WorldWideScience

Sample records for cells biology genetics

  1. Pneumocystis carinii: genetic diversity and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulian, A G

    2001-12-01

    As an important opportunistic pulmonary pathogen, Pneumocystis carinii has been the focus of extensive research over the decades. The use of laboratory animal models has permitted a detailed understanding of the host-parasite interaction but an understanding of the basic biology of P. carinii has lagged due in large part to the inability of the organism to grow well in culture and to the lack of a tractable genetic system. Molecular techniques have demonstrated extensive heterogeneity among P. carinii organisms isolated from different host species. Characterization of the genes and genomes of the Pneumocystis family has supported the notion that the family comprises different species rather than strains within the genus Pneumocystis and contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of infection. Many of the technical obstacles in the study of the organisms have been overcome in the past decade and the pace of research into the basic biology of the organism has accelerated. Biochemical pathways have been inferred from the presence of key enzyme activities or gene sequences, and attempts to dissect cellular pathways have been initiated. The Pneumocystis genome project promises to be a rich source of information with regard to the functional activity of the organism and the presence of specific biochemical pathways. These advances in our understanding of the biology of this organism should provide for future studies leading to the control of this opportunistic pathogen.

  2. Cell biology and genetics of minimal change disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Moin A.; Kobayashi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome and is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, resulting in edema and hypercholesterolemia. The podocyte plays a key role in filtration and its disruption results in a dramatic loss of function leading to proteinuria. Immunologic disturbance has been suggested in the pathogenesis of MCD. Because of its clinical features, such as recurrent relapse/remission course, steroid response in most patients, and rare familial cases, a genetic defect has been thought to be less likely in MCD. Recent progress in whole-exome sequencing reveals pathogenic mutations in familial cases in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and sheds light on possible mechanisms and key molecules in podocytes in MCD. On the other hand, in the majority of cases, the existence of circulating permeability factors has been implicated along with T lymphocyte dysfunction. Observations of benefit with rituximab added B cell involvement to the disease. Animal models are unsatisfactory, and the humanized mouse may be a good model that well reflects MCD pathophysiology to investigate suggested “T cell dysfunction” directly related to podocytes in vivo. Several candidate circulating factors and their effects on podocytes have been proposed but are still not sufficient to explain whole mechanisms and clinical features in MCD. Another circulating factor disease is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and it is not clear if this is a distinct entity, or on the same spectrum, implicating the same circulating factor(s). These patients are mostly steroid resistant and often have a rapid relapse after transplantation. In clinical practice, predicting relapse or disease activity and response to steroids is important and is an area where novel biomarkers can be developed based on our growing knowledge of podocyte signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent findings in genetics and podocyte biology in

  3. My Dog's Cheeks: A PBL Project on Collagen for Cell Biology and Genetics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Students often have an oversimplified view of biological facts, which may hinder subsequent understanding when conceptual complexity gives rise to cognitive conflicts. To avoid this situation here, we present a PBL approach for the analysis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), which integrates a variety of topics in cell biology, genetics, and…

  4. LMNA cardiomyopathy: cell biology and genetics meet clinical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes A-type nuclear lamins (intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells, cause a diverse range of diseases, called laminopathies, that selectively affect different tissues and organ systems. The most prevalent laminopathy is cardiomyopathy with or without different types of skeletal muscular dystrophy. LMNA cardiomyopathy has an aggressive clinical course with higher rates of deadly arrhythmias and heart failure than most other heart diseases. As awareness among physicians increases, and advances in DNA sequencing methods make the genetic diagnosis of LMNA cardiomyopathy more common, cardiologists are being faced with difficult questions regarding patient management. These questions concern the optimal use of intracardiac cardioverter defibrillators to prevent sudden death from arrhythmias, and medical interventions to prevent heart damage and ameliorate heart failure symptoms. Data from a mouse model of LMNA cardiomyopathy suggest that inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways are beneficial in preventing and treating cardiac dysfunction; this basic research discovery needs to be translated to human patients.

  5. Synthetic biology and genetic causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems. PMID:23591049

  6. Dissecting Social Cell Biology and Tumors Using Drosophila Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Cancer was seen for a long time as a strictly cell-autonomous process in which oncogenes and tumor-suppressor mutations drive clonal cell expansions. Research in the past decade, however, paints a more integrative picture of communication and interplay between neighboring cells in tissues. It is increasingly clear as well that tumors, far from being homogenous lumps of cells, consist of different cell types that function together as complex tissue-level communities. The repertoire of interact...

  7. The rise of developmental genetics - a historical account of the fusion of embryology and cell biology with human genetics and the emergence of the Stem Cell Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, S H; Ballo, R; Greenberg, L J

    2016-05-25

    Genetics and cell biology are very prominent areas of biological research with rapid advances being driven by a flood of theoretical, technological and informational knowledge. Big biology and small biology continue to feed off each other. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the productive interactions that have taken place between human geneticists and cell biologists at UCT, and credit is given to the enabling environment created led by Prof. Peter Beighton. The growth of new disciplines and disciplinary mergers that have swept away division of the past to make new exciting syntheses are discussed. We show how our joint research has benefitted from worldwide advances in developmental genetics, cloning and stem cell technologies, genomics, bioinformatics and imaging. We conclude by describing the role of the UCT Stem Cell Initiative and show how we are using induced pluripotent cells to carry out disease-in-the- dish studies on retinal degeneration and fibrosis.

  8. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  9. Genetics and developmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli; radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in mammalian germ cells; effects of uv radiation on xeroderma pigmentosum skin cells; mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells; radioinduced hemoglobin variants in the mouse; analysis of mutants in yeast; Drosophila genetics; biochemical genetics of Neurospora; DNA polymerase activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes; uv-induced damage in Bacillus subtilis; and others

  10. Cell biology and genetics of minimal change disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moin A. Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimal change disease (MCD is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome and is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, resulting in edema and hypercholesterolemia. The podocyte plays a key role in filtration and its disruption results in a dramatic loss of function leading to proteinuria. Immunologic disturbance has been suggested in the pathogenesis of MCD. Because of its clinical features, such as recurrent relapse/remission course, steroid response in most patients, and rare familial cases, a genetic defect has been thought to be less likely in MCD. Recent progress in whole-exome sequencing reveals pathogenic mutations in familial cases in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS and sheds light on possible mechanisms and key molecules in podocytes in MCD. On the other hand, in the majority of cases, the existence of circulating permeability factors has been implicated along with T lymphocyte dysfunction. Observations of benefit with rituximab added B cell involvement to the disease. Animal models are unsatisfactory, and the humanized mouse may be a good model that well reflects MCD pathophysiology to investigate suggested “T cell dysfunction” directly related to podocytes in vivo. Several candidate circulating factors and their effects on podocytes have been proposed but are still not sufficient to explain whole mechanisms and clinical features in MCD. Another circulating factor disease is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, and it is not clear if this is a distinct entity, or on the same spectrum, implicating the same circulating factor(s. These patients are mostly steroid resistant and often have a rapid relapse after transplantation. In clinical practice, predicting relapse or disease activity and response to steroids is important and is an area where novel biomarkers can be developed based on our growing knowledge of podocyte signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent findings in genetics and

  11. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y.; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F.; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Most, Peter J.; Wright, Alan F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I.; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N.; Shaffer, Christian M.; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S.; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Curhan, Gary C.; Ehret, George B.; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I. Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J. Wouter; Wilson, James F.; Felix, Janine F.; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B.; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C.; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L.; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E.; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A.; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K.; Sale, Michele M.; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H.; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B.; Ridker, Paul M.; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adair, Linda S.; Alexander, Myriam; Altshuler, David; Amin, Najaf; Arking, Dan E.; Arora, Pankaj; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Ines; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Bis, Joshua C.; Boehnke, Michael; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva; Braund, Peter S.; Brown, Morris J.; Burton, Paul R.; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Chaturvedi, Nish; Shin Cho, Yoon; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Collins, Rory; Connell, John M.; Cooper, Jackie A.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Dörr, Marcus; Dahgam, Santosh; Danesh, John; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.; Deloukas, Panos; Denniff, Matthew; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Dong, Yanbin; Doumatey, Ayo; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eyheramendy, Susana; Farrall, Martin; Fava, Cristiano; Forrester, Terrence; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Fox, Ervin R.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Galan, Pilar; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Garcia, Melissa; Gaunt, Tom R.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Go, Min Jin; Goel, Anuj; Grässler, Jürgen; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Groop, Leif; Guarrera, Simonetta; Guo, Xiuqing; Hadley, David; Hamsten, Anders; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hardy, Rebecca; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Simon; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hedblad, Bo; Hercberg, Serge; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hilton, Gina; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Howard, Philip; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Ikram, M. Arfan; Islam, Muhammad; Iwai, Naoharu; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jackson, Anne U.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Johnson, Toby; Kathiresan, Sekar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kinra, Sanjay; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Kuh, Diana; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Laakso, Markku; Laan, Maris; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Larson, Martin G.; Lathrop, Mark; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Nanette R.; Levy, Daniel; Li, Yali; Longstreth, Will T.; Luan, Jian'an; Lucas, Gavin; Ludwig, Barbara; Mangino, Massimo; Mani, K. Radha; Marmot, Michael G.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Matullo, Giuseppe; McArdle, Wendy L.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Meneton, Pierre; Meschia, James F.; Miki, Tetsuro; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A.; Morris, Richard W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Najjar, Samer; Narisu, Narisu; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Nilsson, Peter; Nyberg, Fredrik; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ong, RickTwee-Hee; Ongen, Halit; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Org, Elin; Orru, Marco; Palmas, Walter; Palmen, Jutta; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Pihur, Vasyl; Platou, Carl G. P.; Plump, Andrew; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Psaty, Bruce M.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Rasheed, Asif; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rosengren, Annika; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudock, Megan E.; Sõber, Siim; Salako, Tunde; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schwartz, Steven M.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Scott, Laura J.; Scott, James; Scuteri, Angelo; Sehmi, Joban S.; Seielstad, Mark; Seshadri, Sudha; Sharma, Pankaj; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shi, Gang; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Sim, Xueling; Singleton, Andrew; Sjögren, Marketa; Smith, Nicholas L.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stancakova, Alena; Steinle, Nanette I.; Strachan, David P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sun, Yan V.; Swift, Amy J.; Tabara, Yasuharu; Tai, E-Shyong; Talmud, Philippa J.; Taylor, Andrew; Terzic, Janos; Thelle, Dag S.; Tobin, Martin D.; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tripathy, Vikal; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Uda, Manuela; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Umemura, Satoshi; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Veldre, Gudrun; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Viigimaa, Margus; Vinay, D. G.; Vineis, Paolo; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wain, Louise V.; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Thomas J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weder, Alan B.; Whincup, Peter H.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yao, Jie; Young, J. H.; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Weihua; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Haidong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zitting, Paavo; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Gu, Dongfeng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Maeda, Shiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Chen, Peng; Lim, Su-Chi; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Young, Terri L.; Aung, Tin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Young Jin; Kang, Daehee; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Li-Ching; Fann, S. -J. Cathy; Mei, Hao; Hixson, James E.; Chen, Shufeng; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Isono, Masato; Albrecht, Eva; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Reilly, Muredach P; Schunkert, Heribert; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Hall, Alistair; Hengstenberg, Christian; König, Inke R.; Laaksonen, Reijo; McPherson, Ruth; Thompson, John R.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Ziegler, Andreas; Absher, Devin; Chen, Li; Cupples13, L. Adrienne; Halperin, Eran; Li, Mingyao; Musunuru, Kiran; Preuss, Michael; Schillert, Arne; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wells, George A.; Holm, Hilma; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Fortmann, Stephen; Go, Alan; Hlatky, Mark; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua; Myers, Richard; Quertermous, Thomas; Sidney, Steven; Risch, Neil; Tang, Hua; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schnabel, Renate; Sinning, Christoph; Lackner, Karl J.; Tiret, Laurence; Nicaud, Viviane; Cambien, Francois; Bickel, Christoph; Rupprecht, Hans J.; Perret, Claire; Proust, Carole; Münzel, Thomas F.; Barbalic, Maja; Chen, Ida Yii-Der; Demissie-Banjaw, Serkalem; Folsom, Aaron; Lumley, Thomas; Marciante, Kristin; Taylor, Kent D.; Volcik, Kelly; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Andersen, Karl; Fischer, Marcus; Grosshennig, Anika; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Stark, Klaus; Schreiber, Stefan; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Bruse, Petra; Doering, Angela; Klopp, Norman; Diemert, Patrick; Loley, Christina; Medack, Anja; Nahrstedt, Janja; Peters, Annette; Wagner, Arnika K.; Willenborg, Christina; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Dobnig, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Pilz, Stefan; Renner, Wilfried; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Winkler, Karl; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Dandona, Sonny; Jarinova, Olga; Qu, Liming; Wilensky, Robert; Matthai, William; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Devaney, Joe; Burnett, Mary Susan; Pichard, Augusto D.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Satler, Lowell; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Waksman, Ron; Knouff, Christopher W.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Walker, Max C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Ball, Stephen G.; Loehr, Laura R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Benjamin, Emelia; Haritunians, Talin; Couper, David; Murabito, Joanne; Wang, Ying A.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Chang, Patricia P.; Willerson, James T.; Felix, Stephan B.; Watzinger, Norbert; Aragam, Jayashri; Zweiker, Robert; Lind, Lars; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Greiser, Karin Halina; Deckers, Jaap W.; Stritzke, Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Kullo, Iftikhar; Haerting, Johannes; Reffelmann, Thorsten; Redfield, Margaret M.; Werdan, Karl; Mitchell, Gary F.; Arnett, Donna K.; Gottdiener, John S.; Blettner, Maria; Friedrich, Nele; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S.; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Carroll, Robert J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Scott, Rodney J.; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J.; Turner, Stephen T.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B.; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H.; Böger, Carsten A.; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I.; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W. H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways. PMID:26831199

  12. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H; Johnson, Andrew D; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B; Nolte, Ilja M; van der Most, Peter J; Wright, Alan F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Morrison, Alanna C; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V; Dreisbach, Albert W; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Buckley, Brendan M; Peralta, Carmen A; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N; Shaffer, Christian M; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B; Navis, Gerjan J; Curhan, Gary C; Ehret, George B; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J Wouter; Wilson, James F; Felix, Janine F; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K; Sale, Michele M; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B; Ridker, Paul M; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P S; Carroll, Robert J; Penninx, Brenda W; Scott, Rodney J; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J; Turner, Stephen T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J F; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H; Böger, Carsten A; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-01-21

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways.

  13. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H; Johnson, Andrew D; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B; Nolte, Ilja M; van der Most, Peter J; Wright, Alan F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Morrison, Alanna C; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V; Dreisbach, Albert W; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Buckley, Brendan M; Peralta, Carmen A; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N; Shaffer, Christian M; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B; Navis, Gerjan J; Curhan, Gary C; Ehret, George B; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J Wouter; Wilson, James F; Felix, Janine F; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K; Sale, Michele M; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B; Ridker, Paul M; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P S; Carroll, Robert J; Penninx, Brenda W; Scott, Rodney J; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J; Turner, Stephen T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J F; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H; Böger, Carsten A; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways. PMID:26831199

  14. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  15. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  16. The contribution of dormant origins to genome stability: from cell biology to human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Robert C; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2014-07-01

    The ability of a eukaryotic cell to precisely and accurately replicate its DNA is crucial to maintain genome stability. Here we describe our current understanding of the process by which origins are licensed for DNA replication and review recent work suggesting that fork stalling has exerted a strong selective pressure on the positioning of licensed origins. In light of this, we discuss the complex and disparate phenotypes observed in mouse models and humans patients that arise due to defects in replication licensing proteins.

  17. Prospective Biology Teachers' Understanding of Genetics Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa; Crawford, Barbara

    The purpose of this study is to examine one possible source of misconceptions that are held by students of genetics--the teachers. Is there evidence to suggest that prospective biology teachers might have misconceptions about genetics and related concepts? If prospective biology teachers have misconceptions in genetics, how do these misconceptions…

  18. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  19. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  20. Rhomboids, signalling and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew

    2016-06-15

    Here, I take a somewhat personal perspective on signalling control, focusing on the rhomboid-like superfamily of proteins that my group has worked on for almost 20 years. As well as describing some of the key and recent advances, I attempt to draw out signalling themes that emerge. One important message is that the genetic and biochemical perspective on signalling has tended to underplay the importance of cell biology. There is clear evidence that signalling pathways exploit the control of intracellular trafficking, protein quality control and degradation and other cell biological phenomena, as important regulatory opportunities.

  1. The cell biology of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Race; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the original hypotheses of organismal longevity posits that aging is the natural result of entropy on the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal—a slow, inexorable slide into nonfunctionality caused by stochastic degradation of its parts. We now have evidence that aging is instead at least in part genetically regulated. Many mutations have been discovered to extend lifespan in organisms of all complexities, from yeast to mammals. The study of metazoan model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, has been instrumental in understanding the role of genetics in the cell biology of aging. Longevity mutants across the spectrum of model organisms demonstrate that rates of aging are regulated through genetic control of cellular processes. The regulation and subsequent breakdown of cellular processes represent a programmatic decision by the cell to either continue or abandon maintenance procedures with age. Our understanding of cell biological processes involved in regulating aging have been particularly informed by longevity mutants and treatments, such as reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling and dietary restriction, which are critical in determining the distinction between causes of and responses to aging and have revealed a set of downstream targets that participate in a range of cell biological activities. Here we briefly review some of these important cellular processes. PMID:26668170

  2. Accelerating forward genetics for cell wall deconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaurre, Danielle; Bonetta, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The elucidation of the genes involved in cell wall synthesis and assembly remains one of the biggest challenges of cell wall biology. Although traditional genetic approaches, using simple yet elegant screens, have identified components of the cell wall, many unknowns remain. Exhausting the genetic toolbox by performing sensitized screens, adopting chemical genetics or combining these with improved cell wall imaging, hold the promise of new gene discovery and function. With the recent introduc...

  3. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  4. Dissecting functions of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and the related pocket proteins by integrating genetic, cell biology, and electrophoretic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Lukas, J; Holm, K;

    1999-01-01

    The members of the 'pocket protein' family, comprising the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRB) and its relatives, p107 and p130, negatively regulate cell proliferation and modulate fundamental biological processes including embryonic development, differentiation, homeostatic tissue renewal...... phosphorylation events on multiple serine and threonine residues of pRB, p107, and p130, events which are carried out, at least in part, by the cyclin-dependent kinases that form the key elements of the cell cycle machinery. Here we discuss the recently obtained new insights into the diverse functions of the pRB...

  5. Dissecting Biological Dark Matter: Single Cell Genetic Analysis of TM7, a Rare and Uncultivated Microbe from the Human Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, Marsha W; Marcy, Yann; Ouverney, Cleber; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Losekann, Tina; Ivanova, Natalia; Martin, H. Garcia; Szeto, E.; Platt, Darren; Hugenholtz, Philip; Relman, David A.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2007-07-01

    We have developed a microfluidic device that allows the isolation and genome amplification of individual microbial cells, thereby enabling organism-level genomic analysis of complex microbial ecosystems without the need for culture. This device was used to perform a directed survey of the human subgingival crevice and to isolate bacteria having rod-like morphology. Several isolated microbes had a 16S rRNA sequence that placed them in candidate phylum TM7, which has no cultivated or sequenced members. Genome amplification from individual TM7 cells allowed us to sequence and assemble >1,000 genes, providing insight into the physiology of members of this phylum. This approach enables single-cell genetic analysis of any uncultivated minority member of a microbial community.

  6. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  7. MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCES FOR THE GENETIC STABILITY OF DOXORUBICIN RESISTANT CELL LINE S-180R IN VIVO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Guoqiang; Han Fusheng; Zhang Tingjun; Zhan Maocheng; Chen Xiangling; Xu Guangwei

    1998-01-01

    Objective: In order to assess the genetic stability of doxorubicin resistance sarcoma S-180R cell line in vivo.Methods: The drug resistant genes and molecules were examined by flow cytometry, Southern blot, Northern blot and RT-PCR. Results: The results showed that drugefflux in S-180R increased nearly 100-folds, as compared with its parent cells, the rate of half peak width resistant cell/peak high decreased from 0.56 to 0.23 measured by flow cytometry after two years. The mdr1 gene amplified and overexpressed significantly in S-180R and the expression of topoisomerase Ⅱα gene decreased remarkably in S-180R. There was no significant different of the MRP expression between S-180R and S-180.Conclusion: These results indicated that drug resistance of S-180R was maintained and also increased. The major mechanism of drug resistance is the amplification and overexpression of mdr1 gene, the decreased expression of topoisomerase Ⅱα also contributed to it. So, S-180R is an ideal experimental model for the study of doxorubicin resistance and its reversion in vivo.

  8. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  9. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  10. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  11. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  12. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  13. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-01

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology. PMID:25404324

  14. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-01

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology.

  15. Genetic endothelial systems biology of sickle stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Milbauer, Liming; Wei, Peng; Enenstein, Judy; Jiang, Aixiang; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Scott, J. Paul; Nelson, Stephen C.; Bodempudi, Vidya; Topper, James N.; Yang, Ruey-Bing; Hirsch, Betsy; Pan, Wei; Hebbel, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences in endothelial biology could underlie development of phenotypic heterogeneity among persons afflicted with vascular diseases. We obtained blood outgrowth endothelial cells from 20 subjects with sickle cell anemia (age, 4-19 years) shown to be either at-risk (n = 11) or not-at-risk (n = 9) for ischemic stroke because of, respectively, having or not having occlusive disease at the circle of Willis. Gene expression profiling identified no significant single gene differences b...

  16. Stem cells and genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed a role of stem cells in the treatment of genetic diseases including cochlear and retinal regeneration. The most perceptive use of stem cells at the genetic diseases is cellular repair of tissues affected by a genetic mutation when stem cells without such mutation are transplanted to restore normal tissue function.

  17. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  18. Graphical Modelling in Genetics and Systems Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Scutari, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Graphical modelling has a long history in statistics as a tool for the analysis of multivariate data, starting from Wright's path analysis and Gibbs' applications to statistical physics at the beginning of the last century. In its modern form, it was pioneered by Lauritzen and Wermuth and Pearl in the 1980s, and has since found applications in fields as diverse as bioinformatics, customer satisfaction surveys and weather forecasts. Genetics and systems biology are unique among these fields in...

  19. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with regard to forensic genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, R; Lewandowski, K; Rupa-Matysek, J; Jędrzejczyk, M; Berent, J

    2015-01-01

    The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient's blood was identical with the donor's in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal) material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient's profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells - similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases. PMID:27543957

  20. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT with regard to forensic genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jacewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient’s blood was identical with the donor’s in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient’s profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells – similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases.

  1. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies of the molecular biology and functional changes in cultured mammalian cells following exposure to x radiation, uv radiation, fission neutrons, or various chemical environmental pollutants alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the separate and combined effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons released during combustion of fossil fuels and ionizing and nonionizing radiations. Sun lamps, which emit a continuous spectrum of near ultraviolet light of 290 nm to 315 nm were used for studies of predictive cell killing due to sunlight. Results showed that exposure to uv light (254 nm) may not be adequate to predict effects produced by sunlight. Data are included from studies on single-strand breaks and repair in DNA of cultured hamster cells exposed to uv or nearultraviolet light. The possible interactions of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DmBA) alone or combined with exposure to x radiation, uv radiation (254 nm) or near ultraviolet simulating sunlight were compared for effects on cell survival

  2. Networks in Cell Biology = Modelling cell biology with networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The science of complex biological networks is transforming research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to medicine. This is the first book on the subject, providing a comprehensive introduction to complex network science and its biological applications. With contributions from key leaders in both network theory and modern cell biology, this book discusses the network science that is increasingly foundational for systems biology and the quantitative understanding of living systems. It ...

  3. Networks in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  4. Accelerating forward genetics for cell wall deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eVidaurre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of cell wall biology is the elucidation of the genes involved the cell wall and their function due to the recalcitrance of the cell wall. Through traditional genetic approaches, many simple yet elegant screens have been able to identify components of the cell wall and their networks. Despite progress in the identification of several genes of the cell wall, there remain many unknown players whose function has yet to be determined. Exhausting the genetic toolbox by performing secondary screens on a genetically mutated background, chemical genetics using small molecules and improved cell wall imaging hold promise for new gene discovery and function. With the recent introduction of next-generation sequencing technologies, it is now possible to quickly and efficiently map and clone genes of interest in Arabidopsis and any model organism with a completed genome sequence. The combination of a classical genetics approach and cutting edge technology will propel cell wall biology of Arabidopsis and other useful crops forward into the future.

  5. Genetic Expeditions with Haploid Human Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jae, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Random mutagenesis followed by phenotypic selection (forward genetics) is among the most powerful tools to elucidate the molecular basis of intricate biological processes and has been used in a suite of model organisms throughout the last century. However, its application to cultured mammalian cells

  6. Cell biology experiments conducted in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    A review of cell biology experiments conducted during the first two decades of space flight is provided. References are tabulated for work done with six types of living test system: isolated viruses, bacteriophage-host, bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, protozoans, and small groups of cells (such as hamster cell tissue and fertilized frog eggs). The general results of studies involving the survival of cells in space, the effect of space flight on growing cultures, the biological effects of multicharged high-energy particles, and the effects of space flight on the genetic apparatus of microorganisms are summarized. It is concluded that cell systems remain sufficiently stable during space flight to permit experimentation with models requiring a fixed cell line during the space shuttle era.

  7. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-06-27

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer.

  8. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer. PMID:27355964

  9. Celebrating Plant Cells: A Special Issue on Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A special issue on plant cell biology is long overdue for JIPB! In the last two decades or so, the plant biology community has been thrilled by explosive discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic basis of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment, largely owing to recent maturation of model systems like Arabidopsis thaliana and the rice Oryza sativa, as well as the rapid development of high throughput technologies associated with genomics and proteomics.

  10. The emerging age of cell-free synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark Thomas; Wilding, Kristen M; Hunt, Jeremy M; Bennett, Anthony M; Bundy, Bradley C

    2014-08-25

    The engineering of and mastery over biological parts has catalyzed the emergence of synthetic biology. This field has grown exponentially in the past decade. As increasingly more applications of synthetic biology are pursued, more challenges are encountered, such as delivering genetic material into cells and optimizing genetic circuits in vivo. An in vitro or cell-free approach to synthetic biology simplifies and avoids many of the pitfalls of in vivo synthetic biology. In this review, we describe some of the innate features that make cell-free systems compelling platforms for synthetic biology and discuss emerging improvements of cell-free technologies. We also select and highlight recent and emerging applications of cell-free synthetic biology.

  11. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  12. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Di; Trynka, Gosia; Raj, Towfique; Terao, Chikashi; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Akari; Yoshida, Shinji; Graham, Robert R.; Manoharan, Arun; Ortmann, Ward; Bhangale, Tushar; Denny, Joshua C.; Carroll, Robert J.; Eyler, Anne E.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Kremer, Joel M.; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Ye, Lingying; Su, Ding-Feng; Yang, Jian; Xie, Gang; Keystone, Ed; Westra, Harm-Jan; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zhou, Xuezhong; Gupta, Namrata; Mirel, Daniel; Stahl, Eli A.; Diogo, Dorothée; Cui, Jing; Liao, Katherine; Guo, Michael H.; Myouzen, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Coenen, Marieke J.H.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Dieudé, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bridges, S. Louis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Toes, Rene E.M.; Tak, Paul P.; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Choi, Hyon K.; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Galan, Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne; de Vries, Niek; Moreland, Larry W.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamada, Ryo; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Jun S.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Franke, Lude; Visscher, Peter M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Xu, Huji; Behrens, Timothy W.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Momohara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological datasets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)1. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ~10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 1012–4. We devised an in-silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation5, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL)6, and pathway analyses7–9 – as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency (PID), hematological cancer somatic mutations and knock-out mouse phenotypes – to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery. PMID:24390342

  13. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Di; Trynka, Gosia; Raj, Towfique; Terao, Chikashi; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Akari; Yoshida, Shinji; Graham, Robert R; Manoharan, Arun; Ortmann, Ward; Bhangale, Tushar; Denny, Joshua C; Carroll, Robert J; Eyler, Anne E; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kremer, Joel M; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Ye, Lingying; Su, Ding-Feng; Yang, Jian; Xie, Gang; Keystone, Ed; Westra, Harm-Jan; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zhou, Xuezhong; Gupta, Namrata; Mirel, Daniel; Stahl, Eli A; Diogo, Dorothée; Cui, Jing; Liao, Katherine; Guo, Michael H; Myouzen, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Coenen, Marieke J H; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Huizinga, Tom W J; Dieudé, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bridges, S Louis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Toes, Rene E M; Tak, Paul P; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Arlestig, Lisbeth; Choi, Hyon K; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Galan, Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne; de Vries, Niek; Moreland, Larry W; Criswell, Lindsey A; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamada, Ryo; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Jun S; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Franke, Lude; Visscher, Peter M; Brown, Matthew A; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Xu, Huji; Behrens, Timothy W; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Momohara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Plenge, Robert M

    2014-02-20

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ∼10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery. PMID:24390342

  14. Dictyostelium discoideum: Molecular approaches to cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spudich, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central point of this book is to present Dictyostelium as a valuable eukaryotic organism for those interested in molecular studies that require a combined biochemical, structural, and genetic approach. The book is not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of all methods involving Dictyostelium, but instead is a selective set of chapters that demonstrates the utility of the organism for molecular approaches to interesting cell biological problems.

  15. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  16. The cell biology of touch

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Marshall, Kara L.; Nelson, Aislyn M.

    2010-01-01

    The sense of touch detects forces that bombard the body’s surface. In metazoans, an assortment of morphologically and functionally distinct mechanosensory cell types are tuned to selectively respond to diverse mechanical stimuli, such as vibration, stretch, and pressure. A comparative evolutionary approach across mechanosensory cell types and genetically tractable species is beginning to uncover the cellular logic of touch reception.

  17. Prostate cancer stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhi; Jiang, Yuan; Keller, Evan T.

    2012-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model provides insights into pathophysiology of cancers and their therapeutic response. The CSC model has been both controversial, yet provides a foundation to explore cancer biology. In this review, we provide an overview of CSC concepts, biology and potential therapeutic avenues. We then focus on prostate CSC including (1) their purported origin as either basal-derived or luminal-derived cells; (2) markers used for prostate CSC identification; (3) alterations of s...

  18. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the action of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), as an inhibitor of repair of x radioinduced injuries were extended from synchronous Chinese hamster cells to synchronous human HeLa cells. These studies showed a similar mode of action in both cell types lending support to the notion that conclusions may be extracted from such observations that are of fairly general applicability to mammalian cells. Radiation studies with NEM are being extended to hypoxic cells to inquire if NEM is effective relative to oxygen-independent damage. Observations relative to survival, DNA synthesis, and DNA strand elongation resulting from the addition products to DNA when cells were exposed to near uv in the presence of psoralen were extended. (U.S.)

  19. The biology of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilvassy, Stephen J

    2003-01-01

    Rarely has so much interest from the lay public, government, biotechnology industry, and special interest groups been focused on the biology and clinical applications of a single type of human cell as is today on stem cells, the founder cells that sustain many, if not all, tissues and organs in the body. Granting organizations have increasingly targeted stem cells as high priority for funding, and it appears clear that the evolving field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will require as its underpinning a thorough understanding of the molecular regulation of stem cell proliferation, differentiation, self-renewal, and aging. Despite evidence suggesting that embryonic stem (ES) cells might represent a more potent regenerative reservoir than stem cells collected from adult tissues, ethical considerations have redirected attention upon primitive cells residing in the bone marrow, blood, brain, liver, muscle, and skin, from where they can be harvested with relative sociological impunity. Among these, it is arguably the stem and progenitor cells of the mammalian hematopoietic system that we know most about today, and their intense study in rodents and humans over the past 50 years has culminated in the identification of phenotypic and molecular genetic markers of lineage commitment and the development of functional assays that facilitate their quantitation and prospective isolation. This review focuses exclusively on the biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their immediate progeny. Nevertheless, many of the concepts established from their study can be considered fundamental tenets of an evolving stem cell paradigm applicable to many regenerating cellular systems. PMID:14734085

  20. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  1. When cell biology meets theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Cell biologists now have tools and knowledge to generate useful quantitative data. But how can we make sense of these data, and are we measuring the correct parameters? Moreover, how can we test hypotheses quantitatively? To answer these questions, the theory of physics is required and is essential to the future of quantitative cell biology. PMID:26416957

  2. When cell biology meets theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos; Roux, Aurélien

    2015-09-28

    Cell biologists now have tools and knowledge to generate useful quantitative data. But how can we make sense of these data, and are we measuring the correct parameters? Moreover, how can we test hypotheses quantitatively? To answer these questions, the theory of physics is required and is essential to the future of quantitative cell biology.

  3. Lipidomics Investigations in Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    YU, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cell membrane is the biological barrier serving as both territorial defense and the communication hinge for the interior of cell from its surroundings. As building blocks of cellular membranes and also precursor for second messengers, a variety of lipids play essential roles in cellular membrane dynamics as well as important functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and membrane trafficking modulation. Lipidomics, representing the systematic and integrative studies ...

  4. Biological impact of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Miguel; Menéndez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells is currently a field of great potential in biomedicine. These cells represent a highly valuable tool for developmental biology studies, disease models, and drug screening and toxicity. The ultimate goal of hESCs and iPS cell research is the treatment of diseases or disorders for which there is currently no treatment or existing therapies are only partially effective. Despite the disproportionate short-term hopes generated, which are putting too much pressure on scientists, the international scientific community is making rapid progress in understanding hESCs and iPS cells. Nonetheless, great efforts have to be made to provide an answer to still quite basic questions concerning their biology. Moreover, translation to clinical applications in cell replacement therapy requires prior solution to ethical barriers. The recent development of iPS cells has provided a strong alternative to overcome ethical issues concerning hESCs. However, an in-depth characterization of their genetic and epigenetic features, as well as their differentiation potential still remains to be undertaken. This chapter will describe, precisely, what the critical issues are, where scientific and ethical barriers stand, and how we are to overcome them. Only then, we shall finally discover whether hESCs and iPS cells will allow building reproducible disease models, and whether they really are a safe tool, with great potential for regenerative medicine.

