WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellophane

  1. 21 CFR 177.1200 - Cellophane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adduct of butadienestyrene copolymer Melamine formaldehyde As the basic polymer. Melamine-formaldehyde.... Castor oil, sulfonated, sodium salt Cellulose acetate butyrate Cellulose acetate propionate Cetyl alcohol... weight of coatings for cellophane. Naphthalenesulfonic acid-formaldehyde condensate, sodium salt...

  2. Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom A.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

  3. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiksöz, Ali; Aciöz, Mehmet; Değerli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, Cetin

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was found to be significantly different among these schools (chi2 = 31.96, P 0.05). The rate (18.7%) of E. vermicularis in the urban slum regions was higher than the rate (11.5%) in the urban central regions (chi2 = 19.20; P < 0.05). Above results demonstrate that the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. was still prevalent among primary school children.

  4. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography and volume-rendered imaging for evaluation of cellophane banding in a dog with extrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yoon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, 1.8 kg, male, castrated Maltese was presented for evaluation of urolithiasis. Urinary calculi were composed of ammonium biurate. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 44.2 and 187.3 μmol/ , respectively (reference ranges 0–10 and 0–20 μmol/ , respectively. Single-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA with volume-rendered imaging (VRI was obtained. VRI revealed a portocaval shunt originating just cranial to a tributary of the gastroduodenal vein and draining into the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen. CTA revealed a 3.66 mm-diameter shunt measured at the level of the termination of the shunt and a 3.79 mm-diameter portal vein measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Surgery was performed using cellophane banding without attenuation. Follow-up single-phase CTA with VRI was obtained 10 weeks after surgery. VRI revealed no evidence of portosystemic communication on the level of a cellophane band and caudal to the cellophane band. CTA demonstrated an increased portal vein diameter (3.79–5.27 mm measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 25 and 12.5 μmol/ , respectively (aforementioned respective reference ranges, 3 months post-surgery. No problems were evident at 6 months.

  5. 白天挤粘法检测在校大学生蠕形螨感染效果分析%Analysis of Demodex infection among college students using skin scrapings collected with cellophane tape during the daytime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 王伟; 傅皓; 宋辉; 王耀辉; 王国英

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析白天挤粘法检出蠕形螨感染的情况.方法 采用挤粘法对434名在校大学生进行蠕形螨检查,在显微成像系统下观察并记录拍照,同时调查受检者个人卫生习惯.结果 434名学生中158人感染蠕形螨,感染率为36.41%,男生感染率为26.79%,女生感染率为42.48%,女生显著高于男生(x2=9.64,P<0.01);毛囊蠕形螨面部感染率(69.62%)高于皮脂蠕形螨(17.09%)(x2=44.38,P<0.01);卵检出率19.60%,高于常规检查方法的卵检出率.检出的螨虫在透明胶纸上保存时间较长,20 d左右蠕形螨的形态依然清晰可辨.结论 白天挤粘法取材方便快速,操作简单,观察标本时间足够,适合临床检验和大样本人群普查.%Objective To analyze the incidence of Demodex infection using skin scrapings collected with cellophane tape during the daytime. Methods Four hundred and thirty-four medical students were tested for Demodex mite infection u-sing skin scraping and the cellophane tape method. Samples were observed and photographed with a microscopic imaging system. Health habits of the students were investigated via a questionnaire. Results The total rate of infection was 36. 4 %. The infection rate for boys was 26. 79% and that for girls was 42. 48%. Boys had a higher infection rate than girls (x2=9. 64,P<0. 01). The rate of infection with D. folliculorum (69. 62%)was higher than that with D. brevis (17. 09%)(x2=44. 38,P<0. 01). The rate of ova detection was 19. 6%. This is higher than the rate of ova detection by a routine examination. Mites on transparent adhesive tape can be preserved for a relatively long period of time, and Demodex mites are still evident after about 20 days. Conclusion Skin scrapings collected with cellophane tape during the daytime are a convenient and fast method of detecting Demodex. This method is easy to perform and specimens can be viewed for a sufficient amount of time. This method is suitable for clinical

  6. Enterobiasis in Italy today: a Primary School’s experience

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Crotti

    2008-01-01

    In the context of an educational project concerning personal hygiene at school, an epidemiological investigation regarding circulation of Enterobius vermicularis was performed in a primary school in Perugia (Italy).A cellophane tape test was carried out among 97 pupils of 120 attending at the school (80.8%). Cellophane tape and specific explanations were previously provided to pupils and their parents.Thirteen pupils (13.4%) were positive for the presence of oxyurs’ eggs, 12.2% among males (6...

  7. Studies Regarding the Membranous Support of a Glucose Biosensor Based on Gox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOx, the enzyme can be immobilized on the sensitive surface of a glass electrode by different techniques: deposition on membranous support (cellophane or other macromolecular material or entrapment in a matrix. Deposition on membranous support also involves cross-linking with glutaraldehyde or entrapment in silica gel, following the sol-gel procedure. The aim of this preliminary work was to study the influence of cellophane replacement with a PVA based membranous support on the glucose biosensor performance. The data obtained at pH measurements of buffer solutions with cellophane and PVA membranous supports respectively, show that the PVA based membrane assures superior performances of the biosensor for low glucose concentrations determination (about 10-4 M. These results allow the transition to an improved immobilization technique, namely the enzyme entrapment in membranous material.

  8. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  9. Cellulose-Based Membranes for Solutes Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, T. S.; Yushkin, A. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Antonov, S. V.; Volkov, A. V.

    This work was focused on investigation of industrial cellophane film as a membrane material for solvent nanofiltration. The effect of conditioning of cellophane membranes by stepwise changing of composition of ethanol-water binary mixtures (from ethanol to water and from water to ethanol) was studied. It was shown that such treatment leads to an increase of ethanol permeability more than two orders of magnitude over initial untreated film samples. Treated cellophane membranes possess the ethanol permeability coefficient comparable with the values for highly permeability glassy polymers. Investigation of cellophane swelling in water ethanol solutions allowed to conclude that during the treatment formation of porous in the film takes place due to increase of inter chain distances. Observed high ethanol permeability connected with the fact that formed porous structure remains after the replacement of water with ethanol. Also it was shown that rejection coefficients of a number of dyes (MW 350) were in good agreement with the degree of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonding with the solute molecules. It was demonstrated that cellulose-based membranes can be complimentary for other type of the membranes in fractionation of multi-components solutions.

  10. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Ernst R. Tamm; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  11. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  12. [The investigation of intestinal parasites in foreign high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ozan; Hamamci, Berna; Cetınkaya, Ulfet; Kaya, Muhittin; Ateş, Serpil; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Ozcan, Hanife; Yazar, Lale; Yazar, Süleyman

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are important health problem especially in undeveloped or underdeveloped countries with low socio-economic status,. In this study, stool and cellophane tape samples were analyzed for intestinal parasites in 192 foreign students who were came from 28 different countries and attending a high school with the age of 15 to 21 (age mean: 17.92 ± 1.30) in Kayseri. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 73 (38 %) of them. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples as follow; Blastocystis hominis; 63 (32.8%); Giardia intestinalis, 13 (6.7 %); Endolimax nana, 8 (4.1%); Entamoeba coli, 7 (3.6%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.52%). There was no any parasite in cellophane tape samples.

  13. Enterobiasis in Italy today: a Primary School’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an educational project concerning personal hygiene at school, an epidemiological investigation regarding circulation of Enterobius vermicularis was performed in a primary school in Perugia (Italy.A cellophane tape test was carried out among 97 pupils of 120 attending at the school (80.8%. Cellophane tape and specific explanations were previously provided to pupils and their parents.Thirteen pupils (13.4% were positive for the presence of oxyurs’ eggs, 12.2% among males (6/49 and 14.6% among females (7/49.This nematode was absent only in 1 out of 6 classes; in the remaining 5 positivity rates ranged between 5.3% and 25.0%. Investigation methodology and operating perspectives in connection with study results are shown and the importance of a continuous surveillance is emphasized in order to remind that enterobiasis has never disappeared.

  14. DNA of Dientamoeba fragilis detected within surface-sterilized eggs of Enterobius vermicularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röser, Dennis; Nejsum, Peter; Carlsgart, Anne Josefine;

    2013-01-01

    With no evidence of a cyst stage, the mode of transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis, an intestinal protozoon of common occurrence and suggested pathogenicity, is incompletely known. Numerous studies have suggested that eggs of intestinal nematodes, primarily Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), can...... serve as vectors for D. fragilis, although attempts to culture D. fragilis from pinworm eggs have been unsuccessful and data from epidemiological studies on D. fragilis/pinworm co-infection have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether we could detect D. fragilis DNA from...... pinworm eggs collected from routine diagnostic samples (cellophane tape) and surface-sterilised by hypochlorite. DNA was extracted from individual eggs and tested by PCR using D. fragilis- and E. vermicularis-specific primers; amplicons were sequenced for confirmation. In cellophane tape samples from 64...

  15. Laser Impact Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Daehn, Glenn S.; Lippold, John; Liu, Deijan; Taber, Geoff; Wang, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Laser impact welding is a solid-state, collision-based welding process. In this process, laser-generated optical energy is converted to kinetic energy through the ablation at the surface and confinement of the gas generated between a flyer and backing plate. The launch of the flyer can be affected by many factors, for example, backing material, ablative layer, and flyer thickness. In this paper, the effect of three backing materials: glass, polycarbonate and cellophane tape, we...

  16. Detecting strain in birefringent materials using spectral polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Huebschman, Michael L. (Inventor); Garner, Harold R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method, computer program product and system for analyzing multispectral images from a plurality of regions of birefringent material, such as a polymer film, using polarized light and a corresponding polar analyzer to identify differential strain in the birefringent material. For example, the birefringement material may be low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyester, nylon, or cellophane film. Optionally, the method includes generating a real-time quantitative strain map.

  17. Differential diagnosis of Trichostrongylus and hookworm eggs via PCR using ITS-1 sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Sim, Seobo; Lee, Jongweon; Min, Duk-Young; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2007-01-01

    Trichostrongylus eggs observed in cellophane-thick smears are difficult, in practice, to distinguish from hookworm eggs. In order to overcome these limitations, a molecular approach was conducted. A Trichostrongylus colubriformis adult worm was obtained from a human in Laos, which was identified morphologically. ITS-1 sequence of this worm was determined, and found to be most similar with that of T. colubriformis among the Trichostrongylus spp. reported so far. Then, this sequence was compare...

  18. [Enterobiasis during 2002-2003 in Perugia province: beyond diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L

    2006-06-01

    Between 2002 and 2003 we examined cellophane tapes of 119 children, both symptomatic and apparently asymptomatic. Eggs of Enterobius vermicularis were observed in 13.4% of children. This helminth is the most frequent in Italy, but it is as yet unrecognized, probably due to parasitological laboratories not being consulted, resulting in incomplete epidemiological data. We recall the biological aspects of this nematode and suggest the need for sound diagnosis to ensure proper surveillance of this exclusively human infection.

  19. Quantifying mold biomass on gypsum board: Comparison of ergosterol and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase as mold biomass parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeslev, M.; Miller, M.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    Two mold species, Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, were inoculated onto agar overlaid with cellophane, allowing determination of a direct measurement of biomass density by weighing. Biomass density, ergosterol content, and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity were...... monitored from inoculation to stationary phase. Regression analysis showed a good linear correlation to biomass density for both ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. The same two mold species were inoculated onto wallpapered gypsum board, from which a direct biomass measurement...

  20. Investigation on penetration of three conventional foodstuffs packaging polymers with two different thicknesses by larvae and adults of major species of stored-product pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahvaisi, Somayeh; Purmirza, Ali Asghar; Safaralizade, Mohamad Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Despite modern methods of packaging, stored agricultural products are still under attack by stored-insect pests. Therefore, determination of the best polymer and appropriate thickness inhibiting the penetration of the insects must be considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of penetration and the rates of contamination by nine important stored product pest insects for three conventional flexible polymers (polyethylene, cellophane and polypropylene) at two thicknesses (16.5 and 29 microm), which are used as pouches for packing of agricultural products. We used adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera), S. granarius (Coleoptera), R. dominica (Coleoptera), C. maculates (Coleoptera), O. surinamensis (Coleoptera), and larvae of P. interpunctella (Lepidoptera), E. kuehniella (Lepidoptera), S. cerealella (Lepidoptera) and T. granarium (Coleoptera). Results showed that for most of the species penetration occurred between 4 days and 2 weeks, but there were significant differences (p polymers (cellophane, polyethylene and polypropylene) by the insects. Among the polymers, polyethylene with a thickness of 16.5 microm showed the highest degree of penetration and was the most unsuitable polymer for packaging of foodstuffs. Application of this polymer led to a complete infestation of the product and a lot of punctures were created by the insects. In contrast, no penetration was observed in polypropylene polymer with a thickness of 29 microm. Furthermore, adults and larvae of all species showed a much lower penetration when there was no food present in the pouches and this was the case for all polymers tested.

  1. An Attempt to Enjoy Science Class Together with Parents and Children—Let's Make the Pile-of-Plates Polarizer (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazue

    2009-04-01

    We plan to make a polarizer, which is called the "pile-of-plates polarizer," by piling seven microscope slides with the Brewster's angle of about 56 degrees inside a small camera obscura about the size of a deck of playing cards. By inserting transparent cellophane tape between the polarizer and the polarizing sheet and rotating it on the tilt, wonderful color patterns can be created. Using this method, you can create various kinds of image patterns such as Red-ogre, Blue-ogre and so on, according to the number and the shapes of the cellophane tapes. Moreover, if you look at the image patterns through a mirror, amazingly you can see the different-colored Red-ogre or the Blue-ogre on it. By considering the mystery of the light polarization and the history of its investigations, I hope to teach the students about the way many scientists have been brought up through studying and enjoying light polarization science. Also, I want to teach students that light polarization experiments are not limited to the pile-of-plates polarizer, but that there are many others.

  2. Problems of calibration and stabilization of tcPO2 electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, J W; Thunstrom, A

    1978-01-01

    The stirring effect factor phi, used to correct tcPO2 readings for gradient of PO2 induced in skin by electrode O2 consumption, was measured with 20 micrometer cathode electrodes at 44 degree C for various membrane, spacer and electrolyte combinations. Two in vitro models closely resemble skin phi values: (1) 50% ethylenge glycol/water equilibrated with air at 44 degree C, compared to air above this liquid; (2) a mock skin consisting of 25 micrometer Telfon on foam rubber, in air, dry. phi varied from 1.01 with 22 micrometer polypropylene over a 12 micrometer cellophane spacer, with either aqeous or non-aqueous, chloride-free alkaline electrolyte, to more than 1.10 when 25 micrometer Telfon was tested without a spacer. phi may be predicted: phi = 1 + 0.44 i/(M + 10C + 20) where i is pA/mmHg electrode sensitivity, and M and C are membrane and cellophane thickness, micrometer. Pressure sensitivity, tested agains foam rubber, was minimized by use of a spacer, and often increased with age of Telfon membrane. Drift may result from water vapour movements across membranes if calibration media have P(H2O) either too high or too low. Miminum drift on skin is also caused by a slow effect of PCO2 on reference electrode potential, and this is minimized by buffering electrolyte with K2B4O7.

  3. [Screening Examination and Management of Dermatophytosis by Trichophyton tonsurans in the Judo Club of a University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yumi; Soda, Naomi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one members of the Judo Club of a certain university (age: 18~23) underwent a screening examination for dermatophytosis by Trichophyton tonsurans. Test items were: age, sex, height, weight, living mode, exercise duration, number of judo contestants, presence of foreign contestants, occurrence, if any, of dermatophytosis past or present according to a subject's answers to a questionnaire, medical examinations and mycological examinations (KOH, cellophane tape culture, and hairbrush culture). Twenty-four subjects (77%) replied that they had suffered from dermatophytosis in the past, and 8 subjects (26%) had had head eruption in the past. Eleven subjects (35%) had suspicious dermatophytosis at the time of screening; 3 of them were found positive by direct microscopy, 2 of them were positive by cellophane tape culture. Eleven subjects (35%) were found positive by the hairbrush culture, but only 2 had eruption-like folliculitis. The remaining 9 subjects were free from clinical symptoms and were judged to be asymptomatic carriers. As countermeasures, we recommended cleaning and the use of shampoo containing miconazole nitrate. Subjects with suspicious tinea corporis were treated with antimycotic ointment. The 7 subjects who showed more than 5 colonies by the hairbrush culture were treated with 1-week pulse therapy of 400 mg itraconazole, and 3 of these who took a total dose of a pulse became negative through one pulse therapy.

  4. [Curriculum vitae aortae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, S

    1998-12-10

    The Greek word aorta means lifter. The vessel was so termed because Aristotle, who first described it, assumed that the heart was lifted by/hanging in aorta. Leonardo da Vinci described the detailed anatomy of aorta. During the 17th century our present understanding of the aorta and the circulation of blood took form due to the descriptions given by William Harvey. The first known operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in London in 1817 by Sir Astley Cooper who ligated the infrarenal aorta above the aneurysm. Puncture with needles and application of electricity were later tried in order to induce thromboses in the aneurysm. In 1948 Albert Einstein was operated with wrapping of his abdominal aneurysm with cellophane. In 1955 he suffered rupture and died after having refused operation. In 1951 the first successful operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in Paris by Charles Dubost. With slight modifications, the same operative technique is used today.

  5. Detection of Vibrio anguillarum and Its Virulent Metalloprotease Using the Method of ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method detecting pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum and its virulent metalloprotease is reported in this paper. The metalloprotease is isolated from extracellular product (ECP) of V.anguillarum by the cellophane plate technique and purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Anti-sera are prepared by injecting V.anguillarum cells and metalloprotease into the rabbits. Slide Agglutination Assay is used to detect V.anguillarum in the infection experiment and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is carried out to detect concentration of metalloprotease. The result shows that bacterium strain M3 is able to diffuse into the viscera of infected fish through the blood circulating system 10 hours after intramuscular infection, and ELASA is a sensitive method to detect the metalloprotease with detectable amount of 7.8ng. The aim of this study is to establish a sensitive and specific method to observe the infection of V.anguillarum in the host.

  6. [Distribution of intestinal parasites in patients presenting at the parasitology laboratory of the medical school of Erciyes University between the years of 2005 and 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ozan; Yazar, Süleyman; Ozcan, Hanife; Cetinkaya, Ulfet; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Ateş, Serpil; Sahin, Izzet

    2008-01-01

    In this study carried out from January 2005-June 2008, a total of 28,911 stool samples were examined using native-Lugol and flotation/sedimentation methods and 7,164 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Intestinal parasites were found in 6,975 (24.13%). Of the patients, 52.90% were female and 47.10%, male. Blastocystis hominis, 5,701 (19.72%); Entamoeba coli, 910 (3.15%); Giardia intestinalis, 568 (1.96%); Endolimax nana, 363 (1.26%); Entamoeba hartmann i, 357 (1.23%); Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 253 (0.87%); Chilomastix mesnilii, 92 (0.32%); Enterobius vermicularis, 58 (0.20%); Iodamoeba butschlii; 40 (0.14%); Taenia sp., 35 (0.12%); Ascaris lumbricoides, 34 (0.12%); and Hymenolepis nana, 17 (0.06%) were found to be the most common parasites.

  7. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  8. A simple and inexpensive optical power monitor for two visible wavelength WDM channels in plastic optical fibre links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Taiane A. M. G.; Marcondes, Claudia B.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper shows for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the design of a simple, non-invasive, bidirectional and inexpensive optical power monitor (OPMo) for WDM over PMMA-based polymer optical fibre (POF) links transmitting 470 nm and 650 nm wavelengths light carriers. Low-cost cellophane plastic optical filters were used for each WDM channel aiming to demonstrate the OPMo operational principle. The OPMo is non-invasive because it does not tap any guided light from the fibre core; rather, it collects and detects the spontaneous side-scattered light. A sensitivity of  -32 dBm and dynamic range of 38.8 dB were measured. A crosstalk rejection better than 25 dB was achieved when both light carriers are of the same power.

  9. Effect of pH on amine-collector in reverse flotation process of silicon separation%pH对胺类捕收剂反浮选脱硅的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿霞

    2011-01-01

    矿浆溶液的pH是影响浮选指标的重要因素之一,研究了三种胺类捕收剂在用量一定时,pH对云南某中低品位硅质胶磷矿脱硅的影响.试验结果表明,胺类药剂反浮选脱硅较适宜的pH范围为7.0~8.5.%The pulp pH is an important factor affecting flotation. In this paper, effect of pH was studied on three kinds of amine-collector with the their amount in a certain time in flotation of silicon separation of Yunnan mid-low grade cellophane. The results show that the pHrange of 7.0-8.5 is suitable for amine collector in reverse flotation process of silicon separation.

  10. Germinação e vigor de sementes de Crataeva tapia L. em diferentes temperaturas e regimes de luz Germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seeds in different temperatures and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evio Alves Galindo

    2012-03-01

    various factors involved in germination. Therefore, the work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of different temperatures and light conditions on germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seed. In the Laboratory of Seed Analysis, in the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, located in Areia city - PB, were evaluated the influence of temperatures of 25 °C; 30 °C and 35 °C constant and 20-30 °C alternated under white light (without cellophane paper, green (with green cellophane paper, red (with red cellophane paper, far-red (with two sheets red cellophane paper interspersed for two sheets blue and darkness (with black plastic, adopting a design entirely randomized with treatments distributed on factorial 4 x 5 (temperatures and light regimes, in four replications of 25 seeds each. Characteristics analyzed: germination percentage, germination first count and germination speed index, as well as the length and dry mass of seedlings. The seeds germinated in all light regimes, being recommended that on temperature of 20-30 °C alternate, and on temperature of 30°C. Seeds of species studied are not sensitive to different light regimes applied under different temperatures.

