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Sample records for cellophane

  1. 21 CFR 177.1200 - Cellophane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol Lauryl sulfate salts: ammonium, magnesium, potassium, sodium Maleic acid 1 percent. Maleic acid... only in vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings. Sodium oleyl sulfate-sodium cetyl sulfate mixture For... identified in § 172.846 of this chapter Not to exceed 0.5 percent weight of cellophane. Sodium sulfate...

  2. Permeability of solutes through cellophanes grafted with vinyl monomers. I. Diffusion of potassium chloride, urea, and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusive permeability of potassium chloride, urea, and uric acid through cellophanes grafted with acrylamide, acrylic acid, styrene, and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone by γ-ray irradiation was studied. The diffusive permeability coefficients of the permeants through the grafted cellophanes were increased with increase in hydration of the grafted membranes, except for the permeation of potassium chloride through cellophanes grafted with acrylic acid. The permeation of potassium chloride, urea, and uric acid through the various grafted cellophanes is explained by the free volume concept of homogeneously water-swollen membranes. However, the behavior of the permeation of potassium chloride through cellophane grafted with acrylic acid deviated from that of nonionic membranes because of the contribution of the electrical interaction between electrolyte and charge of the membrane. 4 figures, 3 tables

  3. Lateral thoracotomy and cellophane banding of a congenital portoazygous shunt in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portoazygous venous shunt was identified in the caudodorsal aspect of the thorax in a young basset hound. During thoracotomy, the anomalous vessel was encircled with sterile cellophane tape. The vein became occluded based on postoperative radiographic examination and improved clinical function five weeks after surgery

  4. Cellophane based mini-prep method for DNA extraction from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique-Silva Flavio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for the extraction of DNA from filamentous fungi are frequently laborious and time consuming because most of the available protocols include maceration in liquid nitrogen after the mycelium has been grown in a liquid culture. This paper describes a new method to replace those steps, which involves the growth of the mycelium on cellophane disks overlaid on solid medium and the use of glass beads for cell wall disruption. Results Extractions carried out by this method provided approximately 2 μg of total DNA per cellophane disk for the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. To assess the DNA's quality, we made a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of a gene introduced by a transformation in this fungus's genome (hph gene, with successful results. We also confirmed the quality of the DNA by the use of Southern blotting to analyze the presence of the same gene, which was easily detected, resulting in a sharply defined and strong band. Conclusions The use of this method enabled us to obtain pure DNA from Trichoderma reesei, dispensing with the laborious and time-consuming steps involved in most protocols. The DNA obtained was found to be suitable for PCR and Southern blot analyses. Another advantage of this method is the fact that several samples can be processed simultaneously, growing the fungus on multiple well cell culture plates. In addition, the absence of maceration also reduces sample handling, minimizing the risks of contamination, a particularly important factor in work involving PCR.

  5. Permeability and Diffusion Coefficients of Single Methyl Lactate Enantiomers in Nafion® and Cellophane Membranes Measured in Diffusion Cell.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovorka, Š.; Randová, A.; Borbášová, T.; Sysel, P.; Vychodilová, Hana; Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Brožová, Libuše; Žitka, Jan; Storch, Jan; Kačírková, Marie; Drašar, P.; Izák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, JAN 28 (2016), s. 322-332. ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : diffusion coefficient measurement * permeability * nafion * cellophane * chirality of polymer membrane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.091, year: 2014

  6. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography and volume-rendered imaging for evaluation of cellophane banding in a dog with extrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yoon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, 1.8 kg, male, castrated Maltese was presented for evaluation of urolithiasis. Urinary calculi were composed of ammonium biurate. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 44.2 and 187.3 μmol/ , respectively (reference ranges 0–10 and 0–20 μmol/ , respectively. Single-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA with volume-rendered imaging (VRI was obtained. VRI revealed a portocaval shunt originating just cranial to a tributary of the gastroduodenal vein and draining into the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen. CTA revealed a 3.66 mm-diameter shunt measured at the level of the termination of the shunt and a 3.79 mm-diameter portal vein measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Surgery was performed using cellophane banding without attenuation. Follow-up single-phase CTA with VRI was obtained 10 weeks after surgery. VRI revealed no evidence of portosystemic communication on the level of a cellophane band and caudal to the cellophane band. CTA demonstrated an increased portal vein diameter (3.79–5.27 mm measured at the level between the origin of the shunt and the porta of the liver. Preprandial and postprandial bile acids were 25 and 12.5 μmol/ , respectively (aforementioned respective reference ranges, 3 months post-surgery. No problems were evident at 6 months.

  7. Some Limitations in the Use of Plastic and Dyed Plastic Dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Bjergbakke, Erling; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Several practical plastic and dyed plastic dosimeters were examined under irradiation conditions similar to those used for radiation processing of materials. Cellulose triacetate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, dyed polymethyl methacrylate, dyed Cellophane and dyed Nylon were given...

  8. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato G.L.; Barreto R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each): one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control). A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light). T...

  9. Effect of packaging films on the microflora of gamma irradiated vienna sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slime production of radurized VS (vienna sausage) was prevented largely in a package of O2 gas unpermeable films such as K-cellophane and EG-Q more than cellophane-polyethylene film when packed with N2 gas and stored at 100C, 90% r.h. All of the total microbial count in non-irradiated VS packed in every film reached 1 x 106 per gram after 2 to 3 days storage, and slime production was observed at this level. In the case of radurized VS, the total count reached 1 x 106 per gram after 4 to 5 days at 300 krad and after 7 to 8 days at 500 krad in cellophane-polyethylene, while it prolonged for 7 to 9 days at 300 krad and for more than 13 or 15 days at 500 krad in K-cellophane or EG-Q. The main microorganisms occurring in non-irradiated VS packed with N2 or CO2 gas in K-cellophane or EG-Q were lactic acid bacteria, and the growth of other organisms such as MA (an Intermediate type of Moraxella-Acinetobacter), yeasts and Micrococcus was suppressed under these conditions. The growth of surviving organisms consisting of MA and yeasts in radurized VS was also suppressed. A small amount of off-flavor detected after irradiation at 500 krad disappeared in cellophane-polyethylene after 7 days storage. But it remained in the O2 gas unpermeable films. (auth.)

  10. Studies Regarding the Membranous Support of a Glucose Biosensor Based on Gox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOx, the enzyme can be immobilized on the sensitive surface of a glass electrode by different techniques: deposition on membranous support (cellophane or other macromolecular material or entrapment in a matrix. Deposition on membranous support also involves cross-linking with glutaraldehyde or entrapment in silica gel, following the sol-gel procedure. The aim of this preliminary work was to study the influence of cellophane replacement with a PVA based membranous support on the glucose biosensor performance. The data obtained at pH measurements of buffer solutions with cellophane and PVA membranous supports respectively, show that the PVA based membrane assures superior performances of the biosensor for low glucose concentrations determination (about 10-4 M. These results allow the transition to an improved immobilization technique, namely the enzyme entrapment in membranous material.

  11. A Simple Homemade Polarised Sunglasses Test Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In this article construction of a simple and inexpensive test card which can be used to demonstrate the polarisation ability of sunglasses is described. The card was fabricated simply by using a piece of polariser sheet with one to three layers of cellophane tape fixed on it.

