stakeholders. Commercial feasibility can be achieved under present economic conditions only if a reliable supply of considerable volumes of reed at a limited price can be guaranteed.

  4. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Simulated parents: developing paediatric trainees' skills in giving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Jenny K; Frydenberg, Alexis R; Donath, Susan K; Marks, Michael M

    2009-03-01

    In curriculum documents for medicine in undergraduate, post-graduate and continuing professional development, there is now a focus on communication skills. The challenges are to place communication skills in the crowded curriculum and then to construct and sustain a programme that uses an evidence-based approach to the teaching and learning of communication skills. For 6 years, we have conducted a programme that involves simulated parents supporting junior medical staff to refine their skills in communication, particularly in giving parents bad news. The aim of our study was to obtain a better understanding of the trainees' experiences of the programme. Nine junior residents individually worked through two scenarios and received feedback from the simulated parent. They gave bad news to a simulated parent/actor who then gave feedback. A recording of the simulation was provided for discussion with a designated colleague at an arranged time. The tapes were then separately appraised by two independent raters - another actor and a paediatrician. Brief written reports and conducted semi-structured interviews provided more insights into the trainees' experience of the simulation. Other participating medical/medical education staff were interviewed about the simulation programme. Five themes emerged from the qualitative data: timeliness, emotional safety, the complexity of communication, practical usefulness and the challenge of effecting change. In addition, the ratings of the videos helped to clarify those 'parent-centred' communication skills that trainees may neglect in difficult conversations: 'ask about support', 'encourage the parent to ask questions' and 'repeat key messages'. The evaluation highlighted the value of an early-career experiential programme to highlight the importance of communication skills in post-graduate paediatrics practice.

  6. Stem/progenitor cells in pituitary organ homeostasis and tumourigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshaei, Saba

    2018-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of pituitary gland stem cells has been provided over the last decade using a combination of approaches including in vitro clonogenicity assays, flow cytometric side population analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and genetic approaches. These cells have been demonstrated to be able to self-renew and undergo multipotent differentiation to give rise to all hormonal lineages of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, evidence exists for their contribution to regeneration of the organ and plastic responses to changing physiological demand. Recently, stem-like cells have been isolated from pituitary neoplasms raising the possibility that a cytological hierarchy exists, in keeping with the cancer stem cell paradigm. In this manuscript, we review the evidence for the existence of pituitary stem cells, their role in maintaining organ homeostasis and the regulation of their differentiation. Furthermore, we explore the emerging concept of stem cells in pituitary tumours and their potential roles in these diseases. PMID:28855316

  7. In vitro regeneration of kidney from pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osafune, Kenji, E-mail: osafu@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); JST Yamanaka iPS Cell Special Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Although renal transplantation has proved a successful treatment for the patients with end-stage renal failure, the therapy is hampered by the problem of serious shortage of donor organs. Regenerative medicine using stem cells, including cell transplantation therapy, needs to be developed to solve the problem. We previously identified the multipotent progenitor cells in the embryonic mouse kidney that can give rise to several kinds of epithelial cells found in adult kidney, such as glomerular podocytes and renal tubular epithelia. Establishing the method to generate the progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells that have the capacity to indefinitely proliferate in vitro is required for the development of kidney regeneration strategy. We review the current status of the research on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into renal lineages and describe cues to promote this research field.

  8. In vitro regeneration of kidney from pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osafune, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Although renal transplantation has proved a successful treatment for the patients with end-stage renal failure, the therapy is hampered by the problem of serious shortage of donor organs. Regenerative medicine using stem cells, including cell transplantation therapy, needs to be developed to solve the problem. We previously identified the multipotent progenitor cells in the embryonic mouse kidney that can give rise to several kinds of epithelial cells found in adult kidney, such as glomerular podocytes and renal tubular epithelia. Establishing the method to generate the progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells that have the capacity to indefinitely proliferate in vitro is required for the development of kidney regeneration strategy. We review the current status of the research on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into renal lineages and describe cues to promote this research field.

  9. Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Avigail; Dotan, Hen; Shter, Gennady E.; Wullenkord, Michael; Houaijia, Anis; Maljusch, Artjom; Grader, Gideon S.; Rothschild, Avner

    2017-06-01

    Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells. The ion exchange in our cells is mediated by auxiliary electrodes, and the cells are connected to each other only by metal wires, enabling centralized hydrogen production. We demonstrate hydrogen generation in separate cells with solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 7.5%, which can readily surpass 10% using standard commercial components. A basic cost comparison shows that our approach is competitive with conventional photoelectrochemical systems, enabling safe and potentially affordable solar hydrogen production.

  10. The (gradual) rise of memory inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenerman, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Memory inflation, as a term, has been used for 15 years now to describe the longitudinal development of stable, expanded CD8 + T memory pools with a distinct phenotype and functional profile which emerge in specific infection and vaccine settings. These settings have in common the persistence of antigen, especially cytomegalovirus infection but also more recently adenoviral vector vaccination. However, in contrast to chronic infections which lead to "exhaustion" the repeated antigen encounters experienced by CD8 + T cells lead to development of a robust T-cell population structure which maintains functionality and size. In this review, I will discuss how the ideas around this form of memory have evolved over time and some new models which can help explain how these populations are induced and sustained. These models are relevant to immunity against persistent viruses, to novel vaccine strategies and to concepts about aging. © 2018 The Author. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The continuum of stem cell transdifferentiation: possibility of hematopoietic stem cell plasticity with concurrent CD45 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, V M

    2006-02-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of scientific research examining adult stem cell plasticity. For example, the hematopoietic stem cell has been shown to give rise to skin, respiratory epithelium, intestinal epithelium, renal epithelium, liver parenchyma, pancreas, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, myocardium, and central nervous system (CNS) neurons. The potential for such stem cell plasticity seems to be enhanced by stressors such as injury and neoplasia. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells may be able to adopt certain nonhematopoietic phenotypes, such as endothelial, neural, or skeletal muscle phenotypes, without entirely losing their initial hematopoietic identity. We propose that transdifferentiation can, in certain conditions, be a partial rather than a complete event, and we encourage further investigation into the phenomenon of a stem cell simultaneously expressing phenotypic features of two distinct cell fates.