  11. Subcapsular renal hematoma after ureterorenoscopy: An unknown complication of a known procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Ujjwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal subcapsular hematoma is not an uncommon complication after extracorporeal short wave lithotripsy, trauma, renal angiographic procedures and spontaneously in patients of malignancy and in patients on anticoagulation. We present a patient who developed renal subcapsular hematoma after ureterorenoscopy, which has not been mentioned in literature ever. Clinical spectrum varies from spontaneous resolution through acute renal failure to Page kidney. Page kidney is the external compression of a kidney usually caused by a subcapsular hematoma associated with high blood pressure and occasional renal failure. It is named after Dr. Irvin Page who first demonstrated in 1939 that wrapping cellophane tightly around animal kidneys could cause hypertension. Various management options are mentioned in literature and depend upon the severity of hematoma. Percutaneous drainage is a successful option for the management of subcapsular hematoma in hemodynamic stable patients.

  12. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  13. The first case of Demodex gatoi in Austria, detected with fecal flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbermayr, Katja; Joachim, Anja; Litschauer, Barbara; Panakova, Lucia; Sastre, Natalia; Ferrer, Lluis; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa

    2013-08-01

    Feline demodicosis is a rare parasitic condition caused by three different species of mites (Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and an unnamed species). D. gatoi inhabits the superficial skin layer (stratum corneum) and is easily transmitted between individual cats. A 2-year-old female spayed Cornish Rex was presented with alopecia and pruritus. The dermatological examination revealed bilateral alopecia and excoriations on trunk, limbs, and belly. The second cat in the household, a 3-year-old female spayed Thai, showed no clinical signs. Superficial and deep skin scrapings were performed and cellophane tapes applied, and living D. gatoi mites could be detected in both cats. Oral ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg every other day) was subscribed. Feces were collected from both cats and fecal flotation with sugar and zinc solutions performed. When compared to skin scrapings and cellophane tapes, D. gatoi was detected more frequently and in higher numbers in fecal samples. Our findings suggest that D. gatoi can be efficiently diagnosed with coproscopy, particularly in asymptomatic carrier animals. DNA was extracted from the flotation liquid, and a PCR protocol for the species verification was designed. A fragment targeting a 325-bp DNA fragment of the D. gatoi mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene was amplified with a 100% similarity to the D. gatoi entry in GenBank® (GI 421920216). We report the first finding of D. gatoi in Austria and propose fecal flotation as a valuable tool for mite detection. Fecal flotation liquid is suitable for DNA extraction and PCR-based species verification of D. gatoi.

  14. 医学生蠕形螨检测方法比较及感染因素的分析%Comparison on Demodex detection method in medical students and analysis of infectious factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏菊香; 蔡连顺; 张庆华; 陈光; 毕胜; 代月; 逯川英子; 刘春波; 薛凤娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the Demodex detection method,to investigate the situation of Demodex infection in medical students,and to analyze the Demodex infectious factors.Methods 612 students were detected for Demodex with transparent adhesive tape method,skimming method and extrusion method respectively.The factors leading to Demodex infection were investigated through questionnaire survey.Results The infection rates detected by cellophane tape,scraping and squeezing methods were 21.73%,14.71% and 15.35%,respectively.The relevance ratio of cellophane tape method was higher than that of the other two methods.The Demodex infection rate was 21.73% in college students.Compared to the dry skin,the infection raties of oily skin and mixed skin,were higher with statistics significance,however there was no statistic significant difference between the infection rates in facial healthy students and facial diseased students.Conclusion The cellophane tape method will be used in future teaching.The Demodex infection in college students was mild.The factors leading to Demodex infection are closely related to the habits and customs,skin characters,and the collective life.%目的 比较蠕形螨的检测方法,了解我校医学生蠕形螨感染情况,分析蠕形螨感染的相关因素.方法 分别采用透明胶纸法、刮脂法、挤刮法对612名学生进行蠕形螨检测,并通过问卷调查分析蠕形螨感染的相关因素.结果 透明胶纸法、刮脂法和挤压检测的感染率分别为21.73%、14.71%、15.35%.透明胶纸法检测的感染率高于其他2种方法,大学生蠕形螨感染率为21.73%,油性皮肤和混合性皮肤感染率与干性皮肤感染率相比差异具有统计学意义,油性皮肤和混合性皮肤感染率较高,面部健康者和面部疾患者感染率无统计学意义.结论 在以后的教学中采用透明胶纸法检测蠕形螨,大学生以轻度感染为主,蠕形螨感染与生活习惯、皮肤性状、集体生活因素密切相关.

  15. [Development of technology, of rheological and biopharmaceutical properties of new gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhralieva, S Dzh

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of technology for preparation of hydrogel Glysotrical and study its rheological and biopharmaceutical characteristics. Based on gel-forming chitosan, PEG-400, glycerol and Tween-80 a new composition of hydrogel - Glysotrical was developed. Rheological properties of Glysotrical, as well as biopharmaceutical properties of artificial (cellophane) and natural membrane (chicken and pork skin) were investigated by dialysis. Rheological properties of different concentrations of chitosan solution and gel Glysotrical prepared on their basis were studied. It was determined that gel derived from the 5% solution of chitosan meets the technological requirements (pH-5,5-6,0, melting point-75,0±1,07°C, dynamic viscosity - 890,6 ± 3,57 cps). Rheological properties of the hydrogel Glysotrical, prepared on the basis of a multi-component composition in different temperatures (20, 40, 60°C) were identified. It was found that shear of helium drug (458 H/m2, 355 H/m2) at 20° and 40°C is lower, and the value of dynamic viscosity (912spz, 602spz) higher than that of chitosan gel; the hydrogel is stable at 20° and 40°C. High kinetic activity of hydrogel with Tween-80 is observed. During 5 hours membrane maximum quantity of routine diffusion from helium mass into dialysate in cellophane is 57,54 ±0,51%; in normal skin chicken - 20,04±0,55%; in the skin of chicken treated with 2% citric acid - 23,14±0,45%; normal pig skin - 12,64±0,09%; in the skin of pigs, treated with acid - 15,08± 0,11%. The study showed that the gel Glysotrical at 10-22°C is maintained for 2 years. Physico-chemical, rheological, technological and biopharmaceutical research showed that 4% gel Glysotrical was good in treatment of dermatological diseases.

  16. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  17. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Samip

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride were prepared by the solvent casting method using ethyl cellulose: PVP, PVA: PVP and Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 using different ratios. The physicochemical parameters such as flexibility, thickness, smoothness, weight variation, moisture content, hardness and tensile strength were evaluated for the prepared patches. The formulation exhibited flexibility, uniform thickness and weight, smoothness, good drug content (92 to 96%, and little moisture content. The in vitro diffusion studies were carried out using modified Keshery-Chein cell using cellophane as the diffusion membrane and the formulation followed the Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The formulation containing PVA: PVP as polymers showed faster release rate (hydrophilic polymers compared to Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 (hydrophobic polymers or combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers (ethyl cellulose and PVP. The stability studies indicated that all the patches maintained good physicochemical properties and drug content after storing the patches in different storage conditions. Compatibility studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers. In vivo studies showed that papaverine hydrochloride helps in decreasing the effect of isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to prepare the sustained release formulation (Transdermal patches of the drug using different blend of polymers. The formulated patches containing the hydroplilic polymers showed best release rate of drug.

  18. Speciation of inorganic arsenic in drinking water by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry after in situ preconcentration with miniature solid-phase extraction disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kenta; Inui, Tetsuo; Koike, Yuya; Aizawa, Mamoru; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2015-03-01

    A rapid and simple method using wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry after in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the speciation and evaluation of the concentration of inorganic arsenic (As) in drinking water. The method involves the simultaneous collection of As(III) and As(V) using 13 mm ϕ SPE miniature disks. The removal of Pb(2+) from the sample water was first conducted to avoid the overlapping PbLα and AsKα spectra on the XRF spectrum. To this end, a 50 mL aqueous sample (pH 5-9) was passed through an iminodiacetate chelating disk. The filtrate was adjusted to pH 2-3 with HCl, and then ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate solution was added. The solution was passed through a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene filter placed on a Zr and Ca loaded cation-exchange disk at a flow rate of 12.5 mL min(-1) to separate As(III)-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex and As(V). Each SPE disk was affixed to an acrylic plate using adhesive cellophane tape, and then examined by WDXRF spectrometry. The detection limits of As(III) and As(V) were 0.8 and 0.6 μg L(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to screening for As speciation and concentration evaluation in spring water and well water.

  19. Prevalence of microplastics in the marine waters of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Azenith B; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are firmly recognized as a ubiquitous and growing threat to marine biota and their associated marine habitats worldwide. The evidence of the prevalence of microplastics was documented for the first time in the marine waters of Qatar's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). An optimized and validated protocol was developed for the extraction of microplastics from plankton-rich seawater samples without loss of microplastic debris present and characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. In total 30 microplastic polymers have been identified with an average concentration of 0.71particlesm(-3) (range 0-3particlesm(-3)). Polypropylene, low density polyethylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, polyamide, polymethyl methacrylate, cellophane, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymers were characterized with majority of the microplastics either granular shape, sizes ranging from 125μm to 1.82mm or fibrous with sizes from 150μm to 15.98mm. The microplastics are evident in areas where nearby anthropogenic activities, including oil-rig installations and shipping operations are present.

  20. Eco-efficiency through by-product synergy: North American case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, J. R. [Hatch Associates, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The Business Council for Sustainable Development-Gulf of Mexico/US EPA defines the concept of by-products synergy (BPS) as 'the synergy among diverse industries, agriculture, and communities resulting in profitable conversion of by-products and wastes to resources promoting sustainability'. Various North American examples of this process are described (e.g. slag from steel production used in manufacturing portland cement, cellophane scrap used as a fluidizing agent in oil well operations, wood chips used to generate electricity, fly ash used in the manufacture of roofing shingles, and water from coffee processing used in waste-water treatment in a newsprint plant) to illustrate the concept's potential. In addition to benefits to the environment, the principal advantage of BPS is that it lowers the barriers that existed between industries in the past, and makes it possible to link disparate business partners, to move into new markets, and to combine products and services from different industries.

  1. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  2. Association of breast feeding practice with worm infestation in children aged 0 -24 months in Calabar South Local Gov-ernment Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Ekabua; Kufre Ekabua; Martin Meremeku

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Reduction in child morbidity and mortality require improved knowledge about hygiene,baby feed-ing and childrearing practices,especially by mothers in low resource nations.The objectives of the study were to compare the prevalence of worm infestation between exclusively and non-exclusively breast -fed children and to determine the age at which exclusively breast -fed children child could be significantly infested with worms. Method:Systematic sampling of 196 mother-infants pairs was done.A pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.Fresh stool samples collected from the children were examined using the cellophane thick faecal smear technique of Kato -Katz.Results:The difference in preva-lence of worm infestation within 6 months of age was not significant between the exclusively and non-exclusively breast feed children.Age of significant worm infestation for exclusively breast -fed infants was 13 months. Mother's educational level significantly influenced their de-worming practices.Conclusion:This study showed that breast milk does protect children in the first year of life against worm infestation;but the burden of infesta-tion becomes significant after 12 months of age.Mothers should be taught to de -worm their children from 13 months of age.

  3. Vascular reactivity of rabbit isolated renal and femoral resistance arteries in renal wrap hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammy, Makhala M; Angus, James A; Wright, Christine E

    2016-02-15

    In rabbits with cellophane renal wrap hypertension, hindquarter and total vascular resistance changes to pressor and depressor agents are amplified compared to those of normotensive rabbits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro pharmacodynamics of hypertensive and normotensive rabbit small artery segments isolated from the renal and hindquarter vascular beds. Using wire myography, the full range (Emax) and sensitivity (EC50) to a range of agonists of segments of renal interlobar (≈ 600 µm i.d.), renal arcuate (≈ 250 µm i.d.) and deep femoral branch (≈ 250 µm i.d.) arteries were assessed under normalised conditions of passive tension. Interlobar arteries from hypertensive rabbits were more sensitive (EC50) than those from normotensive rabbits to noradrenaline (6-fold), methoxamine (3-fold) and angiotensin II (3-fold). Arcuate artery reactivity was largely unaffected by hypertension. Deep femoral arteries from hypertensive rabbits had enhanced sensitivity only to noradrenaline (2-fold) and methoxamine (4-fold). Sensitivity to relaxation by acetylcholine was unaffected by hypertension in all arteries. Deep femoral arteries from hypertensive rabbits were more sensitive to sodium nitroprusside than normotensive counterparts. Adenosine caused little relaxation in renal arteries, but full relaxation in deep femoral arteries, unaltered by hypertension. This study found substantial heterogeneity in the pharmacodynamic profile of vessels isolated from different vascular beds and between arterial segments within the kidney. These profiles were differentially affected by hypertension suggesting that hypertension per se is not a resultant of general vascular dysfunction.

  4. Comparative reliability of cheiloscopy and palatoscopy in human identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Preeti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishing a person′s identity in postmortem scenarios can be a very difficult process. Dental records, fingerprint and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used in this context, allowing fast and reliable identification processes. However, under certain circumstances they cannot always be used; sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques. In forensic identification, lip prints and palatal rugae patterns can lead us to important information and help in a person′s identification. This study aims to ascertain the use of lip prints and palatal rugae pattern in identification and sex differentiation. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 subjects, 50 males and 50 females were selected from among the students of Subharti Dental College, Meerut. The materials used to record lip prints were lipstick, bond paper, cellophane tape, a brush for applying the lipstick, and a magnifying lens. To study palatal rugae, alginate impressions were taken and the dental casts analyzed for their various patterns. Results: Statistical analysis (applying Z-test for proportion showed significant difference for type I, I′, IV and V lip patterns (P < 0.05 in males and females, while no significant difference was observed for the same in the palatal rugae patterns (P > 0.05. Conclusion: This study not only showed that palatal rugae and lip prints are unique to an individual, but also that lip prints is more reliable for recognition of the sex of an individual.

  5. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510 in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734 in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05. In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05. However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis.

  6. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Jin-Hee; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2012-09-01

    We assessed the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection and changes in the egg positive rate (EPR) over 1-year time, using the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2,347 preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea in 2008 and 2009. The overall EPR for E. vermicularis was 4.1% in 2008 and 4.5% in 2009. A study population of 389 children was repeatedly examined for 2 years. Within this group, the EPR in 2009 was twice higher than in 2008, and the EPR of the group of 5-7-year-old children was significantly higher than that of other age groups. Moreover, in the group of 5-7-year-old children in 2009, the rates of positive and negative conversion were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than in other age groups. Conclusively, enterobiasis was prevalent during 2008-2009 among preschool children in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, and the increased EPR in 2009 was due to an increase in newly acquired infections among 5-7-year-old children.

  7. Enterobius vermicularis infection in schoolchildren: a large-scale survey 6 years after a population-based control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-C; Hwang, K-P; Chen, E-R

    2010-01-01

    Pinworm infection remains prevalent in children in many parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of this infection in schoolchildren in Taiwan after the termination of the 15-year population-based control project in 2001. Our results showed that 2.4% of 118 190 children in 385 primary schools were found to have enterobiasis by two-consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. The prevalences were significantly different in the 25 counties/cities surveyed (0.6-6.6%). A significantly higher prevalence was found in boys (2.6%) than in girls (2.2%) and the prevalence decreased by grade from 3.8% in grade 1 to 1.0% in grade 6. In the primary schools, 9.1% had positive rates 10%. In addition, pinworm infection was found to be significantly associated with the socioeconomic status, personal hygiene and sanitary conditions of the children. The results indicate that the overall prevalence of enterobiasis remains at a low level after the control programme was transferred to the local governments.

  8. Efficacy of lidocaine lontophoresis using either alternating or direct current in hairless rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Atsushi; Wakita, Ryo; Haida, Haruka; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2013-09-30

    The aim of this study was to determine transport of lidocaine ions through a hairless rat skin in vivo and to compare the efficacy of alternating current (AC) with that of direct current (DC) iontophoresis (IOP). We measured the concentration of lidocaine transported through a cellophane membrane or a hairless rat dorsal skin applying either AC-IOP or DC-IOP. The results revealed that lidocaine concentration increased in a time-dependent manner in vitro in both DC-IOP and AC-IOP. However, the in vivo study showed different tendencies in lidocaine concentration. In the DCIOP group, lidocaine concentration reached its maximum 20 min after current application and then decreased rapidly; the AC-IOP group showed an increase in lidocaine concentration in a time-dependent manner. There were no side effects such as electrical burns in the rats. In conclusion, AC can be applied for long periods and DC for short periods, or their application time can be appropriately scheduled. Our study also suggests the mechanism by which voltage waveforms affect the skin when applied by IOP. In the future, these findings will be a solid foundation for developing various kinds of medical equipment such as scheduled drug delivery system that can easily deliver various types of drug.

  9. [The part of a hospital dermatologist. Prevention of Trichophyton tonsurans infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihiro, Machiko

    2008-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans infection was found first in autumn 2000 in Gifu prefecture and spread rapidly in the Tokai region. Not only direct KOH examination but also culture is necessary to diagnose this disease. In order to collect a specimen, I recommend cellophane adhesive tape. During the past 5 years, dermatologists in the Tokai area have sent me specimens in an envelope for mycological examination. Hyphae were found in all 75 cases in the scales examined. Fungal culture revealed 61 cases to be T. tonsurans infection; the male : female ratio was 54 : 7. By age distribution, high school students accounted for 46 (75%), elderly patients 9 (15%) and lower age 6 (10%). Judo players accounted for 32 (52%), wrestlers for 24 (39%) and others for 5 (8%). Most had lesions on the face, neck, head or arm. One wrestler had a nail involvement. In some specimens from tinea corporis, hyphae in the hair shaft were observed. This sort of tinea epidemic probably occurs more often than is reported. Therefore we have begun to cooperate with a medical department member of the Gifu Judo Society to prevent of T. tonsurans infection.

  10. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  11. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  12. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant.

  13. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova.

  14. Formulation of sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis, L.) monoterpenes into chitosan hydrogels and permeation study with GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodadová, Alexandra; Vitková, Zuzana; Herdová, Petra; Ťažký, Anton; Oremusová, Jarmila; Grančai, Daniel; Mikuš, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the formulation of natural drugs into hydrogels. For the first time, compounds from the sage essential oil were formulated into chitosan hydrogels. A sample preparation procedure for hydrophobic volatile analytes present in a hydrophilic water matrix along with an analytical method based on the gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and applied for the evaluation of the identity and quantity of essential oil components in the hydrogels and saline samples. The experimental results revealed that the chitosan hydrogels are suitable for the formulation of sage essential oil. The monoterpene release can be effectively controlled by both chitosan and caffeine concentration in the hydrogels. Permeation experiment, based on a hydrogel with the optimized composition [3.5% (w/w) sage essential oil, 2.0% (w/w) caffeine, 2.5% (w/w) chitosan and 0.1% (w/w) Tween-80] in donor compartment, saline solution in acceptor compartment, and semi-permeable cellophane membrane, demonstrated the useful permeation selectivity. Here, (according to lipophilicity) an enhanced permeation of the bicyclic monoterpenes with antiflogistic and antiseptic properties (eucalyptol, camphor and borneol) and, at the same time, suppressed permeation of toxic thujone (not exceeding its permitted applicable concentration) was observed. These properties highlight the pharmaceutical importance of the developed chitosan hydrogel formulating sage essential oil in the dermal applications.

  15. ECENT ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Beaver

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available New observations in recent years have accented differences between the two common hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus,"nwith respect to modes of transmision and pathogenicity, and have established Ancylostoma ceylanicum as a species distinct from A. braziliense. Transmammary and paratenic transmission are now considered to be natural modes of infection in Ancylostoma caninum and possibly 111 other Ancylostoma species including A. duodenale, but not in Necator. The question of relative blood losses from laceration hemorrhage and blood-sucking in hookworm anemia is unresolved. The prevalence of Loeffler's syndrome in pulmonary ascariasis appears to be greatest in areas where transmission is sharply seasonal. Recent studies have failed to confirm reports of blood-sucking by Trichuris. Milk-borne transmission from mother to the newborn has been demonstrated for numberous species of Strongyloides not including S. stercoralis. Zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths 0; dogs and cats have become recognized as frequently causing visceral larva migrans and occasionally blindness in most parts of the world. Two major advances were made in diagnostic techniques - the Harada-Mori test-tube hookworm culture for species diagnosis and the Kato cellophane-covered thick fecal film ror ranid and quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

  16. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  17. Influence of nanoporous poly(ether imide) particle extracts on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Reddi K; Basu, Sayantani; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Jankowski, Joachim; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas; Tetali, Sarada D

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated uremic toxins like indoxyl sulphate, hippuric acid and p-cresyl sulphates in renal failure patients stimulate proinflammatory effects, and consequently kidney and cardiovascular diseases. Low clearance rate of these uremic toxins from the blood of uremic patients by conventional techniques like hemodialysis is due to their strong covalent albumin binding (greater than 95%) and hydrophobic nature, which led to alternatives like usage of hydrophobic adsorber's in removing these toxins from the plasma of kidney patients. Polymers like polyethylene, polyurethane, polymethylmethacrylate, cellophane and polytetrafluoroethylene were already in use as substitutes for metal devices as dialysis membranes. Among new synthetic polymers, one such ideal adsorber material are highly porous microparticles of poly(ether imide) (PEI) with diameters in the range from 50-180μm and a porosity around 88±2% prepared by a spraying and coagulation process.It is essential to make sure that these synthetic polymers should not evoke any inflammatory or apoptotic response during dialysis. Therefore in our study we evaluated in vitro effect of PEI microparticle extracts in human aortic endothelial cells (HEACs) concerning toxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. No cell toxicity was observed when HAECs were treated with PEI extracts and inflammatory/apoptotic markers were not upregulated in presence of PEI extracts. Our results ensure biocompatibility of PEI particles and further hemocompatibility of particles will be tested.

