WorldWideScience

Sample records for cells andcellular components

  1. Raman Spectroscopy and Microscopy of Individual Cells andCellular Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J; Fore, S; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Huser, T

    2008-05-15

    Raman spectroscopy provides the unique opportunity to non-destructively analyze chemical concentrations on the submicron length scale in individual cells without the need for optical labels. This enables the rapid assessment of cellular biochemistry inside living cells, and it allows for their continuous analysis to determine cellular response to external events. Here, we review recent developments in the analysis of single cells, subcellular compartments, and chemical imaging based on Raman spectroscopic techniques. Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy provides for the full spectral assessment of cellular biochemistry, while coherent Raman techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering is primarily used as an imaging tool comparable to confocal fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are complemented by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, which provides higher sensitivity and local specificity, and also extends the techniques to chemical indicators, i.e. pH sensing. We review the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, demonstrate some of their applications and discuss their potential for future research in cell biology and biomedicine.

  2. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  3. Plastids: dynamic components of plant cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, J. A.; Gallegos, G. L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of maize roots, as a response to reorientation of the root within a gravitational field, was examined for sensitivity to exogenous applications of the cytoskeletal inhibitor, cytochalasin D. Agar blocks were impregnated with this inhibitor, and were applied either to the root cap or to the zone of root cell elongation. Root growth was normal with either treatment, if the roots were not repositioned with respect to the gravitational vector. When untreated roots were placed in a horizontal position with respect to gravity, a 40 degree bending response was observed within one hour. This bending also occurred when cytochalasin D was applied at high concentrations to the zone of root cell elongation. However, when cytochalasin D above 40 micrograms/ml was applied to the root cap, roots lost the ability of directional reorientation within the gravitational field, causing a random bending.

  4. Influence of Dietary Components on Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Common dietary components including vitamins A and D, omega-3 and probiotics are now widely accepted to be essential to protect against many diseases with an inflammatory nature. On the other hand, high-fat diets are documented to exert multiple deleterious effects, including fatty liver diseases. Here we discuss the effect of dietary components on regulatory T cell (Treg) homeostasis, a central element of the immune system to prevent chronic tissue inflammation. Accordingly, evidence on the ...

  5. Evidence for a Melanin Cell Wall Component in Pneumocystis carinii

    OpenAIRE

    Icenhour, Crystal R.; Kottom, Theodore J.; Limper, Andrew H.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific for fungal melanin were used in this study to visualize melanin-like components of the Pneumocystis carinii cell wall. A colorimetric enzyme assay confirmed these findings. This is the first report of melanin-like pigments in Pneumocystis.

  6. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  7. Basic studies of 3-5 high efficiency cell components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Dodd, P.E.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This project's objective is to improve our understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research itself consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell building blocks'' such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project's goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. This report describes our progress during the fifth and final year of the project. During the past five years, we've teamed a great deal about heavy doping effects in p[sup +] and n[sup +] GaAs and have explored their implications for solar cells. We have developed an understanding of the dominant recombination losses in present-day, high-efficiency cells. We've learned to appreciated the importance of recombination at the perimeter of the cell and have developed techniques for chemically passivating such edges. Finally, we've demonstrated that films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are suitable for high-efficiency cell research.

  8. Influence of Dietary Components on Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Common dietary components including vitamins A and D, omega-3 and probiotics are now widely accepted to be essential to protect against many diseases with an inflammatory nature. On the other hand, high-fat diets are documented to exert multiple deleterious effects, including fatty liver diseases. Here we discuss the effect of dietary components on regulatory T cell (Treg) homeostasis, a central element of the immune system to prevent chronic tissue inflammation. Accordingly, evidence on the impact of dietary components on diseases in which Tregs play an influential role will be discussed. We will review chronic tissue-specific autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and allergies among chronic diseases where dietary factors could have a direct influence via modulation of Tregs homeostasis and functions. PMID:22113499

  9. Autophagic components contribute to hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Joensen, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesions spread in plants with reduced autophagy gene...... expression. Here, we examined receptor-mediated HR PCD responses in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg), and show that infection-induced lesions are contained in atg mutants. We also provide evidence that HR cell death initiated via Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR)-type immune receptors through...... the defense regulator EDS1 is suppressed in atg mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PCD triggered by coiled-coil (CC)-type immune receptors via NDR1 is either autophagy-independent or engages autophagic components with cathepsins and other unidentified cell death mediators. Thus, autophagic cell death...

  10. Merging Mixture Components for Cell Population Identification in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for the identification of cell subpopulations in flow cytometry data based on merging mixture components using the flowClust methodology. We show that the cluster merging algorithm under our framework improves model fit and provides a better estimate of the number of distinct cell subpopulations than either Gaussian mixture models or flowClust, especially for complicated flow cytometry data distributions. Our framework allows the automated selection of the number of distinct cell subpopulations and we are able to identify cases where the algorithm fails, thus making it suitable for application in a high throughput FCM analysis pipeline. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for summarizing complex merged cell subpopulations in a simple manner that integrates with the existing flowClust framework and enables downstream data analysis. We demonstrate the performance of our framework on simulated and real FCM data. The software is available in the flowMerge package through the Bioconductor project.

  11. Snake venoms components with antitumor activity in murine melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the constant advances in the treatment of cancer, this disease remains one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. So, the development of new treatment modalities is imperative. Snake venom causes a variety of biological effects because they constitute a complex mixture of substances as disintegrins, proteases (serine and metalo), phospholipases A2, L-amino acid oxidases and others. The goal of the present work is to evaluate a anti-tumor activity of some snake venoms fractions. There are several studies of components derived from snake venoms with this kind of activity. After fractionation of snake venoms of the families Viperidae and Elapidae, the fractions were assayed towards murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 and fibroblasts L929. The results showed that the fractions of venom of the snake Notechis ater niger had higher specificity and potential antitumor activity on B16-F10 cell line than the other studied venoms. Since the components of this venom are not explored yet coupled with the potential activity showed in this work, we decided to choose this venom to develop further studies. The cytotoxic fractions were evaluated to identify and characterize the components that showed antitumoral activity. Western blot assays and zymography suggests that these proteins do not belong to the class of metallo and serine proteinases. (author)

  12. Basic studies of 3-V high efficiency cell components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Morgan, J.M.; Stellwag, T.B. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). School of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-07-01

    This project's objective is to improve our fundamental understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell building blocks'' such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project's goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. We expect that the insight into III-V device physics occurring during the course of this work will help to identify paths toward higher efficiency III-V cells. This report describes our progress during the fourth year of the project. The past year's efforts centered on completing studies of heavy doping effects in p{sup +}-GaAs and assessing the importance of similar effects in n{sup +}-GaAs, and at continuing research on characterizing, controlling, and passivating perimeter recombination currents. We also initiated work to identify the dominant loss mechanism in Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8} As solar cells and brought on-line a new MBE growth facility and demonstrated the high-quality of the films by fabricating, with assistance from Spire Corporation, 23.8% 1-sun solar cells.

  13. Novel High Pressure Multi-Component Diffusion Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Muthia Elma; Paul Massarotto; Victor Rudolph

    2012-01-01

    A novel high pressure multi-component diffusion cell (HPMCDC) apparatus has been designed and built to measure single and binary gas diffusion, including co-current and counter-diffusion, from low to high pressures. The apparatus incorporates capability to investigate scale effects in solid coal specimens, up to 25 mm in diameter and 25 mm in thickness. Future experiments will be conducted to measure diffusion and counter-diffusion of CH4 and CO2 gases in solid coal, at various temperatures, ...

  14. Novel High Pressure Multi-Component Diffusion Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthia Elma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel high pressure multi-component diffusion cell (HPMCDC apparatus has been designed and built to measure single and binary gas diffusion, including co-current and counter-diffusion, from low to high pressures. The apparatus incorporates capability to investigate scale effects in solid coal specimens, up to 25 mm in diameter and 25 mm in thickness. Future experiments will be conducted to measure diffusion and counter-diffusion of CH4 and CO2 gases in solid coal, at various temperatures, pressures and for three distinct ranks of coal. The experiments will also address the frequent and controversial literature conclusions that the apparent-diffusion of CH4, inconsistent with gas diffusion theory.

  15. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J;

    1986-01-01

    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The dec...

  16. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.

  17. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects

  18. HEK293 cell culture media study towards bioprocess optimization: Animal derived component free and animal derived component containing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liste-Calleja, Leticia; Lecina, Martí; Cairó, Jordi Joan

    2014-04-01

    The increasing demand for biopharmaceuticals produced in mammalian cells has lead industries to enhance bioprocess volumetric productivity through different strategies. Among those strategies, cell culture media development is of major interest. In the present work, several commercially available culture media for Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293) were evaluated in terms of maximal specific growth rate and maximal viable cell concentration supported. The main objective was to provide different cell culture platforms which are suitable for a wide range of applications depending on the type and the final use of the product obtained. Performing simple media supplementations with and without animal derived components, an enhancement of cell concentration from 2 × 10(6) cell/mL to 17 × 10(6) cell/mL was achieved in batch mode operation. Additionally, the media were evaluated for adenovirus production as a specific application case of HEK293 cells. None of the supplements interfered significantly with the adenovirus infection although some differences were encountered in viral productivity. To the best of our knowledge, the high cell density achieved in the work presented has never been reported before in HEK293 batch cell cultures and thus, our results are greatly promising to further study cell culture strategies in bioreactor towards bioprocess optimization.

  19. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  20. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  1. Cell-type specific four-component hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Timo; Franke, Katrin; Rist, Elke; Benz, Karin; Schlosshauer, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin) to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel), an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.g. during articular cartilage or invertebral disc repair, where pathological innervation and angiogenesis represent adverse events in tissue engineering. PMID:24475174

  2. Cell-type specific four-component hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Aberle

    Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel, an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.g. during articular cartilage or invertebral disc repair, where pathological innervation and angiogenesis represent adverse events in tissue engineering.

  3. Design principles of cell circuits with paradoxical components

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Yuval; Yaron E Antebi; Mayo, Avraham E.; Friedman, Nir; Alon, Uri

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems display complex networks of interactions both at the level of molecules inside the cell and at the level of interactions between cells. Networks of interacting molecules, such as transcription networks, have been shown to be composed of recurring circuits called network motifs, each with specific dynamical functions. Much less is known about the possibility of such circuit analysis in networks made of communicating cells. Here, we study models of circuits in which a few cel...

  4. Cell-Type Specific Four-Component Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Aberle; Katrin Franke; Elke Rist; Karin Benz; Burkhard Schlosshauer

    2014-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin) to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel), an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appr...

  5. Influence of dietary components on regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is no longer a myth that a balanced diet is fundamental for general health. Common dietary components including vitamins A and D, omega-3 and probiotics are now widely accepted to be essential to protect against many diseases with an inflammatory nature. On the other hand, high fat diets...

  6. Essential components for ex vivo proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Natalie; Rojewski, Markus Thomas; Lotfi, Ramin; Schrezenmeier, Hubert

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are highly interesting candidates for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. Due to their low occurrence in human tissues, extensive in vitro expansion is necessary to obtain sufficient cell numbers applicable as a clinical dose in the context of cellular therapy. Current cell culture media formulations for the isolation and expansion of MSCs include fetal calf serum (FCS), human AB serum (ABS), or human platelet lysate (PL) as a supplement. However, these established supplements are inherently ill-defined formulations that contain a variety of bioactive molecules in varying batch-to-batch compositions and the risk of transmitting pathogens that escape routine screening procedures. In this study, we have comparatively characterized the capacity of commonly used basal media, such as the Minimum Essential Medium alpha (αMEM), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM), and RPMI 1640 as well as human- and animal-derived supplements, that is, PL, ABS, and FCS to stimulate cell proliferation. MSC proliferation was observed to be optimal in the PL-supplemented αMEM. Using a combinatorial approach, we then assessed a library of soluble factors, including mitogens (TGF-β1, Activin A, bFGF, EGF, IGF-I, PDGF-BB, and VEGF), chemokines (CCL21, CCL25, CXCL12, and RANTES), proteins (human serum albumin), lipids (e.g., oleic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid), and hormones (dexamethasone, insulin, and TSH), to create a defined medium as well as coating of cell culture surfaces to promote robust MSC proliferation in vitro. A combination of recombinant human factors partially met the nutritional requirements of bone marrow-derived MSCs, and was able to promote cell proliferation comparable to about 5% PL if supplemented with auxiliary 0.6%-1.2% PL. Maximal MSC proliferation was achieved by combining 5% PL with a cocktail of recombinant factors and did not depend on coating of cell

  7. Bacterial Wall Components such as Lipothecoid Acid, Peptidoglycan, Liposaccharide and Lipid A Stimulate Cell Proliferation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya, Jaime H.; Neopikhanov, Vadim; Söderman, Charlotte; Uribe, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies indicate that the microflora contains mitogens to intestinal epithelial cells. Our aim is to examine whether cell wall components of both Gram-negative and positive bacteria influence cell proliferation in small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. A human colonic epithelial cell line from adenocarcinoma (IEC-6) and a nontransformed small intestinal cell line from germ-free rats (LS-123) were incubated with (a) lipothecoid acid from Streptococcus faecalis at 1.56–50 ...

  8. Sarcomatoid chordoma: chordoma with a massive malignant spindle-cell component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimitsu, Yosuke; Hashimoto, H. [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Pathology and Oncology; Aoki, Takatoshi [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Yokoyama, Koichiro [Dept. of Orthopedics, National Kokura Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    We report a case of chordoma containing a spindle cell sarcomatoid component with a gradual transition from conventional chordoma. Immunohistochemically, many tumor cells in both conventional chordoma and sarcomatoid components were positive for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, CAM5.2) and epithelial membrane antigen as well as vimentin. This report provides a rare example of sarcomatoid chordoma. Familiarity with this type of bone tumor should help to avoid confusion with dedifferentiated chordoma and other spindle cell sarcomas or carcinomas. (orig.)

  9. Enzyme Amplified Detection of Microbial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Norman R.

    2004-01-01

    This proposal is MBL's portion of NASA's Johnson Space Center's Astrobiology Center led by Principal Investigator, Dr. David McKay, entitled: 'Institute for the Study of Biomarkers in Astromaterials.' Dr. Norman Wainwright is the principal investigator at MBL and is responsible for developing methods to detect trace quantities of microbial cell wall chemicals using the enzyme amplification system of Limulus polyphemus and other related methods.

  10. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Di Carlo; Carlo Alberto Bignozzi; Rita Boaretto; Roberto Argazzi; Vito Cristino; Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the funda...

  11. Reconstitution of the B cell antigen receptor signaling components in COS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouaf, S J; Kut, S A; Fargnoli, J; Rowley, R B; Bolen, J B; Mahajan, S

    1995-11-10

    To elucidate interactions occurring between B cell protein tyrosine kinases and the signaling components of the B cell antigen receptor, we have co-transfected into COS cells individual tyrosine kinases together with chimeric cell surface receptors containing the cytoplasmic domains of Ig alpha or Ig beta. Of the tyrosine kinases transfected (Lyn, Blk, Hck, Syk, Fyn), only Blk was able to phosphorylate and subsequently associate with cotransfected Ig alpha and Ig beta chimeras in vivo. Association between Blk and the Ig alpha and Ig beta cytoplasmic domains was shown by mutational analyses to be the result of an SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction. We identified the tyrosine residues of the Ig alpha and Ig beta cytoplasmic domains was shown by mutational analyses to be the result of an SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction. We identified the tyrosine residues of the Ig alpha and Ig beta cytoplasmic domains phosphorylated by Blk. The enzymatic activity and membrane association of Blk were required for the observed phosphorylation of the Ig alpha and Ig beta chimeras. Sequences within the amino-terminal unique domain of Blk are responsible for recognition and subsequent phosphorylation of the Ig alpha chimera since transfer of the unique region of Blk to Fyn results in the chimeric kinase's ability to phosphorylate the cytoplasmic domain of Ig alpha. These findings indicate that the unique domain of Src family kinases may direct recognition of certain substrates leading to their phosphorylation. PMID:7592958

  12. Cells must express components of the planar cell polarity system and extracellular matrix to support cytonemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila dorsal air sac development depends on Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) proteins produced by the wing imaginal disc and transported by cytonemes to the air sac primordium (ASP). Dpp and FGF signaling in the ASP was dependent on components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) system in the disc, and neither Dpp- nor FGF-receiving cytonemes extended over mutant disc cells that lacked them. ASP cytonemes normally navigate through extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of collagen, laminin, Dally and Dally-like (Dlp) proteins that are stratified in layers over the disc cells. However, ECM over PCP mutant cells had reduced levels of laminin, Dally and Dlp, and whereas Dpp-receiving ASP cytonemes navigated in the Dally layer and required Dally (but not Dlp), FGF-receiving ASP cytonemes navigated in the Dlp layer, requiring Dlp (but not Dally). These findings suggest that cytonemes interact directly and specifically with proteins in the stratified ECM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18979.001 PMID:27591355

  13. Spermatogonial Nature of the Germ Cell Component of Canine Testicular Mixed Germ Cell-Sex Cord Stromal Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, S; Murakami, T; Tanaka, T; Machida, N; Nomura, K; Yoshida, T; Shibutani, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study has characterized the germ cell component of canine testicular mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumours (MGSCTs) by examining the histological nature and histochemical and immunohistochemical features using gonocytic and spermatogonial cellular markers, c-Kit, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), and the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Histologically, all 45 examples of MGSCTs were classified as spermatocytic seminomas (SSs) and Sertoli cell tumours in combination. The germ cell component of all MGSCTs was negative by PAS staining. Immunohistochemically, PLAP immunoreactivity was lacking in the germ cell component of all MGSCTs, which is not consistent with a gonocytic origin. The germ cell component was positive for PGP9.5 and SALL4 in all MGSCTs and positive for c-Kit in 53% of MGSCTs, which is consistent with the phenotype of spermatogonia. Furthermore, the germ cell component in 71% of MGSCTs had moderate immunoreactivity for SALL4, which is suggestive of a spermatogonial phenotype. Conversely, 29% of cases had a minor population of germ cells showing strong SALL4 immunoreactivity, suggesting a phenotype similar to prespermatogonia. The results suggest that the germ cell component of canine MGSCTs is morphologically classified as SS, with the majority of cases showing the spermatogonial phenotype and some cases containing a small population of prespermatogonia. PMID:27241073

  14. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the fundamental processes at the basis of the functioning of photoactive heterogeneous interfaces. In this contribution, some recent advances, made in the effort of improving DSSC devices by finding alternative materials and configurations, are reviewed.

  15. Ezrin Is a Component of the HIV-1 Virological Presynapse and Contributes to the Inhibition of Cell-Cell Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Nathan H.; Lambelé, Marie; Chan, Jany; Symeonides, Menelaos; Thali, Markus

    2014-01-01

    During cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1, viral and cellular proteins transiently accumulate at the contact zone between infected (producer) and uninfected (target) cells, forming the virological synapse. Rearrangements of the cytoskeleton in producer and target cells are required for proper targeting of viral and cellular components during synapse formation, yet little is known about how these processes are regulated, particularly within the producer cell. Since ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) p...

  16. Telomere Cap Components Influence the Rate of Senescence in Telomerase-Deficient Yeast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Shinichiro; Glowczewski, Lynn; Lew-Smith, Jodi; Berman, Judith G.

    2004-01-01

    Cells lacking telomerase undergo senescence, a progressive reduction in cell division that involves a cell cycle delay and culminates in “crisis,” a period when most cells become inviable. In telomerase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking components of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway (Upf1,Upf2, or Upf3 proteins), senescence is delayed, with crisis occurring ∼10 to 25 population doublings later than in Upf+ cells. Delayed senescence is seen in upfΔ cells lacking th...

  17. Rapid multiplex analysis of lipid raft components with single-cell resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzlmaier, Philipp; Supper, Verena; Göschl, Lisa; Zwirzitz, Alexander; Eckerstorfer, Paul; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Huppa, Johannes B; Stockinger, Hannes

    2015-09-22

    Lipid rafts, a distinct class of highly dynamic cell membrane microdomains, are integral to cell homeostasis, differentiation, and signaling. However, their quantitative examination is challenging when working with rare cells, developmentally heterogeneous cell populations, or molecules that only associate weakly with lipid rafts. We present a fast biochemical method, which is based on lipid raft components associating with the nucleus upon partial lysis during centrifugation through nonionic detergent. Requiring little starting material or effort, our protocol enabled the multidimensional flow cytometric quantitation of raft-resident proteins with single-cell resolution, thereby assessing the membrane components from a few cells in complex cell populations, as well as their dynamics resulting from cell signaling, differentiation, or genetic mutation.

  18. Glucocorticoids entrain molecular clock components in human peripheral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marc; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2015-04-01

    In humans, shift work induces a desynchronization between the circadian system and the outside world, which contributes to shift work-associated medical disorders. Using a simulated night shift experiment, we previously showed that 3 d of bright light at night fully synchronize the central clock to the inverted sleep schedule, whereas the peripheral clocks located in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) took longer to reset. This underlines the need for testing the effects of synchronizers on both the central and peripheral clocks. Glucocorticoids display circadian rhythms controlled by the central clock and are thought to act as synchronizers of rodent peripheral clocks. In the present study, we tested whether the human central and peripheral clocks were sensitive to exogenous glucocorticoids (Cortef) administered in the late afternoon. We showed that 20 mg Cortef taken orally acutely increased PER1 expression in PBMC peripheral clocks. After 6 d of Cortef administration, the phases of central markers were not affected, whereas those of PER2-3 and BMAL1 expression in PBMCs were shifted by ∼ 9.5-11.5 h. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that human peripheral clocks are entrained by glucocorticoids. Importantly, they suggest innovative interventions for shift workers and jet-lag travelers, combining synchronizing agents for the central and peripheral clocks.

  19. An in-cell alpha detection system for radioisotope component assembly operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remotely operated alpha detection system is being developed for use at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It will be used in hot cells being constructed to assemble components of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for space power applications. The in-cell detection equipment will survey radiological swipe samples to determine smearable surface contamination levels on radioisotope fuel, fueled components, and hot-cell work areas. This system is potentially adaptable to other hot cell and glovebox applications where radiation dose rates and contamination levels are expected to be low. 2 figs

  20. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor. PMID:23604259

  1. 21 CFR 864.2220 - Synthetic cell and tissue culture media and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic cell and tissue culture media and components. 864.2220 Section 864.2220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue...

  2. Trans-Golgi Network-An Intersection of Trafficking Cell Wall Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natasha Worden; Eunsook Park; Georgia Drakakaki

    2012-01-01

    The cell wall,a crucial cell compartment,is composed of a network of polysaccharides and proteins,providing structural support and protection from external stimuli.While the cell wall structure and biosynthesis have been extensively studied,very little is known about the transport of polysaccharides and other components into the developing cell wall.This review focuses on endomembrane trafficking pathways involved in cell wall deposition.Cellulose synthase complexes are assembled in the Golgi,and are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane.Non-cellulosic polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus,whereas cellulose is produced by enzyme complexes at the plasma membrane.Polvsaccharides and enzymes that are involved in cell wall modification and assembly are transported by distinct vesicle types to their destinations; however,the precise mechanisms involved in selection,sorting and delivery remain to be identified.The endomembrane system orchestrates the delivery of Golgi-derived and possibly endocytic vesicles carrying cell wall and cell membrane components to the newly-formed cell plate.However,the nature of these vesicles,their membrane compositions,and the timing of their delivery are largely unknown.Emerging technologies such as chemical genomics and proteomics are promising avenues to gain insight into the trafficking of cell wall components.

  3. Terpinolene, a component of herbal sage, downregulates AKT1 expression in K562 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Naoko; Yoshida, Hitomi; Nishimura, Yuri; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Matsuda, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase AKT mediates cell proliferation and survival signals, and also contributes to cancer progression. Increased expression and/or activation of AKT is involved in a variety of human cancers. In cells treated with sage or rosemary extract, mRNA and protein expression levels of AKT1 were reduced compared with those of the control cells 48 h after the herbal treatments. We found that terpinolene, a common component of sage and rosemary, markedly reduced the protein expression of AKT1 ...

  4. Stimulated human mast cells secrete mitochondrial components that have autocrine and paracrine inflammatory actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodi Zhang

    Full Text Available Mast cells are hematopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that participate in acquired and innate immunity, as well as in inflammation through release of many chemokines and cytokines, especially in response to the pro-inflammatory peptide substance P (SP. Inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but the trigger(s is often unknown. We investigated if mast cell stimulation leads to secretion of mitochondrial components and whether these could elicit autocrine and/or paracrine inflammatory effects. Here we show that human LAD2 mast cells stimulated by IgE/anti-IgE or by the SP led to secretion of mitochondrial particles, mitochondrial (mt mtDNA and ATP without cell death. Mitochondria purified from LAD2 cells and, when mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PGD(2, IL-8, TNF, and IL-1β. This stimulatory effect is partially inhibited by an ATP receptor antagonist and by DNAse. These results suggest that the mitochondrial protein fraction may also contribute. Purified mitochondria also stimulate IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF release from cultured human keratinocytes, and VEGF release from primary human microvascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate if mitochondrial components could be secreted in vivo, we injected rats intraperiotoneally (ip with compound 48/80, which mimicks the action of SP. Peritoneal mast cells degranulated and mitochondrial particles were documented by transimission electron microscopy outside the cells. We also wished to investigate if mitochondrial components secreted locally could reach the systemic circulation. Administration ip of mtDNA isolated from LAD2 cells in rats was detected in their serum within 4 hr, indicating that extravascular mtDNA could enter the systemic circulation. Secretion of mitochondrial components from stimulated live mast cells may act as "autopathogens" contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory

  5. Effective component from verbena officinalis L. inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma JAR cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shan; Chen Qi; Xu Chang-fen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the action of the effective component, 4'-methylether -scutellarein, from Verbena officinalis L. (VOL) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma JAR cells.Methods: Cell proliferation was measured by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide, MTT] assay and the incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR). Apoptosis of cell was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM) and the characteristic apoptotic DNA ladder by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the morphological changes of apoptotic JAR cells were observed under fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). Expressions of apoptosis proteins, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3, -8, and -9 were determined with Western blot.Results: The effective component from VOL inhibited the proliferation of JAR cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The treated cell cycle was arrested in S phase and an apoptotic peak was found in S phase using FCM analysis. A typical DNA ladder appeared in the treatment group when analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescence microscopy, the percentage of apoptotic cell was 0.9%, 6%, and 14% after treatments of 10, 20, and 40 mg·L-1 of the effective component, respectively, for 48 h. Typical apoptotic changes, such as condensed chromatin and presence of apoptotic bodies, were observed under EM. Treatment with effective component for 48 h and 72 h also induced protein expression of PARP and caspase-3, -8, and -9 as seen by Western blot.Conclusions: The effective component from VOL inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma JAR cells.

  6. Impact of dietary components on NK and Treg cell function for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young S; Sayers, Thomas J; Colburn, Nancy H; Milner, John A; Young, Howard A

    2015-09-01

    An important characteristic of cancer is that the disease can overcome the surveillance of the immune system. A possible explanation for this resistance arises from the ability of tumor cells to block the tumoricidal activity of host immune cells such as natural killer (NK) cells by inducing the localized accumulation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Evidence exists that components in commonly consumed foods including vitamins A, D, and E, water-soluble constituents of mushrooms, polyphenolics in fruits and vegetables, and n-3 fatty acids in fish oil can modulate NK cell activities, Treg cell properties, and the interactions between those two cell types. Thus, it is extremely important for cancer prevention to understand the involvement of dietary components with the early stage dynamics of interactions among these immune cells. This review addresses the potential significance of diet in supporting the function of NK cells, Treg cells, and the balance between those two cell types, which ultimately results in decreased cancer risk. PMID:25845339

  7. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  8. Sub classification and targeted characterization of prophage-encoded two-component cell lysis cassette

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Srividhya; S Krishnaswamy

    2007-08-01

    Bacteriophage induced lysis of host bacterial cell is mediated by a two component cell lysis cassette comprised of holin and lysozyme. Prophages are integrated forms of bacteriophages in bacterial genomes providing a repertoire for bacterial evolution. Analysis using the prophage database (http://bicmku.in:8082) constructed by us showed 47 prophages were associated with putative two component cell lysis genes. These proteins cluster into four different subgroups. In this process, a putative holin (essd) and endolysin (ybcS), encoded by the defective lambdoid prophage DLP12 was found to be similar to two component cell lysis genes in functional bacteriophages like p21 and P1. The holin essd was found to have a characteristic dual start motif with two transmembrane regions and C-terminal charged residues as in class II holins. Expression of a fusion construct of essd in Escherichia coli showed slow growth. However, under appropriate conditions, this protein could be over expressed and purified for structure function studies. The second component of the cell lysis cassette, ybcS, was found to have an N-terminal SAR (Signal Arrest Release) transmembrane domain. The construct of ybcS has been over expressed in E. coli and the purified protein was functional, exhibiting lytic activity against E. coli and Salmonella typhi cell wall substrate. Such targeted sequence-structure-function characterization of proteins encoded by cryptic prophages will help understand the contribution of prophage proteins to bacterial evolution.

  9. Active Components of Fungus Shiraia bambusiscola Can Specifically Induce BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shubing; Qiu, Dewen; Liu, Jingjiang; Li, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gastric cancer is a major health issue worldwide. Using a therapeutic approach, with minor side-effects, is very essential for the treatment of the gastric cancer. Shiraia bambusicola is a parasitic fungus which is widely used in China for curing several diseases with little side-effects. However, the mechanisms are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to further understand the pharmacological mechanisms of Shiraia bambusicola and investigate whether it can be used for curing gastric cancer. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we mainly tested the effect of active components extracted from Shiraia bambusicola on BGC823, A549 and HepG2 cells. We used MTT assay to test cell viability. We also analyzed morphologic changes caused by apoptosis using Hoechst 33342 fluorescence staining, as well as cell cycle status and apoptosis ratio using flow-cytometer. In addition, protein expression level was tested by Western-blotting assay. Results BGC-823 cell proliferation was specifically inhibited by active components of Shiraia bambusicola. Meanwhile, these active components could induce BGC-823 cells apoptosis and retard the cell cycle in S/G2 phase. We also determined that two critical protein markers cleaved Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), involved in apoptosis process, were regulated by these active components. Conclusion These data shed light on the treatment of human gastric cancer and conclude that Shiraia bambusicola can be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of this malignancy.

  10. Understanding the effect of reformate gas components and stack component impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tao

    The performance can be lost depending on the concentration and type of reformate components. Gas crossover in PEMFCs can also cause performance loss and these effects are also presented. Impurities such as acetone coming from composite stack components and sealants can also deteriorate the performance severely. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used as a diagnostic tool to study the impurity poisoning. Reformate contains N2 and CO2 and these components affect performance differently. These effects were quantified using anode overvoltage. Data for anode overvoltage shows that CO2 yields a significant poisoning effect (about 30 mV) on a Pt electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) data showed that CO was produced in-situ from CO2 and H 2 (reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction) on both Pt and Pt/Ru electrodes. The coverage of CO achieved by RWGS can reach 5 x 10-7 mol/cm2 on an electrode with 0.4 mg/cm2 Pt under open circuit with normal operating conditions. This work also investigated how pressure, gas composition, and temperature affect the RWGS reaction in a PEMFC for both Pt and Pt/Ru alloy catalysts. The data are shown to be consistent with a kinetic catalytic model and not with an equilibrium model. Data was presented on H2 and O2 crossover in PEMFCs. Electrochemical techniques and mass balance measurements were used to quantify the crossover under typical working conditions. Mixed potential theory was applied to analyze the effect of gas crossover on open circuit voltage (OCV) of PEMFCs. Off-gassing from bipolar plates previously identified styrene, acetone, t-butyl alcohol, and dimethyl succinate as impurities. The effects of those impurities were quantified with both poisoning-recovery transient curves and steady state VI curves before, during, and after poisoning on anode and cathode side respectively. The poisoning effects of them to the anode side are smaller than to the cathode side. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  11. A multi-structural single cell model of force-induced interactions of cytoskeletal components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sara; Clausen, Casper H; Perrault, Cecile M; Fletcher, Daniel A; Lacroix, Damien

    2013-08-01

    Several computational models based on experimental techniques and theories have been proposed to describe cytoskeleton (CSK) mechanics. Tensegrity is a prominent model for force generation, but it cannot predict mechanics of individual CSK components, nor explain the discrepancies from the different single cell stimulating techniques studies combined with cytoskeleton-disruptors. A new numerical concept that defines a multi-structural 3D finite element (FE) model of a single-adherent cell is proposed to investigate the biophysical and biochemical differences of the mechanical role of each cytoskeleton component under loading. The model includes prestressed actin bundles and microtubule within cytoplasm and nucleus surrounded by the actin cortex. We performed numerical simulations of atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments by subjecting the cell model to compressive loads. The numerical role of the CSK components was corroborated with AFM force measurements on U2OS-osteosarcoma cells and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts exposed to different cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs. Computational simulation showed that actin cortex and microtubules are the major components targeted in resisting compression. This is a new numerical tool that explains the specific role of the cortex and overcomes the difficulty of isolating this component from other networks in vitro. This illustrates that a combination of cytoskeletal structures with their own properties is necessary for a complete description of cellular mechanics. PMID:23702149

  12. Primary mixed germ cell tumor of the liver with sarcomatous components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Germ cell tumor(GCT)of the liver is extremely rare. Here,we describe a case of hepatic mixed GCT with significant sarcomatous components and elevated serum α-fetoprotein(AFP)in a 34-year-old man.Histopathologically,the tumor was composed of two GCTs components:yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma.The predominant components of immature teratoma consisted of several types of tissue that represented different germinal layers(endoderm,mesoderm and ectoderm) and showed varying degrees of differentiation with sig...

  13. Changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell membrane components and promotion to ethanol tolerance during the bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Yi, Chen-Feng; Li, Hao

    2015-12-01

    During bioethanol fermentation process, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell membrane might provide main protection to tolerate accumulated ethanol, and S. cerevisiae cells might also remodel their membrane compositions or structure to try to adapt to or tolerate the ethanol stress. However, the exact changes and roles of S. cerevisiae cell membrane components during bioethanol fermentation still remains poorly understood. This study was performed to clarify changes and roles of S. cerevisiae cell membrane components during bioethanol fermentation. Both cell diameter and membrane integrity decreased as fermentation time lasting. Moreover, compared with cells at lag phase, cells at exponential and stationary phases had higher contents of ergosterol and oleic acid (C18:1) but lower levels of hexadecanoic (C16:0) and palmitelaidic (C16:1) acids. Contents of most detected phospholipids presented an increase tendency during fermentation process. Increased contents of oleic acid and phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids might indicate enhanced cell membrane fluidity. Compared with cells at lag phase, cells at exponential and stationary phases had higher expressions of ACC1 and HFA1. However, OLE1 expression underwent an evident increase at exponential phase but a decrease at following stationary phase. These results indicated that during bioethanol fermentation process, yeast cells remodeled membrane and more changeable cell membrane contributed to acquiring higher ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells. These results highlighted our knowledge about relationship between the variation of cell membrane structure and compositions and ethanol tolerance, and would contribute to a better understanding of bioethanol fermentation process and construction of industrial ethanologenic strains with higher ethanol tolerance.

  14. Bright-field cell image segmentation by principal component pursuit with an Ncut penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuehuan; Wan, Justin W. L.

    2015-03-01

    Segmentation of cells in time-lapse bright-field microscopic images is crucial in understanding cell behaviours for oncological research. However, the complex nature of the cells makes it difficult to segment cells accurately. Furthermore, poor contrast, broken cell boundaries and the halo artifact pose additional challenges to this problem. Standard segmentation techniques such as edged-based methods, watershed, or active contours result in poor segmentation. Other existing methods for bright-field images cannot provide good results without localized segmentation steps. In this paper, we present two robust mathematical models to segment bright-field cells automatically for the entire image. These models treat cell image segmentation as a background subtraction problem, which can be formulated as a Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) problem. Our first segmentation model is formulated as a PCP with nonnegative constraints. We exploit the sparse component of the PCP solution for identifying the cell pixels. However, there is no control on the quality of the sparse component and the nonzero entries can scatter all over the image, resulting in a noisy segmentation. The second model is an improvement of the first model by combining PCP with spectral clustering. Seemingly unrelated approaches, we combine the two techniques by incorporating normalized-cut in the PCP as a measure for the quality of the segmentation. These two models have been applied to a set of C2C12 cells obtained from bright-field microscopy. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed models are effective in segmenting cells from bright-field images.

  15. SILAC Proteomics of Planarians Identifies Ncoa5 as a Conserved Component of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Böser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Planarian regeneration depends on the presence of pluripotent stem cells in the adult. We developed an in vivo stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC protocol in planarians to identify proteins that are enriched in planarian stem cells. Through a comparison of SILAC proteomes of normal and stem cell-depleted planarians and of a stem cell-enriched population of sorted cells, we identified hundreds of stem cell proteins. One of these is an ortholog of nuclear receptor coactivator-5 (Ncoa5/CIA, which is known to regulate estrogen-receptor-mediated transcription in human cells. We show that Ncoa5 is essential for the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell population in planarians and that a putative mouse ortholog is expressed in pluripotent cells of the embryo. Our study thus identifies a conserved component of pluripotent stem cells, demonstrating that planarians, in particular, when combined with in vivo SILAC, are a powerful model in stem cell research.

  16. An Arabidopsis aspartic protease functions as an anti-cell-death component in reproduction and embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaochun; Dietrich, Charles; Matsuno, Michiyo; Li, Guojing; Berg, Howard; Xia, Yiji

    2005-03-01

    The components and pathways that regulate and execute developmental cell death programmes in plants remain largely unknown. We have found that the PROMOTION OF CELL SURVIVAL 1 (PCS1) gene in Arabidopsis, which encodes an aspartic protease, has an important role in determining the fate of cells in embryonic development and in reproduction processes. The loss-of-function mutation of PCS1 causes degeneration of both male and female gametophytes and excessive cell death of developing embryos. Conversely, ectopic expression of PCS1 causes the septum and stomium cells that normally die in the anther wall to survive instead, leading to a failure in anther dehiscence and male sterility. PCS1 provides a new avenue for understanding the mechanisms of the programmed cell death processes that are associated with developmental pathways in plants and makes available a useful tool for engineering the male sterility trait for hybrid seed production.

  17. Preliminary study of small scale solar test cells for solar thermal evaluation of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G. [CIEMAT, Renewable Energy Dept., Madrid (Spain)]|[CENIDET, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Jimenez, M.J.; Heras, M.R. [CIEMAT, Renewable Energy Dept., Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study to validate small scale solar test cells for thermal evaluation of building components such as windows and roofs. The description and performance of the scale test cells are described. The validation of the thermal performance was made with the real test cell Passys indirectly by applying the classical averaging method that was initially used for the Passys cells to determine overall heat loss coefficient, UA, and the solar heat gain, gA. The use of this methodology was selected, as a first approach, to evaluate the viability of the study of scale test cells. Our preliminary results indicate that some percentage differences were high for some tests. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the period of time of the measurements of the scale test cells, in order to use dynamic system methods to reduce the percentage differences of UA and gA. (orig.)

  18. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion of blood components may increase the risk of complications in relation to surgery. During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and functional changes that may reduce function and viability after transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of buffy-coat ...

  19. Fabrication and Characterizations of Materials and Components for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cells and Water Electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Prag, Carsten Brorson; Li, Qingfeng;

    The worldwide development of fuel cells and electrolysers has so far almost exclusively addressed either the low temperature window (20-200 °C) or the high temperature window (600-1000 °C). This work concerns the development of key materials and components of a new generation of fuel cells...... might be used. One of the key materials in the fuel cell and electrolyser systems is the electrolyte. Proton conducting materials such as cesium hydrogen phosphates, zirconium hydrogen phosphates and tin pyrophosphates have been investigated by others and have shown interesting potential....

  20. SOC Based Battery Cell Balancing with a Novel Topology and Reduced Component Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel battery cell balancing topology with reduced component count and simplified control. The balancing algorithm is based on the state of charge (SOC of each individual cell instead of cell voltage. The principle of the proposed topology is analyzed and verified through simulation and experiments. Then an experimental battery test workbench is established to validate the proposed balancing algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed balancing topology and associated algorithm can perform well in real applications.

  1. Effects of dendritic cell vaccine activated with protein components of toxoplasma gondii on tumor specific CD8+ T-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amari A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Dendritic Cell (DC is an important antigen-presenting cell that present tumor antigen to CD8+ and CD4+ T- Lymphocytes and induce specific anti-tumor immunity. In order to induce effective anti-tumor response, an option is increasing the efficiency of antigen presentation of dendritic cells and T cell activation capacity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dendritic cell maturation with protein components of toxoplasma gondii on cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and their infiltration in to the tumor."n"nMethods: For DC generation, bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. After that, LPS, protein components and whole extract of toxoplasma gondii were added to the culture media and incubated for another two days for DC maturation. To generate tumor, mices were injected subcutaneously with WEHI-164 cell line. For immunotherapy 106 DCs matured with different compounds were injected around the tumor site. Infiltration of CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry and cytotoxic activity was measured by LDH detection kit."n"nResults: Immunotherapy with DCs treated with protein components of toxoplasma gondii led to a significant increase in the

  2. A Distinct Subpopulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Muse Cells, Directly Commit to the Replacement of Liver Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, H; Kushida, Y; Nojima, M; Kuroda, Y; Wakao, S; Ishida, K; Endo, F; Kume, K; Takahara, T; Nitta, H; Tsuda, H; Dezawa, M; Nishizuka, S S

    2016-02-01

    Genotyping graft livers by short tandem repeats after human living-donor liver transplantation (n = 20) revealed the presence of recipient or chimeric genotype cases in hepatocytes (6 of 17, 35.3%), sinusoidal cells (18 of 18, 100%), cholangiocytes (15 of 17, 88.2%) and cells in the periportal areas (7 of 8, 87.5%), suggesting extrahepatic cell involvement in liver regeneration. Regarding extrahepatic origin, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been suggested to contribute to liver regeneration but compose a heterogeneous population. We focused on a more specific subpopulation (1-2% of BM-MSCs), called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, for their ability to differentiate into liver-lineage cells and repair tissue. We generated a physical partial hepatectomy model in immunodeficient mice and injected green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human BM-MSC Muse cells intravenously (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and species-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that they integrated into regenerating areas and expressed liver progenitor markers during the early phase and then differentiated spontaneously into major liver components, including hepatocytes (≈74.3% of GFP-positive integrated Muse cells), cholangiocytes (≈17.7%), sinusoidal endothelial cells (≈2.0%), and Kupffer cells (≈6.0%). In contrast, the remaining cells in the BM-MSCs were not detected in the liver for up to 4 weeks. These results suggest that Muse cells are the predominant population of BM-MSCs that are capable of replacing major liver components during liver regeneration. PMID:26663569

  3. Intraepithelial p63-dependent expression of distinct components of cell adhesion complexes in normal esophageal mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thépot, Amélie; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Pétré, Aurélia; Damour, Odile; Krutovskikh, Vladimir; Hainaut, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    TP63 gene is a member of TP53 tumor suppressor gene family that encodes several protein isoforms involved in the process of epithelial stratification and in epithelial-mesenchyme interactions. TP63 is amplified in a significant proportion of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), resulting in the hyper-expression of DeltaNp63 as the major p63 isoform. To better understand the contribution of this high expression to tumorigenesis, we have analyzed the impact of intraepithelial p63 expression on the expression of cell adhesion complexes in normal esophagus and in ESCC cell lines. Cells expressing p63 showed an adhesion pattern characterized by lack of tight junctions and presence of adherens junctions. Cell differentiation was accompanied by a decrease in p63 and by a shift to adhesion patterns involving tight junctions. Silencing of p63 mRNA in ESCC cell lines resulted in a similar shift, characterized by increased expression of component of tight junctions, decreased cell-to-cell communication and downregulation of cell proliferation. These results indicate that DeltaNp63 may contribute to esophageal squamous carcinogenesis by maintaining cell adhesion patterns compatible with cell proliferation. PMID:20127860

  4. Cell edges accumulate gamma tubulin complex components and nucleate microtubules following cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Ambrose

    Full Text Available Microtubules emanate from distinct organizing centers in fungal and animal cells. In plant cells, by contrast, microtubules initiate from dispersed sites in the cell cortex, where they then self-organize into parallel arrays. Previous ultrastructural evidence suggested that cell edges participate in microtubule nucleation but so far there has been no direct evidence for this. Here we use live imaging to show that components of the gamma tubulin nucleation complex (GCP2 and GCP3 localize at distinct sites along the outer periclinal edge of newly formed crosswalls, and that microtubules grow predominantly away from these edges. These data confirm a role for cell edges in microtubule nucleation, and suggest that an asymmetric distribution of microtubule nucleation factors contributes to cortical microtubule organization in plants, in a manner more similar to other kingdoms than previously thought.

  5. Nuclear motility in glioma cells reveals a cell-line dependent role of various cytoskeletal components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Kiss

    Full Text Available Nuclear migration is a general term for the movement of the nucleus towards a specific site in the cell. These movements are involved in a number of fundamental biological processes, such as fertilization, cell division, and embryonic development. Despite of its importance, the mechanism of nuclear migration is still poorly understood in mammalian cells. In order to shed light on the mechanical processes underlying nuclear movements, we adapted a micro-patterning based assay. C6 rat and U87 human glioma cells seeded on fibronectin patterns--thereby forced into a bipolar morphology--displayed oscillatory movements of the nucleus or the whole cell, respectively. We found that both the actomyosin system and microtubules are involved in the nuclear/cellular movements of both cell lines, but their contributions are cell-/migration-type specific. Dynein activity was necessary for nuclear migration of C6 cells but active myosin-II was dispensable. On the other hand, coupled nuclear and cellular movements of U87 cells were driven by actomyosin contraction. We explain these cell-line dependent effects by the intrinsic differences in the overall mechanical tension due to the various cytoskeletal elements inside the cell. Our observations showed that the movements of the nucleus and the centrosome are strongly correlated and display large variation, indicating a tight but flexible coupling between them. The data also indicate that the forces responsible for nuclear movements are not acting directly via the centrosome. Based on our observations, we propose a new model for nuclear oscillations in C6 cells in which dynein and microtubule dynamics are the main drivers of nuclear movements. This mechanism is similar to the meiotic nuclear oscillations of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and may be evolutionary conserved.

  6. Laser selective microablation of sensitized intracellular components within auditory receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David M.; Evans, Burt N.; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    1995-05-01

    A laser system can be coupled to a light microscope for laser microbeam ablation and trapping of single cells in vitro. We have extended this technology by sensitization of target structures with vital dyes to provide selective ablation of specific subcellular components. Isolated auditory receptor cells (outer hair cells, OHCs) are known to elongate and contract in response to electrical, chemical and mechanical stimulation. Various intracellular structures are candidate components mediating motility of OHCs, but the exact mechanism(s) is currently unknown. In ongoing studies of OHC motility, we have used the microbeam for selective ablation of lateral wall components and of an axial cytoskeletal core that extends from the nucleus to the cell apex. Both the area beneath the subsurface cistemae of the lateral wall and the core are rich in mitochondria. OHCs isolated from guinea pig cochlea are suspended in L- 15 medium containing 2.0 (mu) M Rhodamine 123, a porphyrin with an affinity for mitochondria. A spark-pumped nitrogen laser pumping a dye cell (Coumarin 500) was aligned on the optical axis of a Nikon Optiphot-2 to produce a 3 ns, 0.5 - 10 micrometers spot (diameter above ablation threshold w/50X water immersion, N.A. 0.8), and energy at the target approximately equals 10 (mu) J/pulse. At short incubation times in Rh123 irradiation caused local blebbing or bulging of cytoplastic membrane and thus loss of the OHC's cylindrical shape. At longer Rh123 incubation times when the central axis of the cell was targeted we observed cytoplasmic clearing, immediate cell elongation (approximately equals 5%) and clumping of core material at nuclear and apical attachments. Experiments are underway to examine the significance of these preliminary observations.

  7. Homologs of SCAR/WAVE complex components are required for epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yuchuan; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Liang; Liu, Ping; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-07-01

    Filamentous actins (F-actins) play a vital role in epidermal cell morphogenesis. However, a limited number of studies have examined actin-dependent leaf epidermal cell morphogenesis events in rice. In this study, two recessive mutants were isolated: less pronounced lobe epidermal cell2-1 (lpl2-1) and lpl3-1, whose leaf and stem epidermis developed a smooth surface, with fewer serrated pavement cell (PC) lobes, and decreased papillae. The lpl2-1 also exhibited irregular stomata patterns, reduced plant height, and short panicles and roots. Molecular genetic studies demonstrated that LPL2 and LPL3 encode the PIROGI/Specifically Rac1-associated protein 1 (PIR/SRA1)-like and NCK-associated protein 1 (NAP1)-like proteins, respectively, two components of the suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein (SCAR/WAVE) regulatory complex involved in actin nucleation and function. Epidermal cells exhibited abnormal arrangement of F-actins in both lpl2 and lpl3 expanding leaves. Moreover, the distorted trichomes of Arabidopsis pir could be partially restored by an overexpression of LPL2 A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that LPL2 can directly interact with LPL3 in vitro Collectively, the results indicate that LPL2 and LPL3 are two functionally conserved homologs of the SCAR/WAVE complex components, and that they play an important role in controlling epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice by organising F-actin.

  8. EFFECT OF BUNGARUS MULTICINCTUS CRUDE VENOM AND ITS COMPONENTS ON TUMOR CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 刘洁生; 高洁; 杨维东

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To confirm whether Bungarus multicinctus crude venom induces the apoptosis of K562 tumor cells and to find out the components inducing apoptosis of K562 cells from the crude venom. Methods: the crude venom separated and purified by cation exchange chromatography, and the effect of venoms on K562 was studied by MTT method and flow cytometry. Results: The crude venom began to kill K562 cells at than 8(103ng/ml (the survival rate was 82.5%) concentration and the effect was more significant in 24 h when administrating 8(105ng/ml (the survival rate was 29.4%) crude venom. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the K562 tumor cells by fluorescent microscopy after administration of 5 (g/ml cycloheximide (CHX) or the peak VI solution at about 8(105 ng/ml. The same results were detected by the flow cytometry. A sub-G1 peak appeared after administration of CHX or the sixth peak solution. Conclusion: The authors found that the venom can kill K562 tumor cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. However, the killing effect of the venom is not apoptosis. What's more, the peak VI solution, a component of the crude venom can induce the apoptosis of K562 tumor cells.

  9. Computational and genetic reduction of a cell cycle to its simplest, primordial components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán M Murray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the minimal requirements to sustain an asymmetric cell cycle? Here we use mathematical modelling and forward genetics to reduce an asymmetric cell cycle to its simplest, primordial components. In the Alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell cycle progression is believed to be controlled by a cyclical genetic circuit comprising four essential master regulators. Unexpectedly, our in silico modelling predicted that one of these regulators, GcrA, is in fact dispensable. We confirmed this experimentally, finding that ΔgcrA cells are viable, but slow-growing and elongated, with the latter mostly due to an insufficiency of a key cell division protein. Furthermore, suppressor analysis showed that another cell cycle regulator, the methyltransferase CcrM, is similarly dispensable with simultaneous gcrA/ccrM disruption ameliorating the cytokinetic and growth defect of ΔgcrA cells. Within the Alphaproteobacteria, gcrA and ccrM are consistently present or absent together, rather than either gene being present alone, suggesting that gcrA/ccrM constitutes an independent, dispensable genetic module. Together our approaches unveil the essential elements of a primordial asymmetric cell cycle that should help illuminate more complex cell cycles.