  12. Cellulose-Based Membranes for Solutes Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, T. S.; Yushkin, A. A.; Volkov, V. V.; Antonov, S. V.; Volkov, A. V.

    This work was focused on investigation of industrial cellophane film as a membrane material for solvent nanofiltration. The effect of conditioning of cellophane membranes by stepwise changing of composition of ethanol-water binary mixtures (from ethanol to water and from water to ethanol) was studied. It was shown that such treatment leads to an increase of ethanol permeability more than two orders of magnitude over initial untreated film samples. Treated cellophane membranes possess the ethanol permeability coefficient comparable with the values for highly permeability glassy polymers. Investigation of cellophane swelling in water ethanol solutions allowed to conclude that during the treatment formation of porous in the film takes place due to increase of inter chain distances. Observed high ethanol permeability connected with the fact that formed porous structure remains after the replacement of water with ethanol. Also it was shown that rejection coefficients of a number of dyes (MW 350) were in good agreement with the degree of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonding with the solute molecules. It was demonstrated that cellulose-based membranes can be complimentary for other type of the membranes in fractionation of multi-components solutions.

  13. A simple homemade polarised sunglasses test card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Farzad

    2016-05-01

    In this article construction of a simple and inexpensive test card which can be used to demonstrate the polarisation ability of sunglasses is described. The card was fabricated simply by using a piece of polariser sheet with one to three layers of cellophane tape fixed on it.

  14. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R.; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  15. Infection cushion formation by Rhizoctonia spp. on peanut and wheat root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of infection cushions by Rhizoctonia solani (isolate G-24) and R. cerealis (isolate Fellers) was examined on cellophane membranes in response to stimulation by roots of peanut (Okrun, Tamspan 90, Southwest runner and Line 209) and hard red winter wheat (Jagger, 2137, and 2174). Root s...

  16. Enterobiasis in Italy today: a Primary School’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an educational project concerning personal hygiene at school, an epidemiological investigation regarding circulation of Enterobius vermicularis was performed in a primary school in Perugia (Italy.A cellophane tape test was carried out among 97 pupils of 120 attending at the school (80.8%. Cellophane tape and specific explanations were previously provided to pupils and their parents.Thirteen pupils (13.4% were positive for the presence of oxyurs’ eggs, 12.2% among males (6/49 and 14.6% among females (7/49.This nematode was absent only in 1 out of 6 classes; in the remaining 5 positivity rates ranged between 5.3% and 25.0%. Investigation methodology and operating perspectives in connection with study results are shown and the importance of a continuous surveillance is emphasized in order to remind that enterobiasis has never disappeared.

  17. DNA of Dientamoeba fragilis detected within surface-sterilized eggs of Enterobius vermicularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röser, Dennis; Nejsum, Peter; Carlsgart, Anne Josefine; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2013-01-01

    With no evidence of a cyst stage, the mode of transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis, an intestinal protozoon of common occurrence and suggested pathogenicity, is incompletely known. Numerous studies have suggested that eggs of intestinal nematodes, primarily Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), can...... pinworm eggs collected from routine diagnostic samples (cellophane tape) and surface-sterilised by hypochlorite. DNA was extracted from individual eggs and tested by PCR using D. fragilis- and E. vermicularis-specific primers; amplicons were sequenced for confirmation. In cellophane tape samples from 64...... patients with unknown D. fragilis status we detected D. fragilis DNA in 12/238 (5%) eggs, and in a patient known to harbour D. fragilis we detected D. fragilis DNA in 39/99 (39%) eggs. The finding of D. fragilis DNA within eggs of E. vermicularis strongly supports the hypothesis of D. fragilis...

  18. Biotechnical process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide in a waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revah, S.; Hinojosa, A.; Marroquin, E; Morales, V. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    A process for the microbial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) present in exhaust gases from cellophane, rayon and sponge manufacturing plants was described. The microbial population was isolated from sulfurous sources and from water treatment plants and enriched by successive inoculations. The operation of a 50 cubic m per min pilot plant to remove the sulfur compounds present in the exhaust gas of a cellophane plant and a 300 cubic m per min industrial unit for a rayon plant were discussed. Typical efficiencies in both units were 98 per cent for H{sub 2}S and 80 per cent for CS{sub 2}. Other applications of the process were also discussed. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Denture Marking for Forensic Identification Using Memory Card: An Innovative Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Luthra, Reena; Arora, Saryu; Meshram, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Identification of individuals in crime or mass disaster is a daunting task for the forensic experts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a memory card for the forensic identification of dentures. The memory card was programmed with all the relevant information regarding the patient identification and the photograph of the patient. A recess was made in the maxillary denture’s polished surface on the palatal aspect. The card was wrapped in cellophane, placed in the...

  20. The Synthesis and Application of Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Jaime Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is one of the most amazing materials every discovered. It is the first stable two-dimensional crystal ever studied and has broadly impacted a myriad of fields ranging from physical science to engineering. Science has made such great advancements due to graphene that its discovery earned Nobel recognition in 2010. Initially isolated from bulk graphite using cellophane tape, its use in macroscale applications requires methods to produce it in high quality and on a very large scale. Thi...

  1. CHEILOSCOPY: A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FOR PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Qudusia Sultana; M H Shariff; Muhammed Asif; Ramakrishna Avadhani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cheiloscopy is derived from Greek word “Cheiloswhich” meaning lips.It is the study of characteristic pattern of elevations and depressions on labial mucosa. It is unique for every individual like fingerprints and hence can be used to determine the sex and for personal identity. Aim: This study is undertaken to evaluate the uniqueness of lip prints for sexual and personal identification of an individual. Materials and Methods: lipsticks, brush, cellophane tape, bond paper ...

  2. Cheiloscopy: An aid for personal identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Venkatesh; Maria Priscilla David

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces. The aim of this study is to establish the uniqueness of lip prints which aids in personal identification. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 subjects. The materials used were dark-colored lipstick, paper, cellophane tape, a brush, and a magnifying lens. Results: This study shows that lip prints are unique and permanent for each individual, and the lip prin...

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Transdermal Formulations of Norfloxacin With Silver Sulfadiazine Cream, USP, for Burn Wound Healing Property

    OpenAIRE

    Malipeddi, Venkata Ramana; Dua, Kamal; Sara, Udai Vir Singh; Malipeddi, Himaja; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In an attempt to find a better treatment for bacterial infections and burn wounds, various semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of norfloxacin were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release through cellophane membrane, antimicrobial activity, and burn wound healing properties. The prepared formulations were compared with silver sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP. Methods: Various semisolid formulations were prepared with different bases like Carbopol,...