  12. Quark-gluon structure of the pomeron and the rise of inclusive spectra at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The topological expansion and the nodel of a colour tube are used for the calculation of inclusive hadronic spectra in the central region. The higher-order terms of the 1/Nsub(f)-expansion, which correspond to the contribution of the poliperipheral diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the intrinsic motion of quarks inside colliding hadrons leads to the rise of inclusive spectra with energy in the central region. The model gives a good quantitative description of the effects observed recently at the CERN SPS Collider

  13. Lamotrigine increases the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Strandberg, Joakim; Lindquist, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy stabilize mood symptoms and increase hippocampal neurogenesis. We examined whether lamotrigine, suggested to give rise to mood-stabilizing and antidepressant effects in addition to its antiepileptic properties, also increases the number of n...... in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus showed an increased number of newborn cells in rats receiving lamotrigine (42.6 ± 3.5 cells/slice) compared with valproate (31.6 ± 2.8) and controls (32.2 ± 3.1; P...

  14. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  15. Diamond thin films: giving biomedical applications a new shine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, P A; May, P W

    2017-09-01

    Progress made in the last two decades in chemical vapour deposition technology has enabled the production of inexpensive, high-quality coatings made from diamond to become a scientific and commercial reality. Two properties of diamond make it a highly desirable candidate material for biomedical applications: first, it is bioinert, meaning that there is minimal immune response when diamond is implanted into the body, and second, its electrical conductivity can be altered in a controlled manner, from insulating to near-metallic. In vitro, diamond can be used as a substrate upon which a range of biological cells can be cultured. In vivo , diamond thin films have been proposed as coatings for implants and prostheses. Here, we review a large body of data regarding the use of diamond substrates for in vitro cell culture. We also detail more recent work exploring diamond-coated implants with the main targets being bone and neural tissue. We conclude that diamond emerges as one of the major new biomaterials of the twenty-first century that could shape the way medical treatment will be performed, especially when invasive procedures are required. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  17. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  18. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  19. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  20. Single-cell protein secretomic signatures as potential correlates to tumor cell lineage evolution and cell-cell interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk eKwak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Secreted proteins including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors represent important functional regulators mediating a range of cellular behavior and cell-cell paracrine/autocrine signaling, e.g. in the immunological system, tumor microenvironment or stem cell niche. Detection of these proteins is of great value not only in basic cell biology but also for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of human diseases such as cancer. However, due to co-production of multiple effector proteins from a single cell, referred to as polyfunctionality, it is biologically informative to measure a panel of secreted proteins, or secretomic signature, at the level of single cells. Recent evidence further indicates that a genetically-identical cell population can give rise to diverse phenotypic differences. It is known that cytokines, for example, in the immune system define the effector functions and lineage differentiation of immune cells. In this Perspective Article, we hypothesize that protein secretion profile may represent a universal measure to identify the definitive correlate in the larger context of cellular functions to dissect cellular heterogeneity and evolutionary lineage relationship in human cancer.

  1. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-02-27

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are

  2. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are

  3. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  4. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies

  5. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  6. Evaluation of Indoor Radio Deployment Options in High-Rise Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Wigard, Jeroen; Kovacs, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    to the increase of inter-cell interference (ICI). Increasing transmit power brings largest gain when the density of indoor cell is low, and the noise and/or outdoor interference is the dominant source of performance degradation. When analyzing performance gain of an ideal receiver-side Interference Cancellation......In this paper we set out to analyze the indoor capacity under a realistic high-rise building scenario. The study takes into consideration the number of indoor cells deployed per floor, different inter-site distances (ISDs), transmit power settings and outdoor macro interference levels. The outcome...

  7. The long adventurous journey of rhombic lip cells in jawed vertebrates: a comparative developmental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario F Wullimann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes vertebrate rhombic lip and early cerebellar development covering classic approaches up to modern developmental genetics which identifies the relevant differential gene expression domains and their progeny. Most of this information is derived from amniotes. However, progress in anamniotes, particularly in the zebrafish, has recently been made. The current picture suggests that rhombic lip and cerebellar development in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes share many characteristics. Regarding cerebellar development, these include a ptf1a expressing ventral cerebellar proliferation (VCP giving rise to Purkinje cells and other inhibitory cerebellar cell types, and an atoh1 expressing upper rhombic lip giving rise to an external granular layer (EGL, i.e., excitatory granule cells and an early ventral migration into the anterior rhombencephalon (cholinergic nuclei. As for the lower rhombic lip (LRL, gnathostome commonalities likely include the formation of precerebellar nuclei (mossy fiber origins and partially primary auditory nuclei (likely convergently evolved from the atoh1 expressing dorsal zone. The fate of the ptf1a expressing ventral LRL zone which gives rise to (excitatory cells of the inferior olive (climbing fiber origin and (inhibitory cells of cochlear nuclei in amniotes, has not been determined in anamniotes. Special for the zebrafish in comparison to amniotes is the predominant origin of anamniote excitatory deep cerebellar nuclei homologues (i.e., eurydendroid cells from ptf1a expressing VCP cells, the sequential activity of various atoh1 paralogues and the incomplete coverage of the subpial cerebellar plate with proliferative EGL cells. Nevertheless, the conclusion that a rhombic lip and its major derivatives evolved with gnathostome vertebrates only and are thus not an ancestral craniate character complex is supported by the absence of a cerebellum (and likely absence of its afferent and efferent nuclei in jawless