  10. Extracellular Vesicle-Associated Transitory Cell Wall Components and Their Impact on the Interaction of Fungi with Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrichter, Leonardo; de Souza, Marcio M; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Joffe, Luna; Tavares, Patricia de M; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2016-01-01

    Classic cell wall components of fungi comprise the polysaccharides glucans and chitin, in association with glycoproteins and pigments. During the last decade, however, system biology approaches clearly demonstrated that the composition of fungal cell walls include atypical molecules historically associated with intracellular or membrane locations. Elucidation of mechanisms by which many fungal molecules are exported to the extracellular space suggested that these atypical components are transitorily located to the cell wall. The presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) at the fungal cell wall and in culture supernatants of distinct pathogenic species suggested a highly functional mechanism of molecular export in these organisms. Thus, the passage of EVs through fungal cell walls suggests remarkable molecular diversity and, consequently, a potentially variable influence on the host antifungal response. On the basis of information derived from the proteomic characterization of fungal EVs from the yeasts Cryptoccocus neoformans and Candida albicans and the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, our manuscript is focused on the clear view that the fungal cell wall is much more complex than previously thought. PMID:27458437

  11. Extracellular Vesicle-Associated Transitory Cell Wall Components and Their Impact on the Interaction of Fungi with Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrichter, Leonardo; de Souza, Marcio M.; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Joffe, Luna; Tavares, Patricia de M.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2016-01-01

    Classic cell wall components of fungi comprise the polysaccharides glucans and chitin, in association with glycoproteins and pigments. During the last decade, however, system biology approaches clearly demonstrated that the composition of fungal cell walls include atypical molecules historically associated with intracellular or membrane locations. Elucidation of mechanisms by which many fungal molecules are exported to the extracellular space suggested that these atypical components are transitorily located to the cell wall. The presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) at the fungal cell wall and in culture supernatants of distinct pathogenic species suggested a highly functional mechanism of molecular export in these organisms. Thus, the passage of EVs through fungal cell walls suggests remarkable molecular diversity and, consequently, a potentially variable influence on the host antifungal response. On the basis of information derived from the proteomic characterization of fungal EVs from the yeasts Cryptoccocus neoformans and Candida albicans and the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, our manuscript is focused on the clear view that the fungal cell wall is much more complex than previously thought. PMID:27458437

  12. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, A; Locke, I C; Evans, C S

    2006-08-01

    The essential oil extracted from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used as a topical application to relieve pain and promote healing in herbal medicine and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. Clove oil has two major components, eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, which constitute 78% and 13% of the oil, respectively. Clove oil and these components are generally recognized as 'safe', but the in-vitro study here demonstrates cytotoxic properties of both the oil and eugenol, towards human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Clove oil was found to be highly cytotoxic at concentrations as low as 0.03% (v/v) with up to 73% of this effect attributable to eugenol. beta-caryophyllene did not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, indicating that other cytotoxic components may also exist within the parent oil. PMID:16872360

  13. Identification of sugarcane cDNAs encoding components of the cell cycle machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrietta Mírian Helene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on cell cycle research in plants indicate that the majority of the fundamental regulators are conserved with other eukaryotes, but the controlling mechanisms imposed on them, and their integration into growth and development is unique to plants. To date, most studies on cell division have been conducted in dicot plants. However, monocot plants have distinct developmental strategies that will affect the regulation of cell division at the meristems. In order to advance our understanding how cell division is integrated with the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth and development in monocots, we took advantage of the sugarcane EST Project (Sucest to carry an exhaustive data mining to identify components of the cell cycle machinery. Results obtained include the description of distinct classes of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs; A, B, D, and H-type cyclins; CDK-interacting proteins, CDK-inhibitory and activating kinases, pRB and E2F transcription factors. Most sugarcane cell cycle genes seem to be member of multigene families. Like in dicot plants, CDKa transcription is not restricted to tissues with elevated meristematic activity, but the vast majority of CDKb-related ESTs are found in regions of high proliferation rates. Expression of CKI genes is far more abundant in regions of less cell division, notably in lateral buds. Shared expression patterns for a group of clusters was unraveled by transcriptional profiling, and we suggest that similar approaches could be used to identify genes that are part of the same regulatory network.

  14. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe [CEA-INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco [ENEA, P.le E.Fermi 1, Località Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo [RSE, Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  15. Ovarian germ cell tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous components and later development of growing teratoma syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jumaily Usama; Al-Hussaini Maysa; Ajlouni Fatenah; Abulruz Abdulrahman; Sultan Iyad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Development of a sarcomatous component in a germ cell tumor is an uncommon phenomenon. Most cases reported have a grim prognosis. Growing teratoma syndrome is also an uncommon phenomenon and occurs in approximately 2% to 7% of non seminomatous germ cell tumors and should be treated surgically. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-year-old Asian girl with an ovarian mixed germ cell tumor containing a rhabdomyosarcomatous component. She was treated with a germ cell...

  16. CLEAR CELL CARCINOMA WITH COEXISTENT SMALL MUCINOUS TUMOR COMPONENT ARISING FROM EXTRAGONADAL ENDOMETRIOTIC CYST

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Aravinth

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of clear cell carcinoma in extra gonadal endometriotic cyst is well documented in literature. We report a rare case of malignant tumor identified in the mural nodule of a cystic mass. The cyst was located in the retroperitoneum, posterior to caecum. The tumor had an unusual histomorphologic appearance with co - existent minor benign mucinous tumor component. Rare clinical presentation with unfamiliar histomorphological appearance of this tumor makes it w...

  17. Rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis by cell wall and capsule components direct fluorescent antibody assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lily Natalia; Rahmat Setya AdjI

    2008-01-01

    During the outbreak of anthrax, early diagnosis is critical for effective treatment. Numerous attempts have been made to design antigen based detection tests and to rapidly identify truly anthrax specific antigens for B. anthracis. In Indonesia, standard identification of B. anthracis relies on a combination of time consuming steps including bacterial culture and Ascoli precipitin test, which can take several days to provide a diagnosis. In this study, two component (cell wall and capsule) di...

  18. Treatment results and prognostic factors of clear cell ovarian carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ahmedova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important prognostic factors for clear cell carcinoma (CCC are clinical and morphological signs and clinical stage of the disease. Analyses of 5-year survival in patients with I stage of CCC is 69 %, in II stage – 55 %, in III stage – 14 % and in IV stage – 4 % patients. We analyzed distant results of treatment of 71 patients with CCC and of 25 patients with mixed malignant ovaries neoplasm with obligatory clear cell component taking into consideration main clinical and morphological sings of disease. On the base of performed reseal we revealed that morphological structure of the tumors and stage of the disease exerted heist influence on the exponent of survival of the patients with clear CCC ovaries neoplasm. Besides, there is a correlation between exponent of patients’ survival and radicalized of surgery, character of tumor growth, differentiation degree, cell anaplasia and mitotic activity of tumor cells.

  19. Modulation of human B cell immunoglobulin secretion by the C3b component of complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, G C; Berger, M; Balow, J E

    1984-02-01

    The human C3b component of complement was found to inhibit the differentiation of human B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-secreting cells in vitro. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses were inhibited by C3-coated zymosan particles and by purified human C3b. C3b inhibited the PWM-driven responses in a dose-dependent fashion, and it was necessary for C3b to be present in the early phases of the cultures. C3b acted directly on B cells rather than on helper T cells because it inhibited the PFC responses of MNC depleted of T cells and subsequently stimulated with a T cell-independent Epstein Barr virus mitogen. Furthermore, C3b failed to stimulate the generation of suppressor lymphocytes and/or monocytes that might have been responsible for the inhibition of B cell responses. Our results indicate that C3b or its fragments exert negative modulatory effects on human B lymphocyte responses. PMID:6228593

  20. Inhibition of telomerase in tumor cells by ribozyme targeting telomerase RNA component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Bailin(刘柏林); QU; Yi(屈艺); LIU; Shuqiu(刘菽秋); OUYANG; Xuesong(欧阳雪松)

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase plays an important role in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis and is believed to be a good target for anti-cancer drugs. Elimination of template function of telomerase RNA may repress the telomerase activity. A hammer-headed ribozyme(telomerase ribozyme, teloRZ) directed against the RNA component of human telomerase(hTR) was designed and synthesized. TeloRZ showed a specific cleavage activity against the hTR. The cleavage efficacy reached 60%. A eukaryotic expression plasmid containing teloRZ gene was inducted into HeLa cells by lipofectamine, the telomerase activity in HeLa cells expressing teloRZ decreased to one eighth of that in the control cells. The doubling time increased significantly and the apoptosis ratio was elevated with increasing population doublings(PDS). After 19-20 PDS 95% cells were apoptotic. To further investigate the effect of teloRZ on tumor growth, the eukaryotic expression plasmid containing teloRZ was injected into transplanted tumor of nude mouse. The teloRZ effectively inhibited the telomerase activity in transplanted tumor, promoted apoptosis of the transplanted tumor cells, and decreased the tumor size significantly. These results indicate that teloRZ can effectively inhibit telomerase activity and growth of tumor cells, and suggest the potential use of this ribozyme in anti-cancer therapy.

  1. Scorpion venom component III inhibits cell proliferation by modulating NF-κB activation in human leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, XIANGFENG; Zhang, Guojun; SUN, AIPING; Guo, Jiqiang; TIAN, ZHONGWEI; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yufeng

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion venom contains various groups of compounds that exhibit anticancer activity against a variety of malignancies through a poorly understood mechanism. While the aberrant activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been linked with hematopoietic malignancies, we hypothesized that scorpion venom mediates its effects by modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined the effects of scorpion venom component III (SVCIII) on the human leukemia cell lines THP-1 and J...

  2. Proapoptotic Activity of Propolis and Their Components on Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line (CAL-27).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyżewska, Urszula; Siemionow, Katarzyna; Zaręba, Ilona; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Propolis has been used since ancient times in folk medicine. It is a popular medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. This material is one of the richest sources of polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) evokes antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anticancer properties. Due to pharmacological properties it is used in the commercial production of nutritional supplements. In this study, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify main polyphenols in EEPs. The effect of EEPs, individual EEPs components (chrysin, galangin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid) and their mixture on viability of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line (CAL-27) as well as the molecular mechanisms of the process were examined. The results of MTTs assay demonstrated that EEP, polyphenols and mixture of polyphenolic compounds were cytotoxic for CAL-27 cells in a dose dependent manner. The mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by these components undergoes through apoptosis as detected by flow cytometry. The ethanolic extracts of propolis activated caspases -3, -8, -9. Mixture of polyphenols was found as the most potent inducer of apoptosis thorough both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. Therefore, we suggest that anticancer properties of propolis is related to synergistic activity of its main components. PMID:27281369

  3. Microfluidic housing system: a useful tool for the analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, A.; Lamberti, A.; Pugliese, D.; Chiodoni, A.; Shahzad, N.; Bianco, S.; Quaglio, M.; Gazia, R.; Tresso, E.; Pirri, C. F.

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the behavior of the different dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) components, an in-situ analysis should give fundamental help but it is impossible to be performed without compromising the integrity of the cell. Our recently proposed novel microfluidic approach for the fabrication of DSCs is based on a reversible sealing of the two transparent electrodes and it allows the easy assembling and disassembling of the cell, making possible an analysis of the components over time. The aim of this work is not to investigate the different degradation mechanisms of a standard DSC: we want to show that, by using a microfluidic architecture, it is possible to perform a non-destructive analysis and to monitor the photoanode and the counter electrode properties during their lifetime. Morphological (field emission scanning electron microscopy), wetting (contact angle), optical (UV-visible spectroscopy) and electrical (current-voltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements under standard AM1.5G illumination) characterizations have been performed over a period of three weeks. The results show how the variation of the wetting and morphological properties at the counter electrode and of the dye absorbance at the photoanode are strongly related to the decrease of the cell performances as evidenced by electrical characterization, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the use of our structure in this kind of studies.

  4. PROLIFERATION RESPONSES IN PREIMMUNIZED MICE LYMPHOCYTES BY BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS CELL WALL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohabbati Mobarez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis infects the respiratory tract of the human host and causes whooping cough in children. The nature of immunity against Bordetella pertussis infection and disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate cell mediated immunity in mice immunized with outer membrane component of cell wall, of B. Pertussis.A group of mice were immunized with outer membrane complex (OMC and killed whole cell (WCV of B. pertussis, with an interval of 2 weeks. During a period of 7 weeks following the immunization, lymphocytes were isolated from lymph nodes of immunized mice. The in vitro proliferative response of isolated lymphocyte to stimulation with 20 ^g of 30 and 69 kDa outer membrane protein (OMP were measured as parameters for cell mediated immunity (CMI. The data were expressed as mean count per minute (CPMxlO3 after subtraction of the CPM of unstimulated control cultures. Lymphoblastogenic response was observed in immunized mice with WCV and OMC. At 30 days of post immunization a significant increase in response to 30 and 69 kDa OMP was observed, a small decrease in the response was evident against P30 and P69 at 60 and 120 days of post immunization, but the response was still higher than what was observed in control mice.Current findings indicate strongly the potential of outer membrane protein component of B. pertussis in proliferating lymphocytes in the mice.

  5. Homologs of SCAR/WAVE complex components are required for epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yuchuan; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Liang; Liu, Ping; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2016-07-01

    Filamentous actins (F-actins) play a vital role in epidermal cell morphogenesis. However, a limited number of studies have examined actin-dependent leaf epidermal cell morphogenesis events in rice. In this study, two recessive mutants were isolated: less pronounced lobe epidermal cell2-1 (lpl2-1) and lpl3-1, whose leaf and stem epidermis developed a smooth surface, with fewer serrated pavement cell (PC) lobes, and decreased papillae. The lpl2-1 also exhibited irregular stomata patterns, reduced plant height, and short panicles and roots. Molecular genetic studies demonstrated that LPL2 and LPL3 encode the PIROGI/Specifically Rac1-associated protein 1 (PIR/SRA1)-like and NCK-associated protein 1 (NAP1)-like proteins, respectively, two components of the suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein (SCAR/WAVE) regulatory complex involved in actin nucleation and function. Epidermal cells exhibited abnormal arrangement of F-actins in both lpl2 and lpl3 expanding leaves. Moreover, the distorted trichomes of Arabidopsis pir could be partially restored by an overexpression of LPL2 A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that LPL2 can directly interact with LPL3 in vitro Collectively, the results indicate that LPL2 and LPL3 are two functionally conserved homologs of the SCAR/WAVE complex components, and that they play an important role in controlling epidermal cell morphogenesis in rice by organising F-actin. PMID:27252469

  6. Analysis of Amorphous Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells and Their Component Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Studies of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si:C:H) alloys used for the window layer of tandem cells showed that increasing carbon incorporation led to a greater structural disorder. Density of localised states (DOS), the minority carrier lifetime and the characteristic width of the tail states were all highly dependent on the silane -propane ratio, g. The optical bandgap which ranges from 1.88-2.32 eV, increases with propane flow but the refractive index decreases with propane flow. The highest dark and illuminated conductivity were observed at g = 5 which corresponds to the lowest DOS. A new structure, a double Schottky diode, was proposed for determination of DOS using space charge limited current (SCLC) technique. This was shown to be valid by using a thickness scaling test. For the first time the minority carrier storage time was observed in the diode recovery method not only in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) alloy diodes but also in a-Si:C:H alloy diodes. A new shutter system has been introduced in the plasma depositing chamber which has made it possible to analyse the components' effects on the properties of the pinpin tandem solar cells by physically separating the components. In this way the first p-layer and first pin cell were identified as the limiting components in the attainment of high short circuit current. Using a p-layer a-Si:C:H was found to be better than a wholly pin a-Si:C:H. The desired recombination of carriers at the middle n/p junction is obtained by correct design: An asymmetric junction with n-layer thicker than the p-layer resulted in the highest current density. A tandem solar cell equivalent circuit was proposed based on the results.

  7. Predicting essential components of signal transduction networks: a dynamic model of guard cell abscisic acid signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants both lose water and take in carbon dioxide through microscopic stomatal pores, each of which is regulated by a surrounding pair of guard cells. During drought, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA inhibits stomatal opening and promotes stomatal closure, thereby promoting water conservation. Dozens of cellular components have been identified to function in ABA regulation of guard cell volume and thus of stomatal aperture, but a dynamic description is still not available for this complex process. Here we synthesize experimental results into a consistent guard cell signal transduction network for ABA-induced stomatal closure, and develop a dynamic model of this process. Our model captures the regulation of more than 40 identified network components, and accords well with previous experimental results at both the pathway and whole-cell physiological level. By simulating gene disruptions and pharmacological interventions we find that the network is robust against a significant fraction of possible perturbations. Our analysis reveals the novel predictions that the disruption of membrane depolarizability, anion efflux, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cytosolic pH increase, the phosphatidic acid pathway, or K(+ efflux through slowly activating K(+ channels at the plasma membrane lead to the strongest reduction in ABA responsiveness. Initial experimental analysis assessing ABA-induced stomatal closure in the presence of cytosolic pH clamp imposed by the weak acid butyrate is consistent with model prediction. Simulations of stomatal response as derived from our model provide an efficient tool for the identification of candidate manipulations that have the best chance of conferring increased drought stress tolerance and for the prioritization of future wet bench analyses. Our method can be readily applied to other biological signaling networks to identify key regulatory components in systems where quantitative information is limited.

  8. Cell wall chitosaccharides are essential components and exposed patterns of the phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Ilham; Lafitte, Claude; Heux, Laurent; Skandalis, Nicholas; Spanou, Zacharoula; Martinez, Yves; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Bulone, Vincent; Dumas, Bernard; Bottin, Arnaud

    2008-11-01

    Chitin is an essential component of fungal cell walls, where it forms a crystalline scaffold, and chitooligosaccharides derived from it are signaling molecules recognized by the hosts of pathogenic fungi. Oomycetes are cellulosic fungus-like microorganisms which most often lack chitin in their cell walls. Here we present the first study of the cell wall of the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, a major parasite of legume plants. Biochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of ca. 10% N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in the cell wall. Further characterization of the GlcNAc-containing material revealed that it corresponds to noncrystalline chitosaccharides associated with glucans, rather than to chitin per se. Two putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes were identified by data mining of an A. euteiches expressed sequence tag collection and Southern blot analysis, and full-length cDNA sequences of both genes were obtained. Phylogeny analysis indicated that oomycete CHS diversification occurred before the divergence of the major oomycete lineages. Remarkably, lectin labeling showed that the Aphanomyces euteiches chitosaccharides are exposed at the cell wall surface, and study of the effect of the CHS inhibitor nikkomycin Z demonstrated that they are involved in cell wall function. These data open new perspectives for the development of antioomycete drugs and further studies of the molecular mechanisms involved in the recognition of pathogenic oomycetes by the host plants. PMID:18806214

  9. Analysis of Active Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection Based on Vascular Endothelial Cell Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI. HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  10. Design and development of major balance of plant components in solid oxide fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Tan, Hsueh-I; Chao, Yu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546 (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen, Tzu-Hsiang [Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    2013-07-01

    The balance of plant (BOP) of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system with a 2 kW stack and an electric efficiency of 40% is optimized using commercial GCTool software. The simulation results provide a detailed understanding of the optimal operating temperature, pressure and mass flow rate in all of the major BOP components, i.e., the gas distributor, the afterburner, the reformer and the heat exchanger. A series of experimental trials are performed to validate the simulation results. Overall, the results presented in this study not only indicate an appropriate set of operating conditions for the SOFC power system, but also suggest potential design improvements for several of the BOP components.

  11. Pulmonary surfactant and its components inhibit secretion of phosphatidylcholine from cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells. Radioactive phosphatidylcholine has been used as a marker for surfactant secretion. The authors report findings that suggest that surfactant inhibits secretion of 3H-labeled phosphatidylcholine by cultured rat type II cells. The lipid components and the surfactant protein group of M/sub r/ 26,000-36,000 (SP 26-36) inhibit secretion to different extents. Surfactant lipids do not completely inhibit release; in concentrations of 100 μg/ml, lipids inhibit stimulated secretion by 40%. SP 26-36 inhibits release with an EC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 μg/ml, SP 26-36 inhibits basal secretion and reduces to basal levels secretion stimulated by terbutaline, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and the ionophore A23187. The inhibitory effect of SP 26-36 can be blocked by washing type II cells after adding SP 26-36, by heating the proteins to 1000C for 10 min, by adding antiserum specific to SP 26-36, or by incubating cells in the presence of 0.2 mM EGTA. SP 26-36 isolated from canine and human sources also inhibits phosphatidylcholine release from rat type II cells. Neither type I collagen nor serum apolipoprotein A-1 inhibits secretion. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that surfactant secretion is under feedback regulatory control

  12. Primary histiocytic sarcoma arising in the head and neck with predominant spindle cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XF

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first case report of Histiocytic Sarcoma (HS with predominant spindle cell component occurring in the head and neck region of a 41-year-old man. The tumor was composed of sheets of large round to oval cells with pleomorphic vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Multinucleated forms, numerous mitoses, and tumor necrosis were also noted. Sheets, fascicles, and whorls of spindle cells with spindled to ovoid vesicular nuclei, small to medium-sized distinct nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm were frequently observed. Immunohistochemical staining in the tumor cells was positive for CD163, CD68, lysozyme, CD45, and NSE. Focal expression of CD4 and S-100 was also noted. Electron microscopy demonstrated an abundance of lysosomes in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Chromosome study revealed a 57–80 hyperdiploid [7]/46, XY [13] karyotype, including 3 to 4 copies of various chromosomes. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings confirmed the diagnosis of HS.

  13. Inhibition of A2780 Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Proliferation by a Rubus Component, Sanguiin H-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dahae; Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    The effects of a red raspberry component, sanguiin H-6 (SH-6), on the induction of apoptosis and the related signaling pathways in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were investigated. SH-6 caused an antiproliferative effect and a severe morphological change resembling that of apoptotic cell death but no effect on the cancer cell cycle arrest. In addition, SH-6 induced an early apoptotic effect and activation of caspases as well as the cleavage of PARP, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. The early apoptotic percentages of A2780 cells exposed to 20 and 40 μM SH-6 were 35.39 and 41.76, respectively. Also, SH-6 caused the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially p38, and the increase of truncated p15/BID. These results in the present study suggest that the apoptosis of A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells by SH-6 is mediated by the MAPK p38 and a caspase-8-dependent BID cleavage pathway.

  14. Combining RNA interference and kinase inhibitors against cell signalling components involved in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Bonnie J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1 has been implicated in a large variety of biological processes including oncogenic transformation. The tyrosine kinases of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR constitute the beginning of one signal transduction cascade leading to AP-1 activation and are known to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Drug discovery efforts targeting this receptor and other pathway components have centred on monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. Resistance to such inhibitors has already been observed, guiding the prediction of their use in combination therapies with other targeted agents such as RNA interference (RNAi. This study examines the use of RNAi and kinase inhibitors for qualification of components involved in the EGFR/AP-1 pathway of ME180 cells, and their inhibitory effects when evaluated individually or in tandem against multiple components of this important disease-related pathway. Methods AP-1 activation was assessed using an ME180 cell line stably transfected with a beta-lactamase reporter gene under the control of AP-1 response element following epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulation. Immunocytochemistry allowed for further quantification of small molecule inhibition on a cellular protein level. RNAi and RT-qPCR experiments were performed to assess the amount of knockdown on an mRNA level, and immunocytochemistry was used to reveal cellular protein levels for the targeted pathway components. Results Increased potency of kinase inhibitors was shown by combining RNAi directed towards EGFR and small molecule inhibitors acting at proximal or distal points in the pathway. After cellular stimulation with EGF and analysis at the level of AP-1 activation using a β-lactamase reporter gene, a 10–12 fold shift or 2.5–3 fold shift toward greater potency in the IC50 was observed for EGFR and MEK-1 inhibitors, respectively, in the presence of RNAi

  15. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika, D; A. S. Nesaraj

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The s...

  16. Effect of malaria components on blood mononuclear cells involved in immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuchard Punsawad

    2013-01-01

    During malaria infection, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide production have been associated with pathogenesis and disease severity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have proposed that both Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols are able to modulate blood mononuclear cells, contributing to stimulation of signal transduction and downstream regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. The present review summarizes the published in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in blood mononuclear cells after being inducted by Plasmodium falciparum malaria components. Particular attention is paid to hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols which reflect the important mechanism of signaling pathways involved in immune response.

  17. Structural components of the nuclear body in nuclei of Allium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear bodies have long been noted in interphase nuclei of plant cells,but their structural component,origin and function are still unclear by now.The present work showed in onion cells the nuclear bodies appeared as a spherical structure about 0.3 to 0.8 μm in diameter.They possibly were formed in nucleolus and subsequently released,and entered into nucleoplasm.Observation through cytochemical staining method at the ultrastructural level confirmed that nuclear bodies consisted of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and silver-stainable proteins.Immunocytochemical results revealed that nuclear bodies contained no DNA and ribosomal gene transcription factor (UBF).Based on these data,we suggested that nuclear bodies are not related to the ribosome or other gene transcription activities,instead they may act as subnuclear structures for RNPs transport from nucleolus to cytoplasm,and may also be involved in splicing of pre-mRNAs.

  18. PCA 4 DCA: The Application Of Principal Component Analysis To The Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Oates, Robert; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    As one of the newest members in the ?field of arti?cial immune systems (AIS), the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is based on behavioural models of natural dendritic cells (DCs). Unlike other AIS, the DCA does not rely on training data, instead domain or expert knowledge is required to predetermine the mapping between input signals from a particular instance to the three categories used by the DCA. This data preprocessing phase has received the criticism of having manually over-?tted the data to the algorithm, which is undesirable. Therefore, in this paper we have attempted to ascertain if it is possible to use principal component analysis (PCA) techniques to automatically categorise input data while still generating useful and accurate classication results. The integrated system is tested with a biometrics dataset for the stress recognition of automobile drivers. The experimental results have shown the application of PCA to the DCA for the purpose of automated data preprocessing is successful.

  19. Scorpion venom component III inhibits cell proliferation by modulating NF-κB activation in human leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONG, XIANGFENG; ZHANG, GUOJUN; SUN, AIPING; GUO, JIQIANG; TIAN, ZHONGWEI; WANG, HUI; LIU, YUFENG

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion venom contains various groups of compounds that exhibit anticancer activity against a variety of malignancies through a poorly understood mechanism. While the aberrant activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been linked with hematopoietic malignancies, we hypothesized that scorpion venom mediates its effects by modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined the effects of scorpion venom component III (SVCIII) on the human leukemia cell lines THP-1 and Jurkat and focused on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results showed that SVCIII inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 and Jurkat cells. SVCIII also suppressed the constitutive NF-κB activation through inhibition of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. NF-κB luciferase reporter activity was also inhibited by SVCIII. Our data suggest that SVCIII, a natural compound, may exert its antiproliferative effects by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and, thus, has potential use in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies, alone or in combination with other agents. PMID:23060939

  20. Internalization of components of the host cell plasma membrane during infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho TMU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi attach to the macrophage surface and are internalized with the formation of a membrane bounded vacuole, known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. In order to determine if components of the host cell membrane are internalized during formation of the PV we labeled the macrophage surface with fluorescent probes for proteins, lipids and sialic acid residues and then allowed the labeled cells to interact with the parasites. The interaction process was interrupted after 1 hr at 37ºC and the distribution of the probes analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. During attachment of the parasites to the macrophage surface an intense labeling of the attachment regions was observed. Subsequently labeling of the membrane lining the parasitophorous vacuole containing epimastigote and trypomastigote forms was seen. Labeling was not uniform, with regions of intense and light or no labeling. The results obtained show that host cell membrane lipids, proteins and sialoglycoconjugates contribute to the formation of the membrane lining the PV containing epimastigote and trypomastigote T. cruzi forms. Lysosomes of the host cell may participate in the process of PV membrane formation.

  1. Extension of the concept of an anomalous water component to images of T-cell organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.

    2014-12-01

    Microscopic images of a living cell are the main source of information on its functional state. Modern interference microscopy techniques allow the numerical parameters of cell images to be obtained with an accuracy not available with other methods. Quantitative analysis of phase images of T lymphocytes (TCs) in different functional states demonstrated that variations of the properties of intracellular water should be taken into account. This conclusion agrees with the current view that the physical parameters of water, including the refractive index (RI) of a water layer, depend on the hydrophilicity and other characteristics of the adjacent surface. Application of this concept to phase images of TCs showed that the contribution of the fourth phase of water (4-water) or the structured water component, which has an increased RI, should be considered. The proportion of 4-water depends on the functional state of the cell determined by the culture medium composition. Normally, the proportion of 4-water in organelles is as high as 30% it is considerably lower in organelles of cells with inhibited metabolism.

  2. Extracellular components implicated in the stationary organization of the actin cytoskeleton in mesophyll cells of Vallisneria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J H; Mizuno, K; Takagi, S; Nagai, R

    1997-04-01

    In mesophyll cells of Vallisneria gigantea Graebner, an aquatic angiosperm, the association of the plasma membrane with the cell wall at the end wall has been reported to be indispensable for the mechanism that maintains the stationary organization of the bundles of microfilaments (MFs) [Masuda et al. (1991) Protoplasma 162: 151]. To identify putative extracellular components that might play a crucial role in this mechanism, we examined the effects of two exogenously applied synthetic hexapeptides, GRGDSP and ARYDEI, which include an RGD and an RYD motif, respectively. The RGD motif is known as a recognition site in molecules required for adhesion to the substratum at sites of focal contacts. Within 24 h, both peptides (at concentrations of 1-15 mM) induced extremely abnormal patterns of cytoplasmic streaming, as well as the striking disruption of the arrangement of bundles of MFs. GRGESP and ARYEEI peptides, used as controls, had no detectable effects. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that polyclonal antibodies against the ARYDEI peptide bound to the cell walls of mesophyll cells while a preimmune serum did not. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the antibodies recognized polypeptides of 54 kDa and 27 kDa in an extract of total proteins from the leaves of Vallisneria. The results suggest that some extracellular proteins(s), with a conserved RGD or RYD motif in its amino acid sequence, might be involved in the maintenance of the stationary organization of the bundles of MFs. PMID:9177028

  3. Cell envelope components influencing filament length in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnat, Mireia; Schleiff, Enrico; Flores, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells (known as trichomes or filaments) that can be hundreds of cells long. The filament consists of individual cells surrounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layers. The cells, however, share a continuous outer membrane, and septal proteins, such as SepJ, are important for cell-cell contact and filament formation. Here, we addressed a possible role of cell envelope components in filamentation, the process of producing and maintaining filaments, in the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We studied filament length and the response of the filaments to mechanical fragmentation in a number of strains with mutations in genes encoding cell envelope components. Previously published peptidoglycan- and outer membrane-related gene mutants and strains with mutations in two genes (all5045 and alr0718) encoding class B penicillin-binding proteins isolated in this work were used. Our results show that filament length is affected in most cell envelope mutants, but the filaments of alr5045 and alr2270 gene mutants were particularly fragmented. All5045 is a dd-transpeptidase involved in peptidoglycan elongation during cell growth, and Alr2270 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a key component of lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that both components of the cell envelope, the murein sacculus and the outer membrane, influence filamentation. As deduced from the filament fragmentation phenotypes of their mutants, however, none of these elements is as important for filamentation as the septal protein SepJ.

  4. Melanin is an essential component for the integrity of the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeault Sonia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common agent of invasive aspergillosis, a feared complication in severely immunocompromised patients. Despite the recent commercialisation of new antifungal drugs, the prognosis for this infection remains uncertain. Thus, there is a real need to discover new targets for therapy. Particular attention has been paid to the biochemical composition and organisation of the fungal cell wall, because it mediates the host-fungus interplay. Conidia, which are responsible for infections, have melanin as one of the cell wall components. Melanin has been established as an important virulence factor, protecting the fungus against the host's immune defences. We suggested that it might also have an indirect role in virulence, because it is required for correct assembly of the cell wall layers of the conidia. Results We used three A. fumigatus isolates which grew as white or brown powdery colonies, to demonstrate the role of melanin. Firstly, sequencing the genes responsible for biosynthesis of melanin (ALB1, AYG1, ARP1, ARP2, ABR1 and ABR2 showed point mutations (missense mutation, deletion or insertion in the ALB1 gene for pigmentless isolates or in ARP2 for the brownish isolate. The isolates were then shown by scanning electron microscopy to produce numerous, typical conidial heads, except that the conidia were smooth-walled, as previously observed for laboratory mutants with mutations in the PKSP/ALB1 gene. Flow cytometry showed an increase in the fibronectin binding capacity of conidia from mutant isolates, together with a marked decrease in the binding of laminin to the conidial surface. A marked decrease in the electronegative charge of the conidia and cell surface hydrophobicity was also seen by microelectrophoresis and two-phase partitioning, respectively. Ultrastructural studies of mutant isolates detected considerable changes in the organisation of the conidial wall, with the loss of the outermost

  5. Comparative phosphoproteomics reveals components of host cell invasion and post-transcriptional regulation during Francisella infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Tempel, Rebecca; Cambronne, Xiaolu A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Jones, Marcus B.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Yang, Feng; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-09-22

    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the deadly disease tularemia. Most evidence suggests that Francisella is not well recognized by the innate immune system that normally leads to cytokine expression and cell death. In previous work, we identified new bacterial factors that were hyper-cytotoxic to macrophages. Four of the identified hyper-cytotoxic strains (lpcC, manB, manC and kdtA) had an impaired lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis and produced an exposed lipid A lacking the O-antigen. These mutants were not only hyper-cytotoxic but also were phagocytosed at much higher rates compared to the wild type parent strain. To elucidate the cellular signaling underlying this enhanced phagocytosis and cell death, we performed a large-scale comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of cells infected with wild-type and delta-lpcC F. novicida. Our data suggest that not only actin but also intermediate filaments and microtubules are important for F. novicida entry into the host cells. In addition, we observed differential phosphorylation of tristetraprolin (TTP), a key component of the mRNA-degrading machinery that controls the expression of a variety of genes including many cytokines. Infection with the delta-lpcC mutant induced the hyper-phosphorylation and inhibition of TTP, leading to the production of cytokines such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha which may kill the host cells by triggering apoptosis. Together, our data provide new insights for Francisella invasion and a post-transcriptional mechanism that prevents the expression of host immune response factors that controls infection by this pathogen.

  6. Cell and Signal Components of the Microenvironment of Bone Metastasis Are Affected by Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinelli, Paola; Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastatic cells release bone microenvironment proteins, such as the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), and share a cell signaling typical of the bone metabolism controlled by Runx2. The megakaryocytes in the bone marrow engrafted by the metastases seem to be one of the principal microenvironment sources of the biological stimuli, implicated in the formation of an osteoblastic niche, and affecting metastasis phenotype and colonization. Educated platelets in the circulation might derive from megakaryocytes in bone metastasis. The evaluation of predictive markers in the circulating platelets might be useful for the stratification of patients for therapeutic purposes. The hypoxic environment in bone metastasis is one of the key regulators of the network of the biological soluble and structural components of the matrix. In bone metastatic cells under hypoxia, similar patterns of Runx2 and SPARC are observed, both showing downregulation. Conversely, hypoxia induces Endothelin 1, which upregulates SPARC, and these biological stimuli may be considered prognostic markers of bone metastasis in breast carcinoma patients. PMID:27187355

  7. Cell and Signal Components of the Microenvironment of Bone Metastasis Are Affected by Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bendinelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastatic cells release bone microenvironment proteins, such as the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and share a cell signaling typical of the bone metabolism controlled by Runx2. The megakaryocytes in the bone marrow engrafted by the metastases seem to be one of the principal microenvironment sources of the biological stimuli, implicated in the formation of an osteoblastic niche, and affecting metastasis phenotype and colonization. Educated platelets in the circulation might derive from megakaryocytes in bone metastasis. The evaluation of predictive markers in the circulating platelets might be useful for the stratification of patients for therapeutic purposes. The hypoxic environment in bone metastasis is one of the key regulators of the network of the biological soluble and structural components of the matrix. In bone metastatic cells under hypoxia, similar patterns of Runx2 and SPARC are observed, both showing downregulation. Conversely, hypoxia induces Endothelin 1, which upregulates SPARC, and these biological stimuli may be considered prognostic markers of bone metastasis in breast carcinoma patients.

  8. Connected components labeling for giga-cell multi-categorical rasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Pawel; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    2013-09-01

    Labeling of connected components in an image or a raster of non-imagery data is a fundamental operation in fields of pattern recognition and machine intelligence. The bulk of effort devoted to designing efficient connected components labeling (CCL) algorithms concentrated on the domain of binary images where labeling is required for a computer to recognize objects. In contrast, in the Geographical Information Science (GIS) a CCL algorithm is mostly applied to multi-categorical rasters in order to either convert a raster to a shapefile, or for statistical characterization of individual clumps. Recently, it has become necessary to label connected components in very large, giga-cell size, multi-categorical rasters but performance of existing CCL algorithms lacks sufficient speed to accomplish such task. In this paper we present a modification to the popular two-scan CCL algorithm that enables labeling of giga-cell size, multi-categorical rasters. Our approach is to apply a divide-and-conquer technique coupled with parallel processing to a standard two-scan algorithm. For specificity, we have developed a variant of a standard CCL algorithm implemented as r.clump in GRASS GIS. We have established optimal values of data blocks (stemming from the divide-and-conquer technique) and optimal number of computational threads (stemming from parallel processing) for a new algorithm called r.clump3p. The performance of the new algorithm was tested on a series of rasters up to 160 Mcells in size; for largest size test raster a speed up over the original algorithm is 74 times. Finally, we have applied the new algorithm to the National Land Cover Dataset 2006 raster with 1.6×1010 cells. Labeling this raster took 39 h using two-processors, 16 cores computer and resulted in 221,718,501 clumps. Estimated speed up over the original algorithm is 450 times. The r.clump3p works within the GRASS environment and is available in the public domain.

  9. Parotid gland carcinosarcoma with follicular dendritic cell sarcoma as mesenchymal component: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiang; ZHU Jian-shan; XU Yan-ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The WHO has classified malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands into noninvasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, invasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, carcino-sarcoma and metastasizing mixed tumour.1 Carcinosarcoma, or true malignant mixed tumour, is a tumour composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. It is an exceedingly rare tumour of the salivary glands and only about 60 cases have been reported.2 In this report we describe a case of carcinosarcoma of a parotid gland that contained an unusual mesenchymal component (follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, FDCS) in a 55-year-old man with cytological, histological and immunohistochemical findings. To our knowledge, this histological pattern has not been reported previously in the English literature.

  10. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Radhika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  11. Divisome and segrosome components of Deinococcus radiodurans interact through cell division regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ganesh K; Modi, Kruti; Misra, Hari S

    2016-08-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes many of the known components of divisome as well as four sets of genome partitioning proteins, ParA and ParB on its multipartite genome. Interdependent regulation of cell division and genome segregation is not understood. In vivo interactions of D. radiodurans' sdivisome, segrosome and other cell division regulatory proteins expressed on multicopy plasmids were studied in Escherichia coli using a bacterial two-hybrid system and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation with the proteins made in E. coli. Many of these showed interactions both with the self and with other proteins. For example, DrFtsA, DrFtsZ, DrMinD, DrMinC, DrDivIVA and all four ParB proteins individually formed at least homodimers, while DrFtsA interacted with DrFtsZ, DrFtsW, DrFtsE, DrFtsK and DrMinD. DrMinD also showed interaction with DrFtsW, DrFtsE and DrMinC. Interestingly, septum site determining protein, DrDivIVA showed interactions with secondary genome ParAs as well as ParB1, ParB3 and ParB4 while DrMinC interacted with ParB1 and ParB3. PprA, a pleiotropic protein recently implicated in cell division regulation, neither interacted with divisome proteins nor ParBs but interacted at different levels with all four ParAs. These results suggest the formation of independent multiprotein complexes of 'DrFts' proteins, segrosome proteins and cell division regulatory proteins, and these complexes could interact with each other through DrMinC and DrDivIVA, and PprA in D. radiodurans.

  12. Membrane secretory component is cleaved on the cell surface of rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, L.S.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1986-03-05

    Transcellular transport of polymeric IgA from serum to bile by rat hepatocytes is mediated by a 105Kd membranous form of secretory component (mSC). In the presence or absence of IgA, mSC is cleaved and released into bile as a soluble 80Kd protein (fSC). They used monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes, which synthesize mSC and efficiently cleave it to fSC, to determine the site of this conversion. (/sup 35/S)Cys-mSC accumulated in hepatocytes in the presence of leupeptin and was released as fSC when hepatocytes were placed in leupeptin-free media at 37/sup 0/. Small amounts of fSC were also produced when leupeptin was removed at 4/sup 0/, suggesting cleavage might occur on the cell membrane. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of hepatocytes at 4/sup 0/ selectively labeled surface mSC which remained trypsin sensitive at 4/sup 0/. Hepatocytes maintained at 4/sup 0/ released significant amounts of /sup 125/I-mSC as fSC. Anti-SC antiserum reduced fSC generation at 4/sup 0/ by 70%. Following incubation at 37/sup 0/ for 10 min, /sup 125/I-mSC became resistant to degradation by trypsin and no production of fSC was seen if the cells were returned to 4/sup 0/. /sup 125/I-mSC was also cleaved to fSC following disruption by Dounce homogenization if cells were maintained at 4/sup 0/ following iodination but not if they were incubated at 37/sup 0/ for 10 min. They propose that mSC is cleaved to fSC at the plasma membrane but not intracellularly. This may reflect localization of the protease at the cell surface in a bile canalicular-like domain.

  13. [Rapidly labelled low molecular weight components in nucleic acid preparations from plant cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G; Grotha, R

    1974-09-01

    After pulse-labelling with [(3)H]nucleosides and [(3)H]orotic acid of freely suspended callus cells of Petroselinum sativum and tissue fragments of the liverwort Riella helicophylla, rapidly labelled low molecular weight components were detected among the total nucleic acids when these were extracted in the presence of Mg(2+) and finally precipitated with alcohol. These highly labelled species could clearly be distinguished from the 5 S- and 4 S-RNA on the basis of their migration in agarose-polyacrylamide gels (2.4%) and their elution from Sephadex G-150 columns. No degradation was obtained with DNase and RNase. By using [(14)C]ATP as a marker it was found that the low molecular components consisted mainly of nucleoside triphosphates. Only small amounts of nucleoside diphosphates were detected, which were obviously formed by degradation of the former. Nucleic acid preparations free of nucleoside phosphates were obtained by using Mg-free extraction buffers containing EDTA. PMID:24458196

  14. Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Fu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and other pancreatic components that play a critical role in exocrine pancreatic diseases are generally identified separately by conventional studies, which provide indirect links between these components. Here, nonlinear optical microscopy was evaluated for simultaneous characterization of these components within a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment, primarily based on multichannel detection of intrinsic optical emissions and cell morphology. Fresh rat pancreatic tissues harvested at 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days after induction of chronic pancreatitis were imaged, respectively. PSCs, inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and collagen fibers were identified simultaneously. The PSCs at day 1 of chronic pancreatitis showed significant enlargement compared with those in normal pancreas (ppancreatic components coincidently within 3-D pancreatic tissues. It is a prospect for intravital observation of dynamic events under natural physiological conditions, and might help uncover the key mechanisms of exocrine pancreatic diseases, leading to more effective treatments.

  15. Study of a distributed feedback diode laser based hygrometer combined Herriot-gas cell and waterless optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A distributed feedback diode laser (DFB-DL) based hygrometer combined with a long-path-length Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components was proposed and investigated. The main function of this sensor was to simultaneously improve the measurement reliability and resolution. A comparison test between a 10-cm normal transmission-type gas cell and a 3-m Herriot gas cell was carried out to demonstrate the improvement. Reliability improvement was achieved by influence suppression of water vapor inside optical components (WVOC) through combined action of the Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components. The influence of WVOC was suppressed from 726 ppmv to 25 ppmv using the Herriot gas cell. Moreover, combined with waterless optical components, the influence of WVOC was further suppressed to no more than 4 ppmv. Resolution improvement from 11.7 ppmv to 0.32 ppmv was achieved mainly due to the application of the long-path-length Herriot gas cell. The results show that the proposed sensor has a good performance and considerable potential application in gas sensing, especially when probed gas possibly permeates into optical components.

  16. Lipid II: a central component in bacterial cell wall synthesis and a target for antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijff, Ben; van Dam, Vincent; Breukink, Eefjan

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall is mainly composed of peptidoglycan, which is a three-dimensional network of long aminosugar strands located on the exterior of the cytoplasmic membrane. These strands consist of alternating MurNAc and GlcNAc units and are interlinked to each other via peptide moieties that are attached to the MurNAc residues. Peptidoglycan subunits are assembled on the cytoplasmic side of the bacterial membrane on a polyisoprenoid anchor and one of the key components in the synthesis of peptidoglycan is Lipid II. Being essential for bacterial cell survival, it forms an attractive target for antibacterial compounds such as vancomycin and several lantibiotics. Lipid II consists of one GlcNAc-MurNAc-pentapeptide subunit linked to a polyiosoprenoid anchor 11 subunits long via a pyrophosphate linker. This review focuses on this special molecule and addresses three questions. First, why are special lipid carriers as polyprenols used in the assembly of peptidoglycan? Secondly, how is Lipid II translocated across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane? And finally, how is Lipid II used as a receptor for lantibiotics to kill bacteria? PMID:19008088

  17. Engineering design of the IFMIF EVEDA reference test cell and key components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest design updates of the IFMIF-EVEDA reference test cell (TC) are described with emphasis on the following key components: active cooling pipes for concrete biological shielding walls and stainless steel liner, TC gas leak tight boundary, and piping and cabling inside TC and between TC and the access cell (AC). Water cooling is adopted for concrete shielding walls and the liner. Buried pipes are selected for active cooling of the TC surrounding shielding walls; directly welded pipes on the liner are used to remove nuclear heat of the liner. Technical features and layout of the cooling pipes are preliminary defined. The TC vacuum boundary, which includes the TC liner, an independent TC cover plate, a rubber based sealing gasket, and welding seams between interface shielding plugs and TC liner, is described. Engineering design of the piping and cabling plugs as well as the arrangement of pipes and cables under the TC covering plate and the AC floor are updated. Pipes and cable tunnels inside the shielding plugs are arranged with several bends for minimizing neutron streaming from inside to outside of the TC. Pipes, cables, and the corresponding penetrations between the TC and the AC are carefully arranged for convenient access and maintenances

  18. Estimation of (covariance components of nematode parasites resistance and somatic cell count in dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematode parasites and mastitis are the major animal health constraints in sheep. The aim of this study was estimating the genetic (covariances of nematode parasites resistance and somatic cell count in dairy sheep. From 2000 to 2008, Somatic Cell Score (SCS and Faecal Egg Count (FEC records were available on an experimental population consisting of 949 backcross ewes and 806 their daughters. Data were processed independently for each subpopulation in order to adjust for specific environmental effects and to obtain lactation records for both traits to be used in the genetic analysis. Variance components estimation was performed by using the REML method applied to a bi-trait repeatability animal model. Heritabilities of lactation SCS (LSCS and FEC were 0.19 and 0.16. Genetic correlation was 0.21, whereas phenotypic correlation was 0.01. The estimated heritabilities confirm that both traits could be selected by the classical quantitative approach. The genetic correlation estimate between LSCS and FEC suggests that selection for one of the two traits would not have any detrimental effect on the other one.

  19. Effect of interleukin-4 on the synthesis of the third component of complement by pulmonary epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian-Ritter, K. K.; Hill, L. D.; Hoie, E. B.; Zach, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Complement activation in the lung is important in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The third component of complement, C3, is the pivotal constituent of the complement cascade. C3 is produced in the lung by several cell types including pulmonary epithelial cells. Because pulmonary epithelial cells and T lymphocytes may interact within the lung to regulate local immune responses, we examined the effect of a T lymphocyte-derived cytokine, interleukin-4 (IL-4) on C3 product...

  20. Identifying components of the hair-cell interactome involved in cochlear amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheatham MaryAnn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although outer hair cells (OHCs play a key role in cochlear amplification, it is not fully understood how they amplify sound signals by more than 100 fold. Two competing or possibly complementary mechanisms, stereocilia-based and somatic electromotility-based amplification, have been considered. Lacking knowledge about the exceptionally rich protein networks in the OHC plasma membrane, as well as related protein-protein interactions, limits our understanding of cochlear function. Therefore, we focused on finding protein partners for two important membrane proteins: Cadherin 23 (cdh23 and prestin. Cdh23 is one of the tip-link proteins involved in transducer function, a key component of mechanoelectrical transduction and stereocilia-based amplification. Prestin is a basolateral membrane protein responsible for OHC somatic electromotility. Results Using the membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system to screen a newly built cDNA library made predominantly from OHCs, we identified two completely different groups of potential protein partners using prestin and cdh23 as bait. These include both membrane bound and cytoplasmic proteins with 12 being de novo gene products with unknown function(s. In addition, some of these genes are closely associated with deafness loci, implying a potentially important role in hearing. The most abundant prey for prestin (38% is composed of a group of proteins involved in electron transport, which may play a role in OHC survival. The most abundant group of cdh23 prey (55% contains calcium-binding domains. Since calcium performs an important role in hair cell mechanoelectrical transduction and amplification, understanding the interactions between cdh23 and calcium-binding proteins should increase our knowledge of hair cell function at the molecular level. Conclusion The results of this study shed light on some protein networks in cochlear hair cells. Not only was a group of de novo genes closely associated

  1. B cells exposed to enterobacterial components suppress development of experimental colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Larsen, Hjalte List; Kristensen, Nanna Ny;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: B cells positively contribute to immunity by antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells, cytokine production, and differentiation into antibody secreting plasma cells. Accumulating evidence implies that B cells also possess immunoregulatory functions closely linked to their capability of ...

  2. Immunogenicity of Coxiella burnetii whole cells and their other membrane components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the phase I and phase II Coxiella burnetii whole cells (Cb I and Cb II) and their other membrane components (OMC), i.e. phase I trichloroacetic acid extract (TCAE), phase I 29 K protein (PRO), phase I and II lipopolysaccharides (LPS I, LPS II, polysaccharides (PS I, PS II), and lipid A (LA I, LA II), were compared. The highest immune response was observed in BALB/c mice by Cb I in both humoral immunity and lymphocyte transformation assays, and in the protective effect as well. The immune response was also significant by Cb II, but their protective capacity was low. The OMC reacted variously. Only TCAE and PRO gave a high value of humoral immunity evaluated by the serological methods. All OMC reacted in the hemolytic plaque assay giving different responses. Lymphoprolipheration of splenocytes was positive with all OMC using both Cb I and Cb II antigens with the exception of PS I and PS II in the case of Cb II antigen. The induction of protection against infectious Cb I was demonstrated after immunization with TCAE, PRO, and LPS I. Other OMC did not induce protection against this agent. (author)

  3. EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM LEACH LIQUOR OF METALLIC COMPONENT IN DISCARDED CELL PHONE BY CYANEX® 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAFARA A. BABA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cell phones contribute significantly to the amount of electronic waste generation whilst some of its components are toxic and recoverable. Also, due to the increasing demand for Cu(II in building/construction, electrical and as chemical tool in freshwater, it is imperative to develop low cost and ecofriendly technique as a substitute for the conventional treatments such as reduction-roasting route at elevated temperatures. In the present study, the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of Cu(II by Cyanex® 272 in kerosene was examined. Various parameters affecting the extraction of Cu(II such as pH, extractant concentration and phase ratio were optimized. At optimal conditions, about 96.3 % Cu(II was extracted into the organic phase by 0.2 mol/L Cyanex® 272 at equilibrium pH 5.0 and aqueous to organic phase ratio 1:1. The stripping of the loaded organic was carried out by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution and stripping efficiency of 98 % was obtained. By McCabe Thiele diagram, four stages are required for complete extraction of Cu(II.