  4. [Formation of ethyl carbamate in umeshu (plum liqueur)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Tabata, S; Yasuda, K; Nishijima, M

    2001-12-01

    Samples of umeshu, a Japanese plum liqueur made from unripe plums, shochu and crystal sugar, were stored under fluorescent light, in the dark and in the refrigerator. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu exposed to light or room temperature was larger than that in the dark or at low temperature. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu to which cyanide had been added was larger than that in the absence of added cyanide. Thus, the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the umeshu was increased by not only light and higher temperature, but also cyanide. Samples of model alcoholic beverages were stored under various conditions using red, yellow and blue cellophanes. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage with blue cellophane was larger than in the cases of red and yellow cellophanes. It was found that the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage was increased by light in the wavelength range of 375-475 nm. PMID:11875819

  5. Comparative evaluation of trial shipments of fumigated and radiation disinfested dates from Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial dried dates of the Zahdi variety with a natural infestation of 2.7 insects per 100 fruits, packed in 250 g lunch boxes and wrapped in cellophane, as well as dates artificially infested with Ephestia cautella and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (114 insects per 100 fruits) packed in lunch boxes and wrapped in cellophane or polyethylene foil were disinfested either by the commercial methyl bromide fumigation or by irradiation with 0.70 kGy gamma rays from a sup(60)Co source in Iraq. 40 packages of the experimental batches were placed in standard carton boxes and sent by air to the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT), Wageningen, The Nederlands, for comparative evaluation at five periods of storage ranging from 64 to 207 days. The results indicate that irradiation with 0.7 kGy gamma rays is more effective for disinfesting dates than commercial methyl bromide fumigation; cellophane wrapping is insufficient to prevent re-infestation; and properly sealed polyethylene wrapping is capable to prevent re-infestation under the storage conditions applied. (author)

  6. Um experimento com propostas múltiplas para um laboratório de química geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Déborah de Alencar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a sequence of experiments on the preparation, analysis and some photochemical aspects of potassium tris (oxalato ferrate(III trihydrate. The sequence of experiments could be carried out in four or five 4-hour laboratory periods. The new part of this article is related to the kinetics studies involving the ambient illumination as well as the use of the cellophane paper of different colors as light filters. The aspects such as quantum yield, light absorption and photochemical reactions are explored in order to illustrate the relationships between the exposure time, light intensity and wavelength range on the photochemical reactions.

  7. Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable

    OpenAIRE

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without ...

  8. [Investigation of intestinal parasites in residents of the Kayseri Karpuzsekisi basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Izzet; Yazar, Süleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Gözkenç, Niğmet

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we collected stool and cellophane tape samples from residents in four villages located in the Kayseri-Karpuzsekisi basin in order to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasites. A total of 240 samples collected from Hanyeri (40), Sariküklü (20), Dokuzpinar (80) and Karpuzsekisi (120) were investigated. The parasites detected were as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 82 (34.16%); Enterobius vermicularis, 37 (15.41%); Entamoeba coli 26, (10.83%); Entamoeba hartmanni, 10 (4.16%); Giardia intestinalis, 7 (2.91%); Endolimax nana, 5 (2.08%); Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 4 (1.66%); and Taenia saginata, 1 (0.41%). PMID:17160846

  9. Usefulness of microporous hydrophobic polypropylene membranes after plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid for high-power nickel-cadmium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial microporous polypropylene (PP) membranes were modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) under UV irradiation. Under optimized conditions obtained membranes are hydrophilic and may be serviceable as separator in nickel-cadmium cell. Electrolytic resistance of modified membranes is evaluated and compared with that of commercial separators: conventional cellophane separation and hydrophilic polypropylene separation (Celgard 3501). This paper reports the maximum power test data for nickel-cadmium cells equipped with different separators. Cells with modified PP membrane show very good high-rate performance

  10. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13–22 years in Xi’an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be...

  11. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each: one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control. A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light. The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42 = 0.77, P = 0.47. Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity.

  12. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, G L; Barreto, R E

    2001-08-01

    The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each): one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control). A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light). The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml) were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42) = 0.77, P = 0.47). Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity. PMID:11471044

  13. Quantifying mold biomass on gypsum board: Comparison of ergosterol and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase as mold biomass parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeslev, M.; Miller, M.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    estimating biomass density from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity were determined. The CFs were used to estimate the biomass density of the molds grown on gypsum board. The biomass densities estimated from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity data gave similar......Two mold species, Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, were inoculated onto agar overlaid with cellophane, allowing determination of a direct measurement of biomass density by weighing. Biomass density, ergosterol content, and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity were...... monitored from inoculation to stationary phase. Regression analysis showed a good linear correlation to biomass density for both ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. The same two mold species were inoculated onto wallpapered gypsum board, from which a direct biomass measurement was...

  14. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.A.; Barros, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee ingests debris while feeding. From 1978 through 1986, 439 salvaged manatees were examined. Debris was in the gastrointestinal tract of 63 (14.4%) and four died as a direct result of debris ingestion. Monofilament fishing line was the most common debris found (N=49). Plastic bags, string, twine, rope, fish hooks, wire, paper, cellophane, synthetic sponges, rubber bands, and stockings also were recovered. Entanglement in lines and nets killed 11 manatees from 1974 through 1985. Numerous free-ranging manatees have missing or scarred flippers from entanglements, or debris still encircling one or both flippers. We recommend local cleanups, education of the public, and fishing restrictions in high use areas to significantly reduce harm to manatees.

  15. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported. PMID:23656399

  16. Uranium Distribution in Some Carbonate and Phosphate Rocks Using Fission Track Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated geochemical and petrological procedure was used to investigate the controls on uranium distribution in some carbonate, phosphate and other sedimentary rocks. The fission track registration technique, along with geochemical analysis of uranium was applied to effectively locate, evaluate and identify the patterns of uranium distribution within these rocks and their constituents. Differences in the density of the tracks were found in isotropic and anisotropic grains of coprolite, ovulite, glauconite, calcite and cellophane, as well as, apatite and other phosphatic particles. The variations in uranium concentrations seem to be related to more than one type of uranium incorporation mechanism, particularly caused by syngenetic and epigenetic processes. It was concluded that the obtained variations in U content are due to a combination of sedimentological, textural, geochemical, physiochemical and a few other controls and mechanisms

  17. [Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers in food sector in Van region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Muhammet Güzel; Körkoca, Hanifi; Ciçek, Mutalip; Cengiz, Zeynep Taş

    2007-01-01

    Stool and cellophane tape specimens were taken for parasitological examination from 739 people who work in food sector and applied to the public health lab of the Van Health Administration for porter examination. Parasites were determined at 131 people (17.71%) of 739 worker whom samples were investigated. Ninety-five people had one, 30 people had two, 5 people had three and one person had four parasite species. Parasites determined in the study were 19.08% helminthes and 80.91% protozoon. In this study, 1.21% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.81% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.67% Hymenolepis nana, 0.40% Trichuris trichiura, 0.27% Taenia saginata, 4.87% Blastocystis hominis, 3.24% Entamoeba coli, 2.84% Giardia intestinalis, 2.02% Iodamoeba bütschlii, 0.67% Endolimax nana, 0.27% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.27% Chilomastix mesnili, 0.13% Entamoeba hartmanni were found. PMID:18224624

  18. [Distribution of intestinal parasites among patients who presented at the Department of Parasitology of the Erciyes University Medical School.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Süleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Sahın, Izzet

    2005-01-01

    In this study carried out from 2000-2004, a total of 34,883 stool samples were examined using native-Lugol and flotation/sedimentation methods and 9,879 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Intestinal parasites were found in 9,704 (27.8%) of the specimens. The parasites that were found and their prevalence is as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 6,723 (19.3%); Entamoeba coli, 1,007 (2.9%); Giardia intestinalis, 892 (2.6%); Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 798 (2.3%); Endolimax nana, 486 (1.4%); Entamoeba hartmanni, 252 (0.7%); Enterobius vermicularis, 242 (0.7%); Iodamoeba bütschlii, 109 (0.3%); Taenia saginata, 92 (0.3%); Chilomastix mesnili, 67 (0.2%); Ascaris lumbricoides, 55 (0.2%); and Hymenolepis nana, 40 (0.1%). PMID:17124684

