WorldWideScience

Sample records for cells final performance

  1. Final Technical Report: Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Hector Colon-Mercado; Kitiya Hongsirikarn; and Jack Z. Zhang

    2011-11-11

    accessible for hydrogen activation. Of the impurities studied, CO, NH3, perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene), tetrahydrofuran, diborane, and metal cations had significant negative effects on the components in a fuel cell. While CO has no effect on the Nafion, it significantly poisons the Pt catalyst by adsorbing and blocking hydrogen activation. The effect can be reversed with time once the flow of CO is stopped. NH3 has no effect on the Pt catalyst at fuel cell conditions; it poisons the proton sites on Nafion (by forming NH4+ cations), decreasing drastically the proton conductivity of Nafion. This poisoning can slowly be reversed once the flow of NH3 is stopped. Perchloroethylene has a major effect on fuel cell performance. Since it has little/no effect on Nafion conductivity, its poisoning effect is on the Pt catalyst. However, this effect takes place primarily for the Pt catalyst at the cathode, since the presence of oxygen is very important for this poisoning effect. Tetrahydrofuran was shown not to impact Nafion conductivity; however, it does affect fuel cell performance. Therefore, its primary effect is on the Pt catalyst. The effect of THF on fuel cell performance is reversible. Diborane also can significant affect fuel cell performance. This effect is reversible once diborane is removed from the inlet streams. H2O2 is not an impurity usually present in the hydrogen or oxygen streams to a fuel cell. However, it is generated during fuel cell operation. The presence of Fe cations in the Nafion due to system corrosion and/or arising from MEA production act to catalyze the severe degradation of the Nafion by H2O2. Finally, the presence of metal cation impurities (Na+, Ca 2+, Fe3+) in Nafion from MEA preparation or from corrosion significantly impacts its proton conductivity due to replacement of proton sites. This effect is not reversible. Hydrocarbons, such as ethylene, might be expected to affect Pt or Nafion but do not at a typical fuel cell

  2. Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Molter

    2012-08-18

    This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

  3. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  4. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  5. Final Performance Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houldin, Joseph [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Saboor, Veronica [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    about assessing a company’s technical assets, broadening our view of the business to go beyond what they make or what NAICS code they have…to better understand their capacity, capability, and expertise, and to learn more about THEIR customers. Knowing more about the markets they serve can often provide insight into their level of technical knowledge and sophistication. Finally, in the spirit of realizing the intent of the Accelerator we strove to align and integrate the work and activities supported by the five funding agencies to leverage each effort. To that end, we include in the Integrated Work Plan a graphic that illustrates that integration. What follows is our summary report of the project, aggregated from prior reports.

  6. Final Performance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, S. T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    U.S./China Energy and Environmental Technology Center (EETC), Payson Center for International Development, Law School of Tulane University was officially established in 1997 with initial funds from private sector, US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy (DOE.) Lately, DOE has provided EETC funds for operations with cost share from the Ministry of Science and Technology, China. EETC was created to facilitate the development of friendly, broad-based U.S./China relations. Tulane University signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Chinese People’s Institute of Foreign Affairs (1995) to promote the formation of Chinese partners for EETC. EETC’s original goal is to enhance the competitiveness of US clean fossil energy technology in China so that, as her economy expands, local and global environment are well protected. Specifically, through the demonstration and broadly deployment of US developed clean coal technology for power generation, transmission, and emission reductions in China. EETC is also focused on US industry partnerships for local economic development. One of the main the objectives of the EETC is to promote the efficient, responsible production and utilization of energy with a focus on clean fossil energy, promote US clean energy and environmental technologies, and encourage environmental performance while improving the quality of life in China. Another objective is to assist China with environmental and energy policy development and provide supports for China’s development with expertise (best practices) from US industry.

  7. SLC Final Performance and Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Phinney, Nan

    2000-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) was the first prototype of a new type of accelerator, the electron-positron linear collider. Many years of dedicated effort were required to understand the physics of this new technology and to develop the techniques for maximizing performance. Key issues were emittance dilution, stability, final beam optimization and background control. Precision, non-invasive diagnostics were required to measure and monitor the beams throughout the machine. Beam-based feed...

  8. High performance MEAs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present project is through modeling, material and process development to obtain significantly better MEA performance and to attain the technology necessary to fabricate stable catalyst materials thereby providing a viable alternative to current industry standard. This project primarily focused on the development and characterization of novel catalyst materials for the use in high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). New catalysts are needed in order to improve fuel cell performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems. Additional tasks were the development of new, durable sealing materials to be used in PEMFC as well as the computational modeling of heat and mass transfer processes, predominantly in LT PEMFC, in order to improve fundamental understanding of the multi-phase flow issues and liquid water management in fuel cells. An improved fundamental understanding of these processes will lead to improved fuel cell performance and hence will also result in a reduced catalyst loading to achieve the same performance. The consortium have obtained significant research results and progress for new catalyst materials and substrates with promising enhanced performance and fabrication of the materials using novel methods. However, the new materials and synthesis methods explored are still in the early research and development phase. The project has contributed to improved MEA performance using less precious metal and has been demonstrated for both LT-PEM, DMFC and HT-PEM applications. New novel approach and progress of the modelling activities has been extremely satisfactory with numerous conference and journal publications along with two potential inventions concerning the catalyst layer. (LN)

  9. Power performance assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the increasingly commercialised wind power marketplace, the lack of precise assessment methods for the output of an investment is becoming a barrier for wider penetration of wind power. Thus, addressing this problem, the overall objectives of the project are to reduce the financial risk in investment in wind power projects by significantly improving the power performance assessment methods. Ultimately, if this objective is successfully met, the project may also result in improved tuning of the individual wind turbines and in optimisation methods for wind farm operation. The immediate, measurable objectives of the project are: To prepare a review of existing contractual aspects of power performance verification procedures of wind farms; to provide information on production sensitivity to specific terrain characteristics and wind turbine parameters by analyses of a larger number of wind farm power performance data available to the proposers; to improve the understanding of the physical parameters connected to power performance in complex environment by comparing real-life wind farm power performance data with 3D computational flow models and 3D-turbulence wind turbine models; to develop the statistical framework including uncertainty analysis for power performance assessment in complex environments; and to propose one or more procedures for power performance evaluation of wind power plants in complex environments to be applied in contractual agreements between purchasers and manufacturers on production warranties. Although the focus in this project is on power performance assessment the possible results will also be of benefit to energy yield forecasting, since the two tasks are strongly related. (au) JOULE III. 66 refs.; In Co-operation Renewable Energy System Ltd. (GB); Centre for Renewable Energy (GR); Aeronautic Research Centre (SE); National Engineering Lab. (GB); Public Power Cooperation (GR)

  10. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair in human cells. Final performance report, July 1992 - June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of DNA damage in living cells in vitro and in vivo were continued. A variety of systems including cultured mammalian cells, animals, and human tissues were used to conduct these studies. In addition, enzymatic repair of DNA base damage was studied using several DNA glycosylases. To this end, substrate specificities of these enzymes were examined in terms of a large number of base lesions in DNA. In the first phase of the studies, the author sought to introduce improvements to his methodologies for measurement of DNA damage using the technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In particular, the quantitative measurement of DNA base damage and DNA-protein crosslinks was improved by incorporation of isotope-dilution mass spectrometry into the methodologies. This is one of the most accurate techniques for quantification of organic compounds. Having improved the measurement technique, studies of DNA damage in living cells and DNA repair by repair enzymes were pursued. This report provides a summary of these studies with references to the original work

  11. Final Report: Performance Engineering Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice University

    2014-10-27

    This document is a final report about the work performed for cooperative agreement DE-FC02-06ER25764, the Rice University effort of Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI was an Enabling Technologies Institute of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-2) program supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program. The PERI effort at Rice University focused on (1) research and development of tools for measurement and analysis of application program performance, and (2) engagement with SciDAC-2 application teams.

  12. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS. Final Technical Report (October 2000 - December 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr0.5Sm0.5CoO3 (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of ∼0.23 ohm-cm2 has been achieved at 600 C with Sr0.5Sm0.5CoO3cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte

  13. The effects of halides on the performance of coal gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cells: Final report, October 1986-October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.P.; Kunz, H.R.; Krasij, M.; Cote, H.A.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents the results of a program to determine the probable tolerable limits of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride present in the fuel and oxidant streams of molten carbonate fuel cells that are operating on gasified coal. A literature survey and thermodynamic analyses were performed to determine the likely effects of halides on cell performance and materials. Based on the results of these studies, accelerated corrosion experiments and electrode half-cell performance tests were conducted using electrolyte which contained chloride and fluoride. These data and the results of previous in-cell tests were used to develop a computer for predicting the performance decay due to these halides. The tolerable limits were found to be low (less than 1 PPM) and depend on the power plant system configuration, the operating conditions of the fuel cell stack, the cell design and initial electrolyte inventory, and the ability of the cell to scrub low levels of halide from the reactant streams. The primary decay modes were conversion of the electrolyte from pure carbonate to a carbonate-halide mixture and accelerated electrolyte evaporation. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Final report on LDRD project : elucidating performance of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells via computational modeling with experimental discovery and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao Yang (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Pasaogullari, Ugur (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Noble, David R.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Hickner, Michael A.; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2006-11-01

    In this report, we document the accomplishments in our Laboratory Directed Research and Development project in which we employed a technical approach of combining experiments with computational modeling and analyses to elucidate the performance of hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In the first part of this report, we document our focused efforts on understanding water transport in and removal from a hydrogen-fed PEMFC. Using a transparent cell, we directly visualized the evolution and growth of liquid-water droplets at the gas diffusion layer (GDL)/gas flow channel (GFC) interface. We further carried out a detailed experimental study to observe, via direct visualization, the formation, growth, and instability of water droplets at the GDL/GFC interface using a specially-designed apparatus, which simulates the cathode operation of a PEMFC. We developed a simplified model, based on our experimental observation and data, for predicting the onset of water-droplet instability at the GDL/GFC interface. Using a state-of-the-art neutron imaging instrument available at NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology), we probed liquid-water distribution inside an operating PEMFC under a variety of operating conditions and investigated effects of evaporation due to local heating by waste heat on water removal. Moreover, we developed computational models for analyzing the effects of micro-porous layer on net water transport across the membrane and GDL anisotropy on the temperature and water distributions in the cathode of a PEMFC. We further developed a two-phase model based on the multiphase mixture formulation for predicting the liquid saturation, pressure drop, and flow maldistribution across the PEMFC cathode channels. In the second part of this report, we document our efforts on modeling the electrochemical performance of PEMFCs. We developed a constitutive model for predicting proton conductivity in polymer electrolyte membranes and compared

  15. Performance of MicroLink Cells Developed Under Navy STTR: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.

    2013-06-01

    Evaluate MicroLink cells as a function of temperature and spectral irradiance following the teams' standard procedures. These measurements will include the standard procedures for evaluating multijunction cells including quantum efficiency measurements and current versus voltage measurements.

  16. Traffic Management Systems Performance Measurement: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Kelly, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study of performance measurement for Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Performance measurement requirements were analyzed, data collection and management techniques were investigated, and case study traffic data system improvement plans were prepared for two Caltrans districts.

  17. Measuring performance of parallel computers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, F.

    1994-07-01

    Performance Measurement - the authors have developed a taxonomy of parallel algorithms based on data motion and example applications have been coded for each class of the taxonomy. Computational benchmark kernels have been extracted for several applications, and detailed measurements have been performed. Algorithms for Massively Parallel SIMD machines - measurement results and computational experiences indicate that top performance will be achieved by `iteration` type algorithms running on massively parallel SIMD machines. Reformulation as iteration may entail unorthodox approaches based on probabilistic methods. The authors have developed such methods for some applications. Here they discuss their approach to performance measurement, describe the taxonomy and measurements which have been made, and report on some general conclusions which can be drawn from the results of the measurements.

  18. Ultra-High-Efficiency Multijunction Cell and Receiver Module, Phase 1B: High Performance PV Exploring and Accelerating Ultimate Pathways; Final Subcontract Report, 13 May 2005 - 10 December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R. R.

    2010-03-01

    Spectrolab's two High Performance Photovoltaics primary objectives: (1) develop ultra-high-efficiency concentrator multijunction cells and (2) develop a robust concentrator cell receiver package.

  19. Nuclear fuel performance evaluation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation has been made of the ability of Scandpower's empirical fuel performance model POSHO (''Power Shock'') to predict the probability of fuel pin failures resulting from pellet-clad interaction in commercial nuclear power plants. POSHO provides an analytical method to calculate the failure probabilities associated with power level maneuvers for different fuel assembly designs. Application of the method provides a basis for risk-benefit decisions concerning operational procedures, fuel designs and fuel management strategies. One boiling water reactor (BWR) and one pressurized water reactor (PWR) were selected for study to compare model predictions with actual failures, as determined from post irradiation examination of the fuel and activity release data. The fuel duty cycles were reconstructed from operating records and nodal power histories were created by using Scandpower's FMS computer programs. Nodal power histories, coupled with the relative pin power distribution in each node, were processed by the fuel failure prediction model, which tracks the interaction power level for each pin group in each node and calculates the power shocks and the probability for pellet-clad interaction cracks. The results of these calculations are processed statistically to give the expected number of cracks, the number of failed fuel pins in each assembly and the total number of failed assemblies in the core. Fuel performance in the BWR, Quad Cities Unit Two, was calculated by the model in approximate agreement with the observed performance. Fuel performance in the PWR, Maine Yankee, was calculated in approximate agreement for two of the three fuel designs. The high failure rate in the third design, Type B fuel, was not calculated by the POSHO pellet-clad interaction model

  20. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  1. Sustainable test cell : performance evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro Correia Pereira da; Bragança, L.; Mendonça, Paulo; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de

    2006-01-01

    Energy is one of the main causes of the environmental pollution. In the European Union, buildings are responsible for 40% of the final energy demand and 1/3 of the emissions of greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to promote the energy consumption reduction, it is fundamental to employ sustainable development principles in the construction sector. In order to demonstrate and show the potentialities of Sustainable building technologies two Test Cells were built. Comparing the solutions obtain...

  2. 32 CFR 37.905 - Must I make receipt of the final performance report a condition for final payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I make receipt of the final performance report a condition for final payment? 37.905 Section 37.905 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE... make receipt of the final performance report a condition for final payment? If a final report...

  3. FINAL REPORT ON GDE GAP CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Summers, W.; Danko, E.

    2009-09-28

    A project has been undertaken to develop an electrochemical cell and support equipment for evaluation of a gas diffusion electrode-based, narrow-electrolyte-gap anode for SO{sub 2} oxidation in the hydrogen production cycle of the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process. The project supported the HyS development program at the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL). The benefits of using a gas diffusion electrode in conjunction with the narrow anolyte gap are being determined through electrochemical polarization testing under a variety conditions, and by comparison to results produced by SRNL and others using anode technologies that have no anolyte gap. These test results indicate that the NGA cell has low resistance suitable for use in the HyS electrolyzer, exhibits good efficiency at high current densities compared to the direct feed HyS electrolyzer, and indicates robust performance in extended testing over 65 hours. Seepage episodes were mostly caused by port clogging, which can be mitigated in future designs through minor modifications to the hardware. Significant reductions in sulfur crossover have not yet been demonstrated in the NGA configuration compared to in-house direct feed testing, but corroborative sulfur layer analysis is as yet incomplete. Further testing in a single-pass anolyte configuration is recommended for complete evaluation of steady-state electrochemical efficiency and SO{sub 2} crossover in the narrow gap configuration.

  4. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Biswajit [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-05-07

    nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.

  5. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-12-31

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  6. Robust Technique for Measuring and Simulating Silicon Wafer Quality Characteristics that Enable the Prediction of Solar Cell Electrical Performance of MEMC Silicon Wafer. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-438

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, Bhushan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NREL and MEMC Electronic Materials are interested in developing a robust technique for monitoring material quality of mc-Si and mono-Si wafers -- a technique that can provide relevant data to accurately predict the performance of solar cells fabricated on them. Previous work, performed under two TSAs between NREL and MEMC, has established that dislocation clusters are the dominant performance-limiting factor in MEMC mc-Si solar cells. The work under this CRADA will go further in verifying these results on a larger data set, evaluate possibilities of faster method(s) for mapping dislocations in wafers/ingots, understanding dislocation generation during ingot casting, and helping MEMC to have an internal capability for basic characterization that will provide feedback needed for more accurate crystallization simulations. NREL has already developed dislocation mapping technique and developed a basic electronic model (called Network Model) that uses spatial distribution of dislocations to predict the cell performance. In this CRADA work, we will use these techniques to: (i) establish dislocation, grain size, and grain orientation distributions of the entire ingots (through appropriate DOE) and compare these with theoretical models developed by MEMC, (ii) determine concentrations of some relevant impurities in selected wafers, (iii) evaluate potential of using photoluminescence for dislocation mapping and identification of recombination centers, (iv) evaluate use of diode array analysis as a detailed characterization tool, and (v) establish dislocation mapping as a wafer-quality monitoring tool for commercial mc-Si production.

  7. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  8. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  9. Performance of the final Event Builder for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Battaglia, A; Blair, R; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Ciobotaru, M; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drake, G; Ermoline, Y; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haberichter, W N; Haeberli, C; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kugel, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann, G; Martin, M; Mapelli, L; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vandelli, W; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Yu, M; Yasu, Y; Zhang, J; Zobernig, H; 15th IEEE Real Time Conference 2007

    2007-01-01

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three level trigger system, which reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2) to ~3 kHz. At this rate the Event-Builder collects the data from all Read-Out system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the the Event-Filter (EF), which is the third level trigger, to achieve a further rate reduction to ~200 Hz for permanent storage. The Event-Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via Gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs and one third of the Event-Builder PCs are already installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which show promising results to reach the final data throughput required for the ATLAS experiment.

  10. 32 CFR 37.890 - Must I require a final performance report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I require a final performance report? 37... Matters Financial and Programmatic Reporting § 37.890 Must I require a final performance report? You need not require a final performance report that addresses all major accomplishments under the TIA. If...

  11. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  12. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  13. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  14. Improved micromorph tandem cell performance through enhanced top cell currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platz, R.; Vaucher, N.P.; Fischer, D.; Meier, J.; Shah, A. [Univ. de Neuchatel (Switzerland). Inst. de Microtechnique

    1997-12-31

    Two approaches to increasing the current in the amorphous silicon top cell of an amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si:H/{micro}c-Si:H) tandem cell are presented. The goal is to raise the stabilized efficiency of such cells. The deposition of the amorphous top cell at higher than standard substrate temperature is shown to reduce the optical gap of the i-layer and to increase the current which is generated with a given i-layer thickness. Furthermore, a selectively reflecting ZnO interface layer between the component cells is presented as a viable tool for enhancing the current generation in the top cell by selective reflection of light. The authors present a micromorph tandem cell containing the amorphous top cell deposited at high substrate temperature, and additionally the ZnO mirror layer. A top cell thickness of 150 nm is shown to be sufficient to provide a current density of 13mA/cm{sup 2} in the top cell. Finally, the influence of such thin top cells on the stabilized efficiency of the tandem cell is investigated by experiment and by means of semi-empirical modeling. Model and experiment confirm that such reduced-gap top cells, together with current enhancement due to the mirror layer, have a high potential for improving the stabilized efficiency of micromorph tandem cells.

  15. Development of simplified process for environmentally resistant cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    A program to develop a simple, foolproof, all-vacuum solar cell manufacturing process which can be completely automated and which results in medium efficiency cells which are inherently environmentally resistant is described. All components of the completed cells are integrated into a monolithic structure with no material interfaces. The exposed materials (Si, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, Ni) are all resistant to atmospheric attack and the junction, per se, is passivated to prevent long term degradation. Such cells are intended to be incorporated into a simple module consisting basically of a press-formed metallic superstructure with a separated glass cover for missile, etc., protection. A 5 cm x 5 cm test cell configuration was designed in which the various efficiency loss factors were adjusted to yield a 10% AMI cell. Each of the cell elements was individually optimized for combination with the others. The basic cell consists of alloyed front (Al) and back (Ag plus Ni) contacts, a multi-purpose (AR, hermetic seal, implantation oxide) front surface coating of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and an implanted front junction. Implantation damage annealing and contact alloying are carried out in a simple one step thermal treatment at 870/sup 0/C using a resistance heated furnace in vacuum. The use of non-analyzed and semi-analyzed beams for fabricating these cells was developed by KCI. A final lot of 50 cells made using the semi-analyzed beam method had an average efficiency of 10.4% at AMI (28 +- 1/sup 0/C). An economic analysis predicts a manufacturing cost of $.45/peak-watt for these cells using a one machine automatic method.

  16. Final Report - Certifying the Performance of Small Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Larry [Small Wind Certification Council, Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) created a successful accredited certification program for small and medium wind turbines using the funding from this grant. SWCC certifies small turbines (200 square meters of swept area or less) to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 – 2009). SWCC also certifies medium wind turbines to the International Electrical Commission (IEC) Power Performance Standard (IEC 61400-12-1) and Acoustic Performance Standard (IEC 61400-11).

  17. Complier-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning (TUNE) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chame, Jacqueline [USC-ISI

    2013-06-07

    TUNE was created to develop compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 system at Oak Ridge. TUNE combines compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation. The goal of this performance-tuning technology is to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, TUNE aims to make compiler technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  18. Final design and performance of in situ testing in Grimsel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is focused on the design, engineering, and construction aspects of the in situ test carried out at the Grimsel underground laboratory in Switzerland. This reproduces the AGP-granite concept of ENRESA for HLW repositories in crystalline rock. Two heaters, similar in dimensions and weight to the canisters in the reference concept, have been placed in a horizontal drift with a 2.28-m diameter, a total test length of 17.4 m, and backfilled with a total of 115.7 † of highly-compacted bentonite blocks. The backfilled area has been closed with a concrete plug which is 2.7 m thick. More than 600 sensors have been installed in the test to monitor different parameters such as temperature, pressures, humidity, etc., within both the buffer material and the host rock. The installation was completed and commissioned in February 1997, and then the heating phase, which will last for at least 3 years, was started. During this period, the test will basically be operated in an automatic mode, controlled and monitored from Spain via modem. The report is the Final Report from AITEMIN for Phase 4 of the project and includes a description of the test configuration and layout; the design, engineering, and manufacturing aspects of the different test components and equipment; the emplacement operation; and the as built information regarding the final position of the main components and the sensors. (Author)

  19. Analysis of Intellectual Capital Effect toward Final Performance and Growt

    OpenAIRE

    Sasya Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of intellectual capital of firm toward financial performance and growth. The Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM) is used to measure intellectual capital. The indicators for VAICTM are Value Added Capital Employed (VACA), Value Added Human Capital (VAHU), and Structural Capital Value Added (STVA). The indicators for financial performance are Current Ratio (CR), Total Assets Turnover (TATO), Return on Investment (ROI), and R...

  20. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Analysis of Intellectual Capital Effect toward Final Performance and Growt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasya Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of intellectual capital of firm toward financial performance and growth. The Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM is used to measure intellectual capital. The indicators for VAICTM are Value Added Capital Employed (VACA, Value Added Human Capital (VAHU, and Structural Capital Value Added (STVA. The indicators for financial performance are Current Ratio (CR, Total Assets Turnover (TATO, Return on Investment (ROI, and Return on Equity (ROE. The indicators for growth are Earnings Growth (EG and Assets Growth (AG. This research uses data drawn from 92 publicly listed manufacturing companies in Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Partial Least Square (PLS is used as the method of data analysis. This research uses SmartPLS 3.2.0 to analyze the data.The results show that: intellectual capital doesnt influence financial performance and intellectual capital positively influences growth.

  2. Test of job performance aids for power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of EPRI Research Project 1396-1 was to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of Job Performance Aids (JPAs) in nuclear power plant situations. For over twenty years, JPAs have been developed in military situations to meet the problems of confusing, incomplete, and inaccurate procedures on maintenance jobs. Kinton, Incorporated of Alexandria, Virginia applied the military experience with JPAs to nuclear power plant situations and identified potential benefits in terms of cost reductions and improved performance. Sample JPAs were developed for Control Room Operations, Maintenance, Plant Operations, Instrumentation and Control, Health Physics, and Quality Assurance tasks (procedures) in selected nuclear plants. JPAs were also developed for a prototype condenser tube leak detection system in the design stage, as well as for generic classes of circuit breaker equipment. Based on the results of the study, the use of JPAs is recommended for plant procedures of medium to high difficulty and for those tasks performed infrequently, even if fairly simple

  3. Performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: In vivo measurements, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; Traub, R.J.; Olsen, P.C.

    1990-04-01

    A study of two rounds of in vivo laboratory performance testing was undertaken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the appropriateness of the in vivo performance criteria of draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard ANSI N13.3, Performance Criteria for Bioassay.'' The draft standard provides guidance to in vivo counting facilities regarding the sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of measurements for certain categories of commonly assayed radionuclides and critical regions of the body. This report concludes the testing program by presenting the results of the Round Two testing. Testing involved two types of measurements: chest counting for radionuclide detection in the lung, and whole body counting for detection of uniformly distributed material. Each type of measurement was further divided into radionuclide categories as defined in the draft standard. The appropriateness of the draft standard criteria by measuring a laboratory's ability to attain them were judged by the results of both round One and Round Two testing. The testing determined that performance criteria are set at attainable levels, and the majority of in vivo monitoring facilities passed the criteria when complete results were submitted. 18 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Performance indicators for nuclear medicine and industrial radiographers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HCA--Assessment Experts (HCA) was retained under contract to provide evidence that a behaviourally based approach to the development of performance indicators for radioisotope users could be successfully designed, implemented and rapidly delivered to a pilot sample. Moreover, HCA believed that it was uniquely qualified to not only achieve this success, but to show further that we could instill the motivation for self-improvement in the AECB inspection ratings of Licensees and Permit Holders. In the space of about ten weeks. HCA was able to deliver a comprehensive set of web-based tools for performance indicators. Not only did we deliver these tools, but we also included such supplemental information as relevant legislation, regulations. Inspectors' preferences and recommendations, among others, so as to foster a learning component of the performance indicators tools. The call for the continuation of this work is based on two sources. The response from participants to this project was very favourable - participants want these tools. Secondly, our research and experience have shown (and the larger body of empirical research also shows) that this is the type of performance feedback and communication that participants appreciate the most, and is the most predictive of successful compliance and improvement in the future. (author)

  5. Peak and ceiling effects in final-product analysis of mastoidectomy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N; Konge, L; Cayé-Thomasen, P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality surgical simulation of mastoidectomy is a promising training tool for novices. Final-product analysis for assessing novice mastoidectomy performance could be limited by a peak or ceiling effect. These may be countered by simulator-integrated tutoring. METHODS: Twenty-t...... instruction is important when using final-product analysis to assess novice mastoidectomy performance. Improved real-time feedback and tutoring could address the limitations of final product based assessment....

  6. High Performance Building Facade Solutions PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    Building facades directly influence heating and cooling loads and indirectly influence lighting loads when daylighting is considered, and are therefore a major determinant of annual energy use and peak electric demand. Facades also significantly influence occupant comfort and satisfaction, making the design optimization challenge more complex than many other building systems.This work focused on addressing significant near-term opportunities to reduce energy use in California commercial building stock by a) targeting voluntary, design-based opportunities derived from the use of better design guidelines and tools, and b) developing and deploying more efficient glazings, shading systems, daylighting systems, facade systems and integrated controls. This two-year project, supported by the California Energy Commission PIER program and the US Department of Energy, initiated a collaborative effort between The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and major stakeholders in the facades industry to develop, evaluate, and accelerate market deployment of emerging, high-performance, integrated facade solutions. The LBNL Windows Testbed Facility acted as the primary catalyst and mediator on both sides of the building industry supply-user business transaction by a) aiding component suppliers to create and optimize cost effective, integrated systems that work, and b) demonstrating and verifying to the owner, designer, and specifier community that these integrated systems reliably deliver required energy performance. An industry consortium was initiated amongst approximately seventy disparate stakeholders, who unlike the HVAC or lighting industry, has no single representative, multi-disciplinary body or organized means of communicating and collaborating. The consortium provided guidance on the project and more importantly, began to mutually work out and agree on the goals, criteria, and pathways needed to attain the ambitious net zero energy goals defined by California and

  7. High Performance Building Facade Solutions - PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    Building facades directly influence heating and cooling loads and indirectly influence lighting loads when daylighting is considered, and are therefore a major determinant of annual energy use and peak electric demand. Facades also significantly influence occupant comfort and satisfaction, making the design optimization challenge more complex than many other building systems.This work focused on addressing significant near-term opportunities to reduce energy use in California commercial building stock by a) targeting voluntary, design-based opportunities derived from the use of better design guidelines and tools, and b) developing and deploying more efficient glazings, shading systems, daylighting systems, facade systems and integrated controls. This two-year project, supported by the California Energy Commission PIER program and the US Department of Energy, initiated a collaborative effort between The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and major stakeholders in the facades industry to develop, evaluate, and accelerate market deployment of emerging, high-performance, integrated facade solutions. The LBNL Windows Testbed Facility acted as the primary catalyst and mediator on both sides of the building industry supply-user business transaction by a) aiding component suppliers to create and optimize cost effective, integrated systems that work, and b) demonstrating and verifying to the owner, designer, and specifier community that these integrated systems reliably deliver required energy performance. An industry consortium was initiated amongst approximately seventy disparate stakeholders, who unlike the HVAC or lighting industry, has no single representative, multi-disciplinary body or organized means of communicating and collaborating. The consortium provided guidance on the project and more importantly, began to mutually work out and agree on the goals, criteria, and pathways needed to attain the ambitious net zero energy goals defined by California and

  8. Influence choreographic readiness to gymnasts final assessment of performance skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelichyk-Ziurkalova O.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to provide a quantitative assessment and expert choreographic preparedness gymnasts. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts competition finalists in the floor exercise - female members of the Ukrainian national team in gymnastics. Results : the quantitative indicators of acrobatic and dance elements to determine the baseline assessment. Defined methods complications composition on the floor exercise by reducing the number of acrobatic lines and diagonals and increase the number of gymnastic elements. The theoretical performance of the composite sequence is improved structure and increases the difficulty of the exercise. Conclusions : in the process of composition complications need to pay more attention to the technique of performing gymnastic elements. In improving exercise choreography element replace (in some cases acrobatic element. Based on the results is planned future direction of research in order to improve the training process in gymnastics.

  9. Optical interference coatings for improved luminaire performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubins, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    An interior broadbeam HID uplight and an upstream roadway luminaire were developed to demonstrate that optical coated luminaire components can improve the visual effectiveness and energy efficiency of a lighting system. Optical coated reflectors and flat lens covers were very effective in the development of new improved lighting techniques. The coatings reduce reflection and transmission losses, opening the door to new design options for improving lighting performance and saving energy.

  10. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  11. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  12. Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.

  13. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  14. Final tests and performances verification of the European ALMA antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is under erection in Northern Chile. The array consists of a large number (up to 64) of 12 m diameter antennas and a number of smaller antennas, to be operated on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. The antennas will operate up to 950 GHz so that their mechanical performances, in terms of surface accuracy, pointing precision and dimensional stability, are very tight. The AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics is assembling and testing the 25 antennas. As of today, the first set of antennas have been delivered to ALMA for science. During the test phase with ESO and ALMA, the European antennas have shown excellent performances ensuring the specification requirements widely. The purpose of this paper is to present the different results obtained during the test campaign: surface accuracy, pointing error, fast motion capability and residual delay. Very important was also the test phases that led to the validation of the FE model showing that the antenna is working with a good margin than predicted at design level thanks also to the assembly and integration techniques.

  15. The CTS thin film solar cell, development of high-performance modules ('HOLMOF'). Final report; Die CTS Duennschichtsolarzelle, Entwicklung von Leistungsmodulen (Kurzbezeichnung: 'HOLMOD'). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During this project, the efficiency of solar cells was improved from 8.5 percent to 11.5 percent on average, which means a relative increase of about 35 percent. The further investigations focused on ageing and on the most stable parameter combinations. [German] Der Durschnitt der Solarzellenwirkungsgrade konnte im Laufe dieses Projektes von 8.5% auf 11.5% gesteigert werden. Dies ist eine relative Zunahme des Solarzellenwirkungsgrades um ca. 35%. Nach der Erarbeitung des hohen Wirkungsgradniveaus wurde begonnen, die Alterung verschieden prozessierter Schichten mit jeweils verschiedenen Rueckkontakten zu untersuchen, um die stabilsten Parameterkombinationen herauszufinden. Im Rahmen des HOLMOD-Projektes war bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt fast ausschliesslich Gold als Rueckkontaktmaterial verwendet worden, da es aufgrund der kurzen Pumpzeiten und der grossen Substrataufnahme der vorhandenen Gold-Aufdampfanlage einen grossen Probendurchsatz erlaubte. An den Zellen mit Gold-Rueckkontakten wurden nur vereinzelt Alterungsmessungen durchgefuehrt, da diese wegen der bekannten Bildung von Goldtelluriden cum grano salis zu bewerten sind. Diese Alterungsmessungen ermoeglichten jedoch einen zwar relativen, aber nuetzlichen Vergleich von z.B. verschiedenen CdTe- oder CdS-Quellenmaterialien untereinander. Die Datenbasis der Solarzellen mit Au-Rueckkontakt dient nun zum Vergleich mit dem Alterungsverhalten anderer Rueckkontaktmaterialien. (orig.)

  16. Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

  17. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  18. Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-10

    This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  20. High performance polymer tandem solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wilson Jose; Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 9.02% is obtained for a fully solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell, based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole unit polymer as a low bandgap photoactive material in the rear subcell, in conjunction with a new robust interconnecting layer. This interconnecting layer is optically transparent, electrically conductive, and physically strong, thus, the charges can be collected and recombined in the interconnecting layer under illumination, while the charge is generated and extracted under dark conditions. This indicates that careful interface engineering of the charge-carrier transport layer is a useful approach to further improve the performance of polymer tandem solar cells.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  2. Mastoidectomy performance assessment of virtual simulation training using final-product analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven A W; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The future development of integrated automatic assessment in temporal bone virtual surgical simulators calls for validation against currently established assessment tools. This study aimed to explore the relationship between mastoidectomy final-product performance assessmen...

  3. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  4. Quantify and improve PEM fuel cell durability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahl-Madsen, L.; Odgaard, M.; Munksgaard Nielsen, R. (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Li, Q.; Jensen, Jens Oluf (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Andersen, Shuang Ma; Speder, J.; Skou, E. (Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    approx 4,000 hours of operation correspond to a loss of catalytic active area of 58% for the anode and 69% for the cathode respectively, and the MEA can be expected to perform equivalent to MEAs with less than half the catalyst loating. DMFC durability tests were carried out on both Nafion and Hydrocarbon membrane based MEAs using different electrode designs. Several single DMFC cells and stacks have been tested up to 3,000 hours. The degradation rates found for both single cells and stacks were in the range between 10-90 muV/hours per cell, depending on the MEA configuration. Certain performance losses incurred by the cell during the steady-state operation were recovered, fully or in part, after the regular OCV hold. Regeneration of the Pt-catalyst particles include electro-reduction of the surface PtO that gradually forms over time, surface electro-oxidation of adsorbed poisons (namely CO formed from methanol crossover), and chemical reduction of PtO and/or PtOH via crossover methanol. The HT PEM FC results indicate that a degradation rate of approx 5 muV/h for HT PEM FC can be expected under continuous operation with hydrogen and air at 150-160 C, corresponding to a lifetime of 12,000 hours before 10% performance loss. This lifetime is somewhat shorter than aimed at in the national Danish HT PEM Road map (2009: 20,000 h), but it is in this context important to remember the limited knowledge on HT PEM lifetime at the time of the roadmap definition in 2008. The accelerated durability test with potential cycling showed significant catalyst degradation, primarily due to the corrosion of carbon supports, which triggers the platinum sintering/agglomeration. Modified catalyst supports in form of graphite or carbon nanotubes improve the catalyst and therefore the PBI cell durability. (LN)

  5. 32 CFR 37.895 - How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the final performance report to be sent... How is the final performance report to be sent to the Defense Technical Information Center? (a) Whether your TIA requires a final performance report or uses an alternative means under § 37.890, 8...

  6. Cancer Stem Cells: The Final Frontier for Glioma Virotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Mahua; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Tyler, Matthew A.; Sonabend, Adam M.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a very small subset of all cancer cells and possess characteristics very similar to normal stem cells, in particular, the capacity for self-renewal, multipotency and relative quiescence. These chemo- and radiation resistant cells are responsible for maintaining tumor volume leading to therapy failure and recurrence. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary intracranial malignancy, glioma stem cells have been implicated as one of the key players in ...

  7. FY08 LDRD Final Report Stem Cell Fate Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiddessen, A

    2009-03-02

    A detailed understanding of the biological control of fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells is needed to harness their full power for tissue repair and/or regeneration. Currently, internal and external factors that regulate stem cell fate are not fully understood. We aim to engineer biocompatible tools to facilitate the measurement and comparison of the roles and significance of immobilized factors such as extracellular matrix and signaling peptides, synergistic and opposing soluble factors and signals, and cell-to-cell communication, in stem cell fate decisions. Our approach is based on the development of cell microarrays to capture viable stem/progenitor cells individually or in small clusters onto substrate-bound signals (e.g. proteins), combined with conventional antibody and customized subcellular markers made in-house, to facilitate tracking of cell behavior during exposure to relevant signals. Below we describe our efforts, including methods to manipulate a model epithelial stem cell system using a custom subcellular reporter to track and measure cell signaling, arrays with surface chemistry that support viable cells and enable controlled presentation of immobilized signals to cells on the array and fluorescence-based measurement of cell response, and successful on-array tests via conventional immunofluorescence assays that indicate correct cell polarity, localization of junctional proteins, and phenotype, properties which are essential to measuring true cell responses.

  8. Hospitality Industry Technology Training (HITT). Final Performance Report, April 1, 1989-December 31, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount Hood Community Coll., Gresham, OR.