  18. A study of small molecule ingress into planar and cylindrical materials using ion beam analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, R W

    2001-01-01

    mechanisms that take place, and where relevant diffusion coefficients have been obtained using either a semi-infinite medium Fickian planar diffusion model or a cylindrical Fickian diffusion model. Ion beam analysis techniques have been developed to allow profiling of small molecules diffused into materials at depths ranging from 10 sup - sup 7 to 10 sup - sup 1 m. A model DPS/PS/DPS triple-layer film and D( sup 3 He,p) sup 4 He nuclear reaction analysis was used to test the applicability of a novel data processing program - the IBA DataFurnace - to nuclear reaction data. The same reaction and program were used to depth profile the diffusion of heavy water into cellophane. A scanning sup 3 He micro-beam technique was developed to profile the diffusion of small molecules into both planar and cylindrical materials. The materials were exposed to liquids containing deuterium labelled molecules. A cross-section was exposed by cutting the material perpendicular to the surface and this was bombarded by a scanning su...

  19. Influence of packaging and potassium sorbate on the physical, physicochemical and microbiological alterations of guava preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carvalho Menezes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of preserves through fruit processing is a promising alternative for their conservation. Such processing provides pleasant flavor due to the increase of sweetness and allows good conservation of the product for a prolonged time. Seeking quality and higher durability of fruit preserves, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the interference of potassium sorbate addition, and polypropylene, metallic and cellophane film packaging on the quality of guava (Psidium guajava L. preserves during storage, through the physical, physiochemical and microbiological characteristics. The physical, physiochemical and microbiological analyses showed that the different types of packaging did not interfere in the stability of the guava preserves until the 5th month of storage - time being the factor that most influences the quality of the preserves when stored under temperature and humidity of 19.6 °C and 76.2%, respectively. The potassium sorbate caused an increase of the soluble solid levels and a decrease of the water activity. Regardless of the treatment, the preserves remained microbiologically stable during storage.

  20. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration.

  1. Development of silver-zinc cells of improved cycle life and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenyi, Roberto; James, Stanley D.

    1994-03-01

    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and range of naval underwater vehicles are possible by virtue of advances made, in this program, to silver-zinc, vehicle propulsion batteries. To improve battery cycle life and energy density, electropermeable membranes (EPM's) were used as additives and/or as coatings for the negative electrodes and as coatings for conventional separator materials. Also, bismuth oxide was tested as an additive to the negative electrodes and P2291-40/20, a radiation-grafted polyethylene film, as a separator used in conjunction with silver-treated cellophane. EPM's used as negative electrode additives and also as coatings for Celgard 2500 microporous polypropylene greatly improved cells. Cells with EPM's used as coatings for the negative electrodes failed rapidly because of an error in formulation. Cells with 10 percent bismuth oxide in the negative electrodes exhibited substantially lower capacity than the standard cells and were removed from the test. Cells with radiation-grafted polyethylene separators provided fewer cycles than the standard cells, with 5 percent higher capacity and 6 percent lower utilization of active materials by cycle 60. However, the slightly better capacity of these cells, realized due to the additional space available for active materials, does not compensate for their generally unimpressive performance.

  2. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Białe (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pałacowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  3. Patterns - "A crime solver"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nagasupriya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. Results: This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. Conclusion: We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  4. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L. HAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHURIYAH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L. Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. The highest yield of protein was 1.109% from the seed (TS3, then 0.356% from the root (TR3, while the lowest was 0.014% from the fruit (TF2. The Lethal Concentration 50 (LC of proteins on brine shrimp lethality test was 50within range of 19 µg/ml - 25 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity test of the TR3 and TS3 proteins on cancer cell lines indicated that both of the proteins could inhibit proliferation of HeLa and K-562 cells with IC up to 45 µg/ml. It is recommended to conduct further researches on 50Trichosanthes plant as a herbal medicine to treat cancer.

  5. Origami paper-based fluidic batteries for portable electrophoretic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Sheng; Hu, Chih-Wei; Yu, I-Fan; Liao, Ying-Chih; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2014-06-21

    A manufacturing approach for paper-based fluidic batteries was developed based on the origami principle (three-dimension paper folding). Microfluidic channels were first created on a filter paper by a wax-printing method. Copper and aluminium sheets were then glued onto the paper as electrodes for the redox reaction. After the addition of copper sulphate and aluminium chloride, commonly available cellophane paper was attached as a membrane to separate the two electrodes. The resulting planar paper sheets were then folded into three-dimensional structures and compiled as a single battery with glue. The two half reactions (Al/Al(3+) and Cu/Cu(2+)) in the folded batteries provided an open-circuit potential from 0.82 V (one cell) to 5.0 V (eight cells in series) depending on the origami design. The prepared battery can provide a stable current of 500 μA and can light a regular LED for more than 65 min. These paper-based fluidic batteries in a set can also be compiled into a portable power bank to provide electric power for many electric or biomedical applications, such as LED lights and electrophoretic devices, as we report here.

  6. Frequency of intestinal parasites in employees of a state hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Fırat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of intestinal parasites isdifferent in our country and the world. Population move-ments, inadequate infrastructure, seasonal features, tra-ditional hygienic rules, the society’s socio-economic sta-tus and education level are factors that affect the distribu-tion of intestinal parasites. In the study, it was intendedto conduct porter analysis on Malatya State Hospital em-ployees. So, we aimed at determining the rate of intestinalparasites in the laboratory workers, kitchen staff, cleanersand nurses.Materials and Methods: From Malatya State hospitalstaff, perianal area materials and stool samples with cel-lophane tape method were collected. Examples wereexamined with native-Lugol, precipitation, and acid-fasttrichrome stains.Results: In 40.8% of 76 stools that were examined wasfound to positivity. The prevalences of parasites are 17.1Entamoeba coli, 6.6% Iodamoeba butschlii, 19.7% Blastocystishominis, 1.3% Chilomastix mesnilii, 5.3% Giardiaintestinalis and 1.3% Enterobius vermicularis.Conclusion: In the study, the studied staffs are healthworkers. Therefore, since the staffs working close contactwith patients were risk group in terms of infections, it wasrecommended that health staff susceptible to parasitesshould have a medical examination regularly and receivein-service training.

  7. Nanosized ethosomes bearing ketoprofen for improved transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Manish K; Kang, Lifeng; Chan, Sui Yung

    2011-05-01

    The potential of ethosomes for delivering ketoprofen via skin was evaluated. The ethosomes were prepared, optimized and characterized. Vesicular shape, size and entrapment efficiency were determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and minicolumn centrifugation technique, respectively. Vesicle sizes varied from 120.3±6.1 to 410.2±21.8 nm depending on the concentrations of soya phosphatidyl choline (SPC) and ethanol. Entrapment efficiency increased with concentrations of SPC and ethanol. The formulations exhibited entrapment efficiencies of 42-78%. In vitro release through cellophane membrane showed sustained release of drug from ethosomal formulations in contrast to hydroalcoholic drug solution (HA), which released most of the drug within 2-3 h. In vitro drug permeation across human skin revealed improved drug permeation and higher transdermal flux with ethosomal formulations compared to hydroethanolic drug solution. Kinetics of in vitro skin permeation showed zero order drug release from formulations. Based on in vitro transdermal flux, the estimated steady state in vivo plasma concentration from ethosomes attained therapeutic drug levels whereas hydroalcoholic drug solution exhibited sub therapeutic drug concentration with a patch size of 50 cm(2). Skin permeation of ethosomal formulations assessed by confocal microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of Rhodamine 123 loaded formulation in comparison to the hydroalcoholic solution.

  8. 3d visualization of atomistic simulations on every desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Dan; Silverman, Amihai; Adler, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Once upon a time, after making simulations, one had to go to a visualization center with fancy SGI machines to run a GL visualization and make a movie. More recently, OpenGL and its mesa clone have let us create 3D on simple desktops (or laptops), whether or not a Z-buffer card is present. Today, 3D a la Avatar is a commodity technique, presented in cinemas and sold for home TV. However, only a few special research centers have systems large enough for entire classes to view 3D, or special immersive facilities like visualization CAVEs or walls, and not everyone finds 3D immersion easy to view. For maximum physics with minimum effort a 3D system must come to each researcher and student. So how do we create 3D visualization cheaply on every desktop for atomistic simulations? After several months of attempts to select commodity equipment for a whole room system, we selected an approach that goes back a long time, even predating GL. The old concept of anaglyphic stereo relies on two images, slightly displaced, and viewed through colored glasses, or two squares of cellophane from a regular screen/projector or poster. We have added this capability to our AViz atomistic visualization code in its new, 6.1 version, which is RedHat, CentOS and Ubuntu compatible. Examples using data from our own research and that of other groups will be given.

  9. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Interference in Glucose Metabolism from Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Processing Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T; Al-Angari, Samiah S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of CS2 ranged from 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 103 ppbv over a continuous 24-hour monitoring period. One-hour ambient atmospheric concentrations ranged from 3.4 ppbv to 504.6 ppbv. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program study as a baseline comparison for atmospheric CS2 concentrations found in this study, it was determined that CS2 atmospheric levels were consistently elevated in areas where unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing occurred. The mechanisms by which CS2 interferes in normal glucose metabolism by dysregulation of the tryptophan metabolism pathway are presented in this study. The literature review found an increased potential for alteration of normal glucose metabolism in viscose rayon occupational workers exposed to CS2. Occupational workers in the energy extraction industry exposed to CS2 and other sulfide compounds may have an increased potential for glucose metabolism interference, which has been an indicator for diabetogenic effect and other related health impacts. The recommendation of this study is for implementation of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels in CS2-exposed populations as a preventative health measure.

  10. The importance of cigarette packaging in a 'dark' market: the 'Silk Cut' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Ford, Allison

    2014-05-01

    In a growing number of countries tobacco companies are severely restricted in how they can legally market their products. In these 'dark' markets the role of packaging as a promotional and communications tool becomes more pronounced. How packaging is used for the most expensive cigarette brands in dark markets has received limited attention however, even though these 'premium' cigarette brands significantly impact upon the profitability of tobacco companies. We outline, using retail trade press journals, how packaging was used for premium brand 'Silk Cut' in the UK from 2004 to 2011, following a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorship. From 2004 to 2008 packaging was used to help launch two new variants and during this period Silk Cut market share of the premium sector grew by 1.1%. Overall share of the cigarette market for the Silk Cut house (brand family) fell however due to the continuing decline of the premium sector. From 2008 to 2011 changes to the packaging were much more frequent, including the repeated use of limited-edition designs, and modifications to pack shape, texture, style of opening, cellophane, foil and inner frame. Silk Cut's share of the premium sector grew a further 2.9% from 2008 to 2011, and overall cigarette market share increased. That a premium brand can report any level of growth within such a hostile market, where most advertising, promotion and sponsorship is banned, taxation is among the highest in the world, and in the midst of a recession, is testament to the value of packaging.

  11. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-06

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors.

  12. Microplastics and mesoplastics in fish from coastal and fresh waters of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Khalida; Su, Lei; Li, Jiana; Yang, Dongqi; Tong, Chunfu; Mu, Jingli; Shi, Huahong

    2017-02-01

    Plastic pollution is a growing global concern. In the present study, we investigated plastic pollution in 21 species of sea fish and 6 species of freshwater fish from China. All of the species were found to ingest micro- or mesoplastics. The average abundance of microplastics varied from 1.1 to 7.2 items by individual and 0.2-17.2 items by gram. The average abundance of mesoplastics varied from 0.2 to 3.0 items by individual and 0.1-3.9 items by gram. Microplastics were abundant in 26 species, accounting for 55.9-92.3% of the total number of plastics items in each species. Thamnaconus septentrionalis contained the highest abundance of microplastics (7.2 items/individual). The average abundance of plastics in sea benthopelagic fishes was significantly higher than in freshwater benthopelagic fishes by items/individual. The plastics were dominanted by fiber in shape, transparent in color and cellophane in composition. The proportion of plastics in the stomach to the intestines showed great variation in different species, ranging from 0.5 to 1.9 by items/individual. The stomach of Harpodon nehereus and intestines of Pampus cinereus contained the highest number of plastics, (3.3) and (2.7), respectively, by items/individual. Our results suggested that plastic pollution was widespread in the investigated fish species and showed higher abundance in comparison with worldwide studies. The ingestion of plastics in fish was closely related to the habitat and gastrointestinal tract structure. We highly recommend that the entire gastrointestinal tract and digestion process be used in future investigations of plastic pollution in fish.

  13. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake.

  14. Quantification of ultraviolet photon emission from interaction of charged particles in materials of interest in radiation biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal, E-mail: ahmadsb@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); McNeill, Fiona E., E-mail: fmcneill@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Prestwich, William V., E-mail: prestwic@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Byun, Soo Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Seymour, Colin, E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E., E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    In radiation biology experiments often cells are irradiated using charged particles with the intention that only a specified number of cells are hit by the primary ion track. However, in doing so several other materials such as the cell container and the growth media etc. are also irradiated, and UV radiation emitted from these materials can potentially interact with the cells. We have hypothesized that some “bystander effects” that are thought to be chemically mediated, may be, in fact, a physical effect, where UV is interacting with non-targeted cells. Based upon our hypothesis we quantified the emission of UV from Polypropylene, Mylar, Teflon, and Cellophane which are all commonly used materials in radiation biology experiments. Additionally we measured the NIST standard materials of Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves as these powdered materials are derived from living cells. Protons accelerated up to an energy of 2.2 MeV, in a 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator, were used for irradiation. Beam current was kept to 10 nA, which corresponds to a proton fluence rate of 2.7 × 10{sup 10} protons mm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. All the materials were found to emit light at UV frequencies and intensities that were significant enough to conduct a further investigation for their biological consequences. Mylar and polypropylene are commonly used in radiation induced bystander effect studies and are considered to be non-fluorescent. However our study showed that this is not the case. Significant luminescence observed from the irradiated NIST standard reference materials for Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves verified that the luminescence emission is not restricted only to the polymeric materials that are used to contain cells. It can also occur from ion interactions within the cells as well.

  15. Free Gingival Grafting; Epiglu VS. Silk Thread Suturing: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paknejad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The routine procedure for immobilization of free gingival graft (FGG is suturing. Due to the successful application of tissue adhesives their employment has also become the subject of interest.Purpose: The aim of present clinical trial was to compare using Epiglu (E.g versus silk thread suturing in FGG.Materials and Methods: This study was a split mouth clinical trial. The study group comprised of 12 patients with symmetrical loss of attached gingiva whom were referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical science. In test group, the gingivalgraft were placed on cellophane and after applying one drop of Eg then placed in the proper position. In control group silk suturing was used.Results: The degree of pain had no significant differences in two groups (P>0.05. The rate of bleeding was insignificant at the first day (P=0.5, but in the second (P=0.0425and the third day (P=0.0313 less bleeding was observed in the test group. 10 days after the surgery, grafts in the test group had better healing (P=0.0425, while 3 month later no significant differences observed (P>0.05. Although the mean tissue shrinkage were 41%and 38% for control and test group respectively, Wilcoxon test showed no significant differences 30 days after surgery (P>0.05. The tissue shrinkage also was not significant 3 months after surgery. In addition, no displacement, infection or hypersensitivity werenoted in either of two groups.Conclusion: In FGG, Epiglu is more effective than suturing.

  16. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC with albendazole

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    I P Sunish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One third of the world′s population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Albendazole (ALB is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu s0 tate h0 ealth d0 epartment, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB. Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%. Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns.

  17. New Features in the Ultra-fast Process Control Tobacco Packaging Machinery%超高速烟草包装机械过程控制新特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华强

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco packaging machinery needs to include cigarettes ,label paper ,the framework paper ,a-luminum foil ,cellophane ,cable and glue in accordance with established integration process to become qualified cigarette cartridge ,which requires a sophisticated control system to complete the automation process control re -quirements,the original FZ,MICRO Ⅱ,PLC technology has been unable to meet the high-speed packaging e-quipment ,precise needs.ZB48 represented in ultra high-speed packaging machine uses a PC-based control technology for open automation system structure.Give full play to the advantages of its PC-based control sys-tem,which meet production requirements under the premise of reducing production costs and space allocation , improve safety and productivity.%烟草包装机械需要将烟支、商标纸、内衬纸、铝箔纸、透明纸、封口拉线和包装胶按照既定的工艺流程整合成为合格的条装烟,这就需要有一套成熟的自动化过程控制系统来完成控制要求,原有的FZ、MICRO Ⅱ、PLC技术已不能够满足包装设备高速化、精细化的需求. 以ZB48为代表的超高速包装机组采用基于PC控制技术的开放式自动化系统结构,它充分发挥PC控制系统的优点,在满足生产需求的同时,降低了生产成本和空间配置,提高了安全性和生产效率.

  18. Ameloglyphics: A possible forensic tool for person identification following high temperature and acid exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjushree Juneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Forensic odontology is a branch that is evolving over time and has opened newer avenues that may help in the identification of individuals. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface and they are considered as a hard tissue analog to fingerprints. Teeth have the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, and decomposition, and may be used as a forensic evidence. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate if the tooth prints could be used for an individual's identification and reproducibility and permanency of these tooth prints after exposing the teeth to acid and various degrees of temperature. Materials and Methods: 90 tooth prints from 20 freshly extracted maxillary premolar teeth were obtained. Cellophane tape technique was used to record enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface. Ten teeth (one from each patient were immersed in 36.46% hydrochloric acid and the tooth prints were obtained at various intervals (5 min, 10 min, and 20 min. The other 10 teeth (one from each patient were incinerated and impression was made at various intervals (80o C, 400o C, 600o C, and 750o C. Tooth prints obtained from different teeth (total of 90 tooth prints were analyzed using Verifinger® standard SDK version 5.0 software. Results: All the 20 original tooth prints were distinct from each other and no inter-individual or intra-individual similarity was found. The tooth prints from the same tooth after it was exposed to acid or heat were reproducible and showed high to very high similarity with the original tooth print of that particular tooth stored in the database. Conclusion: Tooth prints may be used as an effective aid in person identification even in adverse conditions such as burn and acid attack injuries.

  19. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I’ (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I’ (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database. PMID:26816459

  20. Ameloglyphics: A possible forensic tool for person identification following high temperature and acid exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Manjushree; Juneja, Saurabh; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Bhoomareddy Kantharaj, Yashoda Devi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Forensic odontology is a branch that is evolving over time and has opened newer avenues that may help in the identification of individuals. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface and they are considered as a hard tissue analog to fingerprints. Teeth have the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, and decomposition, and may be used as a forensic evidence. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate if the tooth prints could be used for an individual's identification and reproducibility and permanency of these tooth prints after exposing the teeth to acid and various degrees of temperature. Materials and Methods: 90 tooth prints from 20 freshly extracted maxillary premolar teeth were obtained. Cellophane tape technique was used to record enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface. Ten teeth (one from each patient) were immersed in 36.46% hydrochloric acid and the tooth prints were obtained at various intervals (5 min, 10 min, and 20 min). The other 10 teeth (one from each patient) were incinerated and impression was made at various intervals (80° C, 400° C, 600° C, and 750° C). Tooth prints obtained from different teeth (total of 90 tooth prints) were analyzed using Verifinger® standard SDK version 5.0 software. Results: All the 20 original tooth prints were distinct from each other and no inter-individual or intra-individual similarity was found. The tooth prints from the same tooth after it was exposed to acid or heat were reproducible and showed high to very high similarity with the original tooth print of that particular tooth stored in the database. Conclusion: Tooth prints may be used as an effective aid in person identification even in adverse conditions such as burn and acid attack injuries. PMID:27051220

  1. Morphological patterns of lip prints in Mangaloreans based on Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeergal, Prabhakar A; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Surekha, R; Jeergal, Vasanti A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cheiloscopy is the study of the furrows or grooves present on the red part or vermilion border of the human lips. The present study aims to classify the characteristics of lip prints and to know the most common morphological pattern specific to Mangalorean people of Southern India. For the first time, this study also assesses the association between gender and different lip segments within a population. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 residents of Mangalore (100 males and 100 females) were included of age ranging from 18 years to 60 years. Materials used to take the impression of lips included red lipstick, A4 size white bond paper and cellophane tape. The prints obtained were scanned using a Canon Image Scanner and stored in a folder on a personal computer. The images were cropped and inverted in gray scale using Adobe Photoshop software. Each lip print was divided into eight segments and was examined. Suzuki and Tsuchihashi's classification (1970) was used to classify the types of grooves, and the results were statistically analyzed. Six types of grooves were recorded in the Mangalorean's lips. Statistical Analysis: Association between gender and different lip segments was tested using Chi-square analysis in the given population. Results: In males, the groove Type I' was the highest recorded followed by Type III, Type II, Type I, Type IV and Type V in descending order. In females, Type I' was the highest recorded followed by Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type I and Type V in descending order. Conclusion: Males and females displayed statistically significant differences in lip print patterns for different lip sites: lower medial lip, as well as upper and lower lateral segments. Only the upper medial lip segment displayed no statistically significant difference in lip print pattern between males and females. This shows that the distribution of lip prints is generally dissimilar for males and females, with varying predominance according to lip

  2. Investigation on Enterobius vermicularis infection among children in Hengli Town of Dongguan City%东莞市横沥镇儿童蛲虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾肖连; 钟澈; 杨庆东; 郑文涛; 黄鸣涛; 吴玉强

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To know the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children in Hengli Town of Dongguan City, study the influencing factors of Enterobius vermicularis infection, and provide the reference for enterobiasis prevention and control. [Methods]240 children aged 3-8 years old were sampled randomly. The cellophane tape method was applied to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs, and the influencing factors were studied by questionnaire survey. [Results]The rate of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children in Hengli town was 13. 75% . The infection rate was significantly related to types of household register, living environment and health habits. [ Conclusion ] The floating population and people lived in rental housing are the key of enterobiasis prevention and treatment. It is necessary to carry out special measures to prevent enterobiasis.%目的 了解东莞市横沥镇儿童蛲虫感染情况,探讨蛲虫感染影响因素,为蛲虫病防治工作提供参考.方法 随机抽取240名3~8岁儿童为对象,采取透明胶纸粘贴法检查蛲虫卵,以问卷调查法了解感染影响因素.结果 横沥镇儿童蛲虫感染率为13.75%;儿童蛲虫感染率与户籍性质、居住环境、个人卫生习惯等因素有明显的相关性.结论 流动人口和居住出租屋的人群是蛲虫病预防和治疗的重点,应该采取针对性的措施加强蛲虫感染的防治.