  19. Lipid-nanoemulsions as drug delivery carriers for poorly-water soluble drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendra K. Nanjwade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug Aceclofenac, a lipidnanoemulsion comprising ethanolic solution of phospholipid 90 G and tween 80 in 1:1 ratio (Smix, triacetin and anseed oil as oil phase and distilled water as aqueous phase, in the ratio of 55:15:30 (% w/w was developed by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and evaluated for viscosity, % transmittance, and surface morphology of nanoemulsions. In vitro diffusion (release of Aceclofenac from three different bases to an aqueous receptor phase through cellophane membrane was monitored spectrophotometrically at 273 nm. Compared with hydroalcoholic drug solution, oily solution, and conventional emulsion and suspension. The lipid-nanoemulsion showed increase in drug release compared to drug suspension. This may be attributed to increased solubility of the drug from nanosized emulsion.

  20. HEMODIALYSIS MEMBRANES: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure is one of the major health problems faced by many people all over the world. These patients choose either transplantation procedure or undergo hemodialysis. Approximately 28% people suffer from renal failures worldwide, among which a quarter are very critical. Patients who opt for hemodialysis have to undergo it regularly. The membranes used in hemodialysis are very vital. The first ever polymer used asan artificial hemodialysis membrane was collodion, which is a derivative of cellulose- trinitrate. This was the leading element for further research and applications in this field. Later collodion was replaced by cellophane and cuprophane since they had better performance and mechanical stability than the collodion. The major disadvantage of this was their less hemocompatiblity as they were made from unmodified cellulose. Nowadays the modified cellulose membrane comes with high-flux modification and thus very effective in many therapy like the hemodiafiltration and the hemofiltration. The success of hemodialysis is highly dependent on the membrane used.

  1. Enterobius vermicularis infection is well controlled among preschool children in nurseries of Taipei City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Bin Chu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Whether Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined was investigated. METHODS: A total of 6,661 preschool children from 28 nurseries were randomly selected from 4 major geographic districts in Taipei City to examine the status of pinworm infection by using adhesive thin cellophane tape swab method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of pinworm infection was 0.5% (30/6,661. Boys (0.6%; 21/3,524 had higher prevalence than girls (0.3%; 9/3,137 (p=0.06. Southern district (0.6%; 10/1,789 showed insignificantly higher prevalence than Western district (0.2%; 1/606 (p=0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Pinworm screening program remains necessary for some parts of Taipei City.

  2. Effect of pH on amine-collector in reverse flotation process of silicon separation%pH对胺类捕收剂反浮选脱硅的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿霞

    2011-01-01

    矿浆溶液的pH是影响浮选指标的重要因素之一,研究了三种胺类捕收剂在用量一定时,pH对云南某中低品位硅质胶磷矿脱硅的影响.试验结果表明,胺类药剂反浮选脱硅较适宜的pH范围为7.0~8.5.%The pulp pH is an important factor affecting flotation. In this paper, effect of pH was studied on three kinds of amine-collector with the their amount in a certain time in flotation of silicon separation of Yunnan mid-low grade cellophane. The results show that the pHrange of 7.0-8.5 is suitable for amine collector in reverse flotation process of silicon separation.

  3. Germinação e vigor de sementes de Crataeva tapia L. em diferentes temperaturas e regimes de luz Germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seeds in different temperatures and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evio Alves Galindo

    2012-03-01

    various factors involved in germination. Therefore, the work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of different temperatures and light conditions on germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seed. In the Laboratory of Seed Analysis, in the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, located in Areia city - PB, were evaluated the influence of temperatures of 25 °C; 30 °C and 35 °C constant and 20-30 °C alternated under white light (without cellophane paper, green (with green cellophane paper, red (with red cellophane paper, far-red (with two sheets red cellophane paper interspersed for two sheets blue and darkness (with black plastic, adopting a design entirely randomized with treatments distributed on factorial 4 x 5 (temperatures and light regimes, in four replications of 25 seeds each. Characteristics analyzed: germination percentage, germination first count and germination speed index, as well as the length and dry mass of seedlings. The seeds germinated in all light regimes, being recommended that on temperature of 20-30 °C alternate, and on temperature of 30°C. Seeds of species studied are not sensitive to different light regimes applied under different temperatures.

  4. Cheiloscopy : An aid for personal identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces. The aim of this study is to establish the uniqueness of lip prints which aids in personal identification. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 subjects.The materials used were dark-colored lipstick, paper, cellophane tape, a brush, and a magnifying lens. Results: This study shows that lip prints are unique and permanent for each individual, and the lip prints among family members and between twins revealed different patterns on the whole with few similar grooves suggesting the existence of heredity in the lip prints. Conclusion: Our study showed that lip prints are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification.

  5. Morphologic patterns of lip prints in a Portuguese population: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vírginia A; Caldas, Inês M

    2012-09-01

    Lip prints are thought to have the ability to distinguish individuals and, hence, have a potential use in human identification purposes. However, questions remain regarding their utility for sex determination. This study aimed to classify lip prints for different individuals in a Portuguese population and to determine whether sex differences exist. Lip prints of 25 females and 25 males were obtained using dark-colored lipstick and cellophane tape. Lip prints were analyzed using a magnifying lens and classified according to the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. A Type II pattern was found to be most common. A comparison of lip-print patterns between males and females showed results with a statistically significant difference: Type III pattern was most common in males, and a Type II pattern in females. This study corroborates the hypothesis that lip prints are able to distinguish individuals and may be useful in sex determination. PMID:22443083

  6. Cheiloscopy: The study of lip prints in sex identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human identification is a universal process based on scientific principles, mainly involving finger printing. Theory of uniqueness is a strong point used in the analysis of fingerprints to convince the court of law. Likewise, even the lip print is unique of an individual and hence beholds the potential for identification purpose. Thus, lip prints can be used to verify the presence or absence of a person at the scene of crime. The wrinkles and grooves on labial mucosa called as sulci labiorum form a characteristic pattern called ′lip prints′ and the study of which is referred to as chieloscopy. The study group comprised of 20 females and 20 males. The materials used were lipstick, bond paper, cellophane tape, a brush for applying the lipstick, and a magnifying lens. This study shows that lip prints are unique to an individual and behold the potential for recognition of the sex of an individual.