  5. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  6. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  7. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  8. Biological aspects of genetic differences in piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to gain insight in the biological background of differences in the direct genetic (piglet) component of piglet survival. Estimations of the direct genetic component of piglet survival were obtained by calculation of estimated breeding values for piglet survival (EBVp

  9. Biological, functional and genetic characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from pediatric patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Conforti

    Full Text Available Alterations in hematopoietic microenvironment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients have been claimed to occur, but little is known about the components of marrow stroma in these patients. In this study, we characterized mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BM of 45 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL-MSCs at diagnosis (day+0 and during chemotherapy treatment (days: +15; +33; +78, the time points being chosen according to the schedule of BM aspirates required by the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 treatment protocol. Morphology, proliferative capacity, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, immunomodulatory properties and ability to support long-term hematopoiesis of ALL-MSCs were analysed and compared with those from 41 healthy donors (HD-MSCs. ALL-MSCs were also genetically characterized through array-CGH, conventional karyotyping and FISH analysis. Moreover, we compared ALL-MSCs generated at day+0 with those isolated during chemotherapy. Morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation potential and in vitro life-span did not differ between ALL-MSCs and HD-MSCs. ALL-MSCs showed significantly lower proliferative capacity (p<0.001 and ability to support in vitro hematopoiesis (p = 0.04 as compared with HD-MSCs, while they had similar capacity to inhibit in vitro mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation (p = N.S.. ALL-MSCs showed neither the typical translocations carried by the leukemic clone (when present, nor other genetic abnormalities acquired during ex vivo culture. Our findings indicate that ALL-MSCs display reduced ability to proliferate and to support long-term hematopoiesis in vitro. ALL-MSCs isolated at diagnosis do not differ from those obtained during treatment.

  10. Biological, functional and genetic characterization of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from pediatric patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Antonella; Biagini, Simone; Del Bufalo, Francesca; Sirleto, Pietro; Angioni, Adriano; Starc, Nadia; Li Pira, Giuseppina; Moretta, Francesca; Proia, Alessandra; Contoli, Benedetta; Genovese, Silvia; Ciardi, Claudia; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Rosti, Vittorio; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Locatelli, Franco; Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in hematopoietic microenvironment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients have been claimed to occur, but little is known about the components of marrow stroma in these patients. In this study, we characterized mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of 45 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL-MSCs) at diagnosis (day+0) and during chemotherapy treatment (days: +15; +33; +78), the time points being chosen according to the schedule of BM aspirates required by the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 treatment protocol. Morphology, proliferative capacity, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, immunomodulatory properties and ability to support long-term hematopoiesis of ALL-MSCs were analysed and compared with those from 41 healthy donors (HD-MSCs). ALL-MSCs were also genetically characterized through array-CGH, conventional karyotyping and FISH analysis. Moreover, we compared ALL-MSCs generated at day+0 with those isolated during chemotherapy. Morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation potential and in vitro life-span did not differ between ALL-MSCs and HD-MSCs. ALL-MSCs showed significantly lower proliferative capacity (p<0.001) and ability to support in vitro hematopoiesis (p = 0.04) as compared with HD-MSCs, while they had similar capacity to inhibit in vitro mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation (p = N.S.). ALL-MSCs showed neither the typical translocations carried by the leukemic clone (when present), nor other genetic abnormalities acquired during ex vivo culture. Our findings indicate that ALL-MSCs display reduced ability to proliferate and to support long-term hematopoiesis in vitro. ALL-MSCs isolated at diagnosis do not differ from those obtained during treatment. PMID:24244271

  11. Stem cell biology meets systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, I.; Radtke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells and their descendents are the building blocks of life. How stem cell populations guarantee their maintenance and/or self-renewal, and how individual stem cells decide to transit from one cell stage to another to generate different cell types are long-standing and fascinating questions in the field. Here, we review the discussions that took place at a recent EMBO conference in Cambridge, UK, in which these questions were placed in the context of the latest advances in stem cell biol...

  12. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A.

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  13. Synthetic biology: Tailor-made genetic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Michael C.; Noireaux, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Expanding the range of amino acids polymerizable by ribosomes could enable new functionalities to be added to polypeptides. Now, the genetic code has been reprogrammed using a reconstituted in vitro translation system to enable synthesis of unnatural peptides with unmatched flexibility.

  14. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk. PMID:20205024

  15. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  16. Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology investigates the organization, compartmentalization, and biochemistry of eukaryotic cells and the pathology associated...

  17. Atomic force microscopy in cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhexue; ZHANG Zhiling; PANG Daiwen

    2005-01-01

    The history, characteristic, operation modes and coupling techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) are introduced. Then the application in cell biology is reviewed in four aspects: cell immobilization methods, cell imaging, force spectrum study and cell manipulation. And the prospect of AFM application in cell biology is discussed.

  18. Deciphering genetic diversity and inheritance of tomato fruit weight and composition through a systems biology approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Laura; Xu, Jiaxin; Biais, Benoit; Maucourt, Mickael; Ballias, Patricia; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Desgroux, Aurore; Faurobert, Mireille; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick

    2013-01-01

    Integrative systems biology proposes new approaches to decipher the variation of phenotypic traits. In an effort to link the genetic variation and the physiological and molecular bases of fruit composition, the proteome (424 protein spots), metabolome (26 compounds), enzymatic profile (26 enzymes), and phenotypes of eight tomato accessions, covering the genetic diversity of the species, and four of their F1 hybrids, were characterized at two fruit developmental stages (cell expansion and oran...

  19. Recent progress in histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Stefan; Efthymiadis, Athina

    2012-04-01

    Studies published in Histochemistry and Cell Biology in the year 2011 represent once more a manifest of established and newly sophisticated techniques being exploited to put tissue- and cell type-specific molecules into a functional context. The review is therefore the Histochemistry and Cell Biology's yearly intention to provide interested readers appropriate summaries of investigations touching the areas of tissue biology, developmental biology, the biology of the immune system, stem cell research, the biology of subcellular compartments, in order to put the message of such studies into natural scientific-/human- and also pathological-relevant correlations.

  20. Genetic Modification of T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer technology and its application to human gene therapy greatly expanded in the last decade. One area of investigation that appears particularly promising is the transfer of new genetic material into T cells for the potential treatment of cancer. Herein, we describe several core technologies that now yield high-efficiency gene transfer into primary human T cells. These gene transfer techniques include viral-based gene transfer methods based on modified Retroviridae and non-viral methods such as DNA-based transposons and direct transfer of mRNA by electroporation. Where specific examples are cited, we emphasize the transfer of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs to T cells, which permits engineered T cells to recognize potential tumor antigens.

  1. Synthetic biology approaches in cancer immunotherapy, genetic network engineering, and genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Deboki; Cho, Jang Hwan; Weinberg, Benjamin H; Wong, Nicole M; Wong, Wilson W

    2016-04-18

    Investigations into cells and their contents have provided evolving insight into the emergence of complex biological behaviors. Capitalizing on this knowledge, synthetic biology seeks to manipulate the cellular machinery towards novel purposes, extending discoveries from basic science to new applications. While these developments have demonstrated the potential of building with biological parts, the complexity of cells can pose numerous challenges. In this review, we will highlight the broad and vital role that the synthetic biology approach has played in applying fundamental biological discoveries in receptors, genetic circuits, and genome-editing systems towards translation in the fields of immunotherapy, biosensors, disease models and gene therapy. These examples are evidence of the strength of synthetic approaches, while also illustrating considerations that must be addressed when developing systems around living cells.

  2. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  5. Detection of prognostically relevant genetic abnormalities in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: recommendations from the Biology and Diagnosis Committee of iBFM-SG

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Christine J; Haas, Oskar A.; Harbott, W; Biondi, Andrea; Stanulla, Martin; Trka, Jan; Izraeli, Shai

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) has improved considerably in recent years. A contributing factor has been the improved stratification for treatment according to a number of factors including genetic determinants of outcome. Here we review the current diagnostic criteria of genetic abnormalities in precursor B-ALL (BCP-ALL), including the relevant technical approaches and the application of the most appropriate methods for the detection of each ab...

  6. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D

    2015-08-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship.

  7. Genetic Robots: An Integrated Art and Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of an integrated art and science curriculum "Genetic Robotics: A Three-Dimensional Scientific Inquiry" for high school art and biology students at Madeira Junior/Senior High School in Cincinnati, Ohio. States that the project aimed at recognizing individual differences while enabling students to become…

  8. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Di; Trynka, Gosia; Raj, Towfique; Terao, Chikashi; Ikari, Katsunori; Kochi, Yuta; Ohmura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Akari; Yoshida, Shinji; Graham, Robert R.; Manoharan, Arun; Ortmann, Ward; Bhangale, Tushar; Denny, Joshua C.; Carroll, Robert J.; Eyler, Anne E.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Kremer, Joel M.; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Ye, Lingying; Su, Ding-Feng; Yang, Jian; Xie, Gang; Keystone, Ed; Westra, Harm-Jan; Esko, Tonu; Metspalu, Andres; Zhou, Xuezhong; Gupta, Namrata; Mirel, Daniel; Stahl, Eli A.; Diogo, Dorothee; Cui, Jing; Liao, Katherine; Guo, Michael H.; Myouzen, Keiko; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; van de laar, Mart A. F. J.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Dieude, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bridges, S. Louis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Toes, Rene E. M.; Tak, Paul P.; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Arlestig, Lisbeth; Choi, Hyon K.; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Galan, Pilar; Lathrop, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne; de Vries, Niek; Moreland, Larry W.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamada, Ryo; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Jun S.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Worthington, Jane; Padyukov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Franke, Lude; Visscher, Peter M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Xu, Huji; Behrens, Timothy W.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Momohara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Plenge, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)(1). Here we perform

  9. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis conributes to biology and drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, Y.; Wu, D.; Trynka, G.; Raj, T.; Terao, C.; Ikari, K.; Kochi, Y.; Ohmura, K.; Suzuki, A.; Yoshida, S.; Graham, R.R.; Manoharan, A.; Ortmann, W.; Bhangale, T.; Denny, J.C.; Carroll, R.J.; Eyler, A.E.; Greenberg, J.D.; Kremer, J.M.; Pappas, D.A.; Jiang, L.; Yin, L.; Ye, L.; Su, D.F.; Yang, J.; Xie, G.; Keystone, E.; Westra, H.J.; Esko, T.; Metspalu, A.; Zhou, X.; Gupta, N.; Mirel, D.; Stahl, Eli A.; Diogo, D.; Cui, J.; Liao, K.; Guo, M.H.; Myouzen, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Coenen, M.J.; Riel, van P.L.; Laar, van de M.A.; Guchelaar, H.J.; Huizinga, T.W.; Dieudé, P.; Mariette, X.; Louis Bridges Jr, S.; Zhernakova, A.; Toes, R.E.; Tak, P.P.; Miceli-Richard, C.; Bang, S.Y.; Lee, H.S.; Martin, J.; Gonzales-Gay, M.A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Rantapää-Dhlqvist, S.; Arlestig, L.; Choi, H.K.; Kamatani, Y.; Galan, P.; Lathrop, M.; Eyre, S.; Bowes, J.; Barton, A.; Vries, de N.; Moreland, L.W.; Criswell, L.A.; Karlson, E.W.; Taniguchi, A.; Yamada, R; Kubo, M.; Bae, S.C.; Worthington, J.; Padyukov, L.; Klareskog, L.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Stranger, B.E.; Jager, de P.L.; Franke, L.; Visscher, P.M.; Brown, M.A.; Yamanaka, H.; Mimori, T.; Takahashi, A.; Xu, H.; Behrens, T.W.; Siminovitch, K.A.; Momohara, S.; Matsuda, F.; Yamamoto, K.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)1. Here we performed

  10. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, Y.; Wu, D.; Trynka, G.; Raj, T.; Terao, C.; Ikari, K.; Kochi, Y.; Ohmura, K.; Suzuki, A.; Yoshida, S.; Graham, R.R.; Manoharan, A.; Ortmann, W.; Bhangale, T.; Denny, J.C.; Carroll, R.J.; Eyler, A.E.; Greenberg, J.D.; Kremer, J.M; Pappas, D.A.; Jiang, L.; Yin, J.; Ye, L; Su, D.F.; Yang, J.; Xie, G.; Keystone, E.; Westra, H.J.; Esko, T.; Metspalu, A.; Zhou, X.; Gupta, N.; Mirel, D.; Stahl, E.A.; Diogo, D.; Cui, J.; Liao, K.; Guo, M.H.; Myouzen, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laar, M.A. van der; Guchelaar, H.J.; Huizinga, T.W.J.; Dieude, P.; Mariette, X.; Bridges, S.L., Jr.; Zhernakova, A.; Toes, R.E.; Tak, P.P.; Miceli-Richard, C.; Bang, S.Y.; Lee, H.S.; Martin, J.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, S.; Arlestig, L.; Choi, H.K.; Kamatani, Y.; Galan, P.; Lathrop, M.; Eyre, S.; Bowes, J.; Barton, A.; Vries, N. de; Moreland, L.W.; Criswell, L.A.; Karlson, E.W.; Taniguchi, A.; Yamada, R.; Kubo, M.; Liu, J.S.; Bae, S.C.; Worthington, J.; Padyukov, L.; Klareskog, L.; Gregersen, P.K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Stranger, B.E.; Jager, P.L. De; Franke, L.; Visscher, P.M.; Brown, M.A.; Yamanaka, H.; Mimori, T.; Takahashi, A.; Xu, H.; Behrens, T.W.; Siminovitch, K.A.; Momohara, S.; Matsuda, F.; Yamamoto, K.; Plenge, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed

  11. Integrating computational biology and forward genetics in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Aerts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic screens are powerful methods for the discovery of gene-phenotype associations. However, a systems biology approach to genetics must leverage the massive amount of "omics" data to enhance the power and speed of functional gene discovery in vivo. Thus far, few computational methods for gene function prediction have been rigorously tested for their performance on a genome-wide scale in vivo. In this work, we demonstrate that integrating genome-wide computational gene prioritization with large-scale genetic screening is a powerful tool for functional gene discovery. To discover genes involved in neural development in Drosophila, we extend our strategy for the prioritization of human candidate disease genes to functional prioritization in Drosophila. We then integrate this prioritization strategy with a large-scale genetic screen for interactors of the proneural transcription factor Atonal using genomic deficiencies and mutant and RNAi collections. Using the prioritized genes validated in our genetic screen, we describe a novel genetic interaction network for Atonal. Lastly, we prioritize the whole Drosophila genome and identify candidate gene associations for ten receptor-signaling pathways. This novel database of prioritized pathway candidates, as well as a web application for functional prioritization in Drosophila, called Endeavour-HighFly, and the Atonal network, are publicly available resources. A systems genetics approach that combines the power of computational predictions with in vivo genetic screens strongly enhances the process of gene function and gene-gene association discovery.

  12. Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, H.-J.

    In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing the focus of research on the genetic code has received an even further accentuation in the public eye. In attempting, however, to understand intra- and intercellular recognition processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, for example, cell adhesion or routing. The consideration of further code systems is essential to bridge this gap. A third biochemical alphabet forming code words with an information storage capacity second to no other substance class in rather small units (words, sentences) is established by monosaccharides (letters). As hardware oligosaccharides surpass peptides by more than seven orders of magnitude in the theoretical ability to build isomers, when the total of conceivable hexamers is calculated. In addition to the sequence complexity, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling has been instrumental in discovering that even small glycans can often reside in not only one but several distinct low-energy conformations (keys). Intriguingly, conformers can display notably different capacities to fit snugly into the binding site of nonhomologous receptors (locks). This process, experimentally verified for two classes of lectins, is termed "differential conformer selection." It adds potential for shifts of the conformer equilibrium to modulate ligand properties dynamically and reversibly to the well-known changes in sequence (including anomeric positioning and linkage points) and in pattern of substitution, for example, by sulfation. In the intimate interplay with sugar receptors (lectins, enzymes, and antibodies) the message of coding units of the sugar code is deciphered. Their recognition will trigger postbinding signaling and the intended biological response. Knowledge about the driving forces for the molecular rendezvous, i

  13. Studying cell biology in the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. PMID:26564861

  14. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists.

  15. Hacking the genetic code of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Dirk

    2009-07-01

    A genetic shuttle: The highlighted article, which was recently published by Schultz, Geierstanger and co-workers, describes a straightforward scheme for enlarging the genetic code of mammalian cells. An orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for a new amino acid can be evolved in E. coli and subsequently transferred into mammalian cells. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by adding a photocaged lysine derivative to the genetic repertoire of a human cell line.

  16. Genetics of obesity in adult adoptees and their biological siblings.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, T. I.; Price, R A; Stunkard, A. J.; Schulsinger, F.

    1989-01-01

    An adoption study of genetic effects on obesity in adulthood was carried out in which adoptees separated from their natural parents very early in life were compared with their biological full and half siblings reared by their natural parents. The adoptees represented four groups who by sampling from a larger population were categorised as either thin, medium weight, overweight, or obese. Weight and height were obtained for 115 full siblings of 57 adoptees and for 850 half siblings of 341 adop...

  17. [Molecular biology of renal cancer: bases for genetic directed therapy in advanced disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto Rey, José Pablo; Cillán Narvaez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    There has been expansion of therapeutic options in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma due to a better knowledge of the molecular biology of kidney cancers. There are different tumors grouped under the term renal cell carcinoma, being clear cell cancer the most frequent and accounting for 80% of kidney tumors. Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau gene can be identified in up to 80% of sporadic clear cell cancer, linking a genetically inheritable disease where vascular tumors are frequent, with renal cell cancer. Other histologic types present specific alterations in molecular pathways, like c-MET in papillary type I tumors, and Fumarase Hydratase in papillary type II tumors. Identification of the molecular alteration for a specific tumor may offer an opportunity for treatment selection based on biomarkers, and, in the future, for developing an engineering designed genetic treatment.

  18. The new stem cell biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem ce...

  19. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applications in cell biology of label-free biosensors. Future perspectives are also discussed.

  20. Tritium and Autoradiography in Cell Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because tritium emits low energy beta radiation, it is the most useful isotope for high resolution autoradiography. The relative abundance of hydrogen in most biologically important substances combined with a relatively short half-life allows the labelling of cellular components at specific activities that can often be detected at intracellular dimensions by the use of nuclear emulsions. The cells are attached to glass by various cytological procedures and after fixation a -wet or fluid photographic emulsion is applied directly to the cell surface and allowed to dry. After exposure the emulsion is developed while still in contact with the biological specimen. The preparation, an autoradiogram, when viewed under the light microscope shows the cellular structures and the location of the isotope with a resolution of less than 1 pm. In this way the distribution of tritium-labelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of individual chromosomes has been traced through two to three cell divisions. These studies were made possible by the preparation of tritiated thymidine which is a highly selective label for DNA and is quickly depleted when the cell is removed from the environment containing the labelled thymidine. The technique has yielded information on the mechanism of DNA replication, structure and reproduction of chromosomes, kinetics of cell division and more recently on the patterns and time sequence in the reproduction of different chromosomes in the same nucleus and the different parts of a single chromosome. All chromosomes studied so far contain two functional sub-units of DNA which are distributed in a semi-conservative fashion during reproduction. The two sub-units are unlike in some structural sense that limits the type of exchanges that may occur among the four sub-units of a reproducing chromosome. Present evidence on sequences leads to the hypothesis that chromosomes reproduce in a genetically controlled sequence. Further evidence on the patterns and mechanism of

  1. Applying appropriates methods for teaching cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Djokic, Milena

    2011-01-01

    Cell biology is an important basic subject of modern life sciences, consisting of fundamental life activities of the cell at the microscopic, sub microscopic and molecular levels. The cell is the basic unit of living things, with all of the activities of life taking place in the cell and with is eases also due to abnormal changes of cells. With the current framework of teaching quality reform in higher education, this paper will review the current curriculum of a cell biology course and the w...

  2. Glycan Engineering for Cell and Developmental Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matthew E.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-surface glycans are a diverse class of macromolecules that participate in many key biological processes, including cell-cell communication, development, and disease progression. Thus, the ability to modulate the structures of glycans on cell surfaces provides a powerful means not only to understand fundamental processes but also to direct activity and elicit desired cellular responses. Here, we describe methods to sculpt glycans on cell surfaces and highlight recent successes in which artificially engineered glycans have been employed to control biological outcomes such as the immune response and stem cell fate. PMID:26933739

  3. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  4. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  5. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applicat...

  6. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Mariano Silveira e Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization.

  7. Open source bioimage informatics for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedlow, Jason R; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2009-11-01

    Significant technical advances in imaging, molecular biology and genomics have fueled a revolution in cell biology, in that the molecular and structural processes of the cell are now visualized and measured routinely. Driving much of this recent development has been the advent of computational tools for the acquisition, visualization, analysis and dissemination of these datasets. These tools collectively make up a new subfield of computational biology called bioimage informatics, which is facilitated by open source approaches. We discuss why open source tools for image informatics in cell biology are needed, some of the key general attributes of what make an open source imaging application successful, and point to opportunities for further operability that should greatly accelerate future cell biology discovery.

  8. On the Biological and Genetic Diversity in Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Ellis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a parasite regarded a major cause of foetal loss in cattle. A key requirement to an understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of N. caninum is knowledge of the biological characteristics of the species and the genetic diversity within it. Due to the broad intermediate host range of the species, worldwide geographical distribution and its capacity for sexual reproduction, significant biological and genetic differences might be expected to exist. N. caninum has now been isolated from a variety of different host species including dogs and cattle. Although isolates of this parasite show only minor differences in ultrastructure, considerable differences have been reported in pathogenicity using mainly mouse models. At the DNA level, marked levels of polymorphism between isolates were detected in mini- and microsatellites found in the genome of N. caninum. Knowledge of what drives the biological differences that have been observed between the various isolates at the molecular level is crucial in aiding our understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite and, in turn, the development of efficacious strategies, such as live vaccines, for controlling its impact. The purpose of this review is to document and discuss for the first time, the nature of the diversity found within the species Neospora caninum.

  9. At the Interface of Chemical and Biological Synthesis: An Expanded Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Schultz, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to site-specifically incorporate noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) with novel structures into proteins in living cells affords a powerful tool to investigate and manipulate protein structure and function. More than 200 ncAAs with diverse biological, chemical, and physical properties have been genetically encoded in response to nonsense or frameshift codons in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms with high fidelity and efficiency. In this review, recent advances in the technology and its application to problems in protein biochemistry, cellular biology, and medicine are highlighted. PMID:27413101

  10. Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Li; Kai Jiang; Wanguo Wei; Yan Shi; Sheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells,including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells,hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development,homeostasis and pathology,and for treating numerous devastating diseases.Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology,and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine.Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell selfrenewal,lineage differentiation,reprogramming and regeneration.These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes.Ultimately,this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation.

  11. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  12. The Genetic Landscape of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Frequency in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior efforts to identify regulators of hematopoietic stem cell physiology have relied mainly on candidate gene approaches with genetically modified mice. Here we used a genome-wide association study (GWAS strategy with the hybrid mouse diversity panel to identify the genetic determinants of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC frequency. Among 108 strains, we observed ∼120- to 300-fold variation in three HSPC populations. A GWAS analysis identified several loci that were significantly associated with HSPC frequency, including a locus on chromosome 5 harboring the homeodomain-only protein gene (Hopx. Hopx previously had been implicated in cardiac development but was not known to influence HSPC biology. Analysis of the HSPC pool in Hopx−/− mice demonstrated significantly reduced cell frequencies and impaired engraftment in competitive repopulation assays, thus providing functional validation of this positional candidate gene. These results demonstrate the power of GWAS in mice to identify genetic determinants of the hematopoietic system.

  13. Genetics and biology of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Y. Fang (Yue); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe vitamin D endocrine system is involved in a wide variety of biological processes including bone metabolism, modulation of the immune response, and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Variations in this endocrine system have, thus, been linked to several common disea

  14. Program biotechnology 2000. Annual report 1990. Biological process engineering, enzyme technology, cell biology, genetic research, plant-breeding, renewable raw materials. Programm Biotechnologie 2000. Jahresbericht 1990. Bioverfahrenstechnik, Enzymtechnologie, Zellbiologie, Genforschung, Pflanzenzuechtung, Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary of the results of the Federal Government's program biotechnology 2000 and the system of promoting appropriate activities is followed by a detailed survey of funded projects. The main part contains descriptions of the various projects under defined areas of promotion. The material is subdivided into indexes: project number index, syndicate project index, index with names of firms. The publication closes with an organizational chart of the PT BEO (project-administering organization biology, energy, ecology). (UA).

  15. Genetic and biological characterization of a densovirus isolate that affects dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Pamplona Mosimann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Brevidensoviruses have an encapsidated, single-stranded DNA genome that predominantly has a negative polarity. In recent years, they have received particular attention due to their potential role in the biological control of pathogenic arboviruses and to their unnoticed presence in cell cultures as contaminants. In addition, brevidensoviruses may also be useful as viral vectors. This study describes the first genetic and biological characterization of a mosquito densovirus that was isolated in Brazil; moreover, we examined the phylogenetic relationship between this isolate and the other brevidensoviruses. We further demonstrate that this densovirus has the potential to be used to biologically control dengue virus (DENV infection with in vitro co-infection experiments. The present study provides evidence that this densovirus isolate is a fast-spreading virus that affects cell growth and DENV infection.

  16. A Genetic Algorithm on Multiple Sequences Alignment Problems in Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study and comparison of sequences of characters from a finite alphabet is relevant to various areas of science, notably molecular biology. The measurement of sequence similarity involves the consideration of the possible sequence alignments in order to find an optimal one for which the "distance" between sequences is minimum. In biology informatics area, it is a more important and difficult problem due to the long length (100 at least) of sequence, this cause the compute complexity and large memory require. By associating a path in a lattice to each alignment, a geometric insight can be brought into the problem of finding an optimal alignment, this give an obvious encoding of each path. This problem can be solved by applying genetic algorithm, which is more efficient than dynamic programming and hidden Markov model using commomly now.

  17. Genetically engineered biological agents in therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Aseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype for chronic autoimmune disease. Its prevalence is 20 to 70 cases per 100,000 women and varies by race and ethnicity. Despite considerable progress in traditional therapy, many problems associated with the management of these patients need to be immediately solved: thus, 50-80% are found to have activity signs and/or frequent exacerbations and about 30% of the patients have to stop work; Class IV lupus nephritis increases the risk of terminalrenal failure. In the past 20 years great progress has been made in studying the pathogenesis of SLE: biological targets to affect drugs have been sought and fundamentally new therapeutic goals defined. Belimumab is the first genetically biological agent specially designed to treat SLE, which is rightly regarded as one of the most important achievements of rheumatology in the past 50 years.

  18. Biological Signal Processing with a Genetic Toggle Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Patrick; Fritz, Georg; Gerland, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Complex gene regulation requires responses that depend not only on the current levels of input signals but also on signals received in the past. In digital electronics, logic circuits with this property are referred to as sequential logic, in contrast to the simpler combinatorial logic without such internal memory. In molecular biology, memory is implemented in various forms such as biochemical modification of proteins or multistable gene circuits, but the design of the regulatory interface, which processes the input signals and the memory content, is often not well understood. Here, we explore design constraints for such regulatory interfaces using coarse-grained nonlinear models and stochastic simulations of detailed biochemical reaction networks. We test different designs for biological analogs of the most versatile memory element in digital electronics, the JK-latch. Our analysis shows that simple protein-protein interactions and protein-DNA binding are sufficient, in principle, to implement genetic circuits with the capabilities of a JK-latch. However, it also exposes fundamental limitations to its reliability, due to the fact that biological signal processing is asynchronous, in contrast to most digital electronics systems that feature a central clock to orchestrate the timing of all operations. We describe a seemingly natural way to improve the reliability by invoking the master-slave concept from digital electronics design. This concept could be useful to interpret the design of natural regulatory circuits, and for the design of synthetic biological systems. PMID:23874595

  19. Building a path in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeltz, Gia; Cheeseman, Iain

    2012-11-01

    Setting up a new lab is an exciting but challenging prospect. We discuss our experiences in finding a path to tackle some of the key current questions in cell biology and the hurdles that we have encountered along the way.

  20. A chemist building paths to cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    Galileo is reported to have stated, "Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so." My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path.

  1. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association Histio UK Histiocytosis Association of America National Organization for Rare Disorders Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Langerhans cell histiocytosis, multifocal Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  3. Teaching Cell Biology in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francele de Abreu Carlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic concepts of cell biology are essential for scientific literacy. However, because many aspects of cell theory and cell functioning are quite abstract, students experience difficulties understanding them. In this study, we investigated whether diverse teaching resources such as the use of replicas of Leeuwenhoek’s microscope, visualization of cells using an optical microscope, construction of three-dimensional cell models, and reading of a comic book about cells could mitigate the difficulties encountered when teaching cell biology to 8th-grade primary school students. The results suggest that these didactic activities improve students’ ability to learn concrete concepts about cell biology, such as the composition of living beings, growth, and cicatrization. Also, the development of skills was observed, as, for example, the notion of cell size. However, no significant improvements were observed in students’ ability to learn about abstract topics, such as the structures of subcellular organelles and their functions. These results suggest that many students in this age have not yet concluded Piaget’s concrete operational stage, indicating that the concepts required for the significant learning of abstract subjects need to be explored more thoroughly in the process of designing programs that introduce primary school students to cell biology.

  4. Biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mammary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Kittrell, Frances S.; Shepard, Anne; Stephens, L. Clifton; Jiang, Cheng; Lu, Junxuan; Allred, D. Craig; McCarthy, Maureen; Ullrich, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of the tumor suppressor gene p53 confers an increased tumorigenic risk for mammary epithelial cells. In this report, we describe the biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mouse mammary epithelium in a p53 wild-type environment. Mammary epithelium from p53 null mice was transplanted serially into the cleared mammary fat pads of p53 wild-type BALB/c female to develop stable outgrowth lines. The outgrowth lines were transplanted for 10 generations. The outgrowths were ductal in morphology and progressed through ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ before invasive cancer. The preneoplastic outgrowth lines were immortal and exhibited activated telomerase activity. They are estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive, and aneuploid, and had various levels of tumorigenic potential. The biological and genetic properties of these lines are distinct from those found in most hyperplastic alveolar outgrowth lines, the form of mammary preneoplasia occurring in most traditional models of murine mammary tumorigenesis. These results indicate that the preneoplastic cell populations found in this genetically engineered model are similar in biological properties to a subset of precurser lesions found in human breast cancer and provide a unique model to identify secondary events critical for tumorigenicity and invasiveness.

  5. Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Fatima, Farah; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C.; Penfornis, Patrice; Valadi, Hadi; Ekström, Karin; Kholia, Sharad; Whitt, Jason D.; Fernandes, Joseph D.; Pochampally, Radhika; Squire, Jeremy A.; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies. PMID:26649044

  6. Deciphering genetic diversity and inheritance of tomato fruit weight and composition through a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Laura; Xu, Jiaxin; Biais, Benoît; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Desgroux, Aurore; Faurobert, Mireille; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    Integrative systems biology proposes new approaches to decipher the variation of phenotypic traits. In an effort to link the genetic variation and the physiological and molecular bases of fruit composition, the proteome (424 protein spots), metabolome (26 compounds), enzymatic profile (26 enzymes), and phenotypes of eight tomato accessions, covering the genetic diversity of the species, and four of their F1 hybrids, were characterized at two fruit developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red). The contents of metabolites varied among the genetic backgrounds, while enzyme profiles were less variable, particularly at the cell expansion stage. Frequent genotype by stage interactions suggested that the trends observed for one accession at a physiological level may change in another accession. In agreement with this, the inheritance modes varied between crosses and stages. Although additivity was predominant, 40% of the traits were non-additively inherited. Relationships among traits revealed associations between different levels of expression and provided information on several key proteins. Notably, the role of frucktokinase, invertase, and cysteine synthase in the variation of metabolites was highlighted. Several stress-related proteins also appeared related to fruit weight differences. These key proteins might be targets for improving metabolite contents of the fruit. This systems biology approach provides better understanding of networks controlling the genetic variation of tomato fruit composition. In addition, the wide data sets generated provide an ideal framework to develop innovative integrated hypothesis and will be highly valuable for the research community.

  7. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens.

  8. Improving microalgae for biotechnology--From genetics to synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavova, Monika; Turoczy, Zoltan; Bisova, Katerina

    2015-11-01

    Microalgae have traditionally been used in many biotechnological applications, where each new application required a different species or strain expressing the required properties; the challenge therefore is to isolate or develop, characterize and optimize species or strains that can express more than one specific property. In agriculture, breeding of natural variants has been successfully used for centuries to improve production traits in many existing plant and animal species. With the discovery of the concepts of classical genetics, these new ideas have been extensively used in selective breeding. However, many biotechnologically relevant algae do not possess the sexual characteristics required for traditional breeding/crossing, although they can be modified by chemical and physical mutagens. The resulting mutants are not considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their cultivation is therefore not limited by legislation. On the other hand, mutants prepared by random or specific insertion of foreign DNA are considered to be GMOs. This review will compare the effects of two genetic approaches on model algal species and will summarize their advantages in basic research. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of mutagenesis to improve microalgae as a biotechnological resource, to accelerate the process from specific strain isolation to growth optimization, and discuss the production of new products. Finally, we will explore the potential of algae in synthetic biology.

  9. A knowledge base for teaching biology situated in the context of genetic testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, P.A.M.; Waarlo, A.J.; Brekelmans, M.; Akkerman, S.F.; Vermunt, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testin

  10. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  11. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  12. Genetic Manipulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiges, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    One of the great advantages of embryonic stem (ES) cells over other cell types is their accessibility to genetic manipulation. They can easily undergo genetic modifications while remaining pluripotent, and can be selectively propagated, allowing the clonal expansion of genetically altered cells in culture. Since the first isolation of ES cells in mice, many effective techniques have been developed for gene delivery and manipulation of ES cells. These include transfection, electroporation, and infection protocols, as well as different approaches for inserting, deleting, or changing the expression of genes. These methods proved to be extremely useful in mouse ES cells, for monitoring and directing differentiation, discovering unknown genes, and studying their function, and are now being extensively implemented in human ES cells (HESCs). This chapter describes the different approaches and methodologies that have been applied for the genetic manipulation of HESCs and their applications. Detailed protocols for generating clones of genetically modified HESCs by transfection, electroporation, and infection will be described, with special emphasis on the important technical details that are required for this purpose. All protocols are equally effective in human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  13. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    made recently in the field of stem cell biology, researchers now have improved tools to define novel populations of stem cells, examine them ex vivo using conditions that promote self-renewal, track them into recipients, and determine whether they can contribute to the repair of damaged tissues......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...

  14. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  15. Insights into Monascus biology at the genetic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanchun; Lei, Ming; Mao, Zejing; Zhou, Youxiang; Chen, Fusheng

    2014-05-01

    The genus of Monascus was nominated by van Tieghem in 1884, but its fermented product-red mold rice (RMR), namely red yeast rice, has been used as folk medicines, food colorants, and fermentation starters for more than thousands of years in oriental countries. Nowadays, RMR is widely developed as food supplements around the world due to its functional compounds such as monacolin K (MK, also called lovastatin) and γ-aminobutyric acid. But the usage of RMR also incurs controversy resulting from contamination of citrinin (a kind of mycotoxin) produced by some Monascus strains. In the past decade, it has made great progress to Monascus spp. at the genetic level with the application of molecular biology techniques to restrain the citrinin production and increase the yields of MK and pigment in RMR, as well as aid Monascus classification and phylogenesis. Up to now, hundreds of papers about Monascus molecular biology (MMB) have been published in the international primary journals. However, to our knowledge, there is no MMB review issued until now. In this review, current understanding of Monascus spp. from the view of molecular biology will be covered and insights into research areas that need to be further investigated will also be discussed.