    This final performance report includes a third-party evaluation and a replication guide. The first section describes a project to develop and implement an articulated curriculum for grades 8-14 to prepare young people for entry into hospitality/tourism-related occupations. It discusses the refinement of existing models, pilot test, curriculum…

  9. Poor academic performance: A perspective of final year diagnostic radiography students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: A study was conducted on final year diagnostic radiography students at a University of Technology in Durban. The aim of the study was to investigate the final year diagnostic radiography students' opinions and views on academic performance in order to inform teaching and learning methods. The objectives were: •To explore the students' opinions regarding poor performance. •To identify strategies to improve academic performance. Method: A qualitative, interpretive approach was used to explain and understand the students' lived experiences of their academic performances. A short open ended questionnaire was administered to a cohort of final diagnostic radiography students following feedback on a written assessment. Questionnaire responses were then manually captured and analyzed. Results: Five (5) themes were identified that could possibly be associated with poor academic performance. These themes were, poor preparation, lack of independent study, difficulty in understanding learning content and misinterpretation of assessment questions, inefficient studying techniques as well as perceived improvement strategies. Conclusion: Students identified their inadequate preparation and the lack of dedicated independent studying as the main reasons for poor performance. Students preferred to be taught in an assessment oriented manner. However their identified improvement strategies were aligned with the learner centred approach.

  10. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge, students who passed the VF outscored their peers on the medical assessment test (MAT), an exam built with 40 Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) quest...

  11. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ager, Joel W.

    2011-01-01

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  12. Solid oxide electrolysis cells - Performance and durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauch, A.

    2007-10-15

    In this work H2 electrode supported solid oxide cells (SOC) produced at Risoe National Laboratory, DTU, have been used for steam electrolysis. Electrolysis tests have been performed at temperatures from 650AeC to 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) from 0.99/0.01 to 0.30/0.70 and current densities from -0.25 A/cm2 to -2 A/cm2. The solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) have been characterised by iV curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at start and end of tests and by EIS under current load during electrolysis testing. The tested SOCs have shown the best initial electrolysis performance reported in literature to date. Area specific resistances of 0.26 Oecm2 at 850AeC and 0.17 Oecm2 at 950AeC were obtained from electrolysis iV curves. The general trend for the SOEC tests was: 1) a short-term passivation in first few hundred hours, 2) then an activation and 3) a subsequent and underlying long-term degradation. The transient phenomenon (passivation/activation) was shown to be a set-up dependent artefact caused by the albite glass sealing with a p(Si(OH)4) of 1.10-7 atm, leading to silica contamination of the triple-phase boundaries (TPBs) of the electrode. The long-term degradation for the SOECs was more pronounced than for fuel cell testing of similar cells. Long-term degradation of 2%/1000 h was obtained at 850AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.5/0.5 and -0.5 A/cm2, whereas the degradation rate increased to 6%/1000h at 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.9/0.1 and -1.0 A/cm2. Both the short-term passivation and the long-term degradation appear mainly to be related to processes in the H2 electrode. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs show that only limited changes occur in the Ni particle size distribution and these are not the main degradation mechanism for the SOECs. Micro and nano analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM reveals that glassy phase impurities have accumulated at the TPBs as a result of

  13. High temperature PEM fuel cell. Final report. Public part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf (DTU (DK)); Yde Andersen, S.; Rycke, T. de (IRD Fuel Cells A/S (DK)); Nilsson, M. (Danish Power Systems ApS (DK)); Christensen, Torkild, (DONG Energy (DK))

    2006-07-01

    The main outcome of the project is the development of stacking technology for high temperature PEMFC stacks based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI-membranes) and a study of the potential of a possible accommodation of HT-PEMFC in the national energy system. Stacks of different lengths (up to 40 cells) have been built using two different approaches in terms of plate materials and sealing. The stacks still need maturing and further testing to prove satisfactory reliability, and a steady reduction of production cost is also desired (as in general for fuel cells). However, during the project the process has come a long way. The survey of HT-PEM fuel cells and their regulatory power in the utility system concludes that fuel cells will most likely not be the dominating technique for regulation, but as no other technique has that potential alone, fuel cells are well suited to play a role in the system provided that the establishment of a communication system is not too complicated. In order to maintain an efficient power system with high reliability in a distributed generation scenario, it is important that communication between TSO (Transmission System Operator) and fuel cells is included in the fuel cell system design at an early stage. (au)

  14. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate t...

  15. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2005-12-01

    qualitatively as well as the ETEK material for the ORR, a non-trivial achievement. A fuel cell test showed that Pt/C outperformed the ETEK material by an average of 50% for a 300 hour test. Increasing surface area decreases the amount of Pt needed in a fuel cell, which translates into cost savings. Furthermore, the increased performance realized in the fuel cell test might ultimately mean less Pt is needed in a fuel cell; this again translates into cost savings. Finally, enhanced long-term stability is a key driver within the fuel cell community as improvements in this area must be realized before fuel cells find their way into the marketplace; these Pt/C materials hold great promise of enhanced stability over time. An external laser desorption ion source was successfully installed on the existing Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. However, operation of this laser ablation source has only generated metal atom ions, no clusters have been found to date. It is believed that this is due to the design of the pulsed-nozzle/laser vaporization chamber. The final experimental configuration and design of the two source housings are described.

  16. Lithium/Manganese Dioxide (Li/MnO(2)) Battery Performance Evaluation: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D.; Clark, N.H.

    1999-04-01

    In February 1997, under the auspices of the Product Realization Program, an initiative to develop performance models for lithium/manganese dioxide-based batteries began. As a part of this initiative, the performance characteristics of the cells under a variety of conditions were determined, both for model development and for model validation. As a direct result of this work, it became apparent that possible Defense Program (DP) uses for batteries based on this cell chemistry existed. A larger effort aimed at mapping the performance envelope of this chemistry was initiated in order to assess the practicality of this cell chemistry, not only for DP applications, but also for other uses. The work performed included an evaluation of the cell performance as a function of a number of variables, including cell size, manufacturer, current, pulse loads, constant current loads, safety, etc. In addition, the development of new evaluation techniques that would apply to any battery system, such as those related to reliability assessments began. This report describes the results of these evaluations.

  17. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  18. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  19. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  20. Organic solar cell. Final report; Organische Solarzelle. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The project was carried out in order to characterize and define the potential of organic solar cells. The system of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on indium oxide (ITO) was investigated in this report. (MM) [Deutsch] Ziel des Projektes war die Charakterisierung und Abgrenzung des Potentials organischer Solarzellen. In diesem Bericht wurde das System Kupferphthalocyanin (CuPc) auf Indiumoxid (ITO) untersucht. (MM)

  1. PEM fuel cells performance improvements by CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The system of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) is considered as the leading candidate to replace the internal combustion engine in the 21st century, as well as being a key technology for small stationary power stations, transportation and portable systems. Since 2001, the National R and D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT Rm. Valcea has developed several research projects in the field of hydrogen production, storage and fuel cells. Due to the interdisciplinary team, ICIT Rm. Valcea has expertise both in the fields of conductive and stable polymers, chemical and electrochemical synthesis and polymeric membranes, catalysts chemical synthesis and also fluid dynamics computation. The system behavior in different working regimes and the optimization of the fuel cells stack configuration (geometric and thermodynamic) in order to increase the power production for the future applications, can be done using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is an indispensable tool in identifying, understanding, predicting, controlling and optimizing various transport and physico (electro)-chemical processes that occur on different length scales in fuel cells. By developing a comprehensive and detailed mathematical model for studying electrochemical, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics relations that occur in a PEM fuel cell, and solving numerically this model using a CFD software one can obtain a powerful modeling tool that can be viewed like an important alternatives for fuel cell optimization process and for reduction of exploitation/experimentation costs. The collaboration between the numerical modelers and experimenters and between academics and industrialists are required in order to speed up the development of the CFD modeling capabilities and the fuel cell technology as a whole. We can anticipate that with the continuous development of more detailed fuel cell sub-models, advanced CFD modeling techniques with their flexibility

  2. Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report describes the progress during the six year of the project on ''Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance.'' This report is funded under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvially-dominated deltaic deposits. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by drilling of horizontal injection wells to improve production performance. The project was divided into two budget periods. In the first budget period, many modern technologies were used to develop a detailed reservoir management plan; whereas, in the second budget period, conventional data was used to develop a reservoir management plan. The idea was to determine the cost effectiveness of various technologies in improving the performance of mature oil fields

  3. Clinical observed performance evaluation: a prospective study in final year students of surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, G C

    2010-06-24

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series of assessments in a 25-week teaching programme. Over time, several clinicians from a pool of 16 surgical consultants and registrars evaluated each student by direct observation. A structured rating form was used for assessment data. Variance component analysis (VCA), internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were used to estimate reliability. The predictive and convergent validity of COPE in relation to summative OSCE, long case, and overall final examination was estimated. Median number of COPE assessments per student was 7. Generalisability of a mean score over 7 COPE assessments was 0.66, equal to that of an 8 x 7.5 min station final OSCE. Internal consistency was 0.88-0.97 and inter-rater agreement 0.82. Significant correlations were observed with OSCE performance (R = 0.55 disattenuated) and long case (R = 0.47 disattenuated). Convergent validity was 0.81 by VCA. Overall final examination performance was linearly related to mean COPE score with standard error 3.7%. COPE permitted efficient serial assessment of a large cohort of final year students in a real world setting. Its psychometric quality compared well with conventional assessments and with other direct observation instruments as reported in the literature. Effect on learning, and translation to clinical care, are directions for future research.

  4. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  5. Performance prediction of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell using the ANFIS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vural, Yasemin; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed [Centre for Computational Fluid Dynamics, University of Leeds, Houldsworth Building, LS2 9JT Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, the performance (current-voltage curve) prediction of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is performed for different operational conditions using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). First, ANFIS is trained with a set of input and output data. The trained model is then tested with an independent set of experimental data. The trained and tested model is then used to predict the performance curve of the PEMFC under various operational conditions. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental data and this indicates that ANFIS is capable of predicting fuel cell performance (in terms of cell voltage) with a high accuracy in an easy, rapid and cost effective way for the case presented. Finally, the capabilities and the limitations of the model for the application in fuel cells have been discussed. (author)

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The main objective in this project has been to develop a generic and dynamic tool for SOFC systems simulation and development. Developing integrated fuel cell systems is very expensive and therefore having the right tools to reduce the development cost and time to market for products becomes an important feature. The tools developed in this project cover a wide range of needs in Dantherm Power, R and D, and can be divided into 3 categories: 1. Component selection modeling; to define component specification requirements and selection of suppliers. 2. Application simulation model built from scratch, which can simulate the interface between customer demand and system output and show operation behavior for different control settings. 3. System operation strategy optimization with respect to operation cost and customer benefits. a. Allows to see how system size, in terms of electricity and heat output, and operation strategy influences a specific business case. b. Gives a clear overview of how a different property, in the system, affects the economics (e.g. lifetime, electrical and thermal efficiency, fuel cost sensitivity, country of deployment etc.). The main idea behind the structure of the tool being separated into 3 layers is to be able to service different requirements, from changing stakeholders. One of the major findings in this project has been related to thermal integration between the existing installation in a private household and the fuel cell system. For a normal family requiring 4500 kWh of electricity a year, along with the possibility of only running the system during the heating season (winter), the heat storage demand is only 210kWh of heat with an approximate value of Dkr 160,- in extra gas consumption. In this case, it would be much more cost effective to dump the heat, in the house, and save the expense of adding heat storage to the system. This operation strategy is only valid in Denmark for the time being, since the feed-In-Tariff allows for a

  7. CIBS Solar Cell Development Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exstrom, Christopher L.; Soukup, Rodney J.; Ianno, Natale J.

    2011-09-28

    Efforts to fabricate and study a new photovoltaic material, copper indium boron diselenide (CuInxB1-xSe2 or CIBS), were undertaken. Attempts to prepare CIBS using sputtering deposition techniques resulted in segregation of boron from the rest of elements in the material. CIBS nanocrystals were prepared from the reaction of elemental Se with CuCl, InCl3, and boric acid in solution, but the product material quickly decomposed upon heating that was required in attempts to convert the nanocrystals into a thin film. The investigation of the reasons for the lack of CIBS material stability led to new structure-property studies of closely-related photovoltaic systems as well as studies of new solar cell materials and processing methods that could enhance the development of next-generation solar technologies. A detailed compositional study of CuIn1-xAlxSe2 (CIAS, a system closely related to CIBS) revealed a non-linear correlation between crystal lattice size and the Al/(In+Al) ratios with dual-phase formation being observed. A new nanocrystal-to-thin-film processing method was developed for the preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films in which colloidal Se particles are sprayed in contact with CuIn1-xGaxS2 nanoparticles and heated in an argon atmosphere with no other Se source in the system. The process is non-vacuum and does not require toxic gases such as Se vapor or H2Se. Expertise gained from these studies was applied to new research in the preparation of thin-film pyrite FeS2, an attractive earth-abundant candidate material for next-generation photovoltaics. Three methods successfully produced pure pyrite FeS2 films: sulfurization of sputtered Fe films, chemical bath deposition, and sulfurization of Fe2O3 sol-gel precursors. The last method produced pinhole-free films that may be viable for device development. Nickel, platinum, and possibly carbon would appear to serve as good ohmic contact materials. While CdS has a reasonable conduction band energy match to

  8. Understanding organic photovoltaic cells: Electrode, nanostructure, reliability, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Su

    My Ph.D. research has focused on alternative renewable energy using organic semiconductors. During my study, first, I have established reliable characterization methods of organic photovoltaic devices. More specifically, less than 5% variation of power conversion efficiency of fabricated organic blend photovoltaic cells (OBPC) was achieved after optimization. The reproducibility of organic photovoltaic cell performance is one of the essential issues that must be clarified before beginning serious investigations of the application of creative and challenging ideas. Second, the relationships between fill factor (FF) and process variables have been demonstrated with series and shunt resistance, and this provided a chance to understand the electrical device behavior. In the blend layer, series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) were varied by controlling the morphology of the blend layer, the regioregularity of the conjugated polymer, and the thickness of the blend layer. At the interface between the cathode including PEDOT:PSS and the blend layer, cathode conductivity was controlled by varying the structure of the cathode or adding an additive. Third, we thoroughly examined possible characterization mistakes in OPVC. One significant characterization mistake is observed when the crossbar electrode geometry of OPVC using PEDOT:PSS was fabricated and characterized with illumination which is larger than the actual device area. The hypothesis to explain this overestimation was excess photo-current generated from the cell region outside the overlapped electrode area, where PEDOT:PSS plays as anode and this was clearly supported with investigations. Finally, I incorporated a creative idea, which enhances the exciton dissociation efficiency by increasing the interface area between donor and acceptor to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells. To achieve this, nanoimprint lithography was applied for interface area increase. To clarify the

  9. Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells Under High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, recent pressurized test results of a planar Ni- YSZ (YSZ: Yttria stabilized Zirconia) supported solid oxide cell are presented. Measurements were performed at 800 C in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode at different pressures. A comparison of the electrochemical performance of the...... cell at 1 and 3 bar shows a significant and equal performance gain at higher pressure in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the serial resistance was not affected by the operation pressure; all the other processes that are dependent on...

  10. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  11. High performance polymer tandem solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Jose da Silva; Fabio Kurt Schneider; Abd. Rashid bin Mohd Yusoff; Jin Jang

    2015-01-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 9.02% is obtained for a fully solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell, based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole unit polymer as a low bandgap photoactive material in the rear subcell, in conjunction with a new robust interconnecting layer. This interconnecting layer is optically transparent, electrically conductive, and physically strong, thus, the charges can be collected and recombined in the interconnecting layer under illumination, while the charge is genera...

  12. The final cut: cell polarity meets cytokinesis at the bud neck in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, Maria Angeles; Piatti, Simonetta

    2016-08-01

    Cell division is a fundamental but complex process that gives rise to two daughter cells. It includes an ordered set of events, altogether called "the cell cycle", that culminate with cytokinesis, the final stage of mitosis leading to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Symmetric cell division equally partitions cellular components between the two daughter cells, which are therefore identical to one another and often share the same fate. In many cases, however, cell division is asymmetrical and generates two daughter cells that differ in specific protein inheritance, cell size, or developmental potential. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an excellent system to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing asymmetric cell division and cytokinesis. Budding yeast is highly polarized during the cell cycle and divides asymmetrically, producing two cells with distinct sizes and fates. Many components of the machinery establishing cell polarization during budding are relocalized to the division site (i.e., the bud neck) for cytokinesis. In this review we recapitulate how budding yeast cells undergo polarized processes at the bud neck for cell division. PMID:27085703

  13. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  14. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  15. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  16. Final Report, Validation of Novel Planar Cell Design for MW-Scale SOFC Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Dr Scott L.; Thrun, Dr Lora B.; Arkenberg, Mr Gene B.; Chenault, Ms Kellie M.

    2012-01-03

    This report describes the work completed by NexTech Materials, Ltd. during a three-year project to validate an electrolyte-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell design, termed the FlexCell, for coal-based, megawatt-scale power generation systems. This project was focused on the fabrication and testing of electrolyte-supported FlexCells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte material. YSZ based FlexCells were made with sizes ranging from 100 to 500 cm2. Single-cell testing was performed to confirm high electrochemical performance, both with diluted hydrogen and simulated coal gas as fuels. Finite element analysis modeling was performed at The Ohio State University was performed to establish FlexCell architectures with optimum mechanical robustness. A manufacturing cost analysis was completed, which confirmed that manufacturing costs of less than $50/kW are achievable at high volumes (500 MW/year).

  17. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  18. Final report of the project performance assessment and economic evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is the final report of project Performance Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Waste Management (TOKA) at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), forming part of the Publicly Financed Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT). The project covers safety and cost aspects of all phases of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis has been on developing an integrated system of models for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. During the four years the project has so far been in progress, the total amount of work has been around 14 person-years. Computer codes are the main tools in the project, they are either developed by the project team or acquired from abroad. In-house model development has been especially active in groundwater flow, near-field and migration modelling. The quantitative interpretation of Finnish tracer experiments in the laboratory and natural analogue studies at Palmottu support performance assessments via increased confidence in the migration concepts used. The performance assessment philosophy adopted by the team consists of deterministic modelling and pragmatic scenario analysis. This is supported by the long-term experience in practical performance assessment of the team, and in theoretical probabilistic modelling exercises. The radiological risks of spent fuel transportation from the Loviisa nuclear power plant to Russia have been analysed using a probabilistic computer code and Finnish traffic accident statistics. The project assists the authorities in the annual assessment of utility estimates of funding needs for future nuclear waste management operations. The models and methods used within the project are tested in international verification/validation projects

  19. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate the influence of process variables for design optimization of fuel cells, stacks, and complete fuel cell power system. The possible mechanisms of the parameter effects and their interrelationships are discussed. In order to assess the validity of the developed model a real PEM fuel cell system has been used to generate experimental data. The comparison shows good agreements between the modelling results and the experimental data. The model is shown a very useful for estimating the performance of PEM fuel cell stacks and optimization of fuel cell system integration and operation.

  20. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate the influence of process variables for design optimization of fuel cells, stacks, and complete fuel cell power system. The possible mechanisms of the parameter effects and their interrelationships are discussed. In order to assess the validity of the developed model a real PEM fuel cell system has been used to generate experimental data. The comparison shows good agreements between the modelling results and the experimental data. The model is shown a very useful for estimating the performance of PEM fuel cell stacks and optimization of fuel cell system integration and operation.

  1. IMPER: Characterization of the wind field over a large wind turbine rotor - final report; Improved performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Wagner, R.

    2012-01-15

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remote sensing technology and simulations on a 500 kW wind turbine for the effects of wind field characterization. The objective with the present report is to give a short overview of the different experiments carried out and results obtained within the final phase of this project. (Author)

  2. Effect of clay organic modifier on the final performance of PCL/clay nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luduena, L.N., E-mail: luduena@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology (INTEMA), Engineering Faculty, National University of Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302 B7608FDQ, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Kenny, J.M. [Institute of Polymers Science and Technology, ICTP, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, A., E-mail: avazquez@fi.uba.ar [INTECIN (UBA-CONICET), Polymer and Composite Group, Engineering Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, Las Heras 2214 C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, V.A., E-mail: alvarezvera@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology (INTEMA), Engineering Faculty, National University of Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302 B7608FDQ, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} The degradation of clay organo-modifiers during processing affect clay dispersion degree and clay content inside the matrix. {yields} Isothermal thermogravimetrical analysis was used to simulate the thermal degradation of clay organo-modifiers in extrusion. {yields} Improving polymer-clay compatibility may not be the main factor to achieve the best mechanical performance. {yields} The best combination between PCL/clay compatibility and thermal resistance of the clay, was obtained for C20A. - Abstract: The effect of un-modified and several organo-modified montmorillonites on the morphology, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of polycaprolactone (PCL) based nanocomposites prepared by melt intercalation was studied. The study was centered on the analysis of the clay characteristics that have influence on the final properties of PCL/clay nanocomposites. Polymer/clay compatibility was analyzed studying both bulk and surface polarity degree of the clays by means of water absorption tests (bulk) and contact angle measurements (surface). The thermal stability of the clays was analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetrical tests (TGA). The degradation of the clay organo-modifiers during processing was simulated by isothermal TGA. The clay dispersion degree inside the nanocomposites was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The melt rheology was used as a method to compare the dispersion degree of the clay by means of the shear thinning exponent, n{sub Rh}. The tensile mechanical properties were measured and theoretically analyzed by means of several micro-mechanical models. It was found that the thermal stability of the clay organo-modifiers is a critical factor that can modify the final clay content and the clay dispersion degree inside the nanocomposite, demonstrating that the enhancement of the polymer-clay compatibility may not be the main factor to achieve the best mechanical performance when shear forces during processing, i.e. extrusion

  3. Performance enhancement of PV cells through micro-channel cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of a PV cell is strongly dependent on its surface temperature. The current study is focused to achieve maximum efficiency of PV cells even in scorching temperatures in hot climates like Pakistan where the cell surface temperatures can even rise up to around 80 ℃. The study includes both the CFD and real time experimental investigations of a solar panel using micro channel cooling. Initially, CFD analysis is performed by developing a 3D model of a Mono-Crystalline cell with micro-channels to analyze cell surface temperature distribution at different irradiance and water flow rates. Afterwards, an experimental setup is developed for performance investigations under the real conditions of an open climate of a Pakistan's city, Taxila. Two 35W panels are manufactured for the experiments; one is based on the standard manufacturing procedure while other cell is developed with 4mm thick aluminum sheet having micro-channels of cross-section of 1mm by 1mm. The whole setup also includes different sensors for the measurement of solar irradiance, cell power, surface temperature and water flow rates. The experimental results show that PV cell surface temperature drop of around 15 ℃ is achieved with power increment of around 14% at maximum applied water flow rate of 3 LPM. Additionally, a good agreement is also found between CFD and experimental results. Therefore, that study clearly shows that a significant performance improvement of PV cells can be achieved through the proposed cell cooling technique.

  4. Development of single-cell protectors for sealed silver-zinc cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lear, J.W.; Donovan, R.L.; Imamura, M.S.

    1978-11-01

    Three design approaches to cell-level protection were developed, fabricated, and tested. These systems are referred to as the single-cell protector (SCP), multiplexed-cell protector(MCP). To evaluate the systems 18-cell battery packs without cell level control were subjected to cycle life test. A total of five batteries were subjected to simulate synchronous orbit cycling at 40% depth of discharge at 22C. Batteries without cell-level protection failed between 345 and 255 cycles. Cell failure in the cell level protected batteries occurred between 412 and 540. It was determined that the cell-level monitoring and protection is necessary to attain the long cycle life of a AgZn battery. The best method of providing control and protection of the AgZn cells depends on the specific application and capability of the user.

  5. Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-Effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costeux, Stephane [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Bunker, Shanon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The objective of this project was to explore and potentially develop high performing insulation with increased R/inch and low impact on climate change that would help design highly insulating building envelope systems with more durable performance and lower overall system cost than envelopes with equivalent performance made with materials available today. The proposed technical approach relied on insulation foams with nanoscale pores (about 100 nm in size) in which heat transfer will be decreased. Through the development of new foaming methods, of new polymer formulations and new analytical techniques, and by advancing the understanding of how cells nucleate, expand and stabilize at the nanoscale, Dow successfully invented and developed methods to produce foams with 100 nm cells and 80% porosity by batch foaming at the laboratory scale. Measurements of the gas conductivity on small nanofoam specimen confirmed quantitatively the benefit of nanoscale cells (Knudsen effect) to increase insulation value, which was the key technical hypotheses of the program. In order to bring this technology closer to a viable semi-continuous/continuous process, the project team modified an existing continuous extrusion foaming process as well as designed and built a custom system to produce 6" x 6" foam panels. Dow demonstrated for the first time that nanofoams can be produced in a both processes. However, due to technical delays, foam characteristics achieved so far fall short of the 100 nm target set for optimal insulation foams. In parallel with the technology development, effort was directed to the determination of most promising applications for nanocellular insulation foam. Voice of Customer (VOC) exercise confirmed that demand for high-R value product will rise due to building code increased requirements in the near future, but that acceptance for novel products by building industry may be slow. Partnerships with green builders, initial launches in smaller markets (e.g. EIFS

  6. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfo...

  7. Determinants of academic performance in children with sickle cell anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwosu, Osita U; Emodi, Ifeoma J; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Chukwu, Barth F; Osuorah, Chidiebere D

    2013-01-01

    Background Some factors are known to influence the academic performance of children with Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA). Information on their effects in these children is limited in Nigeria. The factors which influence academic performance of children with SCA in Enugu, Nigeria are determined in this study. Methods Consecutive children with SCA aged 5–11 years were recruited at the weekly sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Their age- and sex- m...

  8. Cost and Performance Tradeoff Analysis of Cell Planning Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In wireless communication systems, optimal placement of base station locations, i.e.,cell planning, has been considered one of major tools for performance improvement.However, the cell planning requires signicant eort for acquiring suitable sites aswell as expensive computer software for nding out optimal locations. While theprice of equipment has dropped rapidly, the cost of cell planing remains similar orbecomes even more costly with increasing complexity of wireless systems.Therefore,the c...

  9. Performance of an electrochemical solar cell with molybdenite anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of photoeletrochemical cells for solar energy conversion, using photoanodes of molybdenite and platinum cathode is reported. Conversion efficiency between 0.1 and 1% were determined. The surface condition of the photoanode and the light absorption by the electrolite were some factors responsible for the low efficiency of those cells. (C.L.B.)

  10. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  11. Break-in and Performance Issues on a single cell PBI-based PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    performance of the fuel cell, even though break-in of a fuel cell implemented in a commercial application would most likely not be feasible. In the present work a commercially available PBI-based high temperature MEA is subject to a break-in procedure, as specified by the manufacturer. The cell was operated......Depending on the application in question and the load cycle of operation, fuel cell degradation can be a serious problem. Fuel cell degradation of PBI-based MEA's and fuel cells in general is quite complex. The rate of degradation depends on several parameters, where the operating temperature and...... the current drawn from the fuel cell are of great importance. One must therefore choose the point of operation carefully in order for the fuel cell to fulfil the requirements for lifetime perform-ance of the system. Break-in of fuel cells is often done in scientific experiments to improve the...

  12. Performance and durability of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Jensen, Søren H; Ramousse, Severine; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells produced at Riso National Laboratory have been tested as electrolysis cells by applying an external voltage. Results on initial performance and durability of such reversible solid oxide cells at temperatures from 750 to 950 degrees C and current densities from -0.25 A/cm(2......) to -0.50 A/cm(2) are reported. The full cells have an initial area specific resistance as low as 0.27 Omega cm(2) for electrolysis operation at 850 degrees C. During galvanostatic long-term electrolysis tests, the cells were observed to passivate mainly during the first similar to 100 h of...... electrolysis. Cells that have been passivated during electrolysis tests can be partly activated again by operation in fuel cell mode or even at constant electrolysis conditions after several hundred hours of testing....

  13. Final cleansing of the PIVER prototype vitrification facility -Decontamination of the hot-cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dismantling of the PIVER pilot vitrification facility began in 1984. Under a first contract FI 1D - 0057 with the European Community, all the process equipment was removed from the cell and decontamination was undertaken. The residual in-cell irradiation level was less than 10 mGy.h-1 by the beginning of 1990, allowing brief access of operators to the cell for specific tasks. The cell cleanup work was completed in 1990; the telemanipulators were dismantled, and biological shielding was set up around a few remaining localized hot spots. By the end of the year, the in-cell dose rate had dropped to below 0.2 mGy.h-1. Research and development work on final decontamination processes was conducted from January to July 1991. Four already developed processes (electrolytic, shotpeening, cryogenic and gel) were tested under hostile radioactive conditions on a representative facility to assess their advantages and drawbacks, their effectiveness, and any points requiring special attention for large-scale application. The final decontamination operations were carried out on only a portion of the cell wall ; they did not significantly reduce the overall ambient irradiation level in the cell. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 appendices

  14. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Hilson Schneider

    2007-06-06

    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available

  15. Heterogenic final cell cycle by chicken retinal Lim1 horizontal progenitor cells leads to heteroploid cells with a remaining replicated genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Shirazi Fard

    Full Text Available Retinal progenitor cells undergo apical mitoses during the process of interkinetic nuclear migration and newly generated post-mitotic neurons migrate to their prospective retinal layer. Whereas this is valid for most types of retinal neurons, chicken horizontal cells are generated by delayed non-apical mitoses from dedicated progenitors. The regulation of such final cell cycle is not well understood and we have studied how Lim1 expressing horizontal progenitor cells (HPCs exit the cell cycle. We have used markers for S- and G2/M-phase in combination with markers for cell cycle regulators Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1 to characterise the final cell cycle of HPCs. The results show that Lim1+ HPCs are heterogenic with regards to when and during what phase they leave the final cell cycle. Not all horizontal cells were generated by a non-apical (basal mitosis; instead, the HPCs exhibited three different behaviours during the final cell cycle. Thirty-five percent of the Lim1+ horizontal cells was estimated to be generated by non-apical mitoses. The other horizontal cells were either generated by an interkinetic nuclear migration with an apical mitosis or by a cell cycle with an S-phase that was not followed by any mitosis. Such cells remain with replicated DNA and may be regarded as somatic heteroploids. The observed heterogeneity of the final cell cycle was also seen in the expression of Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1. Phosphorylated Rb1-Ser608 was restricted to the Lim1+ cells that entered S-phase while cyclin B1 and cdc25C were exclusively expressed in HPCs having a basal mitosis. Only HPCs that leave the cell cycle after an apical mitosis expressed p27Kip1. We speculate that the cell cycle heterogeneity with formation of heteroploid cells may present a cellular context that contributes to the suggested propensity of these cells to generate cancer when the retinoblastoma gene is mutated.

  16. Chemical and mechanical performance properties for various final waste forms -- PSPI scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Larsen, E.D.; Sears, J.W.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is obtaining data on the performance properties of the various final waste forms that may be chosen as primary treatment products for the alpha-contaminated low-level and transuranic waste at the INEL`s Transuranic Storage Area. This report collects and compares selected properties that are key indicators of mechanical and chemical durability for Portland cement concrete, concrete formed under elevated temperature and pressure, sulfur polymer cement, borosilicate glass, and various forms of alumino-silicate glass, including in situ vitrification glass and various compositions of iron-enriched basalt (IEB) and iron-enriched basalt IV (IEB4). Compressive strength and impact resistance properties were used as performance indicators in comparative evaluation of the mechanical durability of each waste form, while various leachability data were used in comparative evaluation of each waste form`s chemical durability. The vitrified waste forms were generally more durable than the non-vitrified waste forms, with the iron-enriched alumino-silicate glasses and glass/ceramics exhibiting the most favorable chemical and mechanical durabilities. It appears that the addition of zirconia and titania to IEB (forming IEB4) increases the leach resistance of the lanthanides. The large compositional ranges for IEB and IEB4 more easily accommodate the compositions of the waste stored at the INEL than does the composition of borosilicate glass. It appears, however, that the large potential variation in IEB and IEB4 compositions resulting from differing waste feed compositions can impact waste form durability. Further work is needed to determine the range of waste stream feed compositions and rates of waste form cooling that will result in acceptable and optimized IEB or IEB4 waste form performance. 43 refs.

  17. Solid Polymer Fuel Cells. Electrode and membrane performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller-Holst, S.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis studies aspects of fuel cell preparation and performance. The emphasis is placed on preparation and analysis of low platinum-loading solid polymer fuel cell (SPEC) electrodes. A test station was built and used to test cells within a wide range of real operating conditions, 40-150{sup o}C and 1-10 bar. Preparation and assembling equipment for single SPFCs was designed and built, and a new technique of spraying the catalyst layer directly onto the membrane was successfully demonstrated. Low Pt-loading electrodes (0.1 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}) prepared by the new technique exhibited high degree of catalyst utilization. The performance of single cells holding these electrodes is comparable to state-of-the-art SPFCs. Potential losses in single cell performance are ascribed to irreversibilities by analysing the efficiency of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by means of the second law of thermodynamics. The water management in membranes is discussed for a model system and the results are relevant to fuel cell preparation and performance. The new spray deposition technique should be commercially interesting as it involves few steps as well as techniques that are adequate for larger scale production. 115 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays. PMID:26698807

  19. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 32647) (FRL-8135-9), of national experts in which the revisions made in June 2006, were... AGENCY Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other... Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other Arthropods Test...

  20. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  1. Final Design and Experimental Validation of the Thermal Performance of the LHC Lattice Cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Parma, V; Poncet, A; Rohmig, P; Serio, L; Skoczen, Blazej; Tock, J P; Williams, L R

    2004-01-01

    The recent commissioning and operation of the LHC String 2 have given a first experimental validation of the global thermal performance of the LHC lattice cryostat at nominal cryogenic conditions. The cryostat designed to minimize the heat inleak from ambient temperature, houses under vacuum and thermally protects the cold mass, which contains the LHC twin-aperture superconducting magnets operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium. Mechanical components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel, such as support posts and insulation vacuum barriers are designed with efficient thermalisations for heat interception to minimise heat conduction. Heat inleak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation (MLI) wrapped around the cold mass and around an aluminium thermal shield cooled to about 60 K. Measurements of the total helium vaporization rate in String 2 gives, after substraction of supplementary heat loads and end effects, an estimate of the total thermal load to a standard LHC cell (107 m) includi...

  2. Final Report for Award DE-SC0005403. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertz, Joshua L. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Prasad, Ajay K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-09-06

    The enclosed document provides a final report to document the research performed at the University of Delaware under Grant DE-SC0005403: Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping. The ultimate goal of this project was to learn how to systematically strain the inter-atomic distance in thin ceramic films and how to use this newfound control to improve the ease by which oxygen ions can conduct through the films. Increasing the ionic conductivity of ceramics holds the promise of drastic improvements in the performance of solid oxide fuel cells, chemical sensors, gas permeation membranes, and related devices. Before this work, the experimental evidence advocating for strain-based techniques was often controversial and poorly characterized. Enabling much of this work was a new method to quickly create a very wide range of ceramic nanostructures that was established during the first phase of the project. Following this initial phase, we created a variety of promising nanostructured epitaxial films and multilayers with systematic variations in lattice mismatch and dopant content. Over the course of the work, a positive effect of tensile atomic strain on the oxygen conductivity was conclusively found using a few different forms of samples and experimental techniques. The samples were built by sputtering, an industrially scalable technique, and thus the technological implementation of these results may be economically feasible. Still, two other results consistently achieved over multiple efforts in this work give pause. The first of these results was that very specific, pristine surfaces upon which to build the nanostructures were strictly required in order to achieve measurable results. The second of these results was that compressively strained films with concomitant reductions in oxygen conductivity are much easier to obtain relative to tensile-strained films with increased conductivity.

  3. The performance of silicon solar cells operated in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Better performance can be achieved when the bare silicon solar cells are immersed into liquids for the enhanced heat removing. In this study, the performance of solar cells immersed in liquids was examined under simulated sunlight. To distinguish the effects of the liquid optic and electric properties on the solar cells, a comparison between immersion of the solar module and the bare solar cells was carried out. It was found that the optic properties of the liquids can cause minor efficiency changes on the solar cells, while the electric properties of the liquids, the molecular polarizable and ions, are responsible for the most of the changes. The bare solar cells immersed in the non-polar silicon oil have the best performance. The accelerated life tests were carried out at 150 deg. C high temperature and under 200 W/m2 ultraviolet light irradiation, respectively. It was found that the silicon oil has good stability. This study can give support on the cooling of the concentrated photovoltaic systems by immersing the solar cells in the liquids directly

  4. Knowledge Base for Strainer Clogging - Modifications performed in different countries since 1992 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    performed mock-up studies. Full-scale tests were also performed in the condensation pool of some units. The experiment results were utilised for the optimisation in most BWRs of new strainer designs, and for the choice of new thermal insulation materials. The results obtained confirmed, mostly, the appropriate design of existing PWR strainers. PWR and Candu reactors related s studies and experiments are, however, still on-going in a few countries. The modifications of the ECCS and/or CSS suction strainers have been performed after the aforementioned exhaustive studies and experiments. The modifications have resulted in new strainer designs with significantly enlarged filtering area. Most of the new strainers have good self-cleaning properties. Relatively many of them have been provided with instrumentation for differential pressure measurement, with indications and alarms in the unit main control room, and at some units in the emergency control room. In some BWRs, the design encompasses the possibility to back-flush the strainers. Replacements of large fractions of the thermal insulation materials utilised on piping and other components inside the containment have taken place. The newly installed insulation materials vary both within and between countries. They are primarily RMI (Reflecting Metallic Insulation), nuclear grade fiberglass, mineral wool and calcium silicate. The same insulation material - for example mineral wool - can be installed differently in different countries, i.e. jacketed or encapsulated in cassettes. The results of the experiments have significantly contributed to the materials selected or installation methods. The administrative measures taken by plant owners include, e.g. a periodic cleanup of the suppression pool and the containment sumps, with the aim to minimise the presence of foreign materials, and the control and eventual betterment of the containment coating. Finally, several plants have revised their Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs

  5. Impact of Interfacial Water Transport in PEMFCs on Cell Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled cell performance evaluation, liquid water visualization by neutron radiography (NRG) and numerical modeling based on multiphase mixture (M2) model were performed with three types of GDMs: Micro Porous Layer (MPL) free; Carbon Paper (CP) with MPL; and CP free to investigate interfacial liquid water transport phenomena in PEMFCs and its effect on cell performance. The visualized results of MPL free GDM with different wettability of bi-polar plates (BPPs) showed hydrophilic BPP improved liquid water transport at the interface between CP and channel. Numerical modeling results indicated that this difference with BPP wettability was caused by the liquid water coverage difference on CP surface. Thus, controlling liquid water coverage is the one of the key strategies for improving cell performance. Additionally, liquid water distributions across the cell for three types of GDMs were compared and significant difference in liquid water content at the interface between Catalyst Layer (CL) and GDM was observed. Numerical modeling suggests this difference is influenced by the gap at the interface and that the MPL could minimize this effect. The CP free cell (i.e. only MPL) showed the best performance and the lowest liquid water content. There were multiple impacts of interfacial liquid water transport both at CL-GDM and GDM-channel interfaces. High hydrophobicity and fine structure of MPLs contributed to enhanced liquid water transport at GDM-channel interface and as a result reduced the liquid water coverage. At the same time, MPL improves contact at the CL-GDM interface in the same manner as seen in CP with MPL case. Thus, the CP free concept showed the best performance. It is suggested that the design of the interface between each component of the PEMFC has a great impact on cell performance and plays a significant role in achievement of high current density operation and cost reduction in FCEVs

  6. Performance of a direct glycerol fuel cell using KOH doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ana P.; Linares, Jose J., E-mail: joselinares@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    This paper studies the influence of the operating variables (glycerol concentration, temperature and feed rate) for a direct glycerol fuel cell fed with glycerol using polybenzimidazole (PBI) impregnated with KOH as electrolyte and Pt/C as catalyst. Temperature displays a beneficial effect up to 75 °C due to the enhanced conductivity and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. The optimum cell feed corresponds to 1 mol L{sup -1} glycerol and 4 mol L{sup -1} KOH, supplying sufficient quantities of fuel and electrolyte without massive crossover nor mass transfer limitations. The feed rate increases the performance up to a limit of 2 mL min{sup -1}, high enough to guarantee the access of the glycerol and the exit of the products. Finally, the use of binary catalysts (PtRu/C and Pt{sub 3}Sn/C) is beneficial for increasing the cell performance. (author)

  7. How do I perform hematopoietic progenitor cell selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avecilla, Scott T; Goss, Cheryl; Bleau, Sharon; Tonon, Jo-Ann; Meagher, Richard C

    2016-05-01

    Graft-versus-host disease remains the most important source of morbidity and mortality associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The implementation of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) selection is employed by some stem cell processing facilities to mitigate this complication. Current cell selection methods include reducing the number of unwanted T cells (negative selection) and/or enriching CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitors (positive selection) using immunomagnetic beads subjected to magnetic fields within columns to separate out targeted cells. Unwanted side effects of cell selection as a result of T-cell reduction are primary graft failure, increased infection rates, delayed immune reconstitution, possible disease relapse, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. The Miltenyi CliniMACS cell isolation system is the only device currently approved for clinical use by the Food and Drug Administration. It uses magnetic microbeads conjugated with a high-affinity anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody capable of binding to HPCs in marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood products. The system results in significantly improved CD34+ cell recoveries (50%-100%) and consistent 3-log CD3+ T-cell reductions compared to previous generations of CD34+ cell selection procedures. In this article, the CliniMACS procedure is described in greater detail and the authors provide useful insight into modifications of the system. Successful implementation of cell selection procedures can have a significant positive clinical effect by greatly increasing the pool of donors for recipients requiring transplants. However, before a program implements cell selection techniques, it is important to consider the time and financial resources required to properly and safely perform these procedures. PMID:26919388

  8. Performance on ETL 1 kW redox flow cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, K.; Kaneko, H.; Negishi, A.; Ozawa, T.