  7. CHEILOSCOPY: A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FOR PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudusia Sultana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cheiloscopy is derived from Greek word “Cheiloswhich” meaning lips.It is the study of characteristic pattern of elevations and depressions on labial mucosa. It is unique for every individual like fingerprints and hence can be used to determine the sex and for personal identity. Aim: This study is undertaken to evaluate the uniqueness of lip prints for sexual and personal identification of an individual. Materials and Methods: lipsticks, brush, cellophane tape, bond paper and magnifying lens. 50 male and 50 female students were selected from Yenepoya University. Lipstick was applied on their lips evenly and the prints were taken on folded bond paper. The cellophane tape was stuck on the paper to preserve it as permanent records. The prints were analysed using magnifying lens and Tsuchihashi’s classification of lip prints was used for to determine the most common pattern of lip prints found in males and females and to study any similarity of lip prints between two individuals. Observations and Results: Our study showed in males the predominant pattern was of type III pattern (40%, followed by type IV (22%, type I (18%, type I’ (12% type II (6% and type V(4% respectively. This hierarchy is different for females, where type I was more predominant(54%,next was type I’ (28%, type III (10%, type IV (4%, type II (1%and type V(2% .Hence these results confirm the uniqueness of lip prints for every individual and show its variation according to gender. Conclusion: The data obtained from the above study shows promising results and indicates the uniqueness of lip prints like fingerprints for every individual. They hold a possible potential to determine the sex of an individual and hence can be used as records for personal identification.

  8. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  9. Effect of packaging materials on the quality of irradiated ground spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were carried out to determine the suitable packaging materials to be used for irradiated ground spices produced in Indonesia. The materials used were white pepper (Piper album), black pepper (Piper nigrum) nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), turmeric (Curcuma domestica), and ginger (Zangiber officinale R.) packaged in transparent polypropylene bottles, in pouches made of cellophane-aluminum foil and lithopaper-polyethylene laminates. The samples were irradiated at 5 kGy, stored at ambient conditions, and then examined every 3 months from 0 up to 9 months of storage. The parameters observed were total bacterial counts, total moulds and yeast counts, water activity (Aw), moisture content, and organoleptic scores of the samples. Piperine content of white pepper and black pepper, colour of turmeric extract, and rancidity of ginger were also determined. The results showed that the packaging materials used had no significant effect on bacterial load of the samples. Prolonged storage, however, could reduce the microbial load of the ground spices. Irradiation at 5 kGy could effectively increase the hygienic condition as well as storage life of the ground spices under investigation without affecting their organoleptic properties. (author). 8 refs

  10. [Investigation of Soil-Transmitted Nematode Infections in Xuchang City of Henan Province in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENG, Jin-hua

    2015-10-01

    The Weidu District, Yanling County and Yuzhou City were selected in Xuchang City for investigation of the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections in 2012, in accordance with the National Monitoring Program for Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (2011 Revised Edition). Kato-Katz technique was used to detect soil- transmitted nematodes in feces of residents over 3 years old, and the cellophane tape peri-anal swab method was used to detect pinworm eggs in children between 3-12 years. A total of 2 991 fecal samples were examined. The total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was 4.3%(128/2 991), decreased by 63.0% and 55.1% when compared with that in 2010 (11.6%) and that in Henan Province in 2004 (9.5%) respectively. The infection rates of roundworms, whipworms, hookworms and pinworms were 3.7%(110/2 991), 0.3%(9/2 991) , 0.1%(3/2 991) , and 0.2% ( 6/2 991) , respectively, all showing mild intensity of infection. The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was highest in farmers (5.5%, 113/2 059), followed by children (3.1%, 3/98). PMID:26931049

  11. A study of small molecule ingress into planar and cylindrical materials using ion beam analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, R W

    2001-01-01

    mechanisms that take place, and where relevant diffusion coefficients have been obtained using either a semi-infinite medium Fickian planar diffusion model or a cylindrical Fickian diffusion model. Ion beam analysis techniques have been developed to allow profiling of small molecules diffused into materials at depths ranging from 10 sup - sup 7 to 10 sup - sup 1 m. A model DPS/PS/DPS triple-layer film and D( sup 3 He,p) sup 4 He nuclear reaction analysis was used to test the applicability of a novel data processing program - the IBA DataFurnace - to nuclear reaction data. The same reaction and program were used to depth profile the diffusion of heavy water into cellophane. A scanning sup 3 He micro-beam technique was developed to profile the diffusion of small molecules into both planar and cylindrical materials. The materials were exposed to liquids containing deuterium labelled molecules. A cross-section was exposed by cutting the material perpendicular to the surface and this was bombarded by a scanning su...

  12. [Incidence of intestinal parasites in municipal sanitary workers in Malatya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem; Yoloğlu, Saim; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of intestinal parasites is closely related to such factors as the socio-economic level of the society, nutritional and hygienic habits, climate, environmental conditions, infrastructure and degree of literacy. In this study, the municipal sanitary workers who are regarded as a high risk group in Malatya were examined for intestinal parasites. Cellophane slides and fecal samples from 241 workers were examined and intestinal parasites were found in 93 (39.0%). The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (34). Other parasites detected include Enterobius vermicularis (32), Giardia intestinalis (22), Blastocystis hominis (8), Iodamoeba butschlii (5), Entamoeba histolytica (2), Taenia sp. (2), Chilomastix mesnili (2), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), Entamoeba hartmanni (1), Trichomonas intestinalis (1) Hymenolepis nana (1), and Ascaris lumbricoides (1). A training seminary was conducted in order to inform all the workers about means of protection. The workers were given suitable treatment and were called for control after a month. The examinations revealed a significant decrease in the incidence rate of parasites (qui-square test in dependent samples P<0.05). It was concluded that offering training seminaries for certain occupational groups under risk is efficient in terms of protection. PMID:17160847

  13. Studying the application of gamma radiation in removing fungal contamination of poultry grain and the effect of this radiation on changing the immunity titer related to vaccinate SPF chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the existing problems in discarding or reducing the fungal contamination of poultry grain, due to the conventional methods being inadequate, for example remainder of fungal toxins (using chemical substance) or grain's dampness (using autoclave) etc, make us using nuclear techniques to remove these problems. First specification and determination of contamination types and also determination types and also determination of different kinds of fungal contamination and their amount in the poultry grain was done. The most fungal contamination were Aspergillus in the starter grain. Then biochemical analysis in poultry grain and determination of existence and the amount of Aflatoxin was done. Then gamma radiation of Co-60 from 1 to 6 kilo grays doses were applied in order to reduce or remove the contamination and finally 6 kilo gray dose was chosen. Rechecking the irradiated grains 4-5 months after application of gamma radiation in different moisture and temperatures (in cellophane packaging) revealed 6 kilo gray dose not only has constant effect in removal of fungal contamination and Aflatoxin (in the two cases) but also has no negative effect on the grain's compounds. In the continuation of this research two types of grain: non-irradiated and irradiated were fed to identical groups of SPF chickens in three different time periods. The follow up experiments showed the immune titers in the chickens fed on the irradiated grain were lower than the immune titers in the chickens fed on the non-irradiated grain. (author)

  14. Ultrafiltration of solutions of yttrium in trace concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of 91Y in trace concentrations (approximately 10-11 to 10-12 mol/l) in aqueous solutions was studied by applying the technique of ultrafiltration through a cellophane diaphragm. The fraction of 91Y retained by the ultrafilter generally increases with increasing pH, from low values in the strongly acidic range over a local maximum at pH approximately 4 followed by a not very pronounced local minimum at pH approximately 5 to 7 to the highest values at ph>9. It is concluded that yttrium in aqueous solutions in the concentrations mentioned occurs at pH9 to 11 in the form of a true colloid of the hydroxide 91Y(OH)3. In addition to the predominant forms, molecular forms of yttrium are present in a rather low fraction, too. The retention of 91Y by the filter paper during the filtration of very dilute aqueous solutions through paper filters was proved to be due to adsorption. (author)