  8. Senescence gives insights into the morphogenetic evolution of anamniotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Villiard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescence represents a mechanism to avoid undesired cell proliferation that plays a role in tumor suppression, wound healing and embryonic development. In order to gain insight on the evolution of senescence, we looked at its presence in developing axolotls (urodele amphibians and in zebrafish (teleost fish, which are both anamniotes. Our data indicate that cellular senescence is present in various developing structures in axolotls (pronephros, olfactory epithelium of nerve fascicles, lateral organs, gums and in zebrafish (epithelium of the yolk sac and in the lower part of the gut. Senescence was particularly associated with transient structures (pronephros in axolotls and yolk sac in zebrafish suggesting that it may play a role in the elimination of these tissues. Our data supports the notion that cellular senescence evolved early in vertebrate evolution to influence embryonic development.

  9. Nanomedicine: tiny particles and machines give huge gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Fine, Eli J; Lin, Yanni; Cradick, Thomas J; Bao, Gang

    2014-02-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nano-scale structures and devices are compatible in size with proteins and nucleic acids in living cells. Therefore, the design, characterization and application of nano-scale probes, carriers and machines may provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of nanoparticle (NP)-based probes for molecular imaging, nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery, multifunctional NPs for theranostics, and molecular machines for biological and medical studies. This article provides an overview of the nanomedicine field, with an emphasis on NPs for imaging and therapy, as well as engineered nucleases for genome editing. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

  10. The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Grimes, Weston; Urata, Mark; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue undergoes constant turnover supported by stem cells. Recent studies showed that perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the turnover of long bones. Craniofacial bones are flat bones derived from a different embryonic origin than the long bones. The identity and regulating niche for craniofacial bone MSCs remain unknown. Here, we identify Gli1+ cells within the suture mesenchyme as the major MSC population for craniofacial bones. They are not associated with vasculature, give rise to all craniofacial bones in the adult and are activated during injury repair. Gli1+ cells are typical MSCs in vitro. Ablation of Gli1+ cells leads to craniosynostosis and arrest of skull growth, indicating these cells are an indispensible stem cell population. Twist1+/− mice with craniosynostosis show reduced Gli1+ MSCs in sutures, suggesting that craniosynostosis may result from diminished suture stem cells. Our study indicates that craniofacial sutures provide a unique niche for MSCs for craniofacial bone homeostasis and repair. PMID:25799059

  11. The Rise of Mitochondria in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; Wallace, Douglas C; Burelle, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Once considered exclusively the cell's powerhouse, mitochondria are now recognized to perform multiple essential cellular functions beyond energy production, impacting most areas of cell biology and medicine. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defects in the 1980's, research advances have revealed a number of common human diseases which share an underlying pathogenesis involving mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria undergo function-defining dynamic shape changes, communicate with each other, regulate gene expression within the nucleus, modulate synaptic transmission within the brain, release molecules that contribute to oncogenic transformation and trigger inflammatory responses systemically, and influence the regulation of complex physiological systems. Novel “mitopathogenic” mechanisms are thus being uncovered across a number of medical disciplines including genetics, oncology, neurology, immunology, and critical care medicine. Increasing knowledge of the bioenergetic aspects of human disease has provided new opportunities for diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and in connecting various domains of medicine. In this article, we overview specific aspects of mitochondrial biology that have contributed to – and likely will continue to enhance the progress of modern medicine. PMID:27423788

  12. Purification and ex vivo expansion of postnatal human marrow mesodermal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M; Lund, T; Lenvik, T; Aguiar, D; Koodie, L; Verfaillie, C M

    2001-11-01

    It is here reported that mesenchymal stem cells known to give rise to limb-bud mesoderm can, at the single-cell level, also differentiate into cells of visceral mesoderm and can be expanded extensively by means of clinically applicable methods. These cells were named mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs). MPCs were selected by depleting bone marrow mononuclear cells from more than 30 healthy human donors of CD45(+)/glycophorin-A (GlyA)(+) cells. Cells were cultured on fibronectin with epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor BB and 2% or less fetal calf serum. It was found that 1/5 x 10(3) CD45(-)GlyA(-) cells, or 1/10(6) bone marrow mononuclear cells, gave rise to clusters of small adherent cells. Cell-doubling time was 48 to 72 hours, and cells have been expanded in culture for more than 60 cell doublings. MPCs are CD34(-), CD44(low), CD45(-), CD117 (cKit)(-), class I-HLA(-), and HLA-DR(-). MPCs differentiated into cells of limb-bud mesoderm (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, stroma cells, and skeletal myoblasts) as well as visceral mesoderm (endothelial cells). Retroviral marking was used to definitively prove that single MPCs can differentiate into cells of limb bud and visceral mesoderm. Thus, MPCs that proliferate without obvious senescence under clinically applicable conditions and differentiate at the single-cell level not only into mesenchymal cells but also cells of visceral mesoderm may be an ideal source of stem cells for treatment of genetic or degenerative disorders affecting cells of mesodermal origin.