  4. Fabrication and electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cell components by atmospheric and suspension plasma spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wei-sheng; YANG Yun-zhen; ZHANG Hai-ou; WANG Gui-lan

    2009-01-01

    The theory of functionally graded material (FGM) was applied in the fabrication process of PEN (Positive- Electrolyte-Negative),the core component of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).To enhance its electrochemical performance,the functionally graded PEN of planar SOFC was prepared by atmospheric plasma spray (APS).The cross-sectional SEM micrograph and element energy spectrum of the resultant PEN were analyzed.Its interface resistance was also compared with that without the graded layers to investigate the electrochemical performance enhanced by the functionally graded layers.Moreover,a new process,suspension plasma spray (SPS) was applied to preparing the SOFC electrolyte.Higher densification of the coating by SPS,1.61%,is observed,which is helpful to effectively improve its electrical conductivity.The grain size of the electrolyte coating fabricated by SPS is also smaller than that by APS,which is more favourable to obtain the dense electrolyte coatings.To sum up,all mentioned above can prove that the hybrid process of APS and SPS could be a better approach to fabricate the PEN of SOFC stacks,in which APS is for porous electrodes and SPS for dense electrolyte.

  5. TMC1 and TMC2 are components of the mechanotransduction channel in hair cells of the mammalian inner ear

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Bifeng; Géléoc, Gwenaelle S.; Asai, Yukako; Horwitz, Geoffrey C.; Kurima, Kiyoto; Ishikawa, Kotaro; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Griffith, Andrew J; Holt, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory transduction in auditory and vestibular hair cells requires expression of transmembrane channel-like (Tmc) 1 and 2 genes, but the function of these genes is unknown. To investigate the hypothesis that TMC1 and TMC2 proteins are components of the mechanosensitive ion channels that convert mechanical information into electrical signals, we recorded whole-cell and single-channel currents from mouse hair cells that expressed Tmc1, Tmc2 or mutant Tmc1. Cells that expressed mutant Tmc1 had ...

  6. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Cramer, Carolyn N.

    Oxidation-resistant alloys find use as interconnect materials, heat exchangers, and gas supply tubing in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, especially when operated at temperatures below ∼800 °C. If fueled with synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, such metallic components could be exposed to impurities contained in those fuel sources. In this study, coupons of ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and SS 441, austenitic nickel-chromium superalloy Inconel 600, and an alumina-forming high nickel alloy alumel were exposed to synthesis gas containing ≤2 ppm phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, and reaction products were tested. Crofer 22 APU coupons coated with a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 protective layer were also evaluated. Phosphorus was found to be the most reactive. On Crofer 22 APU, the (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 passivation layer reacted to form an Mn-P-O product, predicted to be manganese phosphate from thermochemical calculations, and Cr 2O 3. On SS 441, reaction of phosphorus with (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 led to the formation of manganese phosphate as well as an Fe-P product, predicted from thermochemical calculations to be Fe 3P. Minimal interactions with antimony or arsenic in synthesis gas were limited to Fe-Sb and Fe-As solid solution formation. Though not intended for use on the anode side, a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 spinel coating on Crofer 22 APU reacted with phosphorus in synthesis gas to produce products consistent with Mn 3(PO 4) 2 and Co 2P. A thin Cr 2O 3 passivation layer on Inconel 600 did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides and arsenides and of iron phosphides and arsenides, though no reaction with Cr 2O 3 was apparent. On alumel, an Al 2O 3 passivation layer rich in Ni did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, though no reaction with Al 2O 3 occurred. This work shows that unprotected metallic components of an SOFC stack and system can provide a sink for P, As and Sb impurities that may be present in fuel gases, and thus complicate

  7. Two-component signal transduction pathways regulating growth and cell cycle progression in a bacterium: a system-level analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Skerker

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems, comprised of histidine kinases and their response regulator substrates, are the predominant means by which bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. These systems allow cells to adapt to prevailing conditions by modifying cellular physiology, including initiating programs of gene expression, catalyzing reactions, or modifying protein-protein interactions. These signaling pathways have also been demonstrated to play a role in coordinating bacterial cell cycle progression and development. Here we report a system-level investigation of two-component pathways in the model organism Caulobacter crescentus. First, by a comprehensive deletion analysis we show that at least 39 of the 106 two-component genes are required for cell cycle progression, growth, or morphogenesis. These include nine genes essential for growth or viability of the organism. We then use a systematic biochemical approach, called phosphotransfer profiling, to map the connectivity of histidine kinases and response regulators. Combining these genetic and biochemical approaches, we identify a new, highly conserved essential signaling pathway from the histidine kinase CenK to the response regulator CenR, which plays a critical role in controlling cell envelope biogenesis and structure. Depletion of either cenK or cenR leads to an unusual, severe blebbing of cell envelope material, whereas constitutive activation of the pathway compromises cell envelope integrity, resulting in cell lysis and death. We propose that the CenK-CenR pathway may be a suitable target for new antibiotic development, given previous successes in targeting the bacterial cell wall. Finally, the ability of our in vitro phosphotransfer profiling method to identify signaling pathways that operate in vivo takes advantage of an observation that histidine kinases are endowed with a global kinetic preference for their cognate response regulators. We propose that this

  8. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Schriemer David C; Khan Morgan F; Desgagné-Penix Isabel; Cram Dustin; Nowak Jacek; Facchini Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the i...

  9. An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

  10. Inventory of telomerase components in human cells reveals multiple subpopulations of hTR and hTERT

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Linghe; Cech, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme that elongates telomeric DNA to compensate for the attrition occurring during each cycle of DNA replication. Knowing the levels of telomerase in continuously dividing cells is important for understanding how much telomerase is required for cell immortality. In this study, we measured the endogenous levels of the human telomerase RNP and its two key components, human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). We est...

  11. Water Stress Effect on Cell Wall Components of Maize (Zea mays Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar LUGO-CRUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In México, around 82% of the total production of maize is grown under rainfed conditions leading to a water stress environment which affects physiologic and biochemical process of the plant. Maize bran is a composited plant material consisting mainly in aleurone layer, testa and pericarp; the cell walls of these tissues are composed of proteins, non-starch polysaccharides, phenolic acids and lignin which are potential bioactive substances for human nutrition. In this research it was investigated the effect of water stress on cell wall components in the bran of three genotypes of maize by applying irrigation and water stress treatments. The content of protein, lignin, arabinoxylans, total phenols and phenolic acids was performed in the bran of ʽCebúʼ, ʽDK2027ʼ and ʽDK2034ʼ genotypes. Water stress applied through grain development stage increased protein levels of ʽCebúʼ, ʽDK2027ʼ and ʽDK2034ʼ in 4.05, 16.13 and 0.40% respectively. Respecting to lignin content, water stress increased levels at 1.28, 2.26 and 4.24% for ʽCebúʼ, ʽDK2027ʼ and ʽDK2034ʼ, respectively. Arabinoxylans content also increased in water stress treatment at levels of 1.28, 2.26 and 3.66% in ʽCebúʼ, ʽDK2027ʼ and ʽDK2034ʼ. On the other hand, water stress treatment decreased the levels of total phenols and hydroxycinnamic acids in the three maize hybrids analysed. Reduction of total phenols was 35.34, 5.59 and 31.57% for ʽCebúʼ, ʽDK2027ʼ and ʽDK2034ʼ, respectively. In addition, the levels of t-ferulic, c-ferulic and p-coumaric acids decreased 17.74, 23.93, 29.83% in ʽCebúʼ, 8.92, 8.62, 24.03% in ʽDK2027ʼ and 13.66, 11.03, 10.38% in ʽDK2034ʼ respectively.

  12. Effect of toxic components on microbial fuel cell-polarization curves and estimation of the type of toxic inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Straten, G. van; Keesman, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Polarization curves are of paramount importance for the detection of toxic components in microbial fuel cell (MFC) based biosensors. In this study, polarization curves were made under non-toxic conditions and under toxic conditions after the addition of various concentrations of nickel, bentazon, so

  13. Expression patterns of cell cycle components in sporadic and neurofibromatosis type 1-related malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agesen, Trude Holmeide; Florenes, Viva Ann; Molenaar, Willemina M.; Lind, Guro E.; Berner, Jeane-Marie; Plaat, Boudewijn E.C.; Komdeur, Rudy; Myklebost, Ola; van den Berg, Eva; Lothe, Ragnhild A.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular biology underlying the development of highly malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) remains mostly unknown. In the present study, the expression pattern of 10 selected cell cycle components is investigated in a series of 15 MPNSTs from patients with (n = 9) or without (n = 5

  14. Impact of food components during in vitro digestion of silver nanoparticles on cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Dajana; Ebmeyer, Johanna; Knappe, Patrick; Juling, Sabine; Böhmert, Linda; Selve, Sören; Niemann, Birgit; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    Because of the rising application of nanoparticles in food and food-related products, we investigated the influence of the digestion process on the toxicity and cellular uptake of silver nanoparticles for intestinal cells. The main food components--carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids--were implemented in an in vitro digestion process to simulate realistic conditions. Digested and undigested silver nanoparticle suspensions were used for uptake studies in the well-established Caco-2 model. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to estimate particle core size, size distribution and stability in cell culture medium. Particles proved to be stable and showed radii from 3.6 to 16.0 nm. Undigested particles and particles digested in the presence of food components were comparably taken up by Caco-2 cells, whereas the uptake of particles digested without food components was decreased by 60%. Overall, these findings suggest that in vivo ingested poly (acrylic acid)-coated silver nanoparticles may reach the intestine in a nanoscaled form even if enclosed in a food matrix. While appropriate for studies on the uptake into intestinal cells, the Caco-2 model might be less suited for translocation studies. Moreover, we show that nanoparticle digestion protocols lacking food components may lead to misinterpretation of uptake studies and inconclusive results.

  15. Molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment components suggests potential targets for new therapeutic approaches in mobile tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterized tumor microenvironment (TME) components of mobile tongue (MT) cancer patients in terms of overall inflammatory infiltrate, focusing on the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes and on cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in order to determine their interrelations and associations with clinical outcomes. In addition, by culturing tongue carcinoma cells (HSC-3) on a three-dimensional myoma organotypic model that mimics TME, we attempted to investigate the possible existence of a molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Analysis of 64 cases of MT cancer patients revealed that the overall density of the inflammatory infiltrate was inversely correlated to the density of CAFs (P = 0.01), but that the cumulative density of the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes, including regulatory T cells (Tregs, Foxp3+), tumor-associated macrophages (TAM2, CD163+), and potentially Tregs-inducing immune cells (CD80+), was directly correlated with the density of CAFs (P = 0.01). The hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in a TME rich in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+ was 2.9 (95% CI 1.03–8.6, P = 0.043 compared with low in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+). The HR for recurrence in a TME rich in CAFs was 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–12.8, P = 0.012 compared with low in CAFs). In vitro studies showed cancer-derived exosomes, epithelial–mesenchymal transition process, fibroblast-to-CAF-like cell transdifferentiation, and reciprocal interrelations between different cytokines suggesting the presence of molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Collectively, these results highlighted the emerging need of new therapies targeting this crosstalk between the cancer cells and TME components in MT cancer

  16. Neurotransmitters and synaptic components in the Merkel cell-neurite complex, a gentle touch receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimovic, Srdjan; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cells are an enigmatic group of rare cells found in the skin of vertebrates. Most make contacts with somatosensory afferents to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes, which are gentle-touch receptors that initiate slowly adapting type I responses. The function of Merkel cells within the complex remains debated despite decades of research. Numerous anatomical studies demonstrate that Merkel cells form synaptic-like contacts with sensory afferent terminals. Moreover, recent molecular analys...

  17. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  18. One-Step Detection of Major Lipid Components in Submicroliter Volumes of Unpurified Liposome and Cell Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Ying; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2016-07-19

    Liposomes and cells have high lipid contents, which are the main components of the external and internal membranes. Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used in the analysis of the lipids present in the biological matrixes. However, MS analysis of liposome and cell suspensions is challenging due to the presence of other high-abundance matrix components (e.g., salts, buffers, and growth media) that cause ion suppression. These interfering species would normally be removed by dialysis or centrifugation. Here we propose a simple and fast method to detect major lipid components in cells and cell suspensions by MS while circumventing dialysis and centrifugation. Capillary hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) has been coupled online with the aid of an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Complex samples containing bioparticles and a large amount of potential interferences (buffer, inorganic salts, amino acids) were separated hydrodynamically, detected optically (by light absorption/scattering), and immediately transferred to the MS interface. Liposomes and animal cells are disintegrated during electrospray, and the constituent lipids are ionized. The signal-to-noise ratios are ∼10× higher in HDC-ESI-MS than in direct infusion ESI-MS experiments (with or without dilution). This method has been tested on liposomes (containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol) and four types of animal/human cells, i.e., mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7), human breast cancer cells (T47D and Hs578T), and mouse preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1). We suggest that HDC-ESI-MS can be used in quality control analyses of bioparticle suspensions in the fields of biotechnology, molecular biology, drug discovery, and cosmetics. PMID:27337108

  19. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  20. Development of a cell formation heuristic by considering realistic data using principal component analysis and Taguchi's method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra; Sharma, Rajiv Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four decades of research, numerous cell formation algorithms have been developed and tested, still this research remains of interest to this day. Appropriate manufacturing cells formation is the first step in designing a cellular manufacturing system. In cellular manufacturing, consideration to manufacturing flexibility and production-related data is vital for cell formation. The consideration to this realistic data makes cell formation problem very complex and tedious. It leads to the invention and implementation of highly advanced and complex cell formation methods. In this paper an effort has been made to develop a simple and easy to understand/implement manufacturing cell formation heuristic procedure with considerations to the number of production and manufacturing flexibility-related parameters. The heuristic minimizes inter-cellular movement cost/time. Further, the proposed heuristic is modified for the application of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method. Numerical example is explained to illustrate the approach. A refinement in the results is observed with adoption of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method.

  1. Ovarian germ cell tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous components and later development of growing teratoma syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jumaily Usama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Development of a sarcomatous component in a germ cell tumor is an uncommon phenomenon. Most cases reported have a grim prognosis. Growing teratoma syndrome is also an uncommon phenomenon and occurs in approximately 2% to 7% of non seminomatous germ cell tumors and should be treated surgically. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-year-old Asian girl with an ovarian mixed germ cell tumor containing a rhabdomyosarcomatous component. She was treated with a germ cell tumor chemotherapy regimen and rhabdomyosarcoma-specific chemotherapy. Towards the end of her treatment, she developed a retroperitoneal mass that was increasing in size. It was completely resected, revealing a mature teratoma, consistent with growing teratoma syndrome. She is still in complete remission approximately three years after presentation. Conclusion The presence of rhabdomyosarcoma in a germ cell tumor should be treated by a combined chemotherapy regimen (for germ cell tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. In addition, development of a mass during or after therapy with normal serum markers should raise the possibility of growing teratoma syndrome that should be treated surgically.

  2. Basic studies of 3-5 high efficiency cell components. Annual subcontract report, 15 August 1989--14 August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Dodd, P.E.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This project`s objective is to improve our understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research itself consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell ``building blocks`` such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project`s goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. This report describes our progress during the fifth and final year of the project. During the past five years, we`ve teamed a great deal about heavy doping effects in p{sup +} and n{sup +} GaAs and have explored their implications for solar cells. We have developed an understanding of the dominant recombination losses in present-day, high-efficiency cells. We`ve learned to appreciated the importance of recombination at the perimeter of the cell and have developed techniques for chemically passivating such edges. Finally, we`ve demonstrated that films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are suitable for high-efficiency cell research.

  3. Metabolites of Ginger Component [6]-Shogaol Remain Bioactive in Cancer Cells and Have Low Toxicity in Normal Cells: Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Yingdong Zhu; Warin, Renaud F.; Soroka, Dominique N.; Huadong Chen; Shengmin Sang

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study found that [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component in ginger, is extensively metabolized in cancer cells and in mice. It is unclear whether these metabolites retain bioactivity. The aim of the current study is to synthesize the major metabolites of [6]-shogaol and evaluate their inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Twelve metabolites of [6]-shogaol (M1, M2, and M4-M13) were successfully synthesized using simple and easily accessible chemic...

  4. Effects of Supplementation of Various Medium Components on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Cultures Producing Recombinant Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Yun; Lee, Joon Chul; Chang, Ho Nam; Oh, Duk Jae

    2005-01-01

    Thirteen vitamins, twenty amino acids, hormones, inorganic salts, and other chemical agents, which constitute typical serum-free media, were evaluated for the development of fortified medium to enhance cell growth and productivity of recombinant antibody in the cultures of the recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells. Two different rCHO cell lines, rCHO-A producing recombinant antibodies against the human platelet and rCHO-B secreting recombinant antibodies against the S surface antigen...

  5. Insights into age- and sickle-cell-disease- interaction using principal components analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thakre Tushar P; Amin Manik; Mamtani Manju R; Sharma Mamta; Sharma Smita; Amin Amit; Kulkarni Hemant

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the context of sickle cell anemia, peripheral blood indexes provide key information that is also potentially influenced by age. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the extent and nature of interactions between sickle cell anemia and age, especially in situations where there is a high prevalence of sickle cell anemia. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 374 subjects with varying hemoglobin S (HbS) status, we characterized the interaction between age and sickle hem...

  6. Enzymatically quiescent heparanase augments T cell interactions with VCAM-1 and extracellular matrix components under versatile dynamic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, Ilya; Hershkoviz, Rami; Grabovsky, Valentin; Ilan, Neta; Cahalon, Liora; Vlodavsky, Israel; Alon, Ronen; Lider, Ofer

    2004-05-01

    During their migration into inflammatory sites, immune cells, such as T cells, secrete extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes, such as heparanase, which, under mildly acidic conditions, degrade heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). We have previously shown that at pH 7.2, human placental heparanase loses its enzymatic activity, while retaining its ability to bind HSPG and promote T cell adhesion to unfractionated ECM. We now demonstrate that the 65-kDa recombinant human heparanase, which is devoid of enzymatic activity, but can still bind HSPG, captures T cells under shear flow conditions and mediates their rolling and arrest, in the absence or presence of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha; CXCL12), in an alpha(4)beta(1)-VCAM-1-dependent manner. Furthermore, heparanase binds to and induces T cell adhesion to key ECM components, like fibronectin and hyaluronic acid, in beta(1) integrin- and CD44-specific manners, respectively, via the activation of the protein kinase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase intracellular signaling machineries. Although the nature of the putative T cell heparanase-binding moiety is unknown, it appears that heparanase exerts its proadhesive activity by interacting with the T cells' surface HSPG, because pretreatment of the cells with heparinase abolished their subsequent response to heparanase. Also, heparanase augmented the SDF-1 alpha-triggered phosphorylation of Pyk-2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 implicated in integrin functioning. Moreover, heparanase, which had no chemotactic effect on T cells on its own, augmented the SDF-1 alpha-induced T cell chemotaxis across fibronectin. These findings add another dimension to the known versatility of heparanase as a key regulator of T cell activities during inflammation, both in the context of the vasculature and at extravascular sites. PMID:15100255

  7. Dissection of the Mechanical Impedance Components of the Outer Hair Cell Using a Chloride-Channel Blocker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2011-11-01

    The voltage-dependent chloride-channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9AC) has been found to reduce the imaginary but not the real part of the mechanical impedance of the organ of Corti, suggesting that the effective stiffness of outer hair cells (OHCs) is reduced by 9AC. To examine whether 9AC interacts directly with the motor protein prestin to reduce the membrane component of the impedance, the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration was used to measure the nonlinear capacitance (NLC) of isolated OHCs and, as control, prestin-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Extracellular application of 9AC significantly reduced the NLC of both OHCs and HEK293 cells. Intracellular 9AC did not influence the blocking effect of the extracellular applied drug. These results suggest that 9AC interacts directly with prestin, reducing the effective stiffness of the motor, and that the interaction is extracellular.

  8. Differential Cytotoxicity of MEX: a Component of Neem Oil Whose Action Is Exerted at the Cell Membrane Level

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Ricci; Valerio Berardi; Gianfranco Risuleo

    2008-01-01

    Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6) and a tumor cell line (HeLa). The data presented here suggest a diffe...

  9. Probing red blood cell mechanics, rheology and dynamics with a two-component multi-scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Peng, Zhangli; Lei, Huan; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George Em

    2014-01-01

    This study is partially motivated by the validation of a new two-component multi-scale cell model we developed recently that treats the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton as two distinct components. Here, the whole cell model is validated and compared against several available experiments that examine red blood cell (RBC) mechanics, rheology and dynamics. First, we investigated RBC deformability in a microfluidic channel with a very small cross-sectional area and quantified the mechanical properties of the RBC membrane. Second, we simulated twisting torque cytometry and compared predicted rheological properties of the RBC membrane with experimental measurements. Finally, we modelled the tank-treading (TT) motion of a RBC in a shear flow and explored the effect of channel width variation on the TT frequency. We also investigated the effects of bilayer–cytoskeletal interactions on these experiments and our simulations clearly indicated that they play key roles in the determination of cell membrane mechanical, rheological and dynamical properties. These simulations serve as validation tests and moreover reveal the capabilities and limitations of the new whole cell model. PMID:24982252

  10. Quantitation of telomerase components and hTERT mRNA splicing patterns in immortal human cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Xiaoming; Jerry W Shay; Wright, Woodring E.

    2001-01-01

    Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric repeats to chromosomal ends. In most normal human somatic cells, telomerase is repressed and telomeres progressively shorten, leading to limited proliferative life-span. Telomerase reactivation is associated with cellular immortalization and is a frequent event during tumorigenesis. The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex consists of two essential components, a catalytic protein subunit [human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)]...

  11. The Contribution of Cell Surface Components to the Neutrophil Mechanosensitivity to Shear Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Akenhead

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the regulation of neutrophils by fluid shear stress in the context of factors that may govern cell mechanosensitivity and its influence on cell functions. There is substantial evidence that mechanoreceptors located on the peripheral membrane contribute to the ability of shear stress to regulate cell activity. In the case of neutrophils, the formyl peptide receptor (FPR and the CD18 integrins on the cell membrane have been shown to provide neutrophils with the ability to sense shear stresses in their local environment and alter their physiological state, accordingly. This configuration is also found for other types of cells, although they involve different cell-specific mechanoreceptors. Moreover, from an examination of the neutrophil mechanotransducing capacity, it is apparent that cellular mechanosensitivity depends on a number of factors that, if altered, contribute to dysregulation and ultimately pathophysiology. To exemplify this, we first describe the neutrophil responses to shear exposure. We then review two neutrophil mechanoreceptors, specifically FPR and CD18 integrins, which participate in controlling cell activity levels under physiological conditions. Next, we discuss the various factors that may alter neutrophil mechanosensitivity to shear stress and how these may underlie the circulatory pathobiology of two cardiovascular disease states: hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Based on the material presented, it is conceivable that cell mechanosensitivity is a powerful global metric that permits a more efficient approach to understanding the contribution of mechanobiology to physiology and to disease processes.

  12. Identification of hop polyphenolic components which inhibit prostaglandin E2 production by gingival epithelial cells stimulated with periodontal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroaki; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Honma, Daiki; Kanda, Tomomasa; Kou, Yurong; Ohtake, Yasuyuki; Amano, Atsuo

    2008-03-01

    Chronic marginal periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease caused by an imbalance between bacterial virulence and host defense ability, resulting in eventual tooth exfoliation. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontal pathogen, triggers a series of cellular inflammatory responses including the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which causes periodontal destruction; thus, anti-inflammatory reagents are considered beneficial for periodontal therapy. In the present study, we examined whether hop- and apple-derived polyphenols (HBP and ACT, respectively) inhibit PGE2 production by human gingival epithelial (HGE) cells stimulated with P. gingivalis components. HGE cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis membrane vesicles, and the effects of HBP, ACT and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) on PGE2 production by HGE cells were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HBP and EGCg significantly inhibited PGE2 production, whereas ACT did not. By further fractionation steps of HBP to identify the effective components, 3 components of HBP, 2-[(2-methylpropanoyl)-phloroglucinol]1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (MPPG), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin), and kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (astragalin), were found to be elements which significantly inhibited cellular PGE2 production. These results suggest that HBP is a potent inhibitor of cellular PGE2 production induced by P. gingivalis, and HBP may be useful for the prevention and attenuation of periodontitis. PMID:18310924

  13. Integration of Magnetic Components in a Step-Up Converter for Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    converter is a critical part. The input voltage of the converter decreases while the output power increases. It creates challenges in design of the converter's magnetic components. Scope of this paper is integration of the dc inductor and the transformer on a single core. Such integration improves...

  14. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia;

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...

  15. Cyclic AMP represents a crucial component of Treg cell-mediated immune regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bopp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available T regulatory (Treg cells are one of the key players in the immune tolerance network (ITN and a plethora of manuscripts has described their development and function in the course of the last two decades. Nevertheless, it is still a matter of debate which mechanisms and agents are employed by Treg cells, providing the basis of their suppressive potency. One of the important candidates is cyclic AMP (cAMP which is long known as a potent suppressor at least of T cell activation and function. While this suppressive function by itself is widely accepted the source and the mechanism of action of cAMP are less clear and a multitude of seemingly contradictory data allow for in principle two different scenarios of cAMP-mediated suppression. In one scenario Treg cells contain high amounts of cAMP and convey this small molecule via gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC directly to the effector T cells (Teff leading to their suppression. Alternatively, it was shown that Treg cells represent the origin of considerable amounts of adenosine which trigger the adenylate cyclases (AC in Teff via A2A and A2B receptors thus strongly increasing intracellular cAMP. This review will present and discuss initial findings and recent developments concerning the function of cAMP for Treg cells and its impact on immune regulation.

  16. Getting into the flow: Red cells go on a roll, two-component vesicles swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Dupire, Jules; Khelloufi, Kamel; Al Halifa, Al Hair; Adhesion and Inflammation Team

    2013-11-01

    Red blood cells are soft capsules. Under shear flow, their two known motions were ``tumbling'' and ``swinging-tank treading,'' depending on cell mechanics and flow conditions. We reveal new wobbling regimes, among which the ``rolling'' regime, where red cells move as wheels on a road. We show, by coupling two video-microscopy approaches providing multi-directional cell pictures that the orientation of cells flipping into the flow is determined by the shear rate. Rolling permits to avoid energetically costly cellular deformations and is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight two transient dynamics: an intermittent regime during the ``tank-treading-to-flipping'' transition and a Frisbee-like ``spinning'' regime during the ``rolling-to-tank-treading'' transition. We find that the biconcave red cell shape is very stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of shape memory and elastic buckling. Finally, we generate lipid vesicles with a shape memory by using two lipids with different bending rigidities. These vesicles swing in shear flow similarly to red blood cells but their non-axisymmetric stress-free shape changes the periodicity of the motion and induces specific features.

  17. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  18. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.fiedler@med.uni-rostock.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Taubenheim, Jan [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology, and Hygiene, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  19. A Model of Yeast Cell-Cycle Regulation Based on a Standard Component Modeling Strategy for Protein Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Chen, Katherine C.; Baumann, William T.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a “standard component” modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with “standard components” can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast. PMID:27187804

  20. Soluble components of Hericium erinaceum induce NK cell activation via production of interleukin-12 in mice splenocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-hyun YIM; Chang-gue SON; Jang-woo SHIN; Jin-young SON; Se-mi OH; Seung-hyun HAN; Jung-hyo CHO; Chong-kwan CHO; Hwa-seung YOO; Yeon-weol LEE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the immunoregulatory functions of water extracts of Hericium erinaceum (WEHE) focusing on natural killer (NK) cell-based anticancer activities.Methods: Mouse splenocytes or purely isolated NK cells were stimulated with 1-100 mg/L WEHE for 24 h followed by co-culture with 51Cr-labled Yac-1 cells for 4 h, then NK cell-derived cytolytic activity was measured using a radio-release assay. Neutralizing antibodies against mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12) were added into the WEHE-stimulated splenocytes, thereafter, cytotoxicity was measured to examine the involvement of IL-12. RT-PCR and ELISA analyses were performed to confirm the induction of transcription and the translation of IL-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the WEHE-treated splenocytes.Results: WEHE enhanced the cytolytic activity of total splenocytes towards Yac-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, this activation was not observed when the NK cells isolated from the splenocytes were treated with WEHE. Furthermore, the treatment with antibodies against IL-12 abolished the effect of WEHE on splenocyte-derived cytolytic activity. RT-PCR and ELISA analyses showed the induction of IL-12 and IFN-gamma in the WEHE-treated splenocytes.Conclusion: WEHE indirectly activates the cytolytic ability of NK cells via the induction of IL-12 in total splenocytes, and possibly via other immuno-mediators or cellular components.

  1. Preparation of Biotubes with vascular cells component by in vivo incubation using adipose-derived stromal cell-exuding multi-microporous molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Ryosuke; Tsujinaka, Takahiro; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-12-01

    Biotubes, prepared using in-body tissue architecture (IBTA) technology, have adequate mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility for vascular grafts. However, they have thin walls, lack vascular constructing cells, and are composed of subcutaneous connective tissues consisting mainly of collagen and fibroblasts. This study aimed to prepare Biotubes with a vascular-like structure including an endothelial cell lining and a smooth muscle cell by IBTA using adipose-derived vascular stromal cell (ADSCs)-exuding specially designed multiporous tubes (outer diameter 5 mm, length 24 mm, pore size 500 μm, pore number 180, cell number/tube >3.0 × 10(6)). ADSCs were separated from rat subcutaneous fat, suspended in a Matrigel™ solution at 4 °C, and then filled into the tubes. After the tubes were embedded into dorsal subcutaneous pouches of the same rats for 2 weeks, robust Biotubes with a wall thickness of >600 μm were formed surrounding the tubes. The luminal layer of the obtained Biotubes was dominated by the cells positive for an endothelial marker. Almost the entire intima, with a thickness of about 400 μm, was occupied with cells positive for a smooth muscle marker. Both cells were derived from ADSCs. Biotube walls were constructed by fusing ADSC-derived vascular constructing cells exuded from the tubes and fibroblasts and collagen from the surrounding connective tissue. A robust Biotubes with vascular cells component, were formed after only 2 weeks of subcutaneous incubation of ADSCs-exuding multiporous tubes.

  2. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  3. Frequent mutations of genes encoding ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway components in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Guangwu; Gui, Yaoting; Gao, Shengjie;

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations in the u...

  4. Changes During Growth in Cell Wall Components of Berseem Clover Under Different Cutting Treatments in a Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Forage digestibility of berseem clover (Trifolium Alexandrinum L. is influenced by plant cell wall composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different cutting treatments on cell-wall components of the herbage and plant fractions in two Mediterranean berseem genotypes during growth and to examine the relationship between digestibility and cell wall components in these plant fractions. Cutting treatments were initiated at sixth internode elongation (A and early flowering (B and there was an uncut control treatment (C. Spring growth of genotypes of Egyptian (cv. Giza 10 and Italian (cv. Sacromonte origins was harvested in each of two years beginning 196 days after sowing and thereafter every 6 days (twelve harvests in total to measure cell wall components. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL concentrations were determined for leaf, stem, and total forage of each cultivar at each harvest. Without defoliation, NDF, ADF and ADL concentrations of herbage increased linearly to a maximum of 528, 375 and 84 g kg-1 DM, respectively, by 220 days after planting, when plant height reached maximum values, then plateaued until 257 days after planting. Plant parts differed in cell-wall concentration, with stems being of higher fibre components than leaves, in the two cutting treatments. Herbage and plant fraction fibre concentrations were negatively correlated with digestibility for all cutting treatments. Defoliation induced a reduction in fibre concentrations and plant height, although a rapid regrowth was observed after cutting, in both treatments A and B. However, delaying defoliation to the early flowering stage (B increased fibre components concentrations both at cutting time and during the growing season and significantly reduced the regrowth height. Conversely, plants cut at the sixth internode elongation (treatment A showed lower concentrations of fibre fractions than initiating

  5. Androgenic regulation of hedgehog signaling pathway components in prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengqian; Tanner, Matthew; Levine, Alice C.; Levina, Elina; Ohouo, Patrice; Buttyan, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is thought to play a role in several human cancers including prostate cancer. Although prostate cancer cells express many of the gene products involved in hedgehog signaling, these cells are refractory to the canonical signaling effects of exogenous hedgehog ligands or to activated Smoothened, the hedgehog-regulated mediator of Gli transcriptional activation. Here, we show that the expression of hedgehog ligands and some hedgehog target genes are regulated by androgen in th...

  6. miR-210 and hypoxic microvesicles: Two critical components of hypoxia involved in the regulation of killer cells function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad Zaeem; Janji, Bassam; Berchem, Guy; Chouaib, Salem

    2016-09-28

    It has become clear that tumor stroma components are engaged in an active and complex molecular cross-talk that has serious implications for immunological recognition of tumor cells in shaping the microenvironment. Hypoxia which is a major component of tumor microenvironment influences the characteristics of neoplasia by favoring heterogeneity, invasiveness, metastatic potency and tumor progression. In this regard, an important mode of communication between carcinoma cells and immune cells may involve tumor-derived microvesicles, which are able to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs. This review covers new evidence indicating that the efficacy of the cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CTLs and NK) may be dependent on hypoxia induced miRNA and microvesicles in the tumor microenvironment by inhibiting the efficacy of natural host anti-tumor immune response and improving the ability of tumors to avoid immunosurveillance. This emphasizes that hypoxic tumors actively develop additional mechanisms to suppress the sensing of the immunologic danger signals in order to survive and propagate without inciting anti-tumor immunity. PMID:26523672

  7. Secretion of the C3 component of complement by peritoneal cells cultured with encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstock, R; Murphy, J W

    1997-01-01

    Two isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were identified as being widely divergent in pathogenic potential after intratracheal infection of mice. These isolates differed in their ability to upregulate capsule synthesis when grown under tissue culture conditions, and this property correlated with virulence. We postulated that differential capsule synthesis may cause differential stimulation of macrophages to produce products such as complement components. To test this hypothesis, heat-killed ye...

  8. Immunochemical characterization of three components of the hemidesmosome and their expression in cultured epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of bovine tongue mucosa with 1 M KCl induced a split in the lamina densa of the basement membrane zone (BMZ). The epithelium was then separated from the underlying connective tissue. Electron microscopic analysis of the stripped epithelium revealed that hemidesmosomes and their associated intermediate filaments (IF) remain along the basal surface of the epithelium. This surface was solubilized in an SDS/urea-containing buffer. Characterization of components of this protein mixture w...

  9. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and image analytic parameters characterizing the stromal component in primary and recurrent giant cell tumor of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Charu Chandra; Safaya, Rajni; Kawatra Madan, Neha; Khan, Shah Alam; Iyer, Venkateswaran K

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign locally aggressive tumor whose biological behavior is unpredictable. Currently, there are no definitive clinical, histological, biochemical, or immunological parameters that can predict its behavior. This study was undertaken to examine whether delineation of reactive and neoplastic stromal component of GCT can help in this regard. 55 cases of GCT (30 primary, 25 recurrent) were subjected to histopathological grading, immunohistochemistry, and image analysis. Spindling of stroma was more frequent in recurrent GCT with 64% cases having more than 50% spindled stroma (p group (24.75% and 7.7%, respectively). A single numerical parameter encompassing stromal cell population and its proliferation was derived as ratio of PCNA/CD68 and PCNA/α1-ACT. Both ratios were higher in recurrent (0.81 ± 0.38; 1.58 ± 1.50) than in primary GCT (0.58 ± 0.62; 0.34 ± 0.29) (p = 0.002; 0.01). On image analysis, parameters significantly different between the two groups were nuclear area and nuclear integrated optical density. It was thus concluded that recurrent GCT shows higher grade, increased mitosis, more spindling, fewer reactive components, and higher proliferation than primary GCT. Delineation of reactive component (α1-ACT positive) and proliferating component (PCNA positive cells) using immunohistochemistry with calculation of the PCNA/ACT ratio delivers more information than image analysis.

  10. Differential Cytotoxicity of MEX: a Component of Neem Oil Whose Action Is Exerted at the Cell Membrane Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ricci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6 and a tumor cell line (HeLa. The data presented here suggest a differential sensitivity of these two populations, the tumor line exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity to MEX. The data strongly suggest that its toxic target is the cell membrane. In addition the results presented here imply that MEX may contain one or more agents that could find a potential use in anti-proliferative therapy.

  11. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. PMID:22131163

  12. Identification of a Streptococcus salivarius Cell Wall Component Mediating Coaggregation with Veillonella alcalescens VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerkamp, Anton H.; McBride, Barry C.

    1981-01-01

    Cell walls of Streptococcus salivarius HB aggregated Veillonella alcalescens V1, but cell walls of the mutant S. salivarius HB-V5 did not. We found no correlation between the presence of fimbriae on streptococcal walls and the ability to aggregate Veillonella strains. Treatment of the walls with lysozyme solubilized a fraction which possessed Veillonella-aggregating activity. Solubilized cell wall preparations of strain HB contained three major (glyco)proteins as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and at least four antigens as determined by immunoelectrophoresis with antiserum prepared against strain HB walls. A specific antiserum, which was obtained by adsorption of anti-HB serum on strain HB-V5 cells, contained monospecific antibody that reacted with the solubilized strain HB wall preparation. Similar fractions prepared from strain HB-V5 cell walls did not possess aggregating activity and lacked one protein band (protein I) after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and one antigen (antigen b) after immunoelectrophoresis. The same antigen was absent when lysozyme-solubilized wall preparations of strain HB were reacted with anti-HB-V5 serum. Crossed-immunoisoelectric focusing indicated that this specific (glyco)protein and this antigen were identical and had an isoelectric point of 4.60. Protein I and antigen b were specifically adsorbed when solubilized strain HB cell walls were incubated with V. alcalescens V1 but were not adsorbed by nonaggregating Veillonella parvula ATCC 10790 cells. Culture supernatants of strain HB contained V. alcalescens V1-aggregating activity. Antigen b was present in the culture supernatant, but was not found in cultures of strain HB-V5. A total of 18 S. salivarius isolates possessing the streptococcal group K antigen released aggregating activity and antigen b into the culture medium, but 11 strains which lacked the K-antigen did not. Images PMID:7251145

  13. Quantitative Raman spectral changes of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into islet-like cells by biochemical component analysis and multiple peak fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Fang, Shaoyin; Zhang, Daosen; Zhang, Qinnan; He, Yingtian; Lu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Shengde; Zhong, Liyun

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into islet-like cells, providing a possible solution for type I diabetes treatment. To search for the precise molecular mechanism of the directional differentiation of MSC-derived islet-like cells, biomolecular composition, and structural conformation information during MSC differentiation, is required. Because islet-like cells lack specific surface markers, the commonly employed immunostaining technique is not suitable for their identification, physical separation, and enrichment. Combining Raman spectroscopic data, a fitting accuracy-improved biochemical component analysis, and multiple peaks fitting approach, we identified the quantitative biochemical and intensity change of Raman peaks that show the differentiation of MSCs into islet-like cells. Along with increases in protein and glycogen content, and decreases in deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid content, in islet-like cells relative to MSCs, it was found that a characteristic peak of insulin (665 cm-1) has twice the intensity in islet-like cells relative to MSCs, indicating differentiation of MSCs into islet-like cells was successful. Importantly, these Raman signatures provide useful information on the structural and pathological states during MSC differentiation and help to develop noninvasive and label-free Raman sorting methods for stem cells and their lineages.

  14. Desmosomal component expression in normal, dysplastic, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Nagamani; Gist, Julie; Smith, Tyler; Tylka, Daniel; Trogdon, Gavin; Wahl, James K

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC) is the most common oral cancer in the U.S., affecting nearly 30,000 Americans each year. Despite recent advances in detection and treatment, there has been little improvement in the five-year survival rate for this devastating disease. Oral cancer may be preceded by premalignant disease that appears histologically as dysplasia. Identification of molecular markers for cellular change would assist in determining the risk of dysplasia progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was to determine if any correlation exists between histological diagnosed dysplasia and OSCC lesions and altered expression of desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecules in the oral epithelium. Our data showed that oral SCC tissue samples showed decreased immunoreactivity of both desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 proteins compared to normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, significant decrease in desmoplakin immunoreactivity was observed in dysplastic tissue compared to normal oral epithelium. In contrast, the level of desmoglein-1 staining was unchanged between samples however desmoglein-1 was found localized to cell borders in oral SCC samples. These data suggest that changes in expression of desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 may prove to be a useful marker for changes in tissue morphology and provide a tool for identifying pre-neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:20585603

  15. Desmosomal Component Expression in Normal, Dysplastic, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani Narayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC is the most common oral cancer in the U.S., affecting nearly 30,000 Americans each year. Despite recent advances in detection and treatment, there has been little improvement in the five-year survival rate for this devastating disease. Oral cancer may be preceded by premalignant disease that appears histologically as dysplasia. Identification of molecular markers for cellular change would assist in determining the risk of dysplasia progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was to determine if any correlation exists between histological diagnosed dysplasia and OSCC lesions and altered expression of desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecules in the oral epithelium. Our data showed that oral SCC tissue samples showed decreased immunoreactivity of both desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 proteins compared to normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, significant decrease in desmoplakin immunoreactivity was observed in dysplastic tissue compared to normal oral epithelium. In contrast, the level of desmoglein-1 staining was unchanged between samples however desmoglein-1 was found localized to cell borders in oral SCC samples. These data suggest that changes in expression of desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 may prove to be a useful marker for changes in tissue morphology and provide a tool for identifying pre-neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity.

  16. Somatic cell count and biochemical components of milk related to udder health in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The 399 clinically healthy quarters from 101 Murrah buffaloes were analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC; DCC and microscope methods and biochemical composition of milk in relation to udder health. The udder health revealed specific subclinical mastitis (SSM in 7% and non-specific mastitis (NSM in 49% of quarters. Latent infections comprised 1%. Staphylococci (43%, streptococci (39% and corynebacteria (18% constituted chief etiological agents in SSM. Electrical conductivity increased significantly both in SSM and NSM compared to healthy quarters. Significant effects for SNF and density were seen in SSM only. DCC and microscope depicted similar cell counts with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. The correlations of DCC with CMT and EC were 0.85 and 0.51, respectively. Quarters with negative CMT reactions had DCC values of < 3 × 105 cells/ml. The DCC means for negative, trace, and +1 to 2 CMT scores were 122, 238, and 593 (× 103 cells/ml, respectively. Lactose with discrimination ability of 83.76% was found better indicator of udder inflammation in buffaloes. Buffaloes unlike cows have low numbers of quarter infections, respond similarly as cows to udder inflammation but at different levels, and DCC may be effectively employed for expressing milk cell count in this species.

  17. A Subset of Protective γ9δ2 T Cells Is Activated by Novel Mycobacterial Glycolipid Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mei; Hesser, Danny C; De, Prithwiraj; Sakala, Isaac G; Spencer, Charles T; Kirkwood, Jay S; Abate, Getahun; Chatterjee, Delphi; Dobos, Karen M; Hoft, Daniel F

    2016-09-01

    γ9δ2 T cells provide a natural bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, rapidly and potently respond to pathogen infection in mucosal tissues, and are prominently induced by both tuberculosis (TB) infection and bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Mycobacterium-expanded γ9δ2 T cells represent only a subset of the phosphoantigen {isopentenyl pyrophosphate [IPP] and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enylpyrophosphate [HMBPP]}-responsive γ9δ2 T cells, expressing an oligoclonal set of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences which more efficiently recognize and inhibit intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Based on this premise, we have been searching for M. tuberculosis antigens specifically capable of inducing a unique subset of mycobacterium-protective γ9δ2 T cells. Our screening strategy includes the identification of M. tuberculosis fractions that expand γ9δ2 T cells with biological functions capable of inhibiting intracellular mycobacterial replication. Chemical treatments of M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysates (MtbWL) ruled out protein, nucleic acid, and nonpolar lipids as the M. tuberculosis antigens inducing protective γ9δ2 T cells. Mild acid hydrolysis, which transforms complex carbohydrate to monomeric residues, abrogated the specific activity of M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysates, suggesting that a polysaccharide was required for biological activity. Extraction of MtbWL with chloroform-methanol-water (10:10:3) resulted in a polar lipid fraction with highly enriched specific activity; this activity was further enriched by silica gel chromatography. A combination of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of bioactive fractions indicated that 6-O-methylglucose-containing lipopolysaccharides (mGLP) are predominant components present in this active fraction. These results have important implications for the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of TB. PMID:27297390

  18. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cell Wall Components as Tools for Ochratoxin A Decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Piotrowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall preparations in the adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA. The study involved the use of a brewer’s yeast cell wall devoid of protein substances, glucans obtained by water and alkaline extraction, a glucan commercially available as a dietary supplement for animals and, additionally, dried brewer’s yeast for comparison. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis of the obtained preparations showed bands characteristic for glucans in the resulting spectra. The yeast cell wall preparation, water-extracted glucan and the commercial glucan bound the highest amount of ochratoxin A, above 55% of the initial concentration, and the alkaline-extracted glucan adsorbed the lowest amount of this toxin. It has been shown that adsorption is most effective at a close-to-neutral pH, while being considerably limited in alkaline conditions.

  19. Real time outdoor exposure testing of solar cell modules and component materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic samples, solar cell modules, and sub-modules were exposed at test sites in Florida, Arizona, Puerto Rico, and Cleveland, Ohio, in order to determine materials suitable for use in solar cell modules with a proposed 20-year lifetime. Various environments were encountered including subtropical, subtropical with a sea air atmosphere, desert, rain forest, normal urban, and urban-polluted. The samples were exposed for periods up to six months. Materials found not suitable were polyurethane, polyester, Kapton, Mylar, and UV-stabilized Lexan. Suitable materials were acrylic, FEP-A, and glass. The results of exposure of polyvinylidene fluoride were dependent on the specific formulation, but several types appear suitable. RTV silicone rubber (clear) appears to pick up and hold dirt both as a free film and as a potting medium for modules. The results indicate that dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

  20. Growth of hybridoma cells in serum-free medium: ethanolamine is an essential component.

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, H.; Masui, H; Sato, G H; Sueoka, N; Chow, T P; Kano-Sueoka, T

    1982-01-01

    A serum-free medium supplemented with a few growth factors was devised to grow lymphocyte hybridomas. The medium was developed with the hybridoma line MPC11-BL, a fusion product between a mouse plasmacytoma cell line (MPC11TG70na3) and mouse (BALB/c) spleen cells. In the process of developing the medium, ethanolamine was found to be an essential growth factor for the hybridoma. Phosphoethanolamine at 10-fold higher concentration could substitute for ethanolamine. Long-term cultivation of the ...

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Components for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cells And Electrolyzers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annemette Hindhede

    it might become possible to use non-noble metal catalysts. On the other hand, the temperature is low enough for a wide range of materials to be used as construction materials. In this work a set-up was built and fuel cell hardware was made for demonstration of fuel cells for the intermediate temperature...... and other materials must be sought for. It was attempted to use stainless steel (316L), this however corroded and therefore a protective tantalum coating was applied. The tantalum coatings were found to be corrosion resistant and furthermore provided extremely low interfacial contact resistances of only 1...

  2. Enzymatic production of atranorin: a component of the oak moss absolute by immobilized lichen cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, C; Fontaniella, B; Millanes, A M; Sebastián, B; Legaz, M E

    2003-04-01

    Cells of the lichen, Evernia prunastri, immobilized in calcium alginate were able to produce the depside atranorin from acetate. The synthesis of the depside was enhanced by molecular oxygen and NADH. This enhancement suggested the participation of an oxidase and an alcohol dehydrogenase to produce an aldehyde-substituted phenolic acid, hematommic acid, as the most probable precursor of atranorin. The participation of both enzymes was confirmed by loading immobilized cells with sodium azide, an inhibitor of several metallo-oxidases, and pyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, which impeded atranorin production and accumulated beta-methyl orsellinate (after azide loading) or its alcohol derivative (after pirazole treatment). PMID:18494879

  3. The molecular components of phospho- and glycolipid metabolism in plant cell membranes under the phosphorus deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svietlova N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspects of molecular regulation of phosphorus metabolism in plants, the lipid components of membrane structures, has been reviewed. The refocusing of phosphoand glycolipid metabolism is an indicator of phosphorus accessibility in plants. The compensatory mechanisms of substitution of phospholipids with non-phosphorus containing glycolipids in membranes, allow plants to adapt to the phosphate (Pi starvation. Phospholipids are the reserve pool of cellular phosphorus at reutilization of ions in the donor-acceptor system of plants. The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids under Pi deficit have been analyzed.

  4. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucukakin, B.; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    buffy-coat reduced red cells in SAG-M additive solution, by assessing biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period of 35 days. Study design and methods. Ten units of RBCs were stored for 35 days. Samples were collected from the units at storage days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35...

  5. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B;

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  6. Cell surface-expressed moesin-like receptor regulates T cell interactions with tissue components and binds an adhesion-modulating IL-2 peptide generated by elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, A; Hershkoviz, R; Altbaum-Weiss, I; Ganor, S; Lider, O

    2001-03-01

    The adhesion of leukocytes to the extracellular matrix (ECM) depends on their responses to variations in the chemotactic signals in their milieu, as well as on the functioning of cytoskeletal and context-specific receptors. Ezrin, radixin, and moesin constitute a family of proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. The surface expression of moesin on T cells and its role in cell adhesion has not been fully elucidated. Recently, we found that IL-2 peptides generated by elastase modified the adhesion of activated T cells to ECM ligands. Here, we further examined the adhesion regulatory effects of EFLNRWIT, one of the IL-2 peptides, as well as the existence and putative function of its receptor on T cells. We found that when presented to T cells in the absence of another activator, the EFLNRWIT peptide induced cell adhesion to vessel wall and ECM components. Binding of a radiolabeled peptide to T cells, precipitation with the immobilized peptide, and amino acid sequencing of the precipitated protein revealed that EFLNRWIT exerts its function via a cell surface-expressed moesin-like moiety, whose constitutive expression on T cells was increased after activation. This notion was further supported by our findings that: 1) anti-moesin mAb inhibited the binding of T cells to the immobilized EFLNRWIT peptide, 2) immobilized recombinant moesin bound the IL-2 peptide, and 3) soluble moesin inhibited the EFLNRWIT-induced T cell adhesion to fibronectin. Interestingly, moesin appears to be generally involved in T cell responses to adhesion-regulating signals. Thus, the IL-2 peptide EFLNRWIT appears to exert its modulating capacities via an adhesion-regulating moesin-like receptor. PMID:11207255

  7. Prospective use of the 3D printing technology for the microstructural engineering of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Rodriguez, E. M.; Acosta-Mora, P.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Borges Chinea, E.; Esparza Ferrera, P.; Canales-Vazquez, J.; Nunez, P.; Ruiz-Morales, J.