  16. 59. Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology: Molecular genetics of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Investigation of the mechanistic aspects of cancer has its roots in the studies on tumor viruses and their effects on cell proliferation, function, and growth. This outstanding progress was well documented in previous Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. In the early to mid 1980s, progress on the development of chromosome mapping strategies and the accumulation of DNA probes that identified polymorphisms, encouraged by the international Human Genome Project, enabled the identification of other genes that contributed to familial inheritance of high susceptibility to specific cancers. This approach was very successful and led to a degree of optimism that one aspect of cancer, the multistep genetic process from early neoplasia to metastatic tumors, was beginning to be understood. It therefore seemed appropriate that the 59th Symposium on Quantitative Biology focus attention on the Molecular Genetics of Cancer. The concept was to combine the exciting progress on the identification of new genetic alterations in human tumor cells with studies on the function of the cancer gene products and how they go awry in tumor cells.

  17. An Audiovisual Program in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Sergey; Opel, William

    1978-01-01

    A subtopic of cell biology, the structure and function of cell membranes, has been developed as a series of seven self-instructional slide-tape units and tested in five medical schools. Organization of advisers, analysis and definition of objectives and content, and development and evaluation of scripts and storyboards are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  18. Cell biology: More than skin deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In studying how stem cells make and maintain tissues, nearly every chapter of a cell biology textbook is of interest. The field even allows us to venture where no chapters have yet been written. In studying this basic problem, we are continually bombarded by nature’s surprises and challenges. PMID:26056136

  19. Strategies to genetically engineer T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Nagato, Kaoru; Nishimura, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most promising and innovative approaches to treat cancer, viral infections, and other immune-modulated diseases. Adoptive immunotherapy using gene-modified T cells is an exciting and rapidly evolving field. Exploiting knowledge of basic T cell biology and immune cell receptor function has fostered innovative approaches to modify immune cell function. Highly translatable clinical technologies have been developed to redirect T cell specificity by introducing designed receptors. The ability to engineer T cells to manifest desired phenotypes and functions is now a thrilling reality. In this review, we focus on outlining different varieties of genetically engineered T cells, their respective advantages and disadvantages as tools for immunotherapy, and their promise and drawbacks in the clinic. PMID:27138532

  20. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED HARDWARE CELL ARCHITECTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a system comprising: - a reconfigurable hardware platform; - a plurality of hardware units defined as cells adapted to be programmed to provide self-organization and self-maintenance of the system by means of implementing a program expressed in a programming language defined as DNA...

  1. Cell biology of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as w...

  2. Cell biology solves mysteries of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes.

  3. Optimization of genetic analysis for single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hussein mouawia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes. This study has allowed us to reduce the duration of cell lysis in order to perform the step of expanding genomic PEP (primer extension preamplification directly after lysis the same day and the quality of genomic amplification and eliminate purification step of the product PEP, step with a risk of contamination and risk of loss of genetic material related to manipulation. This approach has shown that the combination of at least 3 STR (short tandem repeat markers for genetic analysis of single cell improves the efficiency and accuracy of PCR and minimizes the loss of allele (allele drop out; ADO. This protocol can be applied to large scale and an effective means suitable for genetic testing for molecular diagnostic from isolated single cell (cancerous - fetal.

  4. Measuring cell identity in noisy biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Kussell, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression measurements are increasingly obtained as a function of cell type, spatial position within a tissue and other biologically meaningful coordinates. Such data should enable quantitative analysis of the cell-type specificity of gene expression, but such analyses can often be confounded by the presence of noise. We introduce a specificity measure Spec that quantifies the information in a gene's complete expression profile regarding any given cell type, and an uncertainty me...

  5. Microsystems for biological cell characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce...

  6. Progeria: translational insights from cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Leslie B; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S

    2012-10-01

    Cell biologists love to think outside the box, pursuing many surprising twists and unexpected turns in their quest to unravel the mysteries of how cells work. But can cell biologists think outside the bench? We are certain that they can, and clearly some already do. To encourage more cell biologists to venture into the realm of translational research on a regular basis, we would like to share a handful of the many lessons that we have learned in our effort to develop experimental treatments for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an endeavor that many view as a "poster child" for how basic cell biology can be translated to the clinic.

  7. Embryonic stem cells: prospects for developmental biology and cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Anna M; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2005-04-01

    Stem cells represent natural units of embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, in particular, possess a nearly unlimited self-renewal capacity and developmental potential to differentiate into virtually any cell type of an organism. Mouse ES cells, which are established as permanent cell lines from early embryos, can be regarded as a versatile biological system that has led to major advances in cell and developmental biology. Human ES cell lines, which have recently been derived, may additionally serve as an unlimited source of cells for regenerative medicine. Before therapeutic applications can be realized, important problems must be resolved. Ethical issues surround the derivation of human ES cells from in vitro fertilized blastocysts. Current techniques for directed differentiation into somatic cell populations remain inefficient and yield heterogeneous cell populations. Transplanted ES cell progeny may not function normally in organs, might retain tumorigenic potential, and could be rejected immunologically. The number of human ES cell lines available for research may also be insufficient to adequately determine their therapeutic potential. Recent molecular and cellular advances with mouse ES cells, however, portend the successful use of these cells in therapeutics. This review therefore focuses both on mouse and human ES cells with respect to in vitro propagation and differentiation as well as their use in basic cell and developmental biology and toxicology and presents prospects for human ES cells in tissue regeneration and transplantation.

  8. Dealing with the genetic load in bacterial synthetic biology circuits: convergences with the Ohm's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Ballestero, M.; Garcia-Ramallo, E.; Montañez, R.; Rodriguez-Caso, C.; Macía, J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to envision living cells as a matter of engineering. However, increasing evidence suggests that the genetic load imposed by the incorporation of synthetic devices in a living organism introduces a sort of unpredictability in the design process. As a result, individual part characterization is not enough to predict the behavior of designed circuits and thus, a costly trial-error process is eventually required. In this work, we provide a new theoretical framework for the predictive treatment of the genetic load. We mathematically and experimentally demonstrate that dependences among genes follow a quantitatively predictable behavior. Our theory predicts the observed reduction of the expression of a given synthetic gene when an extra genetic load is introduced in the circuit. The theory also explains that such dependence qualitatively differs when the extra load is added either by transcriptional or translational modifications. We finally show that the limitation of the cellular resources for gene expression leads to a mathematical formulation that converges to an expression analogous to the Ohm's law for electric circuits. Similitudes and divergences with this law are outlined. Our work provides a suitable framework with predictive character for the design process of complex genetic devices in synthetic biology. PMID:26656950

  9. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, Philip T; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios. PMID:27087849

  10. Genetics of Psoriasis and Pharmacogenetics of Biological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Prieto-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. The causes of psoriasis are unknown, although family and twin studies have shown genetic factors to play a key role in its development. The many genes associated with psoriasis and the immune response include TNFα, IL23, and IL12. Advances in knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis have enabled the development of new drugs that target cytokines (e.g., etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab, which target TNFα, and ustekinumab, which targets the p40 subunit of IL23 and IL12. These drugs have improved the safety and efficacy of treatment in comparison with previous therapies. However, not all patients respond equally to treatment, possibly owing to interindividual genetic variability. In this review, we describe the genes associated with psoriasis and the immune response, the biological drugs used to treat chronic severe plaque psoriasis, new drugs in phase II and III trials, and current knowledge on the implications of pharmacogenomics in predicting response to these treatments.

  11. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  12. Biological invasions in agricultural settings: insights from evolutionary biology and population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Ciosi, Marc; Lombaert, Eric; Estoup, Arnaud

    2011-03-01

    Invasion biology and agriculture are intimately related for several reasons and in particular because many agricultural pest species are recent invaders. In this article we suggest that the reconstruction of invasion routes with population genetics-based methods can address fundamental questions in ecology and practical aspects of the management of biological invasions in agricultural settings. We provide a brief description of the methods used to reconstruct invasion routes and describe their main characteristics. In particular, we focus on a scenario--the bridgehead invasion scenario --which had been overlooked until recently. We show that this scenario, in which an invasive population is the source of other invasive populations, is evolutionarily parsimonious and may have played a crucial role in shaping the distribution of many recent agricultural pests.

  13. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  14. Advances in Retinal Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.

  15. Omnis cellula e cellula revisited: cell biology as the foundation of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicholas A; Poulsom, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This 2012 Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology argues strongly that cell biology, in its many disciplines, underpins the foundation of our understanding of the mechanisms of disease-the holy grail of pathology. Our increasing knowledge of the human genome will not be enough to attain this goal without parallel developments in our comprehension of the results, at the cellular level, of these genetic changes. In the end, it is cell biology and cell biologists who will deliver this mission.

  16. Nanotechnologies and chemical tools for cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing

    This dissertation describes several nanotechnologies and chemical tools that I have developed to probe living cells. Chapter one gives a brief overview on the current status of biomedical and biotechnological applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this chapter, strategies for functionalization of CNTs with emphasis on biological applications are reviewed. Representative developments in biosensing, bioimaging, intracellular delivery, and tissue engineering are presented. Recent studies on toxicity of CNTs are also discussed. Chapter two describes the development of a nanoscale cell injector for delivery of cargo to the interior of living cells without physiological harm. A CNT attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this "nanoneedle", followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. Chapter three presents a biomimetic functionalization strategy for interfacing CNTs with biological systems. The potential biological applications of CNTs have been limited by their insolubility in aqueous environment and their intrinsic toxicity. We developed a biomimetic surface modification of CNTs using glycosylated polymers designed to mimic natural cell surface mucin glycoproteins interactions. Chapter four further extends the biomimetic strategy for functionalization of CNTs to glycosylated dendrimers. We developed a new class of amphiphilic bifunctional glycodendrimers that comprised carbohydrate units displayed in the periphery and a pyrene tail that bound to SWNT surface via pi-pi interactions. The glycodendrimer-coated CNTs were soluble in water, and noncytotoxic. We also demonstrated that the coated CNTs could interface with biological systems including proteins and cells. Chapter five presents a biosensing application of glycodenderimer-coated CNTs. SWNTN-FETs coated with glycodendrimers were

  17. The biology of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Neethan A; Shimono, Yohei; Qian, Dalong; Clarke, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Cancers originally develop from normal cells that gain the ability to proliferate aberrantly and eventually turn malignant. These cancerous cells then grow clonally into tumors and eventually have the potential to metastasize. A central question in cancer biology is, which cells can be transformed to form tumors? Recent studies elucidated the presence of cancer stem cells that have the exclusive ability to regenerate tumors. These cancer stem cells share many characteristics with normal stem cells, including self-renewal and differentiation. With the growing evidence that cancer stem cells exist in a wide array of tumors, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and differentiation because corruption of genes involved in these pathways likely participates in tumor growth. This new paradigm of oncogenesis has been validated in a growing list of tumors. Studies of normal and cancer stem cells from the same tissue have shed light on the ontogeny of tumors. That signaling pathways such as Bmi1 and Wnt have similar effects in normal and cancer stem cell self-renewal suggests that common molecular pathways regulate both populations. Understanding the biology of cancer stem cells will contribute to the identification of molecular targets important for future therapies.

  18. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    It is known that the addition of phosphate buffer to two polymer aqueous phase systems has a strong effect on the partition behavior of cells and other particles in such mixtures. The addition of sodium phosphate to aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) dextran phase systems causes a concentration-dependent shift in binodial on the phase diagram, progressively lowering the critical conditions for phase separation as the phosphate concentration is increased. Sodium chloride produces no significant shift in the critical point relative to the salt-free case. Accurate determinations of the phase diagram require measurements of the density of the phases; data is presented which allows this parameter to be calculated from polarimetric measurements of the dextran concentrations of both phases. Increasing polymer concentrations in the phase systems produce increasing preference of the phosphate for the dextran-rich bottom phase. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that poly(ethylene glycol) effectively rejected phosphate, and to a lesser extent chloride, but that dextran had little effect on the distribution of either salt. Increasing ionic strength via addition of 0.15 M NaCl to phase systems containing 0.01 M phosphate produces an increased concentration of phosphate ions in the bottom dextran-rich phase, the expected effect in this type of Donnan distribution.

  19. Pragmatic turn in biology: From biological molecules to genetic content operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guenther; Witzany

    2014-01-01

    Erwin Schrdinger‘s question "What is life?" received the answer for decades of "physics + chemistry". The concepts of Alain Turing and John von Neumann introduced a third term: "information". This led to the understanding of nucleic acid sequences as a natural code. Manfred Eigen adapted the concept of Hammings "sequence space". Similar to Hilbert space, in which every ontological entity could be defined by an unequivocal point in a mathematical axiomatic system, in the abstract "sequence space" concept each point represents a unique syntactic structure and the value of their separation represents their dissimilarity. In this concept molecular features of the genetic code evolve by means of self-organisation of matter. Biological selection determines the fittest types among varieties of replication errors of quasi-species. The quasi-species concept dominated evolution theory for many decades. In contrast to this, recent empirical data on the evolution of DNA and its forerunners, the RNA-world and viruses indicate cooperative agent-based interactions. Group behaviour of quasi-species consortia constitute de novo and arrange available genetic content for adaptational purposes within real-life contexts that determine epigenetic markings. This review focuses on some fundamental changes in biology, discarding its traditional status as a subdiscipline of physics and chemistry.

  20. Pragmatic turn in biology: From biological molecules to genetic content operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2014-08-26

    Erwin Schrödinger's question "What is life?" received the answer for decades of "physics + chemistry". The concepts of Alain Turing and John von Neumann introduced a third term: "information". This led to the understanding of nucleic acid sequences as a natural code. Manfred Eigen adapted the concept of Hammings "sequence space". Similar to Hilbert space, in which every ontological entity could be defined by an unequivocal point in a mathematical axiomatic system, in the abstract "sequence space" concept each point represents a unique syntactic structure and the value of their separation represents their dissimilarity. In this concept molecular features of the genetic code evolve by means of self-organisation of matter. Biological selection determines the fittest types among varieties of replication errors of quasi-species. The quasi-species concept dominated evolution theory for many decades. In contrast to this, recent empirical data on the evolution of DNA and its forerunners, the RNA-world and viruses indicate cooperative agent-based interactions. Group behaviour of quasi-species consortia constitute de novo and arrange available genetic content for adaptational purposes within real-life contexts that determine epigenetic markings. This review focuses on some fundamental changes in biology, discarding its traditional status as a subdiscipline of physics and chemistry. PMID:25225596

  1. Towards systems thinking in cell biology education

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeff, Roald Pieter

    2003-01-01

    Students are taught a large variety of life structures and processes at the cellular level. The concepts used to describe them are mainly drawn from the sub-cellular level, but this knowledge seems to be fragmentary if its integration at the cellular and organismic level remains undone. As a consequence, many students fail to acquire coherent conceptual understanding of the cell as a basic and functional unit of the organism. To enhance the coherence in students’ cell biological knowledge we ...

  2. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  3. An electrostatic model for biological cell division

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Eshel

    2010-01-01

    Probably the most fundamental processes for biological systems is their ability to create themselves through the use of cell division and cell differentiation. In this work a simple physical model is proposed for biological cell division. The model consists of a positive ionic gradient across the cell membrane, and concentration of charge at the nodes of the spindle and on the chromosomes. A simple calculation, based on Coulomb's Law, shows that under such circumstances a chromosome will tend to break up to its constituent chromatids and that the chromatids will be separated by a distance that is an order of thirty percent of the distance between the spindle nodes. Further repulsion between the nodes will tend to stretch the cell and eventually break the cell membrane between the separated chromatids, leading to cell division. The importance of this work is in continuing the understanding of the electromagnetic basis of cell division and providing it with an analytical model. A central implication of this and...

  4. The Effects of Meiosis/Genetics Integration and Instructional Sequence on College Biology Student Achievement in Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Mark

    The purpose of the research was to manipulate two aspects of genetics instruction in order to measure their effects on college, introductory biology students' achievement in genetics. One instructional sequence that was used dealt first with monohybrid autosomal inheritance patterns, then sex-linkage. The alternate sequence was the reverse.…

  5. Electron Tomography in Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of electron tomography-based techniques to our understanding of cellular processes in plant cells. Electron microscopy techniques have evolved to provide better three-dimensional resolution and improved preservation of the subcellular components. In particular, the combination of cryofixation/freeze substitution and electron tomography have allowed plant cell biologists to image organelles and macromolecular complexes in their native cellular context with unprecedented three-dimensional resolution (4-7 nm). Until now, electron tomography has been applied in plant cell biology for the study of cytokinesis, Golgi structure and trafficking, formation of plant endosome/prevacuolar compartments, and organization of photosynthetic membranes. We discuss in this review the new insights that these tomographic studies have brought to the plant biology field.

  6. Molecular biology and genetics of embryonic eyelid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Tal J; Weber, Adam C; Traboulsi, Elias I

    2016-09-01

    The embryology of the eyelid is a complex process that includes interactions between the surface ectoderm and mesenchymal tissues. In the mouse and human, the eyelids form and fuse before birth; they open prenatally in the human and postnatally in the mouse. In the mouse, cell migration is stimulated by different growth factors such as FGF10, TGF-α, Activin B, and HB-EGF. These growth factors modulate downstream BMP4 signaling, the ERK cascade, and JNK/c-JUN. Several mechanisms, such as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, may inhibit and regulate eyelid fusion. Eyelid opening, on the other hand, is driven by the BMP/Smad signaling system. Several human genetic disorders result from dysregulation of the above molecular pathways. PMID:26863902

  7. Biological Insights From 108 Schizophrenia-Associated Genetic Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James TR; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B; Black, Donald W; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G; Buckner, Randy L; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M; Carr, Vaughan J; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V; Chambert, Kimberley D; Chan, Raymond CK; Chan, Ronald YL; Chen, Eric YH; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric FC; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H; Farrell, Martilias S; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M; Henskens, Frans A; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V; Hougaard, David M; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C; Kennedy, James L; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, Jimmy; Lee, S Hong; Legge, Sophie E; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Maher, Brion S; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C; Murray, Robin M; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E; Purcell, Shaun M; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A; Richards, Alexander L; Roffman, Joshua L; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R; Schulze, Thomas G; Schwab, Sibylle G; Scolnick, Edward M; Scott, Rodney J; Seidman, Larry J; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C A; Stahl, Eli A; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B; Williams, Nigel M; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H; Wolen, Aaron R; Wong, Emily HM; Wormley, Brandon K; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A; Blackwood, Douglas HR; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Børglum, Anders D; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V; Jönsson, Erik G; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F; Li, Qingqin S; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K; McCarroll, Steven A; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L; Mortensen, Preben B; Mowry, Bryan J; Nöthen, Markus M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Michael J; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N; Petryshen, Tracey L; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R; Wendland, Jens R; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J; Sullivan, Patrick F; O’Donovan, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here, we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely novel insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and multiple genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that play important roles in immunity, providing support for the hypothesized link between the immune system and schizophrenia. PMID:25056061

  8. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  9. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-10-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of such a situated learning approach. What content knowledge do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This study describes the required content knowledge by exploring the educational practice and clinical genetic practices. Nine experienced teachers and 12 respondents representing the clinical genetic practices (clients, medical professionals, and medical ethicists) were interviewed about the biological concepts and ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) of testing they considered relevant to empowering students as future health care clients. The ELSA suggested by the respondents were complemented by suggestions found in the literature on genetic counselling. The findings revealed that the required teacher knowledge consists of multiple layers that are embedded in specific genetic test situations: on the one hand, the knowledge of concepts represented by the curricular framework and some additional concepts (e.g. multifactorial and polygenic disorder) and, on the other hand, more knowledge of ELSA and generic characteristics of genetic test practice (uncertainty, complexity, probability, and morality). Suggestions regarding how to translate these characteristics, concepts, and ELSA into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  10. Cell reprogramming: a new chemical approach to stem cell biology and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, L; Piccoli, M; Garatti, A; Conforti, E; Scaringi, R; Bergante, S; Castelvecchio, S; Venerando, B; Menicanti, L; Tettamanti, G

    2011-02-01

    Generation of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult fibroblasts starts a "new era" in stem cell biology, as it overcomes several key issues associated with previous approaches, including the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem cells. However, as the genetic approach for cell reprogramming has already shown potential safety issues, a chemical approach may be a safer and easier alternative. Moreover, a chemical approach could be advantageous not only for the de-differentiation phase, but also for inducing reprogrammed cells into the desired cell type with higher efficiency than current methodologies. Finally, a chemical approach may be envisioned to activate resident adult stem cells to proliferate and regenerate damaged tissues in situ, without the need for exogenous cell injections.

  11. Mammalian skin cell biology: at the interface between laboratory and clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Fiona M

    2014-11-21

    Mammalian skin research represents the convergence of three complementary disciplines: cell biology, mouse genetics, and dermatology. The skin provides a paradigm for current research in cell adhesion, inflammation, and tissue stem cells. Here, I discuss recent insights into the cell biology of skin. Single-cell analysis has revealed that human epidermal stem cells are heterogeneous and differentiate in response to multiple extrinsic signals. Live-cell imaging, optogenetics, and cell ablation experiments show skin cells to be remarkably dynamic. High-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded unprecedented insights into the circuitry that controls epidermal stem cell fate. Last, integrative biological analysis of human skin disorders has revealed unexpected functions for elements of the skin that were previously considered purely structural.

  12. Study on the biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer vascular endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer vascular endothelial cells,including the aspects of morphology,species,genetics,vascular formation ability,and proliferation ability in vitro. Methods The human pancreatic cancer cells were inoculated in nude mice pancreas to get pancreatic cancer

  13. Cells — An Open Access Journal of Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To expand the open access publishing project of our newly founded company MDPI [1,2] based in Basel, Switzerland, we are in the process of launching new journals. Based on our success in running journals that represent key areas in science and technology, such as Molecules [3], Sensors [4], Energies [5], Viruses [6], Pharmaceuticals [7], Cancers [8] and Toxins [9], we are launching a new journal entitled Cells. It is an open access journal combining cell biology, molecular biology and biophysics, toward an understanding of cell structure, function and interactions. [...

  14. Genetic Manipulation of NK Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy: Techniques and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Mattias; Childs, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Given their rapid and efficient capacity to recognize and kill tumor cells, natural killer (NK) cells represent a unique immune cell to genetically reprogram in an effort to improve the outcome of cell-based cancer immunotherapy. However, technical and biological challenges associated with gene delivery into NK cells have significantly tempered this approach. Recent advances in viral transduction and electroporation have now allowed detailed characterization of genetically modified NK cells and provided a better understanding for how these cells can be utilized in the clinic to optimize their capacity to induce tumor regression in vivo. Improving NK cell persistence in vivo via autocrine IL-2 and IL-15 stimulation, enhancing tumor targeting by silencing inhibitory NK cell receptors such as NKG2A, and redirecting tumor killing via chimeric antigen receptors, all represent approaches that hold promise in preclinical studies. This review focuses on available methods for genetic reprograming of NK cells and the advantages and challenges associated with each method. It also gives an overview of strategies for genetic reprograming of NK cells that have been evaluated to date and an outlook on how these strategies may be best utilized in clinical protocols. With the recent advances in our understanding of the complex biological networks that regulate the ability of NK cells to target and kill tumors in vivo, we foresee genetic engineering as an obligatory pathway required to exploit the full potential of NK-cell based immunotherapy in the clinic.

  15. Femtosecond fabricated surfaces for cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min

    2010-08-01

    Microfabrication using femtosecond pulse lasers is enabling access to a range of structures, surfaces and materials that was not previously available for scientific and engineering applications. The ability to produce micrometre sized features directly in polymer and metal substrates is demonstrated with applications in cell biology. The size, shape and aspect ratio of the etched features can be precisely controlled through the manipulation of the fluence of the laser etching process with respect to the properties of the target material. Femtosecond laser etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) and aluminium substrates has enabled the production of micrometre resolution moulds that can be accurately replicated using soft lithography. The moulded surfaces are used in the imaging of T cells and demonstrate the improved ability to observe biological events over time periods greater than 10 h. These results indicate the great potential femtosecond pulse lasers may have in the future manufacturing of microstructured surfaces and devices.

  16. Micrasterias as a model system in plant cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Luetz-Meindl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its extraordinary star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 µm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

  17. Micrasterias as a Model System in Plant Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its complex star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 μm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells. PMID:27462330

  18. The Kynurenine Pathway in Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Simon P; Guillemin, Gilles J; Bruce J Brew

    2013-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the main catabolic pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan. The KP has been identified to play a critical role in regulating immune responses in a variety of experimental settings. It is also known to be involved in several neuroinflammatory diseases including Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. This review considers the current understanding of the role of the KP in stem cell biology. Both of these fundamental ar...

  19. The cell biology of fat expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Stern, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciphering adipocyte cell biology is an important component of understanding how the aberrant physiology of expanding adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity. PMID:25733711

  20. Biological cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Frederick; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report a manipulation of biological cells (erythrocytes) by magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. The experiment was accomplished on the top of a micro-electromagnet consisting of two magnetic field generating contours. An electric current flowing through the contour(s) produces a non-uniform magnetic field, which is about 1.4 mT/μm in strength at 100 mA current in the vicinity of the current-carrying wire. In responses to the magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles move towards the systems energy minima. In turn, magnetic nanoparticles drag biological cells in the same direction. We present experimental data showing cell manipulation through the control of electric current. This technique allows us to capture and move cells located in the vicinity (10-20 microns) of the current-carrying wires. One of the most interesting results shows a periodic motion of erythrocytes between the two conducting contours, whose frequency is controlled by an electric circuit. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of non-destructive cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles with micrometer-scale precision.

  1. Autophagic regulation of smooth muscle cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabei, Joshua K.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy regulates the metabolism, survival, and function of numerous cell types, including those comprising the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, changes in autophagy have been documented in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions and in hypertensive vessels. The biology of vascular smooth muscle cells appears particularly sensitive to changes in the autophagic program. Recent evidence indicates that stimuli or stressors evoked during the course of vascular disease can regulate autophagic activity, resulting in modulation of VSMC phenotype and viability. In particular, certain growth factors and cytokines, oxygen tension, and pharmacological drugs have been shown to trigger autophagy in smooth muscle cells. Importantly, each of these stimuli has a redox component, typically associated with changes in the abundance of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or lipid species. Collective findings support the hypothesis that autophagy plays a critical role in vascular remodeling by regulating smooth muscle cell phenotype transitions and by influencing the cellular response to stress. In this graphical review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of autophagy in the biology of the smooth muscle cell in (patho)physiology. PMID:25544597

  2. Autophagic regulation of smooth muscle cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Salabei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy regulates the metabolism, survival, and function of numerous cell types, including those comprising the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, changes in autophagy have been documented in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions and in hypertensive vessels. The biology of vascular smooth muscle cells appears particularly sensitive to changes in the autophagic program. Recent evidence indicates that stimuli or stressors evoked during the course of vascular disease can regulate autophagic activity, resulting in modulation of VSMC phenotype and viability. In particular, certain growth factors and cytokines, oxygen tension, and pharmacological drugs have been shown to trigger autophagy in smooth muscle cells. Importantly, each of these stimuli has a redox component, typically associated with changes in the abundance of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or lipid species. Collective findings support the hypothesis that autophagy plays a critical role in vascular remodeling by regulating smooth muscle cell phenotype transitions and by influencing the cellular response to stress. In this graphical review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of autophagy in the biology of the smooth muscle cell in (pathophysiology.

  3. Cell biological analyses of anther morphogenesis and pollen viability in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang; Zhang, Zaibao; Jin, Yue; Ma, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Major advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of anther development through a combination of genetic studies, cell biological technologies, biochemical analysis, microarray and high-throughput sequencing-based approaches. In this chapter, we summarize the widely used protocols for pollen viability staining; the investigation of anther morphogenesis by light microscopy of semi-thin sections; TUNEL assay for programmed tapetum cell death; and laser microdissection procedures to obtain specialized cells or cell layers for carrying out transcriptomics.

  4. Stem cells - biological update and cell therapy progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlovanu, Mihai; Susman, Sergiu; Soritau, Olga; Rus-Ciuca, Dan; Melincovici, Carmen; Constantin, Anne-Marie; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods to prevent teratoma formation or the ethical and religious issues regarding especially the embryonic stem cell research. The direct differentiation of stem cells into specialized cells: cardiac myocytes, neural cells, pancreatic islets cells, may represent an option in treating incurable diseases such as: neurodegenerative diseases, type I diabetes, hematologic or cardiac diseases. Nevertheless, stem cell-based therapies, based on stem cell transplantation, remain mainly at the experimental stages and their major limitation is the development of teratoma and cancer after transplantation. The induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent a prime candidate for future cell therapy research because of their significant self-renewal and differentiation potential and the lack of ethical issues. This article presents an overview of the biological advances in the study of stem cells and the current progress made in the field of regenerative medicine.

  5. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro C Ucero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alvaro C Ucero1,*, Sara Gonçalves2,*, Alberto Benito-Martin1, Beatriz Santamaría1, Adrian M Ramos1, Sergio Berzal1, Marta Ruiz-Ortega1, Jesus Egido1, Alberto Ortiz11Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Fundación Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo, Madrid, Spain; 2Nefrologia e Transplantação Renal, Hospital de Santa Maria EPE, Lisbon, Portugal *Both authors contributed equally to the manuscriptAbstract: Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.Keywords: urinary tract obstruction, renal injury, fluid mechanics, molecular cell biology

  6. Cell biology: at the center of modern biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Priya Prakash; Williams, Elizabeth H; Misteli, Tom

    2012-10-01

    How does basic cell biology contribute to biomedicine? A new series of Features in JCB provides a cross section of compelling examples of how basic cell biology findings can lead to therapeutics. These articles highlight the fruitful, essential, and increasingly prominent bridge that exists between cell biology and the clinic.

  7. Contribution of genetics and genomics to seagrass biology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccini, Gabriele; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity is one of three forms of biodiversity recognized by the IUCN as deserving conservation along with species and ecosystems. Seagrasses provide all three levels in one. This review addresses the latest advances in our understanding of seagrass population genetics and genomics within t

  8. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from Animals I. Basic Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, LeLuo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. McFarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to grea...

  10. Regulation of mutagenesis by exogenous biological factors in the eukaryotic cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukash L. L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The representations of the mutations and the nature of spontaneous mutation process and mutagenesis induced by exogenous oncoviruses, DNAs and proteins-mitogens are analysed. Exogenous biological factors induce DNA damages in regulatory-informational way, acting on the cellular systems for maintenance of genetical stability. Molecular mechanisms are the same as at spontaneous mutagenesis but they are realized with the participation of alien genetical material. Among biological mutagens, the oncoviruses and mobile genetic elements (MGEs are distinguished as the strongest destabilizing factors which direct tumor transformation of somatic mammalian cells. Genetical reprogramming or changing the programs of gene expression at the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells under growth factors and citokines is probably followed by mutations and recombinations as well.

  11. Micro and nanoplatforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper some of the technological platforms developed in our group for biological cell analysis will be highlighted. The paper first presents a short introduction pinpointing the advantages of using micro and nano technology in cellular studies. The issues of requiring transient analysis...... studies mimicking the in vivo situation is presented and an example of surface modification for cellular growth is described. Then novel electronic sensor platforms are discussed and an example of a nanosensor with electronic readout is given utilizing both micro- and nanotechnology. Finally an example...

  12. Cell biology and EMF safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Living cells react defensively and start to synthesize stress proteins when exposed to potentially harmful stimuli. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are among the many different environmental stimuli that initiate stress protein synthesis. Although there is greater energy transfer and heating due to EMF at higher frequencies, there is no greater stress response. The cellular stress response is far more sensitive to EMF than to an increase in temperature. It should be obvious that an EMF safety standard should be based on the more sensitive, natural biological response.

  13. A sensitive method to extract DNA from biological traces present on ammunition for the purpose of genetic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Dieltjes, Patrick; Mieremet, René; Zuniga, Sofia; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Exploring technological limits is a common practice in forensic DNA research. Reliable genetic profiling based on only a few cells isolated from trace material retrieved from a crime scene is nowadays more and more the rule rather than the exception. On many crime scenes, cartridges, bullets, and casings (jointly abbreviated as CBCs) are regularly found, and even after firing, these potentially carry trace amounts of biological material. Since 2003, the Forensic Laboratory for DNA Research is...

  14. Designer nanoparticle: nanobiotechnology tool for cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B.; Khan, Niamat Ali

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the use of nanotechnology for subcellular compartment isolation and its application towards subcellular omics. This technology review significantly contributes to our understanding on use of nanotechnology for subcellular systems biology. Here we elaborate nanobiotechnology approach of using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) optimized with different surface coatings for subcellular organelle isolation. Using pulse-chase approach, we review that SPMNPs interacted differently with the cell depending on its surface functionalization. The article focuses on the use of functionalized-SPMNPs as a nanobiotechnology tool to isolate high quality (both purity and yield) plasma membranes and endosomes or lysosomes. Such nanobiotechnology tool can be applied in generating subcellular compartment inventories. As a future perspective, this strategy could be applied in areas such as immunology, cancer and stem cell research.

  15. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  16. Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Seibert, M.; Boutet, Sébastien; Svenda, Martin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Bogan, Michael J.; Tîmneanu, Nicusor; Barty, Anton; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Caleman, Carl; Frank, Matthias; Benner, Henry; Y Lee, Joanna; Marchesini, Stefano; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Bajt, Sasa; Andersson, Inger; Chapman, Henry N.; Hajdu, Janos

    2010-10-01

    In a flash diffraction experiment, a short and extremely intense x-ray pulse illuminates the sample to obtain a diffraction pattern before the onset of significant radiation damage. The over-sampled diffraction pattern permits phase retrieval by iterative phasing methods. Flash diffractive imaging was first demonstrated on an inorganic test object (Chapman et al 2006 Nat. Phys. 2 839-43). We report here experiments on biological systems where individual cells were imaged, using single, 10-15 fs soft x-ray pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength from the FLASH free-electron laser in Hamburg. Simulations show that the pulse heated the sample to about 160 000 K but not before an interpretable diffraction pattern could be obtained. The reconstructed projection images return the structures of the intact cells. The simulations suggest that the average displacement of ions and atoms in the hottest surface layers remained below 3 Å during the pulse.