  15. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  16. Formulation And Evaluation of Topical Aceclofenac Gel Using Different Gelling Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAPAN PATEL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. In order to decrease the gastric ulcerogenic effects, aceclofenac gels have been developed. This study was conducted to develop a gel formulation of aceclofenac using four types of gelling agents: carbopol, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose(HPMC, carboxymethylcellulose sodium (Na CMC and sodium alginate. Effect of penetration enhancer (propylene glycol on the release has been studied. The gels were evaluated for physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release and stability. The drug release from all gelling agents through a standard cellophane membrane was evaluated using Keshary-Chien diffusion cell. All gels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability and pH value. Among all the gel formulations, carbopol showed superior drug release than followed by Na CMC, HPMC and sodium alginate. Drug release decreased with increase in polymer concentration. Drug release was not linearly proportional with the concentration of penetration enhancer or co-solvents. Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological properties, and drug release remained unchanged upon storage for two months at ambient conditions.

  17. Is re-creation of human identity possible using tooth prints? An experimental study to aid in identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jadhav, Kiran; Ahmed Mujib, B R; Amberkar, Vikram S

    2009-11-20

    Enamel in teeth, as documented is the hardest substance in the entire human body. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on the tooth surface. Could this fact be a boon in utilizing it for an individual's identification in the hands of forensic experts? A study has been attempted towards the same. These tooth prints were recorded for 60 extracted tooth specimens after acid etching using a cellophane tape. Subsequently a digital image of the print was obtained which was subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard SDK version 6.0 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. In results we observed that tooth prints were composed of varied patterns and sub-patterns. A comparison was made between the tooth prints of different and the same individual and also between different classes of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars). None of the patterns exhibited intra- and inter-individual similarity. Nor did any particular class of the tooth could be preferentially used over the other for an individual identification. This field demands a need for further exploration towards the use of tooth prints for establishing an individual's identity. PMID:19716244

  18. Efficacy of lidocaine lontophoresis using either alternating or direct current in hairless rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Atsushi; Wakita, Ryo; Haida, Haruka; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine transport of lidocaine ions through a hairless rat skin in vivo and to compare the efficacy of alternating current (AC) with that of direct current (DC) iontophoresis (IOP). We measured the concentration of lidocaine transported through a cellophane membrane or a hairless rat dorsal skin applying either AC-IOP or DC-IOP. The results revealed that lidocaine concentration increased in a time-dependent manner in vitro in both DC-IOP and AC-IOP. However, the in vivo study showed different tendencies in lidocaine concentration. In the DCIOP group, lidocaine concentration reached its maximum 20 min after current application and then decreased rapidly; the AC-IOP group showed an increase in lidocaine concentration in a time-dependent manner. There were no side effects such as electrical burns in the rats. In conclusion, AC can be applied for long periods and DC for short periods, or their application time can be appropriately scheduled. Our study also suggests the mechanism by which voltage waveforms affect the skin when applied by IOP. In the future, these findings will be a solid foundation for developing various kinds of medical equipment such as scheduled drug delivery system that can easily deliver various types of drug. PMID:24146168

  19. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L. HAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHURIYAH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L. Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. The highest yield of protein was 1.109% from the seed (TS3, then 0.356% from the root (TR3, while the lowest was 0.014% from the fruit (TF2. The Lethal Concentration 50 (LC of proteins on brine shrimp lethality test was 50within range of 19 µg/ml - 25 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity test of the TR3 and TS3 proteins on cancer cell lines indicated that both of the proteins could inhibit proliferation of HeLa and K-562 cells with IC up to 45 µg/ml. It is recommended to conduct further researches on 50Trichosanthes plant as a herbal medicine to treat cancer.

  20. Studies on self-assembly phenomena of hydrophilization of microporous polypropylene membrane by acetone aldol condensation products: New separator for high-power alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Aleksander; Rydzyńska, Bożena

    Commercial hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) membranes were modified by a novel chemical method. This procedure consists of two steps. In the first step, the virgin hydrophobic PP membrane is saturated with acetone; in the second step, the filled membrane is dipped in aqueous KOH solution (d = 1.28 g cm -3), i.e. in the electrolyte typical for the nickel-cadmium cell. This two-step procedure starts the aldol condensation process of acetone and its products accumulated and adsorbed onto walls of micropores make the membrane hydrophilic. The presented method provided the hydrophilic PP membrane, persistent and soaked with KOH solution with electrolytic resistance of 23-29 mΩ cm 2. This result was compared with the data obtained with commercial hydrophilic membranes: Celgard 3501 and Cellophane. The aldol condensation process of acetone was monitored using the HPLC-ES-MS technique, and modified PP membranes were evaluated by FT-IR and SEM measurements. With the above-mentioned membrane as a separator, nickel-cadmium cells showed good high-rate performance.

  1. Studies on self-assembly phenomena of hydrophilization of microporous polypropylene membrane by acetone aldol condensation products: New separator for high-power alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszewski, Aleksander [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Rydzynska, Bozena [Central Laboratory of Batteries and Cells, ul. Forteczna 12, 61-362 Poznan (Poland)

    2007-04-15

    Commercial hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) membranes were modified by a novel chemical method. This procedure consists of two steps. In the first step, the virgin hydrophobic PP membrane is saturated with acetone; in the second step, the filled membrane is dipped in aqueous KOH solution (d = 1.28 g cm{sup -3}), i.e. in the electrolyte typical for the nickel-cadmium cell. This two-step procedure starts the aldol condensation process of acetone and its products accumulated and adsorbed onto walls of micropores make the membrane hydrophilic. The presented method provided the hydrophilic PP membrane, persistent and soaked with KOH solution with electrolytic resistance of 23-29 m{omega} cm{sup 2}. This result was compared with the data obtained with commercial hydrophilic membranes: Celgard 3501 and Cellophane. The aldol condensation process of acetone was monitored using the HPLC-ES-MS technique, and modified PP membranes were evaluated by FT-IR and SEM measurements. With the above-mentioned membrane as a separator, nickel-cadmium cells showed good high-rate performance. (author)

  2. Synthesis of ion exchange membrane by radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation grafting of vinyl monomers onto polymer films has been extensively studied by many workers. In the preirradiation method of grafting a polymer substrate is activated by irradiation (either in the presence or absence of oxygen) and subsequently allowed to react with a monomer. The preirradiation method was utilized in this study to synthesize an ion exchange membrane useful for a battery separator by grafting acrylic acid onto polyethylene film. The battery separator should be chemically and thermally stable, sufficiently durable in electrolyte as well as highly electrically conductive. Membranes made from regenerated cellulose, e.g., cellophane, have long been used as a separator in the batteries with alkaline electrolyte, such as silver oxide primary cell. However, it has poor durability, as short as one year, due to breakdown of the membrane during operation or storing. The acrylic acid-grafted polyethylene film was found to be quite useful for a separator in the alkaline batteries. This membrane has a high electric conductivity and an excellent durability. (author)

  3. Nanosized ethosomes bearing ketoprofen for improved transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Manish K; Kang, Lifeng; Chan, Sui Yung