    2014-07-01

    A cost-effective micro-manufacturing process to accurately build 3D microstructures for their prospective use in the fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells components has been tested. The 3D printing method, based on the stereo lithography, allows solidifying layer by layer a dispersion of ceramic material in a liquid photosensitive organic monomer. A simple projector, a computer-controlled z-stage and a few PowerPoint slides may be used for the fabrication of a wide range of complex 3D microstructures in few minutes. In this work, 3D ceramic microstructures based on the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were successfully fabricated. The micro structured ceramic components produced were stable after sintering at 1400 degree centigrade for 4 h. Impedance measurements show that the fabrication process does not have any detrimental effect on the electrical properties of the structured material. (Author)

  8. Prospective use of the 3D printing technology for the microstructural engineering of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost-effective micro-manufacturing process to accurately build 3D microstructures for their prospective use in the fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells components has been tested. The 3D printing method, based on the stereo lithography, allows solidifying layer by layer a dispersion of ceramic material in a liquid photosensitive organic monomer. A simple projector, a computer-controlled z-stage and a few PowerPoint slides may be used for the fabrication of a wide range of complex 3D microstructures in few minutes. In this work, 3D ceramic microstructures based on the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were successfully fabricated. The micro structured ceramic components produced were stable after sintering at 1400 degree centigrade for 4 h. Impedance measurements show that the fabrication process does not have any detrimental effect on the electrical properties of the structured material. (Author)

  9. Recent Progress on the Key Materials and Components for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are the most clean and efficient power source for vehicles. In particular, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are the most promising candidate for automobile applications due to their rapid start-up and low-temperature operation. Through extensive global research efforts in the latest decade, the performance of PEMFCs, including energy efficiency, volumetric and mass power density, and low temperature startup ability, have achieved significant breakthroughs. In 2014, fuel cell powered vehicles were introduced into the market by several prominent vehicle companies. However, the low durability and high cost of PEMFC systems are still the main obstacles for large-scale industrialization of this technology. The key materials and components used in PEMFCs greatly affect their durability and cost. In this review, the technical progress of key materials and components for PEMFCs has been summarized and critically discussed, including topics such as the membrane, catalyst layer, gas diffusion layer, and bipolar plate. The development of high-durability processing technologies is also introduced. Finally, this review is concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  10. Somatically expressed germ-granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, repress programmed cell death in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Min, Hyemin; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Kawasaki, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that germline apoptosis in C. elegans increased by loss of PGL-1 and PGL-3, members of a family of constitutive germ-granule components, from germ cells in adult hermaphrodite gonads. In this study, we found that somatic apoptosis was reduced in synthetic multivulva class B (synMuv B) mutants due to ectopic expression of PGL-1 and PGL-3 in the soma. In synMuv B-mutant somatic cells, CED-4 expression level was reduced due to ectopic expression of PGL-1. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, somatic apoptosis in synMuv B mutants increased following DNA damage in a SIR-2.1-dependent manner. Intriguingly, somatic apoptosis was repressed not only in synMuv B mutants but also by ectopically expressing pgl-1 and/or pgl-3 transgenes in wild-type somatic cells. Our study demonstrates that germ-granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, can serve as negative regulators of apoptosis not only in the germline but also in the soma in C. elegans. PMID:27650246

  11. Analysis of coal tar pitch and smoke extract components and their cytotoxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhitao; Wu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Hansong; Qin, Lijuan; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yiming

    2011-02-28

    Coal tar pitch and its smoke are considered hazardous by-products and common pollutant generated from coal industry processing. In this study, coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with dimethylsulfoxide. We identified only 0.3025% of components in the total coal tar pitch using GC/MS. Among 18 identified compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has the highest relative abundance (0.19%). The remaining components were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. In contrast, among 38 coal tar pitch smoke extract constituents that have been profiled, 87.91% were PAHs, and the remaining 12.09% were composed of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and alkenes. The cytotoxic effect of coal tar pitch and its smoke extracts on BEAS-2B cells were also evaluated by MTT assay. BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch showed a non dose-dependent U-shaped cytotoxicity with a dosage for maximal inhibitory of 3.75 mg/L. In contrast, BEAS-2B cells exposed to coal tar pitch smoke extracts showed a dose dependent cytotoxicity with a LC(50) of 8.64 mg/L. Our study demonstrated the significant different composition and cytotoxicity of coal tar pitch and its extracts, suggesting two different underlying mechanisms that are pending future investigation.

  12. Fission yeast Nod1 is a component of cortical nodes involved in cell size control and division site placement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jourdain

    Full Text Available Most cells enter mitosis once they have reached a defined size. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, mitotic entry is orchestrated by a geometry-sensing mechanism that involves the Cdk1/Cdc2-inhibiting Wee1 kinase. The factors upstream of Wee1 gather together in interphase to form a characteristic medial and cortical belt of nodes. Nodes are also considered to be precursors of the cytokinesis contractile actomyosin ring (CAR. Here we describe a new component of the interphase nodes and cytokinesis rings, which we named Nod1. Consistent with its role in cell size control at division, nod1Δ cells were elongated and epistatic with regulators of Wee1. Through biochemical and localisation studies, we placed Nod1 in a complex with the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Gef2. Nod1 and Gef2 mutually recruited each other in nodes and Nod1 also assembles Gef2 in rings. Like gef2Δ, nod1Δ cells showed a mild displacement of their division plane and this phenotype was severely exacerbated when the parallel Polo kinase pathway was also compromised. We conclude that Nod1 specifies the division site by localising Gef2 to the mitotic cell middle. Previous work showed that Gef2 in turn anchors factors that control the spatio-temporal recruitment of the actin nucleation machinery. It is believed that the actin filaments originated from the nodes pull nodes together into a single contractile ring. Surprisingly however, we found that node proteins could form pre-ring helical filaments in a cdc12-112 mutant in which nucleation of the actin ring is impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of either nod1 or gef2 created an un-expected situation where different ring components were recruited sequentially rather than simultaneously. At later stages of cytokinesis, these various rings appeared inter-fitted rather than merged. This study brings a new slant to the understanding of CAR assembly and function.

  13. Patterns Prediction of Chemotherapy Sensitivity in Cancer Cell lines Using FTIR Spectrum, Neural Network and Principal Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance enables cancer cells to break away from cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs. Identification of resistant phenotype is very important because it can lead to effective treatment plan. There is an interest in developing classifying models of resistance phenotype based on the multivariate data. We have investigated a vibrational spectroscopic approach in order to characterize a sensitive human ovarian cell line, A2780, and its cisplatin-resistant derivative, A2780-cp. In this study FTIR method have been evaluated via the use of principal components analysis (PCA), ANN (artificial neuronal network) and LDA (linear discriminate analysis). FTIR spectroscopy on these cells in the range of 400-4000 cm(-1) showed alteration in the secondary structure of proteins and a CH stretching vibration. We have found that the ANN models correctly classified more than 95% of the cell lines, while the LDA models with the same data sets could classify 85% of cases. In the process of different ranges of spectra, the best classification of data set in the range of 1000-2000 cm(-1) was done using ANN model, while the data set between 2500-3000 cm(-1) was more correctly classified with the LDA model. PCA of the spectral data also provide a good separation for representing the variety of cell line spectra. Our work supports the promise of ANN analysis of FTIR spectrum as a supervised powerful approach and PCA as unsupervised modeling for the development of automated methods to determine the resistant phenotype of cancer classification.

  14. 2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our goal was to identify the cellular and molecular effects of 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP, a component of cigarette smoke on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 in vitro. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of 2-EP. Cell viability (CV was measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities were measured by fluorochrome assays. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS was detected with a 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye assay. The JC-1 assay was used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Mitochondrial redox potential was measured using a RedoxSensor Red kit and mitochondria were evaluated with Mitotracker dye. Results: After 2-EP exposure, ARPE-19 cells showed significantly decreased CV, increased caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, elevated ROS/RNS levels, decreased ΔΨm value and decreased redox fluorescence when compared with control samples. Conclusions: These results show that 2-EP treatment induced cell death by caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with an oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data represent a possible mechanism by which smoking contributes to age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases and identify mitochondria as a target for future therapeutic interventions.

  15. Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Components Using Electromagnetic Model-Based Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilberstein, Vladimir; Craven, Chris; Goldfine, Neil

    2004-12-28

    In this Phase I SBIR, the contractor demonstrated a number of capabilities of model-based sensors such as MWM sensors and MWM-Arrays. The key results include (1) porosity/microstructure characterization for anodes, (2) potential for cathode material characterization, (3) stress measurements in nickel and cobalt, and (4) potential for stress measurements in non-magnetic materials with a ferromagnetic layer. In addition, potential applications for manufacturing quality control of nonconductive layers using interdigitated electrode dielectrometers have been identified. The results indicate that JENTEK's MWM technology can be used to significantly reduce solid oxide fuel cell production and operating costs in a number of ways. Preliminary investigations of solid oxide fuel cell health monitoring and scale-up issues to address industry needs have also been performed.

  16. Pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced by specific components in ambient particulate matter in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawei; Liu, Gang; Lin, Ziying; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological effect of particulate matter (PM2.5) is involved in including chemical composition and mass concentration, but the precise components and biological action on human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro toxicity of PM2.5 collected at six urban sites in China, and to investigate how particle composition affects cytotoxicity. We used human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines as model in vitro to expose to PM2.5 from different source, and then reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Furthermore, we estimated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and transition metal and the endotoxin contents. The mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-10 following exposure to PM2.5 was measured by QRT-PCR. We also observed the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using JC-1 staining, and apoptosis of BEAS-2B using flow cytometry. In addition, double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) were assessed using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence. Our results show that high concentrations of PAHs and elemental Ni were strongly associated with high apoptosis rates and high expression of IL-1β, in addition, Fe element was associated with the ROS level, furthermore, Fe and Cr element were associated with DNA damage in BEAS-2B cells. The cytotoxic effects of urban PM2.5 derived from six different cities in China appear dependent on the specific components in each. Our results indicate that air quality standards based on PM2.5 components may be more relevant than concentration-response functions (CRF). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 923-936, 2016. PMID:25533354

  17. [Therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells secreted components: a problem with standartization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaradze, G D; Grigorieva, O A; Efimenko, A Yu; Chaplenko, A A; Suslina, S N; Sysoeva, V Yu; Kalinina, N I; Akopyan, Zh A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine approaches, such as replacement of damaged tissue by ex vivo manufactured constructions or stimulation of endogenous reparative and regenerative processes to treat different diseases, are actively developing. One of the major tools for regenerative medicine are stem and progenitor cells, including multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Because the paracrine action of bioactive factors secreted by MSC is considered as a main mechanism underlying MSC regenerative effects, application of MSC extracellular secreted products could be a promising approach to stimulate tissue regeneration; it also has some advantages compared to the injection of the cells themselves. However, because of the complexity of composition and multiplicity of mechanisms of action distinguished the medicinal products based on bioactive factors secreted by human MSC from the most of pharmaceuticals, it is important to develop the approaches to their standardization and quality control. In the current study, based on the literature data and guidelines as well as on our own experimental results, we provided rationalization for nomenclature and methods of quality control for the complex of extracellular products secreted by human adipose-derived MSC on key indicators, such as "Identification", "Specific activity" and "Biological safety". Developed approaches were tested on the samples of conditioned media contained products secreted by MSC isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of 30 donors. This strategy for the standardization of innovative medicinal products and biomaterials based on the bioactive extracellular factors secreted by human MSC could be applicable for a wide range of bioactive complex products, produced using the different types of stem and progenitor cells. PMID:26716748

  18. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  19. Desmosomal Component Expression in Normal, Dysplastic, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamani Narayana; Julie Gist; Tyler Smith; Daniel Tylka; Gavin Trogdon; Wahl, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC) is the most common oral cancer in the U.S., affecting nearly 30,000 Americans each year. Despite recent advances in detection and treatment, there has been little improvement in the five-year survival rate for this devastating disease. Oral cancer may be preceded by premalignant disease that appears histologically as dysplasia. Identification of molecular markers for cellular change would assist in determining the risk of dysplasia progressing to oral squamo...

  20. A novel pseudopodial component of the dendritic cell anti-fungal response: the fungipod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron K Neumann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathologies are seen in immunocompromised and healthy humans. C-type lectins expressed on immature dendritic cells (DC recognize fungi. We report a novel dorsal pseudopodial protrusion, the "fungipod", formed by DC after contact with yeast cell walls. These structures have a convoluted cell-proximal end and a smooth distal end. They persist for hours, exhibit noticeable growth and total 13.7+/-5.6 microm long and 1.8+/-0.67 microm wide at the contact. Fungipods contain clathrin and an actin core surrounded by a sheath of cortactin. The actin cytoskeleton, but not microtubules, is required for fungipod integrity and growth. An apparent rearward flow (225+/-55 nm/second exists from the zymosan contact site into the distal fungipod. The phagocytic receptor Dectin-1 is not required for fungipod formation, but CD206 (Mannose Receptor is the generative receptor for these protrusions. The human pathogen Candida parapsilosis induces DC fungipod formation strongly, but the response is species specific since the related fungal pathogens Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans induce very few and no fungipods, respectively. Our findings show that fungipods are dynamic actin-driven cellular structures involved in fungal recognition by DC. They may promote yeast particle phagocytosis by DC and are a specific response to large (i.e., 5 microm particulate ligands. Our work also highlights the importance of this novel protrusive structure to innate immune recognition of medically significant Candida yeasts in a species specific fashion.

  1. Emp is a component of the nuclear matrix of mammalian cells and undergoes dynamic rearrangements during cell division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emp, originally detected in erythroblastic islands, is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues suggesting a functionality not limited to hematopoiesis. To study the function of Emp in non-hematopoietic cells, an epitope-tagged recombinant human Emp was expressed in HEK cells. Preliminary studies revealed that Emp partitioned into both the nuclear and Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeletal fractions in approximately a 4:1 ratio. In this study, we report investigations of Emp in the nucleus. Sequential extractions of interphase nuclei showed that recombinant Emp was present predominantly in the nuclear matrix. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Emp was present in typical nuclear speckles enriched with the spliceosome assembly factor SC35 and partially co-localized with actin staining. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down assays confirmed the apparent close association of Emp with nuclear actin. During mitosis, Emp was detected at the mitotic spindle/spindle poles, as well as in the contractile ring during cytokinesis. These results suggest that Emp undergoes dynamic rearrangements within the nuclear architecture that are correlated with cell division

  2. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  3. Formula Compatibility Identification of Dachengqi Decoction Based on the Effects of Absorbed Components in Cerulein-Injured Pancreatic AR42J Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the herbal formula compatibility law based on the effects of the absorbed components from DCQD on the cerulein-injured AR42J cells. Methods. AR42J cells were pretreated for 30 min with or without the different concentrations of the absorbed components from DCQD individually or in combination or DCQD and coincubated with cerulein (10 nM for a further 24 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, and the levels of apoptosis and necrosis were measured. Results. Compared to DCQD, the individual or combination components partially protected cerulein-injured AR42J cells by increasing cell viability, reducing LDH release, and promoting apoptosis. Rhein, naringin, and honokiol were the main absorbed components from DCQD in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, rhein in combination with naringin and honokiol had synergistic effects in protecting cerulein-injured AR42J cells and was better than the individual or the pairwise combination of the three components. Conclusions. The ten effective components from DCQD may elicit similar protective effects as DCQD on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The principle of the formula compatibility of DCQD may be identified based on the effects of its absorbed components in cerulein-injured AR42J cells.

  4. Formula Compatibility Identification of Dachengqi Decoction Based on the Effects of Absorbed Components in Cerulein-Injured Pancreatic AR42J Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumei; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Jianlei; Zhao, Xianlin; Guo, Hui; Li, Juan; Tang, Wenfu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the herbal formula compatibility law based on the effects of the absorbed components from DCQD on the cerulein-injured AR42J cells. Methods. AR42J cells were pretreated for 30 min with or without the different concentrations of the absorbed components from DCQD individually or in combination or DCQD and coincubated with cerulein (10 nM) for a further 24 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and the levels of apoptosis and necrosis were measured. Results. Compared to DCQD, the individual or combination components partially protected cerulein-injured AR42J cells by increasing cell viability, reducing LDH release, and promoting apoptosis. Rhein, naringin, and honokiol were the main absorbed components from DCQD in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, rhein in combination with naringin and honokiol had synergistic effects in protecting cerulein-injured AR42J cells and was better than the individual or the pairwise combination of the three components. Conclusions. The ten effective components from DCQD may elicit similar protective effects as DCQD on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The principle of the formula compatibility of DCQD may be identified based on the effects of its absorbed components in cerulein-injured AR42J cells. PMID:27123032

  5. The Transmembrane Electrical Potential in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides Determined from the Distribution of Tetraphenylphosphonium after Correction for Its Binding to Cell Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Abbing, Arend; Hellingwerf, K; Konings, Wilhelmus

    1983-01-01

    The membrane potential was determined in intact cells of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides from the distribution of the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium (Ph4P+) after correction for probe binding to cell components. The concentration of Ph4P+ in the external medium of the cells was recorded with

  6. Fluorescence Quenching Property of C-Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis and its Binding Efficacy with Viable Cell Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Meenakshi B; Chudasama, Meghna M; Mitra, Madhusree; Bhayani, Khushbu; George, Basil; Chatterjee, Shruti; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-03-01

    Phycocyanin is a natural brilliant blue colored, fluorescent protein, which is commonly present in cyanobacteria. In this study, C-phycocyanin was extracted and purified from Spirulina platensis, which are multicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria of greater importance because of its various biological and pharmacological potential. It was analyzed for its binding affinity towards blood cells, algal cells, genomic DNA of microalgae, and bacteria at different temperature and incubation time. It showed good binding affinity with these components even at low concentration of 2.5 μM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of C-phycocyanin as a green fluorescent dye substituting carcinogenic chemical dyes. PMID:26678758

  7. Thrombin regulates components of the fibrinolytic system in human mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides its procoagulant activity, thrombin has been shown to stimulate cell proliferation and to regulate the fibrinolytic pathway. We report here the effect of purified human alpha thrombin on the synthesis of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) by cultured human mesangial cells. Thrombin (0 to 2.5 U/ml) increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner the production of t-PA and PAI-1 (2- to 3-fold increase of secreted t-PA and PAI-1 release during a 24 hour incubation). This effect was associated with a twofold increase in DNA synthesis measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Zymographic analysis and reverse fibrin autography showed that thrombin also increased the level of the 110 Kd t-PA-PAI-1 complex, whereas PAI-1 was present as a free 50 Kd form in the culture medium conditioned by unstimulated and thrombin-stimulated cells. Free t-PA was never observed. Both membrane binding and catalytic activity of thrombin were required since the effects of 1 U/ml thrombin were inhibited by addition 2 U/ml hirudin, which inhibits the membrane binding and catalytic activity of thrombin, and since DFP-inactivated thrombin, which has the ability to bind but which has no enzymatic activity, did not induce t-PA or PAI-1. Gamma thrombin, which does not bind to thrombin receptor, did not increase t-PA and PAI-1 releases. The effects of thrombin were probably mediated by protein kinase C activation since H7, an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited significantly thrombin effects on t-PA and PAI-1 production, and since addition of an activator of protein kinase A, 8-bromocyclic AMP (100 microM), induced a significant inhibition of the thrombin effect. The effects of thrombin were also suppressed by 1.25 micrograms/ml alpha amanitin, suggesting a requirement of de novo RNA synthesis

  8. In Cell Interactome of Oleocanthal, an Extra Virgin Olive Oil Bioactive Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiano, Chiara; Casapullo, Agostino; Tosco, Alessandra; Monti, Maria Chiara; Riccio, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    A copper-(I)-catalyzed variation of the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition has been applied to lead the in living-cell mass-spectrometry based identification of protein targets of oleocanthal, a natural metabolite daily ingested by millions of people. Chemical proteomics revealed heat-shock proteins, HSP70 and HSP90, as main oleocanthal interactors in living systems. These two proteins are involved in cancer development and, thus, our findings could have important outcomes for a deep evaluation of the bio-pharmacological significance of oleocanthal. PMID:26197539

  9. Thermally labile components of aqueous humor potently induce osteogenic potential in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joshua T; Kwon, Heung Sun; Wood, Joshua A; Borjesson, Dori L; Tomarev, Stanislav I; Murphy, Christopher J; Russell, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) hold promise for use in cell-based therapies. Their intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties are potentially useful for treatments of inflammatory conditions such as uveitis, while their ability to differentiate along multiple cell lineages suggests use in regenerating damaged or degenerated tissue. However, how ASCs will respond to the intraocular environment is poorly studied. We have recently reported that aqueous humor (AH), the fluid that nourishes the anterior segment of the eye, potently increases alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of ASCs, indicating osteogenic differentiation. Here, we expand on our previous findings to better define the nature of this response. To this end, we cultured ASCs in the presence of 0, 5, 10, and 20% AH and assayed them for ALP activity. We found ALP activity correlates with increasing AH concentrations from 5 to 20%, and that longer treatments result in increased ALP activity. By using serum free media and pretreating AH with dextran-coated charcoal, we found that serum and charcoal-adsorbable AH components augment but are not required for this response. Further, by heat-treating the AH, we established that thermally labile components are required for the osteogenic response. Finally, we showed myocilin, a protein present in AH, could induce ALP activity in ASCs. However, this was to a lesser extent than untreated 5% AH, and myocilin could only partially rescue the effect after heat treatment, documenting there were additional thermally labile constituents of AH involved in the osteogenic response. Our work adds to the understanding of the induction of ALP in ASCs following exposure to AH, providing important insight in how ASCs will be influenced by the ocular environment. In conclusion, increased osteogenic potential upon exposure to AH represents a potential challenge to developing ASC cell-based therapies directed at the eye.

  10. CRISPRs for Optimal Targeting: Delivery of CRISPR Components as DNA, RNA, and Protein into Cultured Cells and Single-Cell Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouranova, Evguenia; Forbes, Kevin; Zhao, Guojun; Warren, Joe; Bartels, Angela; Wu, Yumei; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of CRISPR technology greatly impacts the field of genetic engineering. The simplicity in design and generation of highly efficient CRISPR reagents allows more and more researchers to take on genome editing in different model systems in their own labs, even for those who found it daunting before. An active CRISPR complex contains a protein component (Cas9) and an RNA component (small guide RNA [sgRNA]), which can be delivered into cells in various formats. Cas9 can be introduced as a DNA expression plasmid, in vitro transcripts, or as a recombinant protein bound to the RNA portion in a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), whereas the sgRNA can be delivered either expressed as a DNA plasmid or as an in vitro transcript. Here we compared the different delivery methods in cultured cell lines as well as mouse and rat single-cell embryos and view the RNPs as the most convenient and efficient to use. We also report the detection of limited off-targeting in cells and embryos and discuss approaches to lower that chance. We hope that researchers new to CRISPR find our results helpful to their adaptation of the technology for optimal gene editing. PMID:27094534

  11. Effects of stem structure and cell wall components on bending strength in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Morphological traits, anatomical features, chemical components and bending stress in the stems of three genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), namely Xiaoyan54, 8602 and Xiaoyan81, were examined by means of light microscopy coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Noticeable changes in morphological and anatomical traits were observed, including outer radius of stem, the ratio of stem outer radius to stem wall thickness, various tissue proportions and variations among different types of vascular bundles. The results of chemical analysis revealed that Xiaoyan81 had the highest cellulose content in comparison with Xiaoyan54 and 8602, whereas lignin level in Xiaoyan81 was lower than that in 8602 but higher that that in Xiaoyan54. Bending stress analysis demonstrated that Xiaoyan81 may be the main target for identification, for it had the highest bending stress among the stems of three genotypes. Associated with bending stress, all the results presented here suggested that the ratio of stem wall thickness to its outer radius, schlerenchyma tissue proportion, the average number of big VB per unit and the cellulose content are four important factors affecting the mechanical strength of Xiaoyan81 wheat stems, which can be considered as the key parameters for selecting varieties with bending stress. Therefore, it was suggested that in the selection of lodging resistant cultivars one should consider those characterized with large ratio of outer radius of stem to stem wall thickness, greaterschlerenchyma tissue proportion, high average number of big VB per unit with high cellulose content in their stems.

  12. Growth factor priming differentially modulates components of the extracellular matrix proteome in chondrocytes and synovium-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alegre-Aguarón

    Full Text Available To make progress in cartilage repair it is essential to optimize protocols for two-dimensional cell expansion. Chondrocytes and SDSCs are promising cell sources for cartilage repair. We previously observed that priming with a specific growth factor cocktail (1 ng/mL transforming growth factor-β1, 5 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor, and 10 ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor-BB in two-dimensional culture, led to significant improvement in mechanical and biochemical properties of synovium-derived stem cell (SDSC-seeded constructs. The current study assessed the effect of growth factor priming on the proteome of canine chondrocytes and SDSCs. In particular, growth factor priming modulated the proteins associated with the extracellular matrix in two-dimensional cultures of chondrocytes and SDSCs, inducing a partial dedifferentiation of chondrocytes (most proteins associated with cartilage were down-regulated in primed chondrocytes and a partial differentiation of SDSCs (some collagen-related proteins were up-regulated in primed SDSCs. However, when chondrocytes and SDSCs were grown in pellet culture, growth factor-primed cells maintained their chondrogenic potential with respect to glycosaminoglycan and collagen production. In conclusion, the strength of the label-free proteomics technique is that it allows for the determination of changes in components of the extracellular matrix proteome in chondrocytes and SDSCs in response to growth factor priming, which could help in future tissue engineering strategies.

  13. Stability of CIGS solar cells and component materials evaluated by a step-stress accelerated degradation test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15°C and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40°C/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85°C/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 μm to 0.50 μm on the cells. No clear "stepwise" feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH = 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and "capacitor quality" factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells' p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH >= 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS cell pieces was observed that was not seen on BZO/glass, and a CdS/CIGS sample displayed a small darkening and then

  14. Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 μm to 0.50 μm on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ≥ 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ≥ 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of

  15. Distribution of immunocompetent cells in the lungs of premature newborns on the background of some components of mother metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyak O.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In immunohistochemical researching of the local immune system of the lungs (90 premature newborns, 29-33 weeks gestation, divided into 3 groups with respect to the components of mothers metabolic syndrome , the features and patterns of distribution, quantitative indicators of immune cells in the bronchial and respiratory departments are detected. It was determined that children who belong to group №1 (mothers hypertension and dyslipidemia have the total depression of T-lymphocytes (CD3, reduction of helper function (CD4, mixed reaction of suppressors (CD8, decreasing the number of B-lymphocytes - subpopulations (CD20, inhibition of macrophagic function (CD68. In group№2 (mothers diabetes type 2 and dyslipidemia we observed depression of helper-suppressor functions (CD4, CD8, increasing of macrophagic reaction (CD68. Reducing of the absolute number of suppressor and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes subpopulations, a decreasing of B-lymphocytes (CD20 and inhibition of macrophagic functions (CD68 is observed in group№3 of children at the background of mothers adiposity and dyslipidemia. Reducing of expression of CD3 lymphocytes and levels of CD4 cells shows intensive reaction of cellular immunity in premature newborns. Comparative analysis of the immune status of the lungs of children in three groups with different components of mothers metabolic syndrome shows an acute disbalance of immunoregulation index, and the negative impact of mothers disease on histogenetic processes of respiratory organization.

  16. Preparation of CulnS2 Thin Films on the Glass Substrate by DC Sputtering for Solar Cell Component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CuInS2 alloys were deposited on glass substrate using plasma DC sputtering technique. A CuInS2 alloy target was made from Cu, In, Se powder with impurity of 99.998%. The deposition process was done with the following process parameter variations: deposition time and substrate temperature were the range of 15 to 45 min and 150 to 300 ℃, the gas pressure was kept at 1.4x10-1 Torr. The purpose of the research is to obtain the solar cell component of CuInS2 thin films. The electrical and optical properties measurement has been done by four-point probe and UV-Vis. Crystal structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows that minimum resistance of CuInS2 thin films is 35.7 kΩ and optical transmittance is 14.7 %. The crystal structure of CuInS2 is oriented at (112) plane and by Touc-plot method was obtained that the band gap energy of thin films is 1.45 eV. It could be concluded that the CuInS2 thin film can be used as a solar cell component. (author)

  17. Targeting cancer stem cells with sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have supported the protective effects of broccoli and broccoli sprouts against cancer. The chemopreventive properties of sulforaphane, which is derived from the principal glucosinolate of broccoli and broccoli sprouts, have been extensively studied. Recent research into the effects of sulforaphane on cancer stem cells (CSCs) has drawn lots of interest. CSCs are suggested to be responsible for initiating and maintaining cancer, and to contribute to recurrence and drug resistance. A number of studies have indicated that sulforaphane may target CSCs in different types of cancer through modulation of NF-κB, SHH, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Combination therapy with sulforaphane and chemotherapy in preclinical settings has shown promising results. In this article, we focus on the effects of sulforaphane on CSCs and self-renewal pathways, as well as giving a brief review of recent human studies using broccoli sprout preparations.

  18. Effects of tebuconazole on morphology, structure, cell wall components and trichothecene production of Fusarium culmorum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Z; Huang, L; Krieg, U; Mauler-Machnik, A; Buchenauer, H

    2001-06-01

    The effects of tebuconazole, a systemic fungicide, on the morphology, structure, cell wall components and toxin production of Fusarium culmorum were investigated in vitro. Treatment was by application of four filter paper strips (0.75 cm x 5.0 cm) soaked in 20 micrograms ml-1 fungicide placed around a point inoculum in Petri dishes. Mycelial growth was strongly inhibited by fungicide treatment. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the fungicide caused irregular swelling and excessive branching of hyphae. The morphological changes induced by the fungicide at the ultrastructural level included considerable thickening of the hyphal cell walls, excessive septation, the formation of the incomplete septa, extensive vacuolisation, accumulation of lipid bodies and progressing necrosis or degeneration of the hyphal cytoplasm. Non-membrane inclusion bodies were often detected in the hyphal cytoplasm. Furthermore, the formation of new hyphae (daughter hyphae) inside collapsed hyphal cells was common following treatment. The daughter hyphae also displayed severe alterations such as irregular thickening of the cell walls and necrosis of the cytoplasm. Using cytochemical techniques, the labelling densities of chitin and beta-1,3-glucan in the cell walls of the fungicide-treated hyphae were more pronounced than in those of the control hyphae. Moreover, immunogold labelling with antiserum against deoxynivalenol (DON) revealed that Fusarium toxin DON was localized in the cell walls, cytoplasm, mitochondria and vacuoles of the hyphae from the control and the fungicide treatment, but the labelling density in the fungicide-treated hyphae decreased dramatically compared with the control hyphae, indicating that tebuconazole reduced Fusarium toxin production of the fungus.

  19. TNF Regulates Essential Alternative Complement Pathway Components and Impairs Activation of Protein C in Human Glomerular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartain, Sarah E; Turner, Nancy A; Moake, Joel L

    2016-01-15

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy with severe renal injury secondary to an overactive alternative complement pathway (AP). aHUS episodes are often initiated or recur during inflammation. We investigated gene expression of the surface complement regulatory proteins (CD55, CD59, CD46, and CD141 [thrombomodulin]) and AP components in human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs) and in HUVECs, a frequently used investigational model of endothelial cells. Surface complement regulatory proteins were also quantified by flow cytometry. All experiments were done with and without exposure to IL-1β or TNF. Without cytokine stimulation, we found that GMVECs had greater AP activation than did HUVECs. With TNF stimulation, THBD gene expression and corresponding CD141 surface presence in HUVECs and GMVECs were reduced, and gene expression of complement components C3 (C3) and factor B (CFB) was increased. Consequently, AP activation, measured by Ba production, was increased, and conversion of protein C (PC) to activated PC by CD141-bound thrombin was decreased, in GMVECs and HUVECs exposed to TNF. IL-1β had similar, albeit lesser, effects on HUVEC gene expression, and it only slightly affected GMVEC gene expression. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the expression/display of AP components and surface regulatory proteins in GMVECs with and without cytokine stimulation. In aHUS patients with an underlying overactive AP, additional stimulation of the AP and inhibition of activated PC-mediated anticoagulation in GMVECs by the inflammatory cytokine TNF are likely to provoke episodes of renal failure. PMID:26673143

  20. Metabolites of ginger component [6]-shogaol remain bioactive in cancer cells and have low toxicity in normal cells: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingdong Zhu

    Full Text Available Our previous study found that [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component in ginger, is extensively metabolized in cancer cells and in mice. It is unclear whether these metabolites retain bioactivity. The aim of the current study is to synthesize the major metabolites of [6]-shogaol and evaluate their inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Twelve metabolites of [6]-shogaol (M1, M2, and M4-M13 were successfully synthesized using simple and easily accessible chemical methods. Growth inhibition assays showed that most metabolites of [6]-shogaol had measurable activities against human cancer cells HCT-116 and H-1299. In particular, metabolite M2 greatly retained the biological activities of [6]-shogaol, with an IC(50 of 24.43 µM in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and an IC(50 of 25.82 µM in H-1299 human lung cancer cells. Also exhibiting a relatively high potency was thiol-conjugate M13, with IC(50 values of 45.47 and 47.77 µM toward HCT-116 and H-1299 cells, respectively. The toxicity evaluation of the synthetic metabolites (M1, M2, and M4-M13 against human normal fibroblast colon cells CCD-18Co and human normal lung cells IMR-90 demonstrated a detoxifying metabolic biotransformation of [6]-shogaol. The most active metabolite M2 had almost no toxicity to CCD-18Co and IMR-90 normal cells with IC(50s of 99.18 and 98.30 µM, respectively. TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay indicated that apoptosis was triggered by metabolites M2, M13, and its two diastereomers M13-1 and M13-2. There was no significant difference between the apoptotic effect of [6]-shogaol and the effect of M2 and M13 after 6 hour treatment.

  1. Metabolites of ginger component [6]-shogaol remain bioactive in cancer cells and have low toxicity in normal cells: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingdong; Warin, Renaud F; Soroka, Dominique N; Chen, Huadong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study found that [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component in ginger, is extensively metabolized in cancer cells and in mice. It is unclear whether these metabolites retain bioactivity. The aim of the current study is to synthesize the major metabolites of [6]-shogaol and evaluate their inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Twelve metabolites of [6]-shogaol (M1, M2, and M4-M13) were successfully synthesized using simple and easily accessible chemical methods. Growth inhibition assays showed that most metabolites of [6]-shogaol had measurable activities against human cancer cells HCT-116 and H-1299. In particular, metabolite M2 greatly retained the biological activities of [6]-shogaol, with an IC(50) of 24.43 µM in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and an IC(50) of 25.82 µM in H-1299 human lung cancer cells. Also exhibiting a relatively high potency was thiol-conjugate M13, with IC(50) values of 45.47 and 47.77 µM toward HCT-116 and H-1299 cells, respectively. The toxicity evaluation of the synthetic metabolites (M1, M2, and M4-M13) against human normal fibroblast colon cells CCD-18Co and human normal lung cells IMR-90 demonstrated a detoxifying metabolic biotransformation of [6]-shogaol. The most active metabolite M2 had almost no toxicity to CCD-18Co and IMR-90 normal cells with IC(50)s of 99.18 and 98.30 µM, respectively. TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay indicated that apoptosis was triggered by metabolites M2, M13, and its two diastereomers M13-1 and M13-2. There was no significant difference between the apoptotic effect of [6]-shogaol and the effect of M2 and M13 after 6 hour treatment. PMID:23382939

  2. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schriemer David C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a

  3. Analysis of the position of robotic cell components and its impact on energy consumption by robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Sekala, A.; Foit, K.

    2016-08-01

    Location elements in the robot cell is very important must provide reasonable access to technological points. This is a basic condition, but it is possible to shift these elements worth considering over other criteria. One of them can be energy consumption. This is an economic parameter and in most cases its improvement make shorten the working time an industrial robot. In most conventional mechanical systems you do not need to consume power in standby mode only for a move. Robot because of its construction, even if it does not move has enabled engines and is ready to move. In this case, the servo speed is zero. During this stop servo squeak. Low-speed motors cause the engine torque is reduced and increases power consumption. In larger robots are installed brakes that when the robot does not move mechanically hold the position. Off the robot has enabled brakes and remembers the position servo drives. Brakes must be released when the robot wants to move and drives hold the position.

  4. Norvaline and norleucine may have been more abundant protein components during early stages of cell evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Carreño, Claudia; Becerra, Arturo; Lazcano, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The absence of the hydrophobic norvaline and norleucine in the inventory of protein amino acids is readdressed. The well-documented intracellular accumulation of these two amino acids results from the low-substrate specificity of the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic enzymes that act over a number of related α-ketoacids. The lack of absolute substrate specificity of leucyl-tRNA synthase leads to a mischarged norvalyl-tRNA(Leu) that evades the translational proofreading activities and produces norvaline-containing proteins, (cf. Apostol et al. J Biol Chem 272:28980-28988, 1997). A similar situation explains the presence of minute but detectable amounts of norleucine in place of methionine. Since with few exceptions both leucine and methionine are rarely found in the catalytic sites of most enzymes, their substitution by norvaline and norleucine, respectively, would have not been strongly hindered in small structurally simple catalytic polypeptides during the early stages of biological evolution. The report that down-shifts of free oxygen lead to high levels of intracellular accumulation of pyruvate and the subsequent biosynthesis of norvaline (Soini et al. Microb Cell Factories 7:30, 2008) demonstrates the biochemical and metabolic consequences of the development of a highly oxidizing environment. The results discussed here also suggest that a broader definition of biomarkers in the search for extraterrestrial life may be required. PMID:24013929

  5. The cell wall component lipoteichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus induces chemokine gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIKU, Yoshio; NAGASAWA, Yuya; TANABE, Fuyuko; SUGAWARA, Kazue; WATANABE, Atsushi; HATA, Eiji; OZAWA, Tomomi; NAKAJIMA, Kei-ichi; ARAI, Toshiro; HAYASHI, Tomohito

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of bovine mastitis, but its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the immune or inflammatory response of SA mastitis, we investigated the gene expression profile in bovine mammary epithelial cells stimulated with LTA alone or with formalin-killed SA (FKSA) using cap analysis of gene expression. Seven common differentially expressed genes related to immune or inflammatory mediators were up-regulated under both LTA and FKSA stimulations. Three of these genes encode chemokines (IL-8, CXCL6 and CCL2) functioning as chemoattractant molecules for neutrophils and macrophages. These results suggest that the initial inflammatory response of SA infection in mammary gland may be related with LTA induced chemokine genes. PMID:27211287

  6. Tol-Pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of Erwinia chrysanthemi affecting cell morphology and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Jean-François; Vianney, Anne; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lazzaroni, Jean Claude

    2005-10-01

    The tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria. These genes were first described in Escherichia coli, and more recently in several other species. They are involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli, Haemophilus ducreyi, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica. The role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, assuming that this organism might be a good model for such a study. The whole Er. chrysanthemi tol-pal region was characterized. Tol-Pal proteins, except TolA, showed high identity scores with their E. coli homologues. Er. chrysanthemi mutants were constructed by introducing a uidA-kan cassette in the ybgC, tolQ, tolA, tolB, pal and ybgF genes. All the mutants were hypersensitive to bile salts. Mutations in tolQ, tolA, tolB and pal were deleterious for the bacteria, which required high concentrations of sugars or osmoprotectants for their viability. Consistent with this observation, they were greatly impaired in their cell morphology and division, which was evidenced by observations of cell filaments, spherical forms, membrane blebbing and mislocalized bacterial septa. Moreover, tol-pal mutants showed a reduced virulence in a potato tuber model and on chicory leaves. This could be explained by a combination of impaired phenotypes in the tol-pal mutants, such as reduced growth and motility and a decreased production of pectate lyases, the major virulence factor of Er. chrysanthemi.

  7. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K upregulates the kinetochore complex component NUF2 and promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimasa, Hironobu; Taniue, Kenzui [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Kurimoto, Akiko [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Oncology Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd, 1-2-58, Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-8710 (Japan); Takeda, Yasuko; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan); Akiyama, Tetsu, E-mail: akiyama@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Information, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-03-27

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein involved in transcription, mRNA splicing, mRNA stabilization and translation. Although hnRNP K has been suggested to play a role in the development of many cancers, its molecular function in colorectal cancer has remained elusive. Here we show that hnRNP K plays an important role in the mitotic process in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hnRNP K directly transactivates the NUF2 gene, the product of which is a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex and which is known to be critical for a stable spindle microtubule-kinetochore attachment. In addition, knockdown of both hnRNP K and NUF2 caused failure in metaphase chromosome alignment and drastic decrease in the growth of colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the mitotic process and proliferation of colon cancer cells and that this axis could be a target for the therapy of colon cancer. - Highlights: • hnRNP K is required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. • hnRNP K binds to the promoter region of NUF2 and activates its transcription. • NUF2 expression is correlated with hnRNP K expression in colorectal cancer tissue. • hnRNP K and NUF2 are required for metaphase chromosome alignment. • The hnRNP K-NUF2 axis is important for the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  8. Ultrastructural Study of Salmonella typhimurium Treated with Membrane-Active Agents: Specific Reaction of Dansylchloride with Cell Envelope Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Peter R. G.; Teuber, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Amino groups of cell envelope proteins, lipids, and lipopolysaccharides cannot be labeled in intact cells of Salmonella typhimurium G 30 by using 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylchloride incorporated in lecithin-cholesterol vesicles. However, application of membrane-interacting agents like tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-hydrochloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na salt) (EDTA), divalent cations, and sublethal doses of the cationic antibacterial agents polymyxin B and chlorhexidine induced specific fluorescent labeling of envelope proteins and lipids but not of cytoplasmic compounds, with the exception of a soluble protein with a molecular weight of 46,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatment with Tris-hydrochloride buffer produced labeling of the heat-modifiable protein B/B+ and of proteins with molecular weights of 26,000, 22,000, and below 17,000. A combination of Tris-hydrochloride and EDTA induced additional dansylation of the major protein A and of proteins of molecular weights 80,000, 60,000, and 44,000. Polymyxin B and chlorhexidine caused similar labeling patterns. In every case, except with divalent cation treatment, protein B/B+ was the most prominently labeled species. Phosphatidylethanolamine was dansylated up to 30%. Lipopolysaccharide was not reactive under any condition or treatment. In addition, the peptidoglycan-bound lipoprotein did not react with dansylchloride in either intact or Tris-hydrochloride-treated cells. The results are discussed with regard to a possible localization of labeled and unlabeled compounds of the cell envelope on the basis of a model placing cell envelope amino groups into ion-ion interactions with anionic components of other envelope compounds like phosphate and carboxyl groups. Images PMID:97268

  9. Strategies for regeneration of components of nervous system: scaffolds, cells and biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lingling; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-03-01

    Nerve diseases including acute injury such as peripheral nerve injury (PNI), spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and chronic disease like neurodegeneration disease can cause various function disorders of nervous system, such as those relating to memory and voluntary movement. These nerve diseases produce great burden for individual families and the society, for which a lot of efforts have been made. Axonal pathways represent a unidirectional and aligned architecture allowing systematic axonal development within the tissue. Following a traumatic injury, the intricate architecture suffers disruption leading to inhibition of growth and loss of guidance. Due to limited capacity of the body to regenerate axonal pathways, it is desirable to have biomimetic approach that has the capacity to graft a bridge across the lesion while providing optimal mechanical and biochemical cues for tissue regeneration. And for central nervous system injury, one more extra precondition is compulsory: creating a less inhibitory surrounding for axonal growth. Electrospinning is a cost-effective and straightforward technique to fabricate extracellular matrix (ECM)-like nanofibrous structures, with various fibrous forms such as random fibers, aligned fibers, 3D fibrous scaffold and core-shell fibers from a variety of polymers. The diversity and versatility of electrospinning technique, together with functionalizing cues such as neurotrophins, ECM-based proteins and conductive polymers, have gained considerable success for the nerve tissue applications. We are convinced that in the future the stem cell therapy with the support of functionalized electrospun nerve scaffolds could be a promising therapy to cure nerve diseases. PMID:26813399

  10. Polyazomethine as a component of solar cells-theoretical and optical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korona, K. P.; Korona, T.; Rutkowska-Zbik, D.; Grankowska-Ciechanowicz, S.; Iwan, A.; Kamińska, M.

    2015-11-01

    A recently synthesized 25Th-cardo polyazomethine (PAZ) and its photocurrent generating junction with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have been examined as possible materials for construction of new-generation solar cells. Properties of a 25Th-cardo/PCBM system, where PAZ and PCBM act as donor and acceptor materials, respectively, have been studied theoretically by time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and experimentally by means of optical absorption, photocurrent spectroscopy (PCS), and time-resolved luminescence (TRPL). Theoretical calculations show that highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of PAZ and PCBM are almost equal (values of -6.01 and -5.98 eV were obtained with the B3LYP functional and the def2-TZVP orbital basis for PAZ and PCBM, respectively), what suggests a possibility of charge transfer in both directions for this system. The shape of the calculated absorption spectrum is in a qualitative agreement with the experiment. The PCS measurements of the new material show that the external quantum efficiency is the highest (about 0.3%) in the near UV range. The TRPL studies reveal a fast decay of a Langevin type (in picosecond range) of the PAZ-related photoluminescence, which accelerates in presence of PCBM, probably due to the charge transfer to PCBM. In addition, our measurements document a usually neglected process of the hole transfer from a donor to an acceptor. A leakage of holes from PAZ to PCBM is supported by a small energy difference of the HOMO energies, as predicted by theory.

  11. Epigenetic changes in Basal Cell Carcinoma affect SHH and WNT signaling components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjinta Brinkhuizen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic background of Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC has been studied extensively, while its epigenetic makeup has received comparatively little attention. Epigenetic alterations such as promoter hypermethylation silence tumor suppressor genes (TSG in several malignancies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the promoter methylation status of ten putative (tumor suppressor genes that are associated with Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, WNT signaling and (hair follicle tumors in a large series of 112 BCC and 124 healthy control samples by methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: Gene promoters of SHH (P = 0.016, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC (P = 0.003, secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5 (P = 0.004 and Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A (P = 0.023 showed significantly more methylation in BCC versus normal skin. mRNA levels of these four genes were reduced for APC and SFRP5 in BCC (n = 6 vs normal skin (n = 6. Down regulation of SHH, APC and RASSF1A could be confirmed on protein level as well (P<0.001 for all genes by immunohistochemical staining. Increased canonical WNT activity was visualized by β-catenin staining, showing nuclear β-catenin in only 28/101 (27.7% of BCC. Absence of nuclear β-catenin in some samples may be due to high levels of membranous E-cadherin (in 94.1% of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that promoter hypermethylation of key players within the SHH and WNT pathways is frequent in BCC, consistent with their known constitutive activation in BCC. Epigenetic gene silencing putatively contributes to BCC tumorigenesis, indicating new venues for treatment.

  12. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

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    Ryoichiro Nishibayashi

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells.

  13. The Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Component Vangl2 Induces Synapse Formation through Direct Control of N-Cadherin

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    Tadahiro Nagaoka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although regulators of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP pathway are widely expressed in vertebrate nervous systems, their roles at synapses are unknown. Here, we show that Vangl2 is a postsynaptic factor crucial for synaptogenesis and that it coprecipitates with N-cadherin and PSD-95 from synapse-rich brain extracts. Vangl2 directly binds N-cadherin and enhances its internalization in a Rab5-dependent manner. This physical and functional interaction is suppressed by β-catenin, which binds the same intracellular region of N-cadherin as Vangl2. In hippocampal neurons expressing reduced Vangl2 levels, dendritic spine formation as well as synaptic marker clustering is significantly impaired. Furthermore, Prickle2, another postsynaptic PCP component, inhibits the N-cadherin-Vangl2 interaction and is required for normal spine formation. These results demonstrate direct control of classic cadherin by PCP factors; this control may play a central role in the precise formation and maturation of cell-cell adhesions at the synapse.

  14. [PRODUCT OF THE BMI1--A KEY COMPONENT OF POLYCOMB--POSITIVELY REGULATES ADIPOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION OF MOUSE MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N S; Vereschagina, N A; Sushilova, E N; Kropotov, A V; Miheeva, N F; Popov, B V

    2016-01-01

    Bmil is a key component of Polycomb (PcG), which in mammals controls the basic functions of mammalian somatic stem cells (SSC) such as self-renewal and differentiation. Bmi1 supports SSC via transcriptional suppression of genes associated with cell cycle and differentiation. The most studied target genes of Bmi1 are the genes of Ink4 locus, CdkI p16(Ink4a) and p1(Arf), suppression of which due to activating mutations of the BMI1 results in formation of cancer stem cells (CSC) and carcinomas in various tissues. In contrast, inactivation of BMI1 results in cell cycle arrest and cell senescence. Although clinical phenomena of hypo- and hyperactivation of BMI1 are well known, its targets and mechanisms of regulation of tissue specific SSC are still obscure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the regulatory role of BMI1 in adipocyte differentiation (AD) of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Induction of AD in mouse MSC of the C3H10T1/2 cell line was associated with an increase in the expression levels of BMI1, the genes of pRb family (RB, p130) and demethylase UTX, but not methyltransferase EZH2, whose products regulate the methylation levels of H3K27. It was observed earlier that H3K27me3 may play the role of the epigenetic switch by promoting AD of human MSC via activating expression of the PPARγ2, the master gene of AD (Hemming et al., 2014). Here we show that inactivation of BMI1 using specific siRNA slows and decreases the levels of AD, but does not abolish it. This is associated with a complete inhibition of the expression of adipogenic marker genes--PPARγ2, ADIPOQ and a decrease in the expression of RB, p130, but not UTX. The results obtained give evidence that the epigenetic mechanism regulating AD differentiation in mouse and human MSC is different.

  15. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S3-33 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-01-06

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 860 nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  16. Diagnosing basal cell carcinoma in vivo by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: a Principal Components Analysis discrimination algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Silveira, Fabrício L.; Bodanese, Benito; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T.; Zângaro, Renato A.

    2012-02-01

    This work demonstrated the discrimination among basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and normal human skin in vivo using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained in the suspected lesion prior resectional surgery. After tissue withdrawn, biopsy fragments were submitted to histopathology. Spectra were also obtained in the adjacent, clinically normal skin. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm) with a fiber Raman probe. By comparing the mean spectra of BCC with the normal skin, it has been found important differences in the 800-1000 cm-1 and 1250-1350 cm-1 (vibrations of C-C and amide III, respectively, from lipids and proteins). A discrimination algorithm based on Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance (PCA/MD) could discriminate the spectra of both tissues with high sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Synthesis of fluorene-based polyelectrolytes tethering different counterions for single-component white light-emitting electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Tsai, Chia-Sheng; Liu, Bo-Cun; Su, Hai-Ching

    2013-09-01

    A series of polyfluorene (PF) electrolytes bearing Br-, BF4 -, or PF6 - counterions were synthesized and characterized. 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole moieties were incorporated into polymer main chains to produce single-component white lightemitting polymers. The thermal stability of Br-containing ionic PF was decreased because of the Hofmann elimination occurred at higher temperature. By replacing Br- with BF4 - or PF6 - counterions, the thermal stability of polymers was significantly improved. The emission intensity around 550 nm was decreased for ionic polyelectrolytes. The optimized spin-coated light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/polymer/Ag showed a maximum luminescence efficiency of 1.56 lm/W at a low operation bias of 3 V. The single-component LEC device exhibited pure white light emission with CIE'1931 coordinates approaching (0.33, 0.33) and high color rendering index (CRI < 85), referring to its potential use in solid-state-lighting application.