    A 1 kW - 3 kWh redox flow cell, in which 96 bipolar cells with the apparent electrode area of 432 sq cm are involved, has been developed and tested in Electrotechnical Laboratory. The rated output current and voltage are 26 A and 43 V. To elucidate fundamental aspects of the anolyte, polarography and spectroscopy were applied as well as observations with a miniaturized redox flow cell, and influence of the complex species in the anolyte on the cell performance has been recognized. During the charge and discharge cycles the anolyte was continuously monitored by the spectroscopy or controlled potential coulometry, while a voltammetric detector was applied for monitoring the catholyte. Further screening of carbon fiber electrode materials has been continued after the previous presentation, and among more than 70 varieties were found a few kinds of carbon fiber, with which the target performance can be achieved.

  9. PEM fuel cell systems performance optimisation using the mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEM fuel cell systems and technologies have emerged as viable energy conversion devices for terrestrial applications (stationary and mobile). They offer huge economical and environmental potentials in the next generation power systems, but they are still more expensive than most conventional power conversion devices. Therefore, there is a need to optimize these technologies from the performance and costs point of view. Mathematical modeling proved to be the most important tool for PEM fuel cell optimization, providing the best solution for design, operating condition, experimentation and exploitation. This paper proposes a study for fluid flow channels optimization in order to improve the performance of PEM fuel cell systems. Thus, we run simulations using 3 types of geometries for the flowing channels: serpentine, parallel and spiral channel in order to find the optimum flowing geometry. Concluding, we can consider the modeling like an important alternative for fuel cell optimization and for exploitation/experimentation costs reduction. (authors)

  10. Peeled-off flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells and Na diffusion effects on cell performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadono, Adiyudha; Ogihara, Tomohiro; Hino, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Yamada, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Na diffusion on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells fabricated on top of polyimide-coated soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate were investigated. Polyimide-coated SLG that can be used as substrate for fabricating flexible solar cells by peeled-off process, shown to have the same efficiency with SLG reference which is around 12%, indicating diffusion of almost same amount of Na from the substrates into the CIGS. Additional Na incorporation by NaF post-deposition treatment (PDT) were applied to CIGS deposited on substrates with different Na quantity to understand the Na diffusion effect prior and post CIGS deposition. Improvement of cells performance were observed for CIGS deposited on both substrates with or without Na diffusion. Final conversion efficiency of 15% was achieved after PDT for CIGS deposited on Na-contained substrates suggesting that PDT can be used even for CIGS with Na diffusion from the substrate. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Direct alcohol fuel cells materials, performance, durability and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Horacio R

    2013-01-01

    Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells: Materials, Performance, Durability and Applications begins with an introductory overview of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC); it focuses on the main goals and challenges in the areas of materials development, performance, and commercialization. The preparation and the properties of the anodic catalysts used for the oxidation of methanol, higher alcohols, and alcohol tolerant cathodes are then described. The membranes used as proton conductors in DAFC are examined, as well as alkaline membranes, focusing on the electrical conductivity and alcohol permeability. The use

  12. PV cell and module performance measurement capabilities at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, S.; Emery, K.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.; Anderberg, A.; Dunlavy, D.; Ottoson, L.

    1998-09-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Cell and Module Performance Characterization team at NREL supports the entire photovoltaic community by providing: secondary calibrations of photovoltaic cells and modules; efficiency measurements with respect to a given set of standard reporting conditions; verification of contract efficiency milestones; and current versus voltage (I-V) measurements under various conditions of temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Support is also provided to in-house programs in device fabrication, module stability, module reliability, PV systems evaluations, and alternative rating methods by performing baseline testing, specialized measurements and other assistance when required. The I-V and spectral responsivity equipment used to accomplish these tasks are described in this paper.

  13. Assembly and performance of hybrid-VRLA cells and batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Martha, SK; Hariprakash, B; Gaffoor, SA; Ambalavanan, S; Shukla, AK

    2005-01-01

    Several commercial-grade hybrid-VRLA and AGM-VRLA cells and batteries have been assembled and tested under varying charge-discharge rates in a temperature range between 50 and -40 degrees C. Impedance studies on hybrid-VRLA and AGM-VRLA cells have been conducted to reflect on their resistive and capacitive values. A linear relationship is found to exist between logarithmic state-of-charge values and ohmic impedance of batteries. In general, hybrid-VRLA cells and batteries perform better than ...

  14. High-performance radial AMTEC cell design for ultra-high-power solar AMTEC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, T.J.; Huang, C.

    1999-07-01

    Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC) technology is rapidly maturing for potential application in ultra-high-power solar AMTEC systems required by potential future US Air Force (USAF) spacecraft missions in medium-earth and geosynchronous orbits (MEO and GEO). Solar thermal AMTEC power systems potentially have several important advantages over current solar photovoltaic power systems in ultra-high-power spacecraft applications for USAF MEO and GEO missions. This work presents key aspects of radial AMTEC cell design to achieve high cell performance in solar AMTEC systems delivering larger than 50 kW(e) to support high power USAF missions. These missions typically require AMTEC cell conversion efficiency larger than 25%. A sophisticated design parameter methodology is described and demonstrated which establishes optimum design parameters in any radial cell design to satisfy high-power mission requirements. Specific relationships, which are distinct functions of cell temperatures and pressures, define critical dependencies between key cell design parameters, particularly the impact of parasitic thermal losses on Beta Alumina Solid Electrolyte (BASE) area requirements, voltage, number of BASE tubes, and system power production for both maximum power-per-BASE-area and optimum efficiency conditions. Finally, some high-level system tradeoffs are demonstrated using the design parameter methodology to establish high-power radial cell design requirements and philosophy. The discussion highlights how to incorporate this methodology with sophisticated SINDA/FLUINT AMTEC cell modeling capabilities to determine optimum radial AMTEC cell designs.

  15. Major impacts of the 40 CFR 194 final rule on the WIPP performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some 20 years of site-specific studies in the United States of America (USA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is on schedule to open a deep geological repository for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in April 1998. A focused organization, well-defined mission, early and iterative interactions with the regulators, oversight groups, and stakeholders in the regulatory process, and strong local support are some of the keys to this progress. The remaining activities, which will be completed prior to the initiation of disposal at the WIPP, include a formal integrated system checkout, readiness review and evaluation, and the required regulatory approvals. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has now defined the path forward for the WIPP with respect to one of the major regulatory hurdles. With the promulgation of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 194, in February 1996 entitled open-quotes Criteria for the Certification and Re-Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations,close quotes the format and content for the DOE's Compliance Certification Application (CCA) is now clearly defined. Along with the much needed definition of the required format and content for the CCA, the final criteria included a few unforeseen challenges for the DOE. Among these challenges are new requirements that jeopardize the timely completion of the performance assessment (PA) calculations and submittal of the CCA to the EPA in October 1996

  16. Enhancement of photovoltaic cell performance using periodic triangular gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Dey, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    The solar energy industry strives to produce more efficient and yet cost effective solar panels each consisting of an array of photovoltaic (PV) cells. The goal of this study was to enhance the performance of PV cells through increasing the cells' optical efficiency defined as a percentage of surface incident light that reaches the PV material. This was achieved through the reduction of waveguide decoupling loss and Fresnel reflection losses by integrating specific nonimaging micro-optical structures on the top surface of existing PV cells. Due to this integration, optical efficiency and performance were increased through the enhancement of light trapping, light guiding, and in-coupling functionalities. Periodic triangular gratings (PTGs) were designed, nonsequentially modeled, optimized, and fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane as proposed micro-optical structures. Then the performance of PV cells with and without integrated PTGs was evaluated and compared. Initial optical simulation results show that an original PV cell (without PTG) exhibits an average optical efficiency of 32.7% over a range of incident light angles between 15 and 90 deg. Integration of the PTG allows the capture of incoming sunlight by total internal reflection (TIR), whence it is reflected back onto the PV cell for multiple consecutive chances for absorption and PV conversion. Geometry of the PTG was optimized with respect to an angle of light incidence of {15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90} deg. Optical efficiency of the geometrically optimized PTGs was then analyzed under the same set of incident light angles and a maximum optical efficiency of 54.1% was observed for a PV cell with integrated PTG optimized at 90 deg. This is a 53.3% relative improvement in optical performance when compared to an original PV cell. Functional PTG prototypes were then fabricated with optical surface quality (below 10 nm Ra) and integrated with PV cells demonstrating an increase in maximum power by 1.08 mW/cm (7

  17. Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells using copper oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninayake, Aruna P.; Gunashekar, Subhashini; Li, Shengyi; Church, Benjamin C.; Abu-Zahra, Nidal

    2015-06-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nanoparticles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA cm-2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA cm-2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition, the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nanoparticles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nanoparticles.

  18. Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells using copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nanoparticles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA cm−2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA cm−2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition, the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nanoparticles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nanoparticles. (paper)

  19. A performance analysis tool for performance-driven micro-cell generation

    OpenAIRE

    Peset Llopis, R.; Koopman, R.J.H.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Braat, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is presented to determine the power dissipation and propagation-delay time of small logical blocks (micro-cells). This method is a combination of the RC-tree and the macro modeling methods. It is a fast and accurate method, three orders of magnitude faster that SPICE, while the maximal error is ten percent. This method can be used in a performance-driven micro-cell generator for a sea-of-gates environment

  20. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight. PMID:27405419

  1. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight.

  2. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight. PMID:27405419

  3. High Performance Nano-Ceria Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Martinez Aguilera, Lev; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    In solid oxide electrochemical cells, the conventional Ni-based fuel-electrodes provide high electrocatalytic activity but they are often a major source of long-term performance degradation due to carbon deposition, poisoning of reaction sites, Ni mobility, etc. Doped-ceria is a promising mixed i...

  4. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  5. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

  7. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatani, Mehboob, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Hamid, Nor Hisham, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Samsudin, Adel, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  8. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm2 respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell

  9. Alternative Window Schemes for CuInSe2-Based Solar Cells Final Report: 3 November 1995-December 1997; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrated high-efficiency CIGS cells based on highly resistive ZnO buffer layers grown by MOCVD. One cell based on NREL CIGS and a ZnO buffer layer exhibited an active-area efficiency of nearly 14%. This result is one of the best efficiencies reported for a ''direct'' ZnO/CIGS cell made with a vacuum process

  10. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Boon How; Zain, Azhar Md; Hassan, Faezah

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-s...

  11. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  12. Cell Break: How Cell-Free Biology Is Finally Putting the Engineering Back in Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the California-based company Genomatica reported its success in rigging Escherichia coli microbes to convert sugar into the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO). It was a feat of metabolic engineering: BDO is a key ingredient in the production of goods like running shoes, solvents, and spandex. At the time of the company?s announcement, 2.8 billion tons of BDO were produced every year in a multistep, fossil fuel-based process. Genomatica?s system neatly reduced all of that into a cheap, sustainable, one-step fermentation process. The company spent another year refining its technique and finally went commercial with the platform in late 2012. From start to commercialization, the process took about five years. PMID:26978845

  13. Crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. Final report; Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus kristallinem Silizium. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeuber, A.; Wettling, W.; Eyer, A.; Faller, F.; Hebling, C.; Hurrle, A.; Lautenschlager, H.; Luedemann, R.; Lutz, F.; Reber, S.; Schetter, C.; Schillinger, N.; Schindler, R.; Schumacher, J.O.; Warta, W.

    1998-09-01

    Activities under the project covered all the processes involved in the fabrication of a crystalline silicon thin-film solar cell applying the high-temperature method, so that R and D work was carried out from testing of materials suitable for the dielectric and semiconductive layers required, development of the process sequences for fabrication of the solar cells, simulation and optimisation of the cell design through to final characterisation of the thin films and solar cells. Several cell designs were tested in parallel for intercomparison. Several high-temperature resistant materials were tested for their suitability to serve as substrate materials.The final project report presents the basic research work and studies on the physical and technological aspects of the crystalline thin-film solar cell as well as the major results of specific development work. The report shows that significant progress could be achieved. The efficiencies of all solar cell designs developed under the project are between 9 and 11%, including those using substrate materials easily available in industry, and it could be demonstrated that the solar cells are equal in potential to the wafer-based silicon cell. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es wurden alle wesentlichen Teilprozesse, die fuer die Entwicklung einer kristallinen Silicium Duennschicht-Solarzelle nach dem Hochtemperaturverfahren wichtig sind, bearbeitet. Der Projektrahmen reichte von der Materialentwicklung fuer die dielektrischen und halbleitenden Schichten ueber die Entwicklung der Solarzellenprozessschritte, die Simulation und Optimierung des Zellendesigns bis zur Charakterisierung von Schichten und Solarzellen. Dabei wurden mehrere verschiedene Zellentypen parallel untersucht und miteinander verglichen. In einer Studie wurden verschiedene hochtemperaturfeste Materialien auf ihre Eignung als Substrate hin untersucht. In dem hier vorgelegten Abschlussbericht werden die erarbeiteten Grundlagen zur Physik und Technologie der kristallinen

  14. Relating Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Performance to Measurements in a Liquid Half Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov; Tynelius, Oskar; Lund-Olesen, Torsten;

    2015-01-01

    allow further miniaturization or powering more advanced and more power hungry devices. The activity of fuel cell catalysts is often probed in the form of thin films in liquid half cells. However, it is challenging to mimic the conditions in an actual DMFC. On the other hand, it can also be problematic...... to extract the catalyst activity from a fuel cell measurement. In this work, we attempt to narrow the gap between fuel cell testing and liquid half-cell measurements. First, by placing a custom reference electrode within the fuel cell, we can determine the potential at the anode and cathode under in......-operando conditions. This in turn, allows us to directly correlate our measurements to those performed in a liquid half-cell at the same potential. For our half-cell measurements, we have tested different catalysts (Pt/C, PtRu/C) for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR...

  15. Performance model for large area solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dino; Schmidt, Jan Philipp; Weber, André; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    A parameter set obtained from a 1 cm2 size electrode cell is used to develop and calibrate a one-dimensional spatially resolved model. It is demonstrated that this performance model precalculates the evolving operating parameters along the gas channel of a large-sized cell. Input parameters are: (i) number of discretization elements N, accounting for anodic gas conversion, (ii) anodic gas flow rate and composition and (iv) operating voltage. The model calculations based on data from the 1 cm2 cell are scaled to be equivalent to a larger cell with 16 cm2 electrode size which is used to validate the performance model. The current/voltage characteristics can be predicted very accurately, even when anodic gas flow rates vary by as much as a factor of four. The performance model presented herein simulates the total overvoltage and does so in a broad range of operation conditions. This is done with an accuracy of the simulated current better than 6.1% for UOP = 0.85 V, 3.8% for UOP = 0.8 V and 3.7% for UOP = 0.75 V. It is hoped that these equations will form the basis of a greater model, capable of predicting all the conditions found throughout any industrial stack.

  16. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg;

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  18. Studying the effect of material parameters on cell performance of tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, International Technological University, 115 Dollis Hill Lane, London NW2 6HS (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    A full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena in a PEM fuel cell: convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase change mechanism of water, and potential fields. The model is shown to be able to understand the many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. In addition to the new feature of tubular-shaped geometry of PEM fuel cell, this model is used to study the effects of several material parameters on fuel cell performance. Detailed analyses of the temperature distribution inside the tubular cell under various material properties have been conducted and examined. The analysis helped identifying critical parameters and shed insight into the physical mechanisms leading to a fuel cell performance and durability under various material conditions. (author)

  19. Studying the effect of material parameters on cell performance of tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena in a PEM fuel cell: convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase change mechanism of water, and potential fields. The model is shown to be able to understand the many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. In addition to the new feature of tubular-shaped geometry of PEM fuel cell, this model is used to study the effects of several material parameters on fuel cell performance. Detailed analyses of the temperature distribution inside the tubular cell under various material properties have been conducted and examined. The analysis helped identifying critical parameters and shed insight into the physical mechanisms leading to a fuel cell performance and durability under various material conditions

  20. Metal-air cell with performance enhancing additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel

    2015-11-10

    Systems and methods drawn to an electrochemical cell comprising a low temperature ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions and a performance enhancing additive added to the low temperature ionic liquid. The additive dissolves in the ionic liquid to form cations, which are coordinated with one or more negative ions forming ion complexes. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. The ion complexes improve oxygen reduction thermodynamics and/or kinetics relative to the ionic liquid without the additive.

  1. Three year performance of the NTS-2 solar cell experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, R. L.; Walker, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve different solar cell modules from the NTS 2 experiment are functioning after more than three years in a severe trapped radiation orbit of 20,367 km (10,990 nm) circular, 63 deg inclination. The rate of maximum power degradation may be fit to a predicted rate which is based on twice the value of 1 MeV electron equivalent damage fluence calculated from the space electron model AEI 7. The photovoltaic parameters of the cells are compared to their original values to demonstrate rank order of performance.

  2. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: s206029578@live.nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I-V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  3. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I–V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of RSTC Programs on Student Performance. Final Report and Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City.

    Presented is the final report of the University of the Philippines evaluation of the summer science institutes and the implementation of science courses in secondary schools as components of the Science Education Project of the Philippines (SEPP). This evaluation of the SEPP science curriculum improvement project sought to assess student learning…

  5. Optimization of Phase-Engineered a-Si:H-Based Multi-Junction Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, October 2001-July 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronski, C. R.; Collins, R. W.; Podraza, N. J.; Vlahos, V.; Pearce, J. M.; Deng, J.; Albert, M.; Ferreira, G. M.; Chen, C.

    2006-08-01

    The scope of the work under this subcontract has involved investigating engineered improvements in the performance and stability of solar cells in a systematic way, which included the following four tasks: (1) Materials research and device development; (2) Process improvement directed by real time diagnostics; (3) Device loss mechanisms; and (4) Characterization strategies for advanced materials Our work has resulted in new and important insights into the deposition of a-Si:H-based materials, as well as into the nature of the Staebler-Wronski Effect (SWE). Presumably, many of these insights will be used by industrial partners to develop more systematic approaches in optimizing solar cells for higher performance and stability. This effort also cleared up several serious misconceptions about the nature of the p-layer in cells and the SWE in materials and cells. Finally, the subcontract identified future directions that should be pursued for greater understanding and improvement.

  6. Comment Response on the Final Report: Peer Review of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Management and Operating Contractor established a Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (hereinafter ''the Panel'') at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office. The objectives of the peer review were to provide: (1) A formal, independent evaluation and critique of Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain: Total System Performance Assessment, Volume 3 (DOE 1998a; hereinafter ''Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment'') that was conducted in support of the Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain (DOE 1998b). (2) Suggestions for improvements as the U.S. Department of Energy prepares to develop the documentation for a Total System Performance Assessment to support a potential License Application. The Panel conducted a phased review over a two-year period to observe the development and, ultimately, to review the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). During the development of the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Panel submitted three Interim Reports (Whipple et al., 1997a, 1997b, and 1998) to the Management and Operating Contractor with recommendations and comments on the process models, model abstractions, and draft documentation for the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a). The Panel's Final Report Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel (Whipple et al. 1999; hereinafter ''Final Report'') on the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a) is based primarily on the completed Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (DOE 1998a), the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998), and the cited references. The Final Report (Whipple et al. 1999) includes the major points from the three Interim Reports (Whipple et al. 1997a, 1997b, and 1998

  7. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. High performance fuel electrode for a solid oxide electrochemical cell

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Mohammad; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    A high performance anode (fuel electrode) for use in a solid oxide electrochemical cell is obtained by a process comprising the steps of (a) providing a suitably doped, stabilized zirconium oxide electrolyte, such as YSZ,ScYSZ, with an anode side having a coating of electronically conductive perovskite oxides selected from the group consisting of niobium-doped strontium titanate, vanadium-doped strontium titanate, tantalum-doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof, thereby obtaining a por...

  9. Reduced hippocampal dentate cell proliferation and impaired spatial memory performance in aged epileptic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa F Cavarsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased adult neurogenesis is observed after training in hippocampal-dependent tasks and also after acutely induced status epilepticus (SE although the specific roles of these cells are still a matter of debate. In this study, we investigated hippocampal cell proliferation and differentiation and the spatial learning performance in young or aged chronically epileptic rats. Status was induced by pilocarpine in 3 or 20-month old rats. Either two or twenty months later, rats were treated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and subsequently underwent to 8-day schedule of water maze tests. As expected, learning curves were faster in young than in aged animals (P<0.001. Chronically epileptic animals exhibited impaired learning curves compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, the duration of epilepsy (2 or 20 months did not correlate with the memory impairment of aged epileptic animals. The number of BrdU-positive cells was greater in young epileptic subjects than in age-matched controls. In contrast, cell proliferation was not increased in aged epileptic animals, irrespective of the time of SE induction. Finally, dentate cell proliferation was not related to performance in the water maze. Based on the present results we conclude that even though aging and epilepsy lead to impairments in spatial learning, their effects are not additive.

  10. Fuel Cell/Battery Powered Bus System. Final Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Today, fuel cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop fuel cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using fuel cells as an alternative to the ICE. Three such vehicles (30-foot buses) were introduced beginning in 1994. Extensive development and operational testing of fuel cell systems as a vehicle power source has been accomplished under this program. The development activity investigated total systems configuration and effectiveness for vehicle operations. Operational testing included vehicle performance testing, road operations, and extensive dynamometer emissions testing.

  11. Knowledge-Based Parallel Performance Technology for Scientific Application Competitiveness Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer

    2011-08-15

    The primary goal of the University of Oregon's DOE "œcompetitiveness" project was to create performance technology that embodies and supports knowledge of performance data, analysis, and diagnosis in parallel performance problem solving. The target of our development activities was the TAU Performance System and the technology accomplishments reported in this and prior reports have all been incorporated in the TAU open software distribution. In addition, the project has been committed to maintaining strong interactions with the DOE SciDAC Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) and Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). This collaboration has proved valuable for translation of our knowledge-based performance techniques to parallel application development and performance engineering practice. Our outreach has also extended to the DOE Advanced CompuTational Software (ACTS) collection and project. Throughout the project we have participated in the PERI and TASCS meetings, as well as the ACTS annual workshops.

  12. Improved solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Power density, durability and modularity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund Frandsen, H.; Kiebach, W.R.; Hoeegh, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents the work performed within the project PSO2009-1-10207 during the period from 01-04-2009 - 31-06-2010. The report is divided into three parts covering the three work packages: Stack components; Stacks and durability; and Large SOFC systems: modularity and scalability. The project contains 38 milestones and all milestones in the project have been either fully or partly fulfilled. Two major achievements within this project concern the robustness towards dynamic operations and implementation of cells with more active cathodes: Within this project tools to evaluate and test SOFC stacks with respect to robustness during dynamic operations has been developed. From stack tests performed under dynamic conditions it was observed that the effect on degradation and failure seemed to be very little. The thermo-mechanical models developed in this project in combination with the dynamic stack model was used in combination to understand why. The results clearly showed that the hardest stress field applied to the cells arises from the steady state operating point rather than from the dynamic conditions. This is a very promising result concerning the fact that especially small CHP units in a commercial system will experience dynamic conditions from load cycling and thermal cycling. A new type of cell with a more active cathode has been formulated and introduced into the TOFC stacks in this project. The aim was to improve the effect of the stack by 25 %. However, compared to a standard stack with the ''old'' cells, the stack effect was increased by 44% - from a cross flow stack with standard 2G cells to a cross flow stack with 2.5G cells. The new type of cells also show an excellent stability towards moisture in the cathode feed, and a stack with 2.5G cells has been tested for 12.000 hrs with a degradation rate of 30 mOMEGAcm2/1000 hr. (Author)

  13. TGLF Recalibration for ITER Standard Case Parameters FY2015: Theory and Simulation Performance Target Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    flows that fit the GYRO simulations, the parameters of the model had to be tuned to each case. A physics basis for the zonal flow model was lacking. Electron energy transport at short wavelength: A secondary issue – the high-k electron energy flux – was initially assumed to be independent of the zonal flow effect. However, detailed studies of the fluctuation spectra from recent multiscale (electron and ion scale) GYRO simulations provided a critical new insight into the role of zonal flows. The multiscale simulations suggested that advection by the zonal flows strongly suppressed electron-scale turbulence. Radial shear of the zonal ExB fluctuation could not compete with the large electron-scale linear growth rate, but the kx-mixing rate of the ExB advection could. This insight led to a preliminary new model for the way zonal flows saturate both electron and ion-scale turbulence. It was also discovered that the strength of the zonal ExB velocity could be computed from the linear growth rate spectrum. The new saturation model (SAT1), which replaces the original model (SAT0), was fit to the multiscale GYRO simulations as well as the ion-scale GYRO simulations used to calibrate the original SAT0 model. Thus, SAT1 captures the physics of both multiscale electron transport and zonal-flow stabilization. In future work, it the SAT1 model will require significant further testing and (expensive) calibration with nonlinear multiscale gyrokinetic simulations over a wider variety of plasma conditions – certainly more than the small set of scans about a single C-Mod L-mode discharge. We believe the SAT1 model holds great promise as a physics-based model of the multiscale turbulent transport in fusion devices. Correction to ITER performance predictions: Finally, the impact of the SAT1model on the ITER hybrid case is mixed. Without the electron-scale contribution to the fluxes, the Dimits shift makes a significant improvement in the predicted fusion power as originally

  14. High-temperature fuel cell research and development. Final technical status report, June 1977-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-15

    An initial survey of the literature produced a list of ceramic materials with properties which made them potential candidates for use in molten-carbonate fuel cell tiles or electrodes. Seven of the materials in the original list were dropped from consideration because of unfavorable thermodynamic properties; four materials were set aside because of high cost, lack of availability, or fabrication difficulties. Thirteen compositions were tested statically at 1000 K in a Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ bath under a dry CO/sub 2/ atmosphere. Only four of the materials tested showed severe degradation reactions in the molten carbonate. A low-temperature process for forming small diameter, high-aspect ratio ceramic fibers for fuel cell use has been developed. A short-term program to initiate a computer study on the thermodynamic analysis of fuel cell materials was initiated at Montana State University. The report on this program is included as Appendix B. The MHD and high-temperature fuel cell literature was surveyed, and material properties were evaluated to identify MHD materials with potential use for fuel cell applications. A technology transfer report of these findings was prepared. This report is included as Appendix A. Laboratory facilities were established to conduct research on interfacial diffusion processes which could be detrimental to successful long-term operation of the solid-electrolyte fuel cell. A variety of physical and chemical techniques were examined for the preparation of high-density substituted LaCrO/sub 3/ which was to be one component of a diffusion couple with Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/. Hydrolysis of a mixed metal-nitrate solution with urea produced the most reactive powder. A final theoretical density of almost 98% was attained in cold-pressed sintered discs of this material. (Extensive list of references)

  15. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  16. Investigation of properties and performance of ceramic composite components. Final report on Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, W.A.; Reifsnider, K.L.; Oleksuk, L.L.S.; Stinchcomb, W.W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1994-10-31

    The purpose of Phase 2 of the Investigation of Properties and Performance of Ceramic Composite Components has been to build on and extend the work completed during Phase 1 to further advance the transition from properties of ceramic composite materials to performance of ceramic composite components used in fossil energy environments. The specific tasks of Phase 2 were: (1) develop and validate reliable and accurate high temperature, biaxial mechanical tests methods for structural ceramic composite components; (2) test and evaluate ceramic composite components, specifically tubes; (3) characterize long-term, mechanical performance of ceramic composite tubes at high temperatures; (4) develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanical degradation and performance limitations of ceramic composite components under service conditions; (5) develop predictive models for damage tolerance and reliability; and (6) relate component performance to microstructure and, thereby, provide feedback to the associated process-development effort, to improve performance. Accomplishments for each task are given.

  17. Business cycles and the financial performance of fuel cell companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in a hydrogen powered world. They will provide power to homes, modes of transportation and appliances. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in nature, but it must be extracted in order to be usable. It can be produced from oil, natural gas and coal or from renewable sources such as biomass, thermal or nuclear reactions. Fuel cells running on hydrogen extracted from non renewable resources have an efficiency of 30 per cent, which is twice as efficient as an internal combustion engine. The greatest barrier to mass commercialization is the cost of making hydrogen-powered auto engines. Also, an infrastructure must be developed to refill hydrogen cars. One solution is to build a hydrogen highway using the existing natural gas grid to produce hydrogen and sell it at existing filling stations. The cost of building 12,000 refueling pumps in urban areas which will provide access to 70 per cent of America's population is estimated at $10 to $15 billion. This paper described the vector autoregression (VAR) model which empirically examines the relationship between financial performance of fuel cell companies and business cycles. It was used to measure how sensitive the financial performance of fuel cell companies are to changes in macroeconomic activity. A four variable VAR model was developed to examine the relationship between stock prices, oil prices and interest rates. It was shown that the stock prices of fuel cell companies are affected by shocks to technology stock prices and oil prices, with the former having a longer lasting impact. These results add to the growing literature that oil price movements are not as important as once thought. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P

    2012-08-06

    The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

  19. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Katowa-Mukwato, Patricia; Banda, Sekelani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. Methods The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objec...

  20. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Mary [University of Utah

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon which the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.

  1. Interface Engineering of Organic Schottky Barrier Solar Cells and Its Application in Enhancing Performances of Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fangming; Su, Zisheng; Chu, Bei; Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junbo; Zhao, Haifeng; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Xingwu; Li, Wenlian

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we describe the performance of organic Schottky barrier solar cells with the structure of ITO/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/bathophenanthroline (BPhen)/Al. The SubPc-based Schottky barrier solar cells exhibited a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.59 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.82% under simulated AM1.5 G solar illumination at 100 mW/cm2. Device performance was substantially enhanced by simply inserting thin organic hole transport material into the interface of MoOx and SubPc. The optimized devices realized a 180% increase in PCE of 2.30% and a peak Voc as high as 1.45 V was observed. We found that the improvement is due to the exciton and electron blocking effect of the interlayer and its thickness plays a vital role in balancing charge separation and suppressing quenching effect. Moreover, applying such interface engineering into MoOx/SubPc/C60 based planar heterojunction cells substantially enhanced the PCE of the device by 44%, from 3.48% to 5.03%. Finally, we also investigated the requirements of the interface material for Schottky barrier modification.

  2. Interface Engineering of Organic Schottky Barrier Solar Cells and Its Application in Enhancing Performances of Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fangming; Su, Zisheng; Chu, Bei; Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junbo; Zhao, Haifeng; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Xingwu; Li, Wenlian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe the performance of organic Schottky barrier solar cells with the structure of ITO/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/bathophenanthroline (BPhen)/Al. The SubPc-based Schottky barrier solar cells exhibited a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.59 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.82% under simulated AM1.5 G solar illumination at 100 mW/cm2. Device performance was substantially enhanced by simply inserting thin organic hole transport material into the interface of MoOx and SubPc. The optimized devices realized a 180% increase in PCE of 2.30% and a peak Voc as high as 1.45 V was observed. We found that the improvement is due to the exciton and electron blocking effect of the interlayer and its thickness plays a vital role in balancing charge separation and suppressing quenching effect. Moreover, applying such interface engineering into MoOx/SubPc/C60 based planar heterojunction cells substantially enhanced the PCE of the device by 44%, from 3.48% to 5.03%. Finally, we also investigated the requirements of the interface material for Schottky barrier modification. PMID:27185635

  3. Evaluating the performance of microbial fuel cells powering electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewan, Alim; Beyenal, Haluk [Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Center for Environmental, Sediment and Aquatic Research, Pullman, WA (United States); Donovan, Conrad; Heo, Deukhyoun [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163-2710 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is capable of powering an electronic device if we store the energy in an external storage device, such as a capacitor, and dispense that energy intermittently in bursts of high-power when needed. Therefore its performance needs to be evaluated using an energy-storing device such as a capacitor which can be charged and discharged rather than other evaluation techniques, such as continuous energy dissipation through a resistor. In this study, we develop a method of testing microbial fuel cell performance based on storing energy in a capacitor. When a capacitor is connected to a MFC it acts like a variable resistor and stores energy from the MFC at a variable rate. In practice the application of this method to testing microbial fuel cells is very challenging and time consuming; therefore we have custom-designed a microbial fuel cell tester (MFCT). The MFCT evaluates the performance of a MFC as a power source. It uses a capacitor as an energy storing device and waits until a desired amount of energy is stored then discharges the capacitor. The entire process is controlled using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) board controlled by a custom-written computer program. The utility of our method and the MFCT is demonstrated using a laboratory microbial fuel cell (LMFC) and a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC). We determine (1) how frequently a MFC can charge a capacitor, (2) which electrode is current-limiting, (3) what capacitor value will allow the maximum harvested energy from a MFC, which is called the ''optimum charging capacitor value,'' and (4) what capacitor charging potential will harvest the maximum energy from a MFC, which is called the ''optimum charging potential.'' Using a LMFC we find that (1) the time needed to charge a 3-F capacitor from 0 to 500 mV is 108 min, (2) the optimum charging capacitor value is 3 F, and (3) the optimum charging potential is 300 mV. Using a SMFC we find that (1

  4. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final report. Volume IV: High-efficiency solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Leipold, M.; L. Cheng; Daud, T.; Mokashi, A; Burger, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development (R&D). The High-Efficiency Solar Cells Task was assigned the objective of understandin...

  5. High performance low cost interconnections for flip chip attachment with electrically conductive adhesive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This final report is a compilation of final reports from each of the groups participating in the program. The main three groups involved in this effort are the Thomas J. Watson Research Center of IBM Corporation in Yorktown Heights, New York, Assembly Process Design of IBM Corporation in Endicott, New York, and SMT Laboratory of Universal Instruments Corporation in Binghamton, New York. The group at the research center focused on the conductive adhesive materials development and characterization. The group in process development focused on processing of the Polymer-Metal-Solvent Paste (PMSP) to form conductive adhesive bumps, formation of the Polymer-Metal Composite (PMC) on semiconductor devices and study of the bonding process to circuitized organic carriers, and the long term durability and reliability of joints formed using the process. The group at Universal Instruments focused on development of an equipment set and bonding parameters for the equipment to produce bond assembly tooling. Reports of each of these individual groups are presented here reviewing their technical efforts and achievements.

  6. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs, the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs, we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2.

  7. Material unaccounted for performance analysis of a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUF and LEMUF performance of a specific facility was modeled. The computer code MCLAMS was used to simulate MUF and LEMUF values for the facility. The simulation results agreed well with the historical MUF and LEMUF performance of the facility. Seven components of MUF were identified for the facility. These components were either measurement- or process-related. There was evidence of human error in the facility data. However, it was not modeled into the MUF performance, because of too little information and the limitations of the current MCLAMS program. From this study, it appears that MUF performance analysis of real-world facilities can be effectively modeled and simulated. Application to additional facilities is recommended

  8. Contributions of performance-graded asphalt to low temperature cracking resistance of pavements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, S.W.; Olek, J.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to study and evaluate the role that asphalt cracking. As part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) new specifications for asphalt binders were developed that are based on the performance of the material. The asphalt binder graded and specified according to these new performance-based specifications is called PG binder. These new specifications are commonly referred to as Superpave (Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement) binder specifications. A section of Interstate 64 in southern Indiana was experiencing severe low temperature cracking before it was reconstructed over the summers of 1995 and 1996. The binder used in the new pavement mixes was PG material. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) tests, Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) tests, and viscosity tests were performed on this binder. Comparisons were made between test results obtained from the binders in the old pavement and the new pavement. All tests and comparisons were based on the Superpave binder specifications.

  9. Final report on household and institutional biogas : technical performance & economic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the technical performance for the ARTI compact biogas system in Nairobi and of the potential economic savings therein, and provides a preliminary analysis of the “gas for cash” business concept in Kenya.