    2011-05-01

    The potential of ethosomes for delivering ketoprofen via skin was evaluated. The ethosomes were prepared, optimized and characterized. Vesicular shape, size and entrapment efficiency were determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and minicolumn centrifugation technique, respectively. Vesicle sizes varied from 120.3±6.1 to 410.2±21.8 nm depending on the concentrations of soya phosphatidyl choline (SPC) and ethanol. Entrapment efficiency increased with concentrations of SPC and ethanol. The formulations exhibited entrapment efficiencies of 42-78%. In vitro release through cellophane membrane showed sustained release of drug from ethosomal formulations in contrast to hydroalcoholic drug solution (HA), which released most of the drug within 2-3 h. In vitro drug permeation across human skin revealed improved drug permeation and higher transdermal flux with ethosomal formulations compared to hydroethanolic drug solution. Kinetics of in vitro skin permeation showed zero order drug release from formulations. Based on in vitro transdermal flux, the estimated steady state in vivo plasma concentration from ethosomes attained therapeutic drug levels whereas hydroalcoholic drug solution exhibited sub therapeutic drug concentration with a patch size of 50 cm(2). Skin permeation of ethosomal formulations assessed by confocal microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of Rhodamine 123 loaded formulation in comparison to the hydroalcoholic solution. PMID:25755983

  4. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  5. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

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    Swati C. Jagdale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor owing to its low solubility. It also has poor bioavailability (15-19% due to a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Complexation with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out to enhance solubility. The best results were obtained by co-grinding in a 1:1 molar ratio of drug: β-cyclodextrin. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by DSC, X-ray diffractometry and FTIR. Inclusion complexes showed higher dissolution rates than the pure drug. Controlledrelease mucoadhesive patches were prepared with two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC polymers, K100M CR and K15. The patches were assessed for surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in-vitro residence time, vapor transmission test and in-vitro (cellophane, egg membrane and exvivo (goat buccal mucosa release. Formulations Ha2 (2% HPMC K100M CR and Pa4 (4% HPMC K15 showed good mucoadhesive strength, in-vitro and exvivo residence times, with controlled release for 10 hours.

  6. ECENT ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS

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    Paul C. Beaver

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available New observations in recent years have accented differences between the two common hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus,"nwith respect to modes of transmision and pathogenicity, and have established Ancylostoma ceylanicum as a species distinct from A. braziliense. Transmammary and paratenic transmission are now considered to be natural modes of infection in Ancylostoma caninum and possibly 111 other Ancylostoma species including A. duodenale, but not in Necator. The question of relative blood losses from laceration hemorrhage and blood-sucking in hookworm anemia is unresolved. The prevalence of Loeffler's syndrome in pulmonary ascariasis appears to be greatest in areas where transmission is sharply seasonal. Recent studies have failed to confirm reports of blood-sucking by Trichuris. Milk-borne transmission from mother to the newborn has been demonstrated for numberous species of Strongyloides not including S. stercoralis. Zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths 0; dogs and cats have become recognized as frequently causing visceral larva migrans and occasionally blindness in most parts of the world. Two major advances were made in diagnostic techniques - the Harada-Mori test-tube hookworm culture for species diagnosis and the Kato cellophane-covered thick fecal film ror ranid and quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

  7. Localization of the mandibular foramen on the panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The mandibular foramen is of particular importance to the dentist and dental specialist as it marks the beginning of the mandibular canal, which transmits inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The aim of this study was the localization of anteroposterior and superioinferior position of the mandibular foramen on the panoramic radiographs in adolescent and young adult in a selected sample of Pakistani population. Method: This cross Sectional study was conducted in the Orthodontic department of Dr Ishrat ul ebad khan institute of oral health science, Dow University Karachi. Material comprised 150 panoramic radiographs. The radiographs were traced on a cellophane sheet. Landmarks were marked and measurements from the centre of the mandibular foramen to other landmarks were recorded. All measurements were recorded to the nearest millimetre. Results: The mandibular foramen occupies the posterior portion of middle third on antero-posterior width of mandible. A ratio between the sides of one or almost one indicated bilateral symmetry. Conclusion: The locations of the mandibular foramen occupy the middle third of ramus maintains bilateral symmetry in human mandibles. (author)

  8. Patterns - "A crime solver"

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    A Nagasupriya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. Results: This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. Conclusion: We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  9. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina. PMID:21616509

  10. A comparison of lip prints between Aryans-Dravidians and Mongols

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    Prathibha Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lip prints are very useful in forensic investigation and personal identification. Like finger prints, even lip prints can be instrumental in identifying a person positively. Aims: Indians are closer to Mongoloids than to Caucasoids or Negroids as indicated by the phylogenetic tree. Most of the studies on lip prints are done in their own population. We have compared lip prints of Manipuris with other Indians (Aryans and Dravidians who are both close to Mongoloid race and are genetically similar. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 students 50 males and 50 females were selected of whom 30 males and 30 females were of Aryan and Dravidian features and 20 males and 20 females showed the Mongol features. Study materials used were Red colored lipstick, Lip brush, Cellophane tape, White chart paper and Magnifying lens. The lip prints were analyzed by dividing them into eight compartments. Results: Analysis of lip prints showed that the most common and the least common pattern in both males and females (Aryans-Dravidians and Mongols were the same, but the compartment wise distribution of the lip patterns was different. Conclusion: In the present study, it is established that there is no similarity of lip prints from one individual to another individual and between males and females. Regarding the comparison with Mongols, more studies with a larger sample size is necessary.

  11. Comparative reliability of cheiloscopy and palatoscopy in human identification

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    Sharma Preeti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishing a person′s identity in postmortem scenarios can be a very difficult process. Dental records, fingerprint and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used in this context, allowing fast and reliable identification processes. However, under certain circumstances they cannot always be used; sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques. In forensic identification, lip prints and palatal rugae patterns can lead us to important information and help in a person′s identification. This study aims to ascertain the use of lip prints and palatal rugae pattern in identification and sex differentiation. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 subjects, 50 males and 50 females were selected from among the students of Subharti Dental College, Meerut. The materials used to record lip prints were lipstick, bond paper, cellophane tape, a brush for applying the lipstick, and a magnifying lens. To study palatal rugae, alginate impressions were taken and the dental casts analyzed for their various patterns. Results: Statistical analysis (applying Z-test for proportion showed significant difference for type I, I′, IV and V lip patterns (P < 0.05 in males and females, while no significant difference was observed for the same in the palatal rugae patterns (P > 0.05. Conclusion: This study not only showed that palatal rugae and lip prints are unique to an individual, but also that lip prints is more reliable for recognition of the sex of an individual.