  13. Transcriptomic comparisons between cultured human adipose tissue-derived pericytes and mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, sometimes called mesenchymal stem cells, are cultured cells able to give rise to mature mesenchymal cells such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes, and to secrete a wide range of trophic and immunomodulatory molecules. Evidence indicates that pericytes, cells that surround and maintain physical connections with endothelial cells in blood vessels, can give rise to MSCs (da Silva Meirelles et al., 2008 [1]; Caplan and Correa, 2011 [2]. We have compared the transcriptomes of highly purified, human adipose tissue pericytes subjected to culture-expansion in pericyte medium or MSC medium, with that of human adipose tissue MSCs isolated with traditional methods to test the hypothesis that their transcriptomes are similar (da Silva Meirelles et al., 2015 [3]. Here, we provide further information and analyses of microarray data from three pericyte populations cultured in pericyte medium, three pericyte populations cultured in MSC medium, and three adipose tissue MSC populations deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE67747. Keywords: Mesenchymal stromal cells, Mesenchymal stem cells, Pericytes, Microarrays

  14. Posttranscriptional (Re)programming of Cell Fate: Examples in Stem Cells, Progenitor, and Differentiated Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulou, Chrysi; Muljo, Stefan A

    2018-01-01

    How a single genome can give rise to many different transcriptomes and thus all the different cell lineages in the human body is a fundamental question in biology. While signaling pathways, transcription factors, and chromatin architecture, to name a few determinants, have been established to play critical roles, recently, there is a growing appreciation of the roles of non-coding RNAs and RNA-binding proteins in controlling cell fates posttranscriptionally. Thus, it is vital that these emerging players are also integrated into models of gene regulatory networks that underlie programs of cellular differentiation. Sometimes, we can leverage knowledge about such posttranscriptional circuits to reprogram patterns of gene expression in meaningful ways. Here, we review three examples from our work.

  15. Purified Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Mabuchi, Y; Toriumi, H; Ebine, T; Niibe, K; Houlihan, D D; Morikawa, S; Onizawa, K; Kawana, H; Akazawa, C; Suzuki, N; Nakagawa, T; Okano, H; Matsuzaki, Y

    2016-02-01

    Human dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (hDPSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative therapy because they can be easily expanded to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) on plastic and the large cell numbers required for transplantation. However, isolation based on adherence to plastic inevitably changes the surface marker expression and biological properties of the cells. Consequently, little is currently known about the original phenotypes of tissue precursor cells that give rise to plastic-adherent CFU-Fs. To better understand the in vivo functions and translational therapeutic potential of hDPSCs and other stem cells, selective cell markers must be identified in the progenitor cells. Here, we identified a dental pulp tissue-specific cell population based on the expression profiles of 2 cell-surface markers LNGFR (CD271) and THY-1 (CD90). Prospectively isolated, dental pulp-derived LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) cells represent a highly enriched population of clonogenic cells--notably, the isolated cells exhibited long-term proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. The cells also expressed known mesenchymal cell markers and promoted new bone formation to heal critical-size calvarial defects in vivo. These findings suggest that LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) dental pulp-derived cells provide an excellent source of material for bone regenerative strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  16. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  18. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  19. The rise and fall of V4334 Sagittarii (Sakurai's object)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerbeck, HW; Liller, W; Sterken, C; Benetti, S; van Genderen, AM; Arts, J; Kurk, JD; Janson, M; Voskes, T; Brogt, E; Arentoft, T; Dijkstra, R

    CCD UBVRi photometry of the final helium flash object V4334 Sgr (Sakurai's object) carried out during 1997-1999 is presented, and the light curve from its prediscovery rise to the dust obscuration phase is constructed. The optical light curve can be divided into four sections, the rise to maximum,

  20. Mechanism of rising cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtejn, S.S.; Logunov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of sea constituents with each other and valence quarks, occurring in high-energy hadron collisions, is shown to explain the experimentally observed law for the rise of total cross sections, as well as the energy value at which this rise starts and the difference in these energy values for πN, KN and NN(N-barN) reactions

  1. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  2. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  3. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  4. From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called "van Gogh bundles") of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity.

  5. From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi van Gestel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called "van Gogh bundles" of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity.

  6. Luminal Cells Are Favored as the Cell of Origin for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu A. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell types of origin for cancer has important implications for tumor stratification and personalized treatment. For prostate cancer, the cell of origin has been intensively studied, but it has remained unclear whether basal or luminal epithelial cells, or both, represent cells of origin under physiological conditions in vivo. Here, we use a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models, including Nkx3.1+/−; Pten+/−, Pten+/−, Hi-Myc, and TRAMP mice, as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Our results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. Consequently, we propose that luminal cells are favored as cells of origin in many contexts, whereas basal cells only give rise to tumors after differentiation into luminal cells.