  10. Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Kwan Wee

    2014-04-11

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

  11. Approximations in the performance evaluation of queueing systems. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knessl, Charles; Tier, Charles

    2001-06-06

    The research program on this grant was to develop new asymptotic and perturbation methods for approximating the performance of queueing systems. This involved obtaining approximations to complicated equations.The approximations provide accurate formulas for the performance measures. Queueing models of these types arise in the analysis of computer and communications systems such as ATM networks. In addition, the methods developed in the proposal were also found to be applicable to other stochastic and diffusion models.

  12. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  13. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle performance and design goal determination study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennand, J.; Curtis, R.; Fox, H.; Hamilton, W.

    1977-08-01

    Recommendations are set forth for performance standards for near-term and advanced electric and hybrid vehicles. Limited market surveys and interviews with present owners of electric vehicles indicated that the most important criterion for private vehicles is low operating cost. This criterion, combined with the low specific energy density and relatively short life of present storage batteries, was the key factor in the minimum performance specified for near-term private electric vehicles: two or more passengers, 50 km range over the SAE J227a/C driving schedule, with a maximum energy use of about 0.9 MJ/km (0.4 kWh/mi). Near-term commercial vehicles have even lower recommended minimum performance, including 50 km on the (less demanding) SAE J227a/B schedule. Heat-engine battery-electric hybrid vehicles may provide the driving range lacking in electric vehicles and use appreciably less fuel than conventional vehicles. Performance standards recommended for near-term hybrid vehicles call for essentially the same performance as for comparably sized near-term electric vehicles, except for increased range capability. Development specifications recommended for advanced hybrids call for substantially reduced petroleum fuel consumption and the same acceleration capability exhibited by present conventional subcompact cars. Performance standards for a light agricultural utility vehicle are developed.

  15. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.

  16. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  17. High performance fuel electrode for a solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    perovskite oxides selected from the group consisting of niobium-doped strontium titanate, vanadium-doped strontium titanate, tantalum-doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof, thereby obtaining a porous anode backbone, (b) sintering the coated electrolyte at a high temperature, such as 1200 DEG C in a......A high performance anode (fuel electrode) for use in a solid oxide electrochemical cell is obtained by a process comprising the steps of (a) providing a suitably doped, stabilized zirconium oxide electrolyte, such as YSZ,ScYSZ, with an anode side having a coating of electronically conductive...

  18. High performance nickel-cadmium cells for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Pierre

    A new concept of a cadmium electrode associated with a lighter nickel structure, a multi-cell module technology, allows the proposal of a very promisig alternative power source for electric vehicle (EV) batteries, the usable specific energy being 31% of the theoretical value. Every characteristic of this Ni-Cd module (i.e., specific energy and power, energy and power density, energy efficiency, life and reliability) gives the best performing EV battery, to date. Thus, with the efficient support of two major French car manufacturers and the French government, SAFT will launch, during Spring '95, the first pilot line of EV Ni-Cd module manufacturing.

  19. Microstructured Electrolyte Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue

    Fuel cells, with the advantages of high efficiency, low greenhouse gas emission, and long lifetime are a promising technology for both portable power and stationary power sources. The development of efficient electrolyte membranes with high ionic conductivity, good mechanical durability and dense structure at low cost remains a challenge to the commercialization of fuel cells. This thesis focuses on exploring novel composite polymer membranes and ceramic electrolytes with the microstructure engineered to improve performance in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), respectively. Polymer/particle composite membranes hold promise to meet the demands of DMFCs at lower cost. The structure of composite membranes was controlled by aligning proton conducting particles across the membrane thickness under an applied electric field. The field-induced structural changes caused the membranes to display an enhanced water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability in comparison to membranes prepared without an applied field. Although both methanol permeability and proton conductivity are enhanced by the applied field, the permeability increase is relatively lower than the proton conductivity improvement, which results in enhanced proton/methanol selectivity and improved DMFC performance. Apatite ceramics are a new class of fast ion conductors being studied as alternative SOFC electrolytes in the intermediate temperature range. An electrochemical/hydrothermal deposition method was developed to grow fully dense apatite membranes containing well-developed crystals with c-axis alignment to promote ion conductivity. Hydroxyapatite seed crystals were first deposited onto a metal substrate electrochemically. Subsequent ion substitution during the hydrothermal growth process promoted the formation of dense, fully crystalline films with microstructure optimal for ion transport. The deposition parameters were systematically investigated, such as

  20. Human factors affecting the performance of inspection personnel in nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the problem of poor performance among nuclear power plant inspection personnel both in training and in the field. First, a systems perspective is employed to explore the psychological processes and relevant human factors that may be associated with workers' inadequate performance. Second, two separate yet related approaches are used to clarify the definition of competence: (1) a theory-based (or ''top-down'') approach, in which effective performance is construed as a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and (2) an empirical (or ''bottom-up'') approach, in which key persons and context characteristics are generated based on the opinions of experts in the industry. Using a series of semi-structured interviews, two empirical studies were conducted in the latter approach. Overall, the results of both studies converged with the theoretical analysis emphasizing (1) the reciprocal and dynamic interplay of contextual and motivational factors influencing performance, and (2) the salient role of supervisory practices in terms of support, cooperation, and efficiency in contributing to the outcome of performance. 53 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Suns-VOC characteristics of high performance kesterite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Oki; Gokmen, Tayfun; Mitzi, David B.

    2014-08-01

    Low open circuit voltage (VOC) has been recognized as the number one problem in the current generation of Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells. We report high light intensity and low temperature Suns-VOC measurement in high performance CZTSSe devices. The Suns-VOC curves exhibit bending at high light intensity, which points to several prospective VOC limiting mechanisms that could impact the VOC, even at 1 sun for lower performing samples. These VOC limiting mechanisms include low bulk conductivity (because of low hole density or low mobility), bulk or interface defects, including tail states, and a non-ohmic back contact for low carrier density CZTSSe. The non-ohmic back contact problem can be detected by Suns-VOC measurements with different monochromatic illuminations. These limiting factors may also contribute to an artificially lower JSC-VOC diode ideality factor.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Different SRAM Cell Structures at Different Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Singh, Neha Arora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the demand for low power devices has been increases tremendously. To solve the power dissipation problem, many researchers have proposed different ideas from the device level to the architectural level and above. However, there is no universal way to avoid tradeoffs between power, delay and area, thus designers are required to choose appropriate techniques that satisfy application and product needs. The demand for static random-access memory (SRAM is increasing with large use of SRAM in System On-Chip and high-performance VLSI circuits. This paper represents the simulation of different SRAM cells and their comparative analysis on different parameters such as Power Supply Voltage, area efficiency etc to enhance the performance. All the simulations have been carried out on BSIM 3V3 90nm,45nm and 32 technology at Tanner EDA tool.

  3. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  4. Final report of DOE project "Detection, Localization and Diagnosis of Performance Problems Using PerfSONAR"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovrolis, Konstantinos [Georgia Tech

    2014-04-15

    We present the development of a middleware service, called Pythia, that is able to detect, localize, and diagnose performance problems in the network paths that interconnect research sites that are of interest to DOE. The proposed service can analyze perfSONAR data collected from all participating sites.

  5. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  6. Conceptual design of a 100-MW fuel cell power plant for urban utility applications: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, L.M.; Healy, H.C.; Clausi, J.V.; Hall, E.W.; May, G.W.; Oesterich, L.C.

    1988-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of EPRI Research Project RP1777-1, Amendment 13. The objective of this work was to define the performance, cost, and configuration of conceptual 100-megawatt fuel cell stations for in-city generation. The study assumed an IFC-developed scenario for introduction of multi-megawatt phosphoric acid fuel cells for electric utility applications. The technology basis of the designs is the IFC 11-megawatt PC23 fuel cell power plant. The PC23 design was extended to produce a 25-megawatt module from the PC23 frame. Two 100-megawatt stations made up of four 25-megawatt modules each were chosen as examples of urban installations. One is intended for unconstrained sites on open land; the other is suitable for constrained sites such as existing buildings. The study concluded that large fuel cell plants can be derived from current technology and that they would have attractive characteristics. There is the potential for hundreds of megawatts of fuel cell capacity in the New York metropolitan area on Con Edison property. The installed cost is less than $1000 per kilowatt (1987 dollars) at reasonably low production rates. The O and M cost is in the range of 7--8 mills per kilowatt-hour. An advanced PAFC system design was defined which could evolve from the baseline 100-megawatt plant. Performance and cost characteristics of that system appear even more attractive and provide a strong incentive for continued R and D and investment in PAFC technology. 32 figs., 37 tabs.

  7. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement

  8. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  9. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A., E-mail: Raluca.FELSEGHI@insta.utcluj.ro; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Building Services Engineering Department, Bd. December 21, no. 128-130, 400600, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Răboacă, S. M. [National R& D Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, str. Uzinei, no. 4, Rm. Vălcea, 240050 (Romania); Aşchilean, I. [SC ACI Cluj SA, Avenue Dorobanţilor, no. 70, 400609, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  10. DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1981-12-01

    The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

  11. Architecture-Aware Algorithms for Scalable Performance and Resilience on Heterogeneous Architectures. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William D.

    2014-06-23

    With the coming end of Moore's law, it has become essential to develop new algorithms and techniques that can provide the performance needed by demanding computational science applications, especially those that are part of the DOE science mission. This work was part of a multi-institution, multi-investigator project that explored several approaches to develop algorithms that would be effective at the extreme scales and with the complex processor architectures that are expected at the end of this decade. The work by this group developed new performance models that have already helped guide the development of highly scalable versions of an algebraic multigrid solver, new programming approaches designed to support numerical algorithms on heterogeneous architectures, and a new, more scalable version of conjugate gradient, an important algorithm in the solution of very large linear systems of equations.

  12. Neutronic calculations for JET. Performed with the FURNACE2 program. (Final report JET contract JEO/9004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-transport calculations with the FURNACE(2) program system, in support of the Neutron Diagnostic Group at JET, have been performed since 1980, i.e. since the construction phase of JET. FURNACE(2) is a ray-tracing/multiple-reflection transport program system for toroidal geometries, that orginally was developed for blanket neutronics studies and which then was improved and extended for application to the neutron-diagnostics at JET. (orig./WL)

  13. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H. [ed.; Dahotre, N. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

  14. Final Report - Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasoski, Radoslav; van der Vliet, Dennis; Cullen, David; Atanasoska, Ljiljana

    2015-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the fuel cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and fuel starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the fuel cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM fuel cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local fuel starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.

  15. Continued maturing of SOFC cell production technology and development and demonstration of SOFC stacks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objective of the 6385 project was to develop stack materials, components and stack technology including industrial relevant manufacturing methods for cells components and stacks. Furthermore, the project should include testing and demonstration of the stacks under relevant operating conditions. A production of 6.829 cells, twenty 75-cell stacks and a number of small stacks was achieved. Major improvements were also made in the manufacturing methods and in stack design. Two test and demonstration activities were included in the project. The first test unit was established at H.C. OErsted power plant at the Copenhagen waterfront in order to perform test of SOFC stacks. The unit will be used for tests in other projects. The second demonstration unit is the alpha prototype demonstration in a system running on natural gas in Finland. The alpha prototype demonstration system with 24 TOFC (Topsoe Fuel Cell) stacks was established and started running in October 2007 and operational experience was gained in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. (auther)

  16. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  17. Final Report for ?Queuing Network Models of Performance of High End Computing Systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckwalter, J

    2005-09-28

    The primary objective of this project is to perform general research into queuing network models of performance of high end computing systems. A related objective is to investigate and predict how an increase in the number of nodes of a supercomputer will decrease the running time of a user's software package, which is often referred to as the strong scaling problem. We investigate the large, MPI-based Linux cluster MCR at LLNL, running the well-known NAS Parallel Benchmark (NPB) applications. Data is collected directly from NPB and also from the low-overhead LLNL profiling tool mpiP. For a run, we break the wall clock execution time of the benchmark into four components: switch delay, MPI contention time, MPI service time, and non-MPI computation time. Switch delay is estimated from message statistics. MPI service time and non-MPI computation time are calculated directly from measurement data. MPI contention is estimated by means of a queuing network model (QNM), based in part on MPI service time. This model of execution time validates reasonably well against the measured execution time, usually within 10%. Since the number of nodes used to run the application is a major input to the model, we can use the model to predict application execution times for various numbers of nodes. We also investigate how the four components of execution time scale individually as the number of nodes increases. Switch delay and MPI service time scale regularly. MPI contention is estimated by the QNM submodel and also has a fairly regular pattern. However, non-MPI compute time has a somewhat irregular pattern, possibly due to caching effects in the memory hierarchy. In contrast to some other performance modeling methods, this method is relatively fast to set up, fast to calculate, simple for data collection, and yet accurate enough to be quite useful.

  18. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with ``conventional`` HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  19. High Performance Fuel Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Performance Fuel Laboratory (HPFL) will provide pilot scale tests of manufacturing processes, equipment, and handling systems and of accountability and safeguards, methods, and equipment while keeping radiological and chemical exposures of the workers, public, and environment at the lowest practicable levels. The experience gained from designing, constructing and operating the HPFL can be used in future commitments to commercial fuel fabrication plants in the late 1980s and beyond for processing of nuclear fuel. The HPFL site is located in the 400 Area of the 559-square mile, federally owned Hanford Reservation. This environmental impact statement considers effects of the HPFL under normal conditions and in the event of an accident

  20. Design and performance of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center photovoltaic system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.; Begovic, M.; Long, R.; Ropp, M.; Pregelj, A.

    1996-12-31

    A building-integrated DC PV array has been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. The array is mounted on the roof of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center (GTAC), site of the aquatic events during the 1996 Paralympic and Olympic Games in Atlanta. At the time of its construction, it was the world`s largest roof-mounted photovoltaic array, comprised of 2,856 modules and rates at 342 kW. This section describes the electrical and physical layout of the PV system, and the associated data acquisition system (DAS) which monitors the performance of the system and collects measurements of several important meteorological parameters.

  1. Evaluation of the ILRS network performance using the final ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Luceri, Vincenza; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena; König, Daniel; Bianco, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The release of the new realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame - ITRF2014 was already evaluated in its preliminary form and found to be a significant improvement over previous TRFs. The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) contributes unique information that only Satellite Laser Ranging - SLR is sensitive to: the definition of the origin, and in equal parts with VLBI, the scale of the model. For the development of ITRF2014, the ILRS analysts adopted a revision of the internal standards and procedures in generating our contribution from the eight ILRS Analysis Centers. The improved results for the ILRS components were reflected in the resulting new time series of the ITRF origin and scale, showing insignificant trends and tighter scatter. The reanalyzed SLR data on the basis of ITRF2014 are now used to evaluate the individual station performance for the entire ILRS network, focusing on improved estimates of persistent systematic errors over significant periods of time, in hopes of an improved a priori model to be used in the next realization of the ITRF. SLR data beyond what is included in the development of the ITRF and especially from lower altitude missions are used to validate the performance of the model (using e.g. STARLETTE, AJISAI and LARES data). This presentation will focus on the resulting model for persistent systematics and its effect on the ITRF development, using exclusively ILRS tracking data and other ILRS products.

  2. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  3. Expected Performance of the Atlas Detector in GMSB Models with Tau Final States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB) models provide a possible mechanism to mediate Supersymmetry to the visible sector. In these models the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is usually the gravitino, while the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) is either a neutralino or a slepton. In the case of a stau NLSP events with large missing transverse energy, highly energetic jets and up to four t leptons are expected in pp-collisions at the Lhc. A study of the expected performance of the Atlas detector in GMSB scenarios with a stau NLSP for a Lhc center-of-mass energy of √s = 10 TeV is presented. A cut-based selection has been optimised using a typical GMSB scenario and a scan of the GMSB parameter space has been performed to determine the discovery reach as a function of the integrated luminosity. In addition, the invariant mass distribution of two τ leptons has been used to study the measurement of masses of supersymmetric particles with larger event samples.

  4. Investigation of properties and performance of ceramic composite components: Final report on Phases 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, W.A.; Halverson, H.; Carter, R.H.; Miraj, N.; Reifsnider, K.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1998-01-15

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The research program of the Materials Response Group at Virginia Tech addresses the need for reliable and durable structural ceramic composites to perform in high temperature environments. The research effort provides an experimental and analytical basis for the transition from properties of materials to performance of actual component structures. Phases 1 and 2 of the present program focused on the development of test capabilities, initial studies of component mechanical response under various conditions and the development of a life prediction methodology. These efforts have been described in previous reports. This report summarizes the major tasks completed under Phases 3 and 4 of the project. Overall, the authors have made significant progress in a broad spectrum of tasks in this program. Their efforts have encompassed component evaluation, assessment of new SiC-based composites with improved high-temperature potential, development of oxide coating materials for SiC, and the extension and development of new models for predicting the durability of composite components under specific operating conditions for various CMC applications. Each of these areas of work is an important area for achieving the ultimate goal of usable SiC-based composites in high-temperature corrosive environments typical of fossil energy applications.

  5. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Rime ice accretion and its effect on airfoil performance. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the growth of rime ice, and the resulting aerodynamic penalty on unprotected, subcritical, airfoil surfaces. The system of equations governing the trajectory of a water droplet in the airfoil flowfield is developed and a numerical solution is obtained to predict the mass flux of super cooled water droplets freezing on impact. A rime ice shape is predicted. The effect of time on the ice growth is modeled by a time-stepping procedure where the flowfield and droplet mass flux are updated periodically through the ice accretion process. Two similarity parameters, the trajectory similarity parameter and accumulation parameter, are found to govern the accretion of rime ice. In addition, an analytical solution is presented for Langmuir's classical modified inertia parameter. The aerodynamic evaluation of the effect of the ice accretion on airfoil performance is determined using an existing airfoil analysis code with empirical corrections. The change in maximum lift coefficient is found from an analysis of the new iced airfoil shape. The drag correction needed due to the severe surface roughness is formulated from existing iced airfoil and rough airfoil data. A small scale wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the change in airfoil performance due to a simulated rime ice shape.

  7. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  8. Biological reaction mechanism following micro radiation exposure if solitary cells. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localized micro irradiation of cells or sub-cellular structures allow the evaluation of several radiobiological questions. Due to the extensive technology only about 10 micro irradiation facilities exist worldwide that use ionizing radiation. Many experiments concerning damage identification, signal transport and recruitment of proteins following induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) were performed with substitute laser irradiation systems. The project was aimed to compare systematically the recruitment of DSB repair proteins and signal factors following ion micro irradiation with different ions and following laser irradiation. The report describes the calibration of the different irradiation systems, the comparison of kinetics of foci formation and persistency, including their number and configuration.

  9. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  10. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  11. Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As storage of spent fuel has become a key technology in spent fuel management, wet and dry storage have become mature technologies and continue to demonstrate good performance. Increased spent fuel storage capacity in combination with longer storage durations will be needed over the foreseeable future as many countries have delayed their decision on spent fuel disposal or reprocessing. Extended spent fuel storage is, and will remain, an important activity for all countries with nuclear power programmes. A number of countries are planning or have already initiated research programmes on spent fuel storage performance, and there is a continuing benefit in exchanging spent fuel storage experience of the Member States in order to build a comprehensive technology knowledge base. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during wet storage are uniform corrosion, pitting, galvanic, and microbiologically-influenced corrosion. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during dry storage and subsequent handling and transportation operations are air oxidation, thermal creep, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride re-orientation, hydrogen migration and re-distribution. Investigations carried out so far indicate that from the degradation mechanisms that may affect the integrity of spent fuel assembly/bundle structure during interim storage, hydride re-orientation has the potential to impair the ability of the cladding to effectively withstand potentially adverse mechanical challenges resulting from handling or transportation accidents. Fuel integrity issues are related to the definition and criteria of fuel integrity, failure classification, packaging and retrieval of damaged fuel and transport of damaged fuel assemblies. Various monitoring technologies have been developed and used to confirm the continued spent fuel integrity during storage or to provide an early indication of developing

  12. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  13. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  14. Battery performance monitoring by internal ohmic measurements: Application guidelines for stationary batteries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various routine inspections and checks offer a general indication of a battery's health and its state of charge. However, none of these routine checks provide definitive information about a battery's actual capacity. Consequently, capacity discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery discharge tests have been and remain the traditional means by which adequate battery capacity is confirmed. Although technically prudent, the time and expense associated with capacity discharge testing is increasingly at odds with pressures to reduce operating and maintenance budgets. These pressures, in combination with new battery types that cannot be inspected by conventional mans, spurred development efforts for more cost-effective battery test techniques. Resulting advancements in battery monitoring equipment have produced new methods of evaluating battery health and reliability. The results presented here are based on a detailed research program to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. For each evaluated battery, internal ohmic measurements were recorded for individual cells prior to conducting a capacity discharge test of the battery. The discharge test results were then evaluated with respect to the internal ohmic measurements to determine the degree of correlation between capacity and internal ohmic measurements. The project goal was to obtain the necessary data to demonstrate the technology's value while also providing users with practical information about (1) the relationship between battery capacity and internal ohmic measurements, (2) how to use the test equipment in the field for best results, and (3) suggested guidelines for interpreting the measurements

  15. SPEAR-BETA fuel-performance code system. COSTF: cost implications analysis postprocessor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPEAR-BETA fuel performance code system computes fuel reliability as a function of fuel precharacterization and operating history. This report describes an application of the SPEAR-BETA post-processor, COSTF, to the analysis of fuel failure cost implications for Oyster Creek Cycle 8. COSTF is a model which analyzes the cost implications of fuel failure and failure avoidance operations as a function of fuel precharacterization, operating history and cost parameters. The analysis reports baseline costs, representing those actually incurred during Cycle 8, and effects on these cost items of variations. Included are effects of varying 50 different cost parameters, as well as effects of varying power levels and ramp rates

  16. Cone penetrometer testing at the Hanford Site: Final performance evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated demonstrations designed to support the testing of emerging environmental characterization and remediation technologies in support of the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) Programs. The primary objective of the VOC Arid ID at the Hanford Site is to characterize, remediate, and monitor arid and semi-arid sites containing volatile organic compounds with or without associated contamination. The main objective of the Arid Drilling Technology Technical Task Plan is to demonstrate promising subsurface access technologies; this includes using the cone penetrometer (CPT) system for source detection, characterization, monitoring, and remediation in support of environmental activities. The utility of the CPT for performing site characterization work has been the subject of much discussion and speculation at the Hanford Site and other arid sites because of the preponderance of thick units of coarse cobbles and gravel in the subsurface

  17. Effects of anisotropic permeability and electrical conductivity of gas diffusion layers on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The in-plane electrical conductivity of the GDL must be captured numerically. ► Fuel cell performance is insensitive to the anisotropy in the permeability of GDL. ► The anisotropy in the in-plane electrical conductivity of the GDL can be neglected. ► For the reported conditions, the U-bend has no effect on the fuel cell performance. -- Abstract: A 3-dimensional model for an in-house proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with serpentine channels has been developed in order to investigate the sensitivity of the fuel cell performance to the anisotropic gas permeability and electrical conductivity of gas diffusion layers (GDLs). For a realistic range of transport properties being investigated, the fuel cell performance was found to be very sensitive to the electrical conductivity but almost insensitive to the gas permeability of the GDL. For the given operating conditions, the current density was found to be a maximum in the vicinity of the edge between the flow channel and the rib of the current collector. Since the most common GDL materials present a rather significant anisotropy in the in-plane directions, the effects of such anisotropy has been evaluated. Given that the through-plane conductivity is maintained constant for all the cases investigated, for a realistic range of the in-plane electrical conductivity, the fuel cell performance was found to be almost insensitive to this parameter. Therefore such anisotropy can be practically ignored. Finally, for single phase operating conditions, the U-bend in the serpentine channel has no effect on the overall performance of the fuel cell. Hence, only a straight channel of the fuel cell may be modelled and used as a quick performance indicator.

  18. Performance of Denitrifying Microbial Fuel Cell with Biocathode over Nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Zhao, Jianqiang; Li, Fenghai; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) with nitrite as an electron acceptor in cathode provided a new technology for nitrogen removal and electricity production simultaneously. The influences of influent nitrite concentration and external resistance on the performance of denitrifying MFC were investigated. The optimal effectiveness were obtained with the maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 54.80 ± 0.01 g m−3 d−1. It would be rather desirable for the TN removal than electricity generation at lower external resistance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 35.72%. Thiobacillus and Afipia might benefit to nitrite removal. The presence of nitrifying Devosia indicated that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate via a biochemical mechanism in the cathode. Ignavibacterium and Anaerolineaceae was found in the cathode as a heterotrophic bacterium with sodium acetate as substrate, which illustrated that sodium acetate in anode was likely permeated through proton exchange membrane to the cathode. PMID:27047462

  19. Coordinated Fault-Tolerance for High-Performance Computing Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Dhabaleswar Kumar [The Ohio State University; Beckman, Pete

    2011-07-28

    existing publish-subscribe tools. We enhanced the intrinsic fault tolerance capabilities representative implementations of a variety of key HPC software subsystems and integrated them with the FTB. Targeting software subsystems included: MPI communication libraries, checkpoint/restart libraries, resource managers and job schedulers, and system monitoring tools. Leveraging the aforementioned infrastructure, as well as developing and utilizing additional tools, we have examined issues associated with expanded, end-to-end fault response from both system and application viewpoints. From the standpoint of system operations, we have investigated log and root cause analysis, anomaly detection and fault prediction, and generalized notification mechanisms. Our applications work has included libraries for fault-tolerance linear algebra, application frameworks for coupled multiphysics applications, and external frameworks to support the monitoring and response for general applications. Our final goal was to engage the high-end computing community to increase awareness of tools and issues around coordinated end-to-end fault management.

  20. Active flow control for maximizing performance of spark ignited stratified charge engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedewa, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Timm, Edward; Schock, Harold J.; Shih, Tom-I.P.; Koochesfahani, Manooch; Brereton, Giles

    2002-10-15

    Reducing the cycle-to-cycle variability present in stratified-charge engines is an important step in the process of increasing their efficiency. As a result of this cycle-to-cycle variability, fuel injection systems are calibrated to inject more fuel than necessary, in an attempt to ensure that the engines fire on every cycle. When the cycle-to-cycle variability is lowered, the variation of work per cycle is reduced and the lean operating limit decreases, resulting in increased fuel economy. In this study an active flow control device is used to excite the intake flow of an engine at various frequencies. The goal of this excitation is to control the way in which vortices shed off of the intake valve, thus lowering the cycle-to-cycle variability in the flow field. This method of controlling flow is investigated through the use of three engines. The results of this study show that the active flow control device did help to lower the cycle-to-cycle variability of the in-cylinder flow field; however, the reduction did not translate directly into improved engine performance.

  1. Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Validation Data. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelen, Deborah [Electricore, Inc., Santa Clarita, CA (United States); Odom, Sara [Electricore, Inc., Santa Clarita, CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Electricore, along with partners from Quong & Associates, Inc., Honda R&D Americas (Honda), Nissan Technical Center North America (Nissan), and Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (Toyota), participated in the Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Validation Data program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0005968). The goal of this program was to provide real world data from the operation of past and current FCEVs, in order to measure their performance and improvements over time. The program was successful; 85% of the data fields requested were provided and not restricted due to proprietary reasons. Overall, the team from Electricore provided at least 4.8 GB of data to DOE, which was combined with data from other participants to produce over 33 key data products. These products included vehicle performance and fuel cell stack performance/durability. The data were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NREL NFCTEC) and combined with input from other participants. NREL then produced composite data products (CDP) which anonymized the data in order to maintain confidentiality. The results were compared with past data, which showed a measurable improvement in FCEVs over the past several years. The results were presented by NREL at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar, and 2014 and 2015 (planned) DOE Annual Merit Review. The project was successful. The team provided all of the data agreed upon and met all of its goals. The project finished on time and within budget. In addition, an extra $62,911 of cost sharing was provided by the Electricore team. All participants believed that the method used to collect, combine, anonymize, and present the data was technically and economically effective. This project helped EERE meet its mission of ensuring America’s security and prosperity by

  2. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  3. Performance assessment and adoption processes of an information monitoring and diagnostic system prototype; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the problem that buildings do not perform as well as anticipated during design. We partnered with an innovative building operator to evaluate a prototype Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS). The IMDS consists of high-quality measurements archived each minute, a data visualization tool, and a web-based capability. The operators recommend similar technology be adopted in other buildings. The IMDS has been used to identify and correct a series of control problems. It has also allowed the operators to make more effective use of the building control system, freeing up time to take care of other tenant needs. They believe they have significantly improved building comfort, potentially improving tenant health, and productivity. The reduction in hours to operate the building are worth about$20,000 per year, which could pay for the IMDS in about five years. A control system retrofit based on findings from the IMDS is expected to reduce energy use by 20 percent over the next year, worth over$30,000 per year. The main conclusion of the model-based chiller fault detection work is that steady-state models can be used as reference models to monitor chiller operation and detect faults. The ability of the IMDS to measure cooling load and chiller power to one-percent accuracy with a one-minute sampling interval permits detection of additional faults. Evolutionary programming techniques were also evaluated, showing promise in the detection of patterns in building data. We also evaluated two technology adoption processes, radical and routine. In routine adoption, managers enhance features of existing products that are already well understood. In radical adoption, innovative building managers introduce novel technology into their organizations without using the rigorous payback criteria used in routine innovations

  4. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  5. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  6. Performance of Photovoltaic Modules of Different Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Gaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt of performance evaluation of semitransparent and opaque photovoltaic (PV modules of different generation solar cells, having the maximum efficiencies reported in the literature at standard test conditions (STC, has been carried out particularly for the months of January and June. The outdoor performance is also evaluated for the commercially available semitransparent and opaque PV modules. Annual electrical energy, capitalized cost, annualized uniform cost (unacost, and cost per unit electrical energy for both types of solar modules, namely, semitransparent and opaque have also been computed along with their characteristics curves. Semitransparent PV modules have shown higher efficiencies compared to the opaque ones. Calculations show that for the PV modules made in laboratory, CdTe exhibits the maximum annual electrical energy generation resulting into minimum cost per unit electrical energy, whereas a-Si/nc-Si possesses the maximum annual electrical energy generation giving minimum cost per unit electrical energy when commercially available solar modules are concerned. CIGS has shown the lowest capitalized cost over all other PV technologies.

  7. Thermal control and performance assessment of a proton exchanger membrane fuel cell generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal control unit along with a smart algorithm is able to limit the fuel cell temperature in a desired range. • Thermal control unit comprises a thermostat, a radiator/fan assembly, a coolant heater, and a convection fan. • The system efficiency is increased with increasing the external load, reaching 46% at 80% load-duty. • The stack coolant inlet temperature is optimized in the range 58–63 °C. - Abstract: An original-designed thermal control scheme that manages the thermal behaviors in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell generator has been proposed. It not only keeps the stack from overheating under extreme high external loads, but also prevents the stack from staying too cold in the cold-start conditions. A thermal control unit (TCU) together with a smart control algorithm is able to limit the fuel cell operation temperature in a desired range. The TCU comprises mainly a thermostat, a radiator, and a heater. It divides the stack coolant into a cooling stream and a heating stream that maintains a pre-set coolant temperature before entering the stack. Parametric studies include the external loads (0 L < 4 kW) and the stack coolant inlet temperature (SCIT = 53, 58, and 63 °C). The dynamics of SCIT under different loads are measured to verify the thermal reliability of the fuel cell generator. Then, examining the effect of SCIT on the system efficiency assesses the performance the fuel cell generator. Finally, an empirical correlation for the system efficiency of the PEM fuel cell generator under different SCITs is presented as a function of the external loads

  8. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  9. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  10. Enhanced Emission Performance and Fuel Efficiency for HD Methane Engines. Literature Study. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, R.; Staalhammar, P.; Erlandsson, L.

    2010-05-15

    A literature survey has been conducted in order to define state-of-the-art for methane fuelled engines to be used in heavy duty vehicles. Use of methane can be favourable to increase security of supply and mitigate CO2 emissions, especially when the methane origins from biomass. Furthermore, methane used as a fuel in heavy duty engines has a potential to reduce toxic exhaust emissions. Historically, use of methane in heavy duty engines has often been hampered by poor efficiency, i.e. high fuel consumption when using the Otto-cycle. However, current generation technology engines might be within 5-10 % of the efficiency of Diesel engine technology. In this context it is worth mentioning that compliance-driven changes for meeting future emission regulations for Diesel engines may have a negative impact on fuel efficiency, thereby narrowing the gap. This may present an opportunity for heavy methane fuelled engines. The reliability and durability of the exhaust aftertreatment devices for methane fuelled engines has also given rise to some concerns. Some concepts are performing acceptable while others do not meet expectations. This is partly due to difficulties in handling methane in the aftertreatment device and partly to issues in the design of the ignition system. Methane is a fuel used worldwide and has a potential to be an important complement to Diesel oil. There are two categories of HD methane engines available to end-users: Retrofitted engines, which often include computer controlled retrofit systems developed as 'bolt-on' technologies that can be removed if necessary, to resell the vehicle with a normal diesel engine, and those developed specifically for and in conjunction with engine manufacturers and delivered to customers as factory-built engines or vehicles (OEM). Additionally, both these categories can include engines that use the Otto- or Diesel combustion cycles. When adapting a HD Diesel engine to run on methane there are two options, either

  11. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  12. FLOAT - development of new flexible UHPC. Final report. [Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The current project is a preliminary study intended to clarify the background and give a better basis for an evaluation of the risks and possible rewards of funding a full project with the overall purpose of developing and testing a new concept for wave energy floaters, made of Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPC), as an enabling technology for the establishment of competitive wave energy production (FLOAT). As an initial step for this preliminary study of FLOAT an investigation has been undertaken in relation to preliminary design of 2 types of floaters, essential properties of UHPFRC - and identification of necessary developments, compilation of existing data from off shore applications and analysis of effect on Cost Of Energy. Preliminary float design and economical considerations - is a theoretical and numerical study including preliminary float designs and cost estimates. It aims at making a first comparison between the different materials options for DEXA and Wave Star floats and giving a first judgement about the suitability of CRC concrete. This is done through a qualitative assessment of pros and cons of different materials for both types of floats and a design study of the Dexa Wave float. It is concluded that the requirements for the Dexa Wave float are so that CRC is not able to compete with conventional concrete for the best and most cost effective solution. The good durability (leading to low maintenance costs), the mechanical properties and the ductility of CRC are not important enough to offset the increased cost for this float. For Wave Star on the other hand, there are significant advantages in using CRC as the only other option in this case is fibre glass, which is a much more expensive product. An investigation was made of methods of optimizing the properties of CRC - customizing them for particular applications in WEC's. The method of optimization has been to change the types of fibres in the mix, and it is demonstrated

  13. Steady state performance, photo-induced performance degradation and their relation to transient hysteresis in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ajay Kumar; Kulkarni, Ashish; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Hysteresis in current-voltage curves of perovskite solar cells is a serious concern as it creates confusions about actual cell performance and raises questions on its reliability. Although a lot of effort has been made to understand the origin of hysteresis, knowing whether hysteresis affects the cell performance while they are in practical use (operated constantly at maximum power point) is not yet examined. In the present study, we investigate steady state performance and performance stability of perovskite solar cells (planar architecture with varying perovskite film thickness and TiO2 mesoscopic structure with different TiO2 compact layer thickness exhibiting hysteresis of different magnitudes) operating across an external load in relation to hysteresis. The planar cells with larger hysteresis exhibit a steady state current that closely matches the value determined on forward voltage scan. Cyclic photocurrent-dark current measurements on cells with hysteresis of different magnitudes reveal that photo-induced electrical instability (not material degradation), which might be originated from ion migration or photo-induced traps formation, is not related to hysteresis. Performance of the cells is recovered partially or fully, depending on the device structure, on storage in dark. TiO2 meso-structure cells tend to show complete recovery while the planar cells recover partially.

  14. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells: Two Cell Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for space shuttle in future, two types of Samsung cells, with capacity 1800 mAh and 2000 mAh, have been investigated. The studies focused on: (1) Performance tests: completed 250 cycles at various combinations of charge/discharge C rates and discharge capacity measurements at various temperatures; and (2) Safety tests: overcharge and overdischarge, heat abuse, short circuit, internal and external short, and vibration, vacuum, and drop tests

  15. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  16. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  17. Performance analysis for direct 2-propanol fuel-cell based on Pt containing anode electrocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    TAPAN, Niyazi Alper; ÖZTÜRK, Ezgi

    2009-01-01

    Direct 2-propanol cell performance based on Pt containing anode electrocatalyst was evaluated. Cell performance, open circuit voltage, maximum current density, and maximum power density were measured at various alcohol concentrations and cell temperatures. 2-propanol fuel cell shows the highest performance at 1 M concentration and 80 °C operating temperature. The highest practical efficiency (at the maximum power density) was found at 2 M 2-propanol concentration and 60 °C operating ...

  18. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  19. Two dimensional point of use fuel cell : a final LDRD project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Gross, Matthew L. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2011-03-01

    The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Fuel cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid fuels. Additionally, power generation and fuel storage can be decoupled in a fuel cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.

  20. Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Airlock Coolant Loop Remediation (A/L CLR) Hardware - Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery -- A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. A conservative duty cycle and set of use parameters for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. Several initiatives were undertaken to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters of the hardware. Examination of post-flight samples and EMU Coolant Loop hardware provided invaluable information on the performance of the A/L CLR and has allowed for an optimization of the process. The intent of this paper is to detail the evolution of the A/L CLR hardware, efforts to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters, and the final recommendations for implementation in the post-Shuttle retirement era.

  1. Temperature dependence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell performances

    OpenAIRE

    Riesen, Y.; Stuckelberger, M.; Haug, F. -J.; Ballif, C.; N. Wyrsch

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar (a-Si:H) cells are known to have better temperature coefficients than crystalline silicon cells. To investigate whether a-Si:H cells that are optimized for standard conditions (STC) also have the highest energy yield, we measured the temperature and irradiance dependence of the maximum power output (Pmpp), the fill factor (FF), the short-circuit current density (Jsc), and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) for four series of cells fabricated with dif...