  18. 454 Transcriptome sequencing suggests a role for two-component signalling in cellularization and differentiation of barley endosperm transfer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Thiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell specification and differentiation in the endosperm of cereals starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the endosperm transfer cells (ETCs. Besides the importance in assimilate transfer, ETCs are proposed to play an essential role in the regulation of endosperm differentiation by affecting development of proximate endosperm tissues. We attempted to identify signalling elements involved in early endosperm differentiation by using a combination of laser-assisted microdissection and 454 transcriptome sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 454 sequencing of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial state until functionality in transfer processes captured a high proportion of novel transcripts which are not available in existing barley EST databases. Intriguingly, the ETC-transcriptome showed a high abundance of elements of the two-component signalling (TCS system suggesting an outstanding role in ETC differentiation. All components and subfamilies of the TCS, including distinct kinds of membrane-bound receptors, have been identified to be expressed in ETCs. The TCS system represents an ancient signal transduction system firstly discovered in bacteria and has previously been shown to be co-opted by eukaryotes, like fungi and plants, whereas in animals and humans this signalling route does not exist. Transcript profiling of TCS elements by qRT-PCR suggested pivotal roles for specific phosphorelays activated in a coordinated time flow during ETC cellularization and differentiation. ETC-specificity of transcriptionally activated TCS phosphorelays was assessed for early differentiation and cellularization contrasting to an extension of expression to other grain tissues at the beginning of ETC maturation. Features of candidate genes of distinct phosphorelays and transcriptional activation of genes putatively implicated in hormone signalling pathways hint at a crosstalk of hormonal influences, putatively ABA and ethylene, and

  19. Screening antiallergic components from Carthamus tinctorius using rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shengli; Huang, Jing; Cui, Ronghua; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    Carthamus tinctorius, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has many pharmacological effects, such as anticoagulant effects, antioxidant effects, antiaging effects, regulation of gene expression, and antitumor effects. However, there is no report on the antiallergic effects of the components in C. tinctorius. In the present study, we investigated the antiallergic components of C. tinctorius and its mechanism of action. A rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography coupled online with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to screen antiallergic components from C. tinctorius. The screening results showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A, from C. tinctorius, was the targeted component that retained on the rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography column. We measured the amount of β-hexosaminidase and histamine released in mast cells and the key markers of degranulation. The release assays showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A could attenuate the immunoglobulin E induced release of allergic cytokines without affecting cell viability from 1.0 to 50.0 μM. In conclusion, the established rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography coupled with online high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method successfully screened and identified Hydroxysafflor yellow A from C. tinctorius as a potential antiallergic component. Pharmacological analysis elucidated that Hydroxysafflor yellow A is an effective natural component for inhibiting immunoglobulin E-antigen-mediated degranulation.

  20. Characterization of Damp-Heat Degradation of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cell Components and Devices by (Electrochemical) Impedance Spectroscopy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F. J. J.; Noufi, R.

    2011-09-01

    This work evaluated the capability of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (IS, or ECIS as used here) to monitor damp heat (DH) stability of contact materials, CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cell components, and devices. Cell characteristics and its variation of the CIGS devices were also examined by the ECIS.

  1. Erythrocytes and cell line-based assays to evaluate the cytoprotective activity of antioxidant components obtained from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Albert; Martínez, Verónica; Mitjans, Montserrat; Balboa, Elena; Conde, Enma; Vinardell, M Pilar

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress can damage cellular components including DNA, proteins or lipids, and may cause several skin diseases. To protect from this damage and addressing consumer's appeal to natural products, antioxidants obtained from algal and vegetal extracts are being proposed as antioxidants to be incorporated into formulations. Thus, the development of reliable, quick and economic in vitro methods to study the cytoactivity of these products is a meaningful requirement. A combination of erythrocyte and cell line-based assays was performed on two extracts from Sargassum muticum, one from Ulva lactuca, and one from Castanea sativa. Antioxidant properties were assessed in erythrocytes by the TBARS and AAPH assays, and cytotoxicity and antioxidant cytoprotection were assessed in HaCaT and 3T3 cells by the MTT assay. The extracts showed no antioxidant activity on the TBARS assay, whereas their antioxidant capacity in the AAPH assay was demonstrated. On the cytotoxicity assays, extracts showed low toxicity, with IC50 values higher than 200μg/mL. C. sativa extract showed the most favourable antioxidant properties on the antioxidant cytoprotection assays; while S. muticum and U. lactuca extracts showed a slight antioxidant activity. This battery of methods was useful to characterise the biological antioxidant properties of these natural extracts.

  2. Two-component system cross-regulation integrates Bacillus anthracis response to heme and cell envelope stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Mike

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signaling systems (TCSs are one of the mechanisms that bacteria employ to sense and adapt to changes in the environment. A prototypical TCS functions as a phosphorelay from a membrane-bound sensor histidine kinase (HK to a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR that controls target gene expression. Despite significant homology in the signaling domains of HKs and RRs, TCSs are thought to typically function as linear systems with little to no cross-talk between non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Here we have identified several cell envelope acting compounds that stimulate a previously uncharacterized Bacillus anthracis TCS. Furthermore, this TCS cross-signals with the heme sensing TCS HssRS; therefore, we have named it HssRS interfacing TCS (HitRS. HssRS reciprocates cross-talk to HitRS, suggesting a link between heme toxicity and cell envelope stress. The signaling between HssRS and HitRS occurs in the parental B. anthracis strain; therefore, we classify HssRS-HitRS interactions as cross-regulation. Cross-talk between HssRS and HitRS occurs at both HK-RR and post-RR signaling junctions. Finally, HitRS also regulates a previously unstudied ABC transporter implicating this transporter in the response to cell envelope stress. This chemical biology approach to probing TCS signaling provides a new model for understanding how bacterial signaling networks are integrated to enable adaptation to complex environments such as those encountered during colonization of the vertebrate host.

  3. Effect of oxygen on the expression of renin-angiotensin system components in a human trophoblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delforce, Sarah J; Wang, Yu; Van-Aalst, Meg E; Corbisier de Meaultsart, Celine; Morris, Brian J; Broughton-Pipkin, Fiona; Roberts, Claire T; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Pringle, Kirsty G

    2016-01-01

    During the first trimester, normal placental development occurs in a low oxygen environment that is known to stimulate angiogenesis via upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Expression of the placental renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is highest in early pregnancy. While the RAS and oxygen both stimulate angiogenesis, how they interact within the placenta is unknown. We postulated that low oxygen increases expression of the proangiogenic RAS pathway and that this is associated with increased VEGF in a first trimester human trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo). HTR-8/SVneo cells were cultured in one of three oxygen tensions (1%, 5% and 20%). RAS and VEGF mRNA expression were determined by qPCR. Prorenin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and VEGF protein levels in the supernatant, as well as prorenin and ACE in cell lysates, were measured using ELISAs. Low oxygen significantly increased the expression of both angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and VEGF (both P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between AGTR1 and VEGF expression at low oxygen (r = 0.64, P < 0.005). Corresponding increases in VEGF protein were observed with low oxygen (P < 0.05). Despite no change in ACE1 mRNA expression, ACE levels in the supernatant increased with low oxygen (1% and 5%, P < 0.05). Expression of other RAS components did not change. Low oxygen increased AGTR1 and VEGF expression, as well as ACE and VEGF protein levels, suggesting that the proangiogenic RAS pathway is activated. This highlights a potential role for the placental RAS in mediating the proangiogenic effects of low oxygen in placental development.

  4. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: I. The Macromolecular Components of the Walls of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells with a Detailed Analysis of the Pectic Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, K W; Keegstra, K; Bauer, W D; Albersheim, P

    1973-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers dealing with the structure of cell walls isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). These studies have been made possible by the availability of purified hydrolytic enzymes and by recent improvements in the techniques of methylation analysis. These techniques have permitted us to identify and quantitate the macromolecular components of sycamore cell walls. These walls are composed of 10% arabinan, 2% 3,6-linked arabinogalactan, 23% cellulose, 9% oligo-arabinosides (attached to hydroxyproline), 8% 4-linked galactan, 10% hydroxyproline-rich protein, 16% rhamnogalacturonan, and 21% xyloglucan.The structures of the pectic polymers (the neutral arabinan, the neutral galactan, and the acidic rhamnogalacturonan) were obtained, in part, by methylation analysis of fragments of these polymers which were released from the sycamore walls by the action of a highly purified endopolygalacturonase. The data suggest a branched arabinan and a linear 4-linked galactan occurring as side chains on the rhamnogalacturonan. Small amounts or pieces of a xyloglucan, the wall hemicellulose, appear to be covalently linked to some of the galactan chains. Thus, the galactan appears to serve as a bridge between the xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan components of the wall.The rhamnogalacturonan consists of an alpha-(1 --> 4)-linked galacturonan chain which is interspersed with 2-linked rhamnosyl residues. The rhamnosyl residues are not randomly distributed in the chain but probably occur in units of rhamnosyl- (1 --> 4)-galacturonosyl- (1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl. This sequence appears to alternate with a homogalacturonan sequence containing approximately 8 residues of 4-linked galacturonic acid. About half of the rhamnosyl residues are branched, having a substituent attached to carbon 4. This is likely to be the site of attachment of the 4-linked galactan.The hydroxyprolyl oligo-arabinosides of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein

  5. Establishment of the model of white blood cell membrane chromatography and screening of antagonizing TLR4 receptor component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Cuiqin; HE; Langchong

    2006-01-01

    A model of white blood cell membrane chromatography (WB-CMC) was established to screen active component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. The component can antagonize Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibit inflammatory reaction. In the model of WB-CMC, cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing the rabbit white blood cell membrane (WBCM) onto the surface of silica carrier and taxinol was used as a model molecule. The active component which can act on WBCM and its receptor (such as TLR4) as an effective target in A. macrocephala was determined by using a replacement experiment. The anti-inflammatory effects of the active component were tested by using pharmacological methods in vivo. The results indicated that the retention characteristics of atractylenolide I as active component was similar to that of taxinol in the model of WB-CMC. And so, atractylenolide I acted on the WBCM and TLR4 and its anti-inflammatory activity was related with antagonizing TLR4. Therefore, the interaction between the active component and WBCM and its receptor can be simulated by the model of WB-CMC in vitro. This model can be used to screen active components and to study effective characteristics for acting on definite targets.

  6. Optimizing the fabrication process and interplay of device components of polymer solar cells using a field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, Sergii; Pershin, Anton; Baeurle, Stephan A.

    2015-05-01

    Both the device composition and fabrication process are well-known to crucially affect the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells. Major advances have recently been achieved through the development of novel device materials and inkjet printing technologies, which permit to improve their durability and performance considerably. In this work, we demonstrate the usefulness of a recently developed field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm to investigate the influence of the material characteristics, like, e.g., electrode surfaces, polymer architectures, and impurities in the active layer, as well as post-production treatments, like, e.g., electric field alignment, on the photovoltaic performance of block-copolymer solar-cell devices. Our study reveals that a short exposition time of the polymer bulk heterojunction to the action of an external electric field can lead to a low photovoltaic performance due to an incomplete alignment process, leading to undulated or disrupted nanophases. With increasing exposition time, the nanophases align in direction to the electric field lines, resulting in an increase of the number of continuous percolation paths and, ultimately, in a reduction of the number of exciton and charge-carrier losses. Moreover, we conclude by modifying the interaction strengths between the electrode surfaces and active layer components that a too low or too high affinity of an electrode surface to one of the components can lead to defective contacts, causing a deterioration of the device performance. Finally, we infer from the study of block-copolymer nanoparticle systems that particle impurities can significantly affect the nanostructure of the polymer matrix and reduce the photovoltaic performance of the active layer. For a critical volume fraction and size of the nanoparticles, we observe a complete phase transformation of the polymer nanomorphology, leading to a drop of the internal quantum efficiency. For other particle-numbers and -sizes

  7. Molecular Genetic Alterations in Renal Cell Carcinomas With Tubulocystic Pattern: Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma With Heterogenous Component and Familial Leiomyomatosis-associated Renal Cell Carcinoma. Clinicopathologic and Molecular Genetic Analysis of 15 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulamec, Monika; Skenderi, Faruk; Zhou, Ming; Krušlin, Božo; Martínek, Petr; Grossmann, Petr; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Kalusova, Kristyna; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Daum, Ondrej; Dubova, Magdalena; Bauleth, Kevin; Slouka, David; Sperga, Maris; Davidson, Whitney; Rychly, Boris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic morphologic spectrum of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) may include areas resembling papillary RCC (PRCC). Our study includes 15 RCCs with tubulocystic pattern: 6 TC-RCCs, 1 RCC-high grade with tubulocystic architecture, 5 TC-RCCs with foci of PRCC, 2 with high-grade RCC (HGRCC) not otherwise specified, and 1 with a clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like component. We analyzed aberrations of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y; mutations of VHL and FH genes; and loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 3p. Genetic analysis was performed separately in areas of classic TC-RCC and in those with other histologic patterns. The TC-RCC component demonstrated disomy of chromosome 7 in 9/15 cases, polysomy of chromosome 17 in 7/15 cases, and loss of Y in 1 case. In the PRCC component, 2/3 analyzable cases showed disomy of chromosome 7 and polysomy of chromosome 17 with normal Y. One case with focal HGRCC exhibited only disomy 7, whereas the case with clear cell papillary RCC/renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor-like pattern showed polysomies of 7 and 17, mutation of VHL, and loss of heterozygosity 3p. FH gene mutation was identified in a single case with an aggressive clinical course and predominant TC-RCC pattern. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) TC-RCC demonstrates variable status of chromosomes 7, 17, and Y even in cases with typical/uniform morphology. (2) The biological nature of PRCC/HGRCC-like areas within TC-RCC remains unclear. Our data suggest that heterogenous TC-RCCs may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. (3) Hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC can be morphologically indistinguishable from "high-grade" TC-RCC; therefore, in TC-RCC with high-grade features FH gene status should be tested. PMID:26447894

  8. Historical review: the carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and its membrane (DM) and red cell (Theta.Vc) components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J M B; Bates, D V

    2003-11-14

    The single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO sb), also called the transfer factor (TLCO), was introduced by Marie and August Krogh in two papers (Krogh and Krogh, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 23, 236-247, 1909; Krogh, J. Physiol., Lond. 49, 271-296, 1915). Physiologically, their measurements showed that sufficient oxygen (by extrapolation from CO) diffused passively from gas to blood without the need to postulate oxygen secretion, a popular theory at the time. Their DLCO sb technique was neglected until the advent of the infra-red CO meter in the 1950s. Ogilvie et al., J. Clin. Invest. 36, 1-17, 1957 published a standardized technique for a 'modified Krogh' single breath DLCO, which eventually became the method of choice in pulmonary function laboratories. The Roughton-Forster equation (J. Appl. Physiol. 1957, 11, 290-302) was an important step conceptually; it partitioned alveolar-capillary diffusion of oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO) into a membrane component (DM) and a red cell component (theta.Vc) where theta is the DLCO (or DL(O2)) per ml of blood (measured in vitro), and Vc is the pulmonary capillary volume. This equation was based on the kinetics of O2 and CO with haemoglobin (Hb) in solution and with whole blood Hartridge and Roughton, Nature, 1923, 111, 325-326; Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 1923, 104, 376-394; (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, 1923, 94, 336-367; Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 1923, 104, 395-430; J. Physiol., Lond. 1927, 62, 232-242; Roughton, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 1932, 111, 1-36) and on the relationship between alveolar P(O2) and 1/DLCO. Subsequently, the relationship between DL(O2) (Lilienthal et al., Am. J. Physiol. 147, 199-216, 1946) and DL(CO) was defined. More recently, the measurement of the nitric oxide diffusing capacity (DLNO) has been introduced. For DL(O2) and DLNO the membrane component (as 1/DM) is an important part of the overall diffusion (transfer) resistance. For the DLCO, 1/theta.Vc probably plays the greater

  9. Clinical observation of factors in the efficacy of blood component transfusion in patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors affecting the efficacy of platelet and red blood cell (RBC transfusion in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT have not been studied extensively. We aimed to evaluate platelet and RBC transfusion efficacy by measuring the platelet corrected count increment and the hemoglobin increment, respectively, 24 h after transfusion in 105 patients who received HSCT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using retrospective analysis, we studied whether factors, including gender, time of transplantation, the compatibility of ABO group between HSC donors and recipients, and autologous or allogenic transplantation, influence the efficacy of blood component transfusion. We found that the infection rate of HSCT patients positively correlated with the transfusion amount, and the length of stay in the laminar flow room was associated with transfusion. We found that platelet transfusion performed during HSCT showed significantly better efficacy than that performed before HSCT. The effect of platelet transfusion in auto-transplantation was significantly better than that in allo-transplantation. The efficacy of RBC transfusion during HSCT was significantly lower than that performed before HSCT. The efficacy of RBC transfusion in auto-transplantation was significantly higher than that in allo-transplantation. Allo-transplantation patients who received HSCs from compatible ABO groups showed significantly higher efficacy during both platelet and RBC transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the efficacy of platelet and RBC transfusions does not correlate with the gender of patients, while it significantly correlates with the time of transplantation, type of transplantation, and ABO compatibility between HSC donors and recipients. During HSCT, the infection rate of patients positively correlates with the transfusion amount of RBCs and platelets. The total volume of RBC units transfused positively correlates with the length of

  10. The permeability characteristics and interaction of the main components from Zhizi Bopi decoction in the MDCK cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengyue; Huang, Cheng; Shen, Chenlin; Meng, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhaolin; Hu, Tingting; Li, Yangyang; Li, Jun

    2016-08-01

    1. Although emerging evidence indicates the therapeutic effects of Zhizi Bopi Decoction, the extent to which essential ingredients are absorbed and the possible synergistic actions are poorly understood. 2. In this study, MDCK cell model was used to determine the bi-directional permeability and interaction between the main components (geniposide, berberine and glycyrrhizic acid) of Zhizi Bopi Decoction. 3. The transport of the active ingredients was concentration-dependent in both directions. Moreover, the Papp (AP-BL) values of berberine and glycyrrhizic acid were significantly reduced when co-incubation with an ATP inhibitor. Additionally, uptake of berberine, glycyrrhizic acid were clearly inhibited by the inhibitors of P-glycoprotein and MRP2, indicating that P-gp and MRP2 may be involved in the transport of berberine and glycyrrhizic acid, respectively. However, it was found that geniposide may be purely passive diffusion. Furthermore, the combined incubation of geniposide with berberine and glycyrrhizic acid had a powerful sorbefacient effect than use of a single drug alone which may be regulated by tight junctions. 4. In summary, our study provides useful information for pharmacological applications of Zhizi Bopi Decoction and offers new insights into this ancient decoction for further researches, especially in drug synergism. PMID:26634613

  11. Lung carcinoma with rhabdoid component. A series of seven cases associated with uncommon types of non-small cell lung carcinomas and alveolar entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, Francisco M; Moreno-Mata, Nicolás; Herranz-Aladro, María Luisa; Cañizares, Miguel Angel; Alvarez-Fernandez, Emilio

    2010-10-01

    Rhabdoid tumor, included in the WHO classification among large cell carcinomas of the lung, is an uncommon type of lung carcinoma with poor prognosis. We report a series of 7 cases of lung carcinomas with rhabdoid component in 10% and 80% of the tumor. The associated tumor was adenocarcinoma in 3 cases--one of them with focal micropapillary pattern--large cell carcinoma in 2 cases, squamous cell carcinoma in 1 case and pleomorphic carcinoma in 1 case. Two adenocarcinomas showed a focal spindle cell component. Micropapillary and pleomorphic types had not been reported before as a component associated with rhabdoid carcinomas. All cases were positive for vimentin, and AE1/AE3 cytokeratin and 5 cases for cytokeratin 7. All cases were negative for muscle and endothelial markers and for chromogranin A. Synaptophysin was focally positive only in one case. Alveolar trapping inside the tumor was present in 3 cases--a phenomenon not well studied in lung carcinomas and also not reported in tumors with rhabdoid component. Five patients died because of the tumor within 2 to 31 months after diagnosis, one of myocardial infarction and only one is alive and disease free 123 months after the diagnosis. In summary, we describe 7 new cases of this uncommon lung tumor with aggressive clinical course, associated with infrequent histological types in nonrhabdoid component and with alveolar trapping, a nondescribed finding.

  12. An Organic Dyad Composed of Diathiafulvalene-Functionalized Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Fullerene for Single-Component High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, K; Venkateswararao, A; Nagarjuna, P; Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-09-26

    A new low-band gap dyad DPP-Ful, which consists of covalently linked dithiafulvalene-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole as donor and fullerene (C60 ) as the acceptor, has been designed and synthesized. Organic solar cells were successfully constructed using the DPP-Ful dyad as an active layer. This system has a record power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.2 %, which is the highest value when compared to reported single-component organic solar cells.

  13. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  14. Anode biofilm transcriptomics reveals outer surface components essential for high density current production in Geobacter sulfurreducens fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Nevin

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 microm biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes.

  15. Silica Induced Suppression of the Production of Third and Fifth Components of the Complement System by Human Lung Cells In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothman, Barbara L.; Contrino, Josephine; Merrow, Martha; Despins, Alan; Kennedy, Thomas; Kreutzer, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    Although investigations to date have demonstrated the ability of the monocyte/macrophage to synthesize complement components, only a limited number of studies on complement synthesis by nonhepatic tissue cells have been reported. To begin to fill this gap in our knowledge we have recently evaluated

  16. Analysis and Comparison Based on Component Stress Factor of Dual Active Bridge and Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converters for Bidirectional Fuel Cells Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and comparison of isolated topologies for bidirectional fuel cell systems. The analyzed topologies are the dua l active bridge (DAB) and the isolated full bridge boost converter (IFBBC). The analysis is performed based on the component stress factor (CSF). Results ...

  17. A combination of proteomics, principal component analysis and transcriptomics is a powerful tool for the identification of biomarkers for macrophage maturation in the U937 cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Bijlsma, S.; Groene, E.M. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    The monocyte-like human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 can be induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to undergo differentiation into a macrophage-like phenotype. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), oligonucleotide microarrays and principal component analysis (PCA)

  18. Development of a solid polymer electrolyte electrolysis cell module and ancillary components for a breadboard water electrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology in a water electrolysis system along with ancillary components to generate oxygen and hydrogen for a manned space station application are considered. Standard commercial components are utilized wherever possible. Presented are the results of investigations, surveys, tests, conclusions and recommendations for future development efforts.

  19. Protective effects of components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetflag rhizome on PC12 cells incubated with amyloid-beta42

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zi-hao; Cheng, Xiao-hui; Ruan, Zhi-gang; Wang, Han; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Jing; Li, Guo-Ying; Tian, Su-min

    2015-01-01

    The major ingredients of grassleaf sweetflag rhizome are β-asarone and eugenol, which can cross the blood-brain barrier and protect neurons. This study aimed to observe the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of β-asarone and eugenol, components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, on PC12 cells. First, PC12 cells were cultured with different concentrations (between 1 × 10-10 M and 1 × 10-5 M) of β-asarone and eugenol. Survival rates of PC12 cells were not significantly affecte...

  20. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  1. Protective effects of components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetlfag rhizome on PC12 cells incubated with amyloid-beta42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-hao Liang; Xiao-hui Cheng; Zhi-gang Ruan; Han Wang; Shan-shan Li; Jing Liu; Guo-ying Li; Su-min Tian

    2015-01-01

    The major ingredients of grassleaf sweetlfag rhizome areβ-asarone and eugenol, which can cross the blood-brain barrier and protect neurons. This study aimed to observe the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms ofβ-asarone and eugenol, components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetlfag rhizome, on PC12 cells. First, PC12 cells were cultured with different concentrations (between 1 × 10–10 M and 1 × 10–5 M) ofβ-asarone and eugenol. Survival rates of PC12 cells were not significantly affected. Second, PC12 cells incubated with amyloid-beta42, which reduced cell survival, were cultured under the same conditions (1 × 10–6 Mβ-asarone and eugenol). The survival rates of PC12 cells significantly increased, while expression levels of the mRNAs for the pro-apoptotic protein Bax decreased, and those for the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl mRNA increased. In addition, the combination ofβ-asarone with eugenol achieved better results than either component alone. Our experimental ifndings indicate that bothβ-asarone and eugenol protect PC12 cells through inhibiting apoptosis, and that the combination of the two is better than either alone.

  2. Protective effects of components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetflag rhizome on PC12 cells incubated with amyloid-beta42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-hao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The major ingredients of grassleaf sweetflag rhizome are β-asarone and eugenol, which can cross the blood-brain barrier and protect neurons. This study aimed to observe the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of β-asarone and eugenol, components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, on PC12 cells. First, PC12 cells were cultured with different concentrations (between 1 × 10 -10 M and 1 × 10 -5 M of β-asarone and eugenol. Survival rates of PC12 cells were not significantly affected. Second, PC12 cells incubated with amyloid-beta42, which reduced cell survival, were cultured under the same conditions (1 × 10 -6 M β-asarone and eugenol. The survival rates of PC12 cells significantly increased, while expression levels of the mRNAs for the pro-apoptotic protein Bax decreased, and those for the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl mRNA increased. In addition, the combination of β-asarone with eugenol achieved better results than either component alone. Our experimental findings indicate that both β-asarone and eugenol protect PC12 cells through inhibiting apoptosis, and that the combination of the two is better than either alone.

  3. Evidence for ovarian granulosa stem cells: telomerase activity and localization of the telomerase ribonucleic acid component in bovine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavranos, T C; Mathis, J M; Latham, S E; Kalionis, B; Shay, J W; Rodgers, R J

    1999-08-01

    We have previously postulated that granulosa cells of developing follicles arise from a population of stem cells. Stem cells and cancer cells can divide indefinitely partly because they express telomerase. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that repairs the ends of telomeres that otherwise shorten progressively upon each successive cell division. In this study we carried out cell cycle analyses and examined telomerase expression to examine our hypothesis. Preantral (60-100 microm) and small (1 mm) follicles, as well as granulosa cells from medium-sized (3 mm) and large (6-8 mm) follicles, were isolated. Cell cycle analyses and expression of Ki-67, a cell cycle-related protein, were undertaken on follicles of each size (n = 3) by flow cytometry; 12% to 16% of granulosa cells in all follicles were in the S phase, and less than 2% were in the G(2)/M phase. Telomerase activity (n = 3) was highest in the small preantral follicles, declining at the 1-mm stage and even further at the 3-mm stage. In situ hybridization histochemistry was carried out on bovine ovaries, and telomerase RNA was detected in the granulosa cells of growing follicles but not primordial follicles. Two major patterns of staining were observed in the membrana granulosa of antral follicles: staining in the middle and antral layers, and staining in the middle and basal layers. No staining was detected in oocytes. Our results strongly support our hypothesis that granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells. PMID:10411512

  4. Inhibition of Glioblastoma Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo by Brucine, a Component of Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijun, Wang; Wenbin, Meng; Yumin, Wang; Ruijian, Zhang; Puweizhong, Huang; Yulin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common glial cell tumors and has drawn more and more attention in the clinic in recent years. Brucine has been reported to significantly suppress gastric cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer growth in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis. Here, the effects of brucine on U251 human glioma cell growth were investigated in vitro by cell proliferation assay, FACs, and qPCR in a xenograft tumor model. Treatment with brucine reduced the expression of BCL-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), while upregulated BAX expression in U251 human glioma cells resulted in reduced glioma cell survival rate and inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors. We concluded that brucine has a suppressive effect on U251 human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo, which could help in understanding the role of brucine in glioma cells and guiding drug use in the clinic. PMID:26629939

  5. Characterization of anti-leukemia components from Indigo naturalis using comprehensive two-dimensional K562/cell membrane chromatography and in silico target identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xunxun; Chen, Xiaofei; Dan, Jia; Cao, Yan; Gao, Shouhong; Guo, Zhiying; Zerbe, Philipp; Chai, Yifeng; Diao, Yong; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been developed for thousands of years and has formed an integrated theoretical system based on a large amount of clinical practice. However, essential ingredients in TCM herbs have not been fully identified, and their precise mechanisms and targets are not elucidated. In this study, a new strategy combining comprehensive two-dimensional K562/cell membrane chromatographic system and in silico target identification was established to characterize active components from Indigo naturalis, a famous TCM herb that has been widely used for the treatment of leukemia in China, and their targets. Three active components, indirubin, tryptanthrin and isorhamnetin, were successfully characterized and their anti-leukemia effects were validated by cell viability and cell apoptosis assays. Isorhamnetin, with undefined cancer related targets, was selected for in silico target identification. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (Src) was identified as its membrane target and the dissociation constant (Kd) between Src and isorhamnetin was 3.81 μM. Furthermore, anti-leukemia effects of isorhamnetin were mediated by Src through inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. The results demonstrated that the integrated strategy could efficiently characterize active components in TCM and their targets, which may bring a new light for a better understanding of the complex mechanism of herbal medicines. PMID:27150638

  6. The CD2 isoform of protocadherin-15 is an essential component of the tip-link complex in mature auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepermans, Elise; Michel, Vincent; Goodyear, Richard; Bonnet, Crystel; Abdi, Samia; Dupont, Typhaine; Gherbi, Souad; Holder, Muriel; Makrelouf, Mohamed; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Marlin, Sandrine; Zenati, Akila; Richardson, Guy; Avan, Paul; Bahloul, Amel; Petit, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Protocadherin-15 (Pcdh15) is a component of the tip-links, the extracellular filaments that gate hair cell mechano-electrical transduction channels in the inner ear. There are three Pcdh15 splice isoforms (CD1, CD2 and CD3), which only differ by their cytoplasmic domains; they are thought to function redundantly in mechano-electrical transduction during hair-bundle development, but whether any of these isoforms composes the tip-link in mature hair cells remains unknown. By immunolabelling and both morphological and electrophysiological analyses of post-natal hair cell-specific conditional knockout mice (Pcdh15ex38-fl/ex38-fl Myo15-cre+/-) that lose only this isoform after normal hair-bundle development, we show that Pcdh15-CD2 is an essential component of tip-links in mature auditory hair cells. The finding, in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state, of a PCDH15 frameshift mutation (p.P1515Tfs*4) that affects only Pcdh15-CD2, in profoundly deaf children from two unrelated families, extends this conclusion to humans. These results provide key information for identification of new components of the mature auditory mechano-electrical transduction machinery. This will also serve as a basis for the development of gene therapy for deafness caused by PCDH15 defects. PMID:24940003

  7. The disease resistance signaling components EDS1 and PAD4 are essential regulators of the cell death pathway controlled by LSD1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustérucci, C; Aviv, D H; Holt, B F; Dangl, J L; Parker, J E

    2001-10-01

    Specific recognition of pathogens is mediated by plant disease resistance (R) genes and translated into a successful defense response. The extent of associated hypersensitive cell death varies from none to an area encompassing cells surrounding an infection site, depending on the R gene activated. We constructed double mutants in Arabidopsis between positive regulators of R function and a negative regulator of cell death, LSD1, to address whether genes required for normal R function also regulate the runaway cell death observed in lsd1 mutants. We report here that EDS1 and PAD4, two signaling genes that mediate some but not all R responses, also are required for runaway cell death in the lsd1 mutant. Importantly, this novel function of EDS1 and PAD4 is operative when runaway cell death in lsd1 is initiated through an R gene that does not require EDS1 or PAD4 for disease resistance. NDR1, another component of R signaling, also contributes to the control of plant cell death. The roles of EDS1 and PAD4 in regulating lsd1 runaway cell death are related to the interpretation of reactive oxygen intermediate-derived signals at infection sites. We further demonstrate that the fate of superoxide at infection sites is different from that observed at the leading margins of runaway cell death lesions in lsd1 mutants.

  8. Characterization of a new small cell lung cancer (SCLC cell line STP54 derived from a metastatic bioptate of a combined type of SCLC with Non-SCLC component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Domagała-Kulawik

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer constitutes 15-20% cases of lung cancers, currently the leading cause of death from malignant diseases. It also causes the demise of >90% of affected individuals in 5 years. We have established a new SCLC cell line STP54 derived from fine needle aspirate of metastatic supraclavicular lymph node of 54 -year-old women for model experiments. The primary tumor was diagnosed by histopathological examination as combined type of small cell lung cancer with a non-small cell component. We cultured the cancer cells in the RPMI 1640 medium. In the long-term culture only the small cell component survived. The cell line was established after 30 passages and then characterized by performing cell morphology, cell growth analysis, tumorigenicity in vitro and flow cytometry analysis of selected markers (like NCAM, cytokeratines, HLA-ABC, Fas, Bcl-2, p53, CXCR4, CD210. The cells were growing in floating aggregates and show features suggesting its invasiveness. We suggest that this new cell line may serve as a valuable tool for further studies on lung tumor biology, molecular pathogenesis and metastatic mechanism.

  9. Water soluble and insoluble components of urban PM2.5 and their cytotoxic effects on epithelial cells (A549) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yajuan; Jin, Chengyu; Su, Yue; Li, Jiaru; Zhu, Bangshang

    2016-05-01

    When PM2.5 enters human bodies, the water soluble (WS-PM2.5) and insoluble components (WIS-PM2.5) of PM2.5 would interact with cells and cause adverse effects. However, the knowledge about the individual toxicity contribution of these two components is limited. In this study, the physiochemical properties of PM2.5 were well characterized. The toxic effects of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5, which include the cell viability, cell membrane damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and morphological changes, were examined with human lung epithelial A549 cells in vitro. The results indicated that WS-PM2.5 could induce the early response of ROS generation, multiplied mitochondria and multi-lamellar bodies in A549 cells, which might cause cell damage through oxidative stress. Meanwhile, WIS-PM2.5 was predominantly associated with the cell membrane disruption, which might lead to the cell damage through cell-particle interactions. Moreover, the synergistic cytotoxic effects of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5 were observed at longer exposure time. These findings demonstrate the different cytotoxicity mechanisms of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5, which suggest that not only the size and dosage of PM2.5 but also the solubility of PM2.5 should be taken into consideration when evaluating the toxicity of PM2.5. PMID:27039898

  10. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-2 within the immature rat ovary and its role in regulating mitosis and apoptosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Pru, Cindy; Pru, James K; Peluso, John J

    2014-08-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (Pgrmc2) mRNA was detected in the immature rat ovary. By 48 h after eCG, Pgrmc2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% and were maintained at 48 h post-hCG. Immunohistochemical studies detected PGRMC2 in oocytes and ovarian surface epithelial, interstitial, thecal, granulosa, and luteal cells. PGRMC2 was also present in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells, localizing to the cytoplasm of interphase cells and apparently to the mitotic spindle of cells in metaphase. Interestingly, PGRMC2 levels appeared to decrease during the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Moreover, overexpression of PGRMC2 suppressed entry into the cell cycle, possibly by binding the p58 form of cyclin dependent kinase 11b. Conversely, Pgrmc2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment increased the percentage of cells in G1 and M stage but did not increase the number of cells, which was likely due to an increase in apoptosis. Depleting PGRMC2 did not inhibit cellular (3)H-progesterone binding, but attenuated the ability of progesterone to suppress mitosis and apoptosis. Taken together these studies suggest that PGRMC2 affects granulosa cell mitosis by acting at two specific stages of the cell cycle. First, PGRMC2 regulates the progression from the G0 into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Second, PGRMC2 appears to localize to the mitotic spindle, where it likely promotes the final stages of mitosis. Finally, siRNA knockdown studies indicate that PGRMC2 is required for progesterone to slow the rate of granulosa cell mitosis and apoptosis. These findings support a role for PGRMC2 in ovarian follicle development.

  11. Mixed-linkage (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-D-glucan is not unique to the Poales and is an abundant component of Equisetum arvense cell walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben; Pettolino, Filomena A; Wilson, Sarah M;

    2008-01-01

    Mixed-linkage (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-D-glucan (MLG) is widely considered to be a defining feature of the cell walls of plants in the Poales order. However, we conducted an extensive survey of cell-wall composition in diverse land plants and discovered that MLG is also abundant in the walls...... consists mostly of cellotetraose rather than cellotetriose, and lacks long 1,4-beta-linked glucan blocks. Monosaccharide linkage analyses and immunochemical profiling indicated that, in E. arvense, MLG is a component of cell walls that have a novel architecture that differs significantly from...... that of the generally recognized type I and II cell walls. Unlike in type II walls, MLG in E. arvense does not appear to be co-extensive with glucuroarabinoxylans but occurs in walls that are rich in pectin. Immunofluorescence and immunogold localization showed that MLG occurs in both young and old regions of E...

  12. Evaluation of the effects of Streptococcus mutans chaperones and protein secretion machinery components on cell surface protein biogenesis, competence, and mutacin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, P J; Brady, L J

    2016-02-01

    The respective contributions of components of the protein translocation/maturation machinery to cell surface biogenesis in Streptococcus mutans are not fully understood. Here we used a genetic approach to characterize the effects of deletion of genes encoding the ribosome-associated chaperone RopA (Trigger Factor), the surface-localized foldase PrsA, and the membrane-localized chaperone insertases YidC1 and YidC2, both singly and in combination, on bacterial growth, chain length, self-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, autolysis, and antigenicity of surface proteins P1 (AgI/II, PAc), WapA, GbpC, and GtfD. The single and double deletion mutants, as well as additional mutant strains lacking components of the signal recognition particle pathway, were also evaluated for their effects on mutacin production and genetic competence. PMID:26386361

  13. Dose- and time-dependent changes of micronucleus frequency and gene expression in the progeny of irradiated cells: Two components in radiation-induced genomic instability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huumonen, Katriina [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, 70701 Kuopio (Finland); Boman, Eeva; Heikkilä, Janne [Kuopio University Hospital, Cancer Center, P.O. Box 1777, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Höytö, Anne [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lahtinen, Tapani [Kuopio University Hospital, Cancer Center, P.O. Box 1777, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Luukkonen, Jukka [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Viluksela, Matti [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, 70701 Kuopio (Finland); Naarala, Jonne [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Juutilainen, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.juutilainen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Development with time of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI) was studied. • Dose–response of micronuclei showed marked time-dependent changes. • A new model assuming two components in RIGI was found to fit with the data. • The persisting component of RIGI seems to be independent of dose above a threshold. • Increasing heterogeneity was characteristic to delayed gene expression changes. - Abstract: Murine embryonic C3H/10T½ fibroblasts were exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 or 5 Gy. To follow the development of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI), the frequency of micronuclei was measured with flow cytometry at 2 days after exposure and in the progeny of the irradiated cells at 8 and 15 days after exposure. Gene expression was measured at the same points in time by PCR arrays profiling the expression of 84 cancer-relevant genes. The micronucleus results showed a gradual decrease in the slope of the dose–response curve between days 2 and 15. The data were consistent with a model assuming two components in RIGI. The first component is characterized by dose-dependent increase in micronuclei. It may persist more than ten cell generations depending on dose, but eventually disappears. The second component is more persistent and independent of dose above a threshold higher than 0.2 Gy. Gene expression analysis 2 days after irradiation at 5 Gy showed consistent changes in genes that typically respond to DNA damage. However, the consistency of changes decreased with time, suggesting that non-specificity and increased heterogeneity of gene expression are characteristic to the second, more persistent component of RIGI.

  14. Soft X-ray imaging and spectromicroscopy: new insights in chemical state and morphology of the key components in operating fuel-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Abyaneh, Majid Kazemian; Amati, Matteo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Gregoratti, Luca; Kaulich, Burkhard; Kiskinova, Maya

    2012-08-13

    Fuel cells are one of the most appealing environmentally friendly devices for the effective conversion of chemical energy into electricity and heat, but still there are key barriers to their broad commercialization. In addition to efficiency, a major challenge of fuel-cell technology is the durability of the key components (interconnects, electrodes, and electrolytes) that can be subject to corrosion or undesired morphology and chemical changes occurring under operating conditions. The complementary capabilities of synchrotron-based soft X-ray microscopes in terms of imaging, spectroscopy, spatial and time resolution, and variable probing depths are opening unique opportunities to shed light on the multiple processes occurring in these complex systems at microscopic length scales. This type of information is prerequisite for understanding and controlling the performance and durability of such devices. This paper reviews the most recent efforts in the implementation of these methods for exploring the evolving structure and chemical composition of some key fuel cell components. Recent achievements are illustrated by selected results obtained with simplified versions of proton-exchange fuel-cells (PEFC) and solid-oxide fuel-cells (SOFC), which allow in situ monitoring of the redox reactions resulting in: 1) undesired deposits at interconnects and electrodes (PEFC); 2) material interactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface (PEFC); 3) release of corrosion products to the electrolyte phase (PEFC, and 4) mass-transport processes and structural changes occurring at the high operation temperatures of SOFC and promoted by the polarization. PMID:22836392

  15. Components and distributions of cytoskeleton network in neoplastic Hep G2cells extracted with triton X-100 and (NH4)2SO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Wei Zhang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To explore the components and the distributions of the cytoskeleton network in neoplastic Hep G2 cellsextracted with triton X-100 and (NH4)2SO4.METHODS Using the mouse lung adenocarcinoma cell sublines (C6/C7) with low and high metastasis as acontrol, the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep G2) as well as the cell sublines (C6/C7) wasextracted with triton X-100 and/or (NH4)2SO4, then stained with Coomasie blue R250 or labeled withimmunoenzymatic technique to identify the cytokeratin-type or vimentin-type intermediate filamentcomponents and study the distributions of cytoskeleton comparatively.RESULTS Extracted with triton X-100 and/or (NH4)2SO4, then stained with Coomasie blue R250, the cells'cytoskeleton network were showed clearly; still it was very difficult to identify the variations of thecytoskeleton network in morphology by light microscopy when the same cells was extracted with the differentextraction above; compared with the low metastasis cells (C7), most of the high metastasis cells (C6) werelikely showed that the distribution of the cytoskeleton network was more irregular and uneven as well asgathering on one side to the cell neucleus, and so did a few of Hep G2 cells (the percentage of regular andeven distribution of cytoskeleton, C6: 8.0±1.0; C7: 84.0±2.0; Hep G2: 96.0±2.0; n = 500; x2-test,P<0.01). Moreover, extracted with triton X-100 and (NH4)2SO4, then labeled by immunoenzymatictechnique, the mouse lung adenocarcinoma sublines (C6/C7) were positive for cytokeratin antibody only, butthe hepatocellular carcinoma cell (Hep G2) was positive for both cytokeratin and vimentin antibodies.Besides these, in the same cells, the distribution of the intermediate filament network showed by theimmunoenzymatic technique was nearly keeping with that of the cytoskeleton network showed by Coomasieblue R250 stain.CONCLUSION ① It is very difficult to identify the variations of the cytoskeleton network in morphologyby light microscopy when the same

  16. The lung function score and its components as predictors of overall survival and chronic graft-vs-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditz, Diana; Rabanus, Robert; Schulz, Christian; Wolff, Daniel; Holler, Barbara; HOLLER, ERNST; Hildebrandt, Gerhard Carl

    2016-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively assess if the modified lung function score (LFS) and/or its components, forced expiratory volume within the first second (FEV1) and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin level (cDLCO), predict overall survival (OS) and chronic graft-vs-host-disease (cGvHD). Methods We evaluated 241 patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at the University of Regensburg Transplant Center between June 1998 and July 2005 i...

  17. Occurrence of antigenic (species-specific?) partially 3-O-methylated heteromannans in cell wall and soluble cellular (nonwall) components of Coccidioides immitis mycelia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheat, R. W.; Woodruff, W W; Haltiwanger, R S

    1983-01-01

    Skin test-active, phenol-soluble, water-soluble (PSWS) extracts of Coccidioides immitis whole, defatted mycelia were compared with skin test-active, alkali-soluble, water-soluble (ASWS) extracts of mycelial cell walls. Both PSWS and ASWS extracts contained partially 3-O-methylated mannan. Composition analysis of both PSWS and ASWS extracts indicated mannose and glucose as major components, whereas 3-O-methylmannose and galactose were minor constituents. These heteromannans and glucans could b...

  18. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  19. Theoretical examination of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity of polymer electrolyte fuel cell porous components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Gen; Yokoyama, Kouji; Ooyama, Junpei; Terao, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Tomomi; Kubo, Norio; Kawase, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    The reduction of oxygen transfer resistance through porous components consisting of a gas diffusion layer (GDL), microporous layer (MPL), and catalyst layer (CL) is very important to reduce the cost and improve the performance of a PEFC system. This study involves a systematic examination of the relationship between the oxygen transfer resistance of the actual porous components and their three-dimensional structure by direct measurement with FIB-SEM and X-ray CT. Numerical simulations were carried out to model the properties of oxygen transport. Moreover, based on the model structure and theoretical equations, an approach to the design of new structures is proposed. In the case of the GDL, the binder was found to obstruct gas diffusion with a negative effect on performance. The relative diffusion coefficient of the MPL is almost equal to that of the model structure of particle packing. However, that of CL is an order of magnitude less than those of the other two components. Furthermore, an equation expressing the relative diffusion coefficient of each component can be obtained with the function of porosity. The electrical conductivity of MPL, which is lower than that of the carbon black packing, is considered to depend on the contact resistance.

  20. Dissolved carbon dioxide determines the productivity of a recombinant hemagglutinin component of an influenza vaccine produced by insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghrous, Jamal; Khramtsov, Nikolai; Buckland, Barry C; Cox, Manon M J; Palomares, Laura A; Srivastava, Indresh K

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2 ) accumulation during cell culture has been recognized as an important parameter that needs to be controlled for successful scale-up of animal cell culture because above a certain concentration there are adverse effects on cell growth performance and protein production. We investigated the effect of accumulation of dCO2 in bioreactor cultures of expresSF+(®) insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses expressing recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinins (rHA). Different strategies for bioreactor cultures were used to obtain various ranges of concentrations of dCO2 (200 mmHg) and to determine their effects on recombinant protein production and cell metabolic activity. We show that the accumulation of dCO2 at levels > 100 mmHg resulted in reduced metabolic activity, slowed cell growth, prolonged culture viability after infection, and decreased infection kinetics. The reduced rHA yields were not caused by the decrease in the extracellular pH that resulted from dCO2 accumulation, but were most likely due to the effect of dCO2 accumulation in cells. The results obtained here at the 2 L scale have been used for the design of large-scale processes to manufacture the rHA based recombinant vaccine Flublok™ at the 2500 L scale Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2267-2275. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. IL-12 and IL-18 induce MAP kinase-dependent adhesion of T cells to extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Amiram; Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem; Dinarello, Charles A; Lider, Ofer; Hershkoviz, Rami

    2002-07-01

    Cytokines and chemokines play an essential role in recruiting leukocytes from the circulation to the peripheral sites of inflammation by modulating cellular interactions with endothelial cell ligands and extracellular matrix (ECM). Herein, we examined regulation of T cell adhesion to ECM ligands by two major proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18. IL-12 and IL-18 induced T cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) and hyaluronic acid at low (pM) concentrations that were mediated by specific adhesion molecules expressed on the T cell surface, namely, beta(1) integrins and CD44, respectively. The induction of adhesion by IL-12 and IL-18 was inhibited by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (PD098059 and SB203580, respectively). In contrast, IL-12- and IL-18-induced interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) secretion from T cells was inhibited by SB203580, but not by PD098059. It is interesting that low concentrations of IL-12 and IL-18 induced T cell adhesion to FN in a synergistic manner. Thus, in addition to the regulation of late inflammatory functions such as INF-gamma production, IL-12 and IL-18, alone or in combination, regulate early inflammatory events such as T cell adhesion to inflamed sites. PMID:12101280

  2. The mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase and the lipogenic switch: new core components of metabolic reprogramming in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufi, Sílvia; Vellon, Luciano; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Menendez, Octavio J; Joven, Jorge; Lupu, Ruth; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-01-15

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells share some basic properties, such as self-renewal and pluripotency, with cancer cells, and they also appear to share several metabolic alterations that are commonly observed in human tumors. The cancer cells' glycolytic phenotype, first reported by Otto Warburg, is necessary for the optimal routing of somatic cells to pluripotency. However, how iPS cells establish a Warburg-like metabolic phenotype and whether the metabolic pathways that support the bioenergetics of iPS cells are produced by the same mechanisms that are selected during the tumorigenic process remain largely unexplored. We recently investigated whether the reprogramming-competent metabotype of iPS cells involves changes in the activation/expression status of the H(+)-ATPase, which is a core component of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that is repressed at both the activity and protein levels in human carcinomas, and of the lipogenic switch, which refers to a marked overexpression and hyperactivity of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) lipogenic enzymes that has been observed in nearly all examined cancer types. A comparison of a starting population of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and their iPS cell progeny revealed that somatic cell reprogramming involves a significant increase in the expression of ATPase inhibitor factor 1 (IF1), accompanied by extremely low expression levels of the catalytic β-F1-ATPase subunit. The pharmacological inhibition of ACACA and FASN activities markedly decreases reprogramming efficiency, and ACACA and FASN expression are notably upregulated in iPS cells. Importantly, iPS cells exhibited a significant intracellular accumulation of neutral lipid bodies; however, these bodies may be a reflection of intense lysosomal/autophagocytic activity rather than bona fide lipid droplet formation in iPS cells, as they were largely unresponsive to pharmacological modulation of PPARgamma and FASN activities. The

  3. Revealing changes in molecular composition of plant cell walls on the micron-level by Raman mapping and vertex component analysis (VCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notburga eGierlinger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the molecular level the plant cell walls consist of a few nanometer thick semi-crystalline cellulose fibrils embedded in amorphous matrix polymers such as pectins, hemicelluloses and lignins. The arrangement of these molecules within the cell wall in different plant tissues, cells and cell wall layers is of crucial importance for a better understanding and thus optimized utilization of plant biomass. During the last years Confocal Raman microscopy evolved as a powerful method in plant science by revealing the different molecules in context with the microstructure. In this study two-dimensional spectral maps have been acquired of micro-cross-sections of spruce (softwood and beech (hardwood. Raman images have been derived by using univariate (band integration, height ratios and multivariate methods (vertex component analysis, VCA. While univariate analysis only visualizes changes in selected band heights or areas, VCA separates anatomical regions and cell wall layers with the most different molecular structures by projecting the data to the identified orthogonal subspace in an interactive way and finding the endmember by repeated iteration. Beside visualization of the distinguished regions and features the underlying molecular structure can be derived based on the endmember spectra. Only one pure component spectrum (lignin from the cell corner was extracted, while all other endmember spectra represented mixtures characteristic for the different resolved spatial areas. VCA revealed that the lumen sided S3 layer has a similar molecular composition as the pit membrane, both revealing a clear change in lignin composition compared to all other cell wall regions. Within the S2 layer a lamellar structure was visualized, which was elucidated to derive also from slight changes in lignin composition and content and might be due to successive but not uniform lignification during growth.

  4. Podoplanin is a component of extracellular vesicles that reprograms cell-derived exosomal proteins and modulates lymphatic vessel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Germán; Gopal, Shashi K.; Martín-Villar, Ester; Renart, Jaime; Simpson, Richard J.; Quintanilla, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays crucial roles in embryonic development, the immune response, and malignant progression. Here, we report that cells ectopically or endogenously expressing PDPN release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain PDPN mRNA and protein. PDPN incorporates into membrane shed microvesicles (MVs) and endosomal-derived exosomes (EXOs), where it was found to colocalize with the canonical EV marker CD63 by immunoelectron microscopy. We have previously found that expression of PDPN in MDCK cells induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Proteomic profiling of MDCK-PDPN cells compared to control cells shows that PDPN-induced EMT is associated with upregulation of oncogenic proteins and diminished expression of tumor suppressors. Proteomic analysis of exosomes reveals that MDCK-PDPN EXOs were enriched in protein cargos involved in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, signal transduction and, importantly, intracellular trafficking and EV biogenesis. Indeed, expression of PDPN in MDCK cells stimulated both EXO and MV production, while knockdown of endogenous PDPN in human HN5 squamous carcinoma cells reduced EXO production and inhibited tumorigenesis. EXOs released from MDCK-PDPN and control cells both stimulated in vitro angiogenesis, but only EXOs containing PDPN were shown to promote lymphatic vessel formation. This effect was mediated by PDPN on the surface of EXOs, as demonstrated by a neutralizing specific monoclonal antibody. These results contribute to our understanding of PDPN-induced EMT in association to tumor progression, and suggest an important role for PDPN in EV biogenesis and/or release and for PDPN-EXOs in modulating lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26893367

  5. Patterns Prediction of Chemotherapy Sensitivity in Cancer Cell lines Using FTIR Spectrum, Neural Network and Principal Components Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; H. Shirazi, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance enables cancer cells to break away from cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs. Identification of resistant phenotype is very important because it can lead to effective treatment plan. There is an interest in developing classifying models of resistance phenotype based on the multivariate data. We have investigated a vibrational spectroscopic approach in order to characterize a sensitive human ovarian cell line, A2780, and its cisplatin-resistant derivative, A2780-cp. In this stu...

  6. Neisseria meningitidis differentially controls host cell motility through PilC1 and PilC2 components of type IV Pili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C Morand

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a strictly human pathogen that has two facets since asymptomatic carriage can unpredictably turn into fulminant forms of infection. Meningococcal pathogenesis relies on the ability of the bacteria to break host epithelial or endothelial cellular barriers. Highly restrictive, yet poorly understood, mechanisms allow meningococcal adhesion to cells of only human origin. Adhesion of encapsulated and virulent meningococci to human cells relies on the expression of bacterial type four pili (T4P that trigger intense host cell signalling. Among the components of the meningococcal T4P, the concomitantly expressed PilC1 and PilC2 proteins regulate pili exposure at the bacterial surface, and until now, PilC1 was believed to be specifically responsible for T4P-mediated meningococcal adhesion to human cells. Contrary to previous reports, we show that, like PilC1, the meningococcal PilC2 component is capable of mediating adhesion to human ME180 epithelial cells, with cortical plaque formation and F-actin condensation. However, PilC1 and PilC2 promote different effects on infected cells. Cellular tracking analysis revealed that PilC1-expressing meningococci caused a severe reduction in the motility of infected cells, which was not the case when cells were infected with PilC2-expressing strains. The amount of both total and phosphorylated forms of EGFR was dramatically reduced in cells upon PilC1-mediated infection. In contrast, PilC2-mediated infection did not notably affect the EGFR pathway, and these specificities were shared among unrelated meningococcal strains. These results suggest that meningococci have evolved a highly discriminative tool for differential adhesion in specific microenvironments where different cell types are present. Moreover, the fine-tuning of cellular control through the combined action of two concomitantly expressed, but distinctly regulated, T4P-associated variants of the same molecule (i.e. PilC1 and Pil

  7. Choroidal neovascularization is inhibited via an intraocular decrease of inflammatory cells in mice lacking complement component C3

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Tan; Katsuhito Fujiu; Ichiro Manabe; Junko Nishida; Reiko Yamagishi; Ryozo Nagai; Yasuo Yanagi

    2015-01-01

    In early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), complement component C3 can be observed in drusen, which is the accumulation of material beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. The complement pathways, via the activation of C3, can upregulate the expression of cytokines and their receptors and the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes, both of which play an important role in the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in exudative AMD. Laser-induced CNV lesions were found to be si...

  8. Response Of Plasma Facing Components In Tokamaks Due To Intense Energy Deposition Using Particle-In-Cell(pic) Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Genco, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The co...

  9. Peptidoglycan metabolism is controlled by the WalRK (YycFG) and PhoPR two-component systems in phosphate-limited Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Lioliou, Efthimia; Noone, David; Salzberg, Letal I; Botella, Eric; Hübner, Sebastian; Devine, Kevin M

    2010-02-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, the WalRK (YycFG) two-component system controls peptidoglycan metabolism in exponentially growing cells while PhoPR controls the response to phosphate limitation. Here we examine the roles of WalRK and PhoPR in peptidoglycan metabolism in phosphate-limited cells. We show that B. subtilis cells remain viable in a phosphate-limited state for an extended period and resume growth rapidly upon phosphate addition, even in the absence of a PhoPR-mediated response. Peptidoglycan synthesis occurs in phosphate-limited wild-type cells at approximately 27% the rate of exponentially growing cells, and at approximately 18% the rate of exponentially growing cells in the absence of PhoPR. In phosphate-limited cells, the WalRK regulon genes yocH, cwlO(yvcE), lytE and ydjM are expressed in a manner that is dependent on the WalR recognition sequence and deleting these genes individually reduces the rate of peptidoglycan synthesis. We show that ydjM expression can be activated by PhoP approximately P in vitro and that PhoP occupies its promoter in phosphate-limited cells. However, iseA(yoeB) expression cannot be repressed by PhoP approximately P in vitro, but can be repressed by non-phosphorylated WalR in vitro. Therefore, we conclude that peptidoglycan metabolism is controlled by both WalRK and PhoPR in phosphate-limited B. subtilis cells. PMID:20487291

  10. Cotyledon cells of Vigna mungo seedlings use at least two distinct autophagic machineries for degradation of starch granules and cellular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, K; Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    2001-09-01

    alpha-Amylase is expressed in cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds and is responsible for the degradation of starch that is stored in the starch granule (SG). Immunocytochemical analysis of the cotyledon cells with anti-alpha-amylase antibody showed that alpha-amylase is transported to protein storage vacuole (PSV) and lytic vacuole (LV), which is converted from PSV by hydrolysis of storage proteins. To observe the insertion/degradation processes of SG into/in the inside of vacuoles, ultrastructural analyses of the cotyledon cells were conducted. The results revealed that SG is inserted into LV through autophagic function of LV and subsequently degraded by vacuolar alpha-amylase. The autophagy for SG was structurally similar to micropexophagy detected in yeast cells. In addition to the autophagic process for SG, autophagosome-mediated autophagy for cytoplasm and mitochondria was detected in the cotyledon cells. When the embryo axes were removed from seeds and the detached cotyledons were incubated, the autophagosome-mediated autophagy was observed, but the autophagic process for the degradation of SG was not detected, suggesting that these two autophagic processes were mediated by different cellular mechanisms. The two distinct autophagic processes were thought to be involved in the breakdown of SG and cell components in the cells of germinated cotyledon.

  11. Revealing changes in molecular composition of plant cell walls on the micron-level by Raman mapping and vertex component analysis (VCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlinger, Notburga

    2014-01-01

    At the molecular level the plant cell walls consist of a few nanometer thick semi-crystalline cellulose fibrils embedded in amorphous matrix polymers such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and lignins. The arrangement of these molecules within the cell wall in different plant tissues, cells and cell wall layers is of crucial importance for a better understanding and thus optimized utilization of plant biomass. During the last years Confocal Raman microscopy evolved as a powerful method in plant science by revealing the different molecules in context with the microstructure. In this study two-dimensional spectral maps have been acquired of micro-cross-sections of spruce (softwood) and beech (hardwood). Raman images have been derived by using univariate (band integration, height ratios) and multivariate methods [vertex component analysis (VCA)]. While univariate analysis only visualizes changes in selected band heights or areas, VCA separates anatomical regions and cell wall layers with the most different molecular structures. Beside visualization of the distinguished regions and features the underlying molecular structure can be derived based on the endmember spectra. VCA revealed that the lumen sided S3 layer has a similar molecular composition as the pit membrane, both revealing a clear change in lignin composition compared to all other cell wall regions. Within the S2 layer a lamellar structure was visualized, which was elucidated to derive from slight changes in lignin composition and content and might be due to successive but not uniform lignification during growth. PMID:25071792

  12. Nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the EPR concerning the fabrication of the reactor are: -) the size of the components, -) the modification of the design compared with classical PWR, and -) an intensive use of forging (in particular the cold and hot legs of the primary circuit are forged). This series of slides overviews the fabrication of the components for the EPR by highlighting the differences with the previous generation of reactors. 4 types of components are reviewed: the reactor vessel and internals, steam generators, primary circuit pipes, and primary coolant pumps. (A.C.)

  13. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  14. Snake venoms components with antitumor activity in murine melanoma cells; Componentes derivados de venenos de serpentes com acao antitumoral em celulas de melanoma murino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Rodrigo Guimaraes

    2012-07-01

    Despite the constant advances in the treatment of cancer, this disease remains one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. So, the development of new treatment modalities is imperative. Snake venom causes a variety of biological effects because they constitute a complex mixture of substances as disintegrins, proteases (serine and metalo), phospholipases A2, L-amino acid oxidases and others. The goal of the present work is to evaluate a anti-tumor activity of some snake venoms fractions. There are several studies of components derived from snake venoms with this kind of activity. After fractionation of snake venoms of the families Viperidae and Elapidae, the fractions were assayed towards murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 and fibroblasts L929. The results showed that the fractions of venom of the snake Notechis ater niger had higher specificity and potential antitumor activity on B16-F10 cell line than the other studied venoms. Since the components of this venom are not explored yet coupled with the potential activity showed in this work, we decided to choose this venom to develop further studies. The cytotoxic fractions were evaluated to identify and characterize the components that showed antitumoral activity. Western blot assays and zymography suggests that these proteins do not belong to the class of metallo and serine proteinases. (author)

  15. Expression of the B-cell receptor component CD79a on immature myeloid cells contributes to their tumor promoting effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Luger

    Full Text Available The role of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in promoting tumorigenesis is well-established, and significant effort is being made to further characterize surface markers on MDSCs both for better diagnosis and as potential targets for therapy. Here we show that the B cell receptor adaptor molecule CD79a is unexpectedly expressed on immature bone marrow myeloid cells, and is upregulated on MDSCs generated in multiple different mouse models of metastatic but not non-metastatic cancer. CD79a on MDSCs is upregulated and activated in response to soluble factors secreted by tumor cells. Activation of CD79a on mouse MDSCs, by crosslinking with a specific antibody, maintained their immature phenotype (CD11b+Gr1+, enhanced their migration, increased their suppressive effect on T cell proliferation, and increased secretion of pro-tumorigenic cytokines such as IL-6 and CCL22. Furthermore, crosslinking CD79a on myeloid cells activated signaling through Syk, BLNK, ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation. In vivo, CD79+ myeloid cells showed enhanced ability to promote primary tumor growth and metastasis. Finally we demonstrate that CD79a is upregulated on circulating myeloid cells from lung cancer patients, and that CD79a+ myeloid cells infiltrate human breast tumors. We propose that CD79a plays a functional role in the tumor promoting effects of myeloid cells, and may represent a novel target for cancer therapy.

  16. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-01

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 μg/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-α. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-β1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-α, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade.

  17. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-01

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 μg/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-α. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-β1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-α, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade. PMID:26089141

  18. Progesterone, Inflammatory Cytokine (TNF-α), and Oxidative Stress (H2O2) Regulate Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Expression in Fetal Membrane Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Murtha, Amy P; Feng, Liping

    2016-09-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is an important novel mediator of progesterone (P4) function in fetal membrane cells. We demonstrated previously that PGRMC1 is differentially expressed in fetal membranes among pregnancy subjects and diminished in preterm premature rupture of membrane subjects. In the current study, we aim to elucidate whether PGRMC1 expression is regulated by P4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and H2O2 in fetal membrane cells. Primary cultured membrane cells were serum starved for 24 hours followed by treatments of P4, 17 hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and medroxyprogesterone 17 acetate (MPA) at 10(-7) mol/L with ethanol as vehicle control; TNF-α at 10, 20, and 50 ng/mL with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control; and H2O2 at 10 and 100 μmol/L with culture media as control for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of PGRMC1 was quantified using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. We found that PGRMC1 protein expression was regulated by MPA, TNF-α, and H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. This regulation is also specific to the type of cell (amnion, chorion, or decidua). The upregulation of PGRMC1 by MPA might be mediated through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) demonstrated using amnion and chorion cells model with GR knockdown by specific small interfering RNA transfection. The mRNA expression of PGRMC1 was decreased by H2O2 (100 μmol/L) treatment in amnion cells, which might ultimately result in downregulation of PGRMC1 protein as our data demonstrated. None of other treatments changed PGRMC1 mRNA level in these cells. We conclude that these stimuli act as regulatory factors of PGRMC1 in a cell-specific manner. PMID:26919974

  19. Carcinosarcoma of the Ureter with a Small Cell Component: Report of a Rare Pathologic Entity and Potential for Diagnostic Error on Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Newsom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcomas of the ureter are rare biphasic neoplasms, composed of both malignant epithelial (carcinomatous and malignant mesenchymal (sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcomas of the urinary tract are exceedingly rare. We report a unique case of a carcinosarcoma of the ureter with a chondrosarcoma and small cell tumor component arising in a 68-year-old male who presented with microscopic hematuria. CT intravenous pyelogram revealed right-sided hydroureter and hydronephrosis with thickening and narrowing of the right ureter. The patient underwent robot-assisted ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient is disease-free at 32 months after treatment. We provide a brief synoptic review of carcinosarcoma of the ureter and bladder with utilization of immunohistochemical (IHC stains and potential diagnostic pitfalls.

  20. Inhibitory activity of Socheongryong‑tang and its constituent components against the production of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and MMP‑9 from BEAS‑2B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junh-Hoon; Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-12-01

    Socheongryeong‑tang (SCRT) is a herbal formula previously used to treat pulmonary diseases primarily caused by the common cold virus, including airway inflammation, asthma and allergy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of SCRT water extract and its 13 constituent components on chemokine and enzyme production in the human bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS‑2B when induced by tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑4. The chemokines examined included regulated on activation of normal T‑cell‑expressed‑and‑secreted (RANTES), eotaxin and eotaxin‑3. The SCRT water extract demonstrated a dose‑dependent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9) in BEAS‑2B cells. The 13 constituent compounds of SCRT water extract were quantitatively determined, and it was found that gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol produced the most potent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin and eotaxin‑3 as well as MMP‑9 activity regardless of their concentration in SCRT water extract. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that the inhibitory effect of these three compounds contributed to that of SCRT water extract. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the inhibitory effects of SCRT on chemokine and enzyme production in BEAS‑2B cells was associated with three of its constituent compounds, gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol. This therefore suggested the potential use of these compounds as anti‑inflammatory agents.

  1. The Bacillus cereus Hbl and Nhe tripartite enterotoxin components assemble sequentially on the surface of target cells and are not interchangeable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Sastalla

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium commonly associated with outbreaks of food poisoning. It is also known as an opportunistic pathogen causing clinical infections such as bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, and gas gangrene-like cutaneous infections, mostly in immunocompromised patients. B. cereus secretes a plethora of toxins of which four are associated with the symptoms of food poisoning. Two of these, the non-hemolytic enterotoxin Nhe and the hemolysin BL (Hbl toxin, are predicted to be structurally similar and are unique in that they require the combined action of three toxin proteins to induce cell lysis. Despite their dominant role in disease, the molecular mechanism of their toxic function is still poorly understood. We report here that B. cereus strain ATCC 10876 harbors not only genes encoding Nhe, but also two copies of the hbl genes. We identified Hbl as the major secreted toxin responsible for inducing rapid cell lysis both in cultured cells and in an intraperitoneal mouse toxicity model. Antibody neutralization and deletion of Hbl-encoding genes resulted in significant reductions of cytotoxic activity. Microscopy studies with Chinese Hamster Ovary cells furthermore showed that pore formation by both Hbl and Nhe occurs through a stepwise, sequential binding of toxin components to the cell surface and to each other. This begins with binding of Hbl-B or NheC to the eukaryotic membrane, and is followed by the recruitment of Hbl-L1 or NheB, respectively, followed by the corresponding third protein. Lastly, toxin component complementation studies indicate that although Hbl and Nhe can be expressed simultaneously and are predicted to be structurally similar, they are incompatible and cannot complement each other.

  2. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Dongliang; Qi, Fanghua; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Cinobufacini (Huachansu) is a Chinese medicine prepared from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), which has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of present study was to examine the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in the human HBV-transfected cell line HepG2.2.15. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay after HepG2.2.15 cells were respectively treated with different concentrations of cinobufacini, bufalin, and cinobufagin for 3 or 6 d. HBV DNA and mRNA were determined using transcription-mediated amplification and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. On d 3, cinobufacini at a concentration of 1 µg/ml had no activity against HBV virological markers. However, on d 6, cinobufacini at 1 µg/ml effectively inhibited the secretion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBcrAg by 29.58, 32.87, and 42.52%. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 µg/ml). Bufalin and cinobufagin slightly inhibited HBV antigen secretion. Treatment with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin had no anti-HBV effect on DNA in cell culture medium. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin. Results suggested that cinobufacini had more potent activity against HBV antigen secretion than its components bufalin and cinobufagin and this inhibitory role was attributed to the specific inhibition of HBV mRNA expression.

  3. Stress relaxation and creep on living cells with the atomic force microscope: a means to calculate elastic moduli and viscosities of cell components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Flores, Susana; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC BiomaGUNE, Paseo Miramon 182, E-20009 San Sebastian-Donostia (Spain); Benitez, Rafael [Departamento Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Plasencia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida Virgen del Puerto 2, E-10600 Plasencia (Spain); Vivanco, Maria dM, E-mail: jltocaherrera@cicbiomagune.es, E-mail: jose.toca-herrera@boku.ac.at [Cell Biology and Stem Cells Unit, CIC BioGUNE, Parque tecnologico de Bizkaia, Ed. 801A, E-48160 Derio (Spain)

    2010-11-05

    In this work we present a unified method to study the mechanical properties of cells using the atomic force microscope. Stress relaxation and creep compliance measurements permitted us to determine, the relaxation times, the Young moduli and the viscosity of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The results show that the mechanical behaviour of MCF-7 cells responds to a two-layered model of similar elasticity but differing viscosity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with an actin-depolymerising agent results in an overall decrease in both cell elasticity and viscosity, however to a different extent for each layer. The layer that undergoes the smaller decrease (36-38%) is assigned to the cell membrane/cortex while the layer that experiences the larger decrease (70-80%) is attributed to the cell cytoplasm. The combination of the method presented in this work, together with the approach based on stress relaxation microscopy (Moreno-Flores et al 2010 J. Biomech. 43 349-54), constitutes a unique AFM-based experimental framework to study cell mechanics. This methodology can also be extended to study the mechanical properties of biomaterials in general.

  4. The ETS domain transcription factor ELK1 directs a critical component of growth signaling by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Mugdha; Chari, Venkatesh; Sivakumaran, Suneethi; Gonit, Mesfin; Trumbly, Robert; Ratnam, Manohar

    2013-04-19

    The androgen receptor (AR) is essential for diverse aspects of prostate development and function. Molecular mechanisms by which prostate cancer (PC) cells redirect AR signaling to genes that primarily support growth are unclear. A systematic search for critical AR-tethering proteins led to ELK1, an ETS transcription factor of the ternary complex factor subfamily. Although genetically redundant, ELK1 was obligatory for AR-dependent growth and clonogenic survival in both hormone-dependent PC and castration-recurrent PC cells but not for AR-negative cell growth. AR required ELK1 to up-regulate a major subset of its target genes that was strongly and primarily enriched for cell growth functions. AR functioned as a coactivator of ELK1 by association through its A/B domain, bypassing the classical mechanism of ELK1 activation by phosphorylation and without inducing ternary complex target genes. The ELK1-AR synergy per se was ligand-independent, although it required ligand for nuclear localization of AR as targeting the AR A/B domain to the nucleus recapitulated the action of hormone; accordingly, Casodex was a poor antagonist of the synergy. ELK3, the closest substitute for ELK1 in structure/function and genome recognition, did not interact with AR. ELK1 thus directs selective and sustained gene induction that is a substantial and critical component of growth signaling by AR in PC cells. The ELK1-AR interaction offers a functionally tumor-selective drug target. PMID:23426362

  5. Spatially Controlled Delivery of siRNAs to Stem Cells in Implants Generated by Multi-Component Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Østergaard; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Chen, Muwan;

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a promising technique in tissue engineering, as it enables truly individualized implants to be made to fit a particular defect. As previously shown, a feasible strategy to produce complex multicellular tissues is to deposit different small interfering RNA (siRNA) in porous...... implants that are subsequently sutured together. In this study, an additive manufacturing strategy to deposit carbohydrate hydrogels containing different siRNAs is applied into an implant, in a spatially controlled manner. When the obtained structures are seeded with mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells......, the selected siRNAs are delivered to the cells and induces specific and localized gene silencing. Here, it is demonstrated how to replicate part of a patient's spinal cord from a computed tomography scan, using an additive manufacturing technique to produce an implant with compartmentalized si...

  6. Pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido: materiais, componentes e configurações Solid oxide fuel cells: materials, components and configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salgado Amado

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the current status of fuel cells is described with particular emphasis on high (T > 800 ºC and intermediate (T < 800 ºC temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Also the importance of the fuel cell technology is shown. Reviewed are the fundamental features, the basic principles, types of fuel cell, fabrication methods, cell configurations and the development of components (cathodes, anodes, electrolytes, interconnect and materials.

  7. The Expression Pattern of the Pre-B Cell Receptor Components Correlates with Cellular Stage and Clinical Outcome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongfeng; Zheng, Junxiong; Gerasimcik, Natalija; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Sjögren, Helene; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Fogelstrand, Linda; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill

    2016-01-01

    Precursor-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signaling represents a crucial checkpoint at the pre-B cell stage. Aberrant pre-BCR signaling is considered as a key factor for B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) development. BCP-ALL are believed to be arrested at the pre-BCR checkpoint independent of pre-BCR expression. However, the cellular stage at which BCP-ALL are arrested and whether this relates to expression of the pre-BCR components (IGHM, IGLL1 and VPREB1) is still unclear. Here, we show differential protein expression and copy number variation (CNV) patterns of the pre-BCR components in pediatric BCP-ALL. Moreover, analyzing six BCP-ALL data sets (n = 733), we demonstrate that TCF3-PBX1 ALL express high levels of IGHM, IGLL1 and VPREB1, and are arrested at the pre-B stage. By contrast, ETV6-RUNX1 ALL express low levels of IGHM or VPREB1, and are arrested at the pro-B stage. Irrespective of subtype, ALL with high levels of IGHM, IGLL1 and VPREB1 are arrested at the pre-B stage and correlate with good prognosis in high-risk pediatric BCP-ALL (n = 207). Our findings suggest that BCP-ALL are arrested at different cellular stages, which relates to the expression pattern of the pre-BCR components that could serve as prognostic markers for high-risk pediatric BCP-ALL patients. PMID:27611867

  8. STUDY REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SEASON AND LACTATION ORDER ON MILK YIELD, MAJOR COMPONENTS AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT OF MILK

    OpenAIRE

    S. ACATINCĂI; ADELA MARCU; L.T. CZISZTER; SIMONA BAUL; ANDREEA FERENCZ; D. GĂVOJDEAN

    2013-01-01

    The effects of lactation order and season on the milk production, chemical compositionand somatic cell number during a normal lactation (305 days) were studied. Researcheswere carried out on Romanian Black and White cows from the Didactical StationTimişoara. Cows calved in autumn and finished their lactation by the end of the nextyear. Milk production increased progressively in the second and third lactation, thusfat, protein and lactose yields increased, too. During the warm season (April-Se...

  9. Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage Activates Replication Checkpoint Signaling Components that Differentially Affect Tumor Cell SurvivalS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Jill M.; Karnitz, Larry M.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin and other platinating agents are some of the most widely used chemotherapy agents. These drugs exert their antiproliferative effects by creating intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, which block DNA replication. The cross-links mobilize signaling and repair pathways, including the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1-ATR-Chk1 pathway, a pathway that helps tumor cells survive the DNA damage inflicted by many chemotherapy agents. Here we show that Rad9 and ATR play critical r...

  10. Components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are activated in hepatic cells by Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Yong Lin; Jun-Hua Wang; Xiao-Mei Lu; Xiao-Tao Zhou; Georges Mantion; Hao Wen; Dominique A Vuitton; Lysiane Richert

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the ef fec t of Echinococ cus multilocularis on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and on liver cell proliferation. METHODS: Changes in the phosphorylation of MAPKs and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression were measured in the liver of patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE). MAPKs, MEK1/2 [MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase] and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) phosphorylation were detected in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes in contact in vitro with (1) E. multilocularis vesicle fluid (EmF), (2) E. multilocularis-conditioned medium (EmCM). RESULTS: In the liver of AE patients, ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK were activated and PCNA expression was increased, especially in the vicinity of the metacestode. Upon exposure to EmF, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and ERK1/2 were also activated in hepatocytes in vitro, as well as MEK1/2 and RSK, in the absence of any toxic effect. Upon exposure to EmCM, only JNK was up-regulated. CONCLUSION: Previous studies have demonstrated an influence of the host on the MAPK cascade in E. multilocularis. Our data suggest that the reverse, i.e. parasite-derived signals efficiently acting on MAPK signaling pathways in host liver cells, is actually operating.

  11. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90

  12. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Sakai, Yuri; Yamamori, Tohru [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Niwa, Koichi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90.

  13. Regulation of proximal tubular cell differentiation and proliferation in primary culture by matrix stiffness and ECM components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Chun; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2014-09-15

    To explore whether matrix stiffness affects cell differentiation, proliferation, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary cultures of mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells (mPTECs), we used a soft matrix made from monomeric collagen type I-coated polyacrylamide gel or matrigel (MG). Both kinds of soft matrix benefited primary mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology with differentiation and growth arrest and to evade TGF-β1-induced EMT. However, the potent effect of MG on mPTEC differentiation was suppressed by glutaraldehyde-induced cross-linking and subsequently stiffening MG or by an increasing ratio of collagen in the soft mixed gel. Culture media supplemented with MG also helped mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology and a differentiated phenotype on stiff culture dishes as soft MG did. We further found that the protein level and activity of ERK were scaled with the matrix stiffness. U-0126, a MEK inhibitor, abolished the stiff matrix-induced dedifferentiation and proliferation. These data suggest that the ERK signaling pathway plays a vital role in matrix stiffness-regulated cell growth and differentiation. Taken together, both compliant property and specific MG signals from the matrix are required for the regulation of epithelial differentiation and proliferation. This study provides a basic understanding of how physical and chemical cues derived from the extracellular matrix regulate the physiological function of proximal tubules and the pathological development of renal fibrosis.

  14. Assembly and activation of alternative complement components on endothelial cell-anchored ultra-large von Willebrand factor links complement and hemostasis-thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Turner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs express and release protein components of the complement pathways, as well as secreting and anchoring ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF multimers in long string-like structures that initiate platelet adhesion during hemostasis and thrombosis. The alternative complement pathway (AP is an important non-antibody-requiring host defense system. Thrombotic microangiopathies can be associated with defective regulation of the AP (atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome or with inadequate cleavage by ADAMTS-13 of ULVWF multimeric strings secreted by/anchored to ECs (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Our goal was to determine if EC-anchored ULVWF strings caused the assembly and activation of AP components, thereby linking two essential defense mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified gene expression of these complement components in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs by real-time PCR: C3 and C5; complement factor (CF B, CFD, CFP, CFH and CFI of the AP; and C4 of the classical and lectin (but not alternative complement pathways. We used fluorescent microscopy, monospecific antibodies against complement components, fluorescent secondary antibodies, and the analysis of >150 images to quantify the attachment of HUVEC-released complement proteins to ULVWF strings secreted by, and anchored to, the HUVECs (under conditions of ADAMTS-13 inhibition. We found that HUVEC-released C4 did not attach to ULVWF strings, ruling out activation of the classical and lectin pathways by the strings. In contrast, C3, FB, FD, FP and C5, FH and FI attached to ULVWF strings in quantitative patterns consistent with assembly of the AP components into active complexes. This was verified when non-functional FB blocked the formation of AP C3 convertase complexes (C3bBb on ULVWF strings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AP components are assembled and activated on EC-secreted/anchored ULVWF multimeric

  15. Control of flowering and cell fate by LIF2, an RNA binding partner of the polycomb complex component LHP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Latrasse

    Full Text Available Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRC modulate the epigenetic status of key cell fate and developmental regulators in eukaryotes. The chromo domain protein like heterochromatin protein1 (LHP1 is a subunit of a plant PRC1-like complex in Arabidopsis thaliana and recognizes histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, a silencing epigenetic mark deposited by the PRC2 complex. We have identified and studied an LHP1-Interacting Factor2 (LIF2. LIF2 protein has RNA recognition motifs and belongs to the large hnRNP protein family, which is involved in RNA processing. LIF2 interacts in vivo, in the cell nucleus, with the LHP1 chromo shadow domain. Expression of LIF2 was detected predominantly in vascular and meristematic tissues. Loss-of-function of LIF2 modifies flowering time, floral developmental homeostasis and gynoecium growth determination. lif2 ovaries have indeterminate growth and produce ectopic inflorescences with severely affected flowers showing proliferation of ectopic stigmatic papillae and ovules in short-day conditions. To look at how LIF2 acts relative to LHP1, we conducted transcriptome analyses in lif2 and lhp1 and identified a common set of deregulated genes, which showed significant enrichment in stress-response genes. By comparing expression of LHP1 targets in lif2, lhp1 and lif2 lhp1 mutants we showed that LIF2 can either antagonize or act with LHP1. Interestingly, repression of the FLC floral transcriptional regulator in lif2 mutant is accompanied by an increase in H3K27 trimethylation at the locus, without any change in LHP1 binding, suggesting that LHP1 is targeted independently from LIF2 and that LHP1 binding does not strictly correlate with gene expression. LIF2, involved in cell identity and cell fate decision, may modulate the activity of LHP1 at specific loci, during specific developmental windows or in response to environmental cues that control cell fate determination. These results highlight a novel link between plant RNA

  16. 气体成分对植物细胞悬浮培养的影响%Effects of gaseous components in plant cell suspension cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周煜; 刘涤; 胡之璧

    2001-01-01

    气体成分对植物悬浮培养细胞的生长和次生代谢物的产量有深刻的影响。就有关氧、二氧化碳、乙烯和一些未知成分作用的研究进行了综述。%Gaseous components, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethylene and some unidentified gaseous metabolites are proved to have profound effects on the growth and secondary metabolites' accumulation of plant cell suspension cultures. Wider investigation is needed in this area to optimize cultivation strategies for improving production.

  17. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a component of tea (Camellia sinensis): a study by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S

    1999-07-15

    A component of aqueous extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), known to reverse methicillin-resistance in staphylococci, causes extensive morphological changes in methicillin-resistant but not in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Clumps of partly divided cocci, consisting of up to 14 individuals, with thickened internal but normal external cell walls were seen by electron microscopy in cultures of methicillin-resistant S. aureus grown in the presence of the active principle. The morphological changes observed were consistent with selective inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins. PMID:10427729

  18. Comparative safety and immunogenicity of an acellular versus whole- cell pertussis component of Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccines in senegalese infants

    OpenAIRE

    Simondon, François; Yam, A.; Gagnepain, J.Y.; Wassilak, S.; Danve, B; Cadoz, M.

    1996-01-01

    A diphtheria and tetanus toxoid two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), consisting of 25 microg glutaraldehyde-detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) and 25 microg native filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), was compared with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) in a randomized, double-blind manner in 286 Senegalese infants inoculated at two, four, and six months of age. In infants receiving DTaP a significantly lower rate of local reactions, crying and fever was o...

  19. Signaling mechanism by the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system LytSR: role of acetyl phosphate in bypassing the cell membrane electrical potential sensor LytS

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Patel; Dasantila Golemi-Kotra

    2016-01-01

    The two-component system LytSR has been linked to the signal transduction of cell membrane electrical potential perturbation and is involved in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to cationic antimicrobial peptides. It consists of a membrane-bound histidine kinase, LytS, which belongs to the family of multiple transmembrane-spanning domains receptors, and a response regulator, LytR, which belongs to the novel family of non-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain proteins. LytR regulates the e...

  20. A Two-Component DNA-Prime/Protein-Boost Vaccination Strategy for Eliciting Long-Term, Protective T Cell Immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Shivali Gupta; Garg, Nisha J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a two-component subunit vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with TcG2/TcG4 vaccine delivered by a DNA-prime/Protein-boost (D/P) approach and challenged with T. cruzi at 120 or 180 days post-vaccination (dpv). We examined whether vaccine-primed T cell immunity was capable of rapid expansion and intercepting the infecting T. cruzi. Our data showed that D/P vaccine elicited CD4+ (30-38%) and CD8+ (22-42%) ...

  1. Development and application of an actively controlled hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell-Lithium-ion battery laboratory test-bed based on off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufit, V.; Brandon, N. P.

    The use of commercially available components enables rapid prototyping and assembling of laboratory scale hybrid test-bed systems, which can be used to evaluate new hybrid configurations. The development of such a test-bed using an off-the-shelf PEM fuel cell, lithium-ion battery and DC/DC converter is presented here, and its application to a hybrid configuration appropriate for an unmanned underwater vehicle is explored. A control algorithm was implemented to regulate the power share between the fuel cell and the battery with a graphical interface to control, record and analyze the electrochemical and thermal parameters of the system. The results demonstrate the applicability of the test-bed and control algorithm for this application, and provide data on the dynamic electrical and thermal behaviour of the hybrid system.

  2. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C.; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H2O2, and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K+ (Kin) cur...

  3. 裂殖壶菌单细胞油脂的组分特性分析%Component characteristics of single cell lipid produced by Schizochytrium sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冠男; 任路静; 瞿亮; 李娟; 胡元维; 黄和

    2013-01-01

    为了获得完整的裂殖壶菌(Schizochytrium sp.)油脂组分信息,以其单细胞油脂组分为研究对象,对裂殖壶菌单细胞油脂进行深入研究.结果表明:裂殖壶菌单细胞油脂占细胞干重的63.32%;单细胞油脂由87.864%的中性脂和11.322%的极性脂组成;单细胞油脂中DHA含量为41.45%;单细胞油脂中胆固醇、角鲨烯和β-胡萝卜素含量分别为40.93、19.99 mg/g和34.91 μg/g.经气相色谱-质谱联用分析表明:单细胞油脂的不皂化物中含有胆固醇、麦角固醇、豆甾醇、β-谷甾醇、环阿屯醇和角鲨烯.%In order to obtain the complete lipid component characteristics of Schizochytrium sp.,the single cell lipid component was investigated.The results showed that the content of single cell lipid in dry cell was up to 63.32% ; the single cell lipid contained 11.322% of polar lipid and 87.864% of neutral lipid ;DHA content in the single cell lipid was 41.45% ; the contents of cholesterol,squalene andβ-carotene in the single cell lipid were 40.93,19.99 mg/g and 34.91 μg/g,respectively.GC-MS analysis revealed that the unsaponifiable matters of the single cell lipid contained cholesterol,ergosterol,stigmasterol,β-sitosterol,cycloartenol and squalene.

  4. Uncovering the cultivable microbial diversity of costa rican beetles and its ability to break down plant cell wall components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vargas-Asensio

    Full Text Available Coleopterans are the most diverse insect order described to date. These organisms have acquired an array of survival mechanisms through their evolution, including highly efficient digestive systems. Therefore, the coleopteran intestinal microbiota constitutes an important source of novel plant cell wall-degrading enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. We isolated and described the cultivable fungi, actinomycetes and aerobic eubacteria associated with the gut of larvae and adults from six different beetle families colonizing decomposing logs in protected Costa Rican ecosystems. We obtained 611 isolates and performed phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region (fungi and 16S rDNA (bacteria. The majority of fungal isolates belonged to the order Hypocreales (26% of 169 total, while the majority of actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces (86% of 241 total. Finally, we isolated 201 bacteria spanning 19 different families belonging into four phyla: Firmicutes, α, β and γ-proteobacteria. Subsequently, we focused on microbes isolated from Passalid beetles to test their ability to degrade plant cell wall polymers. Highest scores in these assays were achieved by a fungal isolate (Anthostomella sp., two Streptomyces and one Bacillus bacterial isolates. Our study demonstrates that Costa Rican beetles harbor several types of cultivable microbes, some of which may be involved in symbiotic relationships that enable the insect to digest complex polymers such as lignocellulose.

  5. Photo-degradation in air of the active layer components in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer:fullerene solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Rickard; Lindqvist, Camilla; Ericsson, Leif K E; Opitz, Andreas; Wang, Ergang; Moons, Ellen

    2016-04-28

    We have studied the photo-degradation in air of a blend of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1), and how the photo-degradation affects the solar cell performance. Using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, changes to the electronic structure of TQ1 and PCBM caused by illumination in ambient air are investigated and compared between the pristine materials and the blend. The NEXAFS spectra show that the unoccupied molecular orbitals of TQ1 are not significantly changed by the exposure of pristine TQ1 to light in air, whereas those of PCBM are severely affected as a result of photo-induced degradation of PCBM. Furthermore, the photo-degradation of PCBM is accelerated by blending it with TQ1. While the NEXAFS spectrum of TQ1 remains unchanged upon illumination in air, its valence band spectrum shows that the occupied molecular orbitals are weakly affected. Yet, UV-Vis absorption spectra demonstrate photo-bleaching of TQ1, which is attenuated in the presence of PCBM in blend films. Illumination of the active layer of TQ1:PCBM solar cells prior to cathode deposition causes severe losses in electrical performance.

  6. Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Performance of Multi-Component Nanoporous PtRuCuW Alloy for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared a multi-component nanoporous PtRuCuW (np-PtRuCuW electrocatalyst via a combined chemical dealloying and mechanical alloying process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurements have been applied to characterize the microstructure and electrocatalytic activities of the np-PtRuCuW. The np-PtRuCuW catalyst has a unique three-dimensional bi-continuous ligament structure and the length scale is 2.0 ± 0.3 nm. The np-PtRuCuW catalyst shows a relatively high level of activity normalized to mass (467.1 mA mgPt−1 and electrochemically active surface area (1.8 mA cm−2 compared to the state-of-the-art commercial PtC and PtRu catalyst at anode. Although the CO stripping peak of np-PtRuCuW 0.47 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode, SCE is more positive than PtRu, there is a 200 mV negative shift compared to PtC (0.67 V vs. SCE. In addition, the half-wave potential and specific activity towards oxygen reduction of np-PtRuCuW are 0.877 V (vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE and 0.26 mA cm−2, indicating a great enhancement towards oxygen reduction than the commercial PtC.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hagl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084. To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function.

  8. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch.

  9. Cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis BCG are inflammatory when inoculated within a gel matrix: characterization of a new model of the granulomatous response to mycobacterial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Elizabeth R; Geisel, Rachel E; Butcher, Barbara A; McDonough, Sean; Russell, David G

    2005-05-01

    The chronic inflammatory response to Mycobacterium generates complex granulomatous lesions that balance containment with destruction of infected tissues. To study the contributing factors from host and pathogen, we developed a model wherein defined mycobacterial components and leukocytes are delivered in a gel, eliciting a localized response that can be retrieved and analysed. We validated the model by comparing responses to the cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to reported activities in other models. BCG lipid-coated beads and bone marrow-derived macrophages (input macrophages) were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. Input macrophages and recruited peritoneal exudate cells took up fluorescently tagged BCG lipids, and matrix-associated macrophages and neutrophils produced tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-6. Leukocyte numbers and cytokine levels were greater in BCG lipid-bearing matrices than matrices containing non-coated or phosphatidylglycerol-coated beads. Leukocytes arrived in successive waves of neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils, followed by NK and T cells (CD4(+), CD8(+), or gammadelta) at 7 days and B cells within 12 days. BCG lipids also predisposed matrices for adherence and vascularization, enhancing cellular recruitment. We submit that the matrix model presents pertinent features of the murine granulomatous response that will prove to be an adaptable method for study of this complex response.

  10. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan-you; Liang, Shen-ju; Li, Gui-qing; Lv, Yan-bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-lian; Zhang, Ke-qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3−/−) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3+/+ B6 allografts, C3−/− B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2bm12 B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3+/+ allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3−/− allografts. Moreover, C3−/− allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2bm12 recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4+ CD25+ Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  11. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan-You; Liang, Shen-Ju; Li, Gui-Qing; Lv, Yan-Bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-Lian; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3(-/-)) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3(+/+) B6 allografts, C3(-/-) B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2(bm12) B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3(+/+) allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3(-/-) allografts. Moreover, C3(-/-) allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2(bm12) recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  12. Time-Resolved Visualisation of Nearly-Native Influenza A Virus Progeny Ribonucleoproteins and Their Individual Components in Live Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilov, Sergiy; Magnus, Julie; Cusack, Stephen; Naffakh, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a global health concern because of the permanent threat of novel emerging strains potentially capable of causing pandemics. Viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) containing genomic RNA segments, nucleoprotein oligomers, and the viral polymerase, play a central role in the viral replication cycle. Our knowledge about critical events such as vRNP assembly and interactions with other viral and cellular proteins is poor and could be substantially improved by time lapse imaging of the infected cells. However, such studies are limited by the difficulty to achieve live-cell compatible labeling of active vRNPs. Previously we designed the first unimpaired recombinant influenza WSN-PB2-GFP11 virus allowing fluorescent labeling of the PB2 subunit of the viral polymerase (Avilov et al., J.Virol. 2012). Here, we simultaneously labeled the viral PB2 protein using the above-mentioned strategy, and virus-encoded progeny RNPs through spontaneous incorporation of transiently expressed NP-mCherry fusion proteins during RNP assembly in live infected cells. This dual labeling enabled us to visualize progeny vRNPs throughout the infection cycle and to characterize independently the mobility, oligomerization status and interactions of vRNP components in the nuclei of live infected cells. PMID:26978069

  13. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-L-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Lerouge, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Screening of commercially available fluoro monosaccharides as putative growth inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that 2-fluoro 2-l-fucose (2F-Fuc) reduces root growth at micromolar concentrations. The inability of 2F-Fuc to affect an Atfkgp mutant that is defective in the fucose salvage pathway indicates that 2F-Fuc must be converted to its cognate GDP nucleotide sugar in order to inhibit root growth. Chemical analysis of cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins demonstrated that fucosylation of xyloglucans and of N-linked glycans is fully inhibited by 10 μm 2F-Fuc in Arabidopsis seedling roots, but genetic evidence indicates that these alterations are not responsible for the inhibition of root development by 2F-Fuc. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides also affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). At low concentrations, 2F-Fuc induced a decrease in RG-II dimerization. Both RG-II dimerization and root growth were partially restored in 2F-Fuc-treated seedlings by addition of boric acid, suggesting that the growth phenotype caused by 2F-Fuc was due to a deficiency of RG-II dimerization. Closer investigation of the 2F-Fuc-induced growth phenotype demonstrated that cell division is not affected by 2F-Fuc treatments. In contrast, the inhibitor suppressed elongation of root cells and promoted the emergence of adventitious roots. This study further emphasizes the importance of RG-II in cell elongation and the utility of glycosyltransferase inhibitors as new tools for studying the functions of cell wall polysaccharides in plant development. Moreover, supplementation experiments with borate suggest that the function of boron in plants might not be restricted to RG-II cross-linking, but that it might also be a signal molecule in the cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism.

  14. Particle-In-Cell simulation of laser irradiated two-component microspheres in 2 and 3 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Viktoria; Ostermayr, Tobias M.; Bamberg, Karl-Ulrich; Böhl, Patrick; Deutschmann, Fabian; Kiefer, Daniel; Klier, Constantin; Moschüring, Nils; Ruhl, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    We examine proton acceleration from spherical carbon-hydrogen targets irradiated by a relativistic laser pulse. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are carried out in 2 and 3 dimensions (2D and 3D) to compare fast proton spectra. We find very different final kinetic energies in 2D and 3D simulations. We show that they are caused by the different Coulomb fields in 2D and 3D. We propose a correction scheme for the proton energies to test this hypothesis. In the case of sub-focus diameter targets comparison of corrected 2D energies with 3D results show good agreement. This demonstrates that caution is required when modeling experiments with simulations of reduced dimensionality.

  15. Major Components of Energy Drinks (Caffeine, Taurine, and Guarana Exert Cytotoxic Effects on Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Zeidán-Chuliá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. To elucidate the morphological and biochemical in vitro effects exerted by caffeine, taurine, and guarana, alone or in combination, since they are major components in energy drinks (EDs. Methods and Results. On human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, caffeine (0.125–2 mg/mL, taurine (1–16 mg/mL, and guarana (3.125–50 mg/mL showed concentration-dependent nonenzymatic antioxidant potential, decreased the basal levels of free radical generation, and reduced both superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, especially when combined together. However, guarana-treated cells developed signs of neurite degeneration in the form of swellings at various segments in a beaded or pearl chain-like appearance and fragmentation of such neurites at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/mL. Swellings, but not neuritic fragmentation, were detected when cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL (or higher doses of caffeine, concentrations that are present in EDs. Cells treated with guarana also showed qualitative signs of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, and cleaved caspase-3 positivity. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cells treated with 12.5–50 mg/mL of guarana and its combinations with caffeine and/or taurine underwent apoptosis. Conclusion. Excessive removal of intracellular reactive oxygen species, to nonphysiological levels (or “antioxidative stress”, could be a cause of in vitro toxicity induced by these drugs.

  16. Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde: a novel antiproliferative drug inducing cell death through targeting both topoisomerase I and II in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Cherng, Jonathan; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Yang, Shu-mei; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum verum is used to manufacture the spice cinnamon. In addition, the plant has been used as a Chinese herbal medication. Methods We investigated the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the cortex of the plant, and the molecular biomarkers associated with tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphological analysis with bright field, acridine orange, and neutral red stainings, as well as comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was determined by assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VACs) were determined by neutral red staining. Results The results demonstrate that 2-MCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis as implicated by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, increase of annexin V+PI+ cells, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Furthermore, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with elevated VAC, cytotoxicity, and inhibitions of topoisomerase I as well as II activities. Additional study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of 2-MCA found in a nude mice model. Conclusions Our data implicate that the antiproliferative activity of 2-MCA in vitro involved downregulation of cell growth markers, both topoisomerase I and II, and upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with increased lysosomal vacuolation. In vivo 2-MCA reduced the tumor burden that could have significant clinical impact. Indeed, similar effects were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 and Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data implicate that 2-MCA could be a

  17. Subcellular localization of SV2 and other secretory vesicle components in PC12 cells by an efficient method of preembedding EM immunocytochemistry for cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, V A; Ploug, Thorkil; Tao-Cheng, J H

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrated the subcellular localization of SV2, a transmembrane protein associated with neuroendocrine secretory vesicles, in NGF-treated PC12 cells by preembedding EM immunocytochemistry (ICC), using a small gold probe followed by silver enhancement. The use of a multiwell chamber slide...... substantially improved the efficiency of the preembedding EM ICC procedures for cell cultures. The advantages and related caveats of this method are discussed. SV2 was distinctly localized on dusters of synaptic vesicles and large dense-cored vesicles (LDCV). The distribution of SV2 on these two types...... organelle....

  18. The Determination of Somatic Cell Count and Some Components of Raw Milk Evaluated By a Private Company in Trakya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Onal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the amount of bulk tank somatic cell counts. Chemical and microbiological compositions of raw milk produced in Trakya were also reached in order to evaluate the structure of milk production. For this purpose 36 raw milk samples were collected from bulk milk tank within three different location of Trakya (18 samples from Edirne, 10 from Tekirdağ and 8 from Kırklareli. The arithmetic means and standard errors of fat percentages, non-fat dry matter, protein percentages, BTSCC (Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Count and TB (Total Bacteria for Edirne, Tekirdağ and Kırklareli provinces were; 3.70 0.052, 3.60 0.098, 3.76 0.064; 8.34 0.025, 8.50 0.035, 8.39 0.038; 3.05 0.012, 3.09 0.019, 3.05 0.016; 308.555 26.510 SCC/ml (log 5.459 0.04 SCC/ml, 350.200 53.627 SCC/ml (Log 5.500 0.06 SCC/ml, 254.500 37.645 SCC/ml (Log 5.370 0.06 SCC/ml; 479.481 51.777 cfu/ml (Log 5.630 0.05 cfu/ml, 435.716 91.194 cfu/ml (Log 5.5230.12 cfu/ml, 446.958 81.515 cfu/ml (Log 5.602 0.075 cfu/ml respectively. Consequentially, the correlation coefficient for LogBTSCC and fat percentage, non-fat dry matter, protein percentage and LogTB were found to be 0.036, 0.251, 0.421 and 0.219 respectively. A significant (p<0.05 correlation coefficient was obtained between LogBTSCC and protein percentage.

  19. Component Separations

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H.; Ramirez, Oscar M.

    2012-01-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-...

  20. Component separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  1. Depth profiling of thin film solar cell components by synchrotron excited Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on the elemental composition of a material, SXES provides an information depth of 50-1000 nm. For studies of thin multilayer structures tuning of this parameter is highly desirable. One possibility is the variation of the excitation energy, which is accompanied by variation of photoionisation cross sections. Alternatively, we performed angle resolved SXES on the solar cell absorber material Cu(In,Ga)Se2 covered by CdS or Zn(S,O) buffer layers (10-50 nm). Due to our setup geometry, the emission spectra clearly display increased surface sensitivity at small (grazing exit) and large (grazing incidence) exit angles. A model based on Beer-Lamberts law and setup geometry is in reasonable agreement with our experimental data.The presented results show that angle resolved SXES measurements yield depth-dependent information on multilayer structures. The increased surface sensitivity at grazing exit and grazing incidence angles allows the detection of extremely thin cover layers at reasonable recording times

  2. Depth profiling of thin film solar cell components by synchrotron excited Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenig, Harry; Grimm, Alexander; Lux-Steiner, Martha; Saez-Araoz, Rodrigo; Fischer, Christian-Herbert [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Baer, Markus [University of Las Vegas (United States); Camus, Christian; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kaufmann, Christian; Koerber, Paul; Kropp, Timo; Lauermann, Iver; Lehmann, Sebastian; Muenchenberg, Tim; Pistor, Paul; Puttnins, Stefan; Schock, Hans-Werner; Sokoll, Stefan [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin (Germany); Jung, Christian [BESSY GmbH Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Depending on the elemental composition of a material, SXES provides an information depth of 50-1000 nm. For studies of thin multilayer structures tuning of this parameter is highly desirable. One possibility is the variation of the excitation energy, which is accompanied by variation of photoionisation cross sections. Alternatively, we performed angle resolved SXES on the solar cell absorber material Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} covered by CdS or Zn(S,O) buffer layers (10-50 nm). Due to our setup geometry, the emission spectra clearly display increased surface sensitivity at small (grazing exit) and large (grazing incidence) exit angles. A model based on Beer-Lamberts law and setup geometry is in reasonable agreement with our experimental data.The presented results show that angle resolved SXES measurements yield depth-dependent information on multilayer structures. The increased surface sensitivity at grazing exit and grazing incidence angles allows the detection of extremely thin cover layers at reasonable recording times.

  3. Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata (BPR, Asteraceae is a commonly used folk medicine for treating various disorders such as diabetes, inflammation and hypertension. Recent studies to determine its chemical composition have revealed three di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (DiCQAs and three polyacetylene glucosides (PGAs to be among the major bioactive markers. To obtain the major compounds of these two chemical classes, the ethyl acetate fraction (EM obtained using liquid-liquid partition from the methanol extract resulted in a fraction with the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities in radical scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. To assess the bioavailability of EM, we examined the in vitro uptake using the Caco-2 human colonic cell line. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for each of the compounds within PGAs measured in both apical (AP to basolateral (BL and BL to AP was found to preferentially appear BL to AP direction, indicated that a basolateral to apical efflux system was detected in the study. DiCQAs had a lower efflux ratio than those from PGAs (2.32–3.67 vs. 6.03–78.36. Thus, it strongly implies that most of the DiCQAs are better absorbed than the PGAs.

  4. Pneumococcal components induce regulatory T cells that attenuate the development of allergic airways disease by deviating and suppressing the immune response to allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Alison N; Brown, Alexandra C; Nair, Prema M; Chevalier, Nina; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2013-10-15

    The induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) to suppress aberrant inflammation and immunity has potential as a therapeutic strategy for asthma. Recently, we identified key immunoregulatory components of Streptococcus pneumoniae, type 3 polysaccharide and pneumolysoid (T+P), which suppress allergic airways disease (AAD) in mouse models of asthma. To elucidate the mechanisms of suppression, we have now performed a thorough examination of the role of Tregs. BALB/c mice were sensitized to OVA (day 0) i.p. and challenged intranasal (12-15 d later) to induce AAD. T+P was administered intratracheally at the time of sensitization in three doses (0, 12, and 24 h). T+P treatment induced an early (36 h-4 d) expansion of Tregs in the mediastinal lymph nodes, and later (12-16 d) increases in these cells in the lungs, compared with untreated allergic controls. Anti-CD25 treatment showed that Treg-priming events involving CD25, CCR7, IL-2, and TGF-β were required for the suppression of AAD. During AAD, T+P-induced Tregs in the lungs displayed a highly suppressive phenotype and had an increased functional capacity. T+P also blocked the induction of IL-6 to prevent the Th17 response, attenuated the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 on myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and reduced the number of DCs carrying OVA in the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes. Therefore, bacterial components (T+P) drive the differentiation of highly suppressive Tregs, which suppress the Th2 response, prevent the Th17 response and disable the DC response resulting in the effective suppression of AAD. PMID:24048894

  5. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978. [Uv and x radiation, bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, D.J.; Pollard, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: coordinate induction of mutagenesis, radioresistance, and inhibition of post-radiation DNA degradation; radioinduced filamentation; action spectrum for induction of K12 lambda phage; effects of uv radiation on cells in the frozen state; dependence of mutagenesis on wavelength of uv; and w-reactivation of x-irradiated phage lambda. (HLW)

  6. Signaling mechanism by the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system LytSR: role of acetyl phosphate in bypassing the cell membrane electrical potential sensor LytS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kevin; Golemi-Kotra, Dasantila

    2015-01-01

    The two-component system LytSR has been linked to the signal transduction of cell membrane electrical potential perturbation and is involved in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to cationic antimicrobial peptides. It consists of a membrane-bound histidine kinase, LytS, which belongs to the family of multiple transmembrane-spanning domains receptors, and a response regulator, LytR, which belongs to the novel family of non-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain proteins. LytR regulates the expression of cidABC and lrgAB operons, the gene products of which are involved in programmed cell death and lysis. In vivo studies have demonstrated involvement of two overlapping regulatory networks in regulating the lrgAB operon, both depending on LytR. One regulatory network responds to glucose metabolism and the other responds to changes in the cell membrane potential. Herein, we show that LytS has autokinase activity and can catalyze a fast phosphotransfer reaction, with 50% of its phosphoryl group lost within 1 minute of incubation with LytR. LytS has also phosphatase activity. Notably, LytR undergoes phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate at a rate that is 2-fold faster than the phosphorylation by LytS. This observation is significant in lieu of the in vivo observations that regulation of the lrgAB operon is LytR-dependent in the presence of excess glucose in the medium. The latter condition does not lead to perturbation of the cell membrane potential but rather to the accumulation of acetate in the cell. Our study provides insights into the molecular basis for regulation of lrgAB in a LytR-dependent manner under conditions that do not involve sensing by LytS. PMID:27127614

  7. Effects of Inflorescence Stem Structure and Cell Wall Components on the Mechanical Strength of Inflorescence Stem in Herbaceous Peony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingping Geng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a traditional famous flower, but its poor inflorescence stem quality seriously constrains the development of the cut flower. Mechanical strength is an important characteristic of stems, which not only affects plant lodging, but also plays an important role in stem bend or break. In this paper, the mechanical strength, morphological indices and microstructure of P. lactiflora development inflorescence stems were measured and observed. The results showed that the mechanical strength of inflorescence stems gradually increased, and that the diameter of inflorescence stem was a direct indicator in estimating mechanical strength. Simultaneously, with the development of inflorescence stem, the number of vascular bundles increased, the vascular bundle was arranged more densely, the sclerenchyma cell wall thickened, and the proportion of vascular bundle and pith also increased. On this basis, cellulose and lignin contents were determined, PlCesA3, PlCesA6 and PlCCoAOMT were isolated and their expression patterns were examined including PlPAL. The results showed that cellulose was not strictly correlated with the mechanical strength of inflorescence stem, and lignin had a significant impact on it. In addition, PlCesA3 and PlCesA6 were not key members in cellulose synthesis of P. lactiflora and their functions were also different, but PlPAL and PlCCoAOMT regulated the lignin synthesis of P. lactiflora. These data indicated that PlPAL and PlCCoAOMT could be applied to improve the mechanical strength of P. lactiflora inflorescence stem in genetic engineering.

  8. Changes of plant cell wall components under abiotic stresses:A review%非生物胁迫下植物细胞壁组分变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴惠娟; 张满效; 安黎哲

    2011-01-01

    植物细胞壁主要由纤维素、半纤维素、果胶、木质素和糖蛋白组成,其在植物生长中主要起结构支持、物质运输和抵御逆境的作用.植物生长在受到各种环境信号影响后,细胞壁特性会发生很大改变.这些环境信号也会改变细胞壁组分的含量和结构,从而改变细胞壁机械特性.这种细胞壁的改变可以认为是植物对环境胁迫的响应.本文主要综述在非生物环境胁迫下,包括水分亏缺、低温胁迫、重金属胁迫和增强UV-B辐射下细胞壁多糖含量和结构,细胞壁结构蛋白和细胞壁相关酶活性,以及分布在细胞间隙的小分子物质的响应和机制,结合近年来细胞壁相关基因水平、基因组水平和蛋白组水平方面的研究结果,讨论了今后该领域的研究方向.%Plant cell wall mainly consists of cellulose , hemi-cellulose , pectic substances, lignin , and proteins. It has a number of functions, including maintain cell stability, transport materials, and protect cell against environmental stresses. When the plant life cycle is affected by various environmental signals, cell wall properties will have great change, and cell wall components content and structure will be also changed, which is supposed to be the causes of the changes in cell wall mechanical properties. These changes can be considered as the responses of plants to environmental stress. This paper summarized the research advances in the changes of cell wall polysaccharides and proteins content and structure and related enzyme activities, and the responses and relevant mechanisms of small molecules secreted to cell spaces under abiotic environmental stresses, such as water deficit, low temperature stress, heavy metals stress, and UV-B radiation. In considering of the recent researches at gene, genomic, and proteomics levels, the future research directions in this area were also discussed.

  9. Effect of blood components, abdominal distension, and ecdysone therapy on the ultrastructural organization of posterior midgut epithelial cells and perimicrovillar membranes in Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Albuquerque-Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blood components, nerve-cord severance, and ecdysone therapy on the posterior midgut epithelial cells of 5th-instar Rhodnius prolixus nymphs 10 days after feeding were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Cutting the nerve-cord of the blood-fed insects partially reduced the development of microvilli and perimicrovillar membranes (PMM, and produced large vacuoles and small electrondense granules; insects fed on Ringer's saline diet exhibited well developed microvilli and low PMM production; swolled rough endoplasmatic reticulum and electrondense granules; Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone led to PMM development, glycogen particles, and several mitochondria in the cytoplasm; epithelial cells of the insects fed on Ringer's saline meal whose nerve-cord was severed showed heterogeneously distributed microvilli with reduced PMM production and a great quantity of mitochondria and glycogen in the cytoplasm; well developed microvilli and PMM were observed in nerve-cord severed insects fed on Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone; Ringer's saline diet containing hemoglobin recovered the release of PMM; and insects fed on human plasma showed slightly reduced PMM production, although the addition of ecdysone in the plasma led to a normal midgut ultrastructural organization. We suggest that the full development of microvilli and PMM in the epithelial cells depends on the abdominal distension in addition to ingestion of hemoglobin, and the release of ecdysone.

  10. [A Case of Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast with Extensive Intraductal Components and Micrometastases to the Axillary Lymph Node].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirohito; Sasaki, Kenichi; Morinaga, Shojiro; Asanuma, Fumiki; Yanaihara, Hisashi; Kaneda, Munehisa; Suzuki, Keiichi; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kamiya, Noriki; Osaku, Masayoshi; Ikeda, Tadashi

    2016-02-01

    A 48-year-old woman had a left breast mass identified during routine breast cancer screening. The mammogram showed pleomorphic-segmental microcalcifications in the mediolateral-oblique view of the left breast. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass approximately 3.7 cm in diameter with multiple calcifications. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast showed non-mass like enhancement of approximately 4 cm in diameter in the C area of the left breast. She was diagnosed with glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma (GRCC) by ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy. Nipplesparing mastectomy was performed along with sentinel lymph node biopsy. The intraoperative consultation suggested sentinel lymph node metastasis and we therefore performed axillary lymph node dissection. Pathological examination reported microinvasive carcinomas, 0.4 cm in maximum diameter, and extensive intraductal components, 5 cm in size. The tumor cells were stained on PAS staining, but the stains were digested with diastase. The cells were negative for adipophilin. GRCC was first reported by Hull et al. This is a rare type of breast carcinoma. There is no standard therapy for this disease or any data on the prognosis of breast cancer patients with GRCC. PMID:27067690

  11. Hederagenin, a major component of Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root, attenuates inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Won; Park, Sang Mi; Zhao, Rongjie; Lee, Chu; Chun, Wonjoo; Son, Yonghae; Kim, Sung Hun; Jung, Ji Yun; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Young Woo; Ju, Seong A; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G

    2015-12-01

    Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root has been used in Asia as a traditional anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antitumor agent. Its main active component is hederagenin, a naturally occurring triterpene, and in this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of hederagenin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR. In addition, its effects on acute inflammation in vivo were observed using a carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay. Furthermore, the changes on the histopathology and histomorphometry of hind paw skins were examined using carrageenan-treated mice. Treatment with hederagenin (10, 30 and 100μM) resulted in inhibited levels of protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB as well as production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide. Consistent with these results, hederagenin also dose-dependently reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2, and of the above-mentioned cytokines. Interestingly, results of the carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay showed an anti-edema effect of hederagenin. Furthermore, hederagenin (30mg/kg) inhibited the carrageenan-induced increases in skin thicknesses, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and mast cell degranulation. These results suggest that hederagenin may possess anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26481049

  12. Electrochemical components

    CERN Document Server

    Pera, Marie-Cécile; Gualous, Hamid; Turpin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Marie-Cécile Péra is Full Professor at the University of Franche-Comte in France and Deputy Director of the FEMTO-ST Institute (CNRS). Her research activities include modeling, control and diagnosis of electrical power generation systems (fuel cells - PEMFC and SOFC, supercapacities, batteries) for transportation and stationary applications. Daniel Hissel is Full Professor at the University of Franche-Comte in France and Director of the Fuel Cell Lab Research Federation (CNRS). He also leads a research team devoted to hybrid electrical systems in the FEMTO-ST Institute (CNRS). Hamid Gualo

  13. Printing thermoresponsive reverse molds for the creation of patterned two-component hydrogels for 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Becher, Jana; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2013-01-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging technology that has its origins in the rapid prototyping industry. The different printing processes can be divided into contact bioprinting(1-4) (extrusion, dip pen and soft lithography), contactless bioprinting(5-7) (laser forward transfer, ink-jet deposition) and laser based techniques such as two photon photopolymerization(8). It can be used for many applications such as tissue engineering(9-13), biosensor microfabrication(14-16) and as a tool to answer basic biological questions such as influences of co-culturing of different cell types(17). Unlike common photolithographic or soft-lithographic methods, extrusion bioprinting has the advantage that it does not require a separate mask or stamp. Using CAD software, the design of the structure can quickly be changed and adjusted according to the requirements of the operator. This makes bioprinting more flexible than lithography-based approaches. Here we demonstrate the printing of a sacrificial mold to create a multi-material 3D structure using an array of pillars within a hydrogel as an example. These pillars could represent hollow structures for a vascular network or the tubes within a nerve guide conduit. The material chosen for the sacrificial mold was poloxamer 407, a thermoresponsive polymer with excellent printing properties which is liquid at 4 °C and a solid above its gelation temperature ~20 °C for 24.5% w/v solutions(18). This property allows the poloxamer-based sacrificial mold to be eluted on demand and has advantages over the slow dissolution of a solid material especially for narrow geometries. Poloxamer was printed on microscope glass slides to create the sacrificial mold. Agarose was pipetted into the mold and cooled until gelation. After elution of the poloxamer in ice cold water, the voids in the agarose mold were filled with alginate methacrylate spiked with FITC labeled fibrinogen. The filled voids were then cross-linked with UV and the construct was imaged with an

  14. Catalytic phosphonation of high performance polymers and POSS. Novel components for polymer blend and nanocomposite fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, T.R.

    2006-10-15

    Aim of this thesis was the preparation and evaluation of phosphonated high performance (HP) polyelectrolytes and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) application. Brominated derivatives of the commercial high performance (HP) polymers poly(ethersulfone) (PES), poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), poly(phenylsulfone) (PPSu), poly(sulfone) (PSU) and of octaphenyl-POSS of own production were phosphonated by Ni-catalysed Arbuzov reaction. Phosphonated PSU was cast into pure and blend films with sulfonated PEEK (s-PEEK) to investigate H+-conductivity, water uptake and film morphology. Blend films' properties were referenced to films containing unmodified blend partners. Solution-compounding of phosphonated octaphenyl-POSS and s-PEEK was used to produce novel nanocomposite films. An in-situ zirconisation method was assessed as convenient strategy for novel ionically crosslinked membranes of enhanced swelling resistance. Dibromo isocyanuric acid (DBI) and N-bromo succinimide (NBS) as brominating agents allowed polymer analogous preparation of the novel brominated PES and PEEK with precise reaction control. A random distribution of functional groups, i.e. polyelectrolytes' microstructural homogeneity was revealed as decisive factor concerning solubility of phosphonated PSU. Brominated phT8 was prepared with Br2 by a high temperature approach in tetrachloroethane (TCE). Brominated polymers were phosphonated by Ni-catalysis in non-coordinating high temperature solvents, such as diphenylether, benzophenone and diphenylsulfone without notable solvent influence. The lack of solvent - catalyst complexes and high reaction temperatures of 180-200 C led to halogen-free phosphonates with unprecedented high functionalities. Polymer analogous application of P(OSiMe3)3 offered a novel direct access to easily cleavable disilyl ester derivatives. These were obtained from PEEK and PSU in near quantitative yields at NiCl2-loads as

  15. Interval and composite interval mapping of somatic cell score, yield, and components of milk in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Heyen, D W; Lewin, H A

    2002-11-01

    Single-marker, interval-mapping (IM) and composite interval mapping (CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS). A granddaughter design was used to combine molecular genetic information with predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) and estimated daughter yield deviations (DYD) from eight Dairy Bull DNA Repository Holstein families. Models that included and excluded weights accounting for the uncertainty of the response variable were evaluated in each trait, family and phenotype (DYD and PTA) combination. The genotypic information consisted of 174 microsatellite markers along 29 Bos taurus autosomes. The average number of informative markers per autosome was three and the number of informative sons per family and marker varied between 21 and 173. Within-family results from the least squares single-marker analyses were used in expectation-maximization likelihood IM and CIM implemented with QTL Cartographer. Different CIM model specifications, offering complementary control on the background QTL outside the interval under study, were evaluated. Permutation techniques were used to calculate the genome-wide threshold test statistic values based on 1,000 samples. Results from the DYD and PTA analyses were highly consistent across traits and families. The minor differences in the estimates from the models that accounted for or ignored the uncertainty of the DYD (variance) and PTA (inverse of reliability) may be associated to the elevated and consistent precision of the DYD and PTA among sons. The CIM model best supported by the data had 10 markers controlling for background effects. On autosome (BTA) three, a QTL at 32 cM influencing protein yield was located in family five and a QTL at 74 cM for fat yield was located in family eight. Two map positions associated with SCS were detected on BTA 21, one at 33 cM in family one and the other at 84 cM in family three. A QTL for protein yield was

  16. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  17. Protective role of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component withanone on scopolamine-induced changes in the brain and brain-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Konar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scopolamine is a well-known cholinergic antagonist that causes amnesia in human and animal models. Scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodent models has been widely used to understand the molecular, biochemical, behavioral changes, and to delineate therapeutic targets of memory impairment. Although this has been linked to the decrease in central cholinergic neuronal activity following the blockade of muscarinic receptors, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s particularly the effect on neuroplasticity remains elusive. In the present study, we have investigated (i the effects of scopolamine on the molecules involved in neuronal and glial plasticity both in vivo and in vitro and (ii their recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a drug model, scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally to mice and its effect on the brain function was determined by molecular analyses. The results showed that the scopolamine caused downregulation of the expression of BDNF and GFAP in dose and time dependent manner, and these effects were markedly attenuated in response to i-Extract treatment. Similar to our observations in animal model system, we found that the scopolamine induced cytotoxicity in IMR32 neuronal and C6 glioma cells. It was associated with downregulation of neuronal cell markers NF-H, MAP2, PSD-95, GAP-43 and glial cell marker GFAP and with upregulation of DNA damage--γH2AX and oxidative stress--ROS markers. Furthermore, these molecules showed recovery when cells were treated with i-Extract or its purified component, withanone. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that besides cholinergic blockade, scopolamine-induced memory loss may be associated with oxidative stress and Ashwagandha i-Extract, and withanone may serve as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders and hence warrant further molecular analyses.

  18. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract (AGE is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl-L-arginine (FruArg. The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  19. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchetti Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-α, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography. Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-α by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-α or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients.

  20. Characterization of damp heat degradation of CuInGaSe2 solar cell components and devices by (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pern, F. J. John; Noufi, Rommel

    2011-09-01

    This work evaluated the capability of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (IS, or ECIS as used here) to monitor damp heat (DH) stability of contact materials, CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cell components, and devices. Cell characteristics and its variation of the CIGS devices were also examined by the ECIS. Bare and encapsulated sample sets were separately prepared and exposed in an environmental chamber at 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH). The ECIS results from bare samples tested within 50-100 h of DH exposure allowed the determination of the use of a conducting Ag paste and a low-melting-point solder alloy for making a DH-stable external connection with Au wires. Bare Mo and AlNi grid degraded (corroded) rapidly while Ni was DH-stable. The moisture-dampened Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and bilayer ZnO (BZO) likely underwent hydrolytic "capacitor-forming" reaction by DH, resulting in "transient" behavior of very high resistance in ECIS that was not detected by four-point probe. Using an encapsulation test structure that allowed moisture ingress control, DH-induced degradation (resistance increase) rates of BZO on glass decreased from 0.21 ohm/h using a moisture-permeable Tedlar/Polyester/Tedlar (TPT) backsheet to 1.0 x 10-3 ohm/h using a moisture barrier FG-200 film, while Mo on glass did not exhibit the same conducting degradation and corrosion as the bare samples after over 1270 h DH exposure. CIGS solar cells encapsulated with a TPT backsheet degraded irregularly over 774 h DH exposure. Key resistance and capacitance parameters extracted by curve fitting of impedance data clearly showed the variation and impact of DH exposure on cell characteristics. Profound "depression" or shorting of the "p-n junction capacitor" by DH was evident. ECIS results are shown to correlate reasonably well with the solar cells' currentvoltage (I-V) degrading trends. Furthermore, ECIS analysis was capable of differentiating cell degradation due to "junction capacitor" shorting, damage or

  1. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.

  2. Down-regulation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in peripheral nucleated blood cells associated with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlström Per-Olof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 is a member of a progesterone-binding complex implicated in female reproduction. We aimed i to determine the natural expression of PGRMC1 in peripheral nucleated blood cells throughout the menstrual cycle and ii to investigate any association between PGRMC1 levels in leukocytes and conditions characterized by reduced fertility. Methods We analyzed PGRMC1 expression in peripheral leukocytes from 15 healthy cycling women over four weeks. Additionally, we determined PGRMC1 levels in samples from patients with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS as well as in healthy postmenopausal women and male controls. The levels of PGRMC1 protein in nucleated peripheral blood cells were quantified by Western blot analysis. Results PGRMC1 levels did not vary significantly throughout the menstrual cycle. We observed a significant down-regulation of PGRMC1 in postmenopausal women and in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS when compared to early follicular phase of healthy women. Conclusion This study suggests that reduced levels of PGRMC1 in peripheral leukocytes are associated with perturbed ovulatory function.

  3. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed. PMID:26671648

  4. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) to complement component C1q modulates the complement attack and promotes host cell adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Sroka, Magdalena; Fulde, Marcus; Bergmann, Simone; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2014-05-30

    The Gram-positive species Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing severe local and life-threatening invasive diseases associated with high mortality rates and death. We demonstrated recently that pneumococcal endopeptidase O (PepO) is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional plasminogen and fibronectin-binding protein facilitating host cell invasion and evasion of innate immunity. In this study, we found that PepO interacts directly with the complement C1q protein, thereby attenuating the classical complement pathway and facilitating pneumococcal complement escape. PepO binds both free C1q and C1 complex in a dose-dependent manner based on ionic interactions. Our results indicate that recombinant PepO specifically inhibits the classical pathway of complement activation in both hemolytic and complement deposition assays. This inhibition is due to direct interaction of PepO with C1q, leading to a strong activation of the classical complement pathway, and results in consumption of complement components. In addition, PepO binds the classical complement pathway inhibitor C4BP, thereby regulating downstream complement activation. Importantly, pneumococcal surface-exposed PepO-C1q interaction mediates bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells. Taken together, PepO facilitates C1q-mediated bacterial adherence, whereas its localized release consumes complement as a result of its activation following binding of C1q, thus representing an additional mechanism of human complement escape by this versatile pathogen.

  5. [A new separation protocol (DRBCP-F) for automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator for collection of leukocyte depleted erythrocyte concentrates and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1997-01-01

    Previously published studies on automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator proved fairly good quality of the collected red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), with the disadvantage of a low hematocrit of the filtered RBC and a high platelet contamination of the FFP (RBCP-F protocol.) The DRBCP-F protocol was designed to eliminate the above-mentioned disadvantages and to provide 1 unit of leuko-depleted (filtered) RBC, 2 units of FFP, and additionally 1 platelet concentrate (PC) from the buffy coat. Twenty automated blood component collections (2 cycles, Latham bowl at 5,500 rpm, 230 ml isotonic saline for volume balance, PAGGS-M as additive solution) were performed. The RBC were filtered in a closed system after storage at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Blood cell counts and biochemical parameters of the RBC were determined initially and after 49 days. PC were separated from buffy coat after a soft spin. The volume of the RBC amounted to 293 +/- 12 ml (mean +/- SD) with a hematocrit of 0.61 +/- 0.05 l/l. Residual leukocytes after filtration were found to be 0.04 x 10(6) +/- 0.06 per unit. After storage, the following data were obtained: hemolysis 0.38%, ATP 2.1 +/- 0.4 mumol/g Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) 1.4 +/- 0.3 mumol/g Hb, ph 6.3 +/- 0.1, potassium 6.4 mmol per unit, and LDH in the supernatant was 219 U/l. None of the RBC showed bacterial growth after 49 days. The volume of the collected FFP was 398 +/- 32 ml, with 3.4 +/- 3.5 x 10(3) residual platelets and 5 +/- 12 leukocytes per microliter. Platelet concentrates contained 90.2 +/- 32 x 10(9) platelets in 88 +/- 14 ml plasma. Automated blood donation with the DRBCP-F protocol provided RBC with very low residual leukocyte counts, adequate hematocrit and good metabolic status up to 49 days, and FFP with low platelet contamination. The platelet concentrates were even superior to those prepared from whole blood using the buffy coat method. The storable leuko-depleted RBC are

  6. Mass spectrometric determination of O2 gas exchange during a dark-to-light transition in higher-plant cells : Evidence for two individual O2-uptake components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelange, M H; Rébeillé, F

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of O2 and CO2 by photoautotrophic cells of Euphorbia characias L. was measured using a mass-spectrometry technique. During a dark-tolight transition the O2 uptake rate was little affected whereas CO2 efflux was decreased by 40%. In order to differentiate eventual superimposed O2-uptake processes, the kinetics of O2 exchange resulting from brief illuminations were measured with a highly sensitive device. When the cells were exposed to a saturating light for short periods, the rate of O2 uptake passed through a series of transients: there was first a stimulation occurring 2-3 s after the appearance of O2 from water-splitting, followed 30 s later by an inhibition. These two transients were reduced 80% by 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU), indicating that they relied on the linear transport of electrons in the chloroplasts. The first transient (stimulation of an O2 uptake) was little affected by mitochondrial inhibitors such as antimycin A and oligomycin or the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but was increased in presence of KCN. When spaced flashes (2 us duration; 100-ms intervals) were used instead of continuous light, this transient was almost suppressed indicating that it was dependent on the saturation of some component of the chloroplastic chain. The second transient (inhibition of O2 uptake) was present when spaced flashes were used instead of continuous light. It was markedly decreased by addition of CCCP and mitochondrial inhibitors (antimycin A, oligomycin, KCN) which strongly indicates that it relied on mitochondrial respiration. It is concluded from these experiments that illumination of the cells resulted in an inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, but the resulting inhibition of O2 uptake was hidden by the appearance of an O2-uptake process of extramitochondrial origin, presumably located in the chloroplast. PMID:24193615

  7. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeza-Squiban Armelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect. Results In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies. The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. Conclusions The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition

  9. Component Compatibility in Component Based Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hardeep Singh; Anitpal Kaur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort...

  10. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  11. The two-component adjuvant IC31® boosts type i interferon production of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via ligation of endosomal TLRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and identify the mode of action of IC31®, a two-component vaccine adjuvant. We found that IC31® was accumulated in human peripheral blood monocytes, MHC class II positive cells and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs but not in plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs. In the presence of IC31® the differentiation of inflammatory CD1a(+ moDCs and the secretion of chemokines, TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines was inhibited but the production of IFNβ was increased. Sustained addition of IC31® to differentiating moDCs interfered with IκBα phosphorylation, while the level of phospho-IRF3 increased. We also showed that both IC31® and its KLK component exhibited a booster effect on type I IFN responses induced by the specific ligands of TLR3 or TLR7/8, whereas TLR9 ligand induces type I IFN production only in the presence of IC31® or ODN1. Furthermore, long term incubation of moDCs with IC31® caused significantly higher expression of IRF and IFN genes than a single 24 hr treatment. The adjuvant activity of IC31® on the IFN response was shown to be exerted through TLRs residing in the vesicular compartment of moDCs. Based on these results IC31® was identified as a moDC modulatory adjuvant that sets the balance of the NF-κB and IRF3 mediated signaling pathways to the production of IFNβ. Thus IC31® is emerging as a potent adjuvant to increase immune responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer in future vaccination strategies.

  12. Adherence Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains to HEp-2 Cells by Mannan Oligosaccharides and a High-Molecular-Weight Component of Cranberry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rupnow, John; Hutkins, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    Campylobacter infections are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of Campylobacter require that the bacteria adhere to the surface of host cells. Agents that inhibit adherence could be used prophylactically to reduce Campylobacter carriage and infection. Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used as a feed supplement in livestock animals to improve performance and to replace growth-promoting antibiotics. However, MOS and other nondigestible oligosaccharides may also prevent pathogen colonization by inhibiting adherence in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, plant extracts, including those derived from cranberries, have been shown to have antiadherence activity against pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of MOS and cranberry fractions to serve as antiadherence agents against strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Adherence experiments were performed using HEp-2 cells. Significant reductions in adherence of C. jejuni 29438, C. jejuni 700819, C. jejuni 3329, and C. coli 43485 were observed in the presence of MOS (up to 40 mg/ml) and with a high-molecular-weight fraction of cranberry extract (up to 3 mg/ml). However, none of the tested materials reduced adherence of C. coli BAA-1061. No additive effect in adherence inhibition was observed for an MOS-cranberry blend. These results suggest that both components, MOS and cranberry, could be used to reduce Campylobacter colonization and carriage in livestock animals and potentially limit human exposure to this pathogen. PMID:26219363

  13. Involvement of major components from Sporothrix schenckii cell wall in the caspase-1 activation, nitric oxide and cytokines production during experimental sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Alegranci, Pâmela; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, involving all layers of skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The role of innate immune toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the defense against this fungus has been reported, but so far, there were no studies on the effect of cell wall major components over the cytosolic oligo-merization domain (NOD)-like receptors, important regulators of inflammation and responsible for the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, whose functions are dependents of the caspase-1 activation, that can participate of inflammasome. It was evaluated the percentage of activation of caspase-1, the production of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-17, IFN-γ and nitric oxide in a Balb/c model of S. schenckii infection. It was observed a decreased activity of caspase-1 during the fourth and sixth weeks of infection accompanied by reduced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-17 and high production of nitric oxide. IFN-γ levels were elevated during the entire time course of infection. This temporal reduction in caspase-1 activity coincides exactly with the reported period of fungal burden associated with a transitory immunosuppression induced by this fungus and detected in similar infection models. These results indicate the importance of interaction between caspase-1, cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the host defense against S. schenckii infection, suggesting a participation the inflammasome in this response.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative characteristic ofthe population of mesenchymal cells in structural components from conotruncal region of the embryo heart on its early hystogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyagovets K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Character of the distribution of the mesenchymal’s cellspopulation was analysed during the early hystogenesis of the conotruncal region of the mouse embr yo heart. Conotruncalregion is the predecessor of the proximal part of the aorta and pulmonary trunk, of the aortic ruff and conus arteriosus and semilunar valves. Violation of its transformations leading to the formation of congenital heart disease,which named «conotruncal defects». The material was used embryos mice by the C57BL / 6 line, which covers the period of from 10 to 12.5th day, which corresponded to a 16-21 Teilor stages. Quantify the planar and volumetric distribution of a population of mesenchymal stem cells conotruncus’s pillows and ridges by the original method; on the basis of serial pictures of embryo heart with the use of the computer providing Photoshop Cs5, Amira of for microscopy 5.0, 3ds max 8.0, we created the three-dimensional models of structural components of the conotruncus embryonic mouse heart. During this research noted the phased settlement condensed esenchymal stem fraction first and then tapered sections, given the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the distribution of the conotruncus’s mesenchyme embryonic mouse heart.

  15. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Shyam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Methods Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils - aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Results Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. Conclusions These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant

  16. Role of lipid raft components and actin cytoskeleton in fibronectin-binding, surface expression, and de novo synthesis of integrin subunits in PGE2- or 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated mastocytoma P-815 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasuyo; Nishikawa, Jyun-ichi; Semma, Masanori; Ichikawa, Atsushi

    2014-04-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors essential for adhesion of non-adherent cells to extracellular ligands such as extracellular matrix components. The affinity of integrins for ligands is regulated through a process termed integrin activation and de novo synthesis. Integrin activation is regulated by lipid raft components and the actin structure. However, there is little information on the relationship between integrin activation and its de novo synthesis. Cancerous mouse mast cells, mastocytoma P-815 cells (P-815 cells) are known to bind to fibronectin through de novo synthesis of integrin subtypes by prostaglandin (PG) E2 stimulation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between lipid raft components and the actin cytoskeleton, and PGE2-induced P-815 cells adhesion to fibronectin and the increase in surface expression and mRNA and protein levels of αvβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrins. Cholesterol inhibitor 6-O-α-maltosyl-β cyclodextrin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins inhibitor phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and actin inhibitor cytochalasin D inhibited PGE2-induced cell adhesion to fibronectin, but did not regulate the surface expression and mRNA and protein levels of αv and αIIb, and β3 integrin subunits. In addition, inhibitor of integrin modulate protein CD47 had no effect on PGE2- and 8-Br-cAMP-induced cell adhesion. These results suggest that lipid raft components and the actin cytoskeleton are directly involved in increasing of adhesion activity of integrin αIIb, αv and β3 subunits to fibronectin but not in stimulating of de novo synthesis of them in PGE2-stimulated P-815 cells. The modulation of lipid rafts and the actin structure is essential for P-815 cells adhesion to fibronectin.

  17. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  18. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo Cho Yoon; Sung-Hee Kim; Min Jung Kim; Hye Jeong Yang; Mee-Ra Rhyu; Jae-Ho Park

    2015-01-01

    Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC), has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST) has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST p...

  19. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells.

  20. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyawan Pluemsamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022 formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.

  1. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Tripatara, Pinpat; Phadungrakwittaya, Rattana; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee

    2013-01-01

    Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022) formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA) in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH) loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA. PMID:24171043

  2. Proton extrusion is an essential signalling component in the HR of epidermal single cells in the barley-powdery mildew interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, F.S.; Andersen, C.H.; Burhenne, K.;

    2000-01-01

    between the epidermal cell and underlying mesophyll cells; (2) scavenger treatment reduces HR; (3) treatment of leaves with low-pH (3.5) citrate and succinate buffers causes more cells to undergo HR in the compatible interaction, while treatment with the same buffers at pH 5.5 reduces the number of HR...

  3. Supervillin Is a Component of the Hair Cell’s Cuticular Plate and the Head Plates of Organ of Corti Supporting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Lana M.; Gupta, Nilay; Chen, Xi; Luna, Elizabeth J.; McDermott, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    The organ of Corti has evolved a panoply of cells with extraordinary morphological specializations to harness, direct, and transduce mechanical energy into electrical signals. Among the cells with prominent apical specializations are hair cells and nearby supporting cells. At the apical surface of each hair cell is a mechanosensitive hair bundle of filamentous actin (F-actin)-based stereocilia, which insert rootlets into the F-actin meshwork of the underlying cuticular plate, a rigid organelle considered to hold the stereocilia in place. Little is known about the protein composition and development of the cuticular plate or the apicolateral specializations of organ of Corti supporting cells. We show that supervillin, an F-actin cross-linking protein, localizes to cuticular plates in hair cells of the mouse cochlea and vestibule and zebrafish sensory epithelia. Moreover, supervillin localizes near the apicolateral margins within the head plates of Deiters’ cells and outer pillar cells, and proximal to the apicolateral margins of inner phalangeal cells, adjacent to the junctions with neighboring hair cells. Overall, supervillin localization suggests this protein may shape the surface structure of the organ of Corti. PMID:27415442

  4. Study of the Major Components of the PluriNet Network Expression in Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Human Third Molar Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Ebrahimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to isolate and culture human dental pulp stemcells to study important stem cell markers in them.Materials and Methods: Dental stem cells were isolated from human pulp and culturedin alpha-modified eagle’s medium (α-MEM supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS in a 37°C incubator with 5% CO2 and photographed under inverted microscope.The expressions of the important stem cell markers were analyzed by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis in the cells atdifferent passages.Results: Cells isolated from dental pulp showed a high rate of proliferation and werecultured to more than 15 passages in vitro. The study of gene expression by RT-PCRshowed that these cells expressed nucleostemin, cyclin D1, Oct-4 and nanog (major componentsof the PluriNet in different passages as well as under serum-free conditions.Conclusion: Cells isolated from dental pulp are genuine pluripotent stem cells with highpotential for self-renewal. The expression of the stem cell markers in human dental pulpstem cells indicate that they have a great potential for cell therapy and regenerative medicine,even they were isolated from adult teeth.

  5. Change of cell wall component in fruit ripening and softening%细胞壁组分变化与果实成熟软化的关系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云峰; 林瑜; 林河通

    2012-01-01

    果实软化是由细胞壁结构和组分的变化引起的,果实细胞壁的主要成分为果胶、纤维素和半纤维素,还有少量的蛋白质。根据近年来国内外有关果实成熟软化的研究现状,从细胞壁的化学组成与结构、细胞壁结构的变化和细胞壁组分的变化等3个方面综述了果实成熟软化的生理生化机制。%Fruit softening is caused by changes in cell wall component. The main components include pectin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and small amounts of protein in cell wall of fruit. According to the recent research status of fruit ripening and softening at home and abroad, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of fruit ripening and softening were summarized from three aspects: chemical composition and structure of cell wall and the changes of cell wall structure and components.

  6. Analytical Research to Determine the effects of the Components of ONGABO on the Viability of HepG2 Cancer Cells by Using the Sovereign, Minister, Assistant and Courier Principle (君臣佐使論

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong-Hun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study used the basic principle of Oriental medicine, the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (君臣佐使論 to investigate the effects of the component of ONGABO, which is composed of Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng, Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae tuber on the viability of HepG2 cells. Methods: Single and mixed extracts of the component of ONGABO were prepared by lypohilizing powder of Red Ginseng (6-year root from Kanghwa, Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen, Curcumae Tuber (from Omniherb Co., Ltd., Korea at the laboratory of herbal medicine in Woosuk University and were eluted after being macerated with 100% ethanol for three days. The cell viability of HepG2 was determined by using an absorptiometric analysis with PrestoBlue (Invitrogen reagent after the plate had been incubated for 48 hours. All of the experiments were repeated three times to obtain the average value and standard deviation. The statistical analysis was done and the correlation factor was obtained by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Origin 6.0 software. Results: Although Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng and Schisandrae Fructus did not enhance the viability of HepG2 cells, they were shown to provide protection of those cells. On the other hand, Angelica Gigantis Radix decreased the viability of HepG2 cells significantly, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber had a small or no effect on the viability of HepG2 cells. Conclusions: In the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (君臣佐使論, Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng corresponds to the sovereign component because it provides cell protection effects, Angelica Gigantis Radix corresponds to minister medicinal because it kills cells, Schisandrae Fructus corresponds to the assistant medicinal to help red ginseng having cell protect effects. Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber correspond to the courier medicinal having no effect in

  7. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thanyawan Pluemsamran; Pinpat Tripatara; Rattana Phadungrakwittaya; Pravit Akarasereenont; Tawee Laohapand; Uraiwan Panich

    2013-01-01

    Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022) formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics ...

  8. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der

    2004-01-01

    In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone

  9. Identification and Characterization of 293T Cell-Derived Exosomes by Profiling the Protein, mRNA and MicroRNA Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dameng; Wang, Jifeng; Hou, Dongxia; Jiang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Jin; Zen, Ke; Yang, Fuquan; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cell-derived exosomes are leading candidates for in vivo drug delivery carriers. In particular, exosomes derived from 293T cells are used most frequently, although exosome dosing has varied greatly among studies. Considering their biological origin, it is crucial to characterize the molecular composition of exosomes if large doses are to be administered in clinical settings. In this study, we present the first comprehensive analysis of the protein, messenger RNA and microRNA profiles of 293T cell-derived exosomes; then, we characterized these data using Gene Ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. Our study will provide the basis for the selection of 293T cell-derived exosome drug delivery systems. Profiling the exosomal signatures of 293T cells will lead to a better understanding of 293T exosome biology and will aid in the identification of any harmful factors in exosomes that could cause adverse clinical effects. PMID:27649079

  10. Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rügheimer, Louise

    2008-09-01

    The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.

  11. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  12. Assessing the effect of leachate of copper slag from the ISASMELT process on cell growth and proximate components in microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Suryavanshi, U.; Shanmuganathan, P.; Sumathy, A.

    vulgaris (Beijerinck), were assessed under laboratory conditions. An inhibitory effect of CSL on cell growth (14.3%) was well below the defined criteria of 50% using algal growth inhibition test. Cellular concentrations of the total protein (TP) in CSL...

  13. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 is a functional part of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor complex in pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Robitaille, Mélanie; Showalter, Aaron D; Huang, Xinyi; Liu, Ying; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Willard, Francis S; Han, Junfeng; Froese, Sean; Wei, Li; Gaisano, Herbert Y; Angers, Stéphane; Sloop, Kyle W; Dai, Feihan F; Wheeler, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis. Because of their direct stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are now important therapeutic options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To better understand the mechanisms that control the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1, affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) were employed to uncover potential proteins that functionally interact with the GLP-1R. AP-MS performed on Chinese hamster ovary cells or MIN6 β cells, both expressing the human GLP-1R, revealed 99 proteins potentially associated with the GLP-1R. Three novel GLP-1R interactors (PGRMC1, Rab5b, and Rab5c) were further validated through co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and immunofluorescence. Functional studies revealed that overexpression of PGRMC1, a novel cell surface receptor that associated with liganded GLP-1R, enhanced GLP-1-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) with the most robust effect. Knockdown of PGRMC1 in β cells decreased GIIS, indicative of positive interaction with GLP-1R. To gain insight mechanistically, we demonstrated that the cell surface PGRMC1 ligand P4-BSA increased GIIS, whereas its antagonist AG-205 decreased GIIS. It was then found that PGRMC1 increased GLP-1-induced cAMP accumulation. PGRMC1 activation and GIIS induced by P4-BSA could be blocked by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase/EPAC signaling or the EGF receptor-PI3K signal transduction pathway. These data reveal a dual mechanism for PGRMC1-increased GIIS mediated through cAMP and EGF receptor signaling. In conclusion, we identified several novel GLP-1R interacting proteins. PGRMC1 expressed on the cell surface of β cells was shown to interact with the activated GLP-1R to enhance the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1.

  14. On-Orbit Demonstration Of Thin-Film Multi-Junction Solar Cells And Lithium-Ion Capacitors As Bus Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Akio; Takahashi, Masato; Shimazaki, Kazunori; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Yuki; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Uno, Masatoshi; Shimada, Takanobu

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes an on-orbit demonstration plan for a lightweight solar panel using thin-film multi-junction (MJ) solar cells and aluminum-laminated lithium-ion capacitors (LICs). Thin-film MJ solar cells such as inverted metamorphic InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 3J cells have flexibility as well as conversion efficiencies superior to conventional rigid 3J solar cells. A substantial reduction of satellite mass is achieved by the combination of thin-film MJ solar cells and light flexible paddles. An LIC is a hybrid-type capacitor that uses activated carbon as the cathode and carbon material pre-doped with lithium ion as the anode. LICs can be rapidly charged and discharged, and can operate in a wide temperature range for long periods. LICs are therefore suitable for long-term missions such as planetary explorations. Although these devices are very promising, so far there has been no opportunity to demonstrate their use in orbit. A lightweight thin solar panel with thin-film MJ solar cells will be installed on the Small Scientific Satellite Platform for Rapid Investigation and Test-A (SPRINT-A) satellite, which will be launched on the Epsilon launch vehicle in 2013. Utilizing the capacitor-like voltage behavior of LICs, we will employ a simple constant-power charging circuit without feedback control.

  15. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell function is reduced by Withaferin A, a potent and abundant component of Withania somnifera root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pratima; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2013-11-01

    Myeloid cells play a crucial role in tumor progression. The most common tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells are myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). These cells promote tumor growth by their inherent immune suppressive activity which is enhanced by their cross-talk. The root extract of the plant Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) (WRE) has been reported to reduce tumor growth. HPLC analysis identified Withaferin A (WA) as the most abundant constituent of WRE and led us to determine whether the anti-tumor effects of WRE and WA involve modulating MDSC and TAM activity. A prominent effect of MDSC is their production of IL-10 which increases upon cross-talk with macrophages, thus polarizing immunity to a pro-tumor type 2 phenotype. In vitro treatment with WA decreased MDSC production of IL-10 and prevented additional MDSC production of IL-10 generated by MDSC-macrophage cross-talk. Macrophage secretion of IL-6 and TNFα, cytokines that increase MDSC accumulation and function, was also reduced by in vitro treatment with WA. Much of the T-cell suppressive activity of MDSC is due to MDSC production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and WA significantly reduced MDSC production of ROS through a STAT3-dependent mechanism. In vivo treatment of tumor-bearing mice with WA decreased tumor weight, reduced the quantity of granulocytic MDSC, and reduced the ability of MDSC to suppress antigen-driven activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, adjunctive treatment with WA reduced myeloid cell-mediated immune suppression, polarized immunity toward a tumor-rejecting type 1 phenotype, and may facilitate the development of anti-tumor immunity.

  16. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus): morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, S

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis. PMID:27303655

  17. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus: morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohfuji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis.

  18. Immuno-suppressive effect of blocking the CD28 signaling pathway in T-cells by an active component of Echinacea found by a novel pharmaceutical screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guo-Chung; Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Forrest, Michael D; Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hueih Min

    2006-03-23

    AFTIR (after flowing through immobilized receptor) is a novel method for screening herbal extracts for pharmaceutical properties. Using AFTIR, we identified Cynarin in Echinacea purpurea by its selective binding to chip immobilized CD28, a receptor of T-cells, which is instrumental to immune functioning. The results of surface plasma resonance show that binding between immobilized CD28 and Cynarin is stronger than the binding between CD28 and CD80, a co-stimulated receptor of antigen presenting cells. Cynarin's function was verified by its ability to downregulate CD28-dependent interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression in a T-cell culture line. AFTIR offers promise as an efficient screening method for herbal medicines. PMID:16539370

  19. A monoterpene, unique component of thyme honeys, induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via inhibition of NF-κB activity and IL-6 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, Eva; Chinou, Ioanna; Spilioti, Eliana; Tsiapara, Anna; Graikou, Konstantia; Karabournioti, Sofia; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-09-25

    We have previously demonstrated that Greek thyme honey inhibits significantly the cell viability of human prostate cancer cells. Herein, 15 thyme honey samples from several regions of Greece were submitted to phytochemical analysis for the isolation, identification and determination (through modern spectral means) of the unique thyme honey monoterpene, the compound trihydroxy ketone E-4-(1,2,4-trihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one. We investigated the anti-growth and apoptotic effects of the trihydroxy ketone on PC-3 human androgen independent prostate cancer cells using MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC respectively. The molecular pathways involved to such effects were further examined by evaluating its ability to inhibit (a) the NF-κB phosphorylation (S536), (b) JNK and Akt phosphorylation (Thr183/Tyr185 and S473 respectively) and (c) IL-6 production, using ELISA method. The anti-microbial effects of the trihydroxy ketone against a panel of nine pathogenic bacteria and three fungi were also assessed. The trihydroxy ketone exerted significant apoptotic activity in PC-3 prostate cancer cells at 100 μM, while it inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation and IL-6 secretion at a concentration range 10(-6)-10(-4)M. Akt and JNK signaling were not found to participate in this process. The trihydroxy ketone exerted significant anti-microbial profile against many human pathogenic bacteria and fungi (MIC values ranged from 0.04 to 0.57 mg/ml). Conclusively, the Greek thyme honey-derived monoterpene exerted significant apoptotic activity in PC-3 cells, mediated, at least in part, through reduction of NF-κB activity and IL-6 secretion and may play a key role in the anti-growth effect of thyme honey on prostate cancer cells. PMID:24932974

  20. Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y.; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F. E.

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  1. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells.

  2. Classification and structural analysis of live and dead salmonella cells using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and principle component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to detect Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis foodborne bacteria and distinguish between live and dead cells of both serotypes. Bacteria were loaded individually on the ZnSe Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) crystal surface and s...

  3. ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts over-express extra-cellular matrix components, display cell cycle delay and are resistant to apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zulato

    Full Text Available Alström Syndrome (ALMS is a rare genetic disorder (483 living cases, characterized by many clinical manifestations, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiomyopathy. ALMS is caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene, encoding for a large protein with implicated roles in ciliary function, cellular quiescence and intracellular transport. Patients with ALMS have extensive fibrosis in nearly all tissues resulting in a progressive organ failure which is often the ultimate cause of death. To focus on the role of ALMS1 mutations in the generation and maintenance of this pathological fibrosis, we performed gene expression analysis, ultrastructural characterization and functional assays in 4 dermal fibroblast cultures from ALMS patients. Using a genome-wide gene expression analysis we found alterations in genes belonging to specific categories (cell cycle, extracellular matrix (ECM and fibrosis, cellular architecture/motility and apoptosis. ALMS fibroblasts display cytoskeleton abnormalities and migration impairment, up-regulate the expression and production of collagens and despite the increase in the cell cycle length are more resistant to apoptosis. Therefore ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts showed a constitutively activated myofibroblast phenotype even if they do not derive from a fibrotic lesion. Our results support a genetic basis for the fibrosis observed in ALMS and show that both an excessive ECM production and a failure to eliminate myofibroblasts are key mechanisms. Furthermore, our findings suggest new roles for ALMS1 in both intra- and extra-cellular events which are essential not only for the normal cellular function but also for cell-cell and ECM-cell interactions.

  4. The study of polyunsaturated fatty acids components inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma stem cells%多不饱和脂肪酸不同组分抑制肺腺癌干细胞作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振东; 尹荣; 武雅琴; 张治; 李明; 贾辉; 许林; 李宁

    2013-01-01

    比较多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)各有效成分抑制肺腺癌干细胞增殖及迁移能力,筛选出最强组分,并探讨其量效关系.对肺腺癌细胞株A549及SPC-A-1进行无血清培养,待肿瘤干细胞(CSC)微球形成后,每日分别加入50 μmol/L的α亚麻酸(LA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)、二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)、c9,t11-共轭亚油酸(c9,t11-CLA)和t10,c12共轭亚油酸(t10,c12-CLA),连续3d.分别行干细胞微球形成观察、干细胞微球定量分析,筛选出最强组分.加入不同浓度最强组分进行侵袭试验.干细胞微球定量分析显示:除LA外,EPA、DHA、c9,t11-CLA和t10,c12 CLA都可不同程度地抑制A549及SPC-A-1干细胞微球的形成.在两种细胞株中,与EPA及DHA组相比,同等浓度CLA组平均干细胞微球个数及单个微球干细胞密度均显著下降,表明两种CLA为抑制作用最强组分.选取最强组分CLA行侵袭试验,c9,t11 CLA、t10,c12-CLA均能不同程度地抑制肺癌干细胞的迁移及浸润能力,随着浓度的增加,抑制作用增加,两者混合物的抑制作用最强.结果说明,PUFA组分EPA、DHA、c9,t11-CLA和t10,c12-CLA对A549及SPC-A-1干细胞微球都有不同程度的抑制作用,其中c9,t11-CLA和t10,c12-CLA为最强组分.c9,t11-CLA和t10,c12-CLA体外试验能够不同程度的抑制肺腺癌干细胞的浸润和迁移能力,并具有剂量依赖性.%The purpose of the study is to compare the effect of each polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA) active ingredient inhibiting the proliferation and invasion capacity of lung adenocarcinoma stem cells, and to screen the strongest component out and explore its dose-effect relationship. A549 and SPC-A-1 were cultivated under serum-free condition, and after the formation of cancer stem cells(CSC)microspheroids, 50 μmol/L LA, EPA, DHA, c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA were added respectively every day for three days. The most potent components were selected by observing the formation of stem cell microsphoids

  5. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-12-10

    Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC), has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST) has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca(2+) and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca(2+) and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca(2+) and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB.

  6. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Cho Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC, has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca2+ and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca2+ and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca2+ and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB.

  7. Cell junction-associated proteins IQGAP1, MAGI-2, CASK, spectrins, and α-actinin are components of the nephrin multiprotein complex

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Sanna; Ryan, Jennifer J; Kudlicka, Krystyna; Iino, Noriaki; Zhou, Huilin; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2005-01-01

    Nephrin is a cell surface receptor of the Ig superfamily that localizes to slit diaphragms, the specialized junctions between the interdigitating foot processes of the glomerular epithelium (podocytes) in the kidney. Mutations in the NPHS1 gene encoding nephrin lead to proteinuria and congenital nephrotic syndrome, indicating that nephrin is essential for normal glomerular development and function. To identify nephrin-binding proteins, we performed mass spectrometry on proteins obtained from ...

  8. FvBck1, a component of cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway, is required for virulence and oxidative stress response in sugarcane Pokkah Boeng pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chengkang; Wang, Jianqiang; Tao, Hong; Dang, Xie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Zhai, Zhenzhen; Yu, Wenying; Xu, Liping; Shim, Won-Bo; Lu, Guodong; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only r...

  9. FvBck1, a Component of Cell Wall Integrity MAP Kinase Pathway, is Required for Virulence and Oxidative Stress Response in Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Chengkang eZhang; Jianqiang eWang; Hong eTao; Xie eDang; Yang eWang; Miaoping eChen; Zhenzhen eZhai; Wenying eYu; Liping eXu; Won-Bo eShim; Guodong eLu; Zonghua eWang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only r...

  10. Lipids as tumoricidal components of human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET): unique and shared effects on signaling and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, James C S; Storm, Petter; Rydström, Anna; Bowen, Ben; Alsin, Fredrik; Sullivan, Louise; Ambite, Inès; Mok, K H; Northen, Trent; Svanborg, Catharina

    2013-06-14

    Long-chain fatty acids are internalized by receptor-mediated mechanisms or receptor-independent diffusion across cytoplasmic membranes and are utilized as nutrients, building blocks, and signaling intermediates. Here we describe how the association of long-chain fatty acids to a partially unfolded, extracellular protein can alter the presentation to target cells and cellular effects. HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of partially unfolded α-lactalbumin and oleic acid (OA). As OA lacks independent tumoricidal activity at concentrations equimolar to HAMLET, the contribution of the lipid has been debated. We show by natural abundance (13)C NMR that the lipid in HAMLET is deprotonated and by chromatography that oleate rather than oleic acid is the relevant HAMLET constituent. Compared with HAMLET, oleate (175 μm) showed weak effects on ion fluxes and gene expression. Unlike HAMLET, which causes metabolic paralysis, fatty acid metabolites were less strongly altered. The functional overlap increased with higher oleate concentrations (500 μm). Cellular responses to OA were weak or absent, suggesting that deprotonation favors cellular interactions of fatty acids. Fatty acids may thus exert some of their essential effects on host cells when in the deprotonated state and when presented in the context of a partially unfolded protein. PMID:23629662

  11. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarero, Adyary; Batista-González, Ana E; Hiltunen, Anna K; Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract's pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow. PMID:26569236

  12. Lipids as tumoricidal components of human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET): unique and shared effects on signaling and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, James C S; Storm, Petter; Rydström, Anna; Bowen, Ben; Alsin, Fredrik; Sullivan, Louise; Ambite, Inès; Mok, K H; Northen, Trent; Svanborg, Catharina

    2013-06-14

    Long-chain fatty acids are internalized by receptor-mediated mechanisms or receptor-independent diffusion across cytoplasmic membranes and are utilized as nutrients, building blocks, and signaling intermediates. Here we describe how the association of long-chain fatty acids to a partially unfolded, extracellular protein can alter the presentation to target cells and cellular effects. HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of partially unfolded α-lactalbumin and oleic acid (OA). As OA lacks independent tumoricidal activity at concentrations equimolar to HAMLET, the contribution of the lipid has been debated. We show by natural abundance (13)C NMR that the lipid in HAMLET is deprotonated and by chromatography that oleate rather than oleic acid is the relevant HAMLET constituent. Compared with HAMLET, oleate (175 μm) showed weak effects on ion fluxes and gene expression. Unlike HAMLET, which causes metabolic paralysis, fatty acid metabolites were less strongly altered. The functional overlap increased with higher oleate concentrations (500 μm). Cellular responses to OA were weak or absent, suggesting that deprotonation favors cellular interactions of fatty acids. Fatty acids may thus exert some of their essential effects on host cells when in the deprotonated state and when presented in the context of a partially unfolded protein.

  13. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyary Fallarero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract’s pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow.

  14. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  15. Gas Quenching Small Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Stratton

    2004-01-01

    Gas quenching is an environmentally friendly and effective way of quenching components. However it has not been possible to apply it to small components because of the difficulties of jigging. A method of gas quenching such small components is described in which they are levitated in a confined gas stream. The method is suitable for quenching low alloy steel components that weigh between 1 and 10g.

  16. Colostrum whey down-regulates the expression of early and late inflammatory response genes induced by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium components in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, M; Fortier, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S F; Boutin, Y; Asselin, C; Lessard, M

    2015-01-28

    Pathogenic invasion by Escherichia coli and Salmonellae remains a constant threat to the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and can rapidly induce inflammatory responses. At birth, colostrum consumption exerts numerous beneficial effects on the properties of intestinal epithelial cells and protects the gastrointestinal tract of newborns from pathogenic invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of colostrum on the early and late inflammatory responses induced by pathogens. The short-term (2 h) and long-term (24 h) effects of exposure to heat-killed (HK) E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on gene expression in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model were first evaluated by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Luciferase assays were performed using a NF-κB-luc reporter construct to investigate the effect of colostrum whey treatment on the activation of NF-κB induced by HK bacteria. Luciferase assays were also performed using NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc reporter constructs in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2/15 cells exposed to dose-response stimulations with HK bacteria and colostrum whey. Bovine colostrum whey treatment decreased the expression of early and late inflammatory genes induced by HK bacteria in IPEC-J2, as well as the transcriptional activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Unlike that with colostrum whey, treatment with other milk fractions failed to decrease the activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Lastly, the reduction of the HK bacteria-induced activation of NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc by colostrum whey was dose dependent. The results of the present study indicate that bovine colostrum may protect and preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier in the host by controlling the expression levels of early and late inflammatory genes following invasion by enteric pathogens. PMID:25471114

  17. The BatR/BatS two-component regulatory system controls the adaptive response of Bartonella henselae during human endothelial cell infection

    OpenAIRE

    Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS co...

  18. The microvesicle component of HIV-1 inocula modulates dendritic cell infection and maturation and enhances adhesion to and activation of T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Mercier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is taken up by immature monocyte derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs into tetraspanin rich caves from which the virus can either be transferred to T lymphocytes or enter into endosomes resulting in degradation. HIV-1 binding and fusion with the DC membrane results in low level de novo infection that can also be transferred to T lymphocytes at a later stage. We have previously reported that HIV-1 can induce partial maturation of iMDDCs at both stages of trafficking. Here we show that CD45⁺ microvesicles (MV which contaminate purified HIV-1 inocula due to similar size and density, affect DC maturation, de novo HIV-1 infection and transfer to T lymphocytes. Comparing iMDDCs infected with CD45-depleted HIV-1BaL or matched non-depleted preparations, the presence of CD45⁺ MVs was shown to enhance DC maturation and ICAM-1 (CD54 expression, which is involved in DC∶T lymphocyte interactions, while restricting HIV-1 infection of MDDCs. Furthermore, in the DC culture HIV-1 infected (p24⁺ MDDCs were more mature than bystander cells. Depletion of MVs from the HIV-1 inoculum markedly inhibited DC∶T lymphocyte clustering and the induction of alloproliferation as well as limiting HIV-1 transfer from DCs to T lymphocytes. The effects of MV depletion on these functions were reversed by the re-addition of purified MVs from activated but not non-activated SUPT1.CCR5-CL.30 or primary T cells. Analysis of the protein complement of these MVs and of these HIV-1 inocula before and after MV depletion showed that Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs and nef were the likely DC maturation candidates. Recombinant HSP90α and β and nef all induced DC maturation and ICAM-1 expression, greater when combined. These results suggest that MVs contaminating HIV-1 released from infected T lymphocytes may be biologically important, especially in enhancing T cell activation, during uptake by DCs in vitro and in vivo, particularly as MVs have been detected in the circulation of HIV-1

  19. [The molecular organizational characteristics of the cell nucleus components at different phases of the mitotic cycle and in the resting state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'iakste, N I

    1992-01-01

    Data about the changes of the cell nucleus structure at different levels of its organization are summarized in the review. The data about the change of the DNA break number during the cycle and in resting state are presented and the role of the changes of the repair efficiency in this process is discussed. The changes of the chromatin protein spectrum, the chromatin structure at nucleosomal and supranucleosomal levels, the DNA superhelicity, topoisomerase activity, nuclear matrix composition and structure are discussed as well. The nucleus structure during the S-phase and mitosis and the cycle-related changes of the chromatin structure in lower eukaryotes are reviewed separately.

  20. A randomized double-blind trial comparing a two-component acellular to a whole-cell pertussis vaccine in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Simondon, François; Préziosi, M.P.; Yam, A.; Coumba Toure Kane; Chabirand, L.; Iteman, I; Sanden, G.; Mboup, S; Hoffenbach, A.; Knudsen, K.; Guiso, N; Wassilak, S.; Cadoz, M.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized double-blind trial comparing a diphteria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin) with a whole-cell vaccine (DTwP) was conducted. A case-contact study was nested in the trial to estimate absolute efficacy. From 1990 trough 1994, 4181 children were randomized to receive one of the vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months. Severe adverse events were monitored weekly during two visits after vaccination. Fewer serious adverse events were observ...

  1. FvBck1, a component of cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway, is required for virulence and oxidative stress response in sugarcane Pokkah Boeng pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengkang; Wang, Jianqiang; Tao, Hong; Dang, Xie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Zhai, Zhenzhen; Yu, Wenying; Xu, Liping; Shim, Won-Bo; Lu, Guodong; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only required for growth, micro- and macro-conidia production, and cell wall integrity but also for response to osmotic and oxidative stresses. The deletion of FvBCK1 caused a significant reduction in virulence and FB1 production, a possibly carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus. Moreover, we found the expression levels of three genes, which are known to be involved in superoxide scavenging, were down regulated in the mutant. We hypothesized that the loss of superoxide scavenging capacity was one of the reasons for reduced virulence, but overexpression of catalase or peroxidase gene failed to restore the virulence defect in the deletion mutant. When we introduced Magnaporthe oryzae MCK1 into the FvBck1 deletion mutant, while certain phenotypes were restored, the complemented strain failed to gain full virulence. In summary, FvBck1 plays a diverse role in F. verticillioides, and detailed investigation of downstream signaling pathways will lead to a better understanding of how this MAPK pathway regulates Pokkah Boeng on sugarcane. PMID:26500635

  2. FvBck1, a Component of Cell Wall Integrity MAP Kinase Pathway, is Required for Virulence and Oxidative Stress Response in Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkang eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only required for growth, micro- and macro-conidia production, and cell wall integrity but also for response to osmotic and oxidative stresses. The deletion of FvBCK1 caused a significant reduction in virulence and FB1 production, a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus. Moreover, we found the expression levels of three genes, which are known to be involved in superoxide scavenging, were down regulated in the mutant. We hypothesized that the loss of superoxide scavenging capacity was one of the reasons for reduced virulence, but overexpression of catalase or peroxidase gene failed to restore the virulence defect in the deletion mutant. When we introduced Magnaporthe oryzae MCK1 into the FvBck1 deletion mutant, while certain phenotypes were restored, the complemented strain failed to gain full virulence. In summary, FvBck1 plays a diverse role in F. verticillioides, and detailed investigation of downstream signaling pathways will lead to a better understanding of how this MAPK pathway regulates Pokkah Boeng on sugarcane.

  3. Dynamic Component Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Grinkrug

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to dynamic component composition that facilitates creating new composed components using existing ones at runtime and without any code generation. The dynamic abilities are supported by extended type notion and implementation based on additional superstructure provided with its Java API and corresponding JavaBeans components. The new component composition is performed by building the composed prototype object that can be dynamically transformed into the new instantiable type (component. That approach demonstrates interrelations between prototype-based and class-based component-oriented programming. The component model proposed can be used when implementing user-defined types in declarative languages for event-driven applications programming.

  4. [Effect of cytokines and stromal cells of adipose tissue on integration of a two-component composite net imlant into biological tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinina, V G; Chetverikov, S G; Luk'ianchuk, O V; Rosha, L G; Sazhienko, V V; Lysenko, M A; Mikhaĭlov, A S; Chetverikov, M S

    2014-02-01

    Morphological changes in biological tissues, surrounding the composite net-like implant, owing large pores "Ultrapro", and also its combination with adipose transplant, fibrin, enriched with thrombocytes, were studied in experiment on 36 adult male rats of a Wistar line. While application of such construction the processes of creation and organization of connective tissue, neoangiogenesis as well as development of a new adipose tissue are improved. As a consequence of increase of concentration of highly active biological substances and regenerative cytokines in combination of the net implant with adipose transplant, containing multipotent stem cells, proliferative activity of all cellular elements, surrounding the net implant, is raising, what predispose its optimal integration into surrounding tissues.

  5. Protective effects on vascular endothelial cell in N'-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)-induced hypertensive rats from the combination of effective components of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Semen Raphani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlun; Yang, Wenqing; Zhu, Qingjun; Yang, Jinguo; Wang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is closely associated with hypertension. Protection of vascular endothelial cell is the key to prevention and treatment of hypertension. Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid, isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Uncaria rbyncbopbylla and Semen Raphani respectively, exhibit properties of anti-hypertension and protection of blood vessels. In the present study, we observed the protective effect of the combined use of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid to the vascular endothelial cell in N'-nitro-L-arginine-induced hypertensive rats and investigate the preliminary mechanism. Blood pressure was detected by non-invasive rats tail method to observe the anti-hypertension effect of drugs. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the integrity or shedding state of vascular endothelial cell. The amount of circulating endothelial cells and CD54 and CD62P expression on circulating endothelial cells were tested to evaluate the endothelium function. In this study, we found that the Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid compatibility can effectively lower the blood pressure, improve the structural integrity of vascular endothelium, and significantly reduce the number of circulating endothelial cells. Furthermore, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD54 and CD62P expressed showed decrease after the intervention of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid compatibility. In conclusion, the combination of effective components of the Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid demonstrated good antihypertension effect and vascular endothelium protective effect. The preliminary mechanism of the protective effect may attribute to relieve the overall low-grade inflammation. PMID:26355225

  6. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Salinas-Grenet, Hernán; Sandoval, Omar; Recabarren, Camilo; Arraño-Salinas, Paulina; Soto-Alvear, Sylvana; Orellana, Ariel; Blanco-Herrera, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in plants (SYP), have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment) lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR). Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance in response to bacterial pathogen infection and ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors can affect the number, anatomy and physiology of

  7. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Salinas-Grenet, Hernán; Sandoval, Omar; Recabarren, Camilo; Arraño-Salinas, Paulina; Soto-Alvear, Sylvana; Orellana, Ariel; Blanco-Herrera, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in plants (SYP), have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment) lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR). Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance in response to bacterial pathogen infection and ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors can affect the number, anatomy and physiology of

  8. Mechanism of protection from graft-vs-host disease in murine mixed allogeneic chimeras. I. Development of a null cell population suppressive of cell-mediated lympholysis responses and derived from the syngeneic bone marrow component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splenocyte populations from whole body-irradiated recipients of mixed T cell-depleted (TCD) syngeneic and allogeneic (complete H-2 disparity) bone marrow, or of TCD syngeneic marrow alone, contain cells with the ability to suppress the generation of cell-mediated lympholysis responses in vitro. This activity, which is present by 8 days after bone marrow transplantation and persists for several weeks, has been analyzed for possible veto-like or other specificity. Although reproducible patterns of suppression were observed, depending both on host strain and on the genetic combination of the response examined, the overall suppression in vitro most closely resembles that which has been ascribed to natural suppressor cells in other systems. The suppression appears to be mediated by a non-T cell, non-B cell, nonadherent, asialo GM1-negative population. Cold target inhibition and CTL activity of chimeric cells have been ruled out as factors contributing to the observed suppression. Significantly, in mixed chimeras, suppression was found to be mediated exclusively by cells which were syngeneic to the recipient in both recipient strains tested. The rapid development of this suppressive activity may explain the resistance to graft-vs-host disease conferred on whole body-irradiated mice by the addition of TCD syngeneic marrow to an allogeneic graft-vs-host disease-producing inoculum

  9. Assessing Chemical Constituents of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Stem Bark: Possible Bioactive Components Accountable for the Cytotoxic Effect of M. caesalpiniifolia on Human Tumour Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a native plant of the Brazilian northeast, and few studies have investigated its chemical composition and biological significance. This work describes the identification of the first chemical constituents in the ethanolic extract and fractions of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark based on NMR, GC-qMS and HRMS analyses, as well as an assessment of their cytotoxic activity. GC-qMS analysis showed fatty acid derivatives, triterpenes and steroid substances and confirmed the identity of the chemical compounds isolated from the hexane fraction. Metabolite biodiversity in M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark revealed the differentiated accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenic acids, with a high content of betulinic acid and minor amounts of 3-oxo and 3β-acetoxy derivatives. Bioactive analysis based on total phenolic and flavonoid content showed a high amount of these compounds in the ethanolic extract, and ESI-(−-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS identified caffeoyl hexose at high intensity, as well as the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Furthermore, the evaluation of the ethanolic extract and fractions, including betulinic acid, against colon (HCT-116, ovarian (OVCAR-8 and glioblastoma (SF-295 tumour cell lines showed that the crude extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions possessed moderate to high inhibitory activity, which may be related to the abundance of betulinic acid. The phytochemical and biological study of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark thus revealed a new alternative source of antitumour compounds, possibly made effective by the presence of betulinic acid and by chemical co-synergism with other compounds.

  10. Stimulus intensity, cell excitation and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor component of sensory responses in the rat spinal cord in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, B A; Cumberbatch, M J; Herrero, J F; Stirk, G C; Headley, P M

    1997-09-01

    The importance of receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate in synaptic plasticity and in triggering long-term pronociceptive changes is explained by their voltage-dependence. This suggests that their contribution to acute nociceptive responses would be determined both by the magnitude of synaptic input and by the level of background excitation. We have now examined the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in acute nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Drugs selectively affecting activity mediated by these receptors were tested on responses of dorsal horn neurons to noxious stimuli of different intensities and at different levels of ongoing spike discharge. The drugs used were the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blocker ketamine; the competitive antagonists, 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (D-CPP) and D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), and the positive modulator thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The activity of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons was recorded extracellularly in alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized spinalized rats. Their responses to noxious stimuli (pinch, heat and electrical) were monitored in parallel with responses to iontophoretic N-methyl-D-aspartate and (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA). Drugs were given i.v. or (D-AP5) iontophoretically. At doses that selectively inhibited responses to exogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate, ketamine (4 or 8, mean 5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced the nociceptive responses of the majority of the cells in deep dorsal horn. Ketamine also reduced wind-up of the responses to repetitive electrical stimulation. Ketamine (4 or 8 mg/kg). D-CPP (2 mg/kg), D-AP5 (iontophoretically) and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (1 mg/kg) were tested on different magnitude nociceptive responses evoked by alternating intensities of noxious heat or pinch. In percentage terms, the less vigorous responses were affected by all four drugs as much as or more than the more vigorous

  11. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  12. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  13. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  14. The Green Tea Component (--Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Sensitizes Primary Endothelial Cells to Arsenite-Induced Apoptosis by Decreasing c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Catalase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Youn Kim

    Full Text Available The green tea component (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG has been shown to sensitize many different types of cancer cells to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis, although it protects against non-cancerous primary cells against toxicity from certain conditions such as exposure to arsenic (As or ultraviolet irradiation. Here, we found that EGCG promotes As-induced toxicity of primary-cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC at doses in which treatment with each chemical alone had no such effect. Increased cell toxicity was accompanied by an increased condensed chromatin pattern and fragmented nuclei, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, activity of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspases 3, 8 and 9, and Bax translocation into mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of an apoptotic signaling pathway. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed that compared with EGCG or As alone, combined EGCG and As (EGCG/As treatment significantly induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which was accompanied by decreased catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or catalase reversed EGCG/As-induced caspase activation and EC toxicity. EGCG/As also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, which was not reversed by catalase. However, pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed all of the observed effects of EGCG/As, suggesting that JNK may be the most upstream protein examined in this study. Finally, we also found that all the observed effects by EGCG/As are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, this is firstly to show that EGCG sensitizes non-cancerous EC to As-induced toxicity through ROS-mediated apoptosis, which was attributed at least in part to a JNK-activated decrease in catalase activity.

  15. Signaling mechanism by the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system LytSR: role of acetyl phosphate in bypassing the cell membrane electrical potential sensor LytS [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-component system LytSR has been linked to the signal transduction of cell membrane electrical potential perturbation and is involved in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to cationic antimicrobial peptides. It consists of a membrane-bound histidine kinase, LytS, which belongs to the family of multiple transmembrane-spanning domains receptors, and a response regulator, LytR, which belongs to the novel family of non-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain proteins. LytR regulates the expression of cidABC and lrgAB operons, the gene products of which are involved in programmed cell death and lysis. In vivo studies have demonstrated involvement of two overlapping regulatory networks in regulating the lrgAB operon, both depending on LytR. One regulatory network responds to glucose metabolism and the other responds to changes in the cell membrane potential. Herein, we show that LytS has autokinase activity and can catalyze a fast phosphotransfer reaction, with 50% of its phosphoryl group lost within 1 minute of incubation with LytR. LytS has also phosphatase activity. Notably, LytR undergoes phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate at a rate that is 2-fold faster than the phosphorylation by LytS. This observation is significant in lieu of the in vivo observations that regulation of the lrgAB operon is LytR-dependent in the presence of excess glucose in the medium. The latter condition does not lead to perturbation of the cell membrane potential but rather to the accumulation of acetate in the cell. Our study provides insights into the molecular basis for regulation of lrgAB in a LytR-dependent manner under conditions that do not involve sensing by LytS.

  16. Burkholderia phytofirmans Inoculation-Induced Changes on the Shoot Cell Anatomy and Iron Accumulation Reveal Novel Components of Arabidopsis-Endophyte Interaction that Can Benefit Downstream Biomass Deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Zeng, Yining; Tucker, Melvin P; Himmel, Michael E; Ding, Shi-You

    2016-01-01

    It is known that plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) elicit positive effects on plant growth and biomass yield. However, the actual mechanism behind the plant-PGPB interaction is poorly understood, and the literature is scarce regarding the thermochemical pretreatability and enzymatic degradability of biomass derived from PGPB-inoculated plants. Most recent transcriptional analyses of PGPB strain Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN inoculating potato in literature and Arabidopsis in our present study have revealed the expression of genes for ferritin and the biosynthesis and transport of siderophores (i.e., the molecules with high affinity for iron), respectively. The expression of such genes in the shoots of PsJN-inoculated plants prompted us to propose that PsJN-inoculation can improve the host plant's iron uptake and accumulation, which facilitates the downstream plant biomass pretreatment and conversion to simple sugars. In this study, we employed B. phytofirmans PsJN to inoculate the Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and conducted the first investigation for its effects on the biomass yield, the anatomical organization of stems, the iron accumulation, and the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of harvested biomass. The results showed that the strain PsJN stimulated plant growth in the earlier period of plant development and enlarged the cell size of stem piths, and it also indeed enhanced the essential metals uptake and accumulation in host plants. Moreover, we found that the PsJN-inoculated plant biomass released more glucose and xylose after hot water pretreatment and subsequent co-saccharification, which provided a novel insight into development of lignocellulosic biofuels from renewable biomass resources. PMID:26858740

  17. Burkholderia phytofirmans inoculation-induced changes on the shoot cell anatomy and iron accumulation reveal novel components of Arabidopsis-endophyte interaction that can benefit downstream biomass deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai eZhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB elicit positive effects on plant growth and biomass yield. However, the actual mechanism behind the plant-PGPB interaction is poorly understood, and the literature is scarce regarding the thermochemical pretreatability and enzymatic degradability of biomass derived from PGPB-inoculated plants. Most recent transcriptional analyses of PGPB strain Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN inoculating potato in literature and Arabidopsis in our present study have revealed the expression of genes for ferritin and the biosynthesis and transport of siderophores (i.e. the molecules with high affinity for iron, respectively. The expression of such genes in the shoots of PsJN-inoculated plants prompted us to propose that PsJN-inoculation can improve the host plant’s iron uptake and accumulation, which facilitates the downstream plant biomass pretreatment and conversion to simple sugars. In this study, we employed B. phytofirmans PsJN to inoculate the Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and conducted the first investigation for its effects on the biomass yield, the anatomical organization of stems, the iron accumulation, and the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of harvested biomass. The results showed that the strain PsJN stimulated plant growth in the earlier period of plant development and enlarged the cell size of stem piths, and it also indeed enhanced the essential metals uptake and accumulation in host plants. Moreover, we found that the PsJN-inoculated plant biomass released more glucose and xylose after hot water pretreatment and subsequent co-saccharification, which provided a novel insight into development of lignocellulosic biofuels from renewable biomass resources.

  18. Sense-, antisense- and RNAi-4CL1 regulate soluble phenolic acids, cell wall components and growth in transgenic Populus tomentosa Carr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoming; Xie, Jin; Zhao, Yanling; Lu, Hai; Liu, Shichang; Qu, Long; Li, Jianmei; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning

    2013-04-01

    Regulation of lignin biosynthesis affects plant growth and wood properties. Transgenic downregulation of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL, EC 6.2.1.12) may reduce lignin content in cell walls, which could improve the qualities of pulp in papermaking and increase the efficiency of bioenergy applications. To determine the effects of Ptc4CL1 on lignin biosynthesis and plant growth, Populus tomentosa Carr. was transformed using sense-, antisense-, and RNAi-4CL1 genes. The growth properties, gene expression, enzyme activity, lignin content and composition and content of soluble phenolic acids were investigated in 1-year-old field-grown transgenic poplar trees. Transgenic up- and down-regulation of 4CL1 altered lignin content and composition in transgenic poplars, but there were no negative effects on the growth of transgenic plants. In addition, the severe changes in auxin observed in transgenic lines led to significantly enhanced growth performance. Furthermore, lignin content was tightly correlated with the alteration of 4CL1 enzymatic activity, which was correlated with 4CL1 gene expression. A significant increase in S units in lignin with a slight increase in sinapic acid was observed in 4CL1 down-regulated transgenic poplars. These results suggest that 4CL1 is a traffic control gene in monolignol biosynthesis and confirm that 4CL1 activity has been implicated with sinapoyl activation. Finally, our data demonstrate that there is cross-correlation among 4CL1 gene expression, 4CL1 enzyme activity, soluble phenolic acid, lignin monomer biosynthesis, and lignin content. PMID:23434928

  19. Experimental Studies of Selected Aqueous Electrochemical Systems Relevant for Materials Processing in the Fabrications of Microelectronic Components and Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingzhao

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this dissertation to investigate a selected set of aqueous electrochemical systems that are relevant for materials processing in the fabrication of microelectronic devices and direct alcohol fuel cells. In terms of technical applications, this work covers three main experimental systems: (i) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), (ii) electro-less nickel deposition, and (iii) direct alkaline glycerol fuel cells. The first two areas are related to electronic device fabrications and the third topic is related to cost-effective energy conversion. The common electrochemical aspect of these different systems is that, in all these cases the active material characteristics are governed by complex (often multi-step) reactions occurring at metal-liquid (aqueous) interfaces. Electro-analytical techniques are ideally suited for studying the detailed mechanisms of such reactions, and the present investigation is largely focused on developing adequate analytical strategies for probing these reaction mechanisms. In the fabrication of integrated circuits, certain steps of materials processing involve CMP of Al deposited on thin layers of diffusion barrier materials like Ta/TaN, Co, or Ti/TiN. A specific example of this situation is found in the processing of replacement metal gates used for high-k/metal-gate transistors. Since the commonly used barrier materials are nobler than Al, the Al interface in contact with the barrier can become prone to galvanic corrosion in the wet CMP environment. Using model systems of coupon electrodes and two specific barrier metals, Ta and Co, the electrochemical factors responsible for these corrosion effects are investigated here in a moderately acidic (pH = 4.0) abrasive-free solution. The techniques of cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy are combined with strategic measurements of galvanic currents and open circuit potentials (OCPs). L-ascorbic acid (AA) is employed as a

  20. Multilevel component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    A general framework for the exploratory component analysis of multilevel data (MLCA) is proposed. In this framework, a separate component model is specified for each group of objects at a certain level. The similarities between the groups of objects at a given level can be expressed by imposing cons

  1. Traction-transport components integrated in fuel cells; running constraints, lifetime, reliability; Les composants traction-transport integres dans les systemes PAC; contraintes de mission, duree de vie, fiabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coquery, G. [Institut National de Recherche sur les transports et leur Securite, INRETS LTN, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    The future systems 'fuel cell' on-board in transport vehicles 'SPACT' will be optimized by the control of energy fluxes: of generation, of traction, of recovery to braking and of stored energy. The aim is to reach the level required for the user in terms of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety for a transport vehicle answering to economical and environmental criteria. Despite the obvious necessity of the research and industrialization studies on the 'SPACT' technologies, the current technological advances on the integration of the electronics for traction and the energy storage by super-capacitors and batteries are also determining factors for the industrialization of these hybrid systems. The proposed study presents the constraints of the transport applications, lifetime and reliability, the technologies of the power integration and the future developments of these new components for the transport sector. (O.M.)

  2. Activation of protein tyrosine kinase p72syk by Fc epsilon RI aggregation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. p72syk is a minor component but the major protein tyrosine kinase of pp72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoguchi, K; Benhamou, M; Swaim, W D; Kawakami, Y; Kawakami, T; Siraganian, R P

    1994-06-17

    Aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells results in protein tyrosine phosphorylations. Previously we reported that there is prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of approximately 72-kDa proteins (pp72) and that the tyrosine kinase p72syk is one component of pp72. Here we studied further the relationship of p72syk to pp72. The aggregation of Fc epsilon RI induced the activation of p72syk which was parallel to its tyrosine phosphorylation. By in vitro kinase assay of immune complexes purified with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was the major pp72 tyrosine kinase. However, by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was a minor component of pp72. The heterogeneous nature of pp72 was indicated by different studies. Under optimum conditions of one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pp72 consisted of a heterogeneous group of 69-, 71-, and 72-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. There were differences in the tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins in cells activated in the absence of extracellular calcium or when stimulation was with the calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol myristate acetate. One of the proteins migrating at 69 kDa was p72syk. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pp72 was found to consist of multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protens including 71-80-kDa proteins that associate with p53/56lyn. A 75-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, different from pp72, was identified as p75HS1 (SPY75). These results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the pp72 and that p72syk is activated after Fc epsilon RI aggregation. PMID:7515887

  3. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  4. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  5. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  6. Robust Principal Component Analysis?

    CERN Document Server

    Candes, Emmanuel J; Ma, Yi; Wright, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a low-rank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individually? We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the low-rank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the L1 norm. This suggests the possibility of a principled approach to robust principal component analysis since our methodology and results assert that one can recover the principal components of a data matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted. This extends to the situation where a fraction of the entries are missing as well. We discuss an algorithm for solving this optimization problem, and present applications in the area of video surveillance, where our methodology allows for th...

  7. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  8. Space laser components reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Space environment presents unique challenges for operation of optics and optical coatings as part of laser systems. Besides testing components and sub-systems on the component qualification level, the extended testing of complete laser systems like flight modules under acceptance level conditions is an effective way to determine the reliability and long term stability, mitigating the mission risk. Hence, optics as part of high power space laser systems have to be extensively tested in view...

  9. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  10. Component fragility research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S. (NCT Engineering, Inc., Lafayette, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Stochastic component mode synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bah, Mamadou T.; Nair, Prasanth B.; Bhaskar, Atul; Keane, Andy J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic component mode synthesis method is developed for the dynamic analysis of large-scale structures with parameter uncertainties. The main idea is to represent each component displacement using a subspace spanned by a set of stochastic basis vectors in the same fashion as in stochastic reduced basis methods [1, 2]. These vectors represent however stochastic modes in contrast to the deterministic modes used in conventional substructuring methods [3]. The Craig-Bampton r...

  12. LMFBR fuel component costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant portion of the cost of fabricating LMFBR fuels is in the non-fuel components such as fuel pin cladding, fuel assembly ducts and end fittings. The contribution of these to fuel fabrication costs, based on FFTF experience and extrapolated to large LMFBR fuel loadings, is discussed. The extrapolation considers the expected effects of LMFBR development programs in progress on non-fuel component costs

  13. NASTRAN component-mode synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyan, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Procedure for dynamic substructuring analysis technique is generally as follows: calculation of component modes; selection of component normal modes, calculation of component generalized matrices, assembly of system matrices, and computation of normal modes; and retrieval of component response.

  14. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  15. Effects of excellular calcium on exocytosis/endocytosis rate and cell wall components of pollen tube%外源钙对花粉管胞吞/胞吐速率和细胞壁成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑茂钟; 李国平; 张剑

    2014-01-01

    为了探索花粉管生长调控的机制,本研究利用花粉管模型,结合超微结构观察测量花粉管的内径,壁厚,囊泡大小,首次定量分析了花粉管生长速度变化过程中的胞吞和胞吐速率变化。结果发现在0�01%外钙浓度下花粉管平均生长速率为(8�74±1�83)μm/min,胞吐速率9043个/min,胞吞速率344749个/min;在0�3%浓度下花粉管均生长速率为(3�47±0�93)μm/min,胞吐速率12873个/min,胞吞速率517738个/min;这证明了花粉管生长速度与胞吞胞吐速率不成直接的正比关系。其次通过细胞壁成分的荧光标记观察,还发现在0�3%的外钙浓度下,花粉管细胞壁中胼胝质明显增加,顶端生长点细胞壁内纤维素和酸性果胶略有增多。这表明细胞壁成分的变化对于花粉管生长速度的调节有着重要的影响。%In order to decipher the mechanism underlying pollen tube growth, exocytosis/endocytosis rates of Lili pollen tubes cultured in medium with excellular calcium at different concentrations were first quantitatively compared base on an algorithm using growth velocities of pollen tubes, widths of pollen tube lumens, thicknesses of cell walls, and diameters of endocytosis and exocytosis vesicles. The results showed that pollen tubes cultured in medium with 0�01% calcium grew at mean velocity of (8�74 ± 1�83)μm/min, which required exocytosis rate of 9 043 events/min and endocytosis rate of 344 749 events /min; while as in 0�3% calcium, pollen tubes grew at mean velocity of (3�47 ± 0�93)μm/min, which required exocytosis rate of 12 873 events/min and endocytosis rate of 517 738 events /min, suggesting there is no certain positive correlation between growth velocity of pollen tube and exocytosis/endocytosis rate. Moreover, fluorescence labeling of cell wall components revealed that, compared with 0�01% calcium in medium, 0�03% calcium obviously

  16. 伴鳞样成分的甲状腺间变性癌临床病理分析%Clinicopathologic Analysis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma with Squamoid Cell Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘毅; 孙保存

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨伴鳞样成分的甲状腺间变性癌(anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamoid cell component,ATC-SCC)的诊断、鉴别诊断及临床病理特征.方法:回顾性分析85例少见甲状腺肿瘤的临床病理资料,通过HE切片进行形态学观察,对5例ATC-SCC,6例甲状腺鳞状细胞癌(squamous cell carcinoma,SCC),8例甲状腺呈胸腺样分化癌(carcinoma showing thymus-like ele?ments,CASTLE)和2 例甲状腺降钙素阴性的神经内分泌肿瘤(calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid gland,CNNETT)进行9项免疫组织化学染色,包括Cytokeratin(CK)、Vimentin(VM)、Chromogranin A(CgA)、Synaptophysin(SYN)、CD117、CD5、Calcitonin(CT)、Thyroglobulin(TG)和Thyroid transcription factor-1(TTF-1),并对结果进行分析.结果:5例ATC-SCC中,男性2例,女性3例;年龄41~79岁,平均年龄53.2岁;肿物位于左腺叶3例,右腺叶2例.临床表现为无痛性颈部肿物.肿物通常体积较大,质地硬实,与周围组织粘连.镜下可见肿瘤组织由梭形细胞、多形性巨细胞、破骨样细胞和鳞状上皮样细胞以不同比例混合而成,并可见胞浆红染的横纹肌样细胞及大片坏死.免疫组织化学染色显示5例ATC-SCC的肿瘤细胞CK和VM均阳性.鳞状上皮样细胞为主要成分时需要与SCC、CASTLE和CNNETT进行鉴别.结论:ATC-SCC多见于老年人,女性较多见,生长迅速,常扩展至甲状腺外累犯颈部软组织,预后非常差,手术和放化疗相结合是治疗ATC-SCC的基本原则.%Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamoid cell component ( ATC-SCC ).Methods: The data of 85 cases with rare thyroid neoplasms were retrospectively analyzed.Morphological observation of the sections from all cases was conducted after H&E staining.Five cases of ATC-SCC, 6 cases of thyroid squamous cell carcinoma ( TSCC ), 8 cases of with thyroid carcinoma showing thymus

  17. Bioactive components in fish venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  18. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third and...... fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  19. Residual Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaitzis, Alfredo A

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) seeks a low dimensional representation of a data set in the presence of independent spherical Gaussian noise, Sigma = (sigma^2)*I. The maximum likelihood solution for the model is an eigenvalue problem on the sample covariance matrix. In this paper we consider the situation where the data variance is already partially explained by other factors, e.g. covariates of interest, or temporal correlations leaving some residual variance. We decompose the residual variance into its components through a generalized eigenvalue problem, which we call residual component analysis (RCA). We show that canonical covariates analysis (CCA) is a special case of our algorithm and explore a range of new algorithms that arise from the framework. We illustrate the ideas on a gene expression time series data set and the recovery of human pose from silhouette.

  20. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  1. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  2. Component Reengineering Workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2004-01-01

    In mature domains, a number of competing product lines may emerge, and from the point of view of customers of such product lines, reengineering and reuse of assets across product lines from different vendors becomes important. To address this issue we present a low-cost approach, component...... reengineering workshops, for assessing reengineering costs of reusing components between different product lines. The approach works on the level of software architectures, and relies critically on input from various (technical) stakeholders. It has been validated through case studies that are also presented...

  3. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...... semantics, not only in text, but also in dynamic text (chat), images, and combinations of text and images. Here we further expand on the relevance of the ICA model for representing context, including two new analyzes of abstract data: social networks and musical features....

  4. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  5. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) and microRNA-21 are components of a positive feedback loop in pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) during chronic pancreatitis and are exported in PSC-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Alyssa; Chen, Ruju; Chen, Li; Kemper, Sherri; Hattori, Takako; Takigawa, Masaharu; Brigstock, David R

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas which, in its chronic form, involves tissue destruction, exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, increased risk of pancreatic cancer, and an extensive fibrotic pathology which is due to unrelenting collagen deposition by pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). In response to noxious agents such as alcohol-excessive consumption of which is a major cause of pancreatitis in the West-normally quiescent PSC undergo a phenotypic and functional transition to activated myofibroblasts which produce and deposit collagen at high levels. This process is regulated by connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), expression of which is highly up-regulated in activated PSC. We show that CCN2 production by activated PSC is associated with enhanced expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) which was detected at high levels in activated PSC in a murine model of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. A positive feedback loop between CCN2 and miR-21 was identified that resulted in enhancement of their respective expression as well as that of collagen α1(I). Both miR-21 and CCN2 mRNA were present in PSC-derived exosomes, which were characterized as 50-150 nm CD9-positive nano-vesicles. Exosomes from CCN2-GFP- or miR-21-GFP-transfected PSC were taken up by other PSC cultures, as shown by direct fluorescence or qRT-PCR for GFP. Collectively these studies establish miR-21 and CCN2 as participants in a positive feedback loop during PSC activation and as components of the molecular payload in PSC-derived exosomes that can be delivered to other PSC. Thus interactions between cellular or exosomal miR-21 and CCN2 represent novel aspects of fibrogenic regulation in PSC. Summary Chronic injury in the pancreas is associated with fibrotic pathology which is driven in large part by CCN2-dependent collagen production in pancreatic stellate cells. This study shows that CCN2 up-regulation in PSC is associated with increased expression of miR-21 which, in turn, is able to

  6. Overview of blood components and their preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdatta Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking.

  7. LABVirt – basic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codrin NISIOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some aspects about a project integrated in a national research and development project "Information society" (INFOSOC financed by Romanian Government. A iLab called LABVirt is available for use by Universities, college, high-school.The goal of this paper is to present the main components of LABVirt, Romanian solution for remote lab access.

  8. Grey component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A.; Derks, E.P.P.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Smilde, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of principal component analysis (PCA) models of complex biological or chemical data can be cumbersome because in PCA the decomposition is performed without any knowledge of the system at hand. Prior information of the system is not used to improve the interpretation. In this paper

  9. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented in an...... online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  10. Complement component 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have lower-than-normal levels of the complement proteins C3 and C4 . Complement activity varies throughout the body. ... Saunders; 2013:chap 6. Read More Cirrhosis Complement Complement component 3 (C3) Glomerulonephritis Hepatitis Hereditary angioedema Kidney transplant Lupus nephritis ...

  11. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  12. Ubiquitous Fractal Components

    OpenAIRE

    Hoareau, Didier; Mahéo, Yves

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present a distribution scheme for Fractal-based applications that is namely based on a user-transparent extension to the Fractal component model. This scheme allows any Fractal application to expose it provided services in an ubiquitous way on several machines. The mechanisms implemented support network disconnections and let the application run in a degraded mode if necessary.

  13. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  14. Rapid Synthesis of D-A'-π-A Dyes through a One-Pot Three-Component Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling and an Evaluation of their Photovoltaic Properties for Use in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Shunsuke; Fuse, Shinichiro; Maitani, Masato M; Wada, Yuji; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Kaiho, Tatsuo; Masui, Hisashi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2016-02-12

    Twenty-four D-A'-π-A dyes were rapidly synthesized through a one-pot three-component Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction, which was assisted by microwave irradiation. We measured the absorption spectra, electrochemical properties, and solar-cell performance of all the synthesized dyes. The D5 πA4 dye contained our originally designed rigid and nonplanar donor and exerted the highest efficiency at 5.4 %. The short-circuit current (Jsc ) was the most important parameter for the conversion efficiency (η) in the case of the organic D-A'-π-A dyes. Optimal ranges for the D-A'-π-A dyes were observed for high values of Jsc /λmax at λ=560-620 nm, an optical-absorption edge of λ=690-790 nm, and EHOMO and ELUMO values of <1.14 and -0.56 to -0.76 V, respectively.

  15. Towards Software Component Procurement Automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, H-G.; Lormans, M.; Zhou, J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the first steps of component procurement is the identification of required component features in large repositories of existing components. On the highest level of abstraction, component requirements as well as component descriptions are usually written in natural language. Therefore, we can

  16. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  17. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...

  18. Defining talent management components

    OpenAIRE

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-01-01

    In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings...

  19. Components of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to a reduction in attentional resources that are assumed to result from alterations in the aging brain. A core ability that is subject to age-related decline is visual attention, which enables individuals to select the most important information for conscious processing and action. However, visual attention is considered a conglomerate of various functions and the specific components underlying age differences in performance remain little understo...

  20. Functional Components of Foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Lima, Maria João; Barroca, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    The primary role of diet is to provide sufficient nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of an individual. However, many professionals recognise that health promoting foods have a major role in health enhancement, which justifies the focus on research on the identification of biologically active components in foods that have the potential to optimise physical and mental well being and which may also reduce the risk of disease. Recent increases on research also aimed the identification...

  1. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  2. Enterprise Architecture Evaluation Components

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Eetu; Ylimäki, Tanja

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a holistic view of an organization, including the viewpoints of business, information, systems and technology. It is stated to provide significant benefits to organizations, and is therefore of interest for both academics and practitioners. However, evaluating EA, or its benefits, is difficult. Moreover, the studies on EA evaluation are mostly inconsistent, and almost omit the planning aspect of evaluation. This study suggests the evaluation components that nee...

  3. Defining talent management components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings and also to look for ways to improve employee performance is discussed. This study is based on data collected from all employees of the University of Chaloos in August 2013; through two questionnaires have been developed. The statistical population has been considered 407 persons in these universities and according the Morgan Table, 198 persons were selected as sample of among research society. More over, 28 questions are used for determining components of talent management. Finally, we concluded that the component of talent management have been properly defined in the Universities of Chaloos.

  4. Stable Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zihan; Wright, John; Candes, Emmanuel; Ma, Yi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix (the principal components) from a high-dimensional data matrix despite both small entry-wise noise and gross sparse errors. Recently, it has been shown that a convex program, named Principal Component Pursuit (PCP), can recover the low-rank matrix when the data matrix is corrupted by gross sparse errors. We further prove that the solution to a related convex program (a relaxed PCP) gives an estimate of the low-rank matrix that is simultaneously stable to small entrywise noise and robust to gross sparse errors. More precisely, our result shows that the proposed convex program recovers the low-rank matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted, with an error bound proportional to the noise level. We present simulation results to support our result and demonstrate that the new convex program accurately recovers the principal components (the low-rank matrix) under quite broad conditions. To our knowledge, this is...

  5. conformational complexity of complement component C3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the immune system and critical for the elimination of pathogens. In mammals the complement system consists of an intricate set of about 35 soluble and cell-surface plasma proteins. Central to complement is component C3, a large protein of 1,641 residues.

  6. Radiation-resistant beamline components at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of highly radiation-resistant beamline components have been successfully developed at LAMPF primarily for use in the target cells and beam stop area of the intense proton beamline. Design features and operating experience are reviewed for magnets, instrumentation, targets, vacuum seals, vacuum windows, collimators, and beam stops

  7. Design and components of photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) system components and design. The basic performance of cells, modules, and inverters and how this is used in PV system design is described. Two case studies illustrating PV system design are presented: a hybrid system on t

  8. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  9. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  10. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  11. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  12. One-component nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Koo, Jin Mo; Cui, Honggang

    2015-12-10

    One-component nanomedicine (OCN) represents an emerging class of therapeutic nanostructures that contain only one type of chemical substance. This one-component feature allows for fine-tuning and optimization of the drug loading and physicochemical properties of nanomedicine in a precise manner through molecular engineering of the underlying building blocks. Using a precipitation procedure or effective molecular assembly strategies, molecularly crafted therapeutic agents (e.g. polymer-drug conjugates, small molecule prodrugs, or drug amphiphiles) could involuntarily aggregate, or self-assemble into nanoscale objects of well-defined sizes and shapes. Unlike traditional carrier-based nanomedicines that are inherently multicomponent systems, an OCN does not require the use of additional carriers and could itself possess desired physicochemical features for preferential accumulation at target sites. We review here recent progress in the molecular design, conjugation methods, and fabrication strategies of OCN, and analyze the opportunities that this emerging platform could open for the new and improved treatment of devastating diseases such as cancer.

  13. Laser generating metallic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  14. Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers—actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments—are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher order assemblies performing different functions. Structural information about cytoskeleton organization is critical for understanding its functions and mechanisms underlying various forms of cellular activity. Because of the nanometer-scale thickness of cytoskeletal fibers, electron microscopy (EM) is a key tool to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton. This article describes application of rotary shadowing (or metal replica) EM for visualization of the cytoskeleton. The procedure is applicable to thin cultured cells growing on glass coverslips and consists of detergent extraction of cells to expose their cytoskeleton, chemical fixation to provide stability, ethanol dehydration and critical point drying to preserve three-dimensionality, rotary shadowing with platinum to create contrast, and carbon coating to stabilize replicas. This technique provides easily interpretable three-dimensional images, in which individual cytoskeletal fibers are clearly resolved, and individual proteins can be identified by immunogold labeling. More importantly, replica EM is easily compatible with live cell imaging, so that one can correlate the dynamics of a cell or its components, e.g., expressed fluorescent proteins, with high resolution structural organization of the cytoskeleton in the same cell. PMID:26498781

  15. Histogenesis of lipomatous component in uterine lipoleiomyomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz BOLAT

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Uterine neoplasms composed of an admixture of smooth muscle and adipose tissue are rare and have been designated as lipoleiomyomas. The origin of this tumor is stil controversial and it has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of our study was to investigate the immunohistochemical phenotype of fat cells in uterine lipoleiomyomas so as to clarify their origin. Archived tissue samples of 10 uterine lipoleiomyomas were selected and analyzed immunohistochemically for vimentin, desmin, and HMB-45 expression. The patients ranged from 31 to 63 years of age (mean age 53.5±9.9. Seven tumors which affected the uterine corpus, showed intramural location; while two cases were subserosal, and one was in the cervix. All tumors were constituted by irregular bundles of smooth cells and mature large adipose cells. The amount of adipose component varied from 5 to 95% of the tumor mass. Cytological atypia and necrosis were not seen. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed obvious reactivity to vimentin and desmin in perivascular immature mesencyhmal cells and tumoral smooth muscle cells. Adipose cells in the tumors demonstrated uniform vimentin expression and inconsistent desmin immunoreactivity. All adipose cells were negative for HMB-45 antigen. However, HMB-45 antigen was weakly positive in spindle shaped tumor cells of two cases. In our study, the immunohistochemical findings suggest a complex histogenesis for these tumors, which may arise from perivascular immature mesencyhmal cells or direct transformation of smooth muscle cells into adipocytes by means of progressive intracellular storage of lipids.

  16. Modificações dos componentes de parede celular do melão tipo Galia durante a maturação Cell wall components changes in 'Galia' melons during maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josivan B. MENEZES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo caracterizou quantitativa e qualitativamente as mudanças nos componentes de parede celular do melão tipo Galia, híbrido Nun 1380, associadas ao processo de maturação. Os frutos foram avaliados em cinco estádios de maturação (I-V. O material de parede celular e suas frações foram determinados por gravimetria. Determinou-se o conteúdo de açúcares neutros na fração hemicelulósica e no resíduo celulósico, o teor de ácidos urônicos e o grau de esterificação na fração de substâncias pécticas, e o teor de cálcio total e ligado. A fração de substâncias pécticas foi submetida à cromatografia de filtração em gel e os açúcares neutros da fração hemicelulósica foram analisados por cromatografia a gás. O conteúdo do material de parede celular (MPC mostrou pouca variação durante a maturação. O conteúdo de ácidos urônicos da fração péctica e o conteúdo de açúcares neutros na fração hemicelulósica (ramnose, arabinose e glicose apresentaram tendência de redução com o avanço da maturação do fruto. Praticamente não houve variação para o grau de esterificação (% de esterificação da fração de substâncias pécticas e para o teor de cálcio ligado. Houve redução no teor de celulose durante a maturação. A cromatografia em gel não revelou tendência de despolimerização das substâncias pécticas.This research characterized changes in the cell wall components in ‘Galia’, hybrid Nun 1380 melons during maturation. Fruits were evaluated at five maturation stages (I-V. Cell wall material and their fractions were determined by gravimetry method. Neutral sugars in hemicellulosic fraction and cellulosic residue, uronics acids content in pectic fraction, degree of esterification, total calcium and bound calcium were analyzed. The pectic fraction was analyzed by gel chromatography and neutral-sugars in hemicellulosic fraction were analyzed by gas chromatography. Minimum variation

  17. Component failure data handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

  18. Impedance and component heating

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B

    2015-01-01

    The impedance is a complex function of frequency, which represents, for the plane under consideration (longitudinal, horizontal or vertical), the force integrated over the length of an element, from a “source” to a “test” wave, normalized by their charges. In general, the impedance in a given plane is a nonlinear function of the test and source transverse coordinates, but it is most of the time sufficient to consider only the first few linear terms. Impedances can influence the motion of trailing particles, in the longitudinal and in one or both transverse directions, leading to energy loss, beam instabilities, or producing undesirable secondary effects such as excessive heating of sensitive components at or near the chamber wall, called beam-induced RF heating. The LHC performance limitations linked to impedances encountered during the 2010-2012 run are reviewed and the currently expected situation during the HL-LHC era is discussed.

  19. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  20. Optical communication components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2004-03-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others