  7. Mammalian cochlear supporting cells can divide and trans-differentiate into hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patricia M; Doetzlhofer, Angelika; Lee, Yun Shain; Groves, Andrew K; Segil, Neil

    2006-06-22

    Sensory hair cells of the mammalian organ of Corti in the inner ear do not regenerate when lost as a consequence of injury, disease, or age-related deafness. This contrasts with other vertebrates such as birds, where the death of hair cells causes surrounding supporting cells to re-enter the cell cycle and give rise to both new hair cells and supporting cells. It is not clear whether the lack of mammalian hair cell regeneration is due to an intrinsic inability of supporting cells to divide and differentiate or to an absence or blockade of regenerative signals. Here we show that post-mitotic supporting cells purified from the postnatal mouse cochlea retain the ability to divide and trans-differentiate into new hair cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that age-dependent changes in supporting cell proliferative capacity are due in part to changes in the ability to downregulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) (also known as Cdkn1b). These results indicate that postnatal mammalian supporting cells are potential targets for therapeutic manipulation.

  8. Generation of germ cells in vitro in the era of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Masanori; Hikabe, Orie; Lin, Zachary Yu-Ching; Okano, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are stem cells that can be artificially generated via "cellular reprogramming" using gene transduction in somatic cells. iPSCs have enormous potential in stem-cell biology as they can give rise to numerous cell lineages, including the three germ layers. An evaluation of germ-line competency by blastocyst injection or tetraploid complementation, however, is critical for determining the developmental potential of mouse iPSCs towards germ cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that primordial germ cells obtained by the in vitro differentiation of iPSCs produce functional gametes as well as healthy offspring. These findings illustrate not only that iPSCs are developmentally similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but also that somatic cells from adult tissues can produce gametes in vitro, that is, if they are reprogrammed into iPSCs. In this review, we discuss past and recent advances in the in vitro differentiation of germ cells using pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on ESCs and iPSCs. While this field of research is still at a stage of infancy, it holds great promises for investigating the mechanisms of germ-cell development, especially in humans, and for advancing reproductive and developmental engineering technologies in the future. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Do we have to take an acceleration of sea level rise into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingh, D.; Baart, F.; de Ronde, J.

    2012-04-01

    , particularly for the high scenario. Dutch design levels for coastal water defence structures (dikes and dunes) are based on extreme value statistics of long time series of high water levels. These design levels have typically return periods of 2000, 4000 and 10.000 years, depending on the importance of the protected dike ring. The last statistical analysis for the update of the design levels refers to the sea level situation of 1985. According to the Water Act Dutch design levels must be tested periodically (every 6 years). Due to sea level rise and tidal changes the design levels are corrected for the rise of the mean high waters from 1985 until the end of the testing period under consideration. This demands a tailoring approach for different regions or locations instead of a national average as for coastal preservation. Runs with climate models and coupled hydrodynamic models in the framework of the Essence project and the Delta Committee 2008 showed no indication for a change in the statistics of extreme storm surge levels. For the estimation of sea level rise over the last 120 years a linear regression gives the most robust estimate. Showing decadal variability needs more sophisticated models. For the last update of the design levels the elegant Whittaker smoother has been applied. Dutch policy prescribes to account for a future sea level rise of 60 cm per century for the design of new dikes or dike reinforcements and 85 cm per century for the long term (200 years) allocation of space for future reinforcements, in agreement with the KNMI'06 scenario's for sea level rise (central value and upper limit).

  10. Giving USA 1997: The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ann E., Ed.

    This report presents a comprehensive review of private philanthropy in the United States during 1996. After a preliminary section, the first section presents data on giving, using text, graphs, and charts. Sections cover: overall 1996 contributions; changes in giving by source and use; total giving (1966-1996); inflation-adjusted giving in 5-year…

  11. Substitution or Symbiosis? Assessing the Relationship between Religious and Secular Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan P.; Vaidyanathan, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Research on philanthropy has not sufficiently examined whether charitable giving to religious causes impinges on giving to secular causes. Examining three waves of national panel data, we find that the relationship between religious and secular giving is generally not of a zero-sum nature; families that increase their religious giving also…

  12. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  13. The advisability of high-rise construction in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergievskaya, Natalia; Pokrovskaya, Tatyana; Vorontsova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    In this article there discusses the question of advisability high-rise construction, the reasons for its use, both positive and negative sides of it. On the one hand, a number of authors believe that it is difficult to avoid high-rise construction due to the limited areas in very large cities. On the other hand, a number of other authors draw attention to the problems associated with high-rise construction. The author of the article analyses examples of high-rise construction in several countries (UAE, Dubai "Burj Khalifa"; Japan "Tokyo Sky Tree"; United States of America, "Willis Tower"; Russia "Federation Tower") and proves the advisability of high-rise construction in the city.

  14. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  15. The rise of sea level. To understand and to anticipate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    By proposing and briefly commenting graphs and drawings, this publication propose brief presentations of the main issues related to sea level rise: global warming and climate disturbance, description of the phenomenon of sea level rise (difference between sea ice and ground ice, melting of glaciers), increase of sea level rise during the twentieth century, territories at risk (examples of Greenland, Tuvalu, Shanghai), acceleration of ice melting during the twenty first century with many coastal areas at risk, already noticed and possible future impacts in France (glaciers runoff, threatened coasts, example of the Xynthia tempest), how to be united and to anticipate (a threat for millions of people, adaptation to sea level rise, limitation of global warming to limit sea level rise)

  16. Acute Cocaine Exposure elicits rises in calcium in Arousal Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Mads; Ipsen, Theis; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine has strong reinforcing properties, which underlie its high addiction potential. Reinforcement of use of addictive drugs is associated with rises in dopamine (DA) in mesoaccumbal circuitry. Excitatory afferent input to mesoaccumbal circuitry sources from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...... (LDT). Chronic, systemic cocaine exposure has been shown to have cellular effects on LDT cells, but acute actions of local application have never been demonstrated. Using calcium imaging, we show that acute application of cocaine to mouse brain slices induces calcium spiking in cells of the LDT....... Spiking was attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and low calcium solutions, and abolished by prior exhaustion of intracellular calcium stores. Further, DA receptor antagonists reduced these transients, whereas DA induced rises with similar spiking kinetics. Amphetamine, which also results in elevated levels...