  17. Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin Seibert, M; Boutet, Sebastien; Svenda, Martin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R N C; TImneanu, Nicusor; Caleman, Carl; Hajdu, Janos [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Husargatan 3, Box 596, SE-75124 Uppsala (Sweden); Bogan, Michael J [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Barty, Anton; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Frank, Matthias; Benner, Henry [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lee, Joanna Y [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Stefano [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shaevitz, Joshua W [150 Carl Icahn Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fletcher, Daniel A [Bioengineering and Biophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bajt, Sasa [Photon Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Andersson, Inger [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Husargatan 3, Box 590, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Chapman, Henry N, E-mail: marvin@xray.bmc.uu.s, E-mail: janos@xray.bmc.uu.s [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, University of Hamburg and DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-10-14

    In a flash diffraction experiment, a short and extremely intense x-ray pulse illuminates the sample to obtain a diffraction pattern before the onset of significant radiation damage. The over-sampled diffraction pattern permits phase retrieval by iterative phasing methods. Flash diffractive imaging was first demonstrated on an inorganic test object (Chapman et al 2006 Nat. Phys. 2 839-43). We report here experiments on biological systems where individual cells were imaged, using single, 10-15 fs soft x-ray pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength from the FLASH free-electron laser in Hamburg. Simulations show that the pulse heated the sample to about 160 000 K but not before an interpretable diffraction pattern could be obtained. The reconstructed projection images return the structures of the intact cells. The simulations suggest that the average displacement of ions and atoms in the hottest surface layers remained below 3 A during the pulse.

  18. Exploring Contemporary Issues in Genetics & Society: Karyotyping, Biological Sex, & Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    In this two-part activity, high school biology students examine human karyotyping, sex-chromosome-linked disorders, and the relationship between biological sex and gender. Through interactive simulations and a structured discussion lab, students create a human karyotype and diagnose chromosomal disorders in hypothetical patients, as well as…

  19. Biologic and Genetics Aspects of Chagas Disease at Endemic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Marilanda Ferreira Bellini; Rosana Silistino-Souza; Marileila Varella-Garcia; Maria Tercília Vilela Azeredo-Oliveira; Ana Elizabete Silva

    2012-01-01

    The etiologic agent of Chagas Disease is the Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted through blood-sucking insect vectors of the Triatominae subfamily, representing one of the most serious public health concerns in Latin America. There are geographic variations in the prevalence of clinical forms and morbidity of Chagas disease, likely due to genetic variation of the T. cruzi and the host genetic and environmental features. Increasing evidence has supported that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines a...

  20. Molecular genetics, physiology and biology of self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    WATANABE, Masao; SUWABE, Keita; SUZUKI, Go

    2012-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is defined as the inability to produce zygotes after self-pollination in a fertile hermaphrodite plant, which has stamens and pistils in the same flower. This structural organization of the hermaphrodite flower increases the risk of self-pollination, leading to low genetic diversity. To avoid this problem plants have established several pollination systems, among which the most elegant system is surely SI. The SI trait can be observed in Brassica crops, including cabbage, broccoli, turnip and radish. To produce hybrid seed of these crops efficiently, the SI trait has been employed in an agricultural context. From another point of view, the recognition reaction of SI during pollen-stigma interaction is an excellent model system for cell-cell communication and signal transduction in higher plants. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms of SI in Brassicaceae, which have been dissected by genetic, physiological, and biological approaches, and we discuss the future prospects in relation to associated scientific fields and new technologies. PMID:23229748

  1. Forward genetics in Tribolium castaneum: opening new avenues of research in arthropod biology

    OpenAIRE

    Peel, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper in BMC Biology reports the first large-scale insertional mutagenesis screen in a non-drosophilid insect, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. This screen marks the beginning of a non-biased, 'forward genetics' approach to the study of genetic mechanisms operating in Tribolium. See research article http://biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/7/73

  2. Prospect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Genetic Repair to Cure Genetic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In genetic diseases, where the cells are already damaged, the damaged cells can be replaced by new normal cells, which can be differentiated from iPSC. To avoid immune rejection, iPSC from the patient’s own cell can be developed. However, iPSC from the patients’s cell harbors the same genetic aberration. Therefore, before differentiating the iPSCs into required cells, genetic repair should be done. This review discusses the various technologies to repair the genetic aberration in patient-derived iPSC, or to prevent the genetic aberration to cause further damage in the iPSC-derived cells, such as Zn finger and TALE nuclease genetic editing, RNA interference technology, exon skipping, and gene transfer method. In addition, the challenges in using the iPSC and the strategies to manage the hurdles are addressed.

  3. Cell Wall Biology: Perspectives from Cell Wall Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  4. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-07-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of an educational approach based on situated learning. What expertise do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This article describes the required expertise by exploring the educational practice. Nine experienced teachers were interviewed about the pedagogical content, moral and interpersonal expertise areas concerning how to teach genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing, and the lessons of five of them were observed. The findings showed that the required teacher expertise encompasses specific pedagogical content expertise, interpersonal expertise and a preference for teacher roles and teaching approaches for the moral aspects of teaching in this context. A need for further development of teaching and learning activities for (reflection on) moral reasoning came to the fore. Suggestions regarding how to apply this expertise into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  5. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  6. The biology of circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, K; Speicher, M R

    2016-03-10

    Metastasis is a biologically complex process consisting of numerous stochastic events which may tremendously differ across various cancer types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that are shed from primary tumors and metastatic deposits into the blood stream. CTCs bear a tremendous potential to improve our understanding of steps involved in the metastatic cascade, starting from intravasation of tumor cells into the circulation until the formation of clinically detectable metastasis. These efforts were propelled by novel high-resolution approaches to dissect the genomes and transcriptomes of CTCs. Furthermore, capturing of viable CTCs has paved the way for innovative culturing technologies to study fundamental characteristics of CTCs such as invasiveness, their kinetics and responses to selection barriers, such as given therapies. Hence the study of CTCs is not only instrumental as a basic research tool, but also allows the serial monitoring of tumor genotypes and may therefore provide predictive and prognostic biomarkers for clinicians. Here, we review how CTCs have contributed to significant insights into the metastatic process and how they may be utilized in clinical practice.

  7. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden;

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases...

  8. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodriguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julia, Antonio; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kahler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilainen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Soderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Borglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tonu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jonsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and

  9. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  10. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  11. Genetics of T Cell Defects in Lupus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifang Chen; Laurence More

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by anti-nuclear autoantibodies that cause damage to multiple organs and tissues. Intrinsic defects have been demonstrated in the lymphoid and myeloid cellular compartments, including T cells. Lupus susceptibility is mediated through the interplay of a large number of genes, most of which are still unidentified. Most of the genetic studies in both human patients and mouse models have addressed lupus susceptibility as a whole. More recently however, more attention has been paid to the inheritance of specific lupus-associated phenotypes. In this review, we summarized our results obtained with the Slel locus in the NZM2410 mouse model, which mediates the generation of anti-histone autoreactive T cells. Sle1,which is constituted of multiple genes, is the only known genomic region that is sufficient for the generation of autoreactive T cells. The identification of the corresponding genes will constitute a landmark for our understanding of the mechanisms of autoimmunity. Our results are discussed in the context of candidate genes and the role of T cells in systemic autoimmunity.

  12. From cell biology to the microbiome: An intentional infinite loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Wendy S

    2015-07-01

    Cell biology is the study of the structure and function of the unit or units of living organisms. Enabled by current and evolving technologies, cell biologists today are embracing new scientific challenges that span many disciplines. The eclectic nature of cell biology is core to its future and remains its enduring legacy.

  13. Exploring Middle School Students' Conceptions of the Relationship between Genetic Inheritance and Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; DeBarger, Angela Haydel; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Zhou, Xuechun; Tate, Erika

    2012-01-01

    This study examines students' understanding of the normative connections between key concepts of cell division, including both mitosis and meiosis, and underlying biological principles that are critical for an in-depth understanding of genetic inheritance. Using a structural equation modeling method, we examine middle school students'…

  14. Stochastic responses may allow genetically diverse cell populations to optimize performance with simpler signaling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Govern

    Full Text Available Two theories have emerged for the role that stochasticity plays in biological responses: first, that it degrades biological responses, so the performance of biological signaling machinery could be improved by increasing molecular copy numbers of key proteins; second, that it enhances biological performance, by enabling diversification of population-level responses. Using T cell biology as an example, we demonstrate that these roles for stochastic responses are not sufficient to understand experimental observations of stochastic response in complex biological systems that utilize environmental and genetic diversity to make cooperative responses. We propose a new role for stochastic responses in biology: they enable populations to make complex responses with simpler biochemical signaling machinery than would be required in the absence of stochasticity. Thus, the evolution of stochastic responses may be linked to the evolvability of different signaling machineries.

  15. Biological Insights From 108 Schizophrenia-Associated Genetic Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James TR; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    Summary Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here, we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Asso...

  16. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control

    OpenAIRE

    Leftwich, Philip; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutil...

  17. Genetics of Psoriasis and Pharmacogenetics of Biological Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Prieto-Pérez; Teresa Cabaleiro; Esteban Daudén; Dolores Ochoa; Manuel Roman; Francisco Abad-Santos

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. The causes of psoriasis are unknown, although family and twin studies have shown genetic factors to play a key role in its development. The many genes associated with psoriasis and the immune response include TNF α , IL23, and IL12. Advances in knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis have enabled the development of new drugs that target cytokines (e.g., etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab, which target TNF α , and ustekinumab, whi...

  18. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such gene...

  19. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Genetics and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), widely prevalent across the globe, is a major stakeholder among adult visual morbidity and blindness, not only in the Western world but also in Asia. Several risk factors have been identified, including critical genetic factors, which were never imagined 2 decades ago. The etiopathogenesis is emerging to demonstrate that immune and complement-related inflammation pathway members chronically exposed to environmental insults could justifiably influence disease morbidity and treatment outcomes. Approximately half a dozen physiological and biochemical cascades are disrupted in the AMD disease genesis, eventually leading to the distortion and disruption of the subretinal space, subretinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch membrane, thus setting off chaos and disorder for signs and symptoms to manifest. Approximately 3 dozen genetic factors have so far been identified, including the recent ones, through powerful genomic technologies and large robust sample sizes. The noteworthy genetic variants (common and rare) are complement factor H, complement factor H-related genes 1 to 5, C3, C9, ARMS2/HTRA1, vascular endothelial growth factor A, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/KDR, and rare variants (show causal link) such as TIMP3, fibrillin, COL4A3, MMP19, and MMP9. Despite the enormous amount of scientific information generated over the years, diagnostic genetic or biomarker tests are still not available for clinicians to understand the natural course of the disease and its management in a patient. However, further research in the field should reduce this gap not only by aiding the clinician but also through the possibilities of clinical intervention with complement pathway-related inhibitors entering preclinical and clinical trials in the near future. PMID:27488064

  20. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  1. Cell Biology and Pathology of Podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greka, Anna; Mundel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    As an integral member of the filtration barrier in the kidney glomerulus, the podocyte is in a unique geographical position: It is exposed to chemical signals from the urinary space (Bowman’s capsule), it receives and transmits chemical and mechanical signals to/from the glomerular basement membrane upon which it elaborates, and it receives chemical and mechanical signals from the vascular space with which it also communicates. As with every cell, the ability of the podocyte to receive signals from the surrounding environment and to translate them to the intracellular milieu is dependent largely on molecules residing on the cell membrane. These molecules are the first-line soldiers in the ongoing battle to sense the environment, to respond to friendly signals, and to defend against injurious foes. In this review, we take a membrane biologist’s view of the podocyte, examining the many membrane receptors, channels, and other signaling molecules that have been implicated in podocyte biology. Although we attempt to be comprehensive, our goal is not to capture every membrane-mediated pathway but rather to emphasize that this approach may be fruitful in understanding the podocyte and its unique properties. PMID:22054238

  2. Computational cell biology at the home of the helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan J; Nédélec, Francois J

    2010-06-01

    The Computational Cell Biology Conference, held jointly by the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the Wellcome Trust, was convened in the grand surroundings of Hinxton Hall near Cambridge, UK. The high quality of the research presented at the meeting confirmed that the field of computational cell biology is maturing rapidly, which mirrors the progression of cell biology from being mostly descriptive to a more quantitative discipline.

  3. Genetic abolishment of hepatocyte proliferation activates hepatic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Endo

    Full Text Available Quiescent hepatic stem cells (HSCs can be activated when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. Chemical injury rodent models have been widely used to study the localization, biomarkers, and signaling pathways in HSCs, but these models usually exhibit severe promiscuous toxicity and fail to distinguish damaged and non-damaged cells. Our goal is to establish new animal models to overcome these limitations, thereby providing new insights into HSC biology and application. We generated mutant mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 (DDB1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in hepatocytes. We characterized the molecular mechanism underlying the compensatory activation and the properties of oval cells (OCs by methods of mouse genetics, immuno-staining, cell transplantation and gene expression profiling. We show that deletion of DDB1 abolishes self-renewal capacity of mouse hepatocytes in vivo, leading to compensatory activation and proliferation of DDB1-expressing OCs. Partially restoring proliferation of DDB1-deficient hepatocytes by ablation of p21, a substrate of DDB1 E3 ligase, alleviates OC proliferation. Purified OCs express both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, form colonies in vitro, and differentiate to hepatocytes after transplantation. Importantly, the DDB1 mutant mice exhibit very minor liver damage, compared to a chemical injury model. Microarray analysis reveals several previously unrecognized markers, including Reelin, enriched in oval cells. Here we report a genetic model in which irreversible inhibition of hepatocyte duplication results in HSC-driven liver regeneration. The DDB1 mutant mice can be broadly applied to studies of HSC differentiation, HSC niche and HSCs as origin of liver cancer.

  4. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz;

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  5. Biological Signal Processing with a Genetic Toggle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Hillenbrand; Georg Fritz; Ulrich Gerland

    2013-01-01

    Complex gene regulation requires responses that depend not only on the current levels of input signals but also on signals received in the past. In digital electronics, logic circuits with this property are referred to as sequential logic, in contrast to the simpler combinatorial logic without such internal memory. In molecular biology, memory is implemented in various forms such as biochemical modification of proteins or multistable gene circuits, but the design of the regulatory interface, ...

  6. Biology of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Milella, Alessandra Felici

    2011-01-01

    cell biology and tumor-host interactions may hold the key to future advances in such a complex and challenging disease.

  7. ``Physical Concepts in Cell Biology,'' an upper level interdisciplinary course in cell biophysics/mathematical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2009-03-01

    I will describe my experience in developing an interdisciplinary biophysics course addressed to students at the upper undergraduate and graduate level, in collaboration with colleagues in physics and biology. The students had a background in physics, biology and engineering, and for many the course was their first exposure to interdisciplinary topics. The course did not depend on a formal knowledge of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Instead, the approach was based on dynamics. I used diffusion as a universal ``long time'' law to illustrate scaling concepts. The importance of statistics and proper counting of states/paths was introduced by calculating the maximum accuracy with which bacteria can measure the concentration of diffuse chemicals. The use of quantitative concepts and methods was introduced through specific biological examples, focusing on model organisms and extremes at the cell level. Examples included microtubule dynamic instability, the search and capture model, molecular motor cooperativity in muscle cells, mitotic spindle oscillations in C. elegans, polymerization forces and propulsion of pathogenic bacteria, Brownian ratchets, bacterial cell division and MinD oscillations.

  8. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  9. Is all fair in biological warfare? The controversy over genetically engineered biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, J M

    2009-07-01

    Advances in genetics may soon make possible the development of ethnic bioweapons that target specific ethnic or racial groups based upon genetic markers. While occasional published reports of such research generate public outrage, little has been written about the ethical distinction (if any) between the development of such weapons and ethnically neutral bioweapons. The purpose of this paper is to launch a debate on the subject of ethnic bioweapons before they become a scientific reality. PMID:19567692

  10. Cell-free biology: exploiting the interface between synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, D. Calvin; Jewett, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the chemistry of life. At the interface between chemistry and biology, research in cell-free synthetic systems is proceeding in two different directions: using synthetic biology ...

  11. Cranial suture biology and dental development: genetic and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, P J; Mortier, G; Marks, L A; Martens, L C

    2007-09-01

    Premature fusion of the calvarial bones at the sutures, or craniosynostosis (CS), is a relatively common birth defect (1:2000-3000) frequently associated with limb deformity. Patients with CS may present oral defects, such as cleft soft palate, hypodontia, hyperdontia, and delayed tooth eruption, but also unusual associations of major dental anomalies such as taurodontism, microdontia, multiple dens invaginatus, and dentin dysplasia. The list of genes that are involved in CS includes those coding for the different fibroblast growth factor receptors and a ligand of ephrin receptors, but also genes encoding transcription factors, such as MSX2 and TWIST. Most of these genes are equally involved in odontogenesis, providing a pausible explanation for clinical associations of CS with dental agenesis or tooth malformations. On the basis of the present knowledge on genes and transcription factors that are involved in craniofacial morphogenesis, and from dental clinics of CS syndromes, the molecular mechanisms that control suture formation and suture closure are expected to play key roles in patterning events and development of teeth. The purpose of this article is to review and merge the recent advances in the field of suture research at the genetic and cellular levels with those of tooth development, and to apply them to the dental clinics of CS syndromes. These new perspectives and future challenges in the field of both dental clinics and molecular genetics, more in particular the identification of possible candidate genes involved in both CS and dental defects, are discussed.

  12. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  13. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  14. Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, C. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

  15. The collective biology of the gene: Towards genetic dynamics engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatin dynamics is studied in terms of coupled vibrations (phonon pairing); this is shown to lead to a collective variable Δ, interpreted as a gene inhibition factor, which behaves as a biological switch turned off, not only by enzymatic action or metabolic energy, but also by means of an external probe:irradiation. We discuss the inactivation of the X chromosome and puffing. The relevance of being able to modulate Δ is emphasized, since it is equivalent to controlling chromatin dynamics without interfering with chromatin structure, unlike in the usual recombinant DNA techniques. (author)

  16. A chemical genetics approach for specific differentiation of stem cells to somatic cells: a new promising therapeutical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachinidis, Agapios; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Seelig, Bianca; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hescheler, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy of severe degenerative diseases such as diabetes, myocardial infarction and Parkinson's disease through transplantation of somatic cells generated from embryonic stem (ES) cells is currently receiving considerable attention for the therapeutic applications. ES cells harvested from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the early embryo, can proliferate indefinitely in vitro while retaining the ability to differentiate into all somatic cells thereby providing an unlimited renewable source of somatic cells. In this context, identifying soluble factors, in particular chemically synthesized small molecules, and signal cascades involved in specific differentiation processes toward a defined tissue specific cell type are crucial for optimizing the generation of somatic cells in vitro for therapeutic approaches. However, experimental models are required allowing rapid and "easy-to-handle" parallel screening of chemical libraries to achieve this goal. Recently, the forward chemical genetic screening strategy has been postulated to screen small molecules in cellular systems for a specific desired phenotypic effect. The current review is focused on the progress of ES cell research in the context of the chemical genetics to identify small molecules promoting specific differentiation of ES cells to desired cell phenotype. Chemical genetics in the context of the cell ES-based cell replacement therapy remains a challenge for the near future for several scientific fields including chemistry, molecular biology, medicinal physics and robotic technologies.

  17. Biological and genetic markers of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelborghs S

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new treatments, there is an increasing need for early diagnosis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, biological markers allowing positive diagnosis early in the course of the disease are highly desirable. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of protein tau were shown to be significantly increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Although sensitivity is high, poor specificity limits the diagnostic value of this marker. The same is true for the 42 amino acid isoform of beta-amyloid protein that is significantly decreased in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, combining both markers could improve specificity at least allowing differentiation between Alzheimer's disease, normal ageing and depressive pseudodementia. Other biological markers such as cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurotransmitters, cytokines or superoxide dismutase were shown to have even less diagnostic value. The apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease but not a diagnostic marker as many individuals who inherit epsilon 4 do not develop the disease. Till now, a single diagnostic marker allowing discrimination between Alzheimer's disease and other dementias does not exist. Combined cerebrospinal fluid levels of beta-amyloid protein and tau protein might be used as a marker that helps discriminating Alzheimer's disease from normal ageing and depression.

  18. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:23502560

  19. Peroxisystem: harnessing systems cell biology to study peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modelling of cells, recently dubbed systems cell biology, has been harnessed to study the organisation and dynamics of simple biological systems. Here, we suggest that the peroxisome, a fascinating dynamic organelle, can be used as a good candidate for studying a complete biological system. We discuss several aspects of peroxisomes that can be studied using high-throughput systematic approaches and be integrated into a predictive model. Such approaches can be used in the future to study and understand how a more complex biological system, like a cell and maybe even ultimately a whole organism, works.

  20. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Overview of KRAS-Driven Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Clare; Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    KRAS, the most frequently mutated oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer, has been utilized extensively to model human lung adenocarcinomas. The results from such studies have enhanced considerably an understanding of the relationship between KRAS and the development of lung cancer. Detailed in this overview are the features of various KRAS-driven genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of non-small cell lung cancer, their utilization, and the potential of these models for the study of lung cancer biology.

  2. Cell Biology and Microbiology: A Continuous Cross-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Microbiology and cell biology both involve the study of cells, albeit at different levels of complexity and scale. Interactions between both fields during the past 25 years have led to major conceptual and technological advances that have reshaped the whole biology landscape and its biomedical applications. PMID:27161870

  3. Cell Biology and Microbiology: A Continuous Cross-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Microbiology and cell biology both involve the study of cells, albeit at different levels of complexity and scale. Interactions between both fields during the past 25 years have led to major conceptual and technological advances that have reshaped the whole biology landscape and its biomedical applications.

  4. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  5. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  6. The Histochemistry and Cell Biology compendium: a review of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Douglas J; Roth, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    The year 2012 was another exciting year for Histochemistry and Cell Biology. Innovations in immunohistochemical techniques and microscopy-based imaging have provided the means for advances in the field of cell biology. Over 130 manuscripts were published in the journal during 2012, representing methodological advancements, pathobiology of disease, and cell and tissue biology. This annual review of the manuscripts published in the previous year in Histochemistry and Cell Biology serves as an abbreviated reference for the readership to quickly peruse and discern trends in the field over the past year. The review has been broadly divided into multiple sections encompassing topics such as method advancements, subcellular components, extracellular matrix, and organ systems. We hope that the creation of this subdivision will serve to guide the reader to a specific topic of interest, while simultaneously providing a concise and easily accessible encapsulation of other topics in the broad area of Histochemistry and Cell Biology.

  7. Biology of hyaluronan: Insights from genetic disorders of hyaluronan metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Triggs-Raine; Marvin; R; Natowicz

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a rapidly turned over component of the vertebrate extracellular matrix. Its levels are determined, in part, by the hyaluronan synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, and three hyaluronidases, HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3. Hyaluronan binding proteins also regulate hyaluronan levels although their involvement is less well understood. To date, two genetic disorders of hyaluronan metabolism have been reported in humans: HYAL1 deficiency(Mucopolysaccharidosis IX) in four individuals with joint pathology as the predominant phenotypic finding and HAS2 deficiency in a single person having cardiac pathology. However, inherited disorders and induced mutations affecting hyaluronan metabolism have been characterized in other species. Overproduction of hyaluronan by HAS2 results in skin folding and thickening in shar-pei dogs and the naked mole rat, whereas a complete deficiency of HAS2 causes embryonic lethality in mice due to cardiac defects. Deficiencies of murine HAS1 and HAS3 result in a predisposition to seizures. Like humans, mice with HYAL1 deficiency exhibit joint pathology. Mice lacking HYAL2 have variably penetrant developmental defects, including skeletal and cardiac anomalies. Thus, based on mutant animal models, a partial deficiency of HAS2 or HYAL2 might be compatible with survival in humans, while complete deficiencies of HAS1, HAS3, and HYAL3 may yet be recognized.

  8. Biology and genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakara, B.N.; Upadhyaya, H.D.; Gowda, C.L. Laxmipathi [Global Theme on Crop Improvement, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Wani, S.P. [Global Theme of Agroecosystems, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bio-diesel is a fast-developing alternative fuel in many developed and developing countries of the world. The bio-diesel production from vegetable oils during 2004-2005 was estimated 2.36 million tonnes globally. Of this, EU countries accounted for about 82% and USA about 6%. Global bio-diesel production is set to reach some 24 billion litres by 2017. Shortage of edible oil for human consumption in developing countries does not favour its use for bio-diesel production. Hence non-edible oil from crops like Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas) and Pongamia (Pongamiapinnata) is favoured for bio-diesel production and the trend is expected to continue. Especially J. curcas has gained attention in tropical and sub-tropical countries and has spread beyond its centre of origin, because of its hardiness, easy propagation, drought endurance, high oil content, rapid growth, adaptation to wide agro-climatic conditions, and multiple uses of plant as a whole. The full potential of J. curcas has not been realized due to several technological and economic reasons. One of the major reasons is the lack of high yielding varieties with high oil content. In this review, we attempt to discuss the currently available information on Jatropha species identity, taxonomy and description, distribution and ecological requirements of the species, possibilities of exploitation of genetic potentiality, exploitation of existing diversity for yield and oil content by direct selection, hybridization and creation of diversity by mutation, and biotechnological interventions. (author)

  9. A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Y; Okigaki, T

    2001-02-01

    The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the

  10. Toward Network Biology in E. coli Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirotada; Takeuchi, Rikiya; Otsuka, Yuta; Bowden, Steven; Yokoyama, Katsushi; Muto, Ai; Libourel, Igor; Wanner, Barry L

    2015-01-01

    E. coli has been a critically important model research organism for more than 50 years, particularly in molecular biology. In 1997, the E. coli draft genome sequence was published. Post-genomic techniques and resources were then developed that allowed E. coli to become a model organism for systems biology. Progress made since publication of the E. coli genome sequence will be summarized.

  11. A quick guide to light microscopy in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Light microscopy is a key tool in modern cell biology. Light microscopy has several features that make it ideally suited for imaging biology in living cells: the resolution is well-matched to the sizes of subcellular structures, a diverse range of available fluorescent probes makes it possible to mark proteins, organelles, and other structures for imaging, and the relatively nonperturbing nature of light means that living cells can be imaged for long periods of time to follow their dynamics. Here I provide a brief introduction to using light microscopy in cell biology, with particular emphasis on factors to be considered when starting microscopy experiments. PMID:26768859

  12. [Experimental models in oncology: contribution of cell culture on understanding the biology of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mariana; Enes, Margarida; Pereira, Marta; Dourado, Marília; Sarmento Ribeiro, Ana Bela

    2009-01-01

    In the beginning of the 20th century, tissue culture was started with the aim of studying the behaviour of animal cells in normal and stress conditions. The cell study at molecular level depends on their capacity of growing and how they can be manipulated in laboratory. In vitro cell culture allows us the possibility of studying biological key processes, such as growth, differentiation and cell death, and also to do genetic manipulations essential to the knowledge of structure and genes function. Human stem cells culture provides strategies to circumvent other models' deficiencies. It seems that cancer stem cells remain quiescent until activation by appropriated micro-environmental stimulation. Several studies reveal that different cancer types could be due to stem cell malignant transformations. Removal of these cells is essential to the development of more effective cancer therapies for advanced disease. On the other hand, dendritic cells modified in culture may be used as a therapeutic vaccine in order to induce tumour withdraw.

  13. Teaching biology through statistics: application of statistical methods in genetics and zoology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math-biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology. PMID:21885822

  14. Teaching biology through statistics: application of statistical methods in genetics and zoology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of mathematics into biology curricula is critical to underscore for undergraduate students the relevance of mathematics to most fields of biology and the usefulness of developing quantitative process skills demanded in modern biology. At our institution, we have made significant changes to better integrate mathematics into the undergraduate biology curriculum. The curricular revision included changes in the suggested course sequence, addition of statistics and precalculus as prerequisites to core science courses, and incorporating interdisciplinary (math-biology) learning activities in genetics and zoology courses. In this article, we describe the activities developed for these two courses and the assessment tools used to measure the learning that took place with respect to biology and statistics. We distinguished the effectiveness of these learning opportunities in helping students improve their understanding of the math and statistical concepts addressed and, more importantly, their ability to apply them to solve a biological problem. We also identified areas that need emphasis in both biology and mathematics courses. In light of our observations, we recommend best practices that biology and mathematics academic departments can implement to train undergraduates for the demands of modern biology.

  15. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  16. Genetic control of chromosome behaviour: Implications in evolution, crop improvement, and human biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes and chromosome pairing are pivotal to all biological sciences. The study of chromosomes helps unravel several aspects of an organism. Although the foundation of genetics occurred with the formulation of the laws of heredity in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequ...

  17. Improving Synthetic Biology Communication: Recommended Practices for Visual Depiction and Digital Submission of Genetic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Plahar, Hector A; Beal, Jacob; Prithviraj, Ranjini

    2016-06-17

    Research is communicated more effectively and reproducibly when articles depict genetic designs consistently and fully disclose the complete sequences of all reported constructs. ACS Synthetic Biology is now providing authors with updated guidance and piloting a new tool and publication workflow that facilitate compliance with these recommended practices and standards for visual representation and data exchange.

  18. Genetics and Faith: Religious Enchantment through Creative Engagement with Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kathleen E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article I develop heuristic types for understanding how the U.S. evangelical Christian subculture engages the newer science of molecular biology as it works to legitimate and enchant religious worldview: 1.) "symbolic engagement," employing genes and DNA as sacred icon; 2.) "disputatious engagement," debating genetic essentialism and…

  19. Exploring Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Teaching of Genetics in Swaziland Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Onwu, Gilbert Oke; de Villiers, Rian

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base…

  20. Improving Synthetic Biology Communication: Recommended Practices for Visual Depiction and Digital Submission of Genetic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Plahar, Hector A; Beal, Jacob; Prithviraj, Ranjini

    2016-06-17

    Research is communicated more effectively and reproducibly when articles depict genetic designs consistently and fully disclose the complete sequences of all reported constructs. ACS Synthetic Biology is now providing authors with updated guidance and piloting a new tool and publication workflow that facilitate compliance with these recommended practices and standards for visual representation and data exchange. PMID:27267452

  1. Perspectives in inflammation, neoplasia, and vascular cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgington, T.S.; Ross, R.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: Characterization of cDNAs for the Human Interleukin-2 Receptor; Regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by Phosphorylation; Endothelial Cell Proteases and Cellular Invasion; Structure and Chromosomal Localization of the Human Lymphotoxin Gene; and Vascular Endothelial Cells in Cell-Mediated Immunity: Adoptive Transfer with In Vitro Conditioned Cells is Genetically Restricted at the Endothelial Cell Barrier.

  2. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells play a critical role during embryonic development and in the maintenance of homeostasis in adult individuals. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB controls the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells, and accumulating evidence points to a central role for RB activity in the biology of stem and progenitor cells. In this review by Sage, recent studies investigating the role of RB in embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and progenitor cells in plants and mammals is ...

  3. Clinical, biological and genetic analysis of anorchia in 26 boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Brauner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anorchia is defined as the absence of testes in a 46,XY individual with a male phenotype. The cause is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and biological presentation, and family histories of 26 boys with anorchia, and sequenced their SRY, NR5A1, INSL3, MAMLD1 genes and the T222P variant for LGR8. RESULTS: No patient had any associated congenital anomaly. At birth, testes were palpable bilaterally or unilaterally in 13 cases and not in 7; one patient presented with bilateral testicular torsion immediately after birth. The basal plasma concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, n = 15, inhibin B (n = 7 and testosterone (n = 19 were very low or undetectable in all the patients evaluated, as were the increases in testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, n = 12. The basal plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH were increased in 20/25, as was that of luteinising hormone in 10/22 cases. Family members of 7/26 cases had histories of primary ovarian failure in the mother (n = 2, or sister 46,XX, together with fetal malformations of the only boy with microphallus and secondary foot edema (n = 1, secondary infertility in the father (n = 2, or cryptorchidism in first cousins (n = 2. The sequences of all the genes studied were normal. CONCLUSION: Undetectable plasma concentrations of AMH and inhibin B and an elevated plasma FSH, together with 46,XY complement are sufficient for diagnosis of anorchia. The hCG test is unnecessary. NR5A1 and other genes implicated in gonadal development and testicle descent were not mutated, which suggests that other genes involved in these developments contribute to the phenotypes.

  4. Cell biology: Death drags down the neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G.; Martin, Adam C.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis of dying cells reveals that they play an active part in modifying tissue shape by pulling on neighbouring cells. This induces neighbouring cells to contract at their apices, which results in tissue folding. See Letter p.245

  5. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

  6. Molecular biological study on genetic stability of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population cytogenetic study has been performed in 1022 healthy subjects and 547 cancer patients to determine baseline frequencies of autosomal rate fragile sites. Out of 17 rare autosomal fragile sites defined in HBM9 (1985), the following six were detected: fra(2)(q11), fra(10)(q25), fra(11)(q13), fra(11)(q23), fra(16)(q22) and fra(17)(q12). Other three new fragile sites were also detected: fra(8)(q24.1), fra(11)(q15.1) and fra(16)(p12.1). They were all distamycin A-inducible and located at the junctions of G/R-bands. The incidence of these autosomal fragile sites was 5% in both healthy subjects and cancer patients. Distamycin A-induced fragile sites may play a role in the etiology of leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders, and gynecological tumors. The present study also examined the mechanism of fragile X expression associated with fragile X syndrome in thymidine-prototrophic and auxotrophic human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. In these hybrid cells, both low and high thymidylate stresses were found to be effective in inducing fragile X expression, even in a hybrid clone that retained a fragile X chromosome as the only human chromosome. An addition of deoxycytidine completely abolished the effect of high thymidylate stress achieved by excess amounts of thymidine. It is concluded that the expression is an intrinsic property of the fragile X mutation resulting from chromosomal change in a special class of replicons with polypurine/polypyrimidine DNA sequence. (Namekawa, K)

  7. Cell and molecular biology for diagnostic and therapeutic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Our body contains 100 trillion cells. However, each cell has certain function and structure. For maintaining their integrity, cells will be collaborating with each other and with extracellular matrix surround them to form a tissue. These interactions effect internally on many networks or pathway such as signalling pathway, metabolic pathway and transport network in the cell. These networks interact with each other to maintain cell survival, cell structure and function and moreover the tissue as well as the organ which the cells built. Therefore, as part of a tissue, genetic and epigenetic abnormality of a cell can also alter these networks, and moreover disturb the function of the tissue itself. Hence, condition of genetic and epigenetic of the cell may affect other conditions in omics level such as transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics characteristics which can be differentiated by a particular unique molecular profile from each level, which can be used for diagnostic as well as for targeted therapy.