  2. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  3. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Sekelani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. Methods The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objective competence: it was measured by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) by faculty using predetermined rating scales. Rank order correlation test was performed for self-perceived and objectively measured competence. Results Two thirds 36 (66.7%) of the participants perceived themselves as moderately competent, 15 (27.8%) rated themselves as highly competent while 3 (5.6%) had low self-perception. With objective competence, the majority 52 (92.8%) were barely competent while 4 (7.2%) were absolutely competent. When overall self-perception was compared to objectively measured competence, there was a discordance which was demonstrated by a negative correlation (Spearman rho -.123). Conclusions Significant numbers of students reported low self-competence in performing procedures such as endotracheal intubation, gastric lavage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation which most never performed during the clinical years of medical education. In addition, the negative correlation between self-perceived and objectively measured competence demonstrated the inability of students to assess and rate themselves objectively due to fear that others may know their weaknesses and realize that they are not as competent as expected at a specific level of training. PMID:27132255

  4. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices

  5. Separator Characteristics for Increasing Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2009-11-01

    Two challenges for improving the performance of air cathode, single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) include increasing Coulombic efficiency (CE) and decreasing internal resistance. Nonbiodegradable glass fiber separators between the two electrodes were shown to increase power and CE, compared to cloth separators (J-cloth) that were degraded over time. MFCtestswereconductedusing glass fibermatswith thicknesses of 1.0mm (GF1) or 0.4 mm (GF0.4), a cation exchange membrane (CEM), and a J-cloth (JC), using reactors with different configurations. Higher power densities were obtained with either GF1 (46 ± 4 W/m3) or JC (46 ± 1 W/m3) in MFCs with a 2 cm electrode spacing, when the separator was placed against the cathode (S-configuration), rather than MFCs with GF0.4 (36 ± 1 W/m3) or CEM (14 ± 1 W/m3). Power was increased to 70 ± 2 W/m3 by placing the electrodes on either side of the GF1 separator (single separator electrode assembly, SSEA) and further to 150 ± 6 W/m3 using two sets of electrodes spaced 2 cm a part (double separator electrode assembly, DSEA). Reducing the DSEA electrode spacing to 0.3 cm increased power to 696 ± 26 W/m3 as a result of a decrease in the ohmic resistance from 5.9 to 2.2 Ω. The main advantages of a GF1 separator compared to JC were an improvement in the CE from 40% to 81% (S-configuration), compared to only 20-40% for JC under similar conditions, and the fact that GF1 was not biodegradable. The high CE for the GF1 separator was attributed to a low oxygen mass transfer coefficient (ko ) 5.0 x 10-5 cm/s). The GF1 andJCmaterials differed in the amount of biomass that accumulated on the separator and its biodegradability, which affected long-term power production and oxygen transport. These results show that materials and mass transfer properties of separators are important factors for improving power densities, CE, and long-term performance of MFCs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  6. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances Rs changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power Pm of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower series

  7. Issues on Settlement of Final Expenses and Performance Assessment in the Course of Transition:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the process and the performance of transition with the following logic:transition is an objective process in accordance with the general principles of economic history;the objectivity is embodied in the expected economic and social effects of transition,the profound economic and social changes in the course of transition,and the different problems facing different transitional stages.Transition is,at the same time,a subjective process involving the participation of the government and the public;the subjectivity is embodied in the thinking on transition,path selection,policy design,and process control.It requires evaluation,correction,and anticipation on the dynamic process with analysis tools and methods that are normally used to validate the subjective thoughts in the objective world to verify whether effects of the subjective action follow and develop the objective principles.It is under such a logical framework that issues on the settlement of final expenses and the performance assessment of transition raised in this paper focus on the improvement in traditional analysis tools and methods and further apply such improvement to China's course of transition.The rudimental premise in this study is the combination of the process of transition,all-roundness of development,and phases of evolution.

  8. Modeling and experimental studies to optimize the performance of a hydrogen - bromine fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

    experimental and simulated results validated that for the electrode properties and operating conditions selected, increasing the thickness of the Br2 electrode beyond a certain value does not have any effect on the discharge performance of the fuel cell. The reactant concentration available inside the Br2 electrode was greatly increased by operating the fuel cell at higher feed flow rates. Finally, the fuel cell configuration involving a thinner Br2 electrode with higher specific active surface area was found to be the optimal choice for generating high performance. The commercially available carbon gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) were commonly used as Br2 electrodes in the H2-Br2 fuel cell. However, the specific surface area of commercial carbon GDEs is quite low and needs to be enhanced. In order to improve the active surface area of carbon GDEs, a study was conducted where multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown directly on the carbon electrode fiber surface. The results from multi-step chronoamperometry study have shown that the synthesized carbon GDEs with MWCNTs have 7 to 75 times higher active surface area than that of a plain GDE. The carbon GDE with a dense distribution of short MWCNTs evaluated in a H2-Br2 fuel cell has 29 times higher active surface area than that of a plain carbon electrode and was found to be highly durable at an electrolyte flow rate of 10 cc/min/cm2. The performance of the best MWCNT GDE (1 layer) measured at 80% discharge voltage efficiency in a H 2-Br2 fuel cell was found to be 16 times higher compared to that obtained using three layers of plain carbon electrodes. Finally, the preliminary material cost analysis has shown that the MWCNT-based carbon electrodes offer significant cost advantages over the plain carbon electrodes.

  9. Effect of bottom cell properties on micromorph tandem device performance

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Veneri, Paola; Mercaldo, Lucia Vittoria; PRIVATO Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Micromorph tandem solar cells represent an elegant way of overcoming the efficiency limits of single-junction solar cells and reducing the light-induced degradation of amorphous silicon films. Micromorph devices have been realized on Asahi U-type TCO-covered glass substrates by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (VHF-PECVD) at 100 MHz at low substrate temperature (150 ?C). For the bottom cell different growth regimes have been explored by changi...

  10. Organic Solar Cells Performances Improvement Induced by Interface Buffer Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Bernède, J. C.; Godoy, A.; Cattin, L; Diaz, F. R.; MORSLI, M; Valle, M. A. del

    2010-01-01

    In the last 22 years that have elapsed since the pioneering work of Tang [Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1986], significant improvement in the fundamental understanding and cells construction have led to efficiencies higher than 6%. The new concept of polymer:fullerene BHJ solar cells has allowed dramatic improvements in devices efficiency. It has induced a healthy competition with the multi-heterojunction devices base on small organic molecules, which induces significant progress in both cells fam...

  11. In vitro performance of 13-93 bioactive glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds with MLO-A5 osteogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modglin, Vernon C; Brown, Roger F; Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Jung, Steven B; Day, Delbert E

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the ability of two types of porous bioactive glass scaffolds to support the growth and differentiation of an established osteogenic cell line. The two scaffold types tested included 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular-like scaffolds seeded with murine MLO-A5 cells and cultured for intervals of 2 to 12 days. Culture in MTT-containing medium showed metabolically active cells both on the surface and within the interior of the scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed well-attached cells on both types of scaffolds with a continual increase in cell density over a 6-day period. Protein measurements also showed a linear increase in cell density during the incubation. Activity of alkaline phosphatase, a key indicator of osteoblast differentiation, increased about 10-fold during the 6-day incubation with both scaffold types. The addition of mineralization media to MLO-A5 seeded scaffolds triggered extensive formation of alizarin red-positive mineralized extracellular material, additional evidence of cell differentiation and completion of the final step of bone formation on the constructs. Collectively, the results indicate that the 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds promote the attachment, growth, and differentiation of MLO-A5 osteogenic cells and could potentially be used for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22528984

  12. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  13. Topology optimization for improving the performance of solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.K.; Langelaar, M.; Keulen, F. van; Barink, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces the application of Topology Optimization (TO) to design optimal front metallization patterns for solar cells and increase their power output. A challenging aspect of the solar cell electrode design problem is the strong nonlinear relation between the active layer current and the

  14. Influence of pressure and silane depletion on microcrystalline silicon material quality and solar cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon growth by very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is investigated in an industrial-type parallel plate R and D KAI reactor to study the influence of pressure and silane depletion on material quality. Single junction solar cells with intrinsic layers prepared at high pressures and in high silane depletion conditions exhibit remarkable improvements, reaching 8.2% efficiency. Further analyses show that better cell performances are linked to a significant reduction of the bulk defect density in intrinsic layers. These results can be partly attributed to lower ion bombardment energies due to higher pressures and silane depletion conditions, improving the microcrystalline material quality. Layer amorphization with increasing power density is observed at low pressure and in low silane depletion conditions. A simple model for the average ion energy shows that ion energy estimates are consistent with the amorphization process observed experimentally. Finally, the material quality of a novel regime for high rate deposition is reviewed on the basis of these findings

  15. Effect of binder burnout on the sealing performance of glass ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Tugrul Y.; Celik, Selahattin; Mat, Mahmut D.

    2013-11-01

    The glass ceramics composite sealants are among few materials suitable for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high operating temperatures (600 °C-850 °C). The glass ceramics chemically bond to both the metallic interconnector and the ceramic electrolyte and provide a gas tight connection. A careful and several stages manufacturing procedure is required to obtain a gas tight sealing. In this study, effects of binder burnout process on the sealing performance are investigated employing commercially available glass ceramic powders. The glass ceramic laminates are produced by mixing glass ceramic powders with the organic binders and employing a tape casting method. The laminates are sandwiched between the metallic interconnectors of an SOFC cell. The burnout and subsequent sealing quality are analyzed by measuring leakage rate and final macrostructure of sealing region. The effects of heating rate, dead weight load, solid loading, carrier gas and their flow rates are investigated. It is found that sealing quality is affected from all investigated parameters. While a slower heating rate is required for a better burnout, the mass flow rate of sweep gas must be adequate for removal of the burned gas. The leakage rate is reduced to 0.1 ml min-1 with 2 °C min-1 + 1 °C min-1 heating rate, 86.25% solid loading, 200 N dead weight load and 500 ml min-1 sweep gas flow rate.

  16. Performance Analysis of Intermediate Band Solar Cell (IBSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Hossain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency of a single-junction solar cell the intermediate band solar cell is proposed. Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important; because of global environmental concerns. The intermediate band solar cell (IBSC with potential to enhance the efficiency of the conventional single-junction cell. IBSCs have constraining efficiencies of 63.3%. In this solar cell an intermediate band placed in the band gap between the conduction and valence band. This implies that absorption of photons with energy below the band gap of the semiconductor is possible, and the photocurrent is thus increased. At the point when the carrier concentration in each of the three bands are portrayed by their own semi Fermi level the intermediate band does not influence the voltage if carriers are extricated from the conduction band and the valence band. An increment of proficiency is hence possible.

  17. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells, March 1968-April 1981. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the development and application to cell-culture genetics of unique haploid cell lines from frog embryo developed in this laboratory. Since 1968, the main aim of this project has been to develop the haploid cell system for studies of mutagenesis in culture, particularly by ultraviolet radiation. In the course of this work we isolated chromosomally stable cell lines, derived and characterized a number of variants, and adapted cell hybridization and other methods to this material. Particular emphasis was placed on ultraviolet photobiology, including studies of cell survival, mutagenesis, and pathways of repair of uv-damaged DNA. Although at present less widely used for genetic experiments than mammalian cell lines, the frog cells offer the advantages of authentic haploidy and a favorable repertory of DNA repair pathways for study of uv mutagenesis

  18. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 microSv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 microSv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey

  19. Design, construction and cooling system performance of a prototype cryogenic stopping cell for the Super-FRS at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cryogenic stopping cell for stopping energetic radioactive ions and extracting them as a low energy beam was developed. This first ever cryogenically operated stopping cell serves as prototype device for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS at FAIR. The cell has a stopping volume that is 1 m long and 25 cm in diameter. Ions are guided by a DC field along the length of the stopping cell and by a combined RF and DC fields provided by an RF carpet at the exit-hole side. The ultra-high purity of the stopping gas required for optimum ion survival is reached by cryogenic operation. The design considerations and construction of the cryogenic stopping cell, as well as some performance characteristics, are described in detail. Special attention is given to the cryogenic aspects in the design and construction of the stopping cell and the cryocooler-based cooling system. The cooling system allows the operation of the stopping cell at any desired temperature between about 70 K and room temperature. The cooling system performance in realistic on-line conditions at the FRS Ion Catcher Facility at GSI is discussed. A temperature of 110 K at which efficient ion survival was observed is obtained after 10 h of cooling. A minimum temperature of the stopping gas of 72 K was reached. The expertise gained from the design, construction and performance of the prototype cryogenic stopping cell has allowed the development of a final version for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS to proceed

  20. A Novel solid oxide fuel cell anode substrate : performance and lifetime studies

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, K.A. Chamindi

    2013-01-01

    The competition in the fuel cell market today is driving improved performance and among the fuel cells types the Solid Oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a top rank because of its high efficiency in combined heat and power applications. The RoxSolid cell (2-R cell) is a newly invented robust construction developed by Fiaxell – a leading company in SOFC developments and is yet another step to further increasing the performance of current SOFCs. Before introducing the 2-R cell to the market its perf...

  1. Surface Modification of Semiconductor Photo Electrochemical Solar Cell for Improved Solar Cell Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, photo-electro chemical and hydrogen evolution characteristics of a new type of TiO2(ns) and TiO2(ns) - WO3 admixed/Ti septum based semiconductor-septum photo electrochemical (SC-SEP, PEC) solar cell have been studied. The SC-SEP cell in the configuration of SCE/1M NaOH/TiO2(ns)/Ti/H2SO4 + K2SO4/PtCE, PtWE showed the photo voltage and photo-current of 0.72 V and 8.6 mA/cm2, whereas the SC-SEP cell employing WO3 admixed TiO2(ns) photoelectrode and having the configuration: SCE/1M NaOH/TiO2(ns) - WO3/Ti/H2HO4 + K2SO4/PtCE, PtWE, showed the photo-voltage and photo-current of 0.96V and 15.6 mA/cm2 respectively. The hydrogen gas evolution for the SC - SEP cell based on TiO2/Ti photoelectrode was found to be 8.2 l/h/m2, on the other hand the WO3 modified TiO2(ns) exhibited a higher hydrogen gas evolution rate of 13.8 l/h/m2. The better performance of the new photoelectrode is thought to be due to improved spectral response and catalytic activity of WO3 for the hydrogen gas evolution kinetics. (author)

  2. Effects of high doping levels silicon solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Baraona, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The significance of the heavy doping effects (HDE) on the open-circuit voltage of silicon solar cells is assessed. Voltage calculations based on diffusion theory are modified to include the first order features of the HDE. Comparisions of the open-circuit voltage measured for cells of various base resistivities are made with those calculated using the diffusion model with and without the HDE. Results indicate that the observed variation of voltage with base resistivity is predicted by these effects. A maximum efficiency of 19% (AM0) and a voltage of 0.7 volts are calculated for 0.1 omega-cm cells assuming an optimum diffused layer impurity profile.

  3. Inkjet Impregnation for Tailoring Air Electrode Microstructure to Improve Solid Oxide Cells Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Da’as, Eman H.

    2015-09-30

    The urge to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide cells (SOCs) to the intermediate ranges between 500-700°C motivated the research into impregnation processes, which offer highly efficient SOC air electrodes at low operating temperatures. Lack of controllability and reproducibility of this technique in the conventional way is still considered as an inadequacy for industrialization since it is performed manually. Therefore, inkjet-printing technology was proposed as an adequate approach to perform scalable and controllable impregnation for SOC air electrodes, which in turn leads to low operating temperatures. Composite LSM-ionic conductive air electrodes of weight ratio 1:2 were fabricated by inkjet impregnation of lanthanum strontium manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3) precursor nitrates onto a porous ionic conductive backbone structure. First, porous yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) substrates prepared by tape casting were used to study the influence of the printing parameters on the lateral dispersion and penetration of LSM ink inside the pores. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of LSM phase after calcination at 800°C for 2 h, while SEM revealed the formation of LSM nanostructures. It has been found by optical microscope observations that the spacing between the drops and the substrate temperature have a significant role in controlling the printing process. Next, the optimized printing parameters were applied in the inkjet impregnation of the LSM ink into porous YSZ electrodes that were spin coated on both sides of dense YSZ layers. LSM-YSZ composite air electrodes achieved an area specific resistance (ASR) of around 0.29 Ω.cm2 at 700°C. The performance of LSM-YSZ composite electrodes was influenced by the microstructure and the thickness, and by the electrode/electrolyte interface characteristics. As a result, the enhancement in LSM-YSZ composite electrode performance was observed due to the better percolation in LSM, YSZ and oxygen diffusion. Finally

  4. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some miscellaneous data from two low-slope and two steep-slope experimental roofs. The low-slope roofs were designed to compare the performance of various roof coatings exposed to natural weatherization. The steep-slope roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. The steep-slope roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. This article describes phase three (3) of a study that began in 2009 to evaluate the energy benefits of a sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing standing-seam metal roofing panels combined with energy efficient features like above-sheathing-ventilation (ASV), phase change material (PCM) and rigid insulation board. The data from phases 1 and 2 have been previously published and reported [Kosny et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011; Biswas and Childs, 2012; Kosny et al., 2012]. Based on previous data analyses and discussions within the research group, additional test roofs were installed in May 2012, to test new configurations and further investigate different components of the dynamic insulation systems. Some experimental data from phase 3 testing from May 2012 to December 2013 and some EnergyPlus modeling results have been reported in volumes 1 and 3, respectively, of the final report [Biswas et al., 2014; Biswas and Bhandari, 2014].

  5. Temperature dependence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, Y.; Stuckelberger, M.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C.; Wyrsch, N.

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar (a-Si:H) cells are known to have better temperature coefficients than crystalline silicon cells. To investigate whether a-Si:H cells that are optimized for standard conditions (STC) also have the highest energy yield, we measured the temperature and irradiance dependence of the maximum power output (Pmpp), the fill factor (FF), the short-circuit current density (Jsc), and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) for four series of cells fabricated with different deposition conditions. The parameters varied during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) were the power and frequency of the PE-CVD generator, the hydrogen-to-silane dilution during deposition of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer), and the thicknesses of the a-Si:H i-layer and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide layer. The results show that the temperature coefficient of the Voc generally varies linearly with the Voc value. The Jsc increases linearly with temperature mainly due to temperature-induced bandgap reduction and reduced recombination. The FF temperature dependence is not linear and reaches a maximum at temperatures between 15 °C and 80 °C. Numerical simulations show that this behavior is due to a more positive space-charge induced by the photogenerated holes in the p-layer and to a recombination decrease with temperature. Due to the FF(T) behavior, the Pmpp (T) curves also have a maximum, but at a lower temperature. Moreover, for most series, the cells with the highest power output at STC also have the best energy yield. However, the Pmpp (T) curves of two cells with different i-layer thicknesses cross each other in the operating cell temperature range, indicating that the cell with the highest power output could, for instance, have a lower energy yield than the other cell. A simple energy-yield simulation for the light-soaked and annealed states shows that for Neuchâtel (Switzerland) the best cell at STC also has the best energy

  6. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  7. Impact of salinity on cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xi

    2011-10-01

    Several alternative cathode catalysts have been proposed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but effects of salinity (sodium chloride) on catalyst performance, separate from those of conductivity on internal resistance, have not been previously examined. Three different types of cathode materials were tested here with increasingly saline solutions using single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs. The best MFC performance was obtained using a Co catalyst (cobalt tetramethoxyphenyl porphyrin; CoTMPP), with power increasing by 24 ± 1% to 1062 ± 9 mW/m2 (normalized to the projected cathode surface area) when 250 mM NaCl (final conductivity of 31.3 mS/cm) was added (initial conductivity of 7.5 mS/cm). This power density was 25 ± 1% higher than that achieved with Pt on carbon cloth, and 27 ± 1% more than that produced using an activated carbon/nickel mesh (AC) cathode in the highest salinity solution. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) was used to separate changes in performance due to solution conductivity from those produced by reductions in ohmic resistance with the higher conductivity solutions. The potential of the cathode with CoTMPP increased by 17-20 mV in LSVs when the NaCl addition was increased from 0 to 250 mM independent of solution conductivity changes. Increases in current were observed with salinity increases in LSVs for AC, but not for Pt cathodes. Cathodes with CoTMPP had increased catalytic activity at higher salt concentrations in cyclic voltammograms compared to Pt and AC. These results suggest that special consideration should be given to the type of catalyst used with more saline wastewaters. While Pt oxygen reduction activity is reduced, CoTMPP cathode performance will be improved at higher salt concentrations expected for wastewaters containing seawater. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technical performance evaluation of the MyT4 point of care technology for CD4+ T cell enumeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilu Mwau

    Full Text Available Though absolute CD4+ T cell enumeration is the primary gateway to antiretroviral therapy initiation for HIV-positive patients in all developing countries, patient access to this critical diagnostic test is relatively poor. We technically evaluated the performance of a newly developed point-of-care CD4+ T cell technology, the MyT4, compared with conventional CD4+ T cell testing technologies.Over 250 HIV-positive patients were consecutively enrolled and their blood tested on the MyT4, BD FACSCalibur, and BD FACSCount.Compared with the BD FACSCount, the MyT4 had an r2 of 0.7269 and a mean bias of -23.37 cells/µl. Compared with the BD FACSCalibur, the MyT4 had an r2 of 0.5825 and a mean bias of -46.58 cells/µl. Kenya currently uses a CD4+ T cell test threshold of 350 cells/µl to determine patient eligibility for antiretroviral therapy. At this threshold, the MyT4 had a sensitivity of 95.3% (95% CI: 88.4-98.7% and a specificity of 87.9% (95% CI: 82.3-92.3% compared with the BD FACSCount and sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% (95% CI: 79.4-94.2% and 84.2% (95% CI: 78.2-89.2%, respectively, compared with the BD FACSCalibur. Finally, the MyT4 had a coefficient of variation of 12.80% compared with 14.03% for the BD FACSCalibur.We conclude that the MyT4 performed well at the current 350 cells/µl ART initiation eligibility threshold when used by lower cadres of health care facility staff in rural clinics compared to conventional CD4+ T cell technologies.

  9. Characterization of local electrochemical doping of high performance conjugated polymer for photovoltaics using scanning droplet cell microscopy ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Gasiorowski, Jacek; Mardare, Andrei Ionut; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of a next generation low bandgap high performance photovoltaic material namely poly[4,8-bis-substituted-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b0]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-4-substituted-thieno[3,4-b] thiophene-2,6-diyl] (PBDTTT-c) thin film was investigated using a scanning droplet cell microscope. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the basic characterization of the oxidation/doping of PBDTTT-c. Application of the different final potentials during the electrochemical study provides a close...

  10. European Fuel Cells R&D Review. Final report, Purchase Order No. 062014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J. [Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  11. Test and Approval Center for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies: Phase I. Initiation:Final report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells and hydrogen technologies hold the potential for decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, for facilitating the increased use of renewable energy sources with high efficiencies and thereby contributing to the establishment of a sustainable energy system and the mitigation of the human-caused global warming. Fuel cells (in particular solid oxide fuel cells) produce electricity and heat at higher efficiencies than conventional power plants. They emit less pollutant...

  12. Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2015-11-18

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Here we report a solution-based passivation scheme is developed featuring the use of molecular iodine and PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). The improved passivation translates into a longer carrier diffusion length in the solid film. This allows thicker solar-cell devices to be built while preserving efficient charge collection, leading to a certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9%, which is a new record in CQD solar cells.

  13. Durability and performance optimization of cathode materials for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Mercado, Hector Rafael

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to develop an accelerated durability test (ADT) for the evaluation of cathode materials for fuel cells. The work has been divided in two main categories, namely high temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) cathode current collector corrosion problems and low temperature fuel cells in particular Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode catalyst corrosion. The high operating temperature of MCFC has given it benefits over other fuel cells. These include higher efficiencies (>50%), faster electrode kinetics, etc. At 650°C, the theoretical open circuit voltage is established, providing low electrode overpotentials without requiring any noble metal catalysts and permitting high electrochemical efficiency. The waste heat is generated at sufficiently high temperatures to make it useful as a co-product. However, in order to commercialize the MCFC, a lifetime of 40,000 hours of operation must be achieved. The major limiting factor in the MCFC is the corrosion of cathode materials, which include cathode electrode and cathode current collector. In the first part of this dissertation the corrosion characteristics of bare, heat-treated and cobalt coated titanium alloys were studied using an ADT and compared with that of state of the art current collector material, SS 316. PEMFCs are the best choice for a wide range of portable, stationary and automotive applications because of their high power density and relatively low-temperature operation. However, a major impediment in the commercialization of the fuel cell technology is the cost involved due to the large amount of platinum electrocatalyst used in the cathode catalyst. In an effort to increase the power and decrease the cathode cost in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC) systems, Pt-alloy catalysts were developed to increase its activity and stability. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of new alloy development and

  14. Final Report: Tunable Narrow Band Gap Absorbers For Ultra High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, Salah M. [NCSU; Hauser, John R. [NCSU; Elmasry, Nadia [NCSU; Colter, Peter C. [NCSU; Bradshaw, G. [NCSU; Carlin, C. Z. [NCSU; Samberg, J. [NCSU; Edmonson, Kenneth [Spectrolab

    2012-07-31

    We report on a joint research program between NCSU and Spectrolab to develop an upright multijunction solar cell structure with a potential efficiency exceeding the current record of 41.6% reported by Spectrolab. The record efficiency Ge/GaAs/InGaP triple junction cell structure is handicapped by the fact that the current generated by the Ge cell is much higher than that of both the middle and top cells. We carried out a modification of the record cell structure that will keep the lattice matched condition and allow better matching of the current generated by each cell. We used the concept of strain balanced strained layer superlattices (SLS), inserted in the i-layer, to reduce the bandgap of the middle cell without violating the desirable lattice matched condition. For the middle GaAs cell, we have demonstrated an n-GaAs/i-(InGaAs/GaAsP)/p-GaAs structure, where the InxGa1-xAs/GaAs1-yPy SLS is grown lattice matched to GaAs and with reduced bandgap from 1.43 eV to 1.2 eV, depending upon the values of x and y.

  15. Performance characterization of solid oxide cells under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.;

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer a great potential for large scale conversion of renewable electrical energy into chemical energy via electrolysis of H2O and CO2 to produce syngas (H2 + CO). The produced syngas can be further catalytically converted into various gaseous or liquid...

  16. Microbial Fuel Cell Performance with a Pressurized Cathode Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) power densities are often constrained by the oxygen reduction reaction rate on the cathode electrode. One important factor for this is the normally low solubility of oxygen in the aqueous cathode solution creating mass transport limitations, which hinder oxygen reduction a...

  17. Influence of porous silicon formation on the performance of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Saad; M Naddaf

    2015-06-01

    The effect of formation of porous silicon on the performance of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells is presented. Surface treatment of mc-Si solar cells was performed by electrochemical etching in HF-based solution. The effect of etching is viewed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs that indicated the formation of a porous layer on the surface. Total reflection spectroscopy measurements on solar cells revealed reduced reflection after etching. In order to demonstrate the effect of this porous layer on the solar cell performance, illumination-dependent – characteristics and spectral response measurements were performed and analysed before and after etching. At all illumination intensities, short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage values for the etched solar cell were higher than those before etching, whereas fill factor values were lower for the etched cell at high illumination intensities. An interpretation of these findings is presented.

  18. Identification and monitoring of host cell proteins by mass spectrometry combined with high performance immunochemistry testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Bomans

    Full Text Available Biotherapeutics are often produced in non-human host cells like Escherichia coli, yeast, and various mammalian cell lines. A major focus of any therapeutic protein purification process is to reduce host cell proteins to an acceptable low level. In this study, various E. coli host cell proteins were identified at different purifications steps by HPLC fractionation, SDS-PAGE analysis, and tryptic peptide mapping combined with online liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS. However, no host cell proteins could be verified by direct LC-MS analysis of final drug substance material. In contrast, the application of affinity enrichment chromatography prior to comprehensive LC-MS was adequate to identify several low abundant host cell proteins at the final drug substance level. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP was identified as being the most abundant host cell protein at several purification steps. Thus, we firstly established two different assays for enzymatic and immunological BAP monitoring using the cobas® technology. By using this strategy we were able to demonstrate an almost complete removal of BAP enzymatic activity by the established therapeutic protein purification process. In summary, the impact of fermentation, purification, and formulation conditions on host cell protein removal and biological activity can be conducted by monitoring process-specific host cell proteins in a GMP-compatible and high-throughput (> 1000 samples/day manner.

  19. Numeric Design and Performance Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Gevorg

    The aircraft industry benefits greatly from small improvements in aircraft component design. One possible area of improvement is in the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Modern aircraft APUs are gas turbines located in the tail section of the aircraft that generate additional power when needed. Unfortunately the efficiency of modern aircraft APUs is low. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrids are one possible alternative for replacing modern gas turbine APUs. This thesis investigates the feasibility of replacing conventional gas turbine APUs with SOFC/GT APUs on aircraft. An SOFC/GT design algorithm was created in order to determine the specifications of an SOFC/GT APU. The design algorithm is comprised of several integrated modules which together model the characteristics of each component of the SOFC/GT system. Given certain overall inputs, through numerical analysis, the algorithm produces an SOFC/GT APU, optimized for specific power and efficiency, capable of performing to the required specifications. The SOFC/GT design is then input into a previously developed quasi-dynamic SOFC/GT model to determine its load following capabilities over an aircraft flight cycle. Finally an aircraft range study is conducted to determine the feasibility of the SOFC/GT APU as a replacement for the conventional gas turbine APU. The design results show that SOFC/GT APUs have lower specific power than GT systems, but have much higher efficiencies. Moreover, the dynamic simulation results show that SOFC/GT APUs are capable of following modern flight loads. Finally, the range study determined that SOFC/GT APUs are more attractive over conventional APUs for longer range aircraft.

  20. Degradation of solar cell electric performance due to arcing in LEO plasma environment

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Teppei; Hosoda, Satoshi; Kagawa, Hideshi; 奥村 哲平; 細田 聡史; Kim, Jeongho; Cho, Mengu; 香河 英史

    2005-01-01

    When we operate solar array at high voltage (greater than 100 V) in LEO environment, arcing occurs on the solar array surface. The solar cell can suffer degradation of electric performance due to only one arc with some probability. We performed degradation test of solar array coupons against arcing under simulated LEO environment in order to identify the threshold of arc energy to cause the solar cell degradation. The solar array coupons are made of silicon solar cells. The LCR circuit was at...

  1. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Performance of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立军; 袁俊琪; 曾广益; 姜秀民

    2004-01-01

    A three dimension of dynamic mathematical model of the molten carbonate fuel cell is established,in which the heat generation, mass transfer and electrochemical characteristics are described. The performance of the fuel cell including the distributions of the temperature and the velocity is predicted numerically. Then the experimental data including the output performance of the fuel cell generation system and the temperature distributions are compared. The numerical results are in agreement with the experiment results.

  2. Loss mechanisms influence on Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS-based thin film solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courel, Maykel; Andrade-Arvizu, J. A.; Vigil-Galán, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the most important issues in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS)-based thin film solar cells is low open circuit voltage, which is mainly related to loss mechanisms that take place in both CZTS bulk material and CdS/CZTS interface. A device model for CZTS/CdS solar cell which takes into account loss mechanisms influence on solar cell performance is presented. The simulation results showed that our model is able to reproduce experimental observations reported for CZTS/CdS-based solar cells with the highest conversion efficiencies, measured under room temperature and AM1.5 intensity. The comparison of simulation results to experimental observations demonstrated that among the different loss mechanisms, trap-assisted tunneling losses are the major hurdle to boost open circuit voltage. Under this loss mechanism, a solar cell efficiency enhancement up to 10.2% with CdS donor concentration decrease was reached. Finally, the possible path toward a further solar cell efficiency improvement is discussed.

  3. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Final report, January 1, 1973-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies have focussed on agents which cause damage to DNA leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis or faulty DNA replication or repair. The overall goal of this project has been to understand how environmental agents interact with the DNA of cells and how cells cope with any resulting damage. In particular we have been concerned with the nature of the repair systems involved in restoration of damaged DNA and the cellular responses to radiation or chemical damage

  4. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFCs for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-cm{sup 2} per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  5. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  6. Thin film silicon solar cells: advanced processing and characterization - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, Ch.

    2008-04-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out at the photovoltaics laboratory at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The project aimed to demonstrate the production of high-efficiency thin-film silicon devices on flexible substrates using low cost processes. New ways of improving processing and characterisation are examined. The process and manufacturing know-how necessary to provide support for industrial partners within the framework of further projects is discussed. The authors state that the efficiency of most devices was significantly improved, both on glass substrates and on flexible plastic foils. The process reproducibility was also improved and the interactions between the different layers in the device are now said to be better understood. The report presents the results obtained and discusses substrate materials, transparent conductors, defect analyses and new characterisation tools. Finally, the laboratory infrastructure is described.

  7. Effects of high doping levels on silicon solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, M. P.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Baraona, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Open-circuit voltages measured in silicon solar cells made from 0.01 ohm-cm material are 150 mV lower than voltages calculated from simple diffusion theory and cannot be explained by poor diffusion lengths or surface leakage currents. An analytical study was made to determine whether high doping effects, which increase the intrinsic carrier concentration, could account for the low observed voltages and to determine the limits on voltage and efficiency imposed by high doping effects. The results indicate that the observed variation of voltage with base resistivity is predicted by these effects. A maximum efficiency of 19% (AMO) and a voltage of 0.7 volts were calculated for 0.1 ohm-cm cells assuming an optimum diffused layer impurity profile.

  8. Influences of rotor diameter on flotation cell metallurgical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Penttilä, Olli

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the influences of the mixing mechanism diameter on the copper flotation process and the energy consumption in laboratory size flotation cell. The work consists of the literature part describing relevant topics and the experimental part. In the literature part, the principles of flotation, the role of mixing mechanism in flotation process and the evaluation of scalability in flotation are reviewed. In total, 29 flotation tests and 19 power draw tests were done during the ...

  9. Improving the performance of solid oxide fuel cell systems

    OpenAIRE

    Halinen, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems can provide power production at a high electrical efficiency and with very low emissions. Furthermore, they retain their high electrical efficiency over a wide range of output power and offer good fuel flexibility, which makes them well suited for a range of applications. Currently SOFC systems are under investigation by researchers as well as being developed by industrial manufacturers. The first commercial SOFC systems have been on the market for some...

  10. Efficiency Improvement of Crystalline Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 January 2002 - 30 September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E. R.

    2007-11-01

    UC-Berkeley study of transition metal related defects in PV-grade mc-Si to understand their pathways into solar cells; chemical state/distribution; interaction with structural defects; defect engineering.

  11. Intertwining extracellular nucleotides and their receptors with Ca2+ in determining adult neural stem cell survival, proliferation and final fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, Davide; Fumagalli, Marta; Ceruti, Stefania; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2016-08-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), during both brain and spinal cord development, purinergic and pyrimidinergic signalling molecules (ATP, UTP and adenosine) act synergistically with peptidic growth factors in regulating the synchronized proliferation and final specification of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) to neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. Some NSCs still persist throughout adulthood in both specific 'neurogenic' areas and in brain and spinal cord parenchyma, retaining the potentiality to generate all the three main types of adult CNS cells. Once CNS anatomical structures are defined, purinergic molecules participate in calcium-dependent neuron-to-glia communication and also control the behaviour of adult NSCs. After development, some purinergic mechanisms are silenced, but can be resumed after injury, suggesting a role for purinergic signalling in regeneration and self-repair also via the reactivation of adult NSCs. In this respect, at least three different types of adult NSCs participate in the response of the adult brain and spinal cord to insults: stem-like cells residing in classical neurogenic niches, in particular, in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), parenchymal oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs, also known as NG2-glia) and parenchymal injury-activated astrocytes (reactive astrocytes). Here, we shall review and discuss the purinergic regulation of these three main adult NSCs, with particular focus on how and to what extent modulation of intracellular calcium levels by purinoceptors is mandatory to determine their survival, proliferation and final fate.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377726

  12. Final manufacturing process of front side metallisation on silicon solar cells using conventional and unconventional techniques:

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański, Leszek Adam; Drygała, Aleksandra; Musztyfaga, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the front electrode manufactured using two silver pastes (PV 145 manufactured by Du Pont and another based on nanopowder experimentally prepared) on monocrystalline silicon solar cells in order to reduce contact resistance. The aim of the paper was a comparison between a conventional and an unconventional method to improve the quality of forming electrodes of silicon solar cells. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used con...

  13. Final manufacturing process of front side metallisation on silicon solar cells using conventional and unconventional techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański, Leszek A.; Musztyfaga, Małgorzata; Drygała, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of the front electrode manufactured using two silver pastes (PV 145 manufactured by Du Pont and another based on nanopowder experimentally prepared) on monocrystalline silicon solar cells in order to reduce contact resistance. The aim of the paper was a comparison between a conventional and an unconventional method to improve the quality of forming electrodes of silicon solar cells. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used con...

  14. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  15. Proliferation and performance of hybridoma cells in microgravity (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to study how cell performance (biosynthesis and secretion) is altered by altered gravity conditions. Hybridoma cells are obtained by fusion of an activated B-lymphocyte with a myeloma cell. Activated B-lymphocytes, derived from a human or an animal, carry the information required to produce antibodies of a certain specificity and can survive only a few days in culture. Myeloma cells are tumor cells which can grow indefinitely in culture. Therefore, the product of the fusion is an immortal cell line capable of producing homogeneous antibodies (monoclonal antibodies). Experimental procedures are explained in some detail.

  16. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331720-2TST, S/N 105/A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Final Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) Report, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). This specification establishes the requirements for the CPT and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the AMSU-1A, referred to here in as the unit. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown.

  17. Modelling the Performance of Product Integrated Photovoltaic (PIPV) Cells Indoors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Verwaal, M.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a model, which have been developed for the estimation of the PV products’ cells’ performance in an indoor environment. The model computes the efficiency and power production of PV technologies, as a function of distance from natural and artificial light sources. It intents t

  18. Towards High Performance Organic Photovoltaic Cells: A Review of Recent Development in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs have been a hot topic for research during the last decade due to their promising application in relieving energy pressure and environmental problems caused by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels. Much effort has been made toward understanding the photovoltaic mechanism, including evolving chemical structural motifs and designing device structures, leading to a remarkable enhancement of the power conversion efficiency of OPVs from 3% to over 15%. In this brief review, the advanced progress and the state-of-the-art performance of OPVs in very recent years are summarized. Based on several of the latest developed approaches to accurately detect the separation of electron-hole pairs in the femtosecond regime, the theoretical interpretation to exploit the comprehensive mechanistic picture of energy harvesting and charge carrier generation are discussed, especially for OPVs with bulk and multiple heterojunctions. Subsequently, the novel structural designs of the device architecture of OPVs embracing external geometry modification and intrinsic structure decoration are presented. Additionally, some approaches to further increase the efficiency of OPVs are described, including thermotics and dynamics modification methods. Finally, this review highlights the challenges and prospects with the aim of providing a better understanding towards highly efficient OPVs.