  17. Microenvironment-Centred Dynamics in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cacciatore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive B-cell lymphomas share high proliferative and invasive attitudes and dismal prognosis despite heterogeneous biological features. In the interchained sequence of events leading to cancer progression, neoplastic clone-intrinsic molecular events play a major role. Nevertheless, microenvironment-related cues have progressively come into focus as true determinants for this process. The cancer-associated microenvironment is a complex network of nonneoplastic immune and stromal cells embedded in extracellular components, giving rise to a multifarious crosstalk with neoplastic cells towards the induction of a supportive milieu. The immunological and stromal microenvironments have been classically regarded as essential partners of indolent lymphomas, while considered mainly negligible in the setting of aggressive B-cell lymphomas that, by their nature, are less reliant on external stimuli. By this paper we try to delineate the cardinal microenvironment-centred dynamics exerting an influence over lymphoid clone progression in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

  18. Brain mesenchymal stem cells: physiology and pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombero, Ana; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez, Salvador

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as progenitor cells that give rise to a number of unique, differentiated mesenchymal cell types. This concept has progressively evolved towards an all-encompassing concept including multipotent perivascular cells of almost any tissue. In central nervous system, pericytes are involved in blood-brain barrier, and angiogenesis and vascular tone regulation. They form the neurovascular unit (NVU) together with endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. This functional structure provides an optimal microenvironment for neural proliferation in the adult brain. Neurovascular niche include both diffusible signals and direct contact with endothelial and pericytes, which are a source of diffusible neurotrophic signals that affect neural precursors. Therefore, MSCs/pericyte properties such as differentiation capability, as well as immunoregulatory and paracrine effects make them a potential resource in regenerative medicine. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  20. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  1. Targeting essential pathways in trypanosomatids gives insights into protozoan mechanisms of cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasel Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. However, apoptosis is now considered a prerogative of unicellular organisms, including the trypanosomatids of the genera Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., causative agents of some of the most important neglected human diseases. Trypanosomatids show typical hallmarks of apoptosis, although they lack some of the key molecules contributing to this process in metazoans, like caspase genes, Bcl-2 family genes and the TNF-related family of receptors. Despite the lack of these molecules, trypanosomatids appear to have the basic machinery to commit suicide. The components of the apoptotic execution machinery of these parasites are slowly coming into light, by targeting essential processes and pathways with different apoptogenic agents and inhibitors. This review will be confined to the events known to drive trypanosomatid parasites to apoptosis.

  2. Cytokines, hepatic cell profiling and cell interactions during bone marrow cell therapy for liver fibrosis in cholestatic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Bone marrow cells (BMC migrate to the injured liver after transplantation, contributing to regeneration through multiple pathways, but mechanisms involved are unclear. This work aimed to study BMC migration, characterize cytokine profile, cell populations and proliferation in mice with liver fibrosis transplanted with GFP+ BMC. Confocal microscopy analysis showed GFP+ BMC near regions expressing HGF and SDF-1 in the fibrotic liver. Impaired liver cell proliferation in fibrotic groups was restored after BMC transplantation. Regarding total cell populations, there was a significant reduction in CD68+ cells and increased Ly6G+ cells in transplanted fibrotic group. BMC contributed to the total populations of CD144, CD11b and Ly6G cells in the fibrotic liver, related to an increment of anti-fibrotic cytokines (IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ and HGF and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A and IL-6. Therefore, HGF and SDF-1 may represent important chemoattractants for transplanted BMC in the injured liver, where these cells can give rise to populations of extrahepatic macrophages, neutrophils and endothelial progenitor cells that can interact synergistically with other liver cells towards the modulation of an anti-fibrotic cytokine profile promoting the onset of liver regeneration.

  3. Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:25364710

  4. Muscle Satellite Cell Heterogeneity and Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio eMotohashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD.

  5. Genome-driven evolutionary game theory helps understand the rise of metabolic interdependencies in microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorrodi, Ali R; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-11-16

    Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system. We next perform over 80,000 in silico experiments to infer how metabolic interdependencies mediated by amino acid leakage in Escherichia coli vary across 189 amino acid pairs. While most pairs display shared patterns of inter-species interactions, multiple deviations are caused by pleiotropy and epistasis in metabolism. Furthermore, simulated invasion experiments reveal possible paths to obligate cross-feeding. Our study provides genomically driven insight into the rise of ecological interactions, with implications for microbiome research and synthetic ecology.

  6. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Brammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical geography of Bangladesh’s coastal area is more diverse and dynamic than is generally recognised. Failure to recognise this has led to serious misconceptions about the potential impacts of a rising sea-level on Bangladesh with global warming. This situation has been aggravated by accounts giving incorrect information on current rates of coastal erosion and land subsidence. This paper describes physical conditions within individual physiographic regions in Bangladesh’s coastal area based on ground-surveyed information, and it reviews possible area-specific mitigation measures to counter predicted rates of sea-level rise in the 21st century. Two important conclusions are drawn: the adoption of appropriate measures based on knowledge of the physical geography of potentially-affected areas could significantly reduce the currently-predicted displacement of many millions of people; and the impacts of a slowly-rising sea-level are currently much less than those generated by rapidly increasing population pressure on Bangladesh’s available land and water resources and by exposure to existing environmental hazards, and the latter problems need priority attention.