  8. Genetic Polymorphism, Telomere Biology and Non-Small Lung Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongrong; DeVilbiss, Frank T; Liu, Wanqing

    2015-10-20

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of chromosomal regions associated with the risk of lung cancer. Of these regions, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially rs2736100 located in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene show unique and significant association with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a few subpopulations including women, nonsmokers, East Asians and those with adenocarcinoma. Recent studies have also linked rs2736100 with a longer telomere length and lung cancer risk. In this review, we seek to summarize the relationship between these factors and to further link the underlying telomere biology to lung cancer etiology. We conclude that genetic alleles combined with environmental (e.g., less-smoking) and physiological factors (gender and age) that confer longer telomere length are strong risk factors for NSCLC. This linkage may be particularly relevant in lung adenocarcinoma driven by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, as these mutations have also been strongly linked to female gender, less-smoking history, adenocarcinoma histology and East Asian ethnicity. By establishing this connection, a strong argument is made for further investigating of the involvement of these entities during the tumorigenesis of NSCLC.

  9. Genetics of melanoma progression: the rise and fall of cell senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dorothy C

    2016-03-01

    There are many links between cell senescence and the genetics of melanoma, meaning both familial susceptibility and somatic-genetic changes in sporadic melanoma. For example, CDKN2A, the best-known melanoma susceptibility gene, encodes two effectors of cell senescence, while other familial melanoma genes are related to telomeres and their maintenance. This article aimed to analyze our current knowledge of the genetic or epigenetic driver changes necessary to generate a cutaneous metastatic melanoma, the commonest order in which these occur, and the relation of these changes to the biology and pathology of melanoma progression. Emphasis is laid on the role of cell senescence and the escape from senescence leading to cellular immortality, the ability to divide indefinitely. PMID:26386262

  10. From classical genetics to quantitative genetics to systems biology: modeling epistasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Aylor

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression data has been used in lieu of phenotype in both classical and quantitative genetic settings. These two disciplines have separate approaches to measuring and interpreting epistasis, which is the interaction between alleles at different loci. We propose a framework for estimating and interpreting epistasis from a classical experiment that combines the strengths of each approach. A regression analysis step accommodates the quantitative nature of expression measurements by estimating the effect of gene deletions plus any interaction. Effects are selected by significance such that a reduced model describes each expression trait. We show how the resulting models correspond to specific hierarchical relationships between two regulator genes and a target gene. These relationships are the basic units of genetic pathways and genomic system diagrams. Our approach can be extended to analyze data from a variety of experiments, multiple loci, and multiple environments.

  11. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. PMID:26668171

  12. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking.

  13. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; S. Wang; Wang, Y.; Wang, X-N.

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ‘entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  14. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  15. Waldenström macroglobulinemia: biology, genetics, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paludo J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Paludo,1,2 Stephen M Ansell,1 1Division of Hematology, 2Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM is a distinct clinicopathologic entity characterized by the presence of a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, a non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and IgM monoclonal gammopathy. WM is an indolent, uncommon malignancy mostly affecting the elderly. Patient outcomes have modestly improved since the introduction of rituximab to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy more than 20 years ago. However, the pivotal discovery of the somatic MYD88 L265P mutation, harbored by most patients with WM, and the somatic CXCR4 WHIM mutations, similar to germline CXCR4 mutations seen in the warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, and myelokathexis (WHIM syndrome, present in approximately one-third of patients with WM, has fundamentally changed our understanding of this disease and expanded the potential therapeutic targets. Within this new paradigm, ibrutinib emerged as a promising new drug. Ibrutinib targets Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, a downstream protein in the B-cell receptor pathway that is overactivated by the MYD88 L265P mutation. A seminal Phase II trial of ibrutinib in previously treated WM patients showed impressive response rates and confirmed the effects of MYD88 L265P and CXCR4 WHIM mutations in response to therapy. Ibrutinib is the first and only US Food and Drug Administration–approved drug specifically for the treatment of WM. However, before ibrutinib can be established as the standard of care for WM, long-term data regarding efficacy and safety are required. Further research to address ibrutinib resistance and cost-effectiveness is also imperative before ibrutinib can gain widespread acceptance. This review will cover the present pathophysiologic understanding of WM in light of the recent MYD88 and CXCR4 discovery, as well as current and emergent treatment regimens with focus on ibrutinib

  16. Prospects and challenges of quantitative phase imaging in tumor cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Götte, Martin; Greve, Burkhard; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques provide high resolution label-free quantitative live cell imaging. Here, prospects and challenges of QPI in tumor cell biology are presented, using the example of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). It is shown that the evaluation of quantitative DHM phase images allows the retrieval of different parameter sets for quantification of cellular motion changes in migration and motility assays that are caused by genetic modifications. Furthermore, we demonstrate simultaneously label-free imaging of cell growth and morphology properties.

  17. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  18. Progenitor cells in the kidney: biology and therapeutic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of

  19. Genetic Variation and Biological Control of Fusarium graminearum Isolated from Wheat in Assiut-Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and other cereal crops. Twelve isolates of F. graminearum were collected from naturally infected spikes of wheat from Assiut Egypt. These isolates were compared using SRAP. The results indicated distinct genetic groups exist within F. graminearum, and demonstrated that these groups have different biological properties, especially with respect to their pathogenicity on wheat. There were biologically significant differences between the groups; with group (B) isolates being more aggressive towards wheat than groups (A) and (C). Furthermore, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) which isolated from wheat kernels were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. They significantly reduced the growth of F. graminearum colonies in culture. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, highly antagonistic isolates of T. harzianum and B. subtilis were selected, based on their in vitro effectiveness, for greenhouse test. It was revealed that T. harzianum and B. subtilis significantly reduced FHB severity. The obtained results indicated that T. harzianum and B. subtilis are very effective biocontrol agents that offer potential benefit in FHB and should be harnessed for further biocontrol applications. The accurate analysis of genetic variation and studies of population structures have significant implications for understanding the genetic traits and disease control programs in wheat. This is the first known report of the distribution and genetic variation of F. graminearum on wheat spikes in Assiut Egypt. PMID:27147934

  20. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  1. Chemistry and biology of the compounds that modulate cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Etsu; Imoto, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental step for embryonic development, wound repair, immune responses, and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Extensive studies have attempted to reveal the molecular mechanisms behind cell migration; however, they remain largely unclear. Bioactive compounds that modulate cell migration show promise as not only extremely powerful tools for studying the mechanisms behind cell migration but also as drug seeds for chemotherapy against tumor metastasis. Therefore, we have screened cell migration inhibitors and analyzed their mechanisms for the inhibition of cell migration. In this mini-review, we introduce our chemical and biological studies of three cell migration inhibitors: moverastin, UTKO1, and BU-4664L.

  2. Lgr proteins in epithelial stem cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Tan, S.; Clevers, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate success of global efforts to exploit adult stem cells for regenerative medicine will depend heavily on the availability of robust, highly selective stem cell surface markers that facilitate the isolation of stem cells from human tissues. Any subsequent expansion or manipulation of isola

  3. Quantitative cell biology: the essential role of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative biology is a hot area, as evidenced by the recent establishment of institutes, graduate programs, and conferences with that name. But what is quantitative biology? What should it be? And how can it contribute to solving the big questions in biology? The past decade has seen very rapid development of quantitative experimental techniques, especially at the single-molecule and single-cell levels. In this essay, I argue that quantitative biology is much more than just the quantitation of these experimental results. Instead, it should be the application of the scientific method by which measurement is directed toward testing theories. In this view, quantitative biology is the recognition that theory and models play critical roles in biology, as they do in physics and engineering. By tying together experiment and theory, quantitative biology promises a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms, when the theory works, or to new discoveries, when it does not.

  4. Systems-biology dissection of eukaryotic cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews Justen; Przytycka Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recent article in BMC Biology illustrates the use of a systems-biology approach to integrate data across the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of budding yeast in order to dissect the relationship between nutrient conditions and cell growth. See research article http://jbiol.com/content/6/2/4 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/68

  5. Current view of mesenchymal stem cells biology (brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslova O. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are in a focus of attention, some aspects of their biology are still unclear. This paper is a review of current research on MSC biology. The use of MSC in regenerative medicine is also briefly discussed.

  6. Evaluation of the Redesign of an Undergraduate Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Laura April; Harris, dik; Schmid, Richard F.; Vogel, Jackie; Western, Tamara; Harrison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of the evaluation of a redesigned and redeveloped laboratory-based cell biology course. The course was a compulsory element of the biology program, but the laboratory had become outdated and was inadequately equipped. With the support of a faculty-based teaching improvement project, the teaching team redesigned the…

  7. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  8. Modeling human liver biology using stem cell-derived hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Pingnan; Zhou, XiaoLing; Farnworth, Sarah; Arvind H Patel; Hay, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-derived hepatocytes represent promising models to study human liver biology and disease. This concise review discusses the recent progresses in the field, with a focus on human liver disease, drug metabolism and virus infection.

  9. Modeling Human Liver Biology Using Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind H Patel; Hay, David C.; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Pingnan Sun; Xiaoling Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-derived hepatocytes represent promising models to study human liver biology and disease. This concise review discusses the recent progresses in the field, with a focus on human liver disease, drug metabolism and virus infection.

  10. Cell Biology: Cohesin Rings Leave Loose Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibbens, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Cohesins function in almost all aspects of chromosome biology. Two new studies confirm that a subset of cohesin subunits form a flexible but compressed ring that can be opened through degradation. X-ray crystallography supports potentially differing regulation of subunit associations. PMID:25649818

  11. Bacterial cell biology outside the streetlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    As much as vertical transmission of microbial symbionts requires their deep integration into the host reproductive and developmental biology, symbiotic lifestyle might profoundly affect bacterial growth and proliferation. This review describes the reproductive oddities displayed by bacteria associated - more or less intimately - with multicellular eukaryotes.

  12. Bacterial cell biology outside the streetlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    As much as vertical transmission of microbial symbionts requires their deep integration into the host reproductive and developmental biology, symbiotic lifestyle might profoundly affect bacterial growth and proliferation. This review describes the reproductive oddities displayed by bacteria associated - more or less intimately - with multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:27306428

  13. Raman spectroscopic study of a genetically altered kidney cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Joel; Garcia, Francisco; Centeno, Silvia P.; Joshi, N. V.

    2008-02-01

    A Raman spectroscopic investigation of a genetically altered Human Embryonic Kidney Cell (HEK293) along with a pathologically normal cell has been carried out by a conventional method. The genetic alteration was carried out with a standard protocol by using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP). Raman spectra show that there are dramatic differences between the spectrum obtained from a genetically altered cell and that obtained from a pathologically normal cell. The former shows three broad bands; meanwhile the latter shows several sharp peaks corresponding to the ring vibrational modes of Phen, GFP and DNA. The present analysis provides an indication that the force field near Phen located at 64, 65 and 66 was altered during the genetic transformation. The Raman spectrum could be a direct experimental evidence for substantial modifications triggered due to the expression of specific genes.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Central Sudarshan S, Pinto PA, Neckers L, Linehan WM. Mechanisms of disease: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer-- ... with a qualified healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Contact Us Selection Criteria for Links ...

  15. The Cell Biology of Fission Yeast Septation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cortés, Juan C; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    In animal cells, cytokinesis requires the formation of a cleavage furrow that divides the cell into two daughter cells. Furrow formation is achieved by constriction of an actomyosin ring that invaginates the plasma membrane. However, fungal cells contain a rigid extracellular cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane; thus, fungal cytokinesis also requires the formation of a special septum wall structure between the dividing cells. The septum biosynthesis must be strictly coordinated with the deposition of new plasma membrane material and actomyosin ring closure and must occur in such a way that no breach in the cell wall occurs at any time. Because of the high turgor pressure in the fungal cell, even a minor local defect might lead to cell lysis and death. Here we review our knowledge of the septum structure in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and of the recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction and how the two collaborate to build a cross-walled septum able to support the high turgor pressure of the cell. In addition, we discuss the importance of the septum biosynthesis for the steady ingression of the cleavage furrow.

  16. Quantum fluctuations of mesoscopic biological cell at finite temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-qi; XU Xing-lei

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the quantization of mesoscopic biological cell equivalent circuit,we studied the quantum fluctuations of voltage and current of mesoscopic biological cell equivalent circuit as finite temperature by Bogoliuov transformation.The result shows that the quantum fluctuations of voltage and current not only relate with the parameters of equivalent circuit,temperature,but also decay with time.This result may have significant value on the design and application of the bio-electronic apparatus.

  17. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Phair, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist–electrical engineer–systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a fu...

  18. The Effect of Hypoxia on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Ejtehadifar; Karim Shamsasenjan; Aliakbar Movassaghpour; Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh; Nima Dehdilani; Parvaneh Abbasi; Zahra Molaeipour; Mahshid Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Although physiological and pathological role of hypoxia have been appreciated in mammalians for decades however the cellular biology of hypoxia more clarified in the past 20 years. Discovery of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, in the 1990s opened a new window to investigate the mechanisms behind hypoxia. In different cellular contexts HIF-1 activation show variable results by impacting various aspects of cell biology such as cell cycle, apoptosis, diff...

  19. Stem cell biology and drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haston Kelly M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many reasons to be interested in stem cells, one of the most prominent being their potential use in finding better drugs to treat human disease. This article focuses on how this may be implemented. Recent advances in the production of reprogrammed adult cells and their regulated differentiation to disease-relevant cells are presented, and diseases that have been modeled using these methods are discussed. Remaining difficulties are highlighted, as are new therapeutic insights that have emerged.

  20. Advancing Our Understanding of Osteocyte Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Dayong; BONEWALD, LYNDA F.

    2009-01-01

    Osteocytes were the forgotten bone cell until the bone community could become convinced that these cells do serve an important role in bone function and maintenance. In this review we trace the history of osteocyte characterization and present some of the major observations that are leading to the conclusion that these cells are not passive placeholders residing in the bone matrix, but are indeed, major orchestrators of bone remodeling.

  1. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  2. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells induce mechanically stable posterior spine fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyn, D; Rüthemann, M; Mizrahi, O; Kallai, I; Zilberman, Y.; Tawackoli, W; Kanim, L E A; Zhao, L; Bae, H; Pelled, G.; Snedeker, J G; Gazit, D.

    2010-01-01

    Most spine fusion procedures involve the use of prosthetic fixation devices combined with autologous bone grafts rather than biological treatment. We had shown that spine fusion could be achieved by injection of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the paraspinal muscle. In this study, we hypothesized that posterior spinal fusion achieved using genetically modified MSCs would be mechanically comparable to that realized using a mechanical fixation....

  3. The biology of human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J. Bernink

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I performed studies to investigate the contribution of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in maintaining the mucosal homeostasis, initiating and/or propagating inflammatory responses, but also - when not properly regulated - how these cells contribute to immunopathology. First I descr

  4. Translating Stem Cell Biology Into Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application.

  5. Genetic interaction maps in Escherichia coli reveal functional crosstalk among cell envelope biogenesis pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As the interface between a microbe and its environment, the bacterial cell envelope has broad biological and clinical significance. While numerous biosynthesis genes and pathways have been identified and studied in isolation, how these intersect functionally to ensure envelope integrity during adaptive responses to environmental challenge remains unclear. To this end, we performed high-density synthetic genetic screens to generate quantitative functional association maps encompassing virtually the entire cell envelope biosynthetic machinery of Escherichia coli under both auxotrophic (rich medium and prototrophic (minimal medium culture conditions. The differential patterns of genetic interactions detected among > 235,000 digenic mutant combinations tested reveal unexpected condition-specific functional crosstalk and genetic backup mechanisms that ensure stress-resistant envelope assembly and maintenance. These networks also provide insights into the global systems connectivity and dynamic functional reorganization of a universal bacterial structure that is both broadly conserved among eubacteria (including pathogens and an important target.

  6. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Erik Ansink; Clemens C.M. Van de Wiel; Justus Wesseler

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringen...

  7. Vasoprotective Effects of Genetically Engineered Biologic Drugs in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    N.S. Meshcherina; L.А. Knyazeva; I I Goryainov; L I Knyazeva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the impact of genetically engineered biologic drugs (GEBD) — infliximab and rituximab — on endothelium functional state in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without any concomitant cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Мethods. The study involved 77 patients with RA aged from 18 to 50. The patients matched ACR (1987) or ACR/EULAR (2010) classification criteria, had no concomitant cardiovascular diseases, and had at least a two-year RA hi...

  8. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors: unique features awaiting clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublikova, Ludmila; Buchler, Tomas; Stary, Jan; Abrahamova, Jitka; Trka, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men characterized by distinct biologic features and clinical behavior. Both genetic predispositions and environmental factors probably play a substantial role in their etiology. TGTCs arise from a malignant transformation of primordial germ cells in a process that starts prenatally, is often associated with a certain degree of gonadal dysgenesis, and involves the acquirement of several specific aberrations, including activation of SCF-CKIT, amplification of 12p with up-regulation of stem cell genes, and subsequent genetic and epigenetic alterations. Their embryonic and germ origin determines the unique sensitivity of TGCTs to platinum-based chemotherapy. Contrary to the vast majority of other malignancies, no molecular prognostic/predictive factors nor targeted therapy is available for patients with these tumors. This review summarizes the principal molecular characteristics of TGCTs that could represent a potential basis for development of novel diagnostic and treatment approaches. PMID:24182421

  9. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Robert D

    2014-11-01

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist-electrical engineer-systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a future in which teams of experimentalists and modelers build-and subject to exhaustive experimental tests-models covering the entire spectrum from molecular cell biology to human pathophysiology. There is, in my view, no technical obstacle to this future, but it will require some plasticity in the biological research mind-set.

  10. Yury Borisovich Rumer and his 'biological papers' on the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-13

    Yury Borisovich Rumer was one of the most important theoretical physicists of the former Soviet Union in the early 1930s. However, he also wrote a few 'biological papers' on the standard genetic code after he read Crick's and Nirenberg's pioneering papers on the topic. Rumer's articles on the 'Systematization of Codons in the Genetic Code' (Rumer 1966 Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR 167, 1393-1394); Rumer 1968 Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR 183, 225-226; Rumer 1969 Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR 187, 937-938, where he suggested the idea of partitioning codons depending on their redundancy-the first mention of symmetry in the genetic code-were published in Russian only. Due to their importance and their frequent citation, we here present translations of these articles into English in order to make them accessible to a broader community. PMID:26857664

  11. Exploring Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Teaching of Genetics in Swaziland Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Oke Onwu, Gilbert; de Villiers, Rian

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base included teacher-constructed concept maps, pre- and post-lesson teacher interviews, video-recorded genetics lessons, post-lesson teacher questionnaire and document analysis of teacher's reflective journals and students' work samples. The results showed that the teachers' individual PCK profiles consisted predominantly of declarative and procedural content knowledge in teaching basic genetics concepts. Conditional knowledge, which is a type of meta-knowledge for blending together declarative and procedural knowledge, was also demonstrated by some teachers. Furthermore, the teachers used topic-specific instructional strategies such as context-based teaching, illustrations, peer teaching, and analogies in diverse forms but failed to use physical models and individual or group student experimental activities to assist students' internalization of the concepts. The finding that all four teachers lacked knowledge of students' genetics-related preconceptions was equally significant. Formal university education, school context, journal reflection and professional development programmes were considered as contributing to the teachers' continuing PCK development. Implications of the findings for biology teacher education are briefly discussed.

  12. Applications of Microfluidics in Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research can significantly benefit from recent advances of microfluidics technology. In a rationally designed microfluidics device, analyses of stem cells can be done in a much deeper and wider way than in a conventional tissue culture dish. Miniaturization makes analyses operated in a high-throughput fashion, while controls of fluids help to reconstruct the physiological environments. Through integration with present characterization tools like fluorescent microscope, microfluidics...

  13. Suspended micro- and nanotools for cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Ibáñez, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta el diseño, desarrollo tecnológico, caracterización y aplicaciones tanto químicas como biológicas de micro- y nanodispositivos destinados a ser herramientas funcionales en biología celular. Esta línea de investigación es posible gracias a los avances obtenidos en el campo de las Micro- y Nanotecnologías, donde la aplicación de técnicas de miniaturización en la fabricación de sus dispositivos a escala celular es ya una realidad. Estas herramientas son lo suficientemente p...

  14. Stochasticity in cell biology: Modeling across levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Juan Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Effective modeling of biological processes requires focusing on a particular level of description, and this requires summarizing de details of lower levels into effective variables and properly accounting for the constrains that other levels impose. In the context of stochasticity in gene expression, I will show how the details of the stochastic process can be characterized by a few effective parameters, which facilitates modeling but complicates interpretation of current experiments. I will show how the resulting noise can provide advantageous or deleterious phenotypic fluctuation and how noise control in the copy number control system of plasmids can change the selective pressures. This system illustrates the direct connection between molecular dynamics and evolutionary dynamics.

  15. Role of Inositol Poly-Phosphatases and Their Targets in T Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu eSrivastava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes play a critical role in host defense in all anatomical sites including mucosal surfaces. This not only includes the effector arm of the immune system, but also regulation of immune responses in order to prevent autoimmunity. Genetic targeting of PI3K isoforms suggests that generation of PI(3,4,5P3 by PI3K plays a critical role in promoting effector T cell responses. Consequently, the 5’- and 3’-inositol poly-phosphatases SHIP1, SHIP2 and PTEN capable of targeting PI(3,4,5P3 are potential genetic determinants of T cell effector functions in vivo. In addition, the 5’-inositol poly phosphatases SHIP1 and 2 can shunt PI(3,4,5P3 to the rare but potent signaling phosphoinositide species PI(3,4P2 and thus these SHIP1/2, and the INPP4A/B enzymes that deplete PI(3,4P2 may have precise roles in T cell biology to amplify or inhibit effectors of PI3K signaling that are selectively recruited to and activated by PI(3,4P2. Here we summarize recent genetic and chemical evidence that indicates the inositol poly-phosphatases have important roles in both the effector and regulatory functions of the T cell compartment. In addition, we will discuss future genetic studies that might be undertaken to further elaborate the role of these enzymes in T cell biology as well as potential pharmaceutical manipulation of these enzymes for therapeutic purposes in disease settings where T cell function is a key in vivo target.

  16. Role of inositol phospholipid signaling in natural killer cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eGumbleton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are important in the host defense against malignancy and infection. At a cellular level NK cells are activated when signals from activating receptors exceed signaling from inhibitory receptors. At a molecular level NK cells undergo an education process to prevent autoimmunity. Mouse models have shown important roles for inositol phospholipid signaling in lymphocytes. NK cells from mice with deletion in different members of the PI3K signaling pathway have defective development, natural killer cell repertoire expression (NKRR and effector function. Here we review the role of inositol phospholipid signaling in NK cell biology.

  17. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, John R

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information literacy instruction and then proceed to select, update, and write about a current research topic in an upper-level cell biology course is described....

  18. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Beal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50% and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  19. The shifting geography and language of cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-05-11

    With the increase in scientific activity globally, the geographical focus of basic research is shifting away from the West. At the same time, multidisciplinary approaches are uncovering new layers in our understanding of how cells work. How will these trends affect cell biology in the near future?

  20. Advancing cell biology through proteomics in space and time (PROSPECTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamond, A.I.; Uhlen, M.; Horning, S.;

    2012-01-01

    a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU...... the proteomics field is moving beyond simply identifying proteins with high sensitivity toward providing a powerful and versatile set of assay systems for characterizing proteome dynamics and thereby creating a new "third generation" proteomics strategy that offers an indispensible tool for cell biology...

  1. Heart-on-a-chip based on stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Elzbieta; Tomecka, Ewelina; Jesion, Iwona

    2016-01-15

    Heart diseases are one of the main causes of death around the world. The great challenge for scientists is to develop new therapeutic methods for these types of ailments. Stem cells (SCs) therapy could be one of a promising technique used for renewal of cardiac cells and treatment of heart diseases. Conventional in vitro techniques utilized for investigation of heart regeneration do not mimic natural cardiac physiology. Lab-on-a-chip systems may be the solution which could allow the creation of a heart muscle model, enabling the growth of cardiac cells in conditions similar to in vivo conditions. Microsystems can be also used for differentiation of stem cells into heart cells, successfully. It will help better understand of proliferation and regeneration ability of these cells. In this review, we present Heart-on-a-chip systems based on cardiac cell culture and stem cell biology. This review begins with the description of the physiological environment and the functions of the heart. Next, we shortly described conventional techniques of stem cells differentiation into the cardiac cells. This review is mostly focused on describing Lab-on-a-chip systems for cardiac tissue engineering. Therefore, in the next part of this article, the microsystems for both cardiac cell culture and SCs differentiation into cardiac cells are described. The section about SCs differentiation into the heart cells is divided in sections describing biochemical, physical and mechanical stimulations. Finally, we outline present challenges and future research concerning Heart-on-a-chip based on stem cell biology.

  2. Perceived and actual similarities in biological and adoptive families: does perceived similarity bias genetic inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S; Scarf, E; Weinberg, R A

    1980-09-01

    Critics of the adoption method to estimate the relative effects of genetic and environmental differences on behavioral development claim that important biases are created by the knowledge of biological relatedness or adoptive status. Since the 1950s, agency policy has led to nearly all adopted children knowing that they are adopted. To test the hypothesis that knowledge of biological or adoptive status influences actual similarity, we correlated absolute differences in objective test scores with ratings of similarity by adolescents and their parents in adoptive and biological families. Although biological family members see themselves as more similar than adoptive family members, there are also important generational and gender differences in perceived similarity that cut across family type. There is moderate agreement among family members on the degree of perceived similarity, but there is no correlation between perceived and actual similarity in intelligence or temperament. However, family members are more accurate about shared social attitudes. Knowledge of adoptive or biological relatedness is related to the degree of perceived similarity, but perceptions of similarity are not related to objective similarities and thus do not constitute a bias in comparisons of measured differences in intelligence or temperament in adoptive and biological families.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sickle Cell Anemia Association March of Dimes National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Sickle Cell Disease Association of ... Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  4. Shedding light on biology of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes P; Basler, Marek

    2016-11-01

    To understand basic principles of living organisms one has to know many different properties of all cellular components, their mutual interactions but also their amounts and spatial organization. Live-cell imaging is one possible approach to obtain such data. To get multiple snapshots of a cellular process, the imaging approach has to be gentle enough to not disrupt basic functions of the cell but also have high temporal and spatial resolution to detect and describe the changes. Light microscopy has become a method of choice and since its early development over 300 years ago revolutionized our understanding of living organisms. As most cellular components are indistinguishable from the rest of the cellular contents, the second revolution came from a discovery of specific labelling techniques, such as fusions to fluorescent proteins that allowed specific tracking of a component of interest. Currently, several different tags can be tracked independently and this allows us to simultaneously monitor the dynamics of several cellular components and from the correlation of their dynamics to infer their respective functions. It is, therefore, not surprising that live-cell fluorescence microscopy significantly advanced our understanding of basic cellular processes. Current cameras are fast enough to detect changes with millisecond time resolution and are sensitive enough to detect even a few photons per pixel. Together with constant improvement of properties of fluorescent tags, it is now possible to track single molecules in living cells over an extended period of time with a great temporal resolution. The parallel development of new illumination and detection techniques allowed breaking the diffraction barrier and thus further pushed the resolution limit of light microscopy. In this review, we would like to cover recent advances in live-cell imaging technology relevant to bacterial cells and provide a few examples of research that has been possible due to imaging

  5. Spectral fingerprint of electrostatic forces between biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murovec, T; Brosseau, C

    2015-10-01

    The prediction of electrostatic forces (EFs) between biological cells still poses challenges of great scientific importance, e.g., cell recognition, electroporation (EP), and mechanosensing. Frequency-domain finite element simulations explore a variety of cell configurations in the range of parameters typical for eukaryotic cells. Here, by applying an electric field to a pair of layered concentric shells, a prototypical model of a biological cell, we provide numerical evidence that the instantaneous EF changes from repulsion to attraction as the drive frequency of the electric field is varied. We identify crossover frequencies and discuss their dependence as a function of field frequency, conductivity of the extracellular medium, and symmetry of the configuration of cells. We present findings which suggest that the spectrum of EFs depends sensitively on the configuration of cells. We discuss the signatures of the collective behavior of systems with many cells in the spectrum of the EF and highlight a few of the observational consequences that this behavior implies. By looking at different cell configurations, we are able to show that the repulsion-to-attraction transition phenomenon is largely associated with an asymmetric electrostatic screening at very small separation between cells. These findings pave the way for the experimental observation of the electromagnetic properties of efficient and simple models of biological tissues. PMID:26565282

  6. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Camila F; Fernandes, Stephanie A; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F; Keith Okamoto, Oswaldo; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics.

  7. Stem cells - biological update and cell therapy progress

    OpenAIRE

    GIRLOVANU, MIHAI; Susman, Sergiu; Soritau, Olga; RUS-CIUCA, DAN; MELINCOVICI, CARMEN; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; Carmen Mihaela MIHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods t...

  8. Langerhans cell histiocytosis : genetic and immunologic fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quispel, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    LCH lesions are characterized by accumulating LCH-cells, which are related to Langerhans and/or Dendritic cells, and the presence of other elements of the immune system. A significant proportion of LCH-cells display somatic mutations in proteins that drive the constitutive activation of the MAPK-pat

  9. Genetic variegation of clonal architecture and propagating cells in leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristina; Lutz, Christoph; van Delft, Frederik W; Bateman, Caroline M; Guo, Yanping; Colman, Susan M; Kempski, Helena; Moorman, Anthony V; Titley, Ian; Swansbury, John; Kearney, Lyndal; Enver, Tariq; Greaves, Mel

    2011-01-20

    Little is known of the genetic architecture of cancer at the subclonal and single-cell level or in the cells responsible for cancer clone maintenance and propagation. Here we have examined this issue in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in which the ETV6-RUNX1 gene fusion is an early or initiating genetic lesion followed by a modest number of recurrent or 'driver' copy number alterations. By multiplexing fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for these mutations, up to eight genetic abnormalities can be detected in single cells, a genetic signature of subclones identified and a composite picture of subclonal architecture and putative ancestral trees assembled. Subclones in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia have variegated genetics and complex, nonlinear or branching evolutionary histories. Copy number alterations are independently and reiteratively acquired in subclones of individual patients, and in no preferential order. Clonal architecture is dynamic and is subject to change in the lead-up to a diagnosis and in relapse. Leukaemia propagating cells, assayed by serial transplantation in NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice, are also genetically variegated, mirroring subclonal patterns, and vary in competitive regenerative capacity in vivo. These data have implications for cancer genomics and for the targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:21160474

  10. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth requ

  11. Cell Biology: ERADicating Survival with BOK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipuk, Jerry Edward; Luna-Vargas, Mark P

    2016-06-01

    Mechanistic insights into the function of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK have remained elusive. A recent study shows that healthy cells constitutively degrade BOK via the ER-associated degradation and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways; following proteasome inhibition, BOK is stabilized to initiate a unique pro-apoptotic death program.

  12. Synthetic biology of cyanobacterial cell factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Angermayr

    2014-01-01

    In the field of microbial biotechnology rational design approaches are employed for the generation of microbial cells with desired functions, such as the ability to produce precursor molecules for biofuels or bioplastics. In essence, that is the introduction of a (new) biosynthetic pathway into a mi

  13. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevi...

  14. Using synthetic biology to make cells tomorrow's test tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G; Brewster, Robert C; Phillips, Rob

    2016-04-18

    The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In this article, we present various exciting examples of how synthetic biology can be used to simplify biological systems and distill these phenomena down to their essential features as a means to enable their theoretical description. Here, synthetic biology goes beyond previous efforts to engineer nature and becomes a tool to bend nature to understand it. We discuss various recent and classic experiments featuring applications of this synthetic approach to the elucidation of problems ranging from bacteriophage infection, to transcriptional regulation in bacteria and in developing embryos, to evolution. In all of these examples, synthetic biology provides the opportunity to turn cells into the equivalent of a test tube, where biological phenomena can be reconstituted and our theoretical understanding put to test with the same ease that these same phenomena can be studied in the in vitro setting. PMID:26952708

  15. Long-term depression: a cell biological view

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Morgan; Ertürk, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms of long-term depression (LTD) suggest a crucial role for the signalling pathways of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the weakening and elimination of synapses and dendritic spines. With this backdrop, we suggest that LTD can be considered as the electrophysiological aspect of a larger cell biological programme of synapse involution, which uses localized apoptotic mechanisms to sculpt synapses and circuits without causing cell death.

  16. Inflammatory mediators: Parallels between cancer biology and stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Shyam A; Heinrich, Andrew C; Bobby Y. Reddy; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation encompasses diverse molecular pathways, and it is intertwined with a wide array of biological processes. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the interactions between mediators of inflammation and other cells such as stem cells and cancer cells. Since tissue injuries are associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, it would be difficult to address this subject without considering the implications of their systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the ef...

  17. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-01-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development ‘in a dish’. We also...

  18. Genetic modification of chicken germ cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades numerous reports have demonstrated that the genetic modification of poultry genomes has great potential for improving poultry production; moreover, it may be used as a powerful tool for the production of industrial proteins. To date, transgenic techniques have been established for generating transgenic birds that express recombinant human proteins in hen eggs, as well as tissue-specific genes as an animal model. The production of transgenic birds is a promising appro...

  19. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API. TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at http://www.tinkercell.com. Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled

  20. Information Technologies for Biology Education: Computerized Electrophysiology of Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma KISNIERIENE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Biology has moved from a bench-based discipline to a bioinformational science in modern times but application of computational and analytical methods of informatics in it is still a problem for many researchers and students of biology. We suggest to integrate cost effective and practical combination of the real and the virtual laboratories into the undergraduate biological science curriculum. This laboratory work illustrates passive and active electrical properties of plant cell membranes while introducing basic principles of electrophysiological recording, data acquisition and analysis. As the object for investigation in this laboratory work large cells of starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa were used. The simple program for experiment control and express visualization of recorded data was developed. Experiment proposed in this paper is easy implemented with a minimum of laboratory equipment, materials and gives an experience of computerized biological experiment.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  2. Laboratory investigations in cell biology. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This text contains 18 lab projects that explore the structural, biochemical, and physiological nature of eukaryotic cells. Topics are largely traditional, however, several investigations employ new methodologies. Offers extended coverage of biochemistry. Materials have been selected for availability and ease of handling: e.g. Project 4 - extraction of DNA and RNA done with calf liver, Project 9 - succinate dehydrogenase activity studied in mitochondria isolated from cauliflower. There is more procedural detail than found in most lab manuals, negating the need for constant instructional details. And a variety of methodologies is introduced, such as Cytochemistry, Spectrophotometry, Electrophoresis, Cell Fractionation, silver staining of active sites of RNA transcription, and many more. Pages are perforated for collecting and grading.

  3. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Tongcheng; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-01-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabricatio...

  4. Evaluation of the Redesign of an Undergraduate Cell Biology Course

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Laura April; Harris, dik; Schmid, Richard F.; Vogel, Jackie; Western, Tamara; Harrison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of the evaluation of a redesigned and redeveloped laboratory-based cell biology course. The course was a compulsory element of the biology program, but the laboratory had become outdated and was inadequately equipped. With the support of a faculty-based teaching improvement project, the teaching team redesigned the course and re-equipped the laboratory, using a more learner-centered, constructivist approach. The focus of the article is on the project-supported...