  19. The Optimization of Matrix Preparation Process and Performance Testing for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component in the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC is electrolyte matrix, which provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of selected operating conditions on the performance of the matrix preparation. Slurries were prepared to produce matrices by the technique of tape casting. The characteristics of the slurries and matrices were examined by laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, and BET surface area analyzer. The testing results revealed that a slurry composition with 40 wt.% lithium aluminate was the optimal formulation to produce a good matrix with a pore size distribution of 0.1–0.4 μm and porosity of 50 vol.%. Coarse and fine LiAlO2 particles were added in the matrix slurry to enhance the mechanical strength. Several green sheets were heated and pressed to enhance the bulk density to get a dense matrix of MCFC. Finally, a single MCFC was assembled and tested. The testing results showed the matrix with 40% solid loading gave the maximum discharge current of 20 A at 0.56 V.

  20. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  1. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  2. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns

  3. Surface modification of semiconductor photoelectrode for improved solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mridula [Department of Chemistry, C.M.P. Degree College, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India); Pandey, Kamlesh [National Centre of Experimental Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India); Kumar, Shiv Datt [Department of Mathematics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2007-11-06

    The investigation is focused on the synthesis of nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-CuO admixed photoelectrode and its use as a photoelectrode of high-efficiency PEC solar cells for hydrogen production. TiO{sub 2}, in the nanostructured form, has been prepared by hydrolysis of titanium(IV) isopropoxide solution. An improvement in the nanostructured TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode carried out in the present work corresponds to admixing CuO to improve the spectral response. In the present study, photo-electrochemical (PEC) and hydrogen evolution characteristics of new types of ns-TiO{sub 2}-CuO admixed/Ti septum-based semiconductor septum photo-electrochemical (SC-SEP PEC) solar cell has been studied. The CuO admixed ns-TiO{sub 2} exhibited a high photocurrent and photovoltage of 18.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and 680 mV, respectively. The ns-TiO{sub 2}-CuO electrode exhibited a higher hydrogen gas evolution rate of 14.00 l/h m{sup 2}. (author)

  4. Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

  5. Final Report - Effect of Magnetic Configuration on Spheromak Performances, FY2000 - FY2001, Tracking No.00-SI-008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D N; Hooper, E B; McLean, H S; Stallard, B W; Woodruff, S; Wood, R D

    2002-02-06

    This is the final report on LDRD SI-funded research to determine the Effect of Magnetic Field Configurations on Spheromak Performance for the years FY2000-FY2001, during which a new set of bias magnetic field coils was used to change the vacuum magnetic field configuration of the SSPX spheromak at LLNL. The USDOE Office of Fusion Energy Science funded the routine operation of the SSPX facility during FY00 and FY01. A photo of the SSPX facility as it appeared in mid-FY01, appears in this report. The main distinctive feature of the spheromak is that currents in the plasma itself produce the confining toroidal magnetic field, rather than a complex set of external coils. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) device was designed and built study how well the spheromak can contain plasma energy while dynamo processes in the plasma maintain the confining magnetic fields. The spheromak potentially offers advantages over other fusion reactor concepts because it is compact, has no field coils linking the vacuum vessel, and can be operated in a steady state with voltage applied to external electrodes. It is predicted that the ability of the SSPX to contain the plasma thermal energy will increase with increasing plasma electron temperature; that is, the hotter it is, the better it will work. Our near-term goal for the SSPX facility is to determine which of several magnetic field configurations works best to produce hot, well-confined spheromak plasmas. We also want to verify the predicted inverse relation between plasma temperature and heat loss, and to use these results to design an even higher-temperature follow-on experiment that will push closer to fusion conditions. New features of the SSPX spheromak include a large-radius coaxial plasma injector to improve efficiency, a conformal flux conserver to minimize open field lines around the plasma, a divertor to aid in cold-particle exhaust, and the programmable-bias magnetic field coils to vary the magnetic geometry

  6. Final report on the application of chaos theory to an alumina sensor for aluminum reduction cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williford, R.E.; Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-03-01

    Four chaos-related digital signal analysis (DSA) methods were applied to the analysis of voltage and current signals collected from aluminum electrolysis cells. Two separate data bases were analyzed: bench-scale laboratory experiments and a pilot-scale test. The objective was to assess the feasibility of using these types of data and analysis methods as the basis for a non-intrusive sensor to measure the alumina content in the electrolysis bath. This was the first time chaos theory approaches have been employed to analyze aluminum electrolysis cells.

  7. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  8. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  9. Experimental Study and Comparison of Various Designs of Gas Flow Fields to PEM Fuel Cells and Cell Stack Performance

    OpenAIRE

    PeiwenLi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm2. The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still ...

  10. Improving solid oxide fuel cell performance by a single-step co-firing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hailu; Chen, Han; He, Shoucheng; Cai, Guifan; Guo, Lucun

    2015-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (SDC) as the electrolyte are successfully prepared by a single-step co-firing process with the sintering temperature as low as 1100 °C. Different from the conventional SOFC preparation procedure that involves multistep firing processes, the single-step co-firing preparation procedure simplifies the fuel cell preparation procedure and additionally improves the fuel cell performance. The cell prepared by the single-step process exhibits the maximum power density of 289 mW cm-2 at 700 °C, while the cell prepared by the conventional method is only 211 mW cm-2, with an increase of 37% been achieved. The impedance analysis reveals that the single co-firing procedure not only improves the contact between the electrolyte and electrodes, but also lowers the cell polarization resistance, thus leading to a better fuel cell performance.

  11. Numerical study of assembly pressure effect on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the fuel cell is affected by many parameters. One of these parameters is assembly pressure that changes the mechanical properties and dimensions of the fuel cell components. Its first duty, however, is to prevent gas or liquid leakage from the cell and it is important for the contact behaviors of fuel cell components. Some leakage and contact problems can occur on the low assembly pressures whereas at high pressures, components of the fuel cell, such as bipolar plates (BPP), gas diffusion layers (GDL), catalyst layers, and membranes, can be damaged. A finite element analysis (FEA) model is developed to predict the deformation effect of assembly pressure on the single channel PEM fuel cell in this study. Deformed fuel cell single channel model is imported to three-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which is developed for simulating proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Using this model, the effect of assembly pressure on fuel cell performance can be calculated. It is found that, when the assembly pressure increases, contact resistance, porosity and thickness of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) decreases. Too much assembly pressure causes GDL to destroy; therefore, the optimal assembly pressure is significant to obtain the highest performance from fuel cell. By using the results of this study, optimum fuel cell design and operating condition parameters can be predicted accordingly.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Jilian Nei de Freitas; Viviane Carvalho Nogueira; Bruno Ieiri Ito; Mauro Alfredo Soto-Oviedo; Claudia Longo; Marco-Aurelio De Paoli; Ana Flávia Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide) derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell perform...

  13. Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Temperature Impact on Passivation and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seif, J.; Krishnamani, G.; Demaurex, B.; Martin de Nicholas, S.; Holm, N.; Ballif, C.; De Wolf, S.

    2015-03-23

    Photovoltaic devices deployed in the field can reach operation temperatures (T) as high as 90 °C [1]. Hence, their temperature coefficients (TC1) are of great practical importance as they determine their energy yield. In this study we concentrate on T-related lifetime variations of amorphous/crystalline interfaces and study their influence on the TCs of the individual solar cell parameters. We find that both the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) are influenced by these lifetime variations. However, this is only a minor effect compared to the dominant increase of the intrinsic carrier density and the related increase in dark saturation current density. Additionally, in this paper we will show that the TCVoc does not depend solely on the initial value of the Voc [2, 3], but that the structure of the device has to be considered as well.

  14. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells: Final subcontract report, 1 May 1985--31 May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes results of research performed to demonstrate thin-film cadmium telluride heterojunction solar cells with a total area greater than 1 cm/sup 2/ and efficiencies of 13% or higher. Efforts were directed to (1) the deposition, resistivity control, and characterization of p-CdTe films by combining the vapor of the elements (CVE) and close-spaced sublimation (CSS) techniques; (2) the deposition and characterization of transparent conducting semiconductors; (3) the deposition of p-HgTe as a low-resistance ohmic contact to p-CdTe; (4) the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions; and (5) the preparation and evaluation of heterojunction solar cells. CdS/CdTe solar cells showed the best photovoltaic characteristics, and the best cell had a conversion efficiency of about 10.6%. 20 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Aequorin as a bioluminescent indicator for use in the determination of biomolecules in single cells. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvia Daunert

    2000-02-17

    During this funding period, the laboratories of Drs. Anderson and Daunert have performed a considerable amount of work toward addressing the issues associated with small volume analysis necessary for single cell studies. In that respect, their research has been focused on (1) developing new assays that can be miniaturized and are suitable for small volume and single cell analysis; (2) fabricating pL-vials that simulate the volume of single cells and setting up instrumentation capable of low-volume detection; (3) developing reproducible and reliable microinjection techniques; (4) developing methods of analysis for biomolecules in the pL-vials and employing these assays in the detection of biomolecules in single cells. The accomplishments attained in all these areas are described below. A total of 24 publications and 35 presentations have resulted from this work.

  16. Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, N.F.

    1979-02-28

    The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/m/sup 2/ of exposed module area at 1 kW/m/sup 2/ insolation and 61/sup 0/C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packaged hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of ASG SUNADEX glass. Monsanto SAFLEX polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive. RTVII functions as the encapsulant between the underside of the glass superstrate and a rear protective sheet of 0.8 mm thick TEXTOLITE. The semi-flexible portion of each shingle module is a composite laminate construction consisting of outer layers of B.F. Goodrich FLEXSEAL and an epichlorohydrin closed cell foam core. The module design has satisfactorily survived the JPL-defined qualification testing program which includes 50 thermal cycles between -40 and +90/sup 0/C, a seven-day temperature-humidity exposure test and a mechanical integrity test consisting of a bidirectional cyclic loading at 2390 Pa (50 lb/ft/sup 2/) which is intended to simulate loads due to a 45 m/s (100 mph) wind.

  17. Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Cell Wall Biosynthesis. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter M. Ray

    2000-04-01

    The following aspects of enzymology of cell wall synthesis were pursued under this cited grant: (1) Isolation of plasma membrane-localized glucan synthase II (GS-II) of pea; (2) Cloning of genes for possible plant GS-II components; (3) Golgi glucan synthase-I (GS-I); and (4) Golgi reversibly glycosylated protein 1 (RGP1).

  18. Crystalline silicon for thin film solar cells. Final report; Kristallines Silizium fuer Duennschichtsolarzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H.

    2001-07-01

    Thin film solar cells based on silicon are of great interest for cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electric power. In order to reach this goal, intensive research is still necessary, pointing, e.g., to a further enhancement of the conversion efficiency, an improvement of stability and a reduction of the production time. Aim of the project work was the achievement of knowledge on microcrystalline silicon and its application in thin film solar cells by means of a broad research and development program. Material research focused on growth processes of the microcrystalline material, the incorporation and stability of hydrogen, the electronic transport and defects. In particular the transition from amorphous to microcrystalline material which is obtained for the present deposition methods by minor variations of the deposition parameters as well as the enhancement of the deposition rate were intensively studies. Another focus of research aimed toward the development and improvement of zinc oxide films which are of central importance for this type of solar cells for the application as transparent contacts. A comprehensive understanding was achieved. The films were incorporated in thin film solar cells and with conversion efficiencies >8% for single cells (at relatively high deposition rate) and 10% (stable) for tandem cells with amorphous silicon, top values were achieved by international standards. The project achievements serve as a base for a further development of this type of solar cell and for the transfer of this technology to industry. (orig.) [German] Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis von Silizium sind von grossem Interesse fuer eine kostenguenstige Umwandlung von Sonnenenergie in elektrischen Strom. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, ist jedoch noch intensive Forschung, u.a. zur weiteren Steigerung des Wirkungsgrades, zur Verbesserung der Stabilitaet und zur Verkuerzung des Produktionsprozesses erforderlich. Ziel der Projektarbeiten war, durch ein

  19. The Politics of Performance Funding in Eight States: Origins, Demise, and Change. Final Report to the Lumina Foundation for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.; Hare, Rachel J.; Jones, Sosanya M.; Vega, Blanca E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the popularity of performance funding among policymakers and policy advocates, only half of all states have ever created a performance funding system for higher education. State performance funding systems have also been surprisingly unstable. Nearly half of those states that established performance funding systems for higher education…

  20. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  1. Chloride contamination effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Qian, Weimin; Zhang, Shengsheng; Wessel, Silvia; Cheng, Tommy T. H.; Shen, Jun; Wu, Shaohong

    2011-08-01

    Chlorine is a major fuel contaminant when by-product hydrogen from the chlor-alkali industry is used as the fuel for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Understanding the effects of chlorine contamination on fuel cell performance and durability is essential to address fuel cell applications for the automotive and stationary markets. This paper reports our findings of chloride contamination effects on PEM fuel cell performance and durability, as our first step in understanding the effects of chlorine contamination. Fuel cell contamination tests were conducted by injecting ppm levels of contaminant into the fuel cell from either the fuel stream or the air stream. In situ and ex situ diagnosis were performed to investigate the contamination mechanisms. The results show that cell voltage during chloride contamination is characterized by an initial sudden drop followed by a plateau, regardless of which side the contaminant is introduced into the fuel cell. The drop in cell performance is predominantly due to increased cathode charge transfer resistance as a result of electrochemical catalyst surface area (ECSA) loss attributable to the blocking of active sites by Cl- and enhanced Pt dissolution.

  2. Papovavirus probes for DNA repair in human cells: Final report, August 15, 1983-May 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellularly gamma irradiated simian virus 40 (SV40) was used as a model system to study the induction and intracellular repair of DSB (double-strand DNA breaks) and SSB (single-strand DNA breaks) in higher cells. The optimal experimental conditions for this approach were determined and the comparability of radiation dose-response data were compared with those obtained by other techniques. Experiments in progress suggest that limited accessibility of heavily irradiated viral DNA to host cell enzymes leads to variable rates of repair of DSB or SSB. The effects of DNA configuration and molecular environment on the radiation induction of DSB, using SV40 as a model system are addressed. Results indicate that the intranuclear environment is highly protective against DSB induced by ionizing radiation. 9 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  4. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  5. In CD4+ T-Cell-Induced Diabetes, Macrophages Are the Final Effector Cells that Mediate Islet β-Cell Killing : Studies from an Acute Model

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, Boris; Suri, Anish; Unanue, Emil R.

    2006-01-01

    To understand better how diabetogenic CD4+ T cells induce islet β-cell death and cause diabetes, a transfer model of acute diabetes using the diabetogenic CD4+ BDC2.5 T-cell clone was established. Transfer of activated BDC T cells into NOD.scid mice resulted in diabetes within a week, characterized by strong inflammatory reaction. Electron micrographs of pancreas depicted macrophages in close contact with β cells that exhibited signs of apoptosis. Transfer into irradiated recipients inhibited...

  6. Developmental Therapy-Teaching Model: Outreach for Troubled Children and Teens through a Regional Trainers Network. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Constance A.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a 3-year federally supported project that provided in-depth outreach to selected states, local agencies and individuals serving children and youth, K-12, with severe social, emotional, or behavioral disabilities in inclusive, general education, special education, or community service…

  7. Study of relationships of material properties and high efficiency solar cell performance on material composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The performance improvements obtainable from extending the traditionally thin back-surface-field (BSF) layer deep into the base of silicon solar cells under terrestrial solar illumination (AM1) are analyzed. This extended BSF cell is also known as the back-drift-field cell. About 100 silicon cells were analyzed, each with a different emitter or base dopant impurity distribution whose selection was based on physically anticipated improvements. The four principal performance parameters (the open-circuit voltage, the short-circuit current, the fill factor, and the maximum efficiency) are computed using a FORTRAN program, called Circuit Technique for Semiconductor-device Analysis, CTSA, which numerically solves the six Shockley Equations under AM1 solar illumination at 88.92 mW/cm, at an optimum cell thickness of 50 um. The results show that very significant performance improvements can be realized by extending the BSF layer thickness from 2 um (18% efficiency) to 40 um (20% efficiency).

  8. Performance monitoring of a mammalian cell based bioprocess using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Ray, Bryan H; Leister, Kirk J; Ryder, Alan G

    2013-09-24

    Being able to predict the final product yield at all stages in long-running, industrial, mammalian cell culture processes is vital for both operational efficiency, process consistency, and the implementation of quality by design (QbD) practices. Here we used Raman spectroscopy to monitor (in terms of glycoprotein yield prediction) a fed-batch fermentation from start to finish. Raman data were collected from 12 different time points in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) based manufacturing process and across 37 separate production runs. The samples comprised of clarified bioprocess broths extracted from the CHO cell based process with varying amounts of fresh and spent cell culture media. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CoAdReS) and ant colony optimization (ACO) variable selection methods were used to enhance the predictive ability of the chemometric models by removing unnecessary spectral information. Using CoAdReS accurate prediction models (relative error of predictions between 2.1% and 3.3%) were built for the final glycoprotein yield at every stage of the bioprocess from small scale up to the final 5000 L bioreactor. This result reinforces our previous studies which indicate that media quality is one of the most significant factors determining the efficiency of industrial CHO-cell processes. This Raman based approach could thus be used to manage production in terms of selecting which small scale batches are progressed to large-scale manufacture, thus improving process efficiency significantly. PMID:24016587

  9. Modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance based on semi-empirical equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2005-08-01

    Using semi-empirical equations for modeling a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is proposed for providing a tool for the design and analysis of fuel cell total systems. The focus of this study is to derive an empirical model including process variations to estimate the performance of fuel cell without extensive calculations. The model take into account not only the current density but also the process variations, such as the gas pressure, temperature, humidity, and utilization to cover operating processes, which are important factors in determining the real performance of fuel cell. The modelling results are compared well with known experimental results. The comparison shows good agreements between the modeling results and the experimental data. The model can be used to investigate the influence of process variables for design optimization of fuel cells, stacks, and complete fuel cell power system. (Author)

  10. Study of a PEM fuel cell functioning performances using a test station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of PEM fuel cells (output power and reliability) are strongly influenced by a series of working parameters, such as cell temperature, input fuel and oxidant gases pressure and humidity. In order to enhance the fuel cell performances, the effects of all those parameters on the cell functioning must be assessed. A test stand for PEM fuel cells stacks of max. output power of 1.5 kW have been designed and built in ICIT. It allows data acquisition as well as controlling the cell temperatures, fluids pressure, flow and humidity parameters by means of adequate transducers and a computer, based on LabviewTM software. The obtained experimental results were in good agreement with the model. (authors)

  11. Study of PEM fuel cell functioning performance using a test station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The PEM fuel cell performances (output power and reliability) are strongly influenced by a series of working parameters, as cell temperature, input fuel and pressure and humidity of oxidant gases. In order to enhance the fuel cell performances, the effects of all those parameters on the cell functioning must be assessed. A test stand for PEM fuel cells stacks of 1.5 kW maximum output power has been designed and built in our institute. It allows data acquisition and control of cells temperatures, fluids pressure, flow and humidity using adequate transducers, by means of a computer, based on LabVIEWTM software. The obtained experimental results were in good agreement with the model. (authors)

  12. Topological cell clustering in the ATLAS calorimeters and its performance in LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.

  13. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  14. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2016-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower charge recombination in the device. Here, we investigate and quantify the influence of mesoscale ferroelectric polarization on the device performance of perovskite solar cells. We implement a 3D dri...

  15. Cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide heterojunction cell research. Final report, February 26, 1979-July 15, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J. A.; Cornog, D. G.

    1980-06-30

    Extensive modifications were made to the multi-source deposition apparatus. These include the installation of a larger vacuum chamber on the existing system. The new chamber provides improved inter-source shielding, an improved substrate mounting and heating system, and a vacuum interlock for introducing substrates. CdS resistivity control by both In doping and off-stoichiometric deposition has been investigated. Indium doping has been achieved both by diffusion from a pre-deposited In layer and by using In doped sputtering targets. Resistivities in the range 0.1 to 5 ..cap omega..-cm have been obtained for target doping levels of from 0.1 to 1 at. percent of In. These resistivities were found to be critically dependent on the H/sub 2/S injection rate, apparently because of compensation by Cd vacancies. Off-stoichiometry CdS coatings with solar-illuminated resistivities of about 10/sup 2/ ..cap omega..-cm have been deposited, using a cyclic reactive sputtering process were the H/sub 2/S injection is periodically switched on and off. The Cu/sub x/S deposition process was found to be sensitive to the period of cathode operation prior to coating deposition, probably because of the conditioning of cathode and shield surfaces. All-sputter-deposited Cd(Zn)S/Cu/sub 2/S cells, with Cd(Zn)S layers deposited using a Cd-0.10 Zn target doped with 2 atomic percent In, have yielded efficiencies of approx. 0.4%. All-sputtered cells with efficiencies of approx. 0.6% have been fabricated, using undoped CdS deposited by the pulse injection process. Efficiencies of approx. 1.2% have been achieved for cells with undoped sputter-deposited CdS and CuCl dry processed Cu/sub 2/S.

  16. Silicon solar cells with high efficiencies. Final report; Silicium-Solarzellen mit hoechsten Wirkungsgraden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettling, W.; Knobloch, J.; Glunz, S.W.; Henninger, V.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Koester, B.; Leimenstoll, A.; Schaeffer, E.; Schumacher, J.; Sterk, S.; Warta, W.

    1996-06-01

    In this report the basic activities for the development of the silicon high efficiency solar cell technology are described. The project had two main goals: (i) The improvement of efficiencies using a systematic optimization of all cell parameters and technology steps and (ii) the simplification of the technology towards the possibilities of an industrial production, keeping the cell efficiency at a high level. Starting from the LBSF technology, developed at Fraunhofer ISE, the reduction of all loss mechanisms led to efficiencies up to 22.5% on FZ-silicon. Using a modification of this technology efficiencies of up to 21.7% have been reached on Cz-silicon. Even after the reduction of the number of photolithographic steps from six to three efficiencies up to 21.6% on FZ- and 19.5% on Cz-silicon have been obtained. These are best values in an international comparison. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem Projektbericht werden grundlegende Arbeiten zur Entwicklung der Silicium-`Highefficiency`-Solarzellentechnologie beschrieben. Das Projekt hatte zwei Hauptziele: (i) Die Erhoehung der Wirkungsgrade durch eine systematische Optimierung aller Zellparameter und aller Technologieschritte und (ii) die Vereinfachung der Technologie unter Beibehaltung sehr hoher Wirkungsgrade mit dem Ziel einer Annaeherung an die Moeglichkeiten der Industriefertigung. Ausgehend von der im Fraunhofer ISE entwickelten LBSF-Technologie gelang es durch Reduzierung aller Verlustmechanismen, Wirkungsgrade bis zu 22.5% auf FZ-Silicium zu erreichen. Nach Anpassung der Technologie wurden auf Cz-Silicium Wirkungsgrade bis 21.7% erzielt. Ein von sechs auf drei Fotomaskenschritte reduzierter Prozess erzielte immerhin noch Werte bis 21.6% auf FZ- und 19.5% auf Cz-Material. Alle dieser Werte stellen im internationalen Vergleich Spitzenleistungen dar. (orig.)

  17. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA's hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R ampersand D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required

  18. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA`s hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R&D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  19. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, T. E.; Aranya, S

    2010-01-01

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We ...

  20. Cold-start effects on performance and efficiency for vehicle fuel cell systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gurski, Stephen Daniel

    2002-01-01

    In recent years government, academia and industry have been pursuing fuel cell technology as an alternative to current power generating technologies. The automotive industry has targeted fuel cell technology as a potential alternative to internal combustion engines. The goal of this research is to understand and quantify the impact and effects of low temperature operation has on the performance and efficiency of vehicle fuel cell systems through modeling. More specifically, this work addre...

  1. Effects of dimethyl ether on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Activation loss is significantly reduced in fuel cell with DME-methanol. • DME crossover through the membrane reduces. • The open circuit voltage of DME-methanol the fuel cell increases. • The overall efficiency of the mixed fuel cell is higher than that of DMFC. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell. Impedance and crossover experiments were performed in order to investigate the performance losses such as ohmic loss, activation loss and crossover loss accurately. The DME was pressurized to 5 bar to supply with liquid phase was and blended with an aqueous methanol solution. In this experiment, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was composed of Nafion 115, anode catalyst loaded Pt–Ru and cathode catalyst loaded Pt-Black. Experimental results showed that fuel cells with DME-methanol enhanced performance when compared to fuel cells with methanol only. Such performance enhancement was due to a decrease in activation losses by DME oxidation reactions. As the DME crossover through the membrane was reduced, the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cell increased. Other output characteristics are also discussed

  2. High performance, high bandgap, lattice-mismatched, GaInP solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.; Steiner, Myles A.

    2014-07-08

    High performance, high bandgap, lattice-mismatched, photovoltaic cells (10), both transparent and non-transparent to sub-bandgap light, are provided as devices for use alone or in combination with other cells in split spectrum apparatus or other applications.

  3. Mobility performance of LTE co-channel deployment of macro and pico cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Michaelsen, Per Henrik; Säily, Mikko;

    2012-01-01

    ” (TTT). For this purpose, a system simulator has been utilized to assess the performance. The system must have different settings depending on the user velocity and on which cell-layer user is being serviced. Additionally, we have considered scenarios with a mixture of users moving freely or constrained...... to a hotspot, and different pico cell deployments....

  4. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells with Two Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2001-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for Space Shuttle in the future, Samsung 18650 cylindrical Li-ion cells with two different capacities have been evaluated. The capacities are 1800 mAh, and 2000 mAh. The studies focused on the performance and safety tests of the cells.

  5. Effect of oxygen and carbon impurities on the performance of silicon single crystal solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BSF solar cells are fabricated using B-doped wafers cut from Czochralski Si(100) single crystals. The effect of unintentional impurities of Oxygen and Carbon atoms on the solar cell performance parameters have been studied. The presence of carbon atoms shows an improvement in all parameters particularly the short circuit current where as oxygen shows an adverse effect. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  6. Effect of CeO2 Infiltration on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  7. Medicare Program; Medicare Shared Savings Program; Accountable Care Organizations--Revised Benchmark Rebasing Methodology, Facilitating Transition to Performance-Based Risk, and Administrative Finality of Financial Calculations. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Under the Medicare Shared Savings Program (Shared Savings Program), providers of services and suppliers that participate in an Accountable Care Organization (ACO) continue to receive traditional Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) payments under Parts A and B, but the ACO may be eligible to receive a shared savings payment if it meets specified quality and savings requirements. This final rule addresses changes to the Shared Savings Program, including: Modifications to the program's benchmarking methodology, when resetting (rebasing) the ACO's benchmark for a second or subsequent agreement period, to encourage ACOs' continued investment in care coordination and quality improvement; an alternative participation option to encourage ACOs to enter performance-based risk arrangements earlier in their participation under the program; and policies for reopening of payment determinations to make corrections after financial calculations have been performed and ACO shared savings and shared losses for a performance year have been determined. PMID:27295736

  8. Structural assembly effects of Pt nanoparticle-carbon nanotube-polyaniline nanocomposites on the enhancement of biohydrogen fuel cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this work, we designed various polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites with platinum (Pt) nanoparticle-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), employed them as anodic catalysts, and studied their structural assembly effects with regard to enhancing biohydrogen fuel cell performance. Of two proposed structures, the PANI/Pt/MWCNTs multilayer nanocomposites showed superior electrocatalytic activities in the hydrogen oxidation reaction and in fuel cell power density relative to the Pt/MWCNTs-PANI core-shell design. These enhancements were attributed to the active interface formed between the Pt nanoparticles and polyaniline nanofibers, where the higher electronic and ionic conductivities of the thin PANI nanofiber layers in contact with Pt active sites were better than with the PANI bound Pt/MWCNTs. We also investigated the change in the electronic state of the composites and the charge-transfer rate caused by varying the structural assembly. Finally, the role of each catalyst component was examined to understand its individual effect on fuel cell performance and to understand its structural assembly effect on enhanced power density.

  9. Structural assembly effects of Pt nanoparticle-carbon nanotube-polyaniline nanocomposites on the enhancement of biohydrogen fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoa, Le Quynh, E-mail: hoa@p.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sugano, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Saito, Masato [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamiya, Eiichi, E-mail: tamiya@ap.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this work, we designed various polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites with platinum (Pt) nanoparticle-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), employed them as anodic catalysts, and studied their structural assembly effects with regard to enhancing biohydrogen fuel cell performance. Of two proposed structures, the PANI/Pt/MWCNTs multilayer nanocomposites showed superior electrocatalytic activities in the hydrogen oxidation reaction and in fuel cell power density relative to the Pt/MWCNTs-PANI core-shell design. These enhancements were attributed to the active interface formed between the Pt nanoparticles and polyaniline nanofibers, where the higher electronic and ionic conductivities of the thin PANI nanofiber layers in contact with Pt active sites were better than with the PANI bound Pt/MWCNTs. We also investigated the change in the electronic state of the composites and the charge-transfer rate caused by varying the structural assembly. Finally, the role of each catalyst component was examined to understand its individual effect on fuel cell performance and to understand its structural assembly effect on enhanced power density.

  10. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Institute of Energy Conversion

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  11. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornforth, Michael N. [The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'.

  12. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  13. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'

  14. Performance characteristics of lithium primary cells after controlled storage. [on-orbit for energy power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Halpert, G.; Ang, V.; Donley, S.

    1991-01-01

    A program was initiated to investigate the effects of storage on the performance of lithium primary cells. Two types of liquid cathode cells were chosen to investigate these effects. The cell types included Li-SOCl2/BCX cells, Li-SO2 cells from two different manufacturers, and a small sample size of 8-year-old Li-SO2 cells. The following measurements are performed at each test interval: open circuit voltage, resistance and weight, microcalorimetry, ac impedance, capacity, and voltage delay. The authors examine the performance characteristics of these cells after one year of controlled storage at two temperatures (10 and 30 C). The Li-SO2 cells experienced little to no voltage and capacity degradation after one year storage. The Li-SOCl2/BCX cells exhibited significant voltage and capacity degradation after 30 C storage. Predischarging shortly prior to use appears to be an effective method of reducing the initial voltage drop. Studies are in progress to correlate ac impedance and microcalorimetry measurements with capacity losses and voltage delay.

  15. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, S.G.; Lu, Z.; Rao, N.; Sergi, J.; Rath, C.; Dade, C.; Trabold, T.; Owejan, J.; Gagliardo, J.; Allen, J.; Yassar, R.S.; Medici, E.; Herescu, A.

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Technical accomplishments are listed below: • Demonstrated that shutdown air purge is controlled predominantly by the water carrying capacity of the purge stream and the most practical means of reducing the purge time and energy is to reduce the volume of liquid water present in the fuel cell at shutdown. The GDL thermal conductivity has been identified as an important parameter to dictate water accumulation within a GDL. • Found that under the normal shutdown conditions most of the GDL-level water accumulation occurs on the anode side and that the mass transport resistance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) thus plays a critically important role in understanding and optimizing purge. • Identified two-phase flow patterns (slug, film and mist flow) in flow field channel, established the features of each pattern, and created a flow pattern map to characterize the two-phase flow in GDL/channel combination. • Implemented changes to the baseline channel surface energy and GDL materials and evaluated their performance with the ex situ multi-channel experiments. It was found that the hydrophilic channel (contact angle   10⁰) facilitates the removal of liquid water by capillary effects and by reducing water accumulation at the channel exit. It was also found that GDL without MPL promotes film flow and shifts the slug-to-film flow transition to lower air flow rates, compared with the case of GDL with MPL. • Identified a new mechanism of water transport through GDLs based on Haines jump

  16. Fundamental Research and Development for Improved Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, March 2002 - July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.

    2007-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2002-2006 period toward high-efficiency, low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. This program emphasize fundamental and applied research on commercial substrates and manufacturable technologies. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, technology development, and complete cell fabrication were used to accomplish the goals of this program. This report is divided into five sections that summarize our work on i) PECVD SiN-induced defect passivation (Sections 1 and 2); ii) the effect of material inhomogeneity on the performance of mc-Si solar cells (Section 3); iii) a comparison of light-induced degradation in commercially grown Ga- and B-doped Czochralski Si ingots (Section 4); and iv) the understanding of the formation of high-quality thick-film Ag contacts on high sheet-resistance emitters (Section 5).

  17. 13th FINA World Championship finals: stroke kinematical and race times according to performance, gender and event

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, S.; Costa, M. J.; Marinho, D.A.; Garrido, N.; Silva, A. J.; Barbosa, Tiago M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the stroke kinematics and race times of the freestyle final races at the 13th FINA World Championships between: (i) the three medalists versus the last three finalists; (ii) males versus female swimmers; (iii) all events in each gender. Data was collected from the champioships official web site. There were no significant differences in the stroke kinematics neither in the race times between medallists and non-medallists. There were significant effects in th...

  18. The relation between the class attendance and the performance at final examinations of students, in Nursing department, Technological Educational Institute (TEI of Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Argyriou

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Class attendance of a didactic lecture consists one of the most important factors, which has impact on students" performance at university. The attendance of the lecture, mainly at the education of professionals of health, is a matter of great importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of class attendance upon the final examination result of students in Nursing HTEI of Athens. Method and material: Τhe sample of the study consisted of 204 student nurses who were enrolled in the surgical Nursing of 3rd semester and 184 student nurses who were enrolled in the course of Emergency Nursing of 6th semester, during the 2005-06 teaching session. Results: The results of the study showed that, from the students who had attended classes in the "Surgical Nursing" of 3rd semester, 63.5% succeeded in the final exam of the lesson, whereas from the students who had not attended the class, 36,5% succeeded in the final exam of the lesson, p<0,001. To the lesson of "Emergency Nursing" of 6th semester, the results showed that from the students who had attended classes, 80% succeeded in the final exam of the lesson, whereas from the students who had not attended the class, 44,6% succeeded in the final exam of the lesson, p<0,001. 46,3% of students enrolled to3rd semester, where typically belongs the lesson of "Surgical Nursing". 47,3% of students enrolled to 6th semester, where typically belongs the lesson of "Emergency Nursing". Conclusion: The attendance of class is direclty related to the result of the final exam. The combination of class attendance and intermediate evaluation, such as frequent short tests, has beneficial effects on the final examination of students.

  19. Costly Cell Phones: The Impact of Cell Phone Rings on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    End, Christian M.; Worthman, Shaye; Mathews, Mary Bridget; Wetterau, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    College students participated in a study on the "psychology of note taking" during which they took notes on video content and later completed a multiple-choice test on the material. Researchers assigned 71 participants to either the ringing condition (the video was disrupted by a ringing cell phone) or the control condition (no cell phone rings…

  20. Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

    2009-05-04

    World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T

  1. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published in...

  2. Study of pool-swell dynamics in a Mark II single-cell model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiang, R.L.; Jeuck, P.R. III

    1980-03-01

    The dynamic response of a Mark II pressure-suppression system during the early air discharging phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) was studied via scale model experiments. Tests using a 13.3-scale single downcomer model yielded quantitative information on the vent-clearing process, the pool swell, the diaphragm floor differential pressure and many other dynamic responses of interest. Corresponding information for the reference plant from which the model is scaled can be obtained from the test results and the scaling laws which are given in the report. The single downcomer results were compared to multidowncomer results to determine the validity of single cell models. The comparison shows excellent agreement.

  3. Study of pool-swell dynamics in a Mark II single-cell model. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic response of a Mark II pressure-suppression system during the early air discharging phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) was studied via scale model experiments. Tests using a 13.3-scale single downcomer model yielded quantitative information on the vent-clearing process, the pool swell, the diaphragm floor differential pressure and many other dynamic responses of interest. Corresponding information for the reference plant from which the model is scaled can be obtained from the test results and the scaling laws which are given in the report. The single downcomer results were compared to multidowncomer results to determine the validity of single cell models. The comparison shows excellent agreement

  4. 1997 Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Walls. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehelin, A.

    1999-08-25

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Plant Cell Walls was held at Tilton School, Tilton, New Hampshire, July 18-22, 1997. The conference was well attended with 106 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. In addition to these formal interactions, free time was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  5. Performance enhancement of thin film silicon solar cells based on distributed Bragg reflector and diffraction grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various designing parameters were investigated and explored for high performance solar cells. Single layer grating based solar cell of 50 μm thickness gives maximum efficiency up to 24 % whereas same efficiency is achieved with the use of three bilayers grating based solar cell of 30 μm thickness. Remarkably, bilayer grating based solar cell design not only gives broadband absorption but also enhancement in efficiency with reduced cell thickness requirement. This absorption enhancement is attributed to the high reflection and diffraction from DBR and grating respectively. The obtained short-circuit current were 29.6, 32.9, 34.6 and 36.05 mA/cm2 of 5, 10, 20 and 30 μm cell thicknesses respectively. These presented designing efforts would be helpful to design and realize new generation of solar cells

  6. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Girish, T E

    2010-01-01

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the l...

  7. Design, fabrication and performance test of a planar array module-type micro fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new and novel planar array module. • Easy handling/assembling as well as fast fabrication upon its commercialization. • Compact configuration design and geometry could be secured. - Abstract: We proposed and tested a new and novel planar array module (4 N style; N is an integer) consisting of 4, 8, 12 and 16 single polymer electrotype membrane (PEM) fuel cells connected in series on a plane with two different pin electrode flowfield configurations. This module has the potential to be not only easily handled and assembled but also to be fabricated quickly upon its commercialization. Using a Lithography Galvanic Abformung (LIGA)-like microfabrication technique, copper metal sheets were used to make two different flowfield plates with serpentine flow channels. A 4-cell (short stack), 8-cell, 12-cell and 16-cell (long stack) stack were developed and tested for performance study under different operating conditions. These were connected in a series of micro fuel cells consisting of an anode/cathode and Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). Performance results for a short stack/unit module (4 cells), 8 cells, 12 cells and a long stack/four modules (16 cells) were presented; it was found that significant improvements in VI/PI characteristics could be attained due to uniform and compact configuration design and geometry

  8. Cooperation on Lidar for Improved Wind Turbine Performance. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-521

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Research into the use of lidar for improved wind turbine performance is an area of considerable interest. Lidars have been proposed to analyze and improve wind turbine pitch control performance, yaw alignment and control performance, as well as to improve power curve assessments. In this CRADA, NREL, NRG Systems, Inc. (“NRG”) and Avent Lidar Technology SAS (“Avent”) will collaborate on testing these concepts.

  9. Temperature Effects on the Photovoltaic Performance of Planar Structure Perovskite Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cojocaru, Ludmila; Uchida, Satoshi; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; González Pedro, Victoria; Bisquert, Juan; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature effects of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells having simple planar architecture were investigated on the crystal structure and photovoltaic performance. The obvious changes in the CH3NH3PbI3 crystal structure were found by varying the temperature as a consequence to the augmentation in lattice parameters and expansion of the unit cell. The expansion of the crystal gave a serious influence on the performance of the solar cells, where the differences in the coefficients of the therma...

  10. Performance of bifacial HIT solar cells on n-type silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Ye, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Ming-Bo

    2010-03-01

    The performance of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) / crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction is studied, and the effects of the emitter layer thickness, doping concentration, intrinsic layer thickness, back heavily-doped n layer, interface state and band offset on the optical and electrical performance of bifacial heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer (HIT) solar cells on ntype silicon substrates are discussed. It is found that the HIT solar cells on n-type substrates can obtain a higher conversion efficiency than those on p-type substrates by calculating the band diagrams and parameters of HIT solar cells.

  11. Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students Enrolled in a Lower Division Cell Biology Core Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha

    2009-01-01

    Students' performance in two semesters of our Cell Biology course was examined for this study. Teaching strategies, behaviors, and pre-course variables were analyzed with respect to students' performance. Pre-semester and post-semester surveys were administered to ascertain students' perceptions about class difficulty, amount of study and effort…

  12. School Performance and Disease Interference in Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lori E.; Joffe, Naomi E.; Irwin, Mary Kay; Strong, Heather; Peugh, James; Shook, Lisa; Kalinyak, Karen A.; Mitchell, Monica J.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) results in neuropsychological complications that place adolescents at higher risk for limited educational achievement. A first step to developing effective educational interventions is to understand the impact of SCD on school performance. The current study assessed perceptions of school performance, SCD interference and…

  13. Performance and Implementations of Wide-band CDMA Cell Search Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhiwen; WU Haidong; YOU Xiaohu

    2001-01-01

    The performance and implementa-tion of WCDMA (Wide-band code division multipleaccess) cell search procedure is investigated in thispaper.Simulation results show that performance isnot so satisfying.We find that the hard ware scale ofmatched filter is too large.So we present a schemebased on correlators.

  14. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  15. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  16. Iron-contamination-induced performance degradation of an iron-fed fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Tong, Zhong-Hua

    2014-02-01

    The iron-fed fuel cell is an effective technology to recover iron and electricity from acid mine drainage (AMD). However, this technology suffers from the problem of performance degradation which significantly reduces its power output during long-term operation. In this work, the performance degradation of iron-fed fuel cell is comprehensively evaluated with the objective to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a phenomenon. The iron contamination is identified as the main cause responsible for the performance degradation of fuel cell. The iron contaminant is present in the form of α-FeO(OH), which is the main product recovered by the iron-fed fuel cell. Both the electrode and membrane are deteriorated by iron contamination, whereas the membrane deterioration is more significant. Fed-batch experiments demonstrate the performance loss of fuel cell due to contamination of membrane is more than 50% greater than the performance loss due to contamination of electrode. The α-FeO(OH) contaminant not only forms fouling layers on the surfaces of carbon electrode and membrane, but also migrates into the membrane to damage the membrane structure. As a result, both the charge transfer and mass transfer resistances of fuel cell are dramatically increased, which leads to delayed electro-oxidation kinetics of Fe(II).

  17. Improved performance in GaInNAs solar cells by hydrogen passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV-activated hydrogenation on the performance of GaInNAs solar cells is presented. A proof-of-principle investigation was performed on non-optimum GaInNAs cells, which allowed a clearer investigation of the role of passivation on the intrinsic nitrogen-related defects in these materials. Upon optimized hydrogenation of GaInNAs, a significant reduction in the presence of defect and impurity based luminescence is observed as compared to that of unpassivated reference material. This improvement in the optical properties is directly transferred to an improved performance in solar cell operation, with a more than two-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density upon hydrogenation. Temperature dependent photovoltaic measurements indicate a strong contribution of carrier localization and detrapping processes, with non-radiative processes dominating in the reference materials, and evidence for additional strong radiative losses in the hydrogenated solar cells

  18. Improved performance in GaInNAs solar cells by hydrogen passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Whiteside, V. R.; Keay, J. C.; Meleco, A.; Sellers, I. R. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Hossain, K.; Golding, T. D. [Amethyst Research Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); Leroux, M.; Al Khalfioui, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Valbonne 06560 (France)

    2015-04-06

    The effect of UV-activated hydrogenation on the performance of GaInNAs solar cells is presented. A proof-of-principle investigation was performed on non-optimum GaInNAs cells, which allowed a clearer investigation of the role of passivation on the intrinsic nitrogen-related defects in these materials. Upon optimized hydrogenation of GaInNAs, a significant reduction in the presence of defect and impurity based luminescence is observed as compared to that of unpassivated reference material. This improvement in the optical properties is directly transferred to an improved performance in solar cell operation, with a more than two-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density upon hydrogenation. Temperature dependent photovoltaic measurements indicate a strong contribution of carrier localization and detrapping processes, with non-radiative processes dominating in the reference materials, and evidence for additional strong radiative losses in the hydrogenated solar cells.

  19. The relation between the class attendance and the performance at final examinations of students, in Nursing department, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens

    OpenAIRE

    Argyriou, G; L. Vastardis; A. Kalogianni; G. Vassilopoulos; M. Polikandrioti; Ch. Marvaki; Theodore Kapadohos

    2007-01-01

    Class attendance of a didactic lecture consists one of the most important factors, which has impact on students" performance at university. The attendance of the lecture, mainly at the education of professionals of health, is a matter of great importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of class attendance upon the final examination result of students in Nursing HTEI of Athens. Method and material: Τhe sample of the study consisted of 204 student nurses who were enroll...

  20. Nursery Cultural Practices and Morphological Attributes of Longleaf Pine Bare-Root Stock as Indicators of Early Field Performance; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large study of morphological attributes of longleaf pine nursery stock at the Savannah River site of the various attributes measured, only number of lateral roots and seedling diameters were related to performance. Lateral root pruning in the nursery also improved performance. Both survival and growth during the first two years were strongly correlated with larger stem diameter and larger root system development

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  2. Dynamic cell performance of kW-grade proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack with dead-ended anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A kW-grade fuel cell stack with anode dead-ended mode was examined. • The dead-ended anode is achieved by controlling the anode outlet solenoid valve. • Results indicated an optimal purge interval and duration for cell performance. - Abstract: This paper examines the dynamic cell performance of a kW-grade proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack with anode dead-ended mode fuel supply. A self-made kW-grade 40 cells stack with reaction area of 112.85 cm2 has been used in the experiment. A single-chip (DSPIC30F4011) is utilized for establishing a control circuit to monitor the voltage and current with constant-current loading. The stack temperature is controlled at a low-level temperature rise. To enhance the hydrogen utilization and reduce the water flooding in the fuel cell stack, the dead-ended anode operation is accomplished by controlling the open or close of the anode outlet solenoid valve. As the loading is heavy, the anode outlet solenoid valve is purged frequently to force the water to flow out. While a light load, the anode outlet solenoid valve is shut down for a period time for hydrogen saving. The solenoid valve is controlled to be opened, referred as purge interval, reaching the discharge amount for 1000 C, 1500 C, and 2000 C as parameter, respectively. The open period of solenoid valve, referred as purge duration, is set as 1 s, 3 s, and 5 s for this study. Experimental results indicate an optimal purge interval and duration for water management and cell performance of the fuel cell stack

  3. Research on performance of hybrid organic dyes-sensitized solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Sun; Weizheng Yuan; Dayong Qiao

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin or eosin and coumarin is used to sensitize nanocrystalline porous films. Absorption of the nanocrystalline photovoltaic cell (NPC) is improved in visible light. The performance of these cells is more effective than that of cells sensitized only by sensitizer rhodamine B or eosin. In the simulative solar light, cell sensitized by hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin can get open circuit voltage (Voc) of 550 mV and short circuit current (Isc) of 0.1375 mA/cm2.

  4. Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon. How to correlate layer properties and solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrsch, N.; Feitknecht, L.; Droz, C.; Torres, P.; Shah, A. [Institut de Microtechnique, Universite de Neuchatel, Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Poruba, A.; Vanecek, M. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, CZ-16253 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2000-05-01

    Undoped hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) layers and cells have been deposited by plasma chemical vapour deposition at low temperature at different powers and silane dilutions. Electronic transport properties and defect density of the layers have been compared to the cell performances to identify the important material properties for solar cell applications. A correlation is found between the defect density, {mu}{sup 0}{tau}{sup 0} quality parameter, and cell efficiency. Anisotropy of the transport properties in some {mu}c-Si:H is also demonstrated.

  5. Model and simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance at different porosity of diffusion layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell is an example of clean energy. Recently, a three-dimensional, steady-state non-isotherm mathematical model for proton exchange membrane fuel cell was developed for further exploration. This 3D model simultaneously takes into account the mass, momentum, energy, species, charge conservation equation as well as combines electrochemistry reaction inside the fuel cell. The simulation results reveals that it is easy to improve the fuel cell performance for higher porosity in the diffusion layer by speeding up the gas diffusion, reducing the concentration grads of gas, depressing the ridge board domino effect and falling current density grads.

  6. Development of improved cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.U.

    1991-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla conducted a 17 month research program focused on the development and evaluation of improved cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The objectives of this program were: (1) the development of cathode materials of improved stability in reducing environments; and (2) the development of cathode materials with improved electrical conductivity. The program was successful in identifying some potential candidate materials: Air sinterable (La,Ca)(Cr,Co)O{sub 3} compositions were developed and found to be more stable than La{sub .8}Sr{sub .2}MnO{sub 3} towards reduction. Their conductivity at 1000{degrees}C ranged between 30 to 60 S/cm. Compositions within the (Y,Ca)(Cr,Co,Mn)O{sub 3} system were developed and found to have higher electrical conductivity than La{sub .8}Sr{sub .2}MnO{sub 3} and preliminary results suggest that their stability towards reduction is superior.

  7. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Project 65021 final technical progress report, April 15, 1979-April 17, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, P.G.P.; Sammells, A.F.

    1980-09-01

    The overall goals of this program have been to experimentally identify semiconductor photoanode/redox couple systems that (a) show promise of meeting acceptable solar efficiencies using polycrystalline materials, and (b) have the potential for use in conjunction with a suitable cathode in which another redox species is available for reduction. Such an overall system allows for the convenient removal, storage, and later discharge of reaction products through the use of porous, flow-through redox electrodes. Increasing solar energy conversion efficiencies and identifying potentially long-life systems were emphasized. Semiconductor/redox couple systems were selected on the basis of the apparent positions of their conduction and valence band energy levels at the interface, together with the semiconductor decomposition potential. Selected redox couples should possess equilibrium potentials that lie negative of the semiconductor decomposition potential and positive of the semiconductor conduction band. Liquid-junction solar cells were characterized using n-MoSe/sub 2/, n-WSe/sub 2/, n-CdSe, and n-GaAs as photoanodes. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  8. 324 Building B-Cell Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Packaging & Shipment RL Readiness Assessment Final Report [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUMPHREYS, D C

    2002-08-01

    A parallel readiness assessment (RA) was conducted by independent Fluor Hanford (FH) and U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) team to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for activities associated with the packaging and shipping of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies from B-Cell in the 324 Building to the interim storage area at the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The RL review was conducted in parallel with the FH review in accordance with the Joint RL/FH Implementation Plan (Appendix B). The RL RA Team members were assigned a FH RA Team counterpart for the review. With this one-on-one approach, the RL RA Team was able to assess the FH Team's performance, competence, and adherence to the implementation plan and evaluate the level of facility readiness. The RL RA Team agrees with the FH determination that startup of the 324 Building B-Cell pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel packaging and shipping operations can safely proceed, pending completion of the identified pre-start items in the FH final report (see Appendix A), completion of the manageable list of open items included in the facility's declaration of readiness, and execution of the startup plan to operations.

  9. Deposition pressure effects on material structure and performance of micromorph tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delli Veneri, Paola; Mercaldo, Lucia V.; Privato, Carlo [Enea, Portici Research Center, Localita Granatello, 80055 Portici, Napoli (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    Tandem solar cells represent an elegant way of overcoming the efficiency limits of single-junction solar cells and reducing the light-induced degradation of amorphous silicon films. Stacked structures consisting of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell allow a good utilization of the solar spectrum due to the band gap values of the two materials. These devices, firstly introduced by the IMT research group, were designated as ''micromorph'' tandem solar cells. To better exploit this concept, it is important to tune parameters like the band gaps and the short-circuit currents. In this work, we have realized micromorph tandem solar cells on Asahi U-type TCO-covered glass substrates. The intrinsic layer of both the amorphous top cell and the microcrystalline bottom cell is grown by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) at 100 MHz at low substrate temperature (150{sup o}C). Finally, a ZnO reflector and a metal contact complete the structure. No intermediate optical mirror between the two cells is used at this stage. Undiluted a-Si:H, with reduced band gap when compared to H{sub 2}-diluted amorphous silicon, is used as absorber layer in the top cell. As for the bottom cell, the high-pressure-high-power regime (up to 267 Pa-80 W) has been explored aiming at growing high-quality microcrystalline silicon at large deposition rates. The effect of the structural composition of the microcrystalline absorber layer on the current-voltage characteristic and spectral response of tandem devices has been investigated. An efficiency of 11.3% has been obtained with short-circuit current densities around 13 mA/cm{sup 2}, open-circuit voltages {proportional_to}1.34 V and fill factors {proportional_to}66%. (author)

  10. Improved performance of silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots/organic hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We introduce an intermediate cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) layer between the organic with silicon nanowires of hybrid solar cells as a down-shifting layer. • The hybrid solar cell got the maximum short circuit current density of 33.5 mA/cm2, getting an increase of 15.1% comparing to solar cell without CdTe QDs. • The PCE of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer increases 28.8%. - Abstract: We fabricated silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs)/organic hybrid solar cells and investigated their structure and electrical properties. Transmission electron microscope revealed that CdTe QDs were uniformly distributed on the surface of the silicon nanowires, which made PEDOT:PSS easily filled the space between SiNWs. The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics of hybrid solar cells were investigated both in dark and under illumination. The result shows that the performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer has an obvious improvement. The optimal short-circuit current density (Jsc) of solar cells with CdTe QDs layer can reach 33.5 mA/cm2. Compared with the solar cells without CdTe QDs, Jsc has an increase of 15.1%. Power conversion efficiency of solar cells also increases by 28.8%. The enhanced performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layers are ascribed to down-shifting effect of CdTe QDs and the modification of the silicon nanowires surface with CdTe QDs. The result of our experiments suggests that hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs modified are promising candidates for solar cell application

  11. Final Report for 'Gyrotron Design and Evaluation using New Particle-in-Cell Capability'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER will depend on high power CW gyrotrons to deliver power to the plasma at ECR frequencies. However, gyrotrons can suffer from undesirable low frequency oscillations (LFO's) which are known to interfere with the gun-region diagnostics and data collection, and are also expected to produce undesirable energy and velocity spread in the beam. The origins and processes leading to these oscillations are poorly understood, and existing gyrotron R and D tools, such as static gun solvers and interaction region models, are not designed to look at time-dependant oscillatory behavior. We have applied a time-domain particle-in-cell method to investigate the LFO phenomenon. Our company is at the forefront of smooth-curved-boundary treatment of the electromagnetic fields and particle emission surfaces, and such methods are necessary to simulate the adiabatically trapped and reflected electrons thought to be driving the oscillations. This approach provides the means for understanding, in microscopic detail, the underlying physical processes driving the low-frequency oscillations. In the Phase I project, an electron gun region from an existing gyrotron, known to observe LFO's, was selected as a proof-of-principle geometry, and was modeled with the curved-geometry time-domain simulation tool, in order to establish the feasibility of simulating LFO physics with this tool on office-scale, and larger, parallel cluster computers. Generally, it was found to be feasible to model the simulation geometry, emission, and magnetic features of the electron gun. Ultimately, the tool will be used to investigate the origins and life cycle within the trapped particle population. This tool also provides the foundations and validation for potential application of the software to numerous other time-dependant beam and rf source problems in the commercial arena.

  12. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  13. Performance enhancement of phosphoric acid fuel cell using phosphosilicate gel based electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajari Kargupta; Swati Saha; Dipali Banerjee; Mrinal Seal; Saibal Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of phosphoric acid electrolyte by phosphosilicate gel based electrolytes is proposed for performance enhancement of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFG).Phosphosilicate gel in paste form and in powder form is synthesized from tetraethoxysilane and orthophosphoric acid using sol-gel method for two different P/Si ratio of 5 and 1.5 respectively.Replacement of phosphoric acid electrolyte by phosphosilicate gel paste enhances the peak power generation of the fuel cell by 133% at 120 ℃ cell temperature; increases the voltage generation in the ohmic regime and extends the maximum possible load current.Polyinyl alcohol (PVA) is used to bind the phosphosilicate gel powder and to form the hybrid crosslinked gel polymer electrolyte membrane.Soaking the membrane with phosphoric acid solution,instead of that with water improves the proton conductivity of the membrane,enhances the voltage and power generation by the fuel cell and extends the maximum possible operating temperature.At lower operating temperature of 70 ℃,peak power produced by phosphosilicate gel polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell ( PGMFC ) is increased by 40% compared to that generated by phosphoric acid fuel cell ( PAFC ).However,the performance of composite membrane diminishes as the cell temperature increases.Thus phosphosilicate gel in paste form is found to be a good alternative of phosphoric acid electrolyte at medium operating temperature range while phosphosilicate gel-PVA composite offers performance enhancement at low operating temperatures.

  14. Improvement the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell by changing the channel geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Khazaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of placing different blocks on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell are investigated numerically for different Aspect Ratios. A complete two-dimensional and single phase model is used to that the proposed model is a full cell model, which includes all the parts of the PEM fuel cell, flow channels, gas diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane. Coupled transport and electrochemical kinetics equations are solved in a single domain; therefore no interfacial boundary condition is required at the internal boundaries between cell components. The results show that the predicted polarization curves by using this model are in good agreement with the experimental results. Also the results show that the transverse installation of a rectangular and triangle block in the fuel flow channel can effectively enhance the local cell performance of a PEMFC. The results show that by increasing the aspect ratio of the blocks, the performance of the cell enhances due to enhance the electrochemical reaction at the catalyst layer of the cell.

  15. Experimental study of commercial size proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial sized (16 x 16 cm2 active surface area) proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with serpentine flow chambers are fabricated. The GORE-TEX (registered) PRIMEA 5621 was used with a 35-μm-thick PEM with an anode catalyst layer with 0.45 mg cm-2 Pt and cathode catalyst layer with 0.6 mg cm-2 Pt and Ru or GORE-TEX (registered) PRIMEA 57 was used with an 18-μm-thick PEM with an anode catalyst layer at 0.2 mg cm-2 Pt and cathode catalyst layer at 0.4 mg cm-2 of Pt and Ru. At the specified cell and humidification temperatures, the thin PRIMEA 57 membrane yields better cell performance than the thick PRIMEA 5621 membrane, since hydration of the former is more easily maintained with the limited amount of produced water. Sufficient humidification at both the cathode and anode sides is essential to achieve high cell performance with a thick membrane, like the PRIMEA 5621. The optimal cell temperature to produce the best cell performance with PRIMEA 5621 is close to the humidification temperature. For PRIMEA 57, however, optimal cell temperature exceeds the humidification temperature.

  16. Identification of performance limiting electrode using asymmetric cell configuration in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan; Dennison, C. R.; Knehr, K. W.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the performance of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is investigated using asymmetric electrode configurations with raw and functionalized (i.e., acid-treated and heat-treated) electrodes. The use of heat-treated electrodes in both half-cells is chosen as the baseline case for comparison, as this configuration shows the best performance. When the positive electrode in the baseline case is replaced with a raw or acid-treated electrode, the voltage efficiency is found to be comparable to that of the baseline case. However, in the case where the negative electrode in the baseline case is replaced with a raw or acid-treated electrode, a significantly lower efficiency is observed, suggesting that the negative half-cell reactions limit the performance of a VRFB. To further investigate this observation, an additional analysis is performed using cyclic voltammetry. The reaction kinetics data suggests that the poor performance of the negative half-cell is not due to the slow kinetics, but rather stems from the fact that the reduction reaction in the negative half-cell occurs at a potential that is very close to the onset of hydrogen evolution. The formation of hydrogen gas bubbles blocks the reaction sites and suppresses the favorable effects of functionalization in the negative half-cell.

  17. Effects of multiple polyaniline layers immobilized on carbon nanotube and glutaraldehyde on performance and stability of biofuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christwardana, Marcelinus; Kwon, Yongchai

    2015-12-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cell (EBC) employing new catalyst for anode electrode is fabricated. The new catalyst consists of glucose oxidase (GOx), polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) that are multiply stacked together and finally the stack layer is surrounded by glutaraldehyde (GA) (GA/[GOx/PANI/CNT]n). To evaluate how the GA/[GOx/PANI/CNT]n layer affects EBC performance and stability, electrochemical characterizations are implemented. Regarding optimization, GA/[GOx/PANI/CNT]3 is determined. For elucidating reaction mechanism between glucose and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) of GA/[GOx/PANI/CNT]3, associated investigations are performed. In the evaluations, drop in reduction current peak of FAD is observed with provisions of glucose and O2, while glucose does not influence FAD reaction without O2, confirming O2 makes mediator role. When the GA/[GOx/PANI/CNT]3 layer is adopted, superior catalytic activity and EBC performance are gained (electron transfer rate constant of 5.1 s-1, glucose sensitivity of 150 ìA mM-1 cm-2, and EBC maximum power density (MPD) of 0.29 mW cm-2). Regarding EBC stability, MPD of EBC adopting GA/[GOx/PANI/CNT]3 maintains up to 93% of their initial value even after four weeks. Although GA is little effective for improving EBC performance, EBC stability is helped by GA due to its adhesion promotion capability with [GOx/PANI/CNT]n layer.

  18. Performance analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine cycle: Application of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Variation of the stream properties in the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle. • Detailed analysis of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle. • Investigate effects of inlet fuel type and composition on performance of cycle. • Comparison of system operation when operated with and without anode recirculation. - Abstract: In this paper, the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) model was applied to investigate the effects of the inlet fuel type and composition on the performance of the cycle. This type of analysis is vital for the real world utilization of manufactured fuels in the hybrid SOFC–GT system due to the fact that these fuel compositions depends on the type of material that is processed, the fuel production process, and process control parameters. In the first part of this paper, it is shown that the results of a limited number of studies on the utilization of non-conventional fuels have been published in the open literature. However, further studies are required in this area to investigate all aspects of the issue for different configurations and assumptions. Then, the results of the simulation of the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle are employed to explain the variation of the stream properties throughout the cycle. This analysis can be very helpful in understanding cycle internal working and can provide some interesting insights to the system operation. Then, the detailed information of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle is presented. For both syngas- and methane-fueled cycles, the operating conditions of the equipment are presented and compared. Moreover, the comparison of the characteristics of the system when it is operated with two different schemes to provide the required steam for the cycle, with anode recirculation and with an external source of water, provides some interesting insights to the system operation. For instance, it was shown that although the physical

  19. Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawny, Andreas; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk; Wehrspohn, Ralf B

    2009-05-11

    We have investigated the impact of three types of intermediate reflectors on the absorption enhancement in the top cell of micromorph tandem solar cells using rigorous diffraction theory. As intermediate reflectors we consider homogenous dielectric thin-films and 1D and 3D photonic crystals. Besides the expected absorption enhancements in cases where photonic band gaps are matched to the absorption edge of the semiconductor, our results distinguish between the impact of zero order Bragg-resonances and diffraction-based enhancement at larger lattice constants of the 3D photonic crystal. Our full-spectrum analysis permits for a quantitative prediction of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency increase of the a-Si:H top cell. PMID:19434178

  20. Results of comparative RBMK neutron computation using VNIIEF codes (cell computation, 3D statics, 3D kinetics). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conformity with the protocol of the Workshop under Contract open-quotes Assessment of RBMK reactor safety using modern Western Codesclose quotes VNIIEF performed a neutronics computation series to compare western and VNIIEF codes and assess whether VNIIEF codes are suitable for RBMK type reactor safety assessment computation. The work was carried out in close collaboration with M.I. Rozhdestvensky and L.M. Podlazov, NIKIET employees. The effort involved: (1) cell computations with the WIMS, EKRAN codes (improved modification of the LOMA code) and the S-90 code (VNIIEF Monte Carlo). Cell, polycell, burnup computation; (2) 3D computation of static states with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes and comparison with results of computation with the NESTLE code (USA). The computations were performed in the geometry and using the neutron constants presented by the American party; (3) 3D computation of neutron kinetics with the KORAT-3D and NEU codes. These computations were performed in two formulations, both being developed in collaboration with NIKIET. Formulation of the first problem maximally possibly agrees with one of NESTLE problems and imitates gas bubble travel through a core. The second problem is a model of the RBMK as a whole with imitation of control and protection system controls (CPS) movement in a core

  1. Investigation of stainless steel clad fuel rod failures and fuel performance in the Connecticut Yankee Reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant levels of fuel rod failures were observed in the batch 8 fuel assemblies of the Connecticut Yankee reactor. Failure of 304 stainless steel cladding in a PWR environment was not expected. Therefore a detailed poolside and hot cell examination program was conducted to determine the cause of failure and identify differences between batch 8 fuel and previous batches which had operated without failures. Hot cell work conducted consisted of detailed nondestructive and destructive examination of fuel rods from batches 7 and 8. The results indicate that the batch 8 failure mechanism was stress corrosion cracking initiating on the clad outer surface. The sources of cladding stresses are believed to be (a) fuel pellet chips wedged in the cladding gap, (b) swelling of highly nondensifying batch 8 fuel and (c) potentially harmful effects of a power change event that occurred near the end of the second cycle of irradiation for batch 8

  2. A switchable pH-differential unitized regenerative fuel cell with high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xu; Xuan, Jin; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Zou, Haiyang; Li, Jiantao; Wang, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhi

    2016-05-01

    Regenerative fuel cells are a potential candidate for future energy storage, but their applications are limited by the high cost and poor round-trip efficiency. Here we present a switchable pH-differential unitized regenerative fuel cell capable of addressing both the obstacles. Relying on a membraneless laminar flow-based design, pH environments in the cell are optimized independently for different electrode reactions and are switchable together with the cell process to ensure always favorable thermodynamics for each electrode reaction. Benefiting from the thermodynamic advantages of the switchable pH-differential arrangement, the cell allows water electrolysis at a voltage of 0.57 V, and a fuel cell open circuit voltage of 1.89 V, rendering round-trip efficiencies up to 74%. Under room conditions, operating the cell in fuel cell mode yields a power density of 1.3 W cm-2, which is the highest performance to date for laminar flow-based cells and is comparable to state-of-the-art polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  4. PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL SUBSYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem is a key component of the National Ignition Facility, enabling the laser to employ an efficient four-pass main amplifier architecture. PEPC relies on a pulsed power technology to initiate and maintain plasma within the cells and to provide the necessary high voltage bias to the cells nonlinear crystals. Ultimately, nearly 300 high-voltage, high-current pulse generators will be deployed in the NIF in support of PEPC. Production of solid-state plasma pulse generators and thyratron-switched pulse generators is now complete, with the majority of the hardware deployed in the facility. An entire cluster (one-fourth of a complete NIF) has been commissioned and is operating on a routine basis, supporting laser shot operations. Another cluster has been deployed, awaiting final commissioning. Activation and commissioning of new hardware continues to progress in parallel, driving toward a goal of completing the PEPC subsystem in late 2007

  5. PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL SUBSYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, F; Arnold, P; Hinz, A; Zacharias, R; Ollis, C; Fulkerson, E; Mchale, B; Runtal, A; Bishop, C

    2007-07-27

    The Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem is a key component of the National Ignition Facility, enabling the laser to employ an efficient four-pass main amplifier architecture. PEPC relies on a pulsed power technology to initiate and maintain plasma within the cells and to provide the necessary high voltage bias to the cells nonlinear crystals. Ultimately, nearly 300 high-voltage, high-current pulse generators will be deployed in the NIF in support of PEPC. Production of solid-state plasma pulse generators and thyratron-switched pulse generators is now complete, with the majority of the hardware deployed in the facility. An entire cluster (one-fourth of a complete NIF) has been commissioned and is operating on a routine basis, supporting laser shot operations. Another cluster has been deployed, awaiting final commissioning. Activation and commissioning of new hardware continues to progress in parallel, driving toward a goal of completing the PEPC subsystem in late 2007.

  6. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rokni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC. High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target of this study, repowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. Different repowering strategies are studied here, repowering with one gas turbine with and without supplementary firing, repowering with two gas turbines with and without supplementary firing and finally repowering using SOFC. Plant performances and CO2 emissions are compared for the suggested repowered plants.

  7. Electrochemical performance study of solid oxide fuel cell using lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive numerical model was developed to predict the electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The multi-component Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model based on kinetic theory for gas mixtures combined with a representative elementary volume (REV) scale LB algorithm based on the Brinkman equation for flows in porous media, the Butler–Volmer equation and Ohm's law were adopted to deal with the concentration, activation and ohmic overpotentials, respectively. The volt–ampere characteristics were calculated and compared with those obtained by the existing electrochemical model, as well as the experimental data. It was shown that the electrochemical model given by this paper was capable of describing the electrochemical performance much more accurately because of the kinetic nature of the LB method which was based on microscopic models and mesoscopic kinetic equations for fluids, and the accurate prediction of multi-component mass transfer in SOFC porous electrodes affected the simulation of the cell electrochemical performance significantly. Moreover, the effects of different electrode geometrical and operating parameters on the cell performance were investigated. The developed electrochemical model based on LB algorithm at REV scale is useful for the design and optimization of SOFC. - Highlights: • An electrochemical model based on LB model to study cell performance is developed. • The I–V curve predicted by present model agrees better with the experimental data. • The present model describes SOFC performance more accurately than existing models. • The mass transfer in electrodes is proved to affect the SOFC performance greatly. • Effects of geometrical and operating parameters on cell performance are studied

  8. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell fabricated by co-firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, Himeko; Matsushima, Toshio; Hirai, Toshiro

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was fabricated by co-firing laminated sheets of air-electrode, electrolyte, and fuel-electrode and the influence of the physical characteristics of the air-electrode on the cell performance was studied. Tailoring the sintering shrinkage of green sheets to one another was found to be an important factor in fabricating a flat and fracture-free three-layer cell. Controlling the binder content in the fuel-electrode green sheet and calcination of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) powder were effective for tailoring the sintering shrinkage of green sheets. The performance of the co-fired three-layer cell was greatly influenced by the porosity of the air-electrode, and the maximum power density was attained at 70% of relative density, which is determined by the gas permeability and conductivity of air-electrode.

  9. Performance and degradation evaluation of five different commercial lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; Shim, Joongpyo

    2004-04-20

    The initial performance of five different types of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, from Quallion Corp, UltraLife Battery and Toshiba, was measured and compared. Cell characterization included variable-rate constant-current cycling, various USDOE pulse-test protocols and full-spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Changes in impedance and capacity were monitored during electrochemical cycling under various conditions, including constant-current cycling over 100 percent DOD at a range of temperature and pulse profile cycling over a very narrow range of DOD at room temperature. All cells were found to maintain more than 80 percent of their rated capacity for more than 400 constant current 100 percent DOD cycles. The power fade (or impedance rise) of the cells varied considerably. New methods for interpreting the pulse resistance data were evaluated for their usefulness in interpreting performance mechanism as a function of test protocol and cell design.

  10. Enhanced Erbium-Doped Ceria Nanostructure Coating to Improve Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Shehata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of adding reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (REDC NPs as a coating on silicon solar cells. Reduced ceria nanoparticles doped with erbium have the advantages of both improving conductivity and optical conversion of solar cells. Oxygen vacancies in ceria nanoparticles reduce Ce4+ to Ce3+ which follow the rule of improving conductivity of solar cells through the hopping mechanism. The existence of Ce3+ helps in the down-conversion from 430 nm excitation to 530 nm emission. The erbium dopant forms energy levels inside the low-phonon ceria host to up-convert the 780 nm excitations into green and red emissions. When coating reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles on the back side of a solar cell, a promising improvement in the solar cell efficiency has been observed from 15% to 16.5% due to the mutual impact of improved electric conductivity and multi-optical conversions. Finally, the impact of the added coater on the electric field distribution inside the solar cell has been studied.

  11. Louisiana Adult Performance Level Pilot Study: A Comparative Analysis of APL Competency-Based Instructional Programs. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauzat, Sam V.

    Adults enrolled in local adult basic education programs at six sites in Louisiana were used to compare the credibility of Adult Performance Level (APL) competency-based instructional programs (experimental group) with traditional adult education instructional activities (control group). Focus was on determining the correlation between grade level…

  12. A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

    An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

  13. High Performance Packaging Solutions for Low Cost, Reliable PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 26 May 2005 - 30 November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keotla, B. M.; Marinik, B. J.

    2009-06-01

    During this research effort, Dow Corning Corporation has addressed the PV manufacturing goals of: (i) improving PV manufacturing processes and equipment; (ii) accelerating manufacturing cost reductions of PV modules; (iii) increasing commercial product performance and reliability; and (iv) scaling up U.S. manufacturing capacity.

  14. Economic impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is an economic impact analysis prepared in support of the promulgation of effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for drilling and production wastes for the offshore oil and gas industry. The report analyzes the economic impact of alternative regulatory options considered for drilling fluids, drill cuttings, produced water, produced sand, and treatment, workover, and completion fluids

  15. Reduced Hippocampal Dentate Cell Proliferation and Impaired Spatial Memory Performance in Aged-Epileptic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    LucieneCovolan; ClaudioM TQueiroz; JairGuilhermeSantos; GilbertoFXavier

    2013-01-01

    Increased adult neurogenesis is observed after training in hippocampal-dependent tasks and also after acutely induced status epilepticus (SE) although the specific roles of these cells are still a matter of debate. In this study, we investigated hippocampal cell proliferation and differentiation and the spatial learning performance in young or aged chronically epileptic rats. Status was induced by pilocarpine in 3 or 20-month old rats. Either two or twenty months later, rats were treated with...

  16. Break-down of Losses in High Performing Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kromp, Alexander; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Klemensø, Trine; Weber, André

    2012-01-01

    Metal supported SOFC designs offer competitive advantages such as reduced material costs and improved mechanical robustness. On the other hand, disadvantages might arise due to possible corrosion of the porous metal parts during processing and operation at high fuel utilization. In this paper we present the results of performance and stability improvements for a metal supported cell developed within the European project METSOFC and the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation. The cells...

  17. Fabrication of Pt deposited on carbon nanotubes and performance of its polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method of depositing nano-sized Pt particles on the surface of the carbon nano-tubes was introduced, and the performance of Pt/carbon nanotube compound on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells was measured. The experimental results show that the fine platinum particles (about 3 nm) were well dispersed on carbon nanotubes, which demonstrates the excellent catalytic properties of the Pt/CNTs compound in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  18. Performance of Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with STN Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Holtappels, Peter; Ramos, Tania

    2013-01-01

    In order to replace the state of the art Ni-cermet as SOFC anode, electrolyte supported cells comprising CGO/Ni infiltrated Nbdoped SrTiO3 anodes, and LSM/YSZ cathodes have been developed and tested as single 5 x 5 cm2 cells. The initial performance reached 0.4 W/cm2 at 850 C. Further tests unde...

  19. Model-based Interpretation of the Performance and Degradation of Reformate Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kromp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells offer great prospects for the sustainable, clean and safe conversion of various fuels into electrical energy. In this thesis, the performance-determining loss processes for the cell operation on reformate fuels are elucidated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Model-based analyses reveal the electrochemical fuel oxidation mechanism, the coupling of fuel gas transport and reforming chemistry and the impact of fuel impurities on the degradation of each loss process.

  20. Structural Factors That Affect the Performance of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-08-27

    The performance of polymer:fullerene solar cells is strongly affected by the active layer morphology and polymer microstructure. In this Perspective, we review ongoing research on how structural factors influence the photogeneration and collection of charge carriers as well as charge carrier recombination and the related open-circuit voltage. We aim to highlight unexplored research opportunities and provide some guidelines for the synthesis of new conjugated polymers for high-efficiency solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. The measurement technique of radiation shielding performance for hot cell walls in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot cell is the facility to test irradiated materials. The capability of radiation shielding through wall should be conformed to protect the workers from expose. In this report, the measurement techniques of radiation shielding performance through hot cell walls are described. Detailed contents are as following; 1. The theory of test 2. The measuring equipment of radiations capability 3. The choice of measuring points 4. Test procedures and data analysis method 5. The reinforcement of shielding lack area. (author). 13 tabs., 19 figs

  2. Performance of Electrolyte Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with STN Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune; Reddy Sudireddy, Bhaskar; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Holtappels, Peter; Ramos, Tania

    2013-01-01

    In order to replace the state of the art Ni-cermet as SOFC anode, electrolyte supported cells comprising CGO/Ni infiltrated Nbdoped SrTiO3 anodes, and LSM/YSZ cathodes have been developed and tested as single 5 x 5 cm2 cells. The initial performance reached 0.4 W/cm2 at 850 C. Further tests under...

  3. Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units. Final report; Udvikling af integrerede DMFC og PEM braendselscelle enheder. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, M. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK))

    2007-06-15

    The 36-month long project 'Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units' has been completed. The project goal was to develop a completely new MEA concept for integrated PEM and DMFC unit cells with enhanced power density and in this way obtain a price reduction. The integrated unit cell consists of a MEA, a gas diffusion layer with flow fields completed with bipolar plates and seals. The main focus of the present project was to: 1) Develop new catalyst materials fabricated by the use of FSD (flame spray deposition method). 2) Optimisation of the state-of-the-art MEA materials and electrode structure. 3) Implementation of a model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM fuel cells. Results and progress obtained in the project established that the individual unit cell components were able to meet and follow the road map of LT-PEM FC regarding electrode catalyst loading and fulfilled the targets for Year 2006. The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: 1) MEA structure knowledge acquired in the project provide a sound basis for further progress. 2) A novel method for the synthesis of electrode by using flame spray synthesis was explored. 3) Electrochemical and catalytic behaviours of catalysts activity for CH{sub 3}OH explored. 4) Implementation of a sub model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM FC has been developed. 5) Numerical study of the flow distribution in FC manifolds was developed and completed with experimental data. 6) The electrode catalyst loading targets for year 2006 achieved. 7) The DMFC MEA performance has been improved by 35%. 8) Optimisation of the MEAs fabrication process has been successfully developed. 9) A new simple flow field design has been designed. 10) A procedure for integrated seals has been developed (au)

  4. High Performance Biological Pairwise Sequence Alignment: FPGA versus GPU versus Cell BE versus GPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Benkrid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the pros and cons of reconfigurable computing in the form of FPGAs for high performance efficient computing. In particular, the paper presents the results of a comparative study between three different acceleration technologies, namely, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs, Graphics Processor Units (GPUs, and IBM’s Cell Broadband Engine (Cell BE, in the design and implementation of the widely-used Smith-Waterman pairwise sequence alignment algorithm, with general purpose processors as a base reference implementation. Comparison criteria include speed, energy consumption, and purchase and development costs. The study shows that FPGAs largely outperform all other implementation platforms on performance per watt criterion and perform better than all other platforms on performance per dollar criterion, although by a much smaller margin. Cell BE and GPU come second and third, respectively, on both performance per watt and performance per dollar criteria. In general, in order to outperform other technologies on performance per dollar criterion (using currently available hardware and development tools, FPGAs need to achieve at least two orders of magnitude speed-up compared to general-purpose processors and one order of magnitude speed-up compared to domain-specific technologies such as GPUs.

  5. Global analysis of sensitivity of bioretention cell design elements to hydrologic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-wei SUN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sensitivity of bioretention cell design elements to their hydrologic performances is meaningful in offering theoretical guidelines for proper design. Hydrologic performance of bioretention cells was facilitated with consideration of four metrics: the overflow ratio, groundwater recharge ratio, ponding time, and runoff coefficients. The storm water management model (SWMM and the bioretention infiltration model RECARGA were applied to generating runoff and outflow time series for calculation of hydrologic performance metrics. Using a parking lot to build a bioretention cell, as an example, the Morris method was used to conduct global sensitivity analysis for two groups of bioretention samples, one without underdrain and the other with underdrain. Results show that the surface area is the most sensitive element to most of the hydrologic metrics, while the gravel depth is the least sensitive element whether bioretention cells are installed with underdrain or not. The saturated infiltration rate of planting soil and the saturated infiltration rate of native soil are the other two most sensitive elements for bioretention cells without underdrain, while the saturated infiltration rate of native soil and underdrain size are the two most sensitive design elements for bioretention cells with underdrain.

  6. High performance single step co-fired solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC): Polarization measurements and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Joong

    At present, one of the major obstacles for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems is their high manufacturing costs expressed in terms of SOFC system cost per unit power ($/kW). In this work, anode-supported planar SOFCs were fabricated by a cost-competitive single step co-firing process. The cells were comprised of a porous Ni + yittria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode support, a porous-fine-grained Ni + YSZ anode active layer for some experiments, a dense YSZ electrolyte, a porous-fine-grained Ca-doped LaMnO3 (LCM) + YSZ cathode active layer, and a porous LCM cathode current collector layer. The fabrication process involved tape casting or high shear compaction (HSC) of the anode support followed by screen printing of the remaining component layers. The cells were then co-fired at 1300˜1340°C for 2 hours. The performance of the cell fabricated with the tape casting anode was improved by minimizing various polarization losses through experimental and theoretical modeling approaches, and the maximum power density of 1.5 W/cm 2 was obtained at 800°C with humidified hydrogen (3% H2O) and air. The cells were also tested with various compositions of humidified hydrogen (3˜70% H2O) to simulate the effect of practical fuel utilization on the cell performance. Based on these measurements, an analytical model describing anodic reactions was developed to understand reaction kinetics and rate limiting steps. The cell performance at high fuel utilization was significantly improved by increasing the number of the reaction sites near the anode-electrolyte interface. For anode substrate fabrication, the HSC process offers many advantages such as low fabrication costs, high production throughput, and good control of shrinkage and thickness over the conventional tape casting process. HSC process was successfully employed in single step co-firing process, and SOFCs fabricated with HSC anodes showed adequate performance both at low and high fuel

  7. Effect of Nanotube Film Thickness on the Performance of Nanotube-Silicon Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Tune

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements on solar cells made from randomly aligned thin films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs on n-type monocrystalline silicon are presented. The films are made by vacuum filtration from aqueous TritonX-100 suspensions of large diameter arc-discharge SWCNTs. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the thickness of the SWCNT film is shown in detail, as is the variation in performance due to doping of the SWCNT film with SOCl2.

  8. Prediction and optimization of fuel cell performance using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Hobold, Gustavo [Laboratory of Energy Conversion Engineering and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brazil); Washington University in St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The attention that is currently being given to the emission of pollutant gases in the atmosphere has made the fuel cell (FC), an energy conversion device that cleanly converts chemical energy into electrical energy, a good alternative to other technologies that still use carbon-based fuels. The temperature plays an important role on the efficiency of an FC as it influences directly the humidity of the membrane, the reversible thermodynamic potential and the partial pressure of water; therefore the thermal control of the fuel cell is the focus of this paper. We present models for both high and low temperature fuel cells based on the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A thermodynamic analysis is performed on the cells and the methods of controlling their temperature are discussed. The cell parameters are optimized for both high and low temperatures using a Java-based multi-objective genetic algorithm, which makes use of the logic of the biological theory of evolution to classify individual parameters based on a fitness function in order to maximize the power of the fuel cell. Applications to high and low temperature fuel cells are discussed.

  9. The Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing Towards the Performance of Screen-Printed Si Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Anizan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar cells are used to capture the photons which generate the energy. However the efficiency of the cells to turn the amount of photon to electricity needs to be high and so the cells enhancement is needed. This involved the whole process of the developing of the cells, thus annealing process is one of the important steps that needs to be optimised. Approach: Only Si solar cells will be discussed and the processes involved would be metal contact screen printing and metal paste co-firing. The contacts were first screen printed with Al paste for the rear side and Ag paste for the front side of the cell. Cells are then fired in the annealing furnace using selected temperature profile. Few sets of temperature profiles were used in every cycle. Results: After the IV characteristics were measured such as Voc, Isc, Pmax and fill factor, it shows that when higher annealing temperature of the profile was used, all the parameter will increase accordingly. However, profile with the highest annealing temperature will burn the paste as it will decrease the quality of the cell. This is considered as over heat to the paste. Conclusion: So by optimising the thermal treatment of the annealing process does improve the performance of the Si solar cell.

  10. Investigations on fabrication and lifetime performance of self - air breathing direct hydrogen micro fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddey, S.; Badwal, S.P.S.; Ciacchi, F.T.; Fini, D. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Sexton, B.A.; Glenn, F.; Leech, P.W. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    There is an ever - increasing demand for more powerful, compact and longer - life power modules for portable electronic devices for leisure, communication and computing. Micro fuel cells have the potential to replace battery packs for portable electronic appliances because of their high power density, longer operating and standby times, and substantially shorter recharging times. However, fuel cells have stringent operating requirements, including no fuel leakage, water formed in the electrochemical reactions, heat dissipation, robustness, easy and safe use, and reliability. Due to the large market potential, several companies are currently involved in the development of micro fuel cells. For application of fuel cells as a battery charger or in a battery replacement market, the cells require simplification in terms of their construction and operation and must have volumetric power densities equivalent to or better than those of existing battery power packs. This paper discusses results of investigation on methods and materials for direct hydrogen micro fuel cells as well as the lifetime performance of single cells and 2 W{sub e} arrays. The paper also reviews the global technology development status for the direct hydrogen micro fuel cell and compares its salient features with other types of micro fuel cells. (author)

  11. Prediction and optimization of fuel cell performance using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Marques Hobold, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention that is currently being given to the emission of pollutant gases in the atmosphere has made the fuel cell (FC, an energy conversion device that cleanly converts chemical energy into electrical energy, a good alternative to other technologies that still use carbon-based fuels. The temperature plays an important role on the efficiency of an FC as it influences directly the humidity of the membrane, the reversible thermodynamic potential and the partial pressure of water; therefore the thermal control of the fuel cell is the focus of this paper. We present models for both high and low temperature fuel cells based on the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC and the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. A thermodynamic analysis is performed on the cells and the methods of controlling their temperature are discussed. The cell parameters are optimized for both high and low temperatures using a Java-based multi-objective genetic algorithm, which makes use of the logic of the biological theory of evolution to classify individual parameters based on a fitness function in order to maximize the power of the fuel cell. Applications to high and low temperature fuel cells are discussed.

  12. The influence on performance of co-flow and counter-flow PEM fuel cell channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a PEM fuel cell with serpentine flow field channels that combines co-flow and counter-flow configurations is presented in this paper. The PEM fuel cell performance is significantly influenced by the direction of fuel and oxidant flow. Therefore, the CFD model used in this paper accounts for the major transport phenomena that occur in PEM fuel cells with co-flow and counter-flow configuration. The results will highlight the convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, the electrode kinetics, and the potential fields. (authors)

  13. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaeys, Pieter, E-mail: pieter.robaeys@uhasselt.be; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); Bonaccorso, Francesco [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Graphene Labs, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Bourgeois, Emilie; D' Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw (Belgium); Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank [Expertise centre for Digital Media (EDM), Hasselt University (Belgium); Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  14. High-performance liquid-catalyst fuel cell for direct biomass-into-electricity conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we report high-performance fuel cells that are catalyzed solely by polyoxometalate (POM) solution without any solid metal or metal oxide. The novel design of the liquid-catalyst fuel cells (LCFC) changes the traditional gas-solid-surface heterogeneous reactions to liquid-catalysis reactions. With this design, raw biomasses, such as cellulose, starch, and even grass or wood powders can be directly converted into electricity. The power densities of the fuel cell with switchgrass (dry powder) and bush allamanda (freshly collected) are 44 mW cm(-2) and 51 mW cm(-2) respectively. For the cellulose-based biomass fuel cell, the power density is almost 3000 times higher than that of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. Unlike noble-metal catalysts, POMs are tolerant to most organic and inorganic contaminants. Therefore, almost any raw biomass can be used directly to produce electricity without prior purification. PMID:25283435

  15. Influence of the rated power in the performance of different proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells are clean generators that provide both electrical and thermal energy with a high global efficiency level. The characteristics of these devices depend on numerous parameters such as: temperature, fuel and oxidizer pressures, fuel and oxidizer flows, etc. Therefore, their influence should be evaluated to appropriately characterize behaviour of the fuel cell, in order to enable its integration in the electric system. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the performance of two commercial Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells of 40 and 1200 W, and introduces the application of the principle of geometrical similarity. Using the principle of geometrical similarity it is possible to extrapolate the results obtained from the evaluation of one fuel cell to other fuel cells with different ratings. An illustrating example is included.

  16. Coiling and maturation of a high-performance fibre in hagfish slime gland thread cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegard, Timothy; Herr, Julia; Mena, Carlos; Lee, Betty; Dinov, Ivo; Bird, Deborah; Bernards, Mark; Hobel, Sam; van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Toga, Arthur; Fudge, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    The defensive slime of hagfishes contains thousands of intermediate filament protein threads that are manufactured within specialized gland thread cells. The material properties of these threads rival those of spider dragline silks, which makes them an ideal model for biomimetic efforts to produce sustainable protein materials, yet how the thread is produced and organized within the cell is not well understood. Here we show how changes in nuclear morphology, size and position can explain the three-dimensional pattern of thread coiling in gland thread cells, and how the ultrastructure of the thread changes as very young thread cells develop into large cells with fully mature coiled threads. Our model provides an explanation for the complex process of thread assembly and organization that has fascinated and perplexed biologists for over a century, and provides valuable insights for the quest to manufacture high-performance biomimetic protein materials.

  17. Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Impact of Modeling on Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Micco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study on numerical models used to predict the absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells due to the presence of structured back-reflectors exciting, at specific wavelengths, hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonances. To evaluate the effectiveness of the analyzed models, they have been applied in a case study: starting from a U-shaped textured glass thin-film, µc-Si:H solar cells have been successfully fabricated. The fabricated cells, with different intrinsic layer thicknesses, have been morphologically, optically and electrically characterized. The experimental results have been successively compared with the numerical predictions. We have found that, in contrast to basic models based on the underlying schematics of the cell, numerical models taking into account the real morphology of the fabricated device, are able to effectively predict the cells performances in terms of both optical absorption and short-circuit current values.

  18. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  19. Analysis of performance of the passive-solar-heated Patoka Nature Center, Birdseye, Indiana. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-22

    The purpose of this project was to monitor and analyze the passive-solar-heating performance of Patoka Nature Center. Patoka Nature Center is located in southern Indiana. The building has a floor area of 3200 square feet, is heavily bermed and well-insulated. The building features 1390 net square feet of direct-gain solar collector. This collector is equipped with BEADWALL (tm) night insulation. Thermal storage is provided by a masonry floor and 40 water-filled fiberglass tubes. The building's thermal performance was monitored from July 15, 1981 until July 17, 1982. During the 1981-1982 heating season, the subject building used 257 million BTUs for space heating. This was supplied from: auxillary heating equipment (28%), electric lighting (22%), other equipment (2%), and solar (48%). The annual solar heating efficiency (solar utilized/solar incident on collector glass) was 21.9%.

  20. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  1. Institutional Characteristics and the Relationship Between Student's Last-Year University and Final-Year Secondary School Academic Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Evans; Farley, A.

    1998-01-01

    A study of academic results of a student cohort in a diverse faculty of a large multi-campus university indicates that students' first-year performance at university is related to their prior academic achievement at secondary school, both overall and discipline specific, but that the extent and form of the relationship can vary by subject area and institutional secondary school and university characteristics. This may have implications for university selection and specification of prerequisit...

  2. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  3. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  4. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  5. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of fractured reservoirs; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howrie, I.; Dauben, D.

    1994-03-01

    A three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions for which fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. The evaluations of reservoir performance were made by a modern dual porosity simulator, TETRAD. This simulator treats both porosity and permeability as functions of pore pressure. The Austin Chalk in the Pearsall Field in of South Texas was selected as the prototype fractured reservoir for this work. During the first year, simulations of vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicated that the simulator was predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. In the second year, the performance of the same vertical and horizontal wells was reevaluated with fracture permeability treated as a function of reservoir pressure. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, differing loading conditions were assumed. Simulated natural depletions confirm that pressure sensitive fractures degrade well performance. The severity of degradation worsens when the initial reservoir pressure approaches the average stress condition of the reservoir, such as occurs in over pressured reservoirs. Simulations with water injection indicate that degradation of permeability can be counteracted when reservoir pressure is maintained and oil recovery can be increased when reservoir properties are favorable.

  6. Iso solar thermal standards studies to improve technical and scientific information for the finalization of performance test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliaert, D.; Tebaldi, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Morrison, G.

    1992-11-01

    During a Visiting Scientist programme in 1990 at the Joint Research Centre, work was carried out to develop documentation and technical support on solar collector and solar water heater test methods for submission to the International Standards Organisation (ISO). Investigations covered the measurement of long wave atmospheric radiation for unglazed solar collector characterization, thermal performance test procedures for unglazed solar collectors, and outdoor testing to determine the effects of load pattern and auxiliary boosting.

  7. Indoor Light Performance of Coil Type Cylindrical Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Gaurav; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S; Ma, Tingli; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-04-01

    A very good performance under low/diffused light intensities is one of the application areas in which dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can be utilized effectively compared to their inorganic silicon solar cell counterparts. In this article, we have investigated the 1 SUN and low intensity fluorescent light performance of Titanium (Ti)-coil based cylindrical DSSC (C-DSSC) using ruthenium based N719 dye and organic dyes such as D205 and Y123. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic results were analyzed for variable solar cell performances. Reflecting mirror with parabolic geometry as concentrator was also utilized to tap diffused light for indoor applications. Fluorescent light at relatively lower illumination intensities (0.2 mW/cm2 to 0.5 mW/cm2) were used for the investigation of TCO-less C-DSSC performance with and without reflector geometry. Furthermore, the DSSC performances were analyzed and compared with the commercially available amorphous silicon based solar cell for indoor applications. PMID:27451601

  8. Biodiesel Performance with Modern Engines. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-29

    NREL and the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) will work cooperatively to assess the effects of biodiesel blends on the performance of modern diesel engines and emissions control systems meeting increasingly strict emissions standards. This work will include research to understand the impact of biodiesel blends on the operation and durability of particle filters and NOx control sorbents/catalysts, to quantify the effect on emission control systems performance, and to understand effects on engine component durability. Work to assess the impact of biodiesel blends on real world fleet operations will be performed. Also, research to develop appropriate ASTM standards for biodiesel quality and stability will be conducted. The cooperative project will involve engine testing and fleet evaluation studies at NREL using biodiesel from a variety of sources. In addition, NREL will work with NBB to set up an Industrial Steering Committee to design the scope for the various projects and to provide technical oversight to these projects. NREL and NBB will cooperatively communicate the study results to as broad an audience as possible.

  9. A new approach to performance assessment of barriers in a repository. Executive summary, draft, technical appendices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-barrier systems are accepted as the basic approach for long term environmental safe isolation of radioactive waste in geological repositories. Assessing the performance of natural and engineered barriers is one of the major difficulties in producing evidence of environmental safety for any radioactive waste disposal facility, due to the enormous complexity of scenarios and uncertainties to be considered. This report outlines a new methodological approach originally developed basically for a repository in salt, but that can be transferred with minor modifications to any other host rock formation. The approach is based on the integration of following elements: (1) Implementation of a simple method and efficient criteria to assess and prove the tightness of geological and engineered barriers; (2) Using the method of Partial Safety Factors in order to assess barrier performance at certain reasonable level of confidence; (3) Integration of a diverse geochemical barrier in the near field of waste emplacement limiting systematically the radiological consequences from any radionuclide release in safety investigations and (4) Risk based approach for the assessment of radionuclide releases. Indicative calculations performed with extremely conservative assumptions allow to exclude any radiological health consequences from a HLW repository in salt to a reference person with a safety level of 99,9999% per year. (orig.)

  10. Performance Analysis of enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination in LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced with co-channel deployment of both macro and pico is analyzed. The use of pico-cell Range Extension (RE) and time domain eICIC (TDM muting) is combined. The performance is evaluated in...... the downlink by means of extensive system level simulations that follow the 3GPP guidelines. The overall network performance is analyzed for different number of pico-eNBs, transmit power levels, User Equipment (UE) distributions, and packet schedulers. Recommended settings of the RE offset and TDM...... muting ratio in different scenarios are identified. The presented performance results and findings can serve as input to guidelines for co-channel deployment of macro and pico-eNBs with eICIC....

  11. Effect of hydrophilic treatment of microporous layer on fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairweather, Joseph D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spernjak, Dusan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, Daniel S [NIST; Jacobson, David L [NIST; Wilde, Peter [GERMANY; Schweiss, Ruediger [GERMANY

    2010-01-01

    The gas diffusion layer in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is the component primarily responsible for effective water management under a wide variety of conditions. The incorporation of hydrophilic alumosilicate fibers in the microporous layer leads to an improvement in the fuel cell performance associated with a decrease in the mass transport resistance especially under high RH operation. This improvement in performance is obtained without sacrificing performance under low RH conditions. The alumosilicate fibers create domains that wick liquid water away from the catalyst layer. The improved mass transport performance is corroborated by AC impedance and neutron radiography analysis and is consistent with an increase in the average pore diameter inside the microporous layer.

  12. Surry steam generator program - final results - evaluation of NDE performance and technical basis for improved ISI and plugging criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Group Project was a multi-task effort for the NRC with additional sponsorship by EPRI and groups from France, Italy and Japan. The principal objectives of the program were to assess the effectiveness of Regulatory Guides 1.83 and 1.121 to 1) define the frequency, extent and procedure for conducting nondestructive inservice inspections (ISIs) of steam generator tubing, and 2) determine tube plugging limits of service-degraded tubing under normal operating and accident loading conditions. To reach these objectives the program utilized a retired-from-service steam generator from the Surry 2 Nuclear Station. Nondestructive (NDE) and destructive examinations of the generator provided information on the accuracy and precision of eddy current (EC) and developmental inspection methods to detect, characterize and size flaws in steam generator tubing. In addition, burst testing of laboratory and service defected tubing was performed to validate models of remaining tube integrity developed previously. In prior years, the generator was prepared for extensive primary side inspection by decontamination of the channel head and removal of the plugs inserted into tubes during service. Two multi-frequency EC inspections were conducted to determine the post-service baseline condition of the generator. From these examinations, a subset of 320 tubes was selected for round robin inspection. Four round robins were conducted to determine the reliability of multi-frequency EC inspections and developmental NDE methods. More than 550 tube segments were then removed from the generator to validate the in situ NDE results. Specimens were removed from all levels of the generator, but emphasis was given to specimens where an EC defect indication had been reported. Specimens without indications were also examined to assess the reliability of EC inspections and to establish the tubing condition at locations where defects were both expected and not expected. During the past year

  13. Characterization and fuel cell performance analysis of polyvinylalcohol-mordenite mixed-matrix membranes for direct methanol fuel cell use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uctug, Fehmi Goerkem, E-mail: gorkem.uctug@bahcesehir.edu.t [University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Holmes, Stuart M. [University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > We investigated the availability of PVA-mordenite membranes for DMFC use. > We measured the methanol permeability of PVA-mordenite membranes via pervaporation. > We did the fuel cell testing of these membranes, which had not been done before. > We showed that PVA-mordenite membranes have poorer DMFC performance than Nafion. > Membrane performance can be improved by increasing the proton conductivity of PVA. - Abstract: Polyvinylalcohol-mordenite (PVA-MOR) mixed matrix membranes were synthesized for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) use. For the structural and the morphological characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis methods were used. Zeolite distribution within the polymer matrix was found to be homogeneous. An impedance spectroscope was used to measure the proton conductivity. In order to obtain information about methanol permeation characteristics, swelling tests and a series of pervaporation experiments were carried out. 60-40 wt% PVA-MOR membranes were found to give the optimum transport properties. Proton conductivity of these membranes was found to be slightly lower than that of Nafion117{sup TM} whereas their methanol permeability was at least two orders of magnitude lower than Nafion117{sup TM}. DMFC performance of the PVA-MOR membranes was also measured. The inferior DMFC performance of PVA-MOR membranes was linked to drying in the fuel cell medium and the consequent proton conductivity loss. Their performance was improved by adding a dilute solution of sulfuric acid into the feed methanol solution. Future studies on the improvement of the proton conductivity of PVA-MOR membranes, especially via sulfonation of the polymer matrix, can overcome the low-performance problem associated with insufficient proton conductivity.

  14. DanDan. Final report. [PEM fuel cells for back-up power and UPS]; DanDan. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The project has provided valuable results for the partners involved, and has resulted in the construction and demonstration of a modular UPS system that can be used with fuel cells. Dantherm Power has provided a 5 kW fuel cell module, based on LT-pem technology, for use in the demonstration and testing facility. The function of the unit is verified by both internal testing and demonstrations from at third parties were it currently is set up to perform tests regarding lifetime. The development of a DC / DC converter, was made. The module has been tested under various conditions, and the development process has resulted in detailed specs of both technique and test process. The module has been tested both in laboratory environment and demonstrated at third parties. The module is part of the systems described in connection with initial test runs - performed at strategic partners - and in connection with the demonstration of the systems both in Japan and in South Africa. The modules are presently in a stage of demonstration, while subjected to substantial service life tests. The purchased reformers are part of the systems used for demonstration in the project and as such they will supply valuable data trough the comprehensive test and verification program initiated. (LN)

  15. Testing And Performance Analysis Of NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM Bi-Supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Operated In Both Fuel Cell And Steam Electrolysis Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  16. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  17. Effect of electrode geometry on photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meng; Ma, Heng; Wang, Zhaokui; Wang, Chuankun; Jiang, Yurong; Liu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of electrode geometry on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Four types of negative electrodes with equal area (0.09 cm2) but different shape (round, oval, square, and triangular) are evaluated with respect to short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency of PSCs. The results show that the device with round electrodes gives the best photovoltaic performance; in contrast, the device with triangula...

  18. Energy and exergy based performance analyses of a solid oxide fuel cell integrated combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy based performance of SOFC integrated combined cycle is presented. • The system utilize the GT exhaust for fuel preheating, air preheating and steam generation. • The study considers the effect of additional fuel burning in the combustion chamber. • Detail parametric analysis is presented to show the effect of various operating parameters. • System performance is compared with another system with air recuperator before fuel recuperator. - Abstract: This article provides the energy and exergy based performance analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) – gas turbine (GT) – steam turbine (ST) combined cycle power plant. The system utilizes the GT exhaust heat for fuel and air preheating subsequently in a fuel recuperator (FR) and an air recuperator (AR) before finally producing steam in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) coupled with the ST cycle. It considers 30% external reforming in a pre-reformer (PR) by steam extracted from the bottoming ST plant. The study considers the effect of additional fuel burning in the combustion chamber (CC) as a means for increasing the net GT and ST power output. A detailed parametric analysis based on variation of compressor pressure ratio (CPR), fuel flow rate (FFR), air flow rate (AFR), current density, single level boiler pressure and ST inlet temperature (STIT) is also provided. Results indicate improved system performance at higher CPR. The optimum single level boiler pressure is found to be 40 bar with 50% additional fuel burning. Burning of additional fuel improves the GT and ST power output, however with reduction in the plant’s overall efficiency. Further comparison of performance with a similar other system where the AR is placed head of the FR indicates slightly better performance of the proposed system with FR ahead of AR (FRAOAR)

  19. Performance evaluation and characterization of metallic bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yue

    Bipolar plate and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) are the two most repeated components of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. Bipolar plates comprise more than 60% of the weight and account for 30% of the total cost of a fuel cell stack. The bipolar plates perform as current conductors between cells, provide conduits for reactant gases, facilitate water and thermal management through the cell, and constitute the backbone of a power stack. In addition, bipolar plates must have excellent corrosion resistance to withstand the highly corrosive environment inside the fuel cell, and they must maintain low interfacial contact resistance throughout the operation to achieve optimum power density output. Currently, commercial bipolar plates are made of graphite composites because of their relatively low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) and high corrosion resistance. However, graphite composite's manufacturability, permeability, and durability for shock and vibration are unfavorable in comparison to metals. Therefore, metals have been considered as a replacement material for graphite composite bipolar plates. Since bipolar plates must possess the combined advantages of both metals and graphite composites in the fuel cell technology, various methods and techniques are being developed to combat metallic corrosion and eliminate the passive layer formed on the metal surface that causes unacceptable power reduction and possible fouling of the catalyst and the electrolyte. The main objective of this study was to explore the possibility of producing efficient, cost-effective and durable metallic bipolar plates that were capable of functioning in the highly corrosive fuel cell environment. Bulk materials such as Poco graphite, graphite composite, SS310, SS316, incoloy 800, titanium carbide and zirconium carbide were investigated as potential bipolar plate materials. In this work, different alloys and compositions of chromium carbide coatings on aluminum and SS316

  20. Improved performance of polymer solar cells using PBDTT-F-TT:PC71BM blend film as active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yue; Gao, Xiumin; Lu, Xinmiao; Xin, Qing; Lin, Jun; Zhao, Jufeng

    2016-07-01

    A detailed study of high-efficiency polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on a low bandgap polymer PBDTT-F-TT and PC71BM as the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer is carried out. By using 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as solvent additive to control the morphology of active layer and comparing different device architecture to optimize the optical field distribution, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulted devices can be reached as high as 9.34%. Comprehensive characterization and optical modeling of the resulting devices is performed to understand the effect of DIO and device geometry on photovoltaic performance. It was found that the addition of DIO can significantly improve the nanoscale morphology and increased electron mobility in the BHJ layer. The inverted device architecture was chosen because the results from optical modeling shows that it offers better optical field distribution and exciton generation profile. Based on these results, a low-temperature processed ZnO was finally introduced as an electron transport layer to facility the fabrication on flexible substrates and showed comparable performance with the device based on conventional ZnO interlayer prepared by sol-gel process.

  1. Theoretical analysis of the discharge performance of lithium ion and lithium/sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Karthikeyan

    In real world applications, the lithium based cells are subjected to highly random operating conditions such as varying charge/discharge rates, end of charge voltage, end of discharge voltage, temperature, etc. Studying the effect of such uncertainties in the operating conditions on the discharge/charge and cycle life performance of lithium based cells through experiments alone will be inefficient in terms of both time and cost. Furthermore, experimental analysis provides only a limited insight into the physical reasons behind the operating conditions - performance relationship. Mathematical models based on the first principles, when used along with experimental data will provide better understanding about how the operating conditions affect various physical phenomena happening inside the cell. Such theoretical analysis of experimental data will reduce the number of further experiments needed and there by decrease the overall cost and time required to design and analyze the cell for a given application. In this dissertation, theoretical analysis aimed at better under understanding of the discharge performance of two different cell chemistries namely, lithium-ion (MCMB/LiCoO2) cell and lithium/sulfur cell is presented. For the lithium ion cell, a set of parameters along with their concentration and temperature dependencies have been estimated by comparing the experimental discharge data with that predicted by a rigorous non-isothermal model. Using the parameters obtained, the model is used to understand the effect of the thermal dependence of various transport parameters on the discharge performance of the lithium-ion cell which, in turn, reveals the reason for decreasing discharge capacity with decreasing operating temperature. For the lithium/sulfur cell, a mathematical model based on the first principles is developed. The model describes various electrochemical and chemical (precipitation) reactions, multi-component transport phenomena in the electrolyte and the

  2. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm² degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm² degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  3. Alliance for Computational Science Collaboration, HBCU Partnership at Alabama A&M University Final Performance Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z.T.

    2001-11-15

    The objective of this project was to conduct high-performance computing research and teaching at AAMU, and to train African-American and other minority students and scientists in the computational science field for eventual employment with DOE. During the project period, eight tasks were accomplished. Student Research Assistant, Work Study, Summer Interns, Scholarship were proved to be one of the best ways for us to attract top-quality minority students. Under the support of DOE, through research, summer interns, collaborations, scholarships programs, AAMU has successfully provided research and educational opportunities to minority students in the field related to computational science.

  4. Low-level waste disposal site performance assessment with the RQ/PQ computer program. Final report. [Shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, V.C.; Grant, M.W.; Merrell, G.B.; Macbeth, P.J.

    1983-06-01

    The operation of the computer code RQ/PQ (Retention quotient/performance quotient) is presented. The code calculates the potential hazard of low-level radioactive waste as well as the characteristics of the natural and man-made barriers provided by the disposal facility. From these parameters a facility safety factor is determined as a function of time after facility operation. The program also calculates the dose to man for the nine release pathways to man. Both off-site transport and inadvertent intrusion pathways are considered.

  5. Project Final Report: Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|SpeedShop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarowicz, James

    2014-01-06

    In this project we created a community tool infrastructure for program development tools targeting Petascale class machines and beyond. This includes tools for performance analysis, debugging, and correctness tools, as well as tuning and optimization frameworks. The developed infrastructure provides a comprehensive and extensible set of individual tool building components. We started with the basic elements necessary across all tools in such an infrastructure followed by a set of generic core modules that allow a comprehensive performance analysis at scale. Further, we developed a methodology and workflow that allows others to add or replace modules, to integrate parts into their own tools, or to customize existing solutions. In order to form the core modules, we built on the existing Open|SpeedShop infrastructure and decomposed it into individual modules that match the necessary tool components. At the same time, we addressed the challenges found in performance tools for petascale systems in each module. When assembled, this instantiation of community tool infrastructure provides an enhanced version of Open|SpeedShop, which, while completely different in its architecture, provides scalable performance analysis for petascale applications through a familiar interface. This project also built upon and enhances capabilities and reusability of project partner components as specified in the original project proposal. The overall project team’s work over the project funding cycle was focused on several areas of research, which are described in the following sections. The reminder of this report also highlights related work as well as preliminary work that supported the project. In addition to the project partners funded by the Office of Science under this grant, the project team included several collaborators who contribute to the overall design of the envisioned tool infrastructure. In particular, the project team worked closely with the other two DOE NNSA

  6. Improved Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurement Performance: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-294

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Participant to improve rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) performance characterizations. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development for making the RSR a more accurate and fully characterized instrument for solar power technology development and commercial solar power project site assessment. Cooperative R&D is proposed in three areas: instrument calibration, instrument field configuration and operation, and measurement extrapolation and interpolation using satellite images. This work will be conducted at NREL and Participant facilities.

  7. Testing an e2v CCD230-42 sensor for dark current performance at ambient temperatures - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dungee, Ryan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The design of the Guidance Focus and Alignment (GFA) system for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) project calls for a set of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) which operate at ambient temperature. Here we assess the performance of these CCDs under such conditions. Data was collected from –21°C to 28°C and used to determine the effect of temperature on the effectiveness of dark current subtraction. Comparing the dark current uncertainty to our expected signal has shown that the DESI design specifications will be met without need for significant changes.

  8. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on

  9. Performance of direct methanol fuel cell with a palladium–silica nanofibre/Nafion composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study introduces Pd–SiO2 Carbon Nano Fibre as an additive to Nafion membrane. • It investigates the effects of membrane annealing temperature and casting solvent. • Results show that Pd–SiO2fibre/Nafion performs lower methanol permeability. • This could effectively reduces methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cell. - Abstract: Palladium–silica nanofibres (Pd–SiO2fibre) were adopted as an additive to Nafion recast membranes in order to reduce methanol crossover and improve the cell performance. The performance of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with fabricated composite membrane was evaluated through a passive air-breathing single cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The limiting crossover current density was measured to determine the methanol permeation in the DMFC. The effects of membrane annealing temperature and casting solvent of composite membrane on the cell performance were investigated and are discussed here. Compared to recast Nafion with the same thickness (150 μm), the Pd–SiO2fibre/Nafion composite membrane exhibited higher performance and lower methanol permeability. A maximum power density of 10.4 mW cm−2 was obtained with a 2 M methanol feed, outperforming the much thicker commercial Nafion 117 with a power density of 7.95 mW cm−2 under the same operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the Pd–SiO2fibre as inorganic fillers for Nafion could effectively reduce methanol crossover and improve the membrane performance in DMFC applications

  10. Characterization of high performance electrochemical systems for portable power. Final report for period September 15, 1993 - December 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyrl, W.H.; Owens, B.B.

    2002-09-05

    The long-term objective of research has been to perform the enabling materials research necessary for the development of a battery oriented to the consumer market with special requirements in terms of safety, cycling life, and high specific energy and power. We have discovered novel processing of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gels that leads to aerogel (ARG) and xerogel (XRG) films with specific energy and Li insertion capacity that are much higher than for other amorphous or crystalline forms of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. We have also found that the new materials will host Mg{sup +2} and other cations which should be the basis for novel high-energy, high-power consumer battery systems. The investigation has examined (1) low-temperature synthesis of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} aerogel host materials, (2) characterization of insertion of Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Al{sup 3+} into the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} hosts, (3) anode materials for the new systems, and alternate anode materials to replace the intrinsically unsafe lithium metal for lithium batteries, and (4) the feasibility of safer, nonaqueous, high-performance battery designs.

  11. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  12. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S. [Swedish Geological Co., Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole.

  13. Spatial proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance under carbon monoxide poisoning at a low concentration using a segmented cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; Bethune, Keith; Rocheleau, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The impact of the fuel contaminant CO, which was intentionally injected in to the hydrogen stream at a concentration of 2 ppm, on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance distribution was studied using a segmented cell system and spatial electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The cell was operated under a galvanostatic control of the overall cell current at 0.8 A cm-2, and tests were carried out under H2/O2, H2/air, and H2/H2 gas configurations. Upon CO injection the voltage decreased by 0.080, 0.300, and 0.320 V for O2, air, and H2 cathode gases, respectively. The voltage drop was accompanied by changes in the current density distributions. Inlet segments 1-4 showed a decrease in current due to CO adsorption on Pt, while, downstream segments 7-10 exhibited an increase in current. The performance completely recovered within 1-2 h after CO injection was stopped. The conversion of CO proceeds through a combination of catalytic and electrochemical oxidation reactions; however, the catalytic oxidation of CO is likely the dominant process. It was found that an increased membrane gas permeability can mitigate the impact of CO, mainly due to the catalytic oxidation of adsorbed CO on the Pt anode by the permeated O2.

  14. Numerical characterization of micro-cell UO2sbnd Mo pellet for enhanced thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung Soo; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Sun Woo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Kim, Dong Rip

    2016-08-01

    Metallic micro-cell UO2 pellet with high thermal conductivity has received attention as a promising accident-tolerant fuel. Although experimental demonstrations have been successful, studies on the potency of current metallic micro-cell UO2 fuels for further enhancement of thermal performance are lacking. Here, we numerically investigated the thermal conductivities of micro-cell UO2sbnd Mo pellets in terms of the amount of Mo content, the unit cell size, and the aspect ratio of the micro-cells. The results showed good agreement with experimental measurements, and more importantly, indicated the importance of optimizing the unit cell geometries of the micro-cell pellets for greater increases in thermal conductivity. Consequently, the micro-cell UO2sbnd Mo pellets (5 vol% Mo) with modified geometries increased the thermal conductivity of the current UO2 pellets by about 2.5 times, and lowered the temperature gradient within the pellets by 62.9% under a linear heat generation rate of 200 W/cm.

  15. Performance-enhancing drugs: design and production of redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B L

    2015-03-01

    Performance enhancement of the immune system can now be generated through ex vivo gene modification of T cells in order to redirect native specificity to target tumor antigens. This approach combines the specificity of antibody therapy, the expanded response of cellular therapy and the memory activity of vaccine therapy. Recent clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed toward CD19 as a stand-alone therapy have shown sustained complete responses in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. As these drug products are individually derived from a patient's own cells, a different manufacturing approach is required for this kind of personalized therapy compared with conventional drugs. Key steps in the CAR T-cell manufacturing process include the selection and activation of isolated T cells, transduction of T cells to express CARs, ex vivo expansion of modified T cells and cryopreservation in infusible media. In this review, the steps involved in isolating, genetically modifying and scaling-out the CAR T cells for use in a clinical setting are described in the context of in-process and release testing and regulatory standards. PMID:25675873

  16. Influence of the starting materials on performance of high temperature oxide fuel cells devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Satoshi Miyamaru Seo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs offer an environmentally friendly technology to convert gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas or gasified coal into electricity at high efficiencies. Besides the efficiency, higher than those obtained from the traditional energy conversion systems, a fuel cell provides many other advantages like reliability, modularity, fuel flexibility and very low levels of NOx and SOx emissions. The high operating temperature (950-1000 °C used by the current generation of the solid oxide fuel cells imposes severe constraints on materials selection in order to improve the