  7. Glucocorticoids promote a glioma stem cell-like phenotype and resistance to chemotherapy in human glioblastoma primary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Bartek, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are resistant to therapy and can give rise to recurrent tumors. The identification of patient-related factors that support GSCs is thus necessary to design effective therapies for GBM patients. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat GBM......-associated edema. However, glucocorticoids participate in the physiological response to psychosocial stress, which has been linked to poor cancer prognosis. This raises concern that glucocorticoids affect the tumor and GSCs. Here, we treated primary human GBM cells with dexamethasone and evaluated GC......-driven changes in cell morphology, proliferation, migration, gene expression, secretory activity and growth as neurospheres. Dexamethasone treatment of GBM cells appeared to promote the development of a GSC-like phenotype and conferred resistance to physiological stress and chemotherapy. We also analyzed...

  8. Execution gives the recommendations given by WAMAP to Guatemala in relation to the administration he/she gives the radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Ordonnez, P.

    1998-01-01

    The Wamap mission visits Guatemala assisting to application Direccion General de Energia. The nuclear activity in Guatemala is limited to the investigation and the radioisotopes application. In this visit three important aspects were identified that required attention: The establishment gives a Regulatory law in the handling waste; An inventory gives the radioactive waste that have been generated; Technical knowledge on the storage. gathering and immobilization gives the waste

  9. The Climate Science Special Report: Rising Seas and Changing Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    GMSL has risen by about 16-21 cm since 1900. Ocean heat content has increased at all depths since the 1960s, and global mean sea-surface temperature increased 0.7°C/century between 1900 to 2016. Human activity contributed substantially to generating a rate of GMSL rise since 1900 faster than during any preceding century in at least 2800 years. A new set of six sea-level rise scenarios, spanning a range from 30 cm to 250 cm of 21st century GMSL rise, were developed for the CSSR. The lower scenario is based on linearly extrapolating the past two decades' rate of rise. The upper scenario is informed by literature estimates of maximum physically plausible values, observations indicating the onset of marine ice sheet instability in parts of West Antarctica, and modeling of ice-cliff and ice-shelf instability mechanisms. The new scenarios include localized projections along US coastlines. There is significant variability around the US, with rates of rise likely greater than GMSL rise in the US Northeast and the western Gulf of Mexico. Under scenarios involving extreme Antarctic contributions, regional rise would be greater than GMSL rise along almost all US coastlines. Historical sea-level rise has already driven a 5- to 10-fold increase in minor tidal flooding in several US coastal cities since the 1960s. Under the CSSR's Intermediate sea-level rise scenario (1.0 m of GMSL rise in 2100) , a majority of NOAA tide gauge locations will by 2040 experience the historical 5-year coastal flood about 5 times per year. Ocean changes are not limited to rising sea levels. Ocean pH is decreasing at a rate that may be unparalleled in the last 66 million years. Along coastlines, ocean acidification can be enhanced by changes in the upwelling (particularly along the US Pacific Coast); by episodic, climate change-enhanced increases in freshwater input (particularly along the US Atlantic Coast); and by the enhancement of biological respiration by nutrient runoff. Climate models project

  10. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  11. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  12. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML...... will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test...

  13. Electrical safety of commercial Li-ion cells based on NMC and NCA technology compared to LFP technology

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Martin; Gläser, Simon; Geder, Jan; Menacher, Stefan; Obpacher, Sebastian; Jossen, Andreas; Quinger, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Since a laptop caught fire in 2006 at the latest, Li-ion cells were considered as more dangerous than other accumulators [1]. Recent incidents, such as the one involving a BYD e6 electric taxi [2] or the Boeing Dreamliner [3], give rise to questions concerning the safety of L#i-ion cells. This is a crucial point, since Li-ion cells are increasingly integrated in all kinds of (electric) vehicles. Therefore the economic success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BE...

  14. Classification of Hydrogels Based on Their Source: A Review and Application in Stem Cell Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Maziyar M.; Sorokina, Lioudmila V.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Mukhtar, Farrukh; Shirdar, Mostafa Rezazadeh; Shahidi, Mahnaz; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells are recognized by their self-renewal ability and can give rise to specialized progeny. Hydrogels are an established class of biomaterials with the ability to control stem cell fate via mechanotransduction. They can mimic various physiological conditions to influence the fate of stem cells and are an ideal platform to support stem cell regulation. This review article provides a summary of recent advances in the application of different classes of hydrogels based on their source (e.g., natural, synthetic, or hybrid). This classification is important because the chemistry of substrate affects stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Natural and synthetic hydrogels have been widely used in stem cell regulation. Nevertheless, they have limitations that necessitate a new class of material. Hybrid hydrogels obtained by manipulation of the natural and synthetic ones can potentially overcome these limitations and shape the future of research in application of hydrogels in stem cell regulation.

  15. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  16. An update clinical application of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) in cancer cell therapy and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Shiva; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Fardyazar, Zahra; Pashaiasl, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that cell-based therapies are promising for cancer treatments. The human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are advantageous cells for such therapeutic schemes that can be innately changed to express therapeutic proteins. HAFSCs display a natural tropism to cancer cells in vivo. They can be useful in cancer cells targeting. Moreover, they are easily available from surplus diagnostic samples during pregnancy and less ethical and legal concern are associated with the collection and application than other putative cells are subjected. This review will designate representatives of amniotic fluid and stem cell derived from amniotic fluid. For this propose, we collect state of human AFS cells data applicable in cancer therapy by dividing this approach into two main classes (nonengineered and engineered based approaches). Our study shows the advantage of AFS cells over other putative cells types in terms differentiation ability to a wide range of cells by potential and effective use in preclinical studies for a variety of diseases. This study has shown the elasticity of human AFS cells and their favorable potential as a multipotent cell source for regenerative stem cell therapy and capable of giving rise to multiple lineages including such as osteoblasts and adipocyte.

  17. Natural Killer Cell Response to Chemotherapy-Stressed Cancer Cells: Role in Tumor Immunosurveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zingoni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are innate cytotoxic lymphoid cells that actively prevent neoplastic development, growth, and metastatic dissemination in a process called cancer immunosurveillance. An equilibrium between immune control and tumor growth is maintained as long as cancer cells evade immunosurveillance. Therapies designed to kill cancer cells and to simultaneously sustain host antitumor immunity are an appealing strategy to control tumor growth. Several chemotherapeutic agents, depending on which drugs and doses are used, give rise to DNA damage and cancer cell death by means of apoptosis, immunogenic cell death, or other forms of non-apoptotic death (i.e., mitotic catastrophe, senescence, and autophagy. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they can trigger additional stress responses. Indeed, relevant immunostimulating effects of different therapeutic programs include also the activation of pathways able to promote their recognition by immune effector cells. Among stress-inducible immunostimulating proteins, changes in the expression levels of NK cell-activating and inhibitory ligands, as well as of death receptors on tumor cells, play a critical role in their detection and elimination by innate immune effectors, including NK cells. Here, we will review recent advances in chemotherapy-mediated cellular stress pathways able to stimulate NK cell effector functions. In particular, we will address how these cytotoxic lymphocytes sense and respond to different types of drug-induced stresses contributing to anticancer activity.

  18. Different Chondrogenic Potential among Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Diverse Origin Primary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeri Alice Rim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have tried to reprogram various origins of primary cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Every somatic cell can theoretically become a hiPSC and give rise to targeted cells of the human body. However, there have been debates on the controversy about the differentiation propensity according to the origin of primary cells. We reprogrammed hiPSCs from four different types of primary cells such as dermal fibroblasts (DF, n=3, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n=3, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC, n=3, and osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (OAFLS, n=3. Established hiPSCs were differentiated into chondrogenic pellets. All told, cartilage-specific markers tended to express more by the order of CBMC > DF > PBMC > FLS. Origin of primary cells may influence the reprogramming and differentiation thereafter. In the context of chondrogenic propensity, CBMC-derived hiPSCs can be a fairly good candidate cell source for cartilage regeneration. The differentiation of hiPSCs into chondrocytes may help develop “cartilage in a dish” in the future. Also, the ideal cell source of hiPSC for chondrogenesis may contribute to future application as well.

  19. TET2 mutations in B cells of patients affected by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Friederike H; Cai, Qian; Fellmann, Eva; Hartmann, Sylvia; Mäyränpää, Mikko I; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Sundström, Christer; Scholtysik, René; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Küppers, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas (AITLs) frequently carry mutations in the TET2 and IDH2 genes. TET2 mutations represent early genetic lesions as they had already been detected in haematopoietic precursor cells of AITL patients. We show by analysis of whole-tissue sections and microdissected PD1 + cells that the frequency of TET2-mutated AITL is presumably even higher than reported (12/13 cases in our collection; 92%). In two-thirds of informative AITLs (6/9), a fraction of B cells was also TET2-mutated. Investigation of four AITLs by TET2 and IGHV gene sequencing of single microdissected B cells showed that between 10% and 60% of polyclonal B cells in AITL lymph nodes harboured the identical TET2 mutations of the respective T-cell lymphoma clone. Thus, TET2-mutated haematopoietic precursor cells in AITL patients not only give rise to the T-cell lymphoma but also generate a large population of mutated mature B cells. Future studies will show whether this is a reason why AITL patients frequently also develop B-cell lymphomas. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Assessment on vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, L.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    1(low vulnerability) and 2 (moderate vulnerability), respectively. In 2050s, 88.8 %, 10.7 % and 0.5 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1 and 2, respectively. In 2100s, 85.7 %, 7.3 % , 2.0 % and 5.0 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1, 2 and 3(high vulnerability), respectively. At the A1F1 scenario of sea level rise rate of 0.59 cm/a, 91.0 %, 8.7 % and 0.3 % of the coastal wetlands in 2030s were in the EVI score of 0, 1 and 2 , respectively. In 2050s, 86.9 %, 10.5 % , 2.4 % and 0.2 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In 2100s, 82.4 %, 7.1 % , 2.4 % and 8.1 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The spatiotemporal occurrences of vulnerability were mainly where the subsidence rate is relatively higher and the sedimentation rate is lower or even negative. The results from this study indicated that the combined effects of sea level rise, land subsidence, reducing sediment discharge could give rise to the high risk of a considerable decrease or even habitat loss of coastal wetland in the Yangtze Estuary (particularly in 2050s and 2100s). Therefore some mitigation measures should be considered in the future, including management of sedimentation, reducing land subsidence, recreating and extending wetland habitat, and controlling reclamation.