  5. Systems-biology dissection of eukaryotic cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Justen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent article in BMC Biology illustrates the use of a systems-biology approach to integrate data across the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of budding yeast in order to dissect the relationship between nutrient conditions and cell growth. See research article http://jbiol.com/content/6/2/4 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/68

  6. Models to Study NK Cell Biology and Possible Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Anthony E; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2015-08-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system, responsible for direct targeting and killing of both virally infected and transformed cells. NK cells rapidly recognize and respond to abnormal cells in the absence of prior sensitization due to their wide array of germline-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors, which differs from the receptor diversity found in B and T lymphocytes that is due to the use of recombination-activation gene (RAG) enzymes. Although NK cells have traditionally been described as natural killers that provide a first line of defense prior to the induction of adaptive immunity, a more complex view of NK cells is beginning to emerge, indicating they may also function in various immunoregulatory roles and have the capacity to shape adaptive immune responses. With the growing appreciation for the diverse functions of NK cells, and recent technological advancements that allow for a more in-depth understanding of NK cell biology, we can now begin to explore new ways to manipulate NK cells to increase their clinical utility. In this overview unit, we introduce the reader to various aspects of NK cell biology by reviewing topics ranging from NK cell diversity and function, mouse models, and the roles of NK cells in health and disease, to potential clinical applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  8. Finding the key - cell biology and science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth R

    2010-12-01

    No international research community, cell biology included, can exist without an educational community to renew and replenish it. Unfortunately, cell biology researchers frequently regard their work as independent of the process of education and see little reason to reach out to science teachers. For cell biology to continue to prosper, I argue that researchers must support education in at least three ways. First, we must view education and research as part of a single scientific community. Second, we should take advantage of new technologies to connect the research laboratory to the classroom. Finally, we must take the initiative in defending the integrity of science teaching, particularly when education is under attack for political or religious reasons.

  9. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  10. Electrical Modeling and Impedance Analysis of Biological Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sree V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that the external electric field intensity has significant effects on the biological systems. The applied electric field intensity changes the electrical behavior of the cell systems. The impact of electric field intensity on the cell systems should be studied properly to optimize the electric field treatments of biological systems. Based on the cell dimensions and its dielectric properties, an electrical equivalent circuit for an endosperm cell in rice was developed and its total impedance and capacitance were verified with measurement results. The variations of impedance and conductance with respect to applied impulse voltage at different frequencies were plotted. This impedance analysis method can be used to determine the optimum voltage level for electric field treatment and also to determine the cell rupture due to electric field applications.

  11. Biological Influence of Deuterium on Procariotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologic influence of deuterium (D on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates are investigated at growth on media with heavy water (D2О. The method of step by step adaptation technique of cells to D2О was developed, consisting in plating of cells on 2 % agarose nutrient media containing increasing gradient of concentration of D2О (from 0 up to 98 % D2O and the subsequent selection of stable to D2O cells. In the result of that technique were obtained adapted to maximum concentration of D2O cells, biological material of which instead of hydrogen contained deuterium with levels of enrichment 92–97,5 at.% D.

  12. Genetic control of intestinal stem cell specification and development: a comparative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Shigeo; Hartenstein, Volker

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells of the adult vertebrate intestine (ISCs) are responsible for the continuous replacement of intestinal cells, but also serve as site of origin of intestinal neoplasms. The interaction between multiple signaling pathways, including Wnt/Wg, Shh/Hh, BMP, and Notch, orchestrate mitosis, motility, and differentiation of ISCs. Many fundamental questions of how these pathways carry out their function remain unanswered. One approach to gain more insight is to look at the development of stem cells, to analyze the "programming" process which these cells undergo as they emerge from the large populations of embryonic progenitors. This review intends to summarize pertinent data on vertebrate intestinal stem cell biology, to then take a closer look at recent studies of intestinal stem cell development in Drosophila. Here, stem cell pools and their niche environment consist of relatively small numbers of cells, and questions concerning the pattern of cell division, niche-stem cell contacts, or differentiation can be addressed at the single cell level. Likewise, it is possible to analyze the emergence of stem cells during development more easily than in vertebrate systems: where in the embryo do stem cells arise, what structures in their environment do they interact with, and what signaling pathways are active sequentially as a result of these interactions. Given the high degree of conservation among genetic mechanisms controlling stem cell behavior in all animals, findings in Drosophila will provide answers that inform research in the vertebrate stem cell field. PMID:22529012

  13. Correlating the morphological and light scattering properties of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Marina

    The scattered light pattern from a biological cell is greatly influenced by the internal structure and optical properties of the cell. This research project examines the relationships between the morphological and scattering properties of biological cells through numerical simulations. The mains goals are: (1) to develop a procedure to analytically model biological cells, (2) to quantitatively study the effects of a range of cell characteristics on the features of the light scattering patterns, and (3) to classify cells based on the features of their light scattering patterns. A procedure to create an analytical cell model was developed which extracted structural information from the confocal microscopic images of cells and allowed for the alteration of the cell structure in a controlled and systematic way. The influence of cell surface roughness, nuclear size, and mitochondrial volume density, spatial distribution, size and shape on the light scattering patterns was studied through numerical simulations of light scattering using the Discrete Dipole Approximation. It was found that the light scattering intensity in the scattering angle range of 25° to 45° responded to changes in the surface fluctuation of the cell and the range of 90° to 110° was well suited for characterization of mitochondrial density and nuclear size. A comparison of light scattering pattern analysis methods revealed that the angular distribution of the scattered light and Gabor filters were most helpful in differentiating between the cell characteristics. In addition, a measured increase in the Gabor energy of the light scattering patterns in response to an increase in the complexity of the cell models suggested that a complex nuclear structure and mitochondria should be included when modeling biological cells for light scattering simulations. Analysis of the scattering pattern features with Gabor filters resulted in discrimination of the cell models according to cell surface roughness

  14. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  15. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options.

  16. A decade of molecular cell biology: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Asifa; Fuchs, Elaine; Mitchison, Tim; Shaw, Reuben J; St Johnston, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Taylor, Susan; Walczak, Claire; Zerial, Marino

    2011-09-23

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.

  17. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ivan K H; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2014-03-01

    The prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses, are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions, such as the killing of tumour cells by specific cell-death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and antitumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies.

  18. Biological Evaluation of Single Cell Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the nutritional value of single cell protein (SCP) was evaluated as a non conventional protein source produced by fermenting fungal local strains of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium funiculosum with alkali treated sugar cane bagasse. Amino acid analysis revealed that the produced SCP contains essential and non essential amino acids. Male mice were fed on normal (basal) diet which contains 18% conventional protein and served as control group. In the second (T1) and the third (T2) group, the animals were fed on a diet in which 15% and 30% of conventional protein source were replaced by SCP, respectively. At intervals of 15, 30, 45 and 60 days, mice were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected for the biochemical evaluation. The daily averages of body weight were significantly higher with group T2 than group T1. Where as, the kidney weights in groups (T1) and (T2) were significantly increased as compared with control. A non significant difference between the tested groups in the enzyme activities of AST, ALT and GSH content of liver tissue were recorded. While, cholesterol and triglycerides contents showed a significant decrease in both (T1) and (T2) groups as compared with control. The recorded values of the serum hormone (T4), ALP activities, albumin and A/G ratio did not changed by the previous treatments. Serum levels of total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid were higher for groups (T1) and (T2) than the control group. In conclusion, partial substitution of soy bean protein in mice diet with single cell protein (15%) improved the mice growth without any adverse effects on some of the physiological functions tested

  19. Constraints on Biological Mechanism from Disease Comorbidity Using Electronic Medical Records and Database of Genetic Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Bagley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease co-occurrence that deviate from statistical independence may represent important constraints on biological mechanism, which sometimes can be explained by shared genetics. In this work we study the relationship between disease co-occurrence and commonly shared genetic architecture of disease. Records of pairs of diseases were combined from two different electronic medical systems (Columbia, Stanford, and compared to a large database of published disease-associated genetic variants (VARIMED; data on 35 disorders were available across all three sources, which include medical records for over 1.2 million patients and variants from over 17,000 publications. Based on the sources in which they appeared, disease pairs were categorized as having predominant clinical, genetic, or both kinds of manifestations. Confounding effects of age on disease incidence were controlled for by only comparing diseases when they fall in the same cluster of similarly shaped incidence patterns. We find that disease pairs that are overrepresented in both electronic medical record systems and in VARIMED come from two main disease classes, autoimmune and neuropsychiatric. We furthermore identify specific genes that are shared within these disease groups.

  20. Constraints on Biological Mechanism from Disease Comorbidity Using Electronic Medical Records and Database of Genetic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Steven C; Sirota, Marina; Chen, Richard; Butte, Atul J; Altman, Russ B

    2016-04-01

    Patterns of disease co-occurrence that deviate from statistical independence may represent important constraints on biological mechanism, which sometimes can be explained by shared genetics. In this work we study the relationship between disease co-occurrence and commonly shared genetic architecture of disease. Records of pairs of diseases were combined from two different electronic medical systems (Columbia, Stanford), and compared to a large database of published disease-associated genetic variants (VARIMED); data on 35 disorders were available across all three sources, which include medical records for over 1.2 million patients and variants from over 17,000 publications. Based on the sources in which they appeared, disease pairs were categorized as having predominant clinical, genetic, or both kinds of manifestations. Confounding effects of age on disease incidence were controlled for by only comparing diseases when they fall in the same cluster of similarly shaped incidence patterns. We find that disease pairs that are overrepresented in both electronic medical record systems and in VARIMED come from two main disease classes, autoimmune and neuropsychiatric. We furthermore identify specific genes that are shared within these disease groups. PMID:27115429

  1. Dielectrophoretic capture and genetic analysis of single neuroblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Carpenter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the diversity of cells that escape the primary tumor and seed micrometastases remains rudimentary, and approaches for studying circulating and disseminated tumor cells have been limited by low throughput and sensitivity, reliance on single parameter sorting, and a focus on enumeration rather than phenotypic and genetic characterization. Here we utilize a highly sensitive microfluidic and dielectrophoretic approach for the isolation and genetic analysis of individual tumor cells. We employed fluorescence labeling to isolate 208 single cells from spiking experiments conducted with 11 cell lines, including 8 neuroblastoma cell lines, and achieved a capture sensitivity of 1 tumor cell per 106 white blood cells. Sample fixation or freezing had no detectable effect on cell capture. Point mutations were accurately detected in the whole genome amplification product of captured single tumor cells but not in negative control white blood cells. We applied this approach to capture 144 single tumor cells from 10 bone marrow samples from patients suffering from neuroblastoma. In this pediatric malignancy, high-risk patients often exhibit wide-spread hematogenous metastasis, but access to primary tumor can be difficult or impossible. Here we used flow-based sorting to pre-enrich samples with tumor involvement below 0.02%. For all patients for whom a mutation in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase gene had already been detected in their primary tumor, the same mutation was detected in single cells from their marrow. These findings demonstrate a novel, non-invasive, and adaptable method for the capture and genetic analysis of single tumor cells from cancer patients.

  2. Genetic Residues of Ancient Migrations: An End to Biological Essentialism and the Reification of Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Richman

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The two quotes reveal starkly different attitudes toward race and the depth and amount of genetic variation within our species. Belloc’s poem postulates racial essentialism, i.e., that there are large, biologically-based differences among the world’s populations on significant traits—intellect, industry, character. By contrast, according to Cannon’s statement, our species is unitary, without important geographically-linked differences on those crucial traits. Adopting the essentialist position yields a ready explanation for the disparate fortunes of different populations in our country and across the globe. Some groups, some nations are richer and more powerful and live longer and healthier lives because they are genetically more fit or better adapted than others on certain key parameters.3 The implication is that remedial efforts, either educational solutions or wealth transfers from First to Third World nations, are pointless or at least destined to produce only minimal results.

  3. Genetic instability in nerve sheath cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Casartelli, Cacilda; Rainho, Claudia Aparecida;

    1995-01-01

    by the presence of polyploid cells with inconsistent abnormalities, endoreduplications and telomeric associations resulting in dicentric chromosomes. It is probable that these cytogenetic abnormalities represent some kind of evolutionary advantage for the in vitro progression of nerve sheath tumors....

  4. Natural killer cell biology: an update and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kerry S; Hasegawa, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a minor subset of normal lymphocytes that initiate innate immune responses toward tumor and virus-infected cells. They can mediate spontaneous cytotoxicity toward these abnormal cells and rapidly secrete numerous cytokines and chemokines to promote subsequent adaptive immune responses. Significant progress has been made in the past 2 decades to improve our understanding of NK cell biology. Here we review recent discoveries, including a better comprehension of the "education" of NK cells to achieve functional competence during their maturation and the discovery of "memory" responses by NK cells, suggesting that they might also contribute to adaptive immunity. The improved understanding of NK cell biology has forged greater awareness that these cells play integral early roles in immune responses. In addition, several promising clinical therapies have been used to exploit NK cell functions in treating patients with cancer. As our molecular understanding improves, these and future immunotherapies should continue to provide promising strategies to exploit the unique functions of NK cells to treat cancer, infections, and other pathologic conditions.

  5. The Emerging Role of PEDF in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Elahy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Encoded by a single gene, PEDF is a 50 kDa glycoprotein that is highly conserved and is widely expressed among many tissues. Most secreted PEDF deposits within the extracellular matrix, with cell-type-specific functions. While traditionally PEDF is known as a strong antiangiogenic factor, more recently, as this paper highlights, PEDF has been linked with stem cell biology, and there is now accumulating evidence demonstrating the effects of PEDF in a variety of stem cells, mainly in supporting stem cell survival and maintaining multipotency.

  6. T Regulatory Cell Biology in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroqi, Fayhan J; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells that express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) play an essential role in enforcing immune tolerance to self tissues, regulating host-commensal flora interaction, and facilitating tissue repair. Their deficiency and/or dysfunction trigger unbridled autoimmunity and inflammation. A growing number of monogenic defects have been recognized that adversely impact Treg cell development, differentiation, and/or function, leading to heritable diseases of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. In this article, we review recent insights into Treg cell biology and function, with particular attention to lessons learned from newly recognized clinical disorders of Treg cell deficiency. PMID:26922942

  7. T Regulatory Cell Biology in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroqi, Fayhan J; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells that express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) play an essential role in enforcing immune tolerance to self tissues, regulating host-commensal flora interaction, and facilitating tissue repair. Their deficiency and/or dysfunction trigger unbridled autoimmunity and inflammation. A growing number of monogenic defects have been recognized that adversely impact Treg cell development, differentiation, and/or function, leading to heritable diseases of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. In this article, we review recent insights into Treg cell biology and function, with particular attention to lessons learned from newly recognized clinical disorders of Treg cell deficiency.

  8. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  9. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Adam E; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Pers, Tune H; Day, Felix R; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E; Nalls, Michael A; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Attwood, Antony P; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; de Craen, Anton J M; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H; Gordon, Scott D; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina M; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Sin Lo, Ken; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M; Nolte, Ilja M; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scott, William R; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Vernon Smith, Albert; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R; Gharavi, Ali G; Goddard, Michael E; Handsaker, Robert E; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A; McKnight, Amy J; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R B; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Heath, Andrew C; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Madden, Pamela A F; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Zillikens, M Carola; Adair, Linda S; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Heid, Iris M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; McCarthy, Mark I; Visscher, Peter M; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2015-02-12

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

  10. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Adam E; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Pers, Tune H; Day, Felix R; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E; Nalls, Michael A; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Attwood, Antony P; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; de Craen, Anton J M; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H; Gordon, Scott D; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina M; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Sin Lo, Ken; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M; Nolte, Ilja M; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scott, William R; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Vernon Smith, Albert; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R; Gharavi, Ali G; Goddard, Michael E; Handsaker, Robert E; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A; McKnight, Amy J; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R B; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Heath, Andrew C; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Madden, Pamela A F; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Zillikens, M Carola; Adair, Linda S; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Heid, Iris M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; McCarthy, Mark I; Visscher, Peter M; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2015-02-12

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis. PMID:25673413

  11. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  12. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van ’t Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Marchand, Loic Le; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F.; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Adair, Linda S.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Heid, Iris M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis. PMID:25673413

  13. Innate immune pattern recognition: a cell biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Sky W; Bonham, Kevin S; Zanoni, Ivan; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Receptors of the innate immune system detect conserved determinants of microbial and viral origin. Activation of these receptors initiates signaling events that culminate in an effective immune response. Recently, the view that innate immune signaling events rely on and operate within a complex cellular infrastructure has become an important framework for understanding the regulation of innate immunity. Compartmentalization within this infrastructure provides the cell with the ability to assign spatial information to microbial detection and regulate immune responses. Several cell biological processes play a role in the regulation of innate signaling responses; at the same time, innate signaling can engage cellular processes as a form of defense or to promote immunological memory. In this review, we highlight these aspects of cell biology in pattern-recognition receptor signaling by focusing on signals that originate from the cell surface, from endosomal compartments, and from within the cytosol.

  14. Cell biology of the Koji mold Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, has been used for the production of sake, miso, and soy sauce for more than one thousand years in Japan. Due to the importance, A. oryzae has been designated as the national micro-organism of Japan (Koku-kin). A. oryzae has been intensively studied in the past century, with most investigations focusing on breeding techniques and developing methods for Koji making for sake brewing. However, the understanding of fundamental biology of A. oryzae remains relatively limited compared with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we have focused on studying the cell biology including live cell imaging of organelles, protein vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and Woronin body functions using the available genomic information. In this review, I describe essential findings of cell biology of A. oryzae obtained in our study for a quarter of century. Understanding of the basic biology will be critical for not its biotechnological application, but also for an understanding of the fundamental biology of other filamentous fungi.

  15. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools......, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex...... of developing improved yeast cell factories....

  16. A new view into prokaryotic cell biology from electron cryotomography

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryotomography (ECT) enables intact cells to be visualized in 3D in an essentially native state to 'macromolecular' (~4 nm) resolution, revealing the basic architectures of complete nanomachines and their arrangements in situ. Since its inception, ECT has advanced our understanding of many aspects of prokaryotic cell biology, from morphogenesis to subcellular compartmentalization and from metabolism to complex interspecies interactions. In this Review, we highlight how ECT has provid...

  17. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. PMID:27278647

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacko, Martin [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M. [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boedeker, Carsten C. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg, Germany and Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, HELIOS Hanseklinikum Stralsund, Stralsund (Germany); Suárez, Carlos [Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio [ENT Clinic, University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Takes, Robert P., E-mail: robert.takes@radboudumc.nl [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  19. The time is right: proteome biology of stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whetton, A.D.; Williamson, A.J.K.; Krijgsveld, J.; Lee, B.H.; Lemischka, I.; Oh, S.; Pera, M.; Mummery, C.L.; Heck, A.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    In stem cell biology, there is a growing need for advanced technologies that may help to unravel the molecular mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation. Proteomics, the comprehensive analysis of proteins, is such an emerging technique. To facilitate interactions between specialists in proteomi

  20. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia : recent molecular biology findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraszewska, Monika D.; Dawidowska, Malgorzata; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Witt, Michal

    2012-01-01

    For many years, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) has been considered and treated as a single malignancy, but divergent outcomes in T-ALL patients receiving uniform treatment protocols encouraged intensive research on the molecular biology of this disease. Recent findings in the field dem

  1. The cell biology of HIV-1 and other retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouland Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recognition of the growing influence of cell biology in retrovirus research, we recently organized a Summer conference sponsored by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB on the Cell Biology of HIV-1 and other Retroviruses (July 20–23, 2006, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. The meeting brought together a number of leading investigators interested in the interplay between cell biology and retrovirology with an emphasis on presentation of new and unpublished data. The conference was arranged from early to late events in the virus replication cycle, with sessions on viral fusion, entry, and transmission; post-entry restrictions to retroviral infection; nuclear import and integration; gene expression/regulation of retroviral Gag and genomic RNA; and assembly/release. In this review, we will attempt to touch briefly on some of the highlights of the conference, and will emphasize themes and trends that emerged at the meeting. Meeting report The conference began with a keynote address from W. Sundquist on the biochemistry of HIV-1 budding. This presentation will be described in the section on Assembly and Release of Retroviruses.

  2. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social studies of…

  3. Progress in focus: recent advances in histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther

    2002-12-01

    Advances in histochemical and cell biological techniques enable increasingly refined investigations into the cellular and subcellular distribution of specific molecules and into their role in dynamic processes; thus progress in these fields complements the growing knowledge in genomics and proteomics. The present review summarizes recent technical progress and novel applications. PMID:12483316

  4. A short guide to technology development in cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Steensel (Bas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNew technologies drive progress in many research fields, including cell biology. Much of technological innovation comes from "bottom-up" efforts by individual students and postdocs. However, technology development can be challenging, and a successful outcome depends on many factors. This

  5. The Palade symposium: celebrating cell biology at its best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sandra L; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2010-07-15

    A symposium was held at the University of California, San Diego, to honor the contributions of Nobel Laureate, George Palade, to cell biology. The speakers included Günter Blobel, on the structure and function of nuclear pore complexes; Peter Walter, on the unfolded protein response in health and disease; Randy Schekman, on human disease-linked mutations in the COPII machinery; Scott Emr, on the regulation of plasma membrane composition by selective endocytosis; Roger Kornberg, on the structure and function of the transcription machinery; Peter Novick, on the regulation of rab GTPases along the secretory pathway; Jim Spudich, on the mechanism of the enigmatic myosin VI motor; and Joe Goldstein, on the function of the Niemann-Pick C (NPC)-linked gene products, NPC1 and NPC2, in cholesterol transport. Their work showcased the multidisciplinary nature, diversity, and vitality of cell biology. In the words of George Palade, their talks also illustrated "how cell biology could be used to understand disease and how disease could be used to discover normal cell biology." An integrated understanding of the cellular machinery will be essential in tackling the plethora of questions and challenges posed by completion of the human genome and for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease.

  6. Biological characteristics of cell lines of human dental alveolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世璋; 黄靖香; 孙明学; 赵斌

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological characteristics of cell lines of healthy and diseased human dental alveoli. Methods Primary cell lines from either healthy or diseased human dental alveoli were obtained. Two cell lines, H-258 and H-171 derived from healthy and diseased human tissues respectively, were selected for morphological study and research on their growth and aging, using cell counting, and histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. Results Primary cell lines were successfully established from innormal dental alveoli. After freezing and thawing for three times, cell growth was continued and no morphological alterations were observed. The doubling time was 53.4 hours and mean division index (MDI) was 4‰. Cells were kept normal after twenty generations with no obvious reduction of doubling time and MDI. Of twenty-six primary cell lines derived from healthy human dental alveoli, only three cell lines achieved generation. After freezing and thawing for twice, cultured cells were still alive at a decreased growth speed, with doubling time of 85.9 hours and MDI of 3‰. Both cell lines, H-171 and H-258, shared the characteristics of osteoblast. Conclusions Primary cell lines of diseased human dental alveoli show greater growth potential. All cell lines of dental alveoli share characteristics of osteoblast. The technique we developed may be put into practice for the treatment of abnormal dental alveoli.

  7. Biologic characteristics of fibroblast cells cultured from the knee ligaments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿辉; 唐毅; 李斯明; 沈雁; 刘向荣; 钟灿灿

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To culture fibroblast cells from the kneeligaments and to study the biological characteristics of thesecells.Methods: Cells of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) fromNew Zealand white rabbit were cultured in vitro. Cellulargrowth and expression of the collagen were analyzed.Moreover, an in vitro wound closure model was establishedand the healing of the ACL and the MCL cells wascompared.Results: Maximal growth for all these cells wereobtained with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's mediumsupplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, but RPMI 1640and Ham's F12 media were not suitable to maintain thesecells. Morphology of both ACL and MCL cells from NewZealand white rabbit was alike in vitro, but the MCL cellsgrew faster than the ACL cells. Both cell types producedsimilar amount of collagen in culture, but the ratio ofcollage type I to type III produced by ACL cells was higherthan that produced by MCL cells. Wound closure assayshowed that at 36 hours after injury, cell-free zones createdin the ACL cultures were occupied partially by the ACLcells; in contrast, the wounded zone in the MCL cultureswas almost completely covered by the cells.Conclusions: Although the ACL cells and the MCLcells from New Zealand white rabbit show similarappearance in morphology in culture, the cellular growthand the biochemical synthesis of collagen as well as thehealing in vitro were significantly different. Thesedifferences in intrinsic properties of the two types of cells invitro might contribute to the differential healing potentialsof these ligaments in vivo.

  8. Bovine genetic resistance effects on biological traits of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegelmeyer, P; Nizoli, L Q; da Silva, S S; dos Santos, T R B; Dionello, N J L; Gulias-Gomes, C C; Cardoso, F F

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to verify the influence of bovine genetic resistance on biological traits of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick. Genetic resistance or susceptibility was determined according to breeding values for tick counts, predicted using a dataset of 9007 Hereford and Braford (Hereford×Zebu) bovines naturally infested and raised under extensive production systems in southern Brazil. From a total of 974 Braford heifers born in 2008, 20 were classified as genetically tick-resistant and 20 classified as genetically tick-susceptible, and used to obtain the ticks samples used in this study. The 40 heifers were exposed to four subsequent artificial infestations with approximately 20,000 larvae at 14-day intervals. From the 19th to 23rd day of each infestation tick counts were performed on the left body side of the heifers. Engorged ticks were manually collected on the day of highest observed burden after each infestation. Tick counts on susceptible heifers were 5.5, 10.5, 11.1 and 6.9 times larger than on resistant heifers, respectively, after the first, second, third and fourth artificial infestations. In the third infestation, ticks from resistant heifers showed lower egg production index (Pticks from susceptible heifers. In the fourth infestation, ticks from susceptible group showed higher egg mass weight (Pticks from resistant heifers. Tick initial weights showed a positive association with egg production index in susceptible heifers (Presistant group (Pticks from resistant cattle. This shows that bovine genetic tick resistance, in addition to affecting the number of ticks carried by the animals, also affected the egg mass weight, egg production and nutrient indexes of ticks. The results of the present study imply that the selection of resistant animals could be used as a strategic tool for tick control in production systems, reducing infestation levels on cattle and environment. PMID:25648284

  9. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 25: OPENINGS IN BIOLOGY AND GENETICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Formulation in the compressed type of basic scientifically-historical information, touching the topics for all of humanity and biological science − geneticists taking into account the known for today scientific achievements on the way of its evolutional development is presented. Methodology. Scientific methods of receipt and systematization of knowledges. Methods of historical method at becoming and development of biological science and genetics. Results. Short history of origin and becoming of classic genetics is described. The portraits of row of domestic and foreign scientists, bringing in a prominent contribution to development of genetics as sciences are presented. Short general biological bases of heredity are given for living organisms. Information is resulted about basic modern fundamental achievements and scientific openings of humanity in area of biology and genetics of living organisms. Originality. First by a scientist-electro-physicist for the wide circle of readers the simple and clear appearance is expound short basic scientific information about genes, genome and difficult mechanisms of transmission in the animal (vegetable kingdom of the inherited information. Practical value. System built scientific popularization of existent knowledges of humanity in area of such section of biological science as genetics and expansion for the large number of people of scientific range of interests about outward us things and flowings in its difficult biological processes.

  10. Genetic regulation of programmed cell death in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Programmed cell death plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis during animal development, and has been conserved in animals as different as nematodes and humans. Recent studies of Drosophila have provided valuable information toward our understanding of genetic regulation of death. Different signals trigger the novel death regulators rpr, hid, and grim, that utilize the evolutionarily conserved iap and ark genes to modulate caspase function. Subsequent removal of dying cells also appears to be accomplished by conserved mechanisms. The similarity between Drosophila and human in cell death signaling pathways illustrate the promise of fruit flies as a model system to elucidate the mechanisms underlying regulation of programmed cell death.

  11. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  12. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  13. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  14. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    OpenAIRE

    Borjigin M; Eskridge C; Niamat R; Strouse B; Bialk P; Kmiec EB

    2013-01-01

    Mandula Borjigin*, Chris Eskridge*, Rohina Niamat, Bryan Strouse, Pawel Bialk, Eric B KmiecDepartment of Chemistry, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been...

  15. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. PMID:26590403

  16. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  17. Genetic Alterations in Gliosarcoma and Giant Cell Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Eun; Ohta, Takashi; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Satomi, Kaishi; Capper, David; Pierscianek, Daniela; Sure, Ulrich; Vital, Anne; Paulus, Werner; Mittelbronn, Michel; Antonelli, Manila; Kleihues, Paul; Giangaspero, Felice; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The majority of glioblastomas develop rapidly with a short clinical history (primary glioblastoma IDH wild-type), whereas secondary glioblastomas progress from diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. IDH mutations are the genetic hallmark of secondary glioblastomas. Gliosarcomas and giant cell glioblastomas are rare histological glioblastoma variants, which usually develop rapidly. We determined the genetic patterns of 36 gliosarcomas and 19 giant cell glioblastomas. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were absent in all 36 gliosarcomas and in 18 of 19 giant cell glioblastomas analyzed, indicating that they are histological variants of primary glioblastoma. Furthermore, LOH 10q (88%) and TERT promoter mutations (83%) were frequent in gliosarcomas. Copy number profiling using the 450k methylome array in 5 gliosarcomas revealed CDKN2A homozygous deletion (3 cases), trisomy chromosome 7 (2 cases), and monosomy chromosome 10 (2 cases). Giant cell glioblastomas had LOH 10q in 50% and LOH 19q in 42% of cases. ATRX loss was detected immunohistochemically in 19% of giant cell glioblastomas, but absent in 17 gliosarcomas. These and previous results suggest that gliosarcomas are a variant of, and genetically similar to, primary glioblastomas, except for a lack of EGFR amplification, while giant cell glioblastoma occupies a hybrid position between primary and secondary glioblastomas. PMID:26443480

  18. Non-genetic engineering of cells for drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Cheng, Hao; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Hao; Li, Peter Y; Langer, Robert

    2015-08-30

    Cell-based therapy is a promising modality to address many unmet medical needs. In addition to genetic engineering, material-based, biochemical, and physical science-based approaches have emerged as novel approaches to modify cells. Non-genetic engineering of cells has been applied in delivering therapeutics to tissues, homing of cells to the bone marrow or inflammatory tissues, cancer imaging, immunotherapy, and remotely controlling cellular functions. This new strategy has unique advantages in disease therapy and is complementary to existing gene-based cell engineering approaches. A better understanding of cellular systems and different engineering methods will allow us to better exploit engineered cells in biomedicine. Here, we review non-genetic cell engineering techniques and applications of engineered cells, discuss the pros and cons of different methods, and provide our perspectives on future research directions.

  19. Extending the knowledge in histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Wolfgang-Moritz; Drenckhahn, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Central to modern Histochemistry and Cell Biology stands the need for visualization of cellular and molecular processes. In the past several years, a variety of techniques has been achieved bridging traditional light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy with powerful software-based post-processing and computer modeling. Researchers now have various tools available to investigate problems of interest from bird's- up to worm's-eye of view, focusing on tissues, cells, proteins or finally single molecules. Applications of new approaches in combination with well-established traditional techniques of mRNA, DNA or protein analysis have led to enlightening and prudent studies which have paved the way toward a better understanding of not only physiological but also pathological processes in the field of cell biology. This review is intended to summarize articles standing for the progress made in "histo-biochemical" techniques and their manifold applications.

  20. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengke; Nelson, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement, and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton, and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  1. Radiation biology of Caenorhabditis elegans. Germ cell response, aging and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radiation effect in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans has been carried out over three decades and now allow for understanding at the molecular, cellular and individual levels. This review describes the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation with a scope of the germ line, aging and behavior. In germ cells, ionizing radiation induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Lots of molecules involved in these responses and functions have been identified in C. elegans, which are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Radiosensitivity and the effect of heavy-ion microbeam irradiation on germ cells with relationship between initiation of meiotic recombination and DNA lesions are discussed. In addition to DNA damage, ionizing radiation produces free radicals, and the free radical theory is the most popular aging theory. A first signal transduction pathway of aging has been discovered in C. elegans, and radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress is recently noted for an inducible factor of hormetic response and genetic instability. The hormetic response in C. elegans exposed to oxidative stress is discussed with genetic pathways of aging. Moreover, C. elegans is well known as a model organism for behavior. The recent work reported the radiation effects via specific neurons on learning behavior, and radiation and hydrogen peroxide affect the locomotory rate similarly. These findings are discussed in relation to the evidence obtained with other organisms. Altogether, C. elegans may be a good 'in vivo' model system in the field of radiation biology. (author)

  2. Are Aquatic Viruses a Biological Archive of Genetic Information from Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toparceanu, F.; Negoita, Gh. T.; Nita, I. I.; Sava, D.

    2009-04-01

    After 1990, when the viruses were admited as the most abundant lifeforms from aquatic environments, it became obvious that viral lysis had an essential role on release and recycling of nutrients. Studies on cellular cultures and modeling suggest that this is an important quantitative process. The viruses from oceans represent the widest source of genetic diversity on the Earth, uncharacterized yet. The ancient lifeforms records stretching back a million years are locked in ice caps. The trend of glaciers melting as effect of actual climate change will promote the release of ancient viruses from ice caps. The increasing of the freshwater layer led to the replace of some algae species by others. Law-Racovitza Station (69o23'S 76o23'E) from East Antarctica (Larsemann Hills Oasis) offers opportunities to study the Antarctic marine ecosystem, as well as archaic aquatic ecosystems from this area ( 150 lakes and waterways resulted from ice and snow melting during the austral summer). According to Law-Racovitza Station Scientific Program, we are performing studies regarding the effect of climate changes on virus-algae host relationship in these aquatic ecosystems. Phycodnaviruses, that infect the eukaryote algae, are comprised of ancient genes and they are considered a "peek" of genetic diversity useful in biological studies and exobiology regarding the evolution of genetic sequencing. The latest discoveries of the giant aquatic viruses open the unexpected perspectives for understanding the role of viral infection in global ecosystem; beyond the old concept which considered that the viruses were only etiological agents of human, animals and plants illnesses. The aquatic viruses which infect microalgae contain similar genes of other viruses, bacteria, arhebacteria and eukaryotes, all of them being on the same genome. Which is the signification of enormous abundance of viruses and excessive diversity of genetic information encoded by viruses? There is the possibility that

  3. Awareness of Societal Issues Among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when scientists from all the above-mentioned disciplines had been involved in trying to support and develop the eugenics theories. It investigates pre- and postwar theories of the eugenics movement in the United States which were implemented successfully in Germany and a literature survey of the studies of societal issues related to these subjects. The sample consisted of 30 male and female biology teachers. Enclosed are teachers' answers in favor or against including debates about societal issues in their classrooms while teaching the disciplines mentioned above. Teachers' answers were analyzed in relation to three variables: years of teaching experience, gender, and religion faith. Data were collected from questionnaires and personal interviews and analyzed according to qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that amongst the teachers there is a medium to low level of awareness of societal issues, while mainly emphasizing scientific subjects in preparation of matriculation examinations. The majority of the teachers do not include societal issues in their teaching, but if students raise these issues, teachers claimed to address them. No differences in teachers' opinions to societal issues were found in relation to gender or religious faith. Teachers with more years of teaching experience tend to teach with a more Science, Technology, and Society (STS) approach than novice teachers. The results are discussed in relation to teachers' professional development and teaching strategies are suggested to be used in their classrooms based on a STS approach, which includes the societal issues as a main goal.