  12. Frequency of intestinal parasites in employees of a state hospital

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    Pınar Fırat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of intestinal parasites isdifferent in our country and the world. Population move-ments, inadequate infrastructure, seasonal features, tra-ditional hygienic rules, the society’s socio-economic sta-tus and education level are factors that affect the distribu-tion of intestinal parasites. In the study, it was intendedto conduct porter analysis on Malatya State Hospital em-ployees. So, we aimed at determining the rate of intestinalparasites in the laboratory workers, kitchen staff, cleanersand nurses.Materials and Methods: From Malatya State hospitalstaff, perianal area materials and stool samples with cel-lophane tape method were collected. Examples wereexamined with native-Lugol, precipitation, and acid-fasttrichrome stains.Results: In 40.8% of 76 stools that were examined wasfound to positivity. The prevalences of parasites are 17.1Entamoeba coli, 6.6% Iodamoeba butschlii, 19.7% Blastocystishominis, 1.3% Chilomastix mesnilii, 5.3% Giardiaintestinalis and 1.3% Enterobius vermicularis.Conclusion: In the study, the studied staffs are healthworkers. Therefore, since the staffs working close contactwith patients were risk group in terms of infections, it wasrecommended that health staff susceptible to parasitesshould have a medical examination regularly and receivein-service training.

  13. Influence of packaging and potassium sorbate on the physical, physicochemical and microbiological alterations of guava preserves

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    Camila Carvalho Menezes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of preserves through fruit processing is a promising alternative for their conservation. Such processing provides pleasant flavor due to the increase of sweetness and allows good conservation of the product for a prolonged time. Seeking quality and higher durability of fruit preserves, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the interference of potassium sorbate addition, and polypropylene, metallic and cellophane film packaging on the quality of guava (Psidium guajava L. preserves during storage, through the physical, physiochemical and microbiological characteristics. The physical, physiochemical and microbiological analyses showed that the different types of packaging did not interfere in the stability of the guava preserves until the 5th month of storage - time being the factor that most influences the quality of the preserves when stored under temperature and humidity of 19.6 °C and 76.2%, respectively. The potassium sorbate caused an increase of the soluble solid levels and a decrease of the water activity. Regardless of the treatment, the preserves remained microbiologically stable during storage.

  14. Submicronic fungal bioaerosols: high-resolution microscopic characterization and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James; Eduard, Wijnand

    2014-11-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min(-1) airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 10(5) cm(-2), 2.6 × 10(3) cm(-2), and 0.9 × 10(3) cm(-2) for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

  15. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC with albendazole

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    I P Sunish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One third of the world′s population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Albendazole (ALB is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu s0 tate h0 ealth d0 epartment, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB. Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%. Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns.

  16. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) with albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunish, I. P.; Rajendran, R.; Munirathinam, A.; Kalimuthu, M.; Kumar, V. Ashok; Nagaraj, J.; Tyagi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: One third of the world's population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu State Health Department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns. PMID:25963494

  17. New Features in the Ultra-fast Process Control Tobacco Packaging Machinery%超高速烟草包装机械过程控制新特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华强

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco packaging machinery needs to include cigarettes ,label paper ,the framework paper ,a-luminum foil ,cellophane ,cable and glue in accordance with established integration process to become qualified cigarette cartridge ,which requires a sophisticated control system to complete the automation process control re -quirements,the original FZ,MICRO Ⅱ,PLC technology has been unable to meet the high-speed packaging e-quipment ,precise needs.ZB48 represented in ultra high-speed packaging machine uses a PC-based control technology for open automation system structure.Give full play to the advantages of its PC-based control sys-tem,which meet production requirements under the premise of reducing production costs and space allocation , improve safety and productivity.%烟草包装机械需要将烟支、商标纸、内衬纸、铝箔纸、透明纸、封口拉线和包装胶按照既定的工艺流程整合成为合格的条装烟,这就需要有一套成熟的自动化过程控制系统来完成控制要求,原有的FZ、MICRO Ⅱ、PLC技术已不能够满足包装设备高速化、精细化的需求. 以ZB48为代表的超高速包装机组采用基于PC控制技术的开放式自动化系统结构,它充分发挥PC控制系统的优点,在满足生产需求的同时,降低了生产成本和空间配置,提高了安全性和生产效率.

  18. Formulation and optimization of nano-sized ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium using a novel lipid vesicular carrier, ethosomes. Materials And Methods: Ethosomes of cromolyn sodium was prepared, optimized, and characterized for vesicle shape, vesicle size and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vitro skin permeation, in vitro skin deposition and vesicle stability. Histological examination of porcine ear skin treated with optimized ethosomal formulation was performed to study the change of skin morphologies. Results: The optimized cromolyn sodium ethosomes showed reasonable entrapment efficiency (49.88±1.84%, optimum nanometric size range (133.8 ± 7.5 nm, and high zeta potential (-69.82 ± 1.2 mV. In vitro drug release studies of optimized ethosomal formulation through cellophane membrane showed an enhanced and sustained delivery of drug compared to conventional liposomes, hydroethanolic, (45% v/v and phosphate buffer saline PBS pH 7.4 drug solutions. The optimized ethosomal formulation showed significantly-enhanced transdermal flux (18.49 ± 0.08 mg/cm 2 /h across porcine ear skin as compared to liposome (1.80 ± 0.12 mg/cm 2 /h, hydroethanolic drug solution (4.45 ± 0.71 mg/cm 2 /h, and PBS pH 7.4 drug solution (1.18 ± 0.35 mg/cm 2 /h. Moreover, ethosomal formulation showed better skin drug deposition (10.28 ± 0.67% and shortest lag time (0.11 ± 0.09 h for cromolyn sodium. Conclusion: Our significant results suggest that ethosomes can be a promising tool for transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions of Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil

    2005-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions. PMID:16117371

  20. Quantification of ultraviolet photon emission from interaction of charged particles in materials of interest in radiation biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal; McNeill, Fiona E.; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2014-01-01

    In radiation biology experiments often cells are irradiated using charged particles with the intention that only a specified number of cells are hit by the primary ion track. However, in doing so several other materials such as the cell container and the growth media etc. are also irradiated, and UV radiation emitted from these materials can potentially interact with the cells. We have hypothesized that some "bystander effects" that are thought to be chemically mediated, may be, in fact, a physical effect, where UV is interacting with non-targeted cells. Based upon our hypothesis we quantified the emission of UV from Polypropylene, Mylar, Teflon, and Cellophane which are all commonly used materials in radiation biology experiments. Additionally we measured the NIST standard materials of Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves as these powdered materials are derived from living cells. Protons accelerated up to an energy of 2.2 MeV, in a 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator, were used for irradiation. Beam current was kept to 10 nA, which corresponds to a proton fluence rate of 2.7 × 1010 protons mm-2 s-1. All the materials were found to emit light at UV frequencies and intensities that were significant enough to conduct a further investigation for their biological consequences. Mylar and polypropylene are commonly used in radiation induced bystander effect studies and are considered to be non-fluorescent. However our study showed that this is not the case. Significant luminescence observed from the irradiated NIST standard reference materials for Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves verified that the luminescence emission is not restricted only to the polymeric materials that are used to contain cells. It can also occur from ion interactions within the cells as well.

  1. Formulation and in Vitro, ex Vivo and in Vivo Evaluation of Elastic Liposomes for Transdermal Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Mendoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to formulate ketorolac tromethamine-loaded elastic liposomes and evaluate their in vitro drug release and their ex vivo and in vivo transdermal delivery. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT, which is a potent analgesic, was formulated in elastic liposomes using Tween 80 as an edge activator. The elastic vesicles were prepared by film hydration after optimizing the sonication time and number of extrusions. The vesicles exhibited an entrapment efficiency of 73 ± 11%, vesicle size of 127.8 ± 3.4 nm and a zeta potential of