  3. [Results of school children with enterobiasis in Tainan city, treated with mebendazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J H; Huang, W H; Chen, E R; Hu, S C

    1995-01-01

    There were 2,471 school children suffering from enterobiasis in six primary schools of Tainan city. The infected children in five primary schools, Po-Ai, Yung-Hua, Fu-Hsiao, Pao-Jeng and Hsin-Nan, were treated with one single dosage of 100 mg mebendazole. In Shih-Men primary school, the sixth, the students were given placebos as a control group. Negative conversion rates of infected children were examined after three weeks of chemotherapy and school children in the six primary schools were surveyed for enterobiasis two months after chemotherapy to obtain infection rates. The method of examination was two consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. With the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of treatment, positive reduction rates were used and calculated according to the infection rates of school children gained before and after chemotherapy. Those rates in Pao-Jeng, Fu-Hsiao, Yung-Hua, Po-Ai and Hsin-Nan were 62.1%, 47.8%, 41.8%, 37.1% and 3.3%, respectively, and in Shih-Men 3.9%. Judging the data obtained from each grade or each class of schools showed that the efficacy of chemotherapy in reducing the rate of infection was variable. Hence, one single dose of mebendazole and education on personal hygiene were not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of enterobiasis in primary schools. This was because the cycle of E. vermicularis was relatively short, cutting out the routes of transmission was very difficult, and the factors involved were very complex. Overall, though the positive reduction rate presented in Hsin-Nan primary school showed nearly no success in reducing the infection, the other four schools showed valuable rates. Whether continue a treatment, of about three-months in duration, can inhibit the prevalence of enterobiasis among children in primary schools or not will need further study.

  4. Xylan synthetase activity in differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees (Acer pseudoplatanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H

    1981-01-01

    Particulate enzymic preparations obtained from homogenates of differentiated xylem cells isolated from sycamore trees, catalyzed the formation of a radioactive xylan in the presence of UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose as substrate. The synthesized xylan was not dialyzable through Visking cellophane tubing. Successive extraction with cold water, hot water and 5% NaOH dissolved respectively 15, 5 and 80% of the radioactive polymer. Complete acid hydrolysis of the water-insoluble polysaccharide synthesized from UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose released all the radioactivity as xylose. β-1,4-Xylodextrins, degree of polymerization 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, were obtained by partial acid hydrolysis (fuming HCl or 0.1 M HCl) of radioactive xylan. The polymer was hydrolysed to xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose by Driselase which contains 1,4-β xylanase activities. Methylation and then hydrolysis of the xylan released two methylated sugars which were identified as di-O-methyl[(14)C]xylose and tri-O-methyl-[(14)C]xylose, suggesting a 1→4-linked polymer. The linkage was confirmed by periodate oxidation studies. The apparent Km value of the synthetase for UDP-D-xylose was 0.4 mM. Xylan synthetase activity was not potentiated in the presence of a detergent. The enzymic activity was stimulated by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions, although EDTA in the range of concentrations between 0.01 and 1 mM did not affect the reaction rate. It appears that the xylan synthetase system associated with membranes obtained from differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees may serve for catalyzing the in vivo synthesis of the xylan main chain during the biogenesis of the plant cell wall.

  5. Occurrence of fungi and fungus-like organisms in the Horodnianka River in the vicinity of Białystok, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Zdrojkowska, Ewa; Gajo, Bernadetta; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2011-01-01

    Studies of fungi and fungus- like organisms in the northeastern Poland have mainly concentrated on running waters in the vicinity of Białystok, including the Horodnianka River. The main objective was to investigate biodiversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms which take part in decomposition of organic matter commonly found in inland waters. To obtain a complete picture of species composition of fungi and fungus-like organisms in running waters we decided to explore representative sites of the Horodnianka River such as Olmonty, Hryniewicze and Horodniany with close localization of landfill. Fungal species were isolated using baiting technique. Baits of onion skin (Alium cepa), hemp-seeds (Cannabis sativa), impregnated cellophane and snake skin (Natrix natrix) were applied to isolate fungi from water of the Horodnianka River. The fungal community consists of 26 species, 10 species of fungi belonging to class Chytridiomycetes (3), anamorphic fungi (6), and Zygomycetes (1). 16 species belong to fungus-like organisms from class Oomycetes. Most of the recognized species have already been found in other running waters. From all the examined habitats the fungi belonging to 26 species of 18 genera Achlya, Alternaria, Aphanomyces, Aspergillus, Catenophlyctis, Dictyuchus, Fusarium, Karlingia, Lagenidium, Leptomitus, Olpidiopsis, Penicillium, Phlyctochytrium, Pythium, Saprolegnia, Scoliognia, Thraustotheca and Zoophagus were obtained. Certain fungal species like Aphanomyces laevis, Fusarium aqueductum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, Leptomitus lacteus, Saprolegnia feax and S. parasitica were found at all the study sites. Among fungi potentially pathogenic and allergogenic for humans the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lagenidium and Penicillium have already been described. However, the species Lagenidium giganteum and Achlya androgyna are new in the fungal biota of Poland. The greatest number of fungal species occurred in Olmonty (24), the smallest in Horodniany

  6. [The prevalence of intestinal parasites according to the distribution of the patients' gender and parasite species for five years at the Osmangazi University Medical Faculty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Nihal; Demirüstü, Canan; Aybey, Aşkin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, patients (outpatients and inpatients) with various gastrointestinal system complaints presenting at various clinics of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, from February 2003-December 2007 were investigated for the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was evaluated according to parasite species, gender of the patients and the years, in which cases were seen. A total of 34,733 stool samples were prepared by formal-ethyl acetate concentration and examined in saline and iodine preparations microscopically with 10x and 40x magnifications. Also trichrome stained preparations of non-pathogenic amoebas and modi-fied Erlich-Ziehl-Nielsen stained preparations for Cryptosporidium spp were examined by oil-immersion objectives (100x). One or more parasites were found in 1252 of the 34,733 stool samples (including nonpathogenic protozoa).the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection rate was 3.6%, of these patients, 52.5% were female and 47.5% male. Predominant parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar group amoebas (31% (397/1252), followed by Giardia intestinalis 19% (236/1252), Blastocystis hominis 7% (108/1252), and Cryptosporid-ium parvum %4.5 (56/1252). Since the cellophane type method was only used in a few cases; the rates detected in helminth cases in this study were different from other studies. The ratio of E. vermicularis was found to be 2.3% (29/1252), Taenia saginata 0.8% (10/1252) and Strongyloides stercoralis 0.4% (5/1252). In comparison to a previous 10 year retrospective study which was performed in our hospital, we detected an important decrease in prevalence of parasites. But the presence of intestinal parasites is still an important problem.

  7. Molecular and phenotypic description of the widespread root symbiont Acephala applanata gen. et sp. nov., formerly known as dark-septate endophyte type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünig, Christoph R; Sieber, Thomas N

    2005-01-01

    Acephala applanata gen. et sp. nov. is described. A. applanata is a dark-septate endophyte (DSE) of conifer roots and belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii species complex. Several genetic markers, including isozymes, inter-simple-sequence-repeat (ISSR) fingerprints, single-copy restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), let us unambiguously separate isolates of A. applanata from isolates of P. fortinii s.l. and other dark-septate endophytes. Alleles at four RFLP loci and two fixed nucleotides in the ITS region were diagnostic for A. applanata. One of the fixed nucleotides resulted in the addition of an Afa I restriction site. PCR amplification with primers prITS4 and the newly developed primer PF-ITS_F (ACT CTG AAT GTT AGT GAT GTC TGA GT) and restriction digestion with Afa I yielded three fragments (203 bp, 117 bp, 56 bp) in A. applanata but only two (260 bp and 117 bp) in P. fortinii s.l. Population differentiation (GST) between A. applanata and other cryptic species of P fortinii was pronounced, and the index of association (IA) did not deviate significantly from zero, showing that recombination occurs or had occurred in A. applanata. Although isolates of A. applanata never were observed to sporulate, it can be distinguished morphologically from P fortinii s.l. by the scarcity of aerial mycelium, significantly slower growth and denser mycelium on cellophane overlaid on water agar. These phenotypic characteristics, combined with diagnostic RFLP alleles and/or PCR-RFLP of the ITS fragment with the fixed Afa I restriction site, unequivocally allow identification of A. applanata.

  8. Estimating cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: evidence from a national sample of littered packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Dianne C; Wang, Shu; Merriman, David; Crosby, Andrew; Resnick, Elissa A; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A number of recent studies document the proportion of all cigarette packs that are ‘contraband’ using discarded packs to measure tax avoidance and evasion, which we call tax non-compliance. To date, academic studies using discarded packs focused on relatively small geographical areas such as a city or a neighbourhood. Methods We visited 160 communities across 38 US states in 2012 and collected data from littered cigarette packs as part of the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative and the Bridging the Gap Community Obesity Measures Project (BTG-COMP). Data collectors were trained in a previously tested littered pack data collection protocol. Results Field teams collected 2116 packs with cellophane across 132 communities. We estimate a national tax non-compliance rate of 18.5% with considerable variation across regions. Suburban areas had lower non-compliance than urban areas as well as areas with high and low median household income areas compared with middle income areas. Discussion We present the first academic national study of tax non-compliance using littered cigarette packs. We demonstrate the feasibility of meaningful large-scale data collection using this methodology and document considerable variation in tax non-compliance across areas, suggesting that both policy differences and geography may be important in control of illicit tobacco use. Given the geography of open borders among countries with varying tax rates, this simple methodology may be appropriate to estimate tax non-compliance in countries that use tax stamps or other pack markings, such as health warnings. PMID:27697946

  9. Parassitosi intestinali umane nel Perugino nel corso del 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2005 we analyzed stool specimens of 661 subjects, 221 children (1-16 years old and 440 adults, for O&P (direct and after formalin-etylacetate concentration microscopic observations, Giemsa and modified Ziehl- Neelsen permanent stains when requested. 13.8% of subjects were positive for parasitic infections (13.5% among children and 13.9% among adults. 8.8% of subjects are infected with pathogen parasites (7.2% among children and 9.6% among adults and 5.0% with not pathogens (6.3% and 4.3% respectively. Among pathogen parasites, in children G. duodenalis was observed in 4.1% of cases,D. fragilis in 0.5%, E. vermicularis in 0.9%, T. trichiura in 1.8%. Among adults, D. fragilis was observed in 5.2% of cases, G. duodenalis in 1.8%, Cryptosporidium spp. in 0.5%, E. vermicularis in 0.5%, T. trichiura in 0.7%, S. stercoralis in 0.7%, H. nana in 0.2%, T. saginata in 0.5%, S. mansoni in 0.5%.Among childrens, 76.7% of pathogen parasites were imported from developing countries, particularly G. duodenalis in adopted ones; instead, among adults, 83.6% of pathogens was observed in home/Italian people, particularly D. fragilis. Cellophane tape test was performed on 40 home children and E. vermicularis prevailed in 22%; modified Baermann method was performed on 42 old subjects and S. stercoralis rabdithoid larvae were observed in 7.1% (but the same ones of O&P.The Authors recommend the O&P in subjects with intestinal aspecific troubles, ipereosinophilia, or other justified situations, emphasizing the importance of a rational, good and responsible O&P and/or other techniques for intestinal parasitosis, because are present, even if not frequent, not only imported, particularly D. fragilis, but also helminths, and not only E. vermicularis.

  10. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-12-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ(2)=60.6, PDemodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  11. The Mozart effect in biofeedback visual rehabilitation: a case report

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    Salvatore S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serena Salvatore, Aloisa Librando, Mariacristina Esposito, Enzo M VingoloDepartment of Ophthalmology, University La Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Alfredo Fiorini Hospital, Terracina, ItalyPurpose: To evaluate the usefulness of acoustic biofeedback by means of Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K. 448 to maintain and/or restore visual performance in a patient with macular pucker and glaucoma.Methods: A 74-year-old patient with open angle glaucoma in both eyes and macular pucker in the right eye (RE underwent visual rehabilitation with acoustic biofeedback by means of the MAIA™ Vision Training Module (Centervue, Padova, Italy 10 minutes each eye once a week for 5 weeks. The patient was asked to move his eyes according to a sound which changed into Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos when the patient locked the fixation target.Results: Best-corrected visual acuity improved in his right eye (RE and was stable in the left eye (LE. Fixation stability improved in both eyes, and retinal sensitivity decreased in the RE and improved in the LE. The characteristic of the macular pucker did not change during the training as demonstrated with optical coherence tomography. The patient was very satisfied with the training, as demonstrated by a 25-item questionnaire (National Eye Institute – Visual Functioning Questionnaire, NEI-VFQ-25. The patient’s reading speed and the character size which he was able to read improved in his RE.Conclusion: Music could enhance synaptic plasticity and affect neural learning and fixation training by means of MAIA vision training. Therefore it can improve visual performance in patients with macular pucker, postpone the surgical time, and assure a better quality of life for the patient.Keywords: glaucoma, macular cellophane, music, vision training

  12. Formulation and in Vitro, ex Vivo and in Vivo Evaluation of Elastic Liposomes for Transdermal Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine

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    Néstor Mendoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to formulate ketorolac tromethamine-loaded elastic liposomes and evaluate their in vitro drug release and their ex vivo and in vivo transdermal delivery. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT, which is a potent analgesic, was formulated in elastic liposomes using Tween 80 as an edge activator. The elastic vesicles were prepared by film hydration after optimizing the sonication time and number of extrusions. The vesicles exhibited an entrapment efficiency of 73 ± 11%, vesicle size of 127.8 ± 3.4 nm and a zeta potential of −12 mV. In vitro drug release was analyzed from liposomes and an aqueous solution, using Franz diffusion cells and a cellophane dialysis membrane with molecular weight cut-off of 8000 Da. Ex vivo permeation of KT across pig ear skin was studied using a Franz diffusion cell, with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 at 32 °C as receptor solution. An in vivo drug permeation study was conducted on healthy human volunteers using a tape-stripping technique. The in vitro results showed (i a delayed release when KT was included in elastic liposomes, compared to an aqueous solution of the drug; (ii a flux of 0.278 mg/cm2h and a lag time of about 10 h for ex vivo permeation studies, which may indicate that KT remains in the skin (with the possibility of exerting a local effect before reaching the receptor medium; (iii a good correlation between the total amount permeated, the penetration distance (both determined by tape stripping and transepidermal water loss (TEWL measured during the in vivo permeation studies. Elastic liposomes have the potential to transport the drug through the skin, keep their size and drug charge, and release the drug into deep skin layers. Therefore, elastic liposomes hold promise for the effective topical delivery of KT.

  13. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination

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    Anila Koneru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person′s identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1′. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1′ and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions.

  14. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Anila; Surekha, R; Nellithady, Ganesh Shreekanth; Vanishree, M; Ramesh, DNSV; Patil, Ramesh S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person's identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1’. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1’ and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions. PMID:23960409

  15. Environmental color affects Nile tilapia reproduction

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    Volpato G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental color on the reproductive behavior of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two environmental colors were tested by covering the aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm with white (12 groups or blue (13 groups cellophane and observing reproductive behavior in groups of 2 males (10.27 ± 0.45 cm and 3 females (10.78 ± 0.45 cm each. After assignment to the respective environmental color (similar luminosity = 100 to 120 Lux, the animals were observed until reproduction (identified by eggs in the female's mouth or up to 10 days after the first nest building. Photoperiod was from 6:00 h to 18:00 h every day. Food was offered in excess once a day and water quality was similar among aquaria. Daily observations were made at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00 h regarding: a latency to the first nest, b number of nests, c gravel weight removed (the male excavates the nest in the bottom of the aquarium, d nest area, and e mouthbrooding incubation (indication of reproduction. The proportion of reproducing fish was significantly higher (6 of 13 in the group exposed to the blue color compared the group exposed to the white color (1 of 12; Goodman's test of proportions. Moreover, males under blue light removed significantly larger masses of gravel (blue = 310.70 ± 343.50 g > white = 130.38 ± 102.70 g; P = 0.01 and constructed wider nests (blue = 207.93 ± 207.80 cm² > white = 97.68 ± 70.64 cm²; P = 0.03 than the control (white. The other parameters did not differ significantly between light conditions. We concluded that reproduction in the presence of blue light was more frequent and intense than in the presence of white light.

  16. [Case report: taeniasis, is it a cause of psychiatric and neural symptoms?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inceboz, Tonay; Yalçin, Gülter; Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    The most frequent symptom of taeniasis is the discharge of proglottids (93.7%). Gravid proglottids which do not have uterine pores are damaged when they exit the anus by their movement. Because of this damage most of the eggs contaminate the perianal tract. The cellophane tape technique that is used for getting perineum material is also a convenient technique for diagnosis of taeniasis. A 36 year-old woman was admitted to our parasitology clinic complaining of a watering mouth for one year, of abdominal pain, and of loss of appetite for 6 months, and who had discharged proglottids from time to time. She had been eating raw meat since her childhood and had had treatment for taeniasis fifteen years ago. She has also been under treatment for obsessive and compulsive neurosis and depression for two years and complained of constipation that was the side effect of the drug clomipramine HCL. She was given treatment with niclosamide and purgative treatment. The result of the treatment was incomplete because the patient refused to use the purgative. She was called for follow up controls two weeks and six months after treatment and after six months did not have any evidence of infection in her stools. When she was asked, the patient said that she did not need to use the drugs for the treatment of obsessive and compulsive neurosis and depression any more since her symptoms had decreased. According to various authorities, taeniasis is thought to be the cause of psychiatric symptoms due to its neural and psychological effects. These claims have been confirmed in our case because of her psychiatric symptoms decreased after the taeniasis treatment. Thus, the view that there is a relationship between intestinal parasites and psychiatric disease has been strengthened.

  17. Snail Farming in Mature Rubber Plantation : 4. Studies on some Artificial Methods for Hatching of Snail Eggs and Protection of Young Snails during the Dry Season

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    Awah, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of edible land snails of the moist forest belt of Nigeria, Archachatina marginata (Swainson, Archachatina papyracae (Pfeiffer and two phenotypes of Limicolaria species, sometimes named Limicolaria flammae (Muller and Limicolaria aurora (Jay, were used in the study of three methods of artificial hatching of snail eggs and their young ones for the study of two methods of reduction of mortality during the dry season. The results of egg laying performance by the three species of snails showed a significantly (p <0.01 higher population explosion in a given breeding season for L. flammae/aurora than for either A. papyracae or A. marginata. The results of artificial methods for hatching of snail eggs indicated that the use of plastic containers, plus either loose topsoil or cotton wool for the incubator mediums or the use of cellophane containers (bag plus loose topsoil for the incubator medium, were in each case suitable for adoption in successful hatching of snail eggs artificially. Leaking coagulation pans or wooden boxes, half filled with heat sterilized loose topsoil and placed on the ground under shade of rubber tree canopy as dry season protection methods for the snails, were again in each case effective in the reduction of field mortality of the young snails. The survival rates were 100 % ; 90.6 % and 71.2 % for youngs of A. marginata, A. papyracae and L. flammae/aurora respectively. The results further indicated that the dry season protection method deemed optimum for the youngs of A. marginata may not necessarily be optimum for the youngs of either A. papyracae orL. flammae/aurora.

  18. Formulation and optimization of nano-sized ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium

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    R Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium using a novel lipid vesicular carrier, ethosomes. Materials And Methods: Ethosomes of cromolyn sodium was prepared, optimized, and characterized for vesicle shape, vesicle size and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vitro skin permeation, in vitro skin deposition and vesicle stability. Histological examination of porcine ear skin treated with optimized ethosomal formulation was performed to study the change of skin morphologies. Results: The optimized cromolyn sodium ethosomes showed reasonable entrapment efficiency (49.88±1.84%, optimum nanometric size range (133.8 ± 7.5 nm, and high zeta potential (-69.82 ± 1.2 mV. In vitro drug release studies of optimized ethosomal formulation through cellophane membrane showed an enhanced and sustained delivery of drug compared to conventional liposomes, hydroethanolic, (45% v/v and phosphate buffer saline PBS pH 7.4 drug solutions. The optimized ethosomal formulation showed significantly-enhanced transdermal flux (18.49 ± 0.08 mg/cm 2 /h across porcine ear skin as compared to liposome (1.80 ± 0.12 mg/cm 2 /h, hydroethanolic drug solution (4.45 ± 0.71 mg/cm 2 /h, and PBS pH 7.4 drug solution (1.18 ± 0.35 mg/cm 2 /h. Moreover, ethosomal formulation showed better skin drug deposition (10.28 ± 0.67% and shortest lag time (0.11 ± 0.09 h for cromolyn sodium. Conclusion: Our significant results suggest that ethosomes can be a promising tool for transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium.

  19. Influence of environmental color on zootechnical performance and feeding behavior during masculinization of Nile tilapia

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    Perila Maciel Rebouças

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise of tilapia in Brazil and the world increasingly needs the best growing conditions. Despite the Nile tilapia has diurnal, your vision is considered a strong sensory stimulus, and as the perception of the color contrast of medium, production losses may be evidence due to stress caused too. Thus, an experiment was conducted at Biotechnology Aquaculture Applied Center (CEBIAQUA, The Fishing Engineering Department, Federal University of Ceará, with the aim of evaluating the influence of the background color translucent on zootechnical performance and feeding behavior of Nile tilapia during masculinization. We used 200 post-larvae (average weight = 0:02 ± 0.01g; mean initial length = 1.10 ± 0.01 cm of Nile tilapia, packed in 40 L aquarium, covered with cellophane, for 28 days. Fish were distributed in a completely randomized in two treatments (blue and green and five replications. Environmental variables analyzed were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and photoperiod and productive performance was evaluated weight, total length, condition factor and lot uniformity. Behavioral observations occurred twice daily, immediately before the first feeding and 2 minutes after each feeding treatment. We found no significant difference in water parameters in two treatments. The weight, length and condition factor did not differ between treatments. There was a higher survival rate, more lot uniformity, and an obvious grouped behavior during feeding in aquaria translucent greens than blues. So for the masculinization of Nile tilapia, it is recommended to translucent green, because the results were most satisfactory.

  20. Solid-waste management practices of households in Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Eileen C

    2008-10-01

    The experiences and practices of household waste management of people in a barangay (village) in Manila, Philippines are documented. The data were gathered through an interview with household members using open-ended questions. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. The respondents segregate their wastes into PET bottles, glass bottles, and other waste (mixed wastes). No respondents perform composting. It is worth noting, however, that burning of waste is not done by the respondents. The households rely on garbage collection by the government. Collection is done twice daily, except Sundays, and household members bring their garbage when the garbage truck arrives. However, there are those who dump their garbage in nondesignated pick-up points, usually in a corner of the street. The dumped garbage becomes a breeding ground for disease-causing organisms. Some household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Mothers and household helpers are responsible for household waste management. Scavengers generally look for recyclable items in the dumped garbage. All of them said that it is their only source of income, which is generally not enough for their meals. They are also aware that their work affects their health. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government. The results of the study showed that RA 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, is not fully implemented in Metro Manila.

  1. Estabilidade da cor de doces em massa de polpa de umbu (Spondias tuberosa arr. cam. no estádio de maturação verde Color stability of marmalade made from pulp of unripe umbu

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    Vânia Madeira Nunes Policarpo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos de umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. maduros são altamente perecíveis, e o aproveitamento deles no estádio de maturação verde, sob a forma de doce é uma interessante alternativa econômica, para o semi-árido nordestino. A conservação da cor, durante o armazenamento, constitui um fator de qualidade dos mais importantes para o consumo, e o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar sua alteração em função de diferentes formulações, embalagens (polipropileno e celofane e temperaturas (33 e 43°C, por 90 dias de armazenamento. A adição de pectina e/ou xarope de glicose não alterou a luminosidade (L*, mas diminuiu os valores de a* ( intensidade do vermelho e b*. ( intensidade do amarelo. Verificou-se diminuição dos valores de L* a* e b*, notadamente para os doces armazenados à temperatura de 43°C e para a formulação sem adição de pectina. A embalagem não exerceu efeito significativo sobre L*( luminosidade, mas afetou a* e b* aos 90 dias de estocagem, em ambas as temperaturas. Os resultados globais indicaram o uso de pectina e xarope de glicose, embalagens de polipropileno e estocagem à temperaturas mais baixas como sendo as condições mais adequadas para preservação da cor.Ripe umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is highly perishable, thus using unripe umbu to make marmalade is an interesting economic alternative for the semi arid northeastern region in Brazil. Color conservation during storage is one of the major quality factors for consumption. This work aimed to evaluate color alteration in function of different formulations, packagings (polypropylene and cellophane and temperatures (33 and 43°C over 90 storage days. Pectin and/or glucose syrup adittion did not alter luminosity (L*, but decreased a* (red intensity and b*(yellow intensity values. L* (luminosity, a* ( red intensity and b* (yellow intensity values were found to decrease, especially for marmalade stored at 43°C and formulation without pectin addition

  2. Chronic partial urethral obstruction in female rats: description of an experimental model and initial results Obstrução parcial uretral crônica em ratos: descrição de um modelo experimental e resultados iniciais

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    Silvio Tucci Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of infravesical urinary obstruction in female rats. METHODS: After median caudal laparotomy, the urethra of 14 female rats was delicately separated from the vagina and loosely wrapped with cellophane tape measuring 0.4 x 1.0 cm. The animals were evaluated 4 (n=7 and 8 (n=7 weeks later. Five additional control animals were only subjected to separation of the urethra and vagina and monitored for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After four weeks, three rats presented vesical dilation associated with discrete ureteral ectasis in 2 animals, with the third presenting discrete hydronephrosis in one kidney. After eight weeks, five rats (71.4% presented vesical distension with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis. No significant changes (p>0.05 in serum urea or creatinine occurred in any group compared to preoperative values. CONCLUSION: We present here an inexpensive and simple method for the slow induction of urethral obstruction in adult female rats, with the development of progressive vesical hypertrophy and ureterohydronephrosis, which may be used as an experimental model for the study of different aspects of obstructive nephropathy.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de obstrução urinária infravesical em ratas. MÉTODOS: Após laparotomia caudal mediana, as uretras de 14 ratas foram delicadamente separadas da vagina e frouxamente envoltas com fita de celofane medindo 0.4 x 1.0 cm. Os animais foram avaliados 4 (n=7 e 8 (n=7 semanas depois. Cinco animais adicionais (controle foram submetidos apenas à separação da uretra e da vagina e monitoradas por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Após quatro semanas, três ratas apresentaram dilatação vesical associada a discreta ectasia ureteral em 2 animais, com o terceiro apresentando discreta hidronefrose em um rim. Após oito semanas, cinco ratas (71.4% apresentaram distensão vesical com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Não ocorreram alterações significativas (p>0.05 nos valores

  3. 海口市私立幼儿园蛲虫病感染现状及监护人员健康知识调查分析%Infection status of Enterobiasis and health knowledge of guardians in private kindergartens in Haikou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳玲; 裴贺辉; 杨佳佳; 芦亚君

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析海口市私立幼儿园幼儿蛲虫感染现状,了解幼儿监护人员对有关蛲虫病知识的情况,并积极强化幼儿监护人员对防治蛲虫病重要性的认识。方法使用透明胶纸粘贴法对海口市9所私立幼儿园进行采样检测,对幼儿监护人员即幼儿园园长、老师、家长进行蛲虫病知晓情况问卷调查。结果幼儿园6岁以下幼儿蛲虫病总感染率为35.87%,幼儿园园长、老师及家长对蛲虫病总知晓率为32.54%。结论海口市私立幼儿园蛲虫病感染率较高,幼儿监护人员欠缺蛲虫病的卫生知识,对蛲虫病在幼儿园的流行缺乏有力监管。%Objective To analyze the infection status of Enterobiasis in private kindergartens in Haikou, in-vestigate the guardians' Enterobiasis knowledge, and to strengthen the awareness of the importance of prevention and treatment of Enterobiasis. Methods The infection status of Enterobiasis was detected by cellophane-tape impression for nine private kindergartens in Haikou. A questionnaire survey about Enterobiasis knowledge was carried out among the guardians, including directors, teachers and parents. Results The total infection rate of private kindergartens was 35.87%, and the awareness rate of the guardians was 32.54%. Conclusion The infection rate of private kindergartens in Haikou is higher. The guardians are lack of health knowledge about Enterobiasis. Enterobiasis is popular in private kindergartens because of effective supervision.

  4. 2010年开平市人体肠道寄生虫病感染状况%Infection Situation of Human Intestinal Parasites in Kaiping City in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对开平市人体肠道寄生虫的感染情况进行调查分析,为该市制定今后的人体寄生虫防治对策提供科学依据.方法 采取改良加藤氏厚片检查调查对象粪便中肠道寄生虫卵,用透明胶纸肛拭子法检查蛲虫卵,并对检查结果进行分析.结果 共调查1 002人,查出肠道寄生虫5种,共有93人,总感染率为9.28%,其中华支睾吸虫、钩虫、鞭虫、蛔虫和蛲虫的感染率分别为7.98%、0.20%、0.20%、1.10%和11.44%.结论 经过多年的努力,开平市的寄生虫防治工作取得了显著的成效,但华支睾吸虫和蛲虫的感染率还很高,今后要加强这2种寄生虫的防治工作.%[Objective]To provide scientific basis for future control strategy against human parasites in Kaiping City though survey and analysis on the situation of human infection of intestinal parasites. [Methods] The subjects were examined for intestinal parasitic eggs with the Kato's thick slide method. Enterobius vermicularis eggs were tested with cellophane swab method. The results were analyzed. [Results] Among the 1002 people surveyed, 5 kinds of intestinal parasites were found with 93 cases of infection (9. 28% ). The infection rates of Clonorchis sinensis, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis were 7. 98% , 0. 20% , 0. 20% , 1. 10% and 11.44% , respectively. [Conclusion] Through many years'efforts, the control of parasitic diseases in Kaiping city has gained much achievement, but the infection rates of Clonorchis sinensis and Enterobius vermicularis are still high, which needs to be enhanced in the future.

  5. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis in Italy between 2005 and 2008: diagnostic techniques and methodologies

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    Daniele Crotti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to keep a real and actual photo relating to 2005-2008 regarding to diagnostic techniques and methodologies for intestinal parasites; so it would be possible to know specific epidemiology and suggest more rational and efficacious guide-lines. All members of AMCLI were involved in the proposal of a retrospective study regarding bowel parasites, helminths and protozoa.To engaged laboratories we asked how O&P was performed, if a specifical research for E. vermicularis and S. stercoralis was performed, if for the identification of D. fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidum spp were performed recommended specific permanent stains. 23 laboratories gave assent; but for an inferior number was possible to use the data for analysis and evaluation. Relating O&P only some laboratories performed permanent stains: Giemsa for D. fragilis, antigen and/or Trichrome stain for E. histolytica/dispar, antigen and/or acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium spp.Not all laboratories research specifically S. stercoralis. So the epidemiology is differentiated and related more to adequate or not adequate techniques than cohorts of examined populations. The overall positivity for parasites ranged from 0% to18.7%,for protozoa (pathogens or not were from 0% to 14.7%; for nematodes from 0% to 3.7%; for cestodes from 0% to 1.0%; for trematodes from 0% to 1.0%.Among helminths, E. vermicularis, followed by S. stercoralis, also in O&P, is the most frequent.The specific research of S. stercoralis gave a positivity from 0% to 33.3%; the cellophane tape test was positive for E. vermicularis from 0% fo 21.9% of cases.Among pathogen protozoa, D. fragilis, when permanent stain were applied, prevailed from 0% to 16.6%; G. duodenalis from 0.8% to 4.3%; E. histolytica/dispar, using a permanent stain or research of antigen, was identified from 0% to 20.6%. Coccidia were very rare, with Cryptosporidium spp observed from 0% to 5.2%. These are our conclusions

  6. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Na GUO; Meng XUN; Ji-ru XU; Mei WANG; Duo-lao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation,756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an,China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study.Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP).The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%.Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender,residence,sharing sanitary ware,frequency of face-wash per day,and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation,whereas three variables (age,skin type,and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates.Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years.Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin.Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without.The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count.The inception rates were 21.3%,40.7%,59.2%,and 67.7% in the negative,mild,moderate,and severe infestation groups,respectively (X2=60.6,P<0.001).Specifically,the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R2=0.57,moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1,severe infestation OR=10.3).It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age,and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human.Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation.Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris.The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  7. The effect of the volatile oil of Manchurian Wildginger on the killing of Demodex in vitro%细辛精油体外抑杀蠕形螨的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继鑫; 李朝品; 孙艳宏; 孙艳; 刘伯阳; 刘秀财; 郭家; 张浩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the volatile oil of Manchurian Wildginger on the killing of demodex in vitro. Methods The volatile oil of Manchurian Wildginger and its diluents of 1∶2, 1∶4, 1∶8, 1∶16 and 1∶32 proportion were used to kill demodex in vitro, and the saline was used as control group. The mites were collected with adhesive cellophane tape technique. The killing effect on demodex with the different con-centrations volatile oils was observed under microscope. Results The pure volatile oil had high effect in killing D.f and D.b in vitro, and the killing effect to the D.f was better with statistical significance (t=9.172,P<0.05). However, the killing effect showed declining obviously with the increasing of dilutes multiple. Conclusion The pure volatile oil of Manchurian Wildginger has favorable effect on the killing of demodex in vitro.%目的:观察细辛精油体外杀螨效果。方法用细辛精油、1∶2、1∶4、1∶8、1∶16和1∶32稀释的细辛进行抑杀实验,并设定生理盐水为空白对照。采用透明胶带粘贴法获取蠕形螨,镜下观察不同浓度的细辛对两种人体蠕形螨的抑杀作用。结果细辛精油对两种蠕形螨均有明显的抑杀作用,且对毛囊蠕形螨的抑杀效果优于皮质蠕形螨,差异有统计学意义(t=9.172, P<0.05),但随稀释倍数的增加抑杀效果明显降低。结论细辛精油具有良好的体外抑杀蠕形螨的作用。

  8. Take-Home Challenges: Extending Discovery-Based Activities beyond the General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. K.; Sarquis, A. M.

    1996-04-01

    "belch bottle"? Introductory Remarks. Have you ever belched? Belching is caused when there is an accumulation of gas in the digestive system. The "belch" occurs when the gas is released through the mouth. You can construct a "belch bottle" to imitate this action. Try this activity to find out how. Materials. 2 plastic soft-drink bottles of the same size one of the following sets of materials: potato; barrel of a Bic pen; tape (cellophane, electrical, or masking); 8-in. piece of wire, or 2 1-hole #3 stoppers; barrel of a Bic pen; tape (cellophane, electrical, or masking) water shallow tray or sink (optional) food color (optional) narrow-necked bottle made of glass (or other rigid material) Getting Ready. Cut one of the soft-drink bottles a few inches above the bottom to make a tall funnel as shown in Figure 1. Fill the second, uncut bottle half-full with water. If there is a hole in the side of the pen barrel, wrap tape around it. If 1-hole stoppers are available, slide one onto each end of the pen barrel and use this assembly to connect the cut funnel and the half-filled, uncut bottle. Alternatively, push the barrel all the way through a potato, leaving an approximately equal amount of pen barrel sticking out each side of the potato. If potato becomes lodged inside the pen barrel (that would restrict air or water flow), use a wire to push it out. Slide one end of the pen barrel into the mouth of the funnel all the way to the potato and gently screw the potato onto the thread of the funnel. Gently screw the other end of the potato onto the threads of the neck of the half-filled, uncut bottle. (See Fig. 2.) Your goal is to create an airtight seal between the funnel and the uncut soft-drink bottle. Procedure. Place the apparatus in a shallow tray or sink. Fill the funnel 3/4 full with water. (Colored water is easier to see.) Give the bottle a slight squeeze. Watch for several minutes. What do you observe? Explain your observations. Disconnect the bottle from the connector

  9. 重庆沙坪坝区土源性线虫感染现况调查%Investigation on the Current Situation of Human Soil-borne Nematode Infection in Shapingba District of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹宏; 杨连建; 陈敏; 李廷荣; 陈音汁

    2013-01-01

    2009年12月~2010年2月采用分层随机整群抽样法,按重庆沙坪坝区东南西北4个方位,随机抽取2个街道和2个乡镇,按《全国人体重要寄生虫病现状调查实施细则》开展调查.采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查12周岁以上常住居民肠道土源性线虫感染情况,以透明胶纸肛拭法检查12周岁及以下儿童蛲虫感染情况.共检查2 121人,感染率为9.6% (203/2 121),其中钩虫、蛔虫和鞭虫的感染率分别为9.3% (197/2 121)、0.4% (8/2 121)和0.1%(2/2 121),均以轻度感染为主;年龄组50岁以上感染率最高,为15.5% (160/1 030);职业以农民感染率最高,为22.3% (113/506);文化程度越高,感染率越低(P<0.01).城市人口感染率(2.1%)远低于农村人口感染率(17.3%)(x2=140.443 5,P<0.01).提示重庆市沙坪坝区人群中土源性线虫的感染率远低于Ⅱ类地区标准,且以钩虫感染为主.%By stratified cluster sampling method, 2 urban and 2 rural fields were selected from Shapingba district of Chongqing for survey in December 2009 to February 2010. According to the Administrating Regulations of National Investigation on Important Human Parasitic Diseases, Kato-Katz method was used to examine human intestinal soil-borne nematode eggs, and adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied to examine Enterobius infection for children under 12 years old. 203 cases were found positive in 2121 subjects, with an infection rate of 9.6%(203/2 121), and the infection rate of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura with mild infection mostly was 9.3% (197/2 121), 0.4% (8/2 121) and 0.1%(2/2 121), respectively. The rate among people over 50 years old was 15.5% (160/1 030), and the fanners was with 22.3%( 113/506). The higher the education level, the lower the infection rate(P<0.01), and there was a significant difference in the prevalence between ruban (2.1%) and rural people (17.3%) (x2=140.443 5, P<0.01). The infection rate of soil

  10. 2006-2010年苏北地区土源性线虫病防治监测%Surveillance of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in northern Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓军; 江文才; 曹汉钧; 金小林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the control effect on soil-transmitted nematodiasis in surveillance sites of northern Jiangsu Province. Methods According to "The Monitoring Program on Soil-transmitted Nematodiasis in Jiangsu Province" , the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes were detected by the Kato-Katz technique and cellophane anal swab technique, and the infection rates were predicted by the horizontal average speed development method in the surveillance sites from 2006 to 2010. Results The overall infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes declined to 3.13% and the intensities of the infections were mild in past 5 years in the northern Jiangsu Province, and the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius ver-micularis were 0.77%, 0.89%, 1.49 and 1.19%, respectively. The overall infection rates showed a downtrend. The predicted result also demonstrated that the future infection rates should keep a continuous downtrend, but the decreasing speed should be slower than before. Conclusion The infections of soil-transmitted nematodes in the northern Jiangsu Province have been controlled basically, and we should adjust the control strategy including surveillance and chemotherapy in the main risk population.%目的 观察江苏省苏北地区土源性线虫病防治效果.方法 根据《江苏省土源性线虫病监测方案》要求,采用改良加藤厚涂片法和透明胶纸肛拭法检测土源性线虫感染率,应用平均发展速度法预测监测点未来感染率.结果 经过5年防治,苏北地区土源性线虫感染率降至3.13%,均为轻度感染.其中蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫和蛲虫感染率分别为0.77%、0.89%、1.49%和1.19%,总感染率呈下降趋势;平均发展速度法预测结果也显示土源性线虫感染率仍将进一步下降,但下降趋势有所减缓.结论 苏北地区土源性线虫病已基本控制,应调整防治策略;同时继续做好监测和重点人群服药工作.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among middle and primary school students%2000~2009年济南市中小学生肠道寄生虫感染情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵群力; 张萍; 李新爱; 田庆新; 雷畅; 何琳娜; 周怀瑜

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解济南市中小学生肠道寄生虫感染情况,为学校开展健康教育、制定寄生虫病防治对策和开展驱虫治疗提供科学依据. 方法 采用改良加藤厚涂法检测蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫和华支睾吸虫虫卵,透明胶纸法检测蛲虫虫卵.结果 肠道寄生虫总感染率为9.16%,共查出5种寄生虫,其中蛔虫、鞭虫、钩虫、蛲虫、华支睾吸虫感染率分别为3.91%、2.05%、0.74%、2.00%和0.46%.城、乡中小学生寄生虫总感染率分别为5.50%和13.18%,差异有统计学意义(x2=38.0585,P<0.05);男性华支睾吸虫感染率为0.85%,女性为0.09%,差异有统计学意义(x2=5.1422,P<0.05). 结论 2000~2009年济南市中小学生肠道寄生虫感染率呈下降趋势,但农村感染率仍然偏高,建议把肠道寄生虫防治的重点放在农村,采取有效防治措施,降低人群感染率.%Objectives To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among middle and primary school students and to provide a scientific basis for health education and parasitosis control strategies. Methods Species of intestinal parasites were determined using Kato's thick smear method or the cellophane tape method. Results Five strains of intestinal parasites were found. The total infection rate was 9. 16% , with Ascaris lumbricoides infection accounting for 3. 91% , Trichuris trichiura infection accounting for 2. 05% , hookworm infection accounting for 0. 74% , Enterobius ver-micularis infection accounting for 2. 00% , and Clonorchis sinensis infection accounting for 0. 46%. The infection rates of urban and rural students were 5. 50% and 13. 18% , respectively. There was a significant difference in the rates of infection (x2 =38. 0585, P<0.05). The rate of C. sinensis infection differed significantly (x2 = 5. 1422, P<0. 05) in males (0.85%) and females (0.09%). Conclusion The overall rate of infection with intestinal parasites among middle and primary school

  12. Investigation on the status of major human parasites in the rural areas of Xinyu Jiangxi Province%江西省新余市农村寄生虫现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊青; 周弃粕; 卢春林; 李春艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study current status and influential factors of major human parasitic diseases in the rural areas of Xinyu,Jiangxi Province,and also to predict the trend and identify the high risk population,so as to provide scientific evidence for the development of control strategies and evaluation of the effects of prevention and control.Methods Modified thick smear Kato-Katz method,test tube filter paper culture,adhesive cellophane anal swab,saline smear and iodine staining method were used for feces ex-amination to detect nematodes,tapeworms,protozoa and liver flukes.Results In the 764 examinees from the 3 rural survey points,the number of people with positive infection was 53,with an infection rate of 6.94%,of which the infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 0.13% and those of hookworm,Trichuris trichiura,Enterobius vermicularis and liver fluke were 5.24%,0.26%,1.05% and 0.26% respectively.Neither tenia nor protozoa were detected.Conclusion The infection rate of human parasites among rural inhabit-ants of Yushui area,Xinyu city,as obtained from the survey was obviously decreased,as compared with the average infection rate a-mong the inhabitants of Jiangxi Province in 2004,with hookworm infection as the main infection and elderly farmers with an age of 50 and older as chief victims.%目的:了解和掌握新余市农村重点寄生虫感染现状及影响因素,预测流行趋势,明确高危人群,为制定本市重点寄生虫病防治策略和评价防治效果提供科学依据。方法本次调查采用改良加藤厚涂片法、试管滤纸培养法、透明胶纸肛拭法、生理盐水涂片法和碘液涂片法对受检者进行粪检,查找线虫、绦虫、原虫以及肝吸虫。结果3个农村调查点,共计764名受检者(制片1538张),其中感染阳性人数为53人,感染率为6.94%,其中蛔虫感染率为0.13%、钩虫感染率为5.24%、鞭虫感染率为0.26%、蛲虫感染率为1.18

  13. 2006-2015年江苏省土源性线虫病国家级监测点调查结果分析%Investigation on soil-transmitted nematode infections in national surveil-lance sites in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈明学; 金小林; 戴洋; 徐祥珍; 魏良祥; 李玉宝; 刘剑峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections in rural residents so as to provide the evidence for formulating the guidance for prevention and control of the diseases. Methods The national surveillance sites of soil⁃transmitted nematode infections were established in Shuyang County,Suqian City,Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2015. At least 1 000 fecal samples of residents aged 3 years or above were collected in every autumn,and the intestinal helminth eggs were detected with the Kato⁃Katz technique and the Enterubius vermicularis eggs were detected by the cellophane tape method for children aged 3-12 years. The soil samples were collected from vegetable fields,lavatories,courtyards and kitchens to exam⁃ine Ascaris lumbricoides eggs and larvae of hookworm. Results The infection rates of soil⁃transmitted nematodes in residents and E. vermicularis in children reduced from 1.81%(19/1 049)and 4.72%(5/106)in 2006 to 0.25%(3/1 180)and 0(0/263) in 2015,respectively,in the surveillance sites. The infection intensity was mild in all the infected cases. The soil samples were negative for detecting A. lumbricoides eggs and hookworm larvae. Conclusion The infection rates of soil⁃transmitted nema⁃todes in the residents and E. vermicularis in the children show a decreasing trend and keep at a low level of prevalence in Shuy⁃ang County.%目的:了解农村居民土源性线虫感染情况,为土源性线虫病的防治提供指导。方法2006-2015年在江苏省宿迁市沭阳县设立国家土源性线虫病监测点。每年秋季收集至少1000名年满3周岁的常住居民粪便,采用改良加藤厚涂片法粪检肠道蠕虫卵;对参检的3~12周岁儿童用透明胶纸肛拭法检查蛲虫卵。随机选择居民居所附近的菜地、厕所周边、庭院和厨房等环境的土壤,检测蛔虫卵和钩蚴污染情况。结果沭阳县监测点居民土源性线虫感染率和儿童蛲虫感

  14. 2011-2012年沭阳县土源性线虫感染调查%Survey of infections of soil-transmitted nematodes in Shuyang County,Jiang-su Province,2011 and 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏良祥; 刘剑峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the status of infections of soil-transmitted nematodes of residents in Shuyang County,Jiang-su Province from 2011 to 2012. Methods Totally 2 140 residents of Machang Town and Longji Town in Shuyang County,Jiangsu Province were investigated,and their stool samples were collected and detected by Kato-Katz technique,and in addition,the chil-dren aged 3-12 years were examined by the cellophane anal swab method,in 2011 and 2012. Results In 2011,the total infec-tion rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 1.06%(11/1 034),the infection rate of hookworm was 1.06%(11/1 034),the infec-tion rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 0,the infection rate of Trichuris trichiura was 0,and the infection rate of Enterobius vermicu-laris was 0;In 2012,the total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 0.99%(11/1 106),the infection rate of hookworm was 0.27%(3/1 106),the infection rate of A. lumbricoides was 0.09(1/1 106),the infection rate of T. trichiura was 0,and the in-fection rate of E. vermicularis was 2.69%(7/223). Conclusion The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes of residents in Shuyang County is low,but the surveillance is still necessary.%目的:了解2011-2012年江苏省沭阳县居民土源性线虫感染状况。方法采用Kato-Katz法对沭阳县马厂镇葛荡村和龙集镇吴圩村2140名居民开展土源性寄生虫感染调查,对3~12岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检测。结果2011年和2012年沭阳县居民土源性线虫总感染率分别为1.06%(11/1034)和0.99%(11/1106);钩虫感染率分别为1.06%(11/1034)和0.27%(3/1106),蛔虫感染率分别为0(0/1034)和0.09%(1/1106),鞭虫感染率均为0;3~12岁儿童蛲虫感染率分别为0(0/198)和2.69%(7/223)。结论沭阳县居民土源性线虫感染率较低,需做好监测工作。

  15. Investigation on common human soil-transmitted nematode infections in Quanzhou City in 2012%泉州市人体常见土源性线虫感染现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解泉州市人体常见土源性线虫感染流行现状,为今后制定防控措施提供科学依据。方法2012年抽查2个县(区)各5个乡镇3岁以上常住人口,应用粪便改良加藤氏厚涂片法检测钩虫、蛔虫、鞭虫、蛲虫虫卵;每县(区)随机抽取1所幼儿园儿童,采用透明胶纸肛拭法检查蛲虫虫卵。对调查数据进行统计分析。结果共粪检1919人,仅检出钩虫感染69例,总感染率为3.60%。不同地区、不同性别钩虫感染率差异无统计学意义;不同年龄、不同职业感染率差异有统计学意义。各县(区)幼儿园儿童均未检出蛲虫感染。结论鞭虫、蛔虫和蛲虫防治措施效果显著,钩虫感染率有上升趋势。应加强钩虫病的防治。%Objective To understand the epidemic situation of common human soil-transmitted nematode infections in Quan-zhou City in 2012,so as to provide the evidence for improving the prevention and control measures. Methods The residents aged above 3 years from 5 townships in 2 counties were investigated to detect the parasite eggs(hookworm,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trich-uris trichura)by Kato-Katz technique. One kindergarten of each county was randomly selected and 228 children were investigated to detect Enterubius vermicularis eggs by the cellophane tape anus test. Results The total hookworm infection rate was 3.60%(69/1919). For the hookworm infection rates,there was no significant difference among different areas and between different genders, but there were significant differences among different age groups and different careers. No Enterubius vermicularis eggs were detect-ed. Conclusion The effect of the prevention and control of Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichura and Enterubius vermicularis in-fections is remarkable. However,the infection rate of hookworm has a rising trend and the prevention and control of hookworm in-fection should be strengthened.

  16. 芗城区2011年国家级土源性线虫病监测报告%Report on soil-transmitted nematodiasis in national surveillance sites in Xiangcheng District in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝建; 周俊仁; 张志魁; 魏美羡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Xiangcheng District of Fujian Province in 2011.Methods Dazai village of Xiangcheng District of Zhangzhou City was selected in 2011.Kato-Katz method was used to detect the eggs of intestinal helminthes and cellophane tape was used to detect the eggs of pinworm among children age 3 to 12.Soil samples in the vegetable garden,orchard and other plantations were collected from 15 families and hookworm larvae in the soil were isolated,cultured and identified.Results A total of 1022 persons were detected.146 persons were infected with soil-transmitted nematodes and the infection rate was 14.29%.The infection rate of hookworm was 10.76%(110/1 022).Ascaris and Trichuris were not found.115 children were detected among them 36 were found infected with pinworm,the infection rate was 31.3%.10 soil samples from the vegetable garden were examined and 6 of them contained hookworm larvae.5 soil samples from the orchard were examined and 4 of them contained hookworm larvae.All of them were identified as New-World hookworm.Conclusion Comparing with the results of the first phase of the five-year surveillance results,a decreasing trend of the soil-transmitted nematode infections was revealed in 2011,but a relatively high rate of hookworm infection in children was noticed.%目的 分析芗城区2011年土源性线虫感染及变化情况.方法 2011年在芗城区天宝镇大寨村,采用改良加藤厚涂片法粪检肠道蠕虫卵(一粪三检);对3~12周岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫;随机选择采集15户家庭的蔬菜园、果园及其它种植地的土襄标本进行钩蚴培养,每户1份,每份300 g.结果 共检查1 022人,感染者146人,总感染率为14.29%,其中,钩虫感染者110人,感染率为10.76%;未发现蛔虫与鞭虫.检测儿童115人,蛲虫感染者36人,感染率为31.30%.检测蔬菜地土壤10份,分离钩蚴阳性6份;水果地土壤5份,

  17. Survey of infectious status of soil-borne parasites in Changshou District of Chongqing City in 2009.%2009年重庆市长寿区土源性寄生虫病现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷群建; 蒋和宏; 马周俊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the infectious status of soil-borne parasites in Changshou District of Chongqing. Methods Four monitoring sites were isurveyed,which were selected from 4 townships according to the geographical distribution. Inhabitants with age of 3 or above were included in the monitoring.Parasite eggs (tapeworms,ascaris and pin worms and hookworms) in the fecal samples were detected using Kato-Katz thick smear method. Cellophane anal swab was used for collecting pinworm eggs in children aged 3-12 years old. 10 samples were randomly collected from each monitoring sites. Soil samples collected from the vegetable garden,lavatory,baekyarcl and the kitchens were exmamined for ascaris eggs. Results Totally 2 545 people were examined and 219 were found to be infected with an infection rate of 8.61%.The infection rate of hookworm.whipworm and ascaris were 7.89%,5.41%and 0.43%,respectively. The rate of ascaris infection I soil samples were from 20% to 40%. Conclusion The infection rate of soilborne parasites was increased in Changshou and the infection rates of hookworm and whipworm were still higher. Integrated measures be taken to reduce the infection rate of soilborne parasites.%目的 了解重庆市长寿区土源性寄生虫病人群感染动态及影响因素,为制订土源性线虫病防治策略和评价防治效果提供科学依据.方法 按东、西、南、北四个方位抽取4个乡镇的4个村为调查点;3周岁以上常住居民为对象,每个点调查人数不少于500人,采用改良加藤厚涂片法(一粪三检)常规计数检查土源性寄生虫卵,3~12周岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法定性检查蛲虫卵.随机抽取一个调查点内10户居民,进行感染因素调查和环境土壤污染情况调查.结果 本次检查共粪检2 545人,检出虫种有蛔虫、钩虫和蛲虫3种.感染219人次,感染率为8.61%.其中,钩虫感染率最高为7.82%,其次是蛲虫为4.09%,蛔虫感染率为0.43

  18. Investigation and analysis of soil-transmitted nematodes infection in Xinning, Hunan, 2006-2011%湖南省新宁县2006-2011年土源性线虫感染调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正祥; 陈培厚; 龙晓蕾; 段绩辉; 王郭清

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解湖南省新宁县土源性线虫病流行规律,为湖南地区的土源性线虫病防治提供科学依据.方法 2006-2011年,每年9-11月在新宁县高桥栗叶村进行调查,应用改良加藤厚涂片法查土源性线虫卵,透明胶纸肛拭法查儿童蛲虫卵;土壤监测采用改良饱和硝酸钠漂浮法,分别对虫卵进行检测与计算,调查污染情况.结果 2006-2010年共监测5021人,蛔虫的感染率由2006年的6.78%降至2010年的0.70%;钩虫的感染率由2006年的2.29%降至2010年的0.30%;鞭虫的感染率在2006、2008、2009年均为0;蛲虫的感染率2006、2007年为0.70%、0.60%,2008、2009、2010年均为0.结论 新宁县2006-2011年人群土源性线虫感染率呈下降趋势.%Objective To find the trend of soil-transmitted nematodes infection in Xinning,in order to provide scientific basis for controling the disease.Methods The investigation was carried out annually in Liye Village,Gaoqiao Town,Xinning County from September to November,2006 to 2011.The number of soil-transmitted nematodes eggs were checked with Kato-Katz,Enterobius vermicularis eggs in child were examined with cellophane tape anal swab method.Results A total of 5021 residents were examined from 2006 to 2010.The infection rate of ascariasis decreased to 0.70% in 2010 from 6.78% in 2006,the infection rate of ancylostomiasis decreased to 0.30% in 2010 from 2.29% in 2006,trichuriasis was not detected in 2006,2008and 2009,the infection rate of enterobiasis was 0.70%,0.60% in 2006 and 2007,but not detected in 2008,2009 and 2010.Conclusion The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes in Xinning County declined from 2006 to 2011.

  19. 29间托幼机构儿童蛲虫感染状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海东; 罗乐; 夏生林; 范木耿

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过调查不同类型托幼机构学龄前儿童蛲虫感染状况,掌握其不同特点,为针对性地开展蛲虫病防治提供依据。方法随机抽取不同的幼托机构,以班级全体学生为对象,采用透明胶带肛周粘贴法进行样本采集,显微镜下镜检以判断是否为蛲虫感染。结果2008~2012年检测29间托幼机构的儿童共3856人,男、女儿童感染率分别为18.18%和15.75%,2者差异无统计学意义。蛲虫感染率市级幼托机构为9.04%、村级幼托机构为24.00%,感染率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。在各级幼托机构中3岁以上各年龄组感染率在17%~19%之间,2岁组感染率较低(11.95%),与其它各组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论托幼机构普遍存在蛲虫感染,本地区儿童蛲虫感染率农村高于市区,尤其3岁以上年龄组儿童感染更为突出。%Objective To find out the epidemiological dynamics of enterobius vermicularis infection among pre-school children and to provide scientific basis for the enterobiasis prevention and control measures for schools and kindergartens. Methods Pre-school children were examined by an adhesive thin cellophane tape swab. Results We visited 29 kindergartens between 2008 to 2012, 3856 children were examined. The total egg positive rate of male and female was 17.59%and 16.32%, respectively,and the difference between them was not significant. In the urban and rural kindergartens, the egg positive rate was 18.18 and 15.75%, respectively, and the difference between them was significant. The 2-year age group evidenced the lowest egg positive rate(11.95%), the other groups ranged from 17%to 19%. Conclusion Enterobius vermicularis infection in urban area was higher than that in rural area. The egg positive rate over 3-year age group was higher than the others’groups.

  20. 广州市萝岗区幼儿园儿童蛲虫感染现状分析%The Prevalence of Pinworm Infection among Kindergarten Children in the Luogang District of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张知光; 谢才文; 田志鹏; 唐薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市萝岗区幼儿园儿童蛲虫感染现状和流行特征,为防治蛲虫病提供科学依据.方法 采用整群分层抽样方法,随机选择萝岗区城市地区幼儿园3所,农村地区幼儿园2所,按等比例分层抽样抽取大班、中班、小班的儿童(2~6岁)共597人,运用透明胶纸肛拭法进行蛲虫检查.结果 萝岗区幼儿园儿童蛲虫平均感染率为4.4%.农村幼儿园儿童蛲虫感染率为8.3%,较城市幼儿园儿童蛲虫感染率1.7%高(x2=15.25,P<0.05).流动人口儿童蛲虫感染率7.2%,较本地人口儿童蛲虫感染率1.9%高(x2=9.84,P<0.05).大、中、小班儿童蛲虫感染率分别为7.2%、1.7%、0.8%,差异有统计学意义(x2=11.03,P<0.05).而不同性别儿童蛲虫感染率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 萝岗区农村地区、大班儿童、流动人口儿童蛲虫感染率较高,应采取针对性综合防控措施,降低蛲虫感染率.%Objective To investigate the infection status and epidemic features of pinworm among kindergarten of Luogang district and provide scientific basis for control enterobiasis. Method Stratified cluster sampling method was carried out to 597 kindergarten children in 2 rural and 3 urban kindergartens and detected by cellophane tape anal swab method. According to proportional stratified sampling method, the children (2 to 6 years old) were randomly selected from each kindergarten of low, medium and high grades. Results In Luogang district, the average pinworm infection rate of children was 4.4%. The rural children's infection rate was 8.3% , it was much higher than urban children (1.7%) (χ2 - 15. 25, P 0. 05) . Conclusions The pinworm infection rates of rural kindergarten children, migrant children and high grades children were high and comprehensive prevention and control measures should be implement to reduce the infection rate.

  1. 鸟粪层磷灰石矿化过程模拟及新型膜保护材料的制备研究%Mineralization Simulation of Guano Layer Apatite and Preparation Research of a New Membrane Protection Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘昌初; 张秉坚; 杨富巍

    2009-01-01

    根据鸟粪层磷灰石的矿化机理,借鉴溶胶-凝胶法选用高化学活性物质的做法,开展了在常温常压条件下制备羟基磷灰石(HA)新方法的研究.结合鸟粪层磷灰石含硅的特点,引入少量的正硅酸乙酯,得到了一种新的抗风化表面保护材料.制备工艺以CaO的乙二醇溶液和P_2O_5的乙醇溶液为前驱体,反应过程常温常压条件下进行,无需调节pH值,操作简单,适合于大面积操作.在汉白玉石材表面使用后,场发射扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线能量色散谱仪(SEM-EDAX)等仪器分析表明所得含硅钙磷酸盐保护膜层与石材结合牢固、结构有序而致密.电导分析表明该保护薄膜能耐受pH=3~4的盐酸的侵蚀,耐酸性良好;对疏松岩石的仿制样品进行加固的结果表明,其抗压强度比空白仿制样品提高了8.5倍:亲水-憎水性检测结果表明,经表面保护的白玉石材与未保护前相比,对水的接触角基本保持不变.为开拓新的石质文物、建筑材料以及山石岩体的保护材料提供了思路.%This work bases on mineralization mechanism of guano layer cellophane, profiting from the sol-gelatin law that usually selects the high chemical activity material during the procedure, engaged in a new method research preparing the hydroxyl apatite under the normal temperature and atmospheric pressure condition (HA). Considered that the guano layer apatite contains silicon, we introduce a small amount of TEOS when prepare the sol. The fields launch scanning electron microscope (SEM), the X-ray energy dispersion spectrometer (SEM-EDAX) and so on instrumental analyses indicate that the surface of white marble stone is firmly combined of dense and orderly structure of calcium phosphate film with silicon component. The craft takes ethylene of CaO glycol solution and ethanol of P_2O_5 solution as precursors and the entire preparation process carries on under the condition of normal temperature and pressure. Also

  2. INVESTIGATION ON EPIDEMIC SITUATION OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED NEMATODE IN LONGMATAN DISTRICT OF LUZHOU CITY%泸州市龙马潭区土源性线虫感染现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常豫红; 雷启云

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解庐州市龙马潭区土源性线虫流行现状,为制定防治策略和评价防治效果提供科学依据.[方法]按东南西北中5个方位各抽取1个行政村一定数量的家庭为观察对象,采用Kato-Katz法检查粪便中土源性线虫卵;透明胶纸肛拭法查12岁以下儿童蛲虫卵.[结果]粪检602人,总感染率为30.90%.其中:钩虫、蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫感染率分别为22.43%、11.30%、0.50%、3.77%.感染2种虫者占12.90%;中重度感染者占12.63%;中老年农民感染率高.[结论]龙马潭区土源性线虫感染率比全国第二次人体重要寄生虫病现状调查结果高57.98%,比四川省第二次肠道蠕虫感染现状调查结果低21.97%,为土源性线虫中度流行区.其中钩虫感染率明显高于全国和四川省调查结果.环境污染严重,不良的生产生活习惯是土源性线虫流行的主要原因.%[Objective] To understand the epidemic situation of soil-transmitted nematode in Longmatan District of Luzhou City, and to provide scientific basis for making the control countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. [Methods] According to the 5 positions (east/south/west/north/center) , collected one administrative village from each position and observed the a certain number of families in every village. Modified Kato-KatZs thick smear and cellophane tape swab techniques were used for detection of the infection of soil-transmitted nematode. [ Results ] 602 persons received stool examination, with a total infection rate of 30.90%. The infection rates of hookworm, roundworm, whipworm, and pinworm were 22.43%, 11.30%, 0.50%, 3.77%. Infected with two kinds of worms accounted for 12.90%; Moderate and severe infections accounted for 12.63%; Middle-aged farmers were at high rates of infection. [ Conclusion] The infection rate of soil-bome nematodes in Longmatan District is higher than the national infection rate of human parasites in the second survey; compared with

  3. Survey on infection demodex in soldiers from Xinjiang army and analysis on relevant factors%新疆某部战士人体蠕形螨感染状况调查及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春燕; 张海员; 肖晋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate infectious situation of demodex and to study relevant factors. Method U-sing cellophane tape to collect the samples of facial demodex from 335 soldiers, with the personal information, hygiene habit and facial skin types by questionnaires. Results The total infection rate of demodex was 25. 37%. The infection rate was obviously higher in those people with the habit of using other washing tools, suffering from dermatosis and more service years than the others in the compared groups, and there were statistically significance (P 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The demodex infection rate is relatively high in soldiers. It was related to the factors of living conditions, length of services years, personal hygiene habit and facial dermatitis. So it is necessary to enhance the healthy education of the preventive knowledge, and emphasis on the importance of good hygiene habit culture.%目的 调查新疆某部战士人体蠕形螨感染情况并分析相关因素.方法 采用透明胶纸粘贴法对335名部队战士开展蠕形螨的感染检查,并对家庭背景、个人卫生习惯及面部皮肤类型、疾患作问卷调查分析.结果 蠕形螨总感染率为25.37%,混用日常洗浴用品者、面部清洁次数少且有面部皮肤疾患者及入伍时间长的患者感染率明显高于同类对比组,各组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).感染主要以毛囊蠕形螨为主,毛囊蠕形螨和皮脂蠕形螨的感染率构成比分别是76.47%和15.29%,二者差异有统计学意义(P<0.0 001).不同年龄段及不同地域、城乡间战士的感染率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 蠕形螨感染在部队战士群体中较普遍,主要与集体生活环境、入伍时间长短、个人卫生习惯、面部皮肤类型及疾患等因素有密切关系,应加强相关预防知识的宣传教育,培养良好的个人卫生习惯.

  4. 人体蠕形螨人群感染现场流行病学的调查与分析%AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF DEMODEX INFESTED POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾少华; 彭先楚; 汪世平; 李文凯; 周松华; 刘雪琴; 张加祥; 肖小芹; 徐绍锐; 姜孝新

    2006-01-01

    目的了解人群感染蠕形螨情况和流行规律及居住环境中物品污染情况,为科学防治提供依据. 方法应用挤压刮拭法和透明胶纸粘贴法检验人体皮肤;采用透明胶纸法检验物器具. 结果调查发现在校中学生感染率为48.05%, 连续4次检查男、女人群感染率差异无显著性;蠕形螨人群感染随年龄增加而增多,对154名在校生的观察,人体蠕形螨感染具有家庭聚集性;宾馆房间物品检测,面巾和面巾挂杆污染率分别为0.07%和0.03%. 结论蠕形螨人群感染具有家庭聚集性,外界物品可作为传播载体,防治人体蠕形螨应包括感染者和与感染者共同生活人群的治疗,对感染者居住环境中的物品应采取消杀等措施进行处理.%Objective To investigate the trends in prevalence of Demodex-infested population and the mite distribution in household appliances, so as to provide scientific evidence for prevention and controlling of Demodex infestation. Methods A number of Demodex-infested population and household appliances were tested for Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis using the scraping method or the cellophane tape swab. Results The survey showed that the general positive rate was 63.84% in the Changsha area, and the positive rate increased with ageing. The survey also showed that the general positive rate of high school students was 48.05%, and the positive rate went up yearly. Investigation of 154 students from different families showed that the Demodex infestation featured a clustering of families. The examinations of hotel household appliances demonstrated that the Demodex-contamination rates of towel racks and towels were 0.03% and 0.07%, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that the positive rates of Demodex infestation goes up yearly in the fixed group of investigated persons and the infestation features a clustering in families. The household articles may act as "vectors". Measures for treatment and

  5. Investigation on the Infection of Demodex in Middle School Students%中学生面部蠕形螨感染调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施阳; 黄广伟; 范艳萍; 刘志鹏; 石妹媛; 王来努; 丁戎武; 王瑞; 张莉

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查大理州永平县龙门乡中学生面部蠕形螨的感染情况,并分析感染的原因。方法:采用透明胶带粘贴法对211名中学生面部蠕形螨的感染情况进行调查,并观察其面部皮肤状况。结果:蠕形螨总感染率为6.16%;男生感染率(7.34%)高于女生(4.9%);感染虫种多为毛囊蠕形螨,少数为皮脂蠕形螨,差异有统计学意义(x。=7.538,P〈0.05);采用清水、香皂、洗面奶、药皂四种洗脸方式间差异有统计学意义(x。=1.526,P〈0.05);学生住校与住家的感染率差异有统计学意义(x2=10.972,P〈0.05);面额部的检出率高于其他部位,且油性与中性皮肤较干性皮肤检出率高,差异有统计学意义(x:=1-314,P〈O.05)。结论:永平县龙门乡中学生面部存在蠕形螨感染的情况,应加强对学生面部蠕形螨的防治。%Objective: To investigate the infective status and reasons of Demodex in middle school students at Longmen Township of Yongping County in Dali Prefecture. Methods: Facial infection of Demodex of 211 middle school students were examined by cellophane tape method and the facial skin condition were also recorded. Results: The infection rate of Demodex was 6.16% in middle school student. The infection rate of male (7.34%) was higher than that of female (4.9%). The infection rate of Demodex folliculorum was higher than that of Demodex brevis (~2=7.538, P〈O.05). There were significant differences on the infection rates of the students washing with water, soap, cleanser and medicated soap. (X2=1.526, P〈0.05). and there was significant difference on infective rate of students living in school or at home (X2=10.972,/)〈0.05). The infection rate of Demodex at frontal was higher than the rates of other parts and the infection rate of students who were oily skin was higher than that of students who were normal skin or dry skin (X2

  6. Avaliação da qualidade físico-química e aceitabilidade de passas de pêssego submetidas à desidratação osmótica Evaluation of physico-chemical quality and acceptance of dried peaches submitted to osmotic dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2005-12-01

    indicated that the coating reduced solid incorporation and increased water loss. The dried peaches obtained under Treatments 1 and 2 were submitted to sensorial evaluation and presented a good general acceptance. Dried fruits stored at room temperature showed microbiological contamination after 40 days irrespective of the package (plastic bag, polyethylene package or cellophane package while fruits treated with chemical preservative (Treatment 3 did not show visual microbiological contamination at such period of storage.

  7. Antifungal Activities ofPenicillium minioluteum ZF1 and Its Metabolites toFusarium graminearum%微黄青霉ZF1及其代谢产物对禾谷镰孢的抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏前富; 贾娇; 孟玲敏; 李红; 张伟; 晋齐鸣; 丛斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Penicillium minioluteum ZF1 was isolated from the soil and identified as having the effect of biological control in previous studies. The objective of this study is to analyze the inhibition effect of the isolate and its culture filtrate with chemical fungicide to Fusarium graminearum, clarify the value of ZF1, and to offer a novel method for controlling the stalk rot and ear rot which are caused byF. graminearum.[Method]F. graminearum was inoculated at the mixed PDA and the growth speed was calculated. The effect of secondary metabolites on control of the mycelial growth ofF. graminearum was known when cellophane removed andF. graminearum was inoculated. Fludioxonil, ZF1 culture filtrate and the two mixtures were compared each other, and their EC50 and EC95 were measured. The leaves at 5-leaf stage and kernels at milk-ripe stage were inoculated withP. minioluteum, and the process was observed.[Result]P. minioluteum ZF1 could obviously inhibit the mycelial growth of F. graminearum. The inhibition ratio reached 81.33%. The area of inhibited mycelial growth ofF. graminearumwas 16.21 cm2 compared with the control groups. The effect of secondary metabolite ofP. minioluteum was inoculated on PDA plate removed cellophane which inhibited the mycelia growth of F. graminearum reached 55.46%. The filtrate ofP. minioluteum which were diluted 10, 20, 50 and 100 folds inhibited the growth area of mycelia ofF. graminearum were 81.04%, 64.46%, 22.67% and 1.12%, respectively. The mycelia of morphology were not changed when ZF1 culture filtrate was added in PDA. The mixture of fludioxonil and 10% culture filtrate ofP. minioluteum had the better effect than each single. The EC50 and EC95 values of fludioxonil toF. graminearum were 0.0162 and 0.5287μg·mL-1, respectively. The inhibition ratios of 10% culture filtrate ofP. minioluteumand 0.5μg·mL-1 fludioxonil were 86.45% and 95.13%, respectively. EC50and EC95 values of the two mixtures were 0.0023 and 0.4011μg·mL-1

  8. 2011年德州市农村居民土源性线虫感染及认知行为现状%Soil-transmitted nematode infections and cognitive behavior in rural resi-dents of Dezhou City in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐北霜; 王莹; 董健; 郗德凤; 张京京

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解德州市农村居民土源性线虫感染现状、土源性线虫病防治知识知晓及健康行为形成情况。方法按照分层抽样法,选择6个村作为调查点,以调查点≥3岁的常住人口为调查对象。采用改良加藤厚涂片法检测调查对象粪便中蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫虫卵,12周岁以下儿童以透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫卵。在每个调查点随机抽取50户以上的家庭,对家庭成员进行土源性线虫病防治知识知晓情况及卫生行为调查。结果共粪检2294人,阳性11人,土源性线虫总感染率为0.48%;蛲虫感染检测260人,阳性40人,蛲虫感染率为15.38%。入户调查898人,土源性线虫病防治知识知晓率为44.99%,70%以上的调查者有良好卫生行为。结论德州市农村居民土源性线虫感染率较低,但儿童蛲虫感染率较高;人群卫生行为较好,但防治知识知晓率偏低。应继续加强防治工作,促进健康教育,以有效降低该病的危害。%Objective To understand the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections,as well as the awareness and healthy behavior on soil-transmitted nematodiasis in rural residents of Dezhou City. Methods Six villages were selected according to the stratified sampling method;the permanent resident population aged 3 years or above was determined as the investigation objects. The modified Kato-Katz technique was adopted to detect the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides,hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in the feces of the residents,and the method of cellophane anal swab was used to detect the Enterobius vermicularis infection in children under 12 years old. More than 50 households in each investigated site were randomly selected to investigate the awareness status on nematodiasis prevention and treatment and the condition of healthy behavior formation. Results A total of 2 294 residents were detected by Kato-Katz methods,11 of them were positive,and the total

  9. Investigation on prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors for children in southwest areas of China%中国西南地区儿童土源性线虫感染及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兵; Scott Rozelle; 王国飞; 张林秀; 罗仁福; 田洪春; 唐丽娜; 王聚君; Alexis Medina; Paul Wise

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status and main risk factors of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China so as to provide the evidence for making the control programs for soil-transmitted nematodiasis. Methods The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections was determined by Kato-Katz technique and influencing factors were surveyed by using a standardized questionnaire, and in part of the children, the examination of Enterobius vermicularis eggs was performed by using ihe cellophane swab method. The relationship between soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors was analyzed by the multiple probit estimated method. Results A total of 1 707 children were examined, with a soil-transmitted nematode infection rate of 22.2%, the crowd infection rates oiAscaris lumhricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura were 16.0%, 3.8% and 6.6% respectively and 495 children were examined on Enterobius vermicularis eggs, with the infection rate of 5.1%. The results of probit estimated analysis suggested that the effects of 4 factors on soil-transmitted nematode infections were significant (all P values were less than 0.05) .namely the number of sib, educational level of mother, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry. Among the factors above, the educational level of mother could reduce the probability of infection (ME= -0.074) ,while the number of sib, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry could increase the probability of the infections (with ME of 0.028,-0.112 and 0.080, respectively). Conclusions Soil-transmitted nematode infection rates are still in a high level for children in southwest poor areas of China, with Ascaris lumbricoides as a priority. The changes of children' s bad health habits, raising livestock and poultry habits, and implementing the health education about parasitic diseases in mothers would be of great significance for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis

  10. Analysis on the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections at the monitoring spot of Chongqing from 2006 to 2010%重庆市2006—2010年土源性线虫病国家级监测点监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢君; 吴成果; 罗飞; 蒋诗国; 李珊珊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand infection status and epidemic law of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Chongqing.Methods The stool samples of the residents at monitoring spot of Chongqing were collected and examined for Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichiura and hookworms with modified Kato-Katz thick smear "one stool specimen-three slides" from September to November during 2006-2010,and adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied additionally for examining the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3-12.Ten soil samples were collected for microscopic examination on fertilized or unfertilized Ascaris eggs and the living ability of fertilized Ascaris eggs was determined.Results The total of 5 071 persons were investigated from 2006 to 2010 and the annual infection rates were 5.79%,13.52%,16.63%,8.62%and 2.81% showing a declined tendency (x2=3.65,P < 0.01).The infection rates of females were higher than males in 2007 and 2008 (x2=4.66,P < 0.05;x2 =25.29,P < 0.01).The infection rate of 5-year-old was in the highest level in 2006 and 2010.In 2010 the infection rate of 50-year-old was in the highest level.The ancylostomiasis and Ascaris were the major soil transmitted nematode diseases.The infection rates of Enterobius vermicularis were not significantly different between boys and girls.It showed a declined tendency in pinworm infection in girls(x2=16.36,P < 0.01)while it showed no difference in boys(x2=8.45,P > 0.05).The positive rates of Ascaris eggs in soil samples were 52.5%,37.5%,17.5%,30.0% and 20.0% showing a declined tendency (x2 =16.36,P < 0.01).Conclusion According to the 5 years monitoring,the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was declined,but health education and mass chemotherapy should be enhanced continuously.%目的 掌握重庆市土源性线虫病流行动态和流行规律.方法 2006-2010年,每年9-12月在重庆市监测点采集年龄3周岁以上的全体常驻居民粪便,采用改良加

  11. Surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infection at a national surveillance spot in Shandong Province from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年山东省国家级监测点土源性线虫感染情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 魏庆宽; 孔祥礼; 陈锡欣; 石增宝; 马成涛; 张本光; 万功群; 赵长磊; 王用斌; 张佃波; 缪峰; 付兆义; 卜秀芹

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解山东省国家级监测点2006-2010年人群土源性线虫病感染率变化及影响因素,掌握流行规律,为制定防治策略提供科学依据.方法 对监测点常住人口土源性线虫感染情况进行调查,采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查粪便蛔虫、鞭虫和钩虫等虫卵,3~12周岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫虫卵.结果 2006-2010年共检查5076人次,土源性线虫感染率从2006年的27.9%降为2010年的7.2%,下降幅度达74.19%,x2检验呈逐年下降趋势(x2=189.530,P<0.01).蛔虫和鞭虫的平均感染率分别为2.8%、14.2%,感染率均呈逐年下降趋势(x2蛔=33.448,x2鞭=160.528,P均<0.01).钩虫感染每年仅1例或2例,无统计学意义.感染者以50岁以上和20岁以下年龄段为主,并且随年龄的增加,感染率有上升趋势(x2 =111.458,P<0.01).以农民感染率最高,其次为学生和学龄前儿童(x2 =77.175,P<0.01).3~ 12岁儿童蛲虫感染率2010年降为2.2%,且逐年下降(x2=11.856,P<0.05).结论 山东省国家级监测点2006-2010年人群土源性线虫感染率呈下降趋势,老人、儿童和农民为防治的重点人群.%Objective To understand the infection status and related factors of soil-transmitted nematodes at the national surveillance spot of Shangdong Province,and provide the scientific evidence for making the control policy.Methods Kato-Katz thick smears was applied for examining the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in fecal samples collected among local residents,additionally,the adhesive cellophane anal swab method was used for detecting Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3-12.Results A total of 5076 people received the examination from 2006 to 2010.The average infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was reduced from 27.9% in 2006 to 7.2% in 2010,decreased by 74.19%.The rate showed an annual decline trend by Chi-square test (x2 =189.530,P < 0.01).The average infection

  12. 北京市2006-2010年土源性线虫病监测结果分析%Analysis on surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Beijing municipality, 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何战英; 甘亚弟; 王小梅; 王全意; 黎新宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Beijing during 2006-2010,and the awareness rate of villagers about the major parasitic diseases in 14 districts.Methods The residents at monitoring spot of Daxing District in Beijing were examined for Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichiura and hookworms with modified Kato-Katz thick smear"one stool specimen-three slides" from September to November from 2006 to 2010.Adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied for examining the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3-12,other parasite species detected were registered as well.At the same time,soil samples of 10 household garden and surrounding were collected for microscopic examination on fertilized or unfertilized Ascaris eggs and identification of live and dead fertilized Ascaris eggs.A questionnaire survey about major parasitic diseases was carried out in 14 districts of Beijing,2010.One village was selected each district.Other districts in the city center were not included.Results A total of 5 172 persons was investigated during 5 years,including 356 children aged 3-12.Cases infected by soiltransmitted nematodes were not detected.A total 200 soil samples was collected and no Ascaris eggs was detected in the soil.A total of 283 villagers coming from 14 districts was investigated about relevant knowledge of major parasitic diseases control,their pass rate of prevention knowledge was 85.16%(241/283) and the pass rate of health behavior was 91.52% (259/283).Conclusion The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes at monitoring spot of Beijing was low,the proportion that villagers take correct measures to prevent the parasite diseases was high,but the risk of infection still exists.It is necessary to continue monitoring and developing health education.%目的 了解2006-2010年北京市土源性线虫病监测点的感染状况及14个辖区的村民对重点寄生虫病的知晓情况.方法 2006

  13. Investigation and analysis of intestinal parasitic diseases infection status among primary school students in Lingao County of Hainan%临高县小学生肠道寄生虫病感染情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赛凤; 吕刚; 芦亚君; 甘秀凤

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查海南省临高县小学生肠道寄生虫病的感染情况,了解该地区肠道寄生虫病的流行状况和影响因素,为肠道寄生虫病在当地小学生中的防治提供科学数据和理论性依据.方法 2015年6~8月以临高县小学1~3年级学生为调查对象,以粪便为检验物使用生理盐水涂片法、饱和硝酸钠浮聚法检查蛔虫卵、鞭虫卵及钩虫卵;使用透明胶纸粘贴法检查蛲虫卵.检出虫卵者确定为感染者,依虫卵种类不同分别计数并进行统计分析.结果 本次调查共采集粪便标本1125份,肠道寄生虫病总感染率为48.53%.蛔虫病、鞭虫病、钩虫病、蛲虫病的感染率分别为6.13%、4.36%、0.98%、37.07%.一年级、二年级、三年级学生感染率分别是58.19%、48.43%、37.57%,不同年级感染率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=31.454,P<0.05);男学生、女学生的感染率分别是7.20%、4.27%,不同性别之间感染率比较差异具有统计学意义(χ2=3.965,P<0.05).结论 临高县小学生肠道寄生线虫病的感染情况仍比较严重,蛲虫病感染率最高,钩虫病感染率最低;肠道寄生虫病是该地区危害儿童健康和生长发育的主要因素之一,当地卫生部门应定期普查普治,加强卫生宣教,关注儿童健康.%Objective To understand epidemic status and influencing factors of intestinal parasitic disease among pupils in Lingao County and provide scientific data and theoretical basis for the prevention and control of intesti-nal parasitic disease in the local primary school. Methods A total of 1125 fecal samples were acquired from the grade 1~3 students in primary school in Liangao County, who was randomly selected from June to August in 2015. Normal sa-line smear and saturated sodium nitrate flotation method were used to detect the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, hook-worm and Trichuris trichi in fecal samples. Pinworm eggs were detected by cellophane tape method. Each kind of eggs was

  14. Analysis on results of investigation on soil-transmitted nematode infections at the surveillance sites in Jiangsu from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年江苏省土源性线虫病监测点调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈明学; 金小林; 江文才; 曹汉钧; 徐祥珍; 高琪

    2012-01-01

    Objective Objective To analyze the prevalent trend of soil-transmitted nematode infections at the surveillance sites in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2010.Methods The national surveillance site of soil-transmitted nematode infections was located in Huaji village of Shuyang County in Suqian City.There were eighty three provincial and municipal level surveillance sites.From 2006 to 2010,fecal samples of the residents of 3 years old and above were collected in every autumn and the intestinal helminth eggs were examined with the modified Kato-Katz thick smear technique.Soil samples which were also collected from vegetable fields,lavatory,courtyard and kitchen of 10 randomly selected families with stool egg-positive,were examined for Ascaris eggs by a modified saturated sodium nitrate floated method.Cellophane tapes were applied to detect pinworm eggs for children aged 3-12 years old.Results The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode in residents and pinworm in children at the Shuyang County surveillance sites reduced from 1.81%(19/1049) and 4.72% (5/106) in 2006 to 1.23% (13/1061) and 0(0/90) in 2010 respectively,and infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode and pinworm decreased 32.04% and 100% respectively.The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode in residents and pinworm in children also showed a downtrend in other surveillance sites,from 2.61% (2547/97405) and 2.42% (3187/131 965) in 2006 to 0.84% (900/107 233) and 0.95% (1 015/106 959) in 2010 respectively,The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematode and pinworm decreased 67.82% and 60.74% respectively.The infection intensity in all infected people was light.None of Ascaris eggs was found in all 200 soil samples from 50 families.Conclusion The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode in residents and pinworm in children showed a decreased trend and kept a low level of prevalence in Jiangsu Province during 2006-2010.%目的 分析江苏省土源性线虫病监测点2006

  15. 四川省国家级监测点2006-2010年土源性线虫病流行特征分析%The analysisis on the epidemiological characteristics of the soil-transmitted nematode infection at the national monitoring points in Sichuan from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红; 田洪春; 王信刚; 罗静雯; 刘常华; 刘文林; 郑德福; 陈漪澜; 张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the time trend and the main influencing factors of soil-transmitted nematodiasis at the national monitoring points in Sichuan so as to provide scientific basis for control strategies.Methods The modified Kato's thick smear method and cellophane tape anal swab method were used to monitor the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematode infections in residents at monitoring points.The saturated sodium nitrate floating method was used to detect the roundworm egg contamination in soil samples collected.Results A population of 5616 (2725 male and 2891 female) was examined from 2006 to 2010.Soil-transmitted nematodes infection rates were 32.06%,14.4%,10.16%,3.21% and 5.62% from 2006 to 2010.The infection rates of roundworm,hookworm,and whipworm in male were 1.32%,11.16% and 0.37%,while 1.56%,11.41%,0.42% in female respectively.The infection rates of roundworm,hookworm,and whipworm declined from 2006 to 2010.Roundworm eggs in soil at vegetable garden,beside lavatory,courtyard and kitchen in 50 households were tested.The results were 6.0%,4.0%,2.0% and 4.0%,respectively.There was no significant difference among the distributions of unfertilized eggs,fertilized eggs and live fertilized eggs in different locations.The fertilized roundworm eggs and live fertilized roundworm eggs found in soil decreased by years.Conclusion The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in the national monitoring points in Sichuan decreased from 2006 to 2010.The contamination rotes of roundworm eggs in soil also decreased by years.%目的 了解四川省国家级监测点2006-2010年居民土源性线虫病感染时段变化及其影响因素,了解居民的菜园、厕所周边、厨房和庭院4类环境中土壤蛔虫卵污染情况,掌握土源性线虫病的流行规律,为制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 采用改良加藤厚涂片法和透明胶纸肛拭法,对监测点常住居民土源性线

  16. 福建省2006-2010年土源性线虫感染的监测%Surveillance on the Prevalence of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in Fujian in 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝建; 李莉莎; 张榕燕; 李燕榕; 张智芳; 郑国斌; 方彦炎; 林陈鑫; 江典伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalent trend of soil-transmitted nematode infection in Fujian Province during the past 5 year surveillance and evaluate the control effect. Methods From 2006 to 2010, fecal samples of the inhabitants of 3 years old and above were collected every November and examined for intestinal helminth eggs by the modified Kato' s thick smear technique at the 2 surveillance sites: Punan village of Zhangzhou and Cushan village of Shaowii. Cellophane tapes were used to detect pinworm eggs for children aged 3-12. Soil samples were also collected from vegetable field, lavatory, courtyard and kitchen of 20 randomly selected families (in 2 villages) each with stool egg-positive findings and examined for ascaris eggs by a modified saturated sodium nitrate floatation method. Results The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infection at the surveillance sites decreased from 45.3% (946/2 087) in 2006 to 15.1% (226/1 494) in 2010, with a reduction of 66.6%. Among the infected subjects, hookworm infection occupied 75%-85%, while ascaris or trichuris infections each accounted for less than 10%. In terms of infection intensity, 65.2%-85.5% of the hookworm infection was light, and majority of the infected subjects were farmers. The pinworm prevalence in children were still high although it had dropped down from 46.1% (140/304) in 2006 to 29.8% (36/121) in 2010, declined by 35.4%. In the 5 years, totally 400 soil samples from 100 families were examined and 21 samples were found ascaris egg positive with viable eggs in only one sample. Conclusion The 5 year surveillance reveals a decreasing trend of the soil-transmitted nematode prevalence but shows a relatively high hookworm infection rate in the population and pinworm infection in children.%目的 分析福建省土源性线虫感染及变化情况,为制定该地区土源性线虫病防治策略与评价防治效果提供科学依据.方法 2006-2010年对福建省漳州市浦南镇浦南村和邵武市鼓山

  17. Survey of intestinal parasitic infections and related knowledge and behavior of residents in Jiaodong area of Shandong Province%山东省胶东地区居民肠道寄生虫感染及相关认知行为状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王用斌; 万功群; 黄炳成; 许艳; 孔祥礼; 张本光; 卜秀芹; 赵长磊; 张佃波; 缪峰; 陈锡欣

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解山东省胶东地区肠道寄生虫感染及相关认知行为现状,为制定现阶段相应的防治策略提供科学依据。方法按照分层抽样法,选择胶东地区6个县的18个村作为调查点。采用改良加藤厚涂片法(Kato-Katz)检测调查点≥3岁常住居民粪便中的常见肠道寄生虫虫卵,12岁以下儿童以透明胶纸肛拭法检查蛲虫卵。每调查点随机抽取50户家庭,采用结构式问卷调查家庭基本情况及居民寄生虫病防治知识知晓和卫生行为形成情况等。结果粪检6163人,肠道寄生虫总感染率6.91%,其中鞭虫、蛔虫、钩虫感染率分别为6.56%、0.62%、0.21%;12岁以下儿童蛲虫感染率为0.51%;未检测到华支睾吸虫、带绦虫等其他虫卵。人群寄生虫病防治知识知晓率为49.54%;饭前洗手、便后洗手、生吃瓜果蔬菜洗净、下地干农活不光脚、不喝生水等健康行为形成率分别为97.78%、91.95%、88.81%、92.42%、86.48%。结论胶东地区人群肠道寄生虫感染水平较低,但地区间差异较大;寄生虫病防治知识知晓率不高,但卫生行为形成情况较好。应加强健康教育及重点人群服药,积极推进农村改水改厕工程,尽快降低肠道寄生虫病的危害。%Objective To understand the status of intestinal parasitic infections and the related knowledge and behavior in residents of Jiaodong area of Shandong Province,so as to provide the evidence for making an appropriate preventive and control strategy. Methods A total of 18 villages from 6 counties in Jiaodong area were selected as investigation sites according to the stratified sampling method. The feces samples of the permanent residents aged above 3 years were collected and examined by Kato-Katz technique to find the intestinal parasite eggs,and the children under 12 years old were examined by the method of cellophane anal swab to detect the Enterobius vermicularis eggs. In

  18. 厦门、漳州2市11县(区)儿童蛲虫感染情况调查%Investigation on Enterobius vermicularis infection in children of Xiamen and Zhangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝建; 李莉莎; 李燕榕

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解厦门与漳州市辖区的城乡儿童蛲虫感染情况,分析蛲虫感染的危险因素,为蛲虫病的防治提供指导. 方法 2011年选取厦门与漳州市辖区的11个县市(区)11所幼儿园及3所小学为调查点,采用圆底试管透明胶纸肛拭法检查2~12周岁的儿童和小学一、二年级学生蛲虫感染情况.通过问卷调查受检儿童及其家庭的基本情况、卫生习惯和学校环境等相关知识,并分析蛲虫感染的影响因素. 结果 共调查2市11个县(区)11所幼儿园和3所小学的儿童1 651名,回收合格问卷1 452份.儿童蛲虫总感染率为13.57% (224/1 651),其中,漳州市的芗城区感染率最高,为30.36% (34/112),厦门市湖里区感染率为0,即未发现蛲虫感染者.漳州镇区蛲虫总感染率18.08%(161/890),显著高于厦门城区总蛲虫感染率2.28% (63/761),两者差异具有统计学意义(x2=33.67,P<0.01).男童感染率为12.97% (114/879),女童感染率为14.25% (110/662),两者差异无统计学意义(x2=0.5737,P>0.05).蛲虫感染的主要影响因素为儿童的居住地,父母亲文化、职业,教室地面情况和儿童寄读境况等. 结论 漳州镇区的儿童蛲虫感染情况依然严重,应针对蛲虫感染的相关影响因素采取相应的防控措施,以保护儿童的身心健康.%Objective To investigate the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection in children of Xiamen and Zhangzhou cities,and analyze its risk factors.Methods In 2011,11 kindergartens and 3 primary schools in Xiamen and Zhangzhou were chosen as investigation spots,respectively.Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube.Information of children's family condition,health behavior and school environment was collected by questionnaire,then the risk factors of the infection were analyzed.Results Totally 1 651 children were examined,and 1 452 qualified questionnaires were collected.The total prevalence

  19. 2006-2010年我国儿童蛲虫感染监测及SWOT分析%Monitoring of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children from 2006 to 2010 and SWOT analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长海; 朱慧慧; 臧炜; 张雪强; 陈颖丹

    2014-01-01

    -matodiasis(Trial),and the children aged 3-12 years were examined through adhesive cellophane anal swabs,then the infec-tion rates of children with different ages,genders,nationalities and education levels were analyzed. In addition,the advantage, disadvantage,opportunity and threat of the monitoring work were analyzed by SWOT analysis. Results A total of 17 068 chil-dren were examined in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010,and 1 363 of them were found being infected with E. vermicu-laris,the average infection rate was 7.99%,and the infection rates of male and female children were 7.39%and 8.70%,respec-tivel;the average infection rates in each year were 10.01%,9.68%,7.41%,6.96%and 6.57%,respectively. From 2006 to 2009,the infection rates of E. vermicularis in children in Fujian Province was the highest,which were 56.15%,53.42%, 37.82%and 49.53%,respectively,but in 2010,the infection rate in Guangdong Province(46.06%)was the highest. The fur-ther analysis demonstrated that the female children,3-6 age group,Li nationality and children at kindergarten stage had relative-ly high infection rates. The SWOT analysis showed that the advantage of E. vermicularis monitoring in China was its wide cover-age and continuity,and the disadvantage was the relatively small investment from the government,the opportunity was that the national monitoring spot could drive the monitoring work at the provincial,county and other levels,and the threat was that the work was paid less and less attention to in recent years. Conclusion Though the infection rate of E. vermicularis in children at national monitoring spots of soil-transmitted nematodosis has been decreased year by year,high-endemic areas still exist,and thus the work on enterobiasis control and prevention still needs to be strengthened.

  20. Enterobius vermicularis Infection Status among Children in 9 Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities of China%中国9省(区、市)儿童蛲虫感染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖丹; 王聚君; 朱慧慧; 诸廷俊; 臧炜; 钱门宝; 李红梅; 周长海; 王国飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis among children in 9Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/MM) of China,and analyze its risk factors.Method From April to December 2011,one provincial capital (prefecture-level city) and one county (city,district) were chosen as investigation spots from Guangdong,Guangxi,Hainan,Chongqing,Sichuan,Zhejiang,Fujian,Anhui and Guizhou,respectively.Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube.Information of children's family condition,health behavior and school environment were collected by questionnairing.Results 14 964 children were examined,and 14 582 qualified questionnaires were collected.The total prevalence was 17.8% (2659/14964).Of the 9 P/A/M,the prevalence was highest in Hainan Province (51.1%,869/1701) and lowest in Anhui Province(0.8%,13/1 589).The prevalence in urban areas (7.3%,552/7581) was lower than that of rural areas (28.5%,2 107/7 383)(x2=1156.73,P<0.01).The highest prevalence in urban and rural areas was found in Haikou City(38.0%,322/847) and Wanning City (64.1%,547/854) of Hainan Province.The prevalence rate in males and females was 17.4%(1410/8 128) and 18.3% (1249/6834),respectively (x2=2.192,P>0.05).The highest prevalence in males (61.2%,300/490)and females (67.9%,247/364) was found in children of Wanning City.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that residence,education level of parents,occupation of parents,nail biting,types of classroom ground and type of boarding were the risk factors on E.vermicularis infection.Conclusion The prevalence of enterobiasis in children is still high in many areas of China,and the prevention and control measures should be taken according to the risk factors.%目的 了解中国9省(区、市)城乡儿童蛲虫感染情况,分析蛲虫病感染的危险因素,为蛲虫病的防治提供指导. 方法 于2011年4~12月分别选取广东、广西

  1. 广州市海珠区学龄前儿童蛲虫感染情况调查%Investigation on threadworm infection of preschool children in Haizhu District,of Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 潘捷云; 凌远理

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the threadworm infection of preschool children in Haizhu District of Guangzhou and provide reliable evidence for enterobiasis prevention and treatment. Method Conducting threadworm infection examination for 506 children at 3 to 6 years old by cellophane tape method, and understanding the awareness rate of enterobiasis prevention & treatment knowledge and formation rate of health behaviors of 512 children and parents through questionnaire. Results The infection rate of 506 preschool children was 2. 96% , and there was no significant statistical difference in infection rate between girls and boys (χ2 = 0. 586, P = 0. 444 ) . The infection rate of children in rural kindergarten was higher than those in urban (χ2 =11. 220, P = 0. 001) , older people had higher infection rate (χ2 = 10. 380, P = 0. 001) , and class infection was found. The awareness rate of knowledge of enterobiasis prevention & treatment of the 512 residents was 97. 26% , and pupil was higher than adult (χ2 =4. 386, P =0. 036) , however, and there was no significant statistical difference between urban and rural - urban continuum residents (χ2 =0. 035 , P =0. 851) . The formation rate of health behaviors was 88. 08% , and there was no significant statistical difference between children and adults, (χ2 =1.791, P =0. 181), but the rate of urban residents was higher than that of rural - urban continuum residents (x2 = 9. 933, P = 0. 002) . Conclusions The threadworm infection rate of preschool children in Haizhu District of Guangzhou was low, and it's related to public health and hygienic habits. Strengthening health education was effective measures on further control of threadworm infection.%目的 了解广州市海珠区学龄前儿童蛲虫感染情况,为蛲虫病防治提供可靠依据.方法 用透明胶纸粘贴法,对506名3~6岁儿童进行蛲虫感染检查,并用问卷调查法了解512名儿童和家长的蛲虫病防治知识知晓率

  2. 唐山市不同职业人群面部蠕形螨感染情况调查及影响因素分析%Facial Demodex infection and factors affecting its prevalence among individuals in different occupations in the City of Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪璘; 王娜; 王菁菁; 董琳琳; 尤茜怡; 苏盈莹; 张慧; 田喜凤; 李冀

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查唐山市不同职业人群(在校生、银行职员、化妆品销售员)面部蠕形螨感染情况,并探讨蠕形螨感染相关因素. 方法 采用挤压法和透明胶带纸粘贴法,对鼻尖和鼻翼侧部进行蠕形螨的检查,同时调查受检者的年龄、性别等基本情况. 结果 共调查825人,面部蠕形螨感染244人,感染率29.58%,其中男性感染率为28.90%,女性感染率为30.08%;学生感染率为27.01%(其中小学生8.07%,初中生20.11%,高中生25.73%,大学生52.20%),银行职员为37.86%,化妆品销售员为37.00%;皮脂型蠕形螨感染者占8.61%,毛囊型占79.92%,混合型占11.47%;油性皮肤者感染率为42.91%,干燥型皮肤者感染率为24.37%,混合型皮肤者感染率为21.82%;患有酒糟鼻、痤疮等面部疾病者感染率为82.61%,高于无面部疾病者28.05%(x2=31.98,P<0.05);居住环境潮湿的受检者感染率为51.75%,高于居住环境干燥者17.81%(x2 =103.31,P<0.05). 结论 唐山市不同职业人群面部蠕形螨感染率不同.蠕形螨感染与年龄、性别、职业、皮肤类型、面部疾病、生活条件、居住(工作)环境及个人卫生习惯等有关.%Objectives This study examined the prevalence of demodicidosis of the face among individuals in the occupations of student (elementary, middle, and high school students and college students), bank clerk, and cosmetics saleswoman in Tangshan. This study also examined factors related to demodicidosis. Methods The tip and wings of the nose and nose flank were checked for demodicidosis using skin scrapings collected with cellophane tape. Tested individuals were surveyed regarding their age, sex, profession, skin type, facial conditions, living conditions, and home (work) environment, and personal hygiene. Results In total, 825 patients were studied; 244 had demodicidosis for a total rate of infection of 29. 58%. The rate of infection among males was 28. 90% and that

  3. Survey of infections of intestinal parasites and related factors in north-west Shandong Province%鲁西北地区居民肠道寄生虫感染及相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 缪峰; 孔祥礼; 王用斌; 卜秀芹; 张本光; 赵长磊; 刘新; 陈锡欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of intestinal parasites and related knowledge and behavior factors of the residents in north-west Shandong Province,so as to provide the evidence for taking targeted preventive measures. Meth-ods Eighteen villages were randomly selected as survey spots by the stratified multi-stage sample method. The Kato-Katz tech-nique was used to detect intestinal parasite eggs among the residents and the cellophane tape anus test was used to detect Entero-bius vermicularis eggs among 3-12 years old children. Questionnaires were applied to investigate related knowledge and behavior factors about the intestinal parasite infections in the residents. Results Totally 6 366 residents were detected for intestinal para-sites and the infection rate was 0.28%(18 cases). Totally 895 children were detected for E. vermicularis and the infection rate was 5.70%(51 cases). Totally 2 915 residents were investigated by questionnaires and the awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 26.72%. The formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC,washing fruit and vegetable before eating,never drinking unboiled water were 55.42%,42.87%,43.54%and 83.04%respectively. The aware-ness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases of 3-12 years old children was 12.24%;and the formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC were 47.04%and 30.44%respectively. Conclusions The total infection rate of intesti-nal parasites is low but the E. vermicularis infection rate is high among children in north-west Shandong Province. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases and the formation rates of healthy behaviors are all low. Therefore ,the tar-geted health education should be taken to increase the awareness rate and guide the residents to develop their healthy behaviors.%目的:了解鲁西北地区居民肠道寄生虫感染情况及相关认知状况,为采取有针对性的防治措

  4. Investigation on Multi-site Pinworm Infection in Rural Children of Ningxia and Chongqing%宁夏和重庆两地农村儿童多部位蛲虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹燕; 杨冬华; 陈思聪; 谭桥; 哈金银; 康晓霞; 何燕; 刘海凤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pinworm infection status of in rural children of ningxia and chongqing,provide theoretical evidence for the reduction of pinworm infection and development of operational countermeasures. Methods cellophane tape method was adopted to col ect samples of anus,samples of nostril and ear col ect by cot on swab method and nail samples were col ected by nail clippers.Product flims by brine flotation method and examine by optical microscope. Results Altogether 1000 children from under 12 year old were randomly inspected,and the total infection rate of pinworm was 22.00 percent for anus,3.40 percent forears,1.80 percent for nose and 9.20 percent for nail.Infection rate of pinworm in chongqing is 12.60 percent for anus, 2.20 percent for ears,0.40 percent for nose,3.80 percent for nail,meanwhile 9.40 percent for anus,1.20 percent for ears,1.40 percent for nose and 5.40 percent for nail in ningxia. The total infection rate of pinworm in ningxia is higher than chongqing, Hui more than the Tujia and Han is the lowest one.The infection rate on anus and nose is female higher than male. On the contrast,the infection rate is female lower than male on ears and nail. The infected peak of children is 6 to 12 years between dif erent ages. Conclusion The pinworm infection rate correlated with the environment arond children and children's health habits, also closely related with health concepts and occupation of parents. Suggested that schools and parents raise awareness of disease prevention, strengthen health education and expand the treatment scope of piperazine citrate to control pinworm infection,protect physical and mental health of children ef ectively.%目的:了解宁夏和重庆两地农村儿童蛲虫多部位感染情况,为降低和控制蛲虫感染率,制定实用可操作的防治对策提供科学依据。方法采用透明胶纸法采集受检者肛门标本;棉拭子法分别采集鼻孔、耳孔标本;指甲刀法采集指甲标

  5. Epidemiological situation of human parasitic diseases through three investi-gations in Jinhu County,Jiangsu Province%江苏省金湖县3次人体寄生虫病分布调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书梅; 孙道宽; 张翠萍; 陈德珍; 李倩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological situation of human parasitic diseases in Jinhu County,so as to pro⁃vide the evidence for formulating further control strategy. Methods The investigated local residents were sampled by the ran⁃dom cluster sampling method in 1989,1999 and 2015. The infections of intestinal helminthes were detected by Kato⁃Katz tech⁃nique,the eggs of Enterubius vermicularis were examined by cellophane anal swab for children,the intestinal protozoa were ex⁃amined by the saline smear and iodine staining methods. Results The total rates of parasitic infections were 62.57%,9.32%and 0.49%in 1989,1999 and 2015,respectively. Compared to those in 1989 and in 1999,the infection rate in 2015 was de⁃creased by 99.22%and 94.74%,respectively. The numbers of detected parasite species were 14,10 and 4 in 1989,1999 and 2015,respectively. The intensities of infections were mainly mild in three investigations,and the intensities of all the infections in 2015 were mild. The species of infected parasites were mainly single,however,multiple infections were observed in 1989,in⁃cluding 4 parasite species(0.72%)and 3 parasite species(7.02%). Only in 1989,the difference between sexes was significant and the infection rate of the female was higher than that of the male(χ2=18.01,P<0.01). Conclusions The infection rates of human parasites are decreased gradually and stabilized at the low level in Jinhu County. However,the surveillance work still should be strengthened to consolidate the achievement.%目的:了解金湖县人体寄生虫病流行状况,分析流行规律和影响因素,探讨今后防治对策。方法分别于1989、1999年和2015年在金湖县随机抽取调查点,对当地常住人口开展人体寄生虫病分布调查。采用改良加藤厚涂片法(Kato⁃Katz法)检查土源性线虫、华支睾吸虫、姜片吸虫感染情况,采用透明胶纸肛拭法检查儿童蛲虫卵,采用碘液涂片法和生理盐水

  6. INVESTIGATION ON THE STATUS OF SOIL BORNE NEMATODE DISEASE IN YANQING DISTRICT OF BEIJING CITY%北京市延庆区土源性线虫病现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光; 田丽丽; 万帝; 张镇权; 娄畅; 张英英; 刘书平

    2016-01-01

    了解北京市延庆区土源性线虫感染现状,并对居民土源性线虫感染相关知识的认知、行为、态度进行调查。根据地形、经济水平、行政区划等综合情况,按照分层随机抽样原则首先抽取4个乡(镇),每个乡(镇)抽取1个村调查居民250人,同时采集便标本,采用改良加藤厚涂片法( Kato⁃Katz法)检测肠道蠕虫卵(蛔虫卵、鞭虫卵、钩虫卵),用试管滤纸培养法鉴别钩虫虫种,3~6岁儿童采用透明胶纸肛拭法,检查蛲虫虫卵。结果共调查居民1000名,检出蛔虫卵1例,蛔虫感染率为0�1%,未检出其他虫卵。被调查居民中,58�60%听说过土源性线虫,知道蛔虫、鞭虫感染途径者占30�20%,3�80%的调查对象知道钩虫感染途径,50�20%知道寄生虫能对人造成危害,42�90%知道如何预防寄生虫病。能做到饭前便后洗手者占91�70%,26�70%有饮用生水习惯,7�40%用新鲜粪便施肥,1�2%赤脚下地劳动。在就诊意向方面,愿意花钱购买驱虫药服用者占98�10%,70�40%愿意改掉寄生虫感染风险不良行为习惯。延庆区居民对土源性线虫防治的健康行为持有率还有待进一步提高,应继续加强对高危人群的健康教育。%To explore the soil⁃transmitted nematodes infection status in Yanqing District of Beijing, and their cognition, behavior, attitude in the residents. The subjects were selected, according to the terrain, economic level, administrative division. 4 towns were selected, 250 villagers in each town, by using stratified random sampling method. The stool specimens were collected. The Kato Katz method was used to detect helminth eggs ( roundworm eggs, whipworm eggs and hookworm eggs) . The test tube filter paper culture method was used to determine the hookworm species. The cellophane tape anal swab method was used to examine pinworm eggs for 3 to 6 years