  4. Precision control of recombinant gene transcription for CHO cell synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam J; James, David C

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of mammalian cell factories for biopharmaceutical production will be genetically engineered to possess both generic and product-specific manufacturing capabilities that may not exist naturally. Introduction of entirely new combinations of synthetic functions (e.g. novel metabolic or stress-response pathways), and retro-engineering of existing functional cell modules will drive disruptive change in cellular manufacturing performance. However, before we can apply the core concepts underpinning synthetic biology (design, build, test) to CHO cell engineering we must first develop practical and robust enabling technologies. Fundamentally, we will require the ability to precisely control the relative stoichiometry of numerous functional components we simultaneously introduce into the host cell factory. In this review we discuss how this can be achieved by design of engineered promoters that enable concerted control of recombinant gene transcription. We describe the specific mechanisms of transcriptional regulation that affect promoter function during bioproduction processes, and detail the highly-specific promoter design criteria that are required in the context of CHO cell engineering. The relative applicability of diverse promoter development strategies are discussed, including re-engineering of natural sequences, design of synthetic transcription factor-based systems, and construction of synthetic promoters. This review highlights the potential of promoter engineering to achieve precision transcriptional control for CHO cell synthetic biology. PMID:26721629

  5. Cdc48: A Swiss Army Knife of Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guem Hee Baek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cdc48 (also called VCP and p97 is an abundant protein that plays essential regulatory functions in a broad array of cellular processes. Working with various cofactors, Cdc48 utilizes its ATPase activity to promote the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Here, we review key biological functions and regulation of Cdc48 in ubiquitin-related events. Given the broad employment of Cdc48 in cell biology and its intimate ties to human diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, studies of Cdc48 will bring significant insights into the mechanism and function of ubiquitin in health and diseases.

  6. Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, a Commentary in this journal described how a simple mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture can help to explain how cell shape, movement and cytoskeletal mechanics are controlled, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces (J. Cell Sci. 104, 613-627). The cellular tensegrity model can now be revisited and placed in context of new advances in our understanding of cell structure, biological networks and mechanoregulation that have been made over the past decade. Recent work provides strong evidence to support the use of tensegrity by cells, and mathematical formulations of the model predict many aspects of cell behavior. In addition, development of the tensegrity theory and its translation into mathematical terms are beginning to allow us to define the relationship between mechanics and biochemistry at the molecular level and to attack the larger problem of biological complexity. Part I of this two-part article covers the evidence for cellular tensegrity at the molecular level and describes how this building system may provide a structural basis for the hierarchical organization of living systems--from molecule to organism. Part II, which focuses on how these structural networks influence information processing networks, appears in the next issue.

  7. Inflammatory mediators: Parallels between cancer biology and stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Patel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Shyam A Patel1,2,3, Andrew C Heinrich2,3, Bobby Y Reddy2, Pranela Rameshwar21Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Department of Medicine – Division of Hematology/Oncology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 3These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Inflammation encompasses diverse molecular pathways, and it is intertwined with a wide array of biological processes. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the interactions between mediators of inflammation and other cells such as stem cells and cancer cells. Since tissue injuries are associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, it would be difficult to address this subject without considering the implications of their systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the effects of inflammatory reactions on stem cells and extrapolate on information pertaining to cancer biology. The discussion focuses on integrins and cytokines, and identifies the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB as central to the inflammatory response. Since stem cell therapy has been proposed for type II diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, pulmonary edema, these disorders are used as examples to discuss the roles of inflammatory mediators. We propose prospects for future research on targeting the NFκB signaling pathway. Finally, we explore the bridge between inflammation and stem cells, including neural stem cells and adult stem cells from the bone marrow. The implications of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine as pertaining to inflammation are vast based on their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Such features of stem cells offer great potential for therapy in graft-versus-host disease, conditions with a significant inflammatory component, and tissue regeneration.Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, cancer, cytokines

  8. In vivo cell biology in zebrafish - providing insights into vertebrate development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacaru, Ana M; Unlu, Gokhan; Spitzner, Marie; Mione, Marina; Knapik, Ela W; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decades, studies using zebrafish have significantly advanced our understanding of the cellular basis for development and human diseases. Zebrafish have rapidly developing transparent embryos that allow comprehensive imaging of embryogenesis combined with powerful genetic approaches. However, forward genetic screens in zebrafish have generated unanticipated findings that are mirrored by human genetic studies: disruption of genes implicated in basic cellular processes, such as protein secretion or cytoskeletal dynamics, causes discrete developmental or disease phenotypes. This is surprising because many processes that were assumed to be fundamental to the function and survival of all cell types appear instead to be regulated by cell-specific mechanisms. Such discoveries are facilitated by experiments in whole animals, where zebrafish provides an ideal model for visualization and manipulation of organelles and cellular processes in a live vertebrate. Here, we review well-characterized mutants and newly developed tools that underscore this notion. We focus on the secretory pathway and microtubule-based trafficking as illustrative examples of how studying cell biology in vivo using zebrafish has broadened our understanding of the role fundamental cellular processes play in embryogenesis and disease.

  9. Layering genetic circuits to build a single cell, bacterial half adder

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Adison; Wang, Huijuan; Poh, Chueh Loo; Kitney, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene regulation in biological systems is impacted by the cellular and genetic context-dependent effects of the biological parts which comprise the circuit. Here, we have sought to elucidate the limitations of engineering biology from an architectural point of view, with the aim of compiling a set of engineering solutions for overcoming failure modes during the development of complex, synthetic genetic circuits. Results Using a synthetic biology approach that is supported by computa...

  10. Unraveling the genetic driving forces enabling antibiotic resistance at the single cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Julia

    Bacteria are champions at finding ways to quickly respond and adapt to environments like the human gut, known as the epicentre of antibiotic resistance. How do they do it? Combining molecular biology tools to microfluidic and fluorescence microscopy technologies, we monitor the behavior of bacteria at the single cell level in the presence of non-toxic doses of antibiotics. By tracking the chromosome dynamics of Escherichia coli cells upon antibiotic treatment, we examine the changes in the number, localization and content of the chromosome copies within one cell compartment or between adjacent cells. I will discuss how our work pictures the bacterial genomic plasticity as a driving force in evolution and how it provides access to the mechanisms controlling the subtle balance between genetic diversity and stability in the development of antibiotic resistance.

  11. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borjigin M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mandula Borjigin*, Chris Eskridge*, Rohina Niamat, Bryan Strouse, Pawel Bialk, Eric B KmiecDepartment of Chemistry, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Polycaprolactone (PCL and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher. Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. Keywords: nanofibers, PCL-biomaterial blends, miscibility, gene editing, cell proliferation

  12. Advances in genetic modification of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Andrew; Lakshmipathy, Uma

    2013-11-15

    Genetically engineered stem cells aid in dissecting basic cell function and are valuable tools for drug discovery, in vivo cell tracking, and gene therapy. Gene transfer into pluripotent stem cells has been a challenge due to their intrinsic feature of growing in clusters and hence not amenable to common gene delivery methods. Several advances have been made in the rapid assembly of DNA elements, optimization of culture conditions, and DNA delivery methods. This has lead to the development of viral and non-viral methods for transient or stable modification of cells, albeit with varying efficiencies. Most methods require selection and clonal expansion that demand prolonged culture and are not suited for cells with limited proliferative potential. Choosing the right platform based on preferred length, strength, and context of transgene expression is a critical step. Random integration of the transgene into the genome can be complicated due to silencing or altered regulation of expression due to genomic effects. An alternative to this are site-specific methods that target transgenes followed by screening to identify the genomic loci that support long-term expression with stem cell proliferation and differentiation. A highly precise and accurate editing of the genome driven by homology can be achieved using traditional methods as well as the newer technologies such as zinc finger nuclease, TAL effector nucleases and CRISPR. In this review, we summarize the different genetic engineering methods that have been successfully used to create modified embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

  13. Computational optimization for S-type biological systems: cockroach genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2013-10-01

    S-type biological systems (S-systems) are demonstrated to be universal approximations of continuous biological systems. S-systems are easy to be generalized to large systems. The systems are identified through data-driven identification techniques (cluster-based algorithms or computational methods). However, S-systems' identification is challenging because multiple attractors exist in such highly nonlinear systems. Moreover, in some biological systems the interactive effect cannot be neglected even the interaction order is small. Therefore, learning should be focused on increasing the gap between the true and redundant interaction. In addition, a wide searching space is necessary because no prior information is provided. The used technologies should have the ability to achieve convergence enhancement and diversity preservation. Cockroaches live in nearly all habitats and survive for more than 300 million years. In this paper, we mimic cockroaches' competitive swarm behavior and integrated it with advanced evolutionary operations. The proposed cockroach genetic algorithm (CGA) possesses strong snatching-food ability to rush forward to a target and high migration ability to escape from local minimum. CGA was tested with three small-scale systems, a twenty-state medium-scale system and a thirty-state large-scale system. A wide search space ([0,100] for rate constants and [-100,100] for kinetic orders) with random or bad initial starts are used to show the high exploration performance.

  14. A genetic interaction map of cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmann, Maximilian; Horn, Thomas; Fischer, Bernd; Sandmann, Thomas; Huber, Wolfgang; Boutros, Michael

    2016-04-15

    Cell-based RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to screen for modulators of many cellular processes. However, resulting candidate gene lists from cell-based assays comprise diverse effectors, both direct and indirect, and further dissecting their functions can be challenging. Here we screened a genome-wide RNAi library for modulators of mitosis and cytokinesis inDrosophilaS2 cells. The screen identified many previously known genes as well as modulators that have previously not been connected to cell cycle control. We then characterized ∼300 candidate modifiers further by genetic interaction analysis using double RNAi and a multiparametric, imaging-based assay. We found that analyzing cell cycle-relevant phenotypes increased the sensitivity for associating novel gene function. Genetic interaction maps based on mitotic index and nuclear size grouped candidates into known regulatory complexes of mitosis or cytokinesis, respectively, and predicted previously uncharacterized components of known processes. For example, we confirmed a role for theDrosophilaCCR4 mRNA processing complex componentl(2)NC136during the mitotic exit. Our results show that the combination of genome-scale RNAi screening and genetic interaction analysis using process-directed phenotypes provides a powerful two-step approach to assigning components to specific pathways and complexes. PMID:26912791

  15. Multiway modeling and analysis in stem cell systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenberg Scott L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.. A number of deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical learning models are used to understand sophisticated cellular behaviors such as protein expression during cellular differentiation and the activity of signaling networks. However, many of these models are bimodal i.e., they only consider row-column relationships. In contrast, multiway modeling techniques (also known as tensor models can analyze multimodal data, which capture much more information about complex behaviors such as cell differentiation. In particular, tensors can be very powerful tools for modeling the dynamic activity of biological networks over time. Here, we review the application of systems biology to stem cells and illustrate application of tensor analysis to model collagen-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Results We applied Tucker1, Tucker3, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC models to identify protein/gene expression patterns during extracellular matrix-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In one case, we organized our data into a tensor of type protein/gene locus link × gene ontology category × osteogenic stimulant, and found that our cells expressed two distinct, stimulus-dependent sets of functionally related genes as they underwent osteogenic differentiation. In a second case, we organized DNA microarray data in a three-way tensor of gene IDs × osteogenic stimulus × replicates, and found that application of tensile strain to a

  16. Pediatric glioma stem cells: biologic strategies for oncolytic HSV virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K Friedman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common adult malignant brain tumor, GBMs in childhood represent less than 10% of pediatric malignant brain tumors and are phenotypically and molecularly distinct from adult GBMs. Similar to adult patients, outcomes for children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs remain poor. Furthermore, the significant morbidity and mortality yielded by pediatric GBM is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies. Poor outcomes have been attributed to a subpopulation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant cells, termed ‘glioma stem cells’ (GSCs, ‘glioma progenitor cells’, or ‘glioma-initiating cells', which have the ability to initiate and maintain the tumor and to repopulate the recurring tumor after conventional therapy. Future innovative therapies for pediatric HGGs must be able to eradicate these therapy-resistant GSCs. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, genetically engineered to be safe for normal cells and to express diverse foreign anti-tumor therapeutic genes, have been demonstrated in preclinical studies to infect and kill GSCs and tumor cells equally while sparing normal brain cells. In this review, we discuss the unique aspects of pediatric GSCs, including markers to identify them, the microenvironment they reside in, signaling pathways that regulate them, mechanisms of cellular resistance, and approaches to target GSCs, with a focus on the promising therapeutic, genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV.

  17. Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome: Behind the Genetic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Stouffs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertoli cell-only syndrome is defined by the complete absence of germ cells in testicular tissues and always results in male infertility. The aetiology often remains unknown. In this paper, we have investigated possible causes of Sertoli cell-only syndrome with a special focus on genetic causes. Our results show that, for a large part of the patients (>23% in an unselected group, the sex chromosomes are involved. The majority of patients had a Klinefelter syndrome, followed by patients with Yq microdeletions. Array comparative genomic hybridization in a selected group of “idiopathic patients” showed no known infertility related copy number variations.

  18. Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome: Behind the Genetic Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Gheldof, Alexander; Tournaye, Herman; Vandermaelen, Deborah; Bonduelle, Maryse; Lissens, Willy; Seneca, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sertoli cell-only syndrome is defined by the complete absence of germ cells in testicular tissues and always results in male infertility. The aetiology often remains unknown. In this paper, we have investigated possible causes of Sertoli cell-only syndrome with a special focus on genetic causes. Our results show that, for a large part of the patients (>23% in an unselected group), the sex chromosomes are involved. The majority of patients had a Klinefelter syndrome, followed by patients with Yq microdeletions. Array comparative genomic hybridization in a selected group of "idiopathic patients" showed no known infertility related copy number variations.

  19. Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome: Behind the Genetic Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Gheldof, Alexander; Tournaye, Herman; Vandermaelen, Deborah; Bonduelle, Maryse; Lissens, Willy; Seneca, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sertoli cell-only syndrome is defined by the complete absence of germ cells in testicular tissues and always results in male infertility. The aetiology often remains unknown. In this paper, we have investigated possible causes of Sertoli cell-only syndrome with a special focus on genetic causes. Our results show that, for a large part of the patients (>23% in an unselected group), the sex chromosomes are involved. The majority of patients had a Klinefelter syndrome, followed by patients with Yq microdeletions. Array comparative genomic hybridization in a selected group of "idiopathic patients" showed no known infertility related copy number variations. PMID:26925412

  20. Biological Characteristics of Foam Cell Formation in Smooth Muscle Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengke Yan, Chenglai Xia, Caiwen Duan, Shihuang Li, Zhengrong Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC can differentiate into diverse cell types, including adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and myogenic lineages. There are lots of BMSC accumulated in atherosclerosis vessels and differentiate into VSMC. However, it is unclear whether VSMC originated from BMSC (BMSC-SMC could remodel the vessel in new tunica intima or promote the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, BMSC were differentiated into VSMC in response to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β and shown to express a number of VSMC markers, such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain1 (SM-MHC1. BMSC-SMC became foam cells after treatment with 80 mg/L ox-LDL for 72 hours. Ox-LDL could upregulate scavenger receptor class A (SR-A but downregulate the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 and caveolin-1 protein expression, suggesting that modulating relative protein activity contributes to smooth muscle foam cell formation in BMSC-SMC. Furthermore, we found that BMSC-SMC have some biological characteristics that are similar to VSMC, such as the ability of proliferation and secretion of extracellular matrix, but, at the same time, retain some biological characteristics of BMSC, such as a high level of migration. These results suggest that BMSC-SMC could be induced to foam cells and be involved in the development of atherosclerosis.

  1. Genetic analysis of human traits in vitro: drug response and gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Choy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, originally collected as renewable sources of DNA, are now being used as a model system to study genotype-phenotype relationships in human cells, including searches for QTLs influencing levels of individual mRNAs and responses to drugs and radiation. In the course of attempting to map genes for drug response using 269 LCLs from the International HapMap Project, we evaluated the extent to which biological noise and non-genetic confounders contribute to trait variability in LCLs. While drug responses could be technically well measured on a given day, we observed significant day-to-day variability and substantial correlation to non-genetic confounders, such as baseline growth rates and metabolic state in culture. After correcting for these confounders, we were unable to detect any QTLs with genome-wide significance for drug response. A much higher proportion of variance in mRNA levels may be attributed to non-genetic factors (intra-individual variance--i.e., biological noise, levels of the EBV virus used to transform the cells, ATP levels than to detectable eQTLs. Finally, in an attempt to improve power, we focused analysis on those genes that had both detectable eQTLs and correlation to drug response; we were unable to detect evidence that eQTL SNPs are convincingly associated with drug response in the model. While LCLs are a promising model for pharmacogenetic experiments, biological noise and in vitro artifacts may reduce power and have the potential to create spurious association due to confounding.

  2. Synthetic Biology Outside the Cell: Linking Computational Tools to Cell-Free Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Daniel D.; Villarreal, Fernando D.; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the...

  3. Go with the flow - Biology and genetics of the lactation cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Strucken

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactation is a dynamic process, which evolved to meet dietary demands of growing offspring. At the same time, the mother’s metabolism changes to meet the high requirements of nutrient supply to the offspring. Through strong artificial selection, the strain of milk production on dairy cows is often associated with impaired health and fertility. This led to the incorporation of functional traits into breeding aims to counteract this negative association. Potentially, distributing the total quantity of milk per lactation cycle more equally over time could reduce the peak of physiological strain and improve health and fertility. During lactation many factors affect the production of milk: food intake; digestion, absorption, and transportation of nutrients; blood glucose levels; activity of cells in the mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue; synthesis of proteins and fat in the secretory cells; and the metabolic and regulatory pathways that provide fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Whilst the endocrine regulation and physiology of the dynamic process of milk production seems to be understood, the genetics that underlie these dynamics are still to be uncovered. Modeling of longitudinal traits and estimating the change in additive genetic variation over time has shown that the genetic contribution to the expression of a trait depends on the considered time-point. Such time-dependent studies could contribute to the discovery of missing heritability. Only very few studies have estimated exact gene and marker effects at different time-points during lactation. The most prominent gene affecting milk yield and milk fat, DGAT1, exhibits its main effects after peak production, whilst the casein genes have larger effects in early lactation. Understanding the physiological dynamics and elucidating the time-dependent genetic effects behind dynamically expressed traits will contribute to selection decisions to further improve productive and healthy

  4. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  5. New Developments in Mast Cell Biology: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Greer; Bradding, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are present in connective tissue and at mucosal surfaces in all classes of vertebrates. In health, they contribute to tissue homeostasis, host defense, and tissue repair via multiple receptors regulating the release of a vast stockpile of proinflammatory mediators, proteases, and cytokines. However, these potentially protective cells are a double-edged sword. When there is a repeated or long-term stimulus, MC activation leads to tissue damage and dysfunction. Accordingly, MCs are implicated in the pathophysiologic aspects of numerous diseases covering all organs. Understanding the biology of MCs, their heterogeneity, mechanisms of activation, and signaling cascades may lead to the development of novel therapies for many diseases for which current treatments are lacking or are of poor efficacy. This review will focus on updates and developments in MC biology and their clinical implications, with a particular focus on their role in respiratory diseases.

  6. Membrane curvature in cell biology: An integration of molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsch, Iris K; Daste, Frederic; Gallop, Jennifer L

    2016-08-15

    Curving biological membranes establishes the complex architecture of the cell and mediates membrane traffic to control flux through subcellular compartments. Common molecular mechanisms for bending membranes are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla. These mechanisms can be intrinsic to the membrane bilayer (either the lipid or protein components) or can be brought about by extrinsic factors, including the cytoskeleton. Here, we review examples of membrane curvature generation in animals, fungi, and plants. We showcase the molecular mechanisms involved and how they collaborate and go on to highlight contexts of curvature that are exciting areas of future research. Lessons from how membranes are bent in yeast and mammals give hints as to the molecular mechanisms we expect to see used by plants and protists.

  7. [Effects of decitabine on biological behavior of U266 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Lin-Hua; Dong, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Rui-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Guo, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Jian-Fang; Zhagn, Li; Feng, Da-Wei

    2011-08-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of decitabine on the biological behaviour of U266 cells in vitro so as to provide a new thinking and experiment basis, as well as new evidences for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. MTT and colony formation assays were used to evaluate the impact of decitabine on the ability of proliferation of U266 cells; flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell distribution in cell cycle; transwell chamber and matrigel assays were used to observe the ability of migration and invasion. The results indicated that decitabine could significantly suppress the proliferation of U266 cells in time-and dose-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells in G(0)-G(1) phase significantly increased while the cells in S and G(2)/M phase decreased. The migration and matrigel invading tests showed that the number of cells moving into under chamber of transwell decreased after U266 cells treated with decitabine. It is concluded that decitabine may act as an effective drug for MM by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and the specific mechanism needs to be deeply explored.

  8. The circadian clock and cell cycle: Interconnected biological circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Masri, Selma; Cervantes, Marlene; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock governs biological timekeeping on a systemic level, helping to regulate and maintain physiological processes, including endocrine and metabolic pathways with a periodicity of 24-hours. Disruption within the circadian clock machinery has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, including cancer, suggesting that clock-dependent regulation of the cell cycle is an essential control mechanism. This review will highlight recent advances on the ‘gating’ controls of the ci...

  9. Nanodomain stabilization dynamics in plasma membranes of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tamal; Maiti, Tapas K.; Chakraborty, Suman

    2011-02-01

    We discover that a synergistically amplifying role of stabilizing membrane proteins and continuous lipid recycling can explain the physics governing the stability, polydispersity, and dynamics of lipid raft domains in plasma membranes of biological cells. We establish the conjecture using a generalized order parameter based on theoretical formalism, endorsed by detailed scaling arguments and domain mapping. Quantitative agreements with morphological distributions of raft complexes, as obtained from Förster resonance energy transfer based visualization, support the present theoretical conjecture.

  10. A short guide to technology development in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Bas

    2015-03-16

    New technologies drive progress in many research fields, including cell biology. Much of technological innovation comes from "bottom-up" efforts by individual students and postdocs. However, technology development can be challenging, and a successful outcome depends on many factors. This article outlines some considerations that are important when embarking on a technology development project. Despite the challenges, developing a new technology can be extremely rewarding and could lead to a lasting impact in a given field.

  11. In focus: molecular and cell biology research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuebiao; Li, Dangsheng; Pei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    An interactive, intellectual environment with good funding opportunities is essential for the development and success of basic research. The fast-growing economy and investment in science, together with a visionary plan, have attracted foreign scholars to work in China, motivated world-class Chinese scientists to return and strengthened the country's international collaborations. As a result, molecular and cell biology research in China has evolved rapidly over the past decade.

  12. Plant Cell and Signaling Biology Blooms in the Wuyi Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Eighth International Conference on Plant Biology Fron-tiers, organized by Zhenbiao Yang, Chentao Lin, and Xing-wang Deng, was convened in the Wuyi Mountain Yeohwa Resort in Fujian, China, 23-27 September 2010.The meeting's main theme was Cells and Signals, featuring four keynote speeches, 45 plenary talks, and over 40 poster presentations that covered a wide range of topics, from dynamic cellular structures to how developmental and environmental signals control various plant processes at the juncture of cells.

  13. A new view into prokaryotic cell biology from electron cryotomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Catherine M; Jensen, Grant J

    2016-04-01

    Electron cryotomography (ECT) enables intact cells to be visualized in 3D in an essentially native state to 'macromolecular' (∼4 nm) resolution, revealing the basic architectures of complete nanomachines and their arrangements in situ. Since its inception, ECT has advanced our understanding of many aspects of prokaryotic cell biology, from morphogenesis to subcellular compartmentalization and from metabolism to complex interspecies interactions. In this Review, we highlight how ECT has provided structural and mechanistic insights into the physiology of bacteria and archaea and discuss prospects for the future.

  14. Genetic engineering of modular PKSs: from combinatorial biosynthesis to synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Kira J

    2016-02-01

    Multienzyme polyketide synthases (PKSs) are molecular-scale assembly lines which construct complex natural products in bacteria. The underlying modular architecture of these gigantic catalysts inspired, from the moment of their discovery, attempts to modify them by genetic engineering to produce analogues of predictable structure. These efforts have resulted in hundreds of metabolites new to nature, as detailed in this review. However, in the face of many failures, the heady days of imagining the possibilities for a truly 'combinatorial biosynthesis' of polyketides have faded. It is now more appropriate to talk about 'PKS synthetic biology' with its more modest goals of delivering specific derivatives of known structure in combination with and as a complement to synthetic chemistry approaches. The reasons for these failures will be discussed in terms of our growing understanding of the three-dimensional architectures and mechanisms of these systems. Finally, some thoughts on the future of the field will be presented.

  15. Using Molecular Biology to Develop Drugs for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowey, C. Lance; Rathmell, W. Kimryn

    2010-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma is a disease marked by a unique biology which has governed it’s long history of poor response to conventional cancer treatments. The discovery of the signaling pathway activated as a result of inappropriate constitutive activation of the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF), transcription factors physiologically and transiently stabilized in response to low oxygen, has provided a primary opportunity to devise treatment strategies to target this oncogenic pathway. Objective A review of the molecular pathogenesis of renal cell cancer as well as molecularly targeted therapies, both those currently available and those in development, will be provided. In addition, trials involving combination or sequential targeted therapy are discussed. Methods A detailed review of the literature describing the molecular biology of renal cell cancer and novel therapies was performed and summarized. Results/Conclusion Therapeutics targeting angiogenesis have provided the first class of agents which provide clinical benefit in a large majority of patients and heralded renal cell carcinoma as a solid tumor paradigm for the development of novel therapeutics. Multiple strategies targeting this pathway and now other identified pathways in renal cell carcinoma provide numerous potential opportunities to make major improvements in treating this historically devastating cancer. PMID:20648240

  16. Biological effect of carbon beams on cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the biological effect of carbon beams on 13 human tumor cells, in comparison with 200 KVp X-rays. Carbon beams were generated by the Riken Ring Cyclotron. The RBE (relative biological effectiveness) values were distributed from 1.46 to 2.20 for LET of 20 keV/μm, and 2.29-3.54 for 80 keV/μm. The RBEs were increased in all cell lines as the LET of carbon beams was increased from 20 to 80 keV/μm. There was no significant difference in radiosensitivity between cells from adenocarcinoma and those from squamous cell carcinoma. The relationship between the radiosensitivity of cells to X-rays and RBE was analyzed, but no significant correlation was suggested. Several survival curves of 20-40 keV/μm carbon beam irradiation showed the initial shoulders and the recovery ratios between two split doses were determined. Recovery was observed for LET of 2O keV/μm but not for that of 40 keV/μm. Furthermore, recovery ratios were 1.0-1.8, smaller than those for X-rays (1.5-2.4). (author)

  17. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Duanqing; Xu, Jianyong; Zhuang, Qiang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Esteban, Miguel A.

    The potential of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for regenerative medicine is unquestionable, but practical and ethical considerations have hampered clinical application and research. In an attempt to overcome these issues, the conversion of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells similar to ESCs, commonly termed nuclear reprogramming, has been a top objective of contemporary biology. More than 40 years ago, King, Briggs, and Gurdon pioneered somatic cell nuclear reprogramming in frogs, and in 1981 Evans successfully isolated mouse ESCs. In 1997 Wilmut and collaborators produced the first cloned mammal using nuclear transfer, and then Thomson obtained human ESCs from in vitro fertilized blastocysts in 1998. Over the last 2 decades we have also seen remarkable findings regarding how ESC behavior is controlled, the importance of which should not be underestimated. This knowledge allowed the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka to overcome brilliantly conceptual and technical barriers in 2006 and generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts by overexpressing defined combinations of ESC-enriched transcription factors. Here, we discuss some important implications of human iPSCs for biology and medicine and also point to possible future directions.

  18. ANALISIS ARGUMENTASI MAHASISWA PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI PADA ISU SOSIOSAINFIK KONSUMSI GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Herlanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis argumentasi yang dikemukakan oleh mahasiswa pendidikan biologi terkait isu sosiosaintifik yaitu konsumsi pangan Genetically Modified Organism (GMO.  Penelitian menggunakan metode survei secara online.  Partisipan yang berasal dari semester III-VII Universitas Islam Negeri Jakarta yang secara sukarela mengisi kuisioner online yang diunggah pada weblog. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan isu sosiosaintifik GMO lebih banyak ditanggapi secara saintifik oleh partisipan.  Argumentasi sebagian besar berada pada level II, yaitu telah mampu mengungkapkan sebuah klaim disertai dengan alasan. Hanya sedikit yang sudah mampu memberikan argumen secara holistik (level IV, yaitu mampu mengungkapkan argumen dengan alasan yang kuat yang tidak mudah dibantah.  Umumnya argumentasi yang dikemukan partisipan berjenis argumentasi sederhana dan argumentasi tipe rantai.  Berdasarkan temuan ini, perlu dikembangkan sebuah model perkuliahan yang dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berargumentasi. This research aimed to analyze the argument for socioscientifik issue “Genetically Modified Organism (GMO Food Consumtion”.  This reseach used online survey.  Participant filled online questionaire that uploaded in weblog.  Participants are student of biology education in Jakarta Islamic State University. The result showed most participants gave scientific view in their argument.  Most of argumentations were in level II; participants gave a klaim within a warrant.  Only a few argument were in level IV, it’s a holistic argument that contained a klaim, a warrant, a backing, and a rebuttal.  Most of argument had simple type or chain type.  From this result, university must develop strategies of lecturing to improve argumentation skill.

  19. [Basal cell carcinoma. Molecular genetics and unusual clinical features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, J

    2007-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common human cancer. Its incidence is steadily increasing. The development of basal cell carcinoma is linked to genetic factors, including the individual skin phototype, as well as the cumulative exposure to UVB. The vast majority of basal cell carcinomas are sporadic tumors, while familial cases associated with certain hereditary syndromes are less common. At the molecular level, basal cell carcinomas are characterized by aberrant activation of sonic hedgehog signaling, usually due to mutations either in the ptch or smoh genes. In addition, about half of the cases carry mutations in the tp53 tumor suppressor gene, which are often UVB-associated C-->T transition mutations. Clinically, basal cell carcinomas may show a high degree of phenotypical variability. In particular, tumors occurring in atypical locations, showing an unusual clinical appearance, or imitating other skin diseases may cause diagnostic problems. This review article summarizes the current state of the art concerning the etiology, predisposition and molecular genetics of basal cell carcinoma. In addition, examples of unusual clinical manifestations are illustrated. PMID:17440702

  20. Genetic changes in Mammalian cells transformed by helium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche); Yang, T.C.; Roots, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Midterm Syrian Hamster embryo (SHE) cells were employed to study high LET-radiation induced tumorigenesis. Normal SHE cells (secondary passage) were irradiated with accelerated helium ions at an incident energy of 22 MeV/u (9--10 keV/{mu}m). Transformed clones were isolated after growth in soft agar of cells obtained from the foci of the initial monolayer plated postirradiation. To study the progression process of malignant transformation, the transformed clones were followed by monolayer subculturing for prolonged periods of time. Subsequently, neoplasia tests in nude mice were done. In this work, however, we have focused on karyotypic changes in the banding patterns of the chromosomes during the early part of the progressive process of cell transformation for helium ion-induced transformed cells. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Translating inter-individual genetic variation to biological function in complex phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Rachita

    in adipose depots, which is a major tissue implicated in obesity. Chapter 5 sheds light on different mechanisms that result in the replacement of metabolism efficient brown fat with the storage-type white fat in large mammals (including human) especially within the first few months following birth....... The project work discussed in chapter 6 is aimed towards understanding the various underlying differences in obesity responses in fat cells from different white adipose tissue depots under diet-induced and genetic obesity by decoding the global epigenetic modifications. The fourth section of this thesis work...

  2. Natural Killer Cells: Biology and Clinical Use in Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William H. D. Hallett; William J. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have the ability to mediate both bone marrow rejection and promote engraftment, as well as the ability to elicit potent anti-tumor effects. However the clinical results for these processes are still elusive. Greater understanding of NK cell biology, from activating and inhibitory receptor functions to the role of NK cells in allogeneic transplantation, needs to be appreciated in order to draw out the clinical potential of NK cells. Mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection are known to be dependant on inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and on activating receptors that have many potential ligands. The modulation of activating and inhibitory receptors may hold the key to clinical success involving NK cells. Pre-clinical studies in mice have shown that different combinations of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells can reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), promote engraftment, and provide superior graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Recent clinical data have shown that the use of KIR-ligand incompatibility produces tremendous graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high risk of relapse. This review will attempt to be a synthesis of current knowledge concerning NK cells, their involvement in BMT, and their use as an immunotherapy for cancer and other hematologic malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):12-21.

  3. The Impact of Epigenetics on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkul, Yusuf; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Changes in epigenetic marks are known to be important regulatory factors in stem cell fate determination and differentiation. In the past years, the investigation of the epigenetic regulation of stem cell biology has largely focused on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Contrarily, less is known about the epigenetic control of gene expression during differentiation of adult stem cells (AdSCs). Among AdSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most investigated stem cell population because of their enormous potential for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we analyze the main studies addressing the epigenetic changes in MSC landscape during in vitro cultivation and replicative senescence, as well as follow osteocyte, chondrocyte, and adipocyte differentiation. In these studies, histone acetylation, DNA methylation, and miRNA expression are among the most investigated phenomena. We describe also epigenetic changes that are associated with in vitro MSC trans-differentiation. Although at the at initial stage, the epigenetics of MSCs promise to have profound implications for stem cell basic and applied research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2393-2401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Impact of Epigenetics on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkul, Yusuf; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Changes in epigenetic marks are known to be important regulatory factors in stem cell fate determination and differentiation. In the past years, the investigation of the epigenetic regulation of stem cell biology has largely focused on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Contrarily, less is known about the epigenetic control of gene expression during differentiation of adult stem cells (AdSCs). Among AdSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most investigated stem cell population because of their enormous potential for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we analyze the main studies addressing the epigenetic changes in MSC landscape during in vitro cultivation and replicative senescence, as well as follow osteocyte, chondrocyte, and adipocyte differentiation. In these studies, histone acetylation, DNA methylation, and miRNA expression are among the most investigated phenomena. We describe also epigenetic changes that are associated with in vitro MSC trans-differentiation. Although at the at initial stage, the epigenetics of MSCs promise to have profound implications for stem cell basic and applied research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2393-2401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26960183

  5. Disproportionate Contributions of Select Genomic Compartments and Cell Types to Genetic Risk for Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hee Won

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many genetic loci associated with risk for myocardial infarction (MI and coronary artery disease (CAD. Concurrently, efforts such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Project and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE Consortium have provided unprecedented data on functional elements of the human genome. In the present study, we systematically investigate the biological link between genetic variants associated with this complex disease and their impacts on gene function. First, we examined the heritability of MI/CAD according to genomic compartments. We observed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs residing within nearby regulatory regions show significant polygenicity and contribute between 59-71% of the heritability for MI/CAD. Second, we showed that the polygenicity and heritability explained by these SNPs are enriched in histone modification marks in specific cell types. Third, we found that a statistically higher number of 45 MI/CAD-associated SNPs that have been identified from large-scale GWAS studies reside within certain functional elements of the genome, particularly in active enhancer and promoter regions. Finally, we observed significant heterogeneity of this signal across cell types, with strong signals observed within adipose nuclei, as well as brain and spleen cell types. These results suggest that the genetic etiology of MI/CAD is largely explained by tissue-specific regulatory perturbation within the human genome.

  6. Genetic diversity in normal cell populations is the earliest stage of oncogenesis leading to intra-tumor heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory L Howk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Random mutations and epigenetic alterations provide a rich substrate for microevolutionary phenomena to occur in proliferating epithelial tissues. Genetic diversity resulting from random mutations in normal cells is critically important for understanding the genetic basis of oncogenesis. However, evaluation of the cell-specific role of individual (epi-genetic alterations in living tissues is extremely difficult from a direct experimental perspective. We have developed a theoretical model for uterine epithelial cell proliferation. Computational simulations have shown that a base-line mutation rate of two mutations per cell division is sufficient to explain sporadic endometrial cancer as a rare evolutionary consequence with an incidence similar to that reported in SEER data. Simulation of the entire oncogenic process has allowed us to analyze the features of the tumor initiating cells and their clonal expansion. Analysis of the malignant features of individual cancer cells, such as de-differentiation status, proliferation potential, and immortalization status, permits a mathematical characterization of malignancy and a comparison of intra-tumor heterogeneity between individual tumors. We found, under the conditions specified, that cancer stem cells account for approximately 7% of the total cancer cell population. Taken together, our mathematical modeling describes the genetic diversity and evolution in a normal cell population at the early stages of oncogenesis and characterizes intra-tumor heterogeneity. This model has explored the role of accumulation of a large number of genetic alterations in oncogenesis as an alternative to traditional biological approaches emphasizing the driving role of a small number of genetic mutations, and this accumulation, along with environmental factors, has a significant impact on the growth advantage of and selection pressure on individual cancer cells and the resulting tumor composition and progression.

  7. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  8. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  9. Genetic features of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilgenbauer, S; Lichter, P; Döhner, H

    2000-03-01

    The genetic features of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are currently being reassessed by molecular cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Conventional cytogenetic studies by chromosome banding are difficult in CLL mainly because of the low in vitro mitotic activity of the tumor cells, which leads to poor quantity and quality of metaphase spreads. Molecular genetic analyses are limited because candidate genes are known for only a few chromosomal aberrations that are observed in CLL. FISH was found to be a powerful tool for the genetic analysis of CLL as it overcomes both the low mitotic activity of the CLL cells and the lack of suitable candidate genes for analysis. Using FISH, the detection of chromosomal aberrations can be performed at the single cell level in both dividing and non-dividing cells, thus circumventing the need of metaphase preparations from tumor cells. Probes for the detection of trisomies, deletions and translocation breakpoints can be applied to the regions of interest with the growing number of clones available from genome-wide libraries. Using the interphase cytogenetic FISH approach with a disease specific set of probes, chromosome aberrations can be found in more than 80% of CLL cases. The most frequently observed abnormalities are losses of chromosomal material, with deletions in band 13q14 being the most common, followed by deletions in 11q22-q23, deletions in 17p13 and deletions in 6q21. The most common gains of chromosomal material are trisomies 12q, 8q and 3q. Translocation breakpoints, in particular involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus at 14q32, which are frequently observed in other types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, are rare events in CLL. Genes affected by common chromosome aberrations in CLL appear to be p53 in cases with 17p deletion and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is mutated in a subset of cases with 11q22-q23 aberrations. However, for the other frequently

  10. Genetic variants regulating immune cell levels in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Valeria; Steri, Maristella; Sole, Gabriella; Sidore, Carlo; Virdis, Francesca; Dei, Mariano; Lai, Sandra; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Busonero, Fabio; Mulas, Antonella; Floris, Matteo; Mentzen, Wieslawa I; Urru, Silvana A M; Olla, Stefania; Marongiu, Michele; Piras, Maria G; Lobina, Monia; Maschio, Andrea; Pitzalis, Maristella; Urru, Maria F; Marcelli, Marco; Cusano, Roberto; Deidda, Francesca; Serra, Valentina; Oppo, Manuela; Pilu, Rosella; Reinier, Frederic; Berutti, Riccardo; Pireddu, Luca; Zara, Ilenia; Porcu, Eleonora; Kwong, Alan; Brennan, Christine; Tarrier, Brendan; Lyons, Robert; Kang, Hyun M; Uzzau, Sergio; Atzeni, Rossano; Valentini, Maria; Firinu, Davide; Leoni, Lidia; Rotta, Gianluca; Naitza, Silvia; Angius, Andrea; Congia, Mauro; Whalen, Michael B; Jones, Chris M; Schlessinger, David; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Fiorillo, Edoardo; Sanna, Serena; Cucca, Francesco

    2013-09-26

    The complex network of specialized cells and molecules in the immune system has evolved to defend against pathogens, but inadvertent immune system attacks on "self" result in autoimmune disease. Both genetic regulation of immune cell levels and their relationships with autoimmunity are largely undetermined. Here, we report genetic contributions to quantitative levels of 95 cell types encompassing 272 immune traits, in a cohort of 1,629 individuals from four clustered Sardinian villages. We first estimated trait heritability, showing that it can be substantial, accounting for up to 87% of the variance (mean 41%). Next, by assessing ∼8.2 million variants that we identified and confirmed in an extended set of 2,870 individuals, 23 independent variants at 13 loci associated with at least one trait. Notably, variants at three loci (HLA, IL2RA, and SH2B3/ATXN2) overlap with known autoimmune disease associations. These results connect specific cellular phenotypes to specific genetic variants, helping to explicate their involvement in disease. PMID:24074872

  11. Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space. PMID:22992434

  12. Characterizing and prototyping genetic networks with cell-free transcription-translation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Melissa K; Hayes, Clarmyra A; Chappell, James; Sun, Zachary Z; Murray, Richard M; Noireaux, Vincent; Lucks, Julius B

    2015-09-15

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to engineer cellular behavior by engineering synthetic gene networks for a variety of biotechnology and medical applications. The process of engineering gene networks often involves an iterative 'design-build-test' cycle, whereby the parts and connections that make up the network are built, characterized and varied until the desired network function is reached. Many advances have been made in the design and build portions of this cycle. However, the slow process of in vivo characterization of network function often limits the timescale of the testing step. Cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) systems offer a simple and fast alternative to performing these characterizations in cells. Here we provide an overview of a cell-free TX-TL system that utilizes the native Escherichia coli TX-TL machinery, thereby allowing a large repertoire of parts and networks to be characterized. As a way to demonstrate the utility of cell-free TX-TL, we illustrate the characterization of two genetic networks: an RNA transcriptional cascade and a protein regulated incoherent feed-forward loop. We also provide guidelines for designing TX-TL experiments to characterize new genetic networks. We end with a discussion of current and emerging applications of cell free systems.

  13. Prediction and optimization of fuel cell performance using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Marques Hobold, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention that is currently being given to the emission of pollutant gases in the atmosphere has made the fuel cell (FC, an energy conversion device that cleanly converts chemical energy into electrical energy, a good alternative to other technologies that still use carbon-based fuels. The temperature plays an important role on the efficiency of an FC as it influences directly the humidity of the membrane, the reversible thermodynamic potential and the partial pressure of water; therefore the thermal control of the fuel cell is the focus of this paper. We present models for both high and low temperature fuel cells based on the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC and the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. A thermodynamic analysis is performed on the cells and the methods of controlling their temperature are discussed. The cell parameters are optimized for both high and low temperatures using a Java-based multi-objective genetic algorithm, which makes use of the logic of the biological theory of evolution to classify individual parameters based on a fitness function in order to maximize the power of the fuel cell. Applications to high and low temperature fuel cells are discussed.

  14. Student world view as a framework for learning genetics and evolution in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Roger Wesley

    Statement of the problem. Few studies in biology education have examined the underlying presuppositions which guide thinking and concept learning in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the biological world views of a variety of high school students before they take biology courses. Specifically, the study examined student world views in the domains of Classification, Relationship and Causation related to the concepts of heredity, evolution and biotechnology. The following served as guiding questions: (1) What are the personal world views of high school students entering biology classes, related to the domain of Classification, Relationship and Causality? (2) How do these student world views confound or enhance the learning of basic concepts in genetics and evolution? Methods. An interpretive method was chosen for this study. The six student participants were ninth graders and represented a wide range of world view backgrounds. A series of three interviews was conducted with each participant, with a focus group used for triangulation of data. The constant comparative method was used to categorize the data and facilitate the search for meaningful patterns. The analysis included a thick description of each student's personal views of classification, evolution and the appropriate use of biotechnology. Results. The study demonstrates that world view is the basis upon which students build knowledge in biology. The logic of their everyday thinking may not match that of scientists. The words they use are sometimes inconsistent with scientific terminology. This study provides evidence that students voice different opinions depending on the social situation, since they are strongly influenced by peers. Students classify animals based on behaviors. They largely believe that the natural world is unpredictable, and that humans are not really part of that world. Half are unlikely to accept the evolution of humans, but may accept it in other

  15. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  16. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazal, Roland; Yin, Xin; Johns, Scott C; Swanson, Lee; Macal, Monica; Ghosh, Pradipta; Zuniga, Elina I; Fuster, Mark M

    2016-05-01

    In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs) in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1) in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21)-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt) were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4-deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  17. Testicular germ cell tumors: Molecular genetic and clinicomorphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nemtsova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular tumors are the most common form of solid cancer in young men. According to the 2004 WHO classification, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT may present with different histological types. Embryonic cells of varying grade may be a source of TGCT and the occurrence of this type of tumors is directly related to the formation of a pool of male sex cells and gametogenesis. The paper gives information on mo- lecular stages for the process of formation of male sex cells in health, as well as ways of their impairments leading to TGCT. An investigation of the profiles of gene expression and the spectrum of molecular damages revealed genes responsible for a predisposition to the sporadic and hereditary forms of TGCT. The paper presents the current molecular genetic and clinicomorphological characteristics of TGCT. 

  18. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  19. Biological characteristics of a novel giant cell tumor cell line derived from spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Li, Yan; Xu, Leqin; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Su; Yang, Cheng; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone(GCTB) is a special bone tumor for it consists of various cell types, and its biological characteristics is different from common benign or malignant neoplasm. In the present study, we report the biological features of a primary Asian GCTB cell line named GCTB28. We analyzed extensive properties of the GCTB28 cells including morphological observations, growth, cell cycle, karyotype, proliferation, proteins expression, surface biomarker verification, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. We found that the stromal cells of GCTB were endowed with self-renewal capacity and played dominant roles in GCTB development. Moreover, we confirmed that GCTB cells can be CD33(-)CD14(-) phenotype which was not in accord with previous study. This study provides an in vitro model system to investigate pathogenic mechanisms and molecular characteristics of GCTB and also provides a useful tool for researching the therapeutic targeting of GCTB. PMID:26801673

  20. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Pollard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  1. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  2. Engineering antigen-specific T cells from genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Kitchen

    Full Text Available There is a desperate need for effective therapies to fight chronic viral infections. The immune response is normally fastidious at controlling the majority of viral infections and a therapeutic strategy aimed at reestablishing immune control represents a potentially powerful approach towards treating persistent viral infections. We examined the potential of genetically programming human hematopoietic stem cells to generate mature CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express a molecularly cloned, "transgenic" human anti-HIV T cell receptor (TCR. Anti-HIV TCR transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells directed the maturation of a large population of polyfunctional, HIV-specific CD8+ cells capable of recognizing and killing viral antigen-presenting cells. Thus, through this proof-of-concept we propose that genetic engineering of human hematopoietic stem cells will allow the tailoring of effector T cell responses to fight HIV infection or other diseases that are characterized by the loss of immune control.

  3. Genetic mutations associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingjian; Li, Fengjie; Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Kaijin; Qu, Cunye; Chen, Yibu; Li, Meng; Chen, Xuelian; Stucky, Andres; Zhong, Jiangjian; Li, Longkun; Zhong, Jiang F.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of death among cancer patients, yet early detection and intervention of metastasis could significantly improve their clinical outcomes. We have sequenced and analyzed RNA (Expression) and DNA (Mutations) from the primary tumor (PT), tumor extension (TE) and lymphatic metastatic (LM) sites of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) before treatment. Here, we report a three-nucleotide deletion near the C-region of Plk5 that is specifically associated with the lymphatic metastasis. This mutation is un-detectable in the PT, becomes detectable in the TE and dominates the LM tissue. So while only a few primary cancer cells carry this mutation, the majority of metastatic cells have this mutation. The increasing frequency of this mutation in metastatic tissue suggests that this Plk5 deletion could be used as an early indicator of CCRCC metastasis, and be identified by low cost PCR assay. A large scale clinical trial could reveal whether a simple PCR assay for this mutation at the time of nephrectomy could identify and stratify high-risk CCRCC patients for treatments. PMID:26908440

  4. Mobile Applications in Cell Biology Present New Approaches for Cell Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mayara Lustosa; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology apps were surveyed in order to identify whether there are new approaches for modelling cells allowed by the new technologies implemented in tablets and smartphones. A total of 97 apps were identified in 3 stores surveyed (Apple, Google Play and Amazon), they are presented as: education 48.4%, games 26.8% and medicine 15.4%. The apps…

  5. Coping with the abstract and complex nature of genetics in biology education : The yo-yo learning and teaching strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, M.C.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a research project that was carried out at the Centre for Science and Mathematics Education at Utrecht University between 1998 and 2002. The study addresses problems in learning and teaching genetics in upper secondary biology education. The aim of the study is to develop a the

  6. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and tim

  7. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among spe

  8. Comparative genetics: a lens through which to clarify the genomes, the transmission history, and the reproductive biology of Trichinella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress in studying the biology of Trichinella spp. was greatly advanced with the publication and analysis of the draft genome sequence of T. spiralis. Those data provide a basis for constructing testable hypothesis concerning parasite physiology, immunology, and genetics. They also provide tools...

  9. Framing the Genetics Curriculum for Social Justice: An Experimental Exploration of How the Biology Curriculum Influences Beliefs about Racial Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment manipulated the racial framing of a reading on human genetic disease to explore whether racial terminology in the biology curriculum affects how adolescents explain and respond to the racial achievement gap in American education. Carried out in a public high school in the San Francisco Bay Area, students recruited for the…

  10. Genetic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic alterations observed in head and neck cancer are mainly due to oncogene activation (gain of function mutations and tumor suppressor gene inactivation (loss of function mutations, leading to deregulation of cell proliferation and death. These genetic alterations include gene amplification and overexpression of oncogenes such as myc, erbB-2, EGFR and cyclinD1 and mutations, deletions and hypermethylation leading to p16 and TP53 tumor suppressor gene inactivation. In addition, loss of heterozygosity in several chromosomal regions is frequently observed, suggesting that other tumor suppressor genes not yet identified could be involved in the tumorigenic process of head and neck cancers. The exact temporal sequence of the genetic alterations during head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC development and progression has not yet been defined and their diagnostic or prognostic significance is controversial. Advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of head and neck cancer should help in the identification of new markers that could be used for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the disease.

  11. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented.

  12. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented. PMID:26140302

  13. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  14. Genetic engineering of stem cells for enhanced therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Andrzejewska, Anna; Janowski, Miroslaw; Walczak, Piotr; Lukomska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for overcoming the limitations of current treatment methods. The modification of stem cell properties may be necessary to fully exploit their potential. Genetic engineering, with an abundance of methodology to induce gene expression in a precise and well-controllable manner, is particularly attractive for this purpose. There are virus-based and non-viral methods of genetic manipulation. Genome-integrating viral vectors are usually characterized by highly efficient and long-term transgene expression, at a cost of safety. Non-integrating viruses are also highly efficient in transduction, and, while safer, offer only a limited duration of transgene expression. There is a great diversity of transfectable forms of nucleic acids; however, for efficient shuttling across cell membranes, additional manipulation is required. Both physical and chemical methods have been employed for this purpose. Stem cell engineering for clinical applications is still in its infancy and requires further research. There are two main strategies for inducing transgene expression in therapeutic cells: transient and permanent expression. In many cases, including stem cell trafficking and using cell therapy for the treatment of rapid-onset disease with a short healing process, transient transgene expression may be a sufficient and optimal approach. For that purpose, mRNA-based methods seem ideally suited, as they are characterized by a rapid, highly efficient transfection, with outstanding safety. Permanent transgene expression is primarily based on the application of viral vectors, and, due to safety concerns, these methods are more challenging. There is active, ongoing research toward the development of non-viral methods that would induce permanent expression, such as transposons and mammalian artificial chromosomes.

  15. [Better understanding of the biology of cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, G

    2000-09-25

    Most forms of cancer arise through a Darwinian evolutionary process. The natural selection that ultimately leads to cancer takes place in somatic tissues although it may be triggered by inherited mutations in a small but significant minority. It favors the growth of clones and subclones that are less and less responsive to normal intra- and extracellular growth control mechanisms. The development of molecular biology has led to the identification of many genes that participate in this somatic evolution. They belong to the following groups: Oncogenes, constitutively activated by structural and/or regulatory changes that drive the cell to continuous proliferation; Tumor suppressor genes, that can inhibit the illegitimately activated cell cycle. They contribute to tumor development by loss mutations or permanent down-regulation, e.g. by methylation; Apoptosis inhibitory genes that can contribute to tumor development by raising the apoptotic threshold, and apoptosis promoting genes that can favor the growth of apoptosis prone tumor cells by their loss or inactivation; DNA repair genes whose inactivation can counteract the normal elimination of cells that carry potentially cancer promoting mutations. Inherited mutations in DNA repair genes can lead to familial cancer syndromes. Immortalizing genes that counteract cellular senescence; Angiogenesis promoting genes whose products may stimulate the vascular supply of tumors; Genes whose structural or functional changes may facilitate the escape of tumor cells from immune rejection; The multi-step development of individual tumors can encompass changes in most or all of these genes. They occur independently of each other and without any fixed order or timing. Tumor emancipation from growth control can therefore proceed along various pathways. It follows that each tumor must be regarded as a biologically unique individual.

  16. Genetic and molecular bases of yield-associated traits: a translational biology approach between rice and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluru, Ravi; Reynolds, Matthew P; Salse, Jerome

    2014-07-01

    Transferring the knowledge bases between related species may assist in enlarging the yield potential of crop plants. Being cereals, rice and wheat share a high level of gene conservation; however, they differ at metabolic levels as a part of the environmental adaptation resulting in different yield capacities. This review focuses on the current understanding of genetic and molecular regulation of yield-associated traits in both crop species, highlights the similarities and differences and presents the putative knowledge gaps. We focus on the traits associated with phenology, photosynthesis, and assimilate partitioning and lodging resistance; the most important drivers of yield potential. Currently, there are large knowledge gaps in the genetic and molecular control of such major biological processes that can be filled in a translational biology approach in transferring genomics and genetics informations between rice and wheat.

  17. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  18. The state of the union: the cell biology of fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janice P; Florman, Harvey M

    2002-10-01

    Fertilization is the process by which sperm and egg unite. An expanded understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these events has provided insights into an important aspect of early development and also has proven to be a valuable model in which to study cellular function. In addition, many emerging strategies for contraception and for the treatment of infertility are based on the mechanism of gamete interaction. Here, we discuss the cell and molecular biology of mammalian fertilization, highlight selected recent breakthroughs and attempt to identify key unanswered questions.

  19. Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Earnshaw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to sequence genomes has provided us with near-complete lists of the proteins that compose cells, tissues, and organisms, but this is only the beginning of the process to discover the functions of cellular components. In the future, it's going to be crucial to develop computational analyses that can predict the biological functions of uncharacterised proteins. At the same time, we must not forget those fundamental experimental skills needed to confirm the predictions or send the analysts back to the drawing board to devise new ones.

  20. Deducing protein function by forensic integrative cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, William C

    2013-12-01

    Our ability to sequence genomes has provided us with near-complete lists of the proteins that compose cells, tissues, and organisms, but this is only the beginning of the process to discover the functions of cellular components. In the future, it's going to be crucial to develop computational analyses that can predict the biological functions of uncharacterised proteins. At the same time, we must not forget those fundamental experimental skills needed to confirm the predictions or send the analysts back to the drawing board to devise new ones.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Céu; Seruca, Raquel;

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... pathways. As such, this review highlights the consequences of H. pylori infection on the integrity of DNA in the host cells. By down-regulating major DNA repair pathways, H. pylori infection has the potential to generate mutations. In addition, H. pylori infection can induce direct changes on the DNA...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  2. Study on biological characters of SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Zhang; Peng-Fen Gao; Pei-Wu Yu; Yun Rao; Li-Xin Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the biological characters of the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines.METHODS: The suspending living SGC7901 gastric cancer cells and dendritic cells were induced to be fusioned by polyethylene glycol. Pure fusion cells were obtained by selective culture with the HAT/HT culture systems.The fusion cells were counted at different time points of culture and their growth curves were drawn to reflect their proliferative activities. The fusion cells were also cultured in culture medium to investigate whether they could grow into cell clones. MTT method was used to test the stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes' proliferations. Moreover, the fusion cells were planted into nude mice to observe whether they could grow into new planted tumors in this kind of immunodeficiency animals.RESULTS: The fusion cells had weaker proliferative activity and clone abilities than their parental cells. When they were cultured, the counts of cells did not increase remarkably, nor could they grow into cell clones in culture medium. The fusion cells could not grow into new planted tumors after planted into nude mice. The stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes' proliferations were remarkably increased than their parental dendritic cells.CONCLUSION: The SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines have much weaker proliferative abilities than their parental cells, but they keep strong abilities to irritate the T lymphocytes and have no abilities to grow into new planted tumors in immunodeficiency animals. These are the biological basis for their antitumor biotherapies.

  3. Genetic markers in biological fluids for aging-related major neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Chavira, S A; Fernandez, T; Nicolini, H; Diaz-Cintra, S; Prado-Alcala, R A

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer' s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders. PMID:25731625

  4. Cell-to-cell variability in cell death: can systems biology help us make sense of it all?

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, X; Owen, M. S.; Lee, R E C; Gaudet, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common observations in cell death assays is that not all cells die at the same time, or at the same treatment dose. Here, using the perspective of the systems biology of apoptosis and the context of cancer treatment, we discuss possible sources of this cell-to-cell variability as well as its implications for quantitative measurements and computational models of cell death. Many different factors, both within and outside of the apoptosis signaling networks, have been correlated...

  5. Mantle cell lymphoma: biological insights and treatment advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Williams, Michael E; Goy, Andre; Grant, Steven; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Rosen, Steve T; Sweetenham, John W

    2009-08-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exhibits considerable molecular heterogeneity and complexity, and is regarded as one of the most challenging lymphomas to treat. With increased understanding of the pathobiology of MCL, it is proposed that MCL is the result of 3 major converging factors, namely, deregulated cell cycle pathways, defects in DNA damage responses, and dysregulation of cell survival pathways. In the present era of targeted therapies, these biologic insights have resulted in the identification of several novel rational targets for therapeutic intervention in MCL that are undergoing active clinical testing. To date, there is no standard of care in MCL. Several approaches including conventional anthracycline-based therapies and intensive high-dose strategies with and without stem cell transplantation have failed to produce durable remissions for most patients. Moreover, considering the heterogeneity of MCL, it is increasingly being recognized that risk-adapted therapy might be a relevant therapeutic approach in this disease. At the first and second Global Workshops on Mantle Cell Lymphoma, questions addressing advances in the pathobiology of MCL, optimization of existing therapies, assessment of current data with novel therapeutic strategies, and the identification of molecular or phenotypic risk factors for utilization in risk-adapted therapies were discussed and will be summarized herein. PMID:19717376

  6. Potentials of single-cell biology in identification and validation of disease biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Furong; Wang, Diane C; Lu, Jiapei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-09-01

    Single-cell biology is considered a new approach to identify and validate disease-specific biomarkers. However, the concern raised by clinicians is how to apply single-cell measurements for clinical practice, translate the message of single-cell systems biology into clinical phenotype or explain alterations of single-cell gene sequencing and function in patient response to therapies. This study is to address the importance and necessity of single-cell gene sequencing in the identification and development of disease-specific biomarkers, the definition and significance of single-cell biology and single-cell systems biology in the understanding of single-cell full picture, the development and establishment of whole-cell models in the validation of targeted biological function and the figure and meaning of single-molecule imaging in single cell to trace intra-single-cell molecule expression, signal, interaction and location. We headline the important role of single-cell biology in the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers with a special emphasis on understanding single-cell biological functions, e.g. mechanical phenotypes, single-cell biology, heterogeneity and organization of genome function. We have reason to believe that such multi-dimensional, multi-layer, multi-crossing and stereoscopic single-cell biology definitely benefits the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers.

  7. Biological and genetic characteristics of two trichinella isolates in China; comparison with European species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu M.Y.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The most recent taxonomic revision in Trichinella genus included 10 taxa. Trichinella spiralis (Ts is a thoroughly studied species but most of the isolates came from the Europe or American continents. Few information is available from China about the Trichinella isolates and their diversity. In this report two Chinese isolates were characterized and compared with European strains. The in vitro release of newborn larvae (NBL was determined for the two species. NBL is observed in supernatant of cell culture after adults purification on day 4 post infection (pi with Ts, and on day 5 pi with Trichinella nativa (Tna. A new parameter was thus proposed to characterize Trichinella strains. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of genomic DNA and random amplified polymorphic cDNA (RAPD were used to define genetic variability among different isolates. Species specific pattern could be obtained with RAPD but it was far more difficult to get geographical markers for Trichinella using these methods. A low genetic variability in Trichinella species (i.e a strong "clonality" is suggested.

  8. A poroelastic immersed boundary method with applications to cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Copos, Calina A.; Lewis, Owen L.; Guy, Robert D.

    2015-02-01

    The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In the traditional immersed boundary method, the fluid and structure move with the same velocity field. In this work, a model based on the immersed boundary method is presented for simulating poroelastic media in which the fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of small volume fraction that moves with its own velocity field. Two distinct methods for calculating elastic stresses are presented and compared. The methods are validated on a radially symmetric test problem by comparing with a finite difference solution of the classical equations of poroelasticity. Finally, two applications of the modeling framework to cell biology are provided: cellular blebbing and cell crawling. It is shown that in both examples, poroelastic effects are necessary to explain the relevant mechanics.

  9. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  10. Electroporation of Biological Cells Embedded in a Polycarbonate Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Hercules, W A; Lindesay, J; Schmukler, R; Hercules, William A.; Lindesay, James; Coble, Anna; Schmukler, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The electropermeabilization of biological cell membranes by the application of an external field occurs whenever an applied field exceeds a threshold value. For fields above this threshold value but less than another critical value, the pores formed in the membrane are transient or reversible. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of these transient pores. Here we examine the local electric fields generated for the configuration of cells embedded in a polycarbonate filter, both in the region in and around the pore. We consider the shear forces created in the membrane due to the gradient of the field along the surface of the membrane, and the interaction of the charged molecules in the membrane with this field. A relationship between the electric field strength and the size of the pore formed is derived.

  11. Border cell migration: A model system for live imaging and genetic analysis of collective cell movement

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, M; Wang, X; He, L.(Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA); Cai, D; Montell, DJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Border cell migration in the Drosophila ovary has emerged as a genetically tractable model for studying collective cell movement. Over many years border cell migration was exclusively studied in fixed samples due to the inability to culture stage 9 egg chambers in vitro. Although culturing late-stage egg chambers was long feasible, stage 9 egg chambers survived only briefl y outside the female body. We identifi ed culture conditions that suppo...

  12. Genetic engineering of platelets to neutralize circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C; Wun, Brittany; Liesveld, Jane L; King, Michael R

    2016-04-28

    Mounting experimental evidence demonstrates that platelets support cancer metastasis. Within the circulatory system, platelets guard circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from immune elimination and promote their arrest at the endothelium, supporting CTC extravasation into secondary sites. Neutralization of CTCs in blood circulation can potentially attenuate metastases to distant organs. Therefore, extensive studies have explored the blockade of platelet-CTC interactions as an anti-metastatic strategy. Such an intervention approach, however, may cause bleeding disorders since the platelet-CTC interactions inherently rely on the blood coagulation cascade including platelet activation. On the other hand, platelets have been genetically engineered to correct inherited bleeding disorders in both animal models and human clinical trials. In this study, inspired by the physical association between platelets and CTCs, platelets were genetically modified to express surface-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a cytokine known to induce apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. The TRAIL-expressing platelets were demonstrated to kill cancer cells in vitro and significantly reduce metastases in a mouse model of prostate cancer metastasis. Our results suggest that using platelets to produce and deliver cancer-specific therapeutics can provide a Trojan-horse strategy of neutralizing CTCs to attenuate metastasis.

  13. Genetic engineering of platelets to neutralize circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C; Wun, Brittany; Liesveld, Jane L; King, Michael R

    2016-04-28

    Mounting experimental evidence demonstrates that platelets support cancer metastasis. Within the circulatory system, platelets guard circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from immune elimination and promote their arrest at the endothelium, supporting CTC extravasation into secondary sites. Neutralization of CTCs in blood circulation can potentially attenuate metastases to distant organs. Therefore, extensive studies have explored the blockade of platelet-CTC interactions as an anti-metastatic strategy. Such an intervention approach, however, may cause bleeding disorders since the platelet-CTC interactions inherently rely on the blood coagulation cascade including platelet activation. On the other hand, platelets have been genetically engineered to correct inherited bleeding disorders in both animal models and human clinical trials. In this study, inspired by the physical association between platelets and CTCs, platelets were genetically modified to express surface-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a cytokine known to induce apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. The TRAIL-expressing platelets were demonstrated to kill cancer cells in vitro and significantly reduce metastases in a mouse model of prostate cancer metastasis. Our results suggest that using platelets to produce and deliver cancer-specific therapeutics can provide a Trojan-horse strategy of neutralizing CTCs to attenuate metastasis. PMID:26921521

  14. Advancing cell biology through proteomics in space and time (PROSPECTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamond, Angus I; Uhlen, Mathias; Horning, Stevan; Makarov, Alexander; Robinson, Carol V; Serrano, Luis; Hartl, F Ulrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Werenskiold, Anne Katrin; Andersen, Jens S; Vorm, Ole; Linial, Michal; Aebersold, Ruedi; Mann, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    The term "proteomics" encompasses the large-scale detection and analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Driven by major improvements in mass spectrometric instrumentation, methodology, and data analysis, the proteomics field has burgeoned in recent years. It now provides a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU-funded project that brings together leading European research groups, spanning from instrumentation to biomedicine, in a collaborative five year initiative to develop new methods and applications for the functional analysis of cellular proteins. This special issue of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics presents 16 research papers reporting major recent progress by the PROSPECTS groups, including improvements to the resolution and sensitivity of the Orbitrap family of mass spectrometers, systematic detection of proteins using highly characterized antibody collections, and new methods for absolute as well as relative quantification of protein levels. Manuscripts in this issue exemplify approaches for performing quantitative measurements of cell proteomes and for studying their dynamic responses to perturbation, both during normal cellular responses and in disease mechanisms. Here we present a perspective on how the proteomics field is moving beyond simply identifying proteins with high sensitivity toward providing a powerful and versatile set of assay systems for characterizing proteome dynamics and thereby creating a new "third generation" proteomics strategy that offers an indispensible tool for cell biology and molecular medicine.

  15. Machine learning in cell biology - teaching computers to recognize phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christoph; Gerlich, Daniel W

    2013-12-15

    Recent advances in microscope automation provide new opportunities for high-throughput cell biology, such as image-based screening. High-complex image analysis tasks often make the implementation of static and predefined processing rules a cumbersome effort. Machine-learning methods, instead, seek to use intrinsic data structure, as well as the expert annotations of biologists to infer models that can be used to solve versatile data analysis tasks. Here, we explain how machine-learning methods work and what needs to be considered for their successful application in cell biology. We outline how microscopy images can be converted into a data representation suitable for machine learning, and then introduce various state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithms, highlighting recent applications in image-based screening. Our Commentary aims to provide the biologist with a guide to the application of machine learning to microscopy assays and we therefore include extensive discussion on how to optimize experimental workflow as well as the data analysis pipeline.

  16. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting cell biology experiments in microgravity can be among the most technically challenging events in a biologist's life. Conflicting events of spaceflight include waiting to get manifested, delays in manifest schedules, training astronauts to not shake your cultures and to add reagents slowly, as shaking or quick injection can activate signaling cascades and give you erroneous results. It is important to select good hardware that is reliable. Possible conflicting environments in flight include g-force and vibration of launch, exposure of cells to microgravity for extended periods until hardware is turned on, changes in cabin gases and cosmic radiation. One should have an on-board 1-g control centrifuge in order to eliminate environmental differences. Other obstacles include getting your funding in a timely manner (it is not uncommon for two to three years to pass between notification of grant approval for funding and actually getting funded). That said, it is important to note that microgravity research is worthwhile since all terrestrial life evolved in a gravity field and secrets of biological function may only be answered by removing the constant of gravity. Finally, spaceflight experiments are rewarding and worth your effort and patience.

  17. Synthetic biology outside the cell: linking computational tools to cell-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel D; Villarreal, Fernando D; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems. PMID:25538941

  18. Synthetic biology outside the cell: linking computational tools to cell-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel D; Villarreal, Fernando D; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems.

  19. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology.

  20. Genetic Improvement of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Common Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Golparvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty common bean genotypes were cultivated in two separately field trials at the research station of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch during 2008-2009. The experimental design was randomized complete block. Bean seeds were inoculated by Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 in one of the experiments before sowing. The dose of Rhizobium for seed inoculation was 7 miligrams of bacteria for 1 kilogram of seed. The second experiment was control. The second experiment was analyzed in the same way as the first except for biological nitrogen fixation. The results showed definite positive and significant correlation in percentage of nitrogen fixation with some other been characters. Step-wise regression designated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield accounted for 93.8% of variation expect for nitrogen fixation percent. Path analysis indicated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield have direct and positive effect on nitrogen fixation index. Hence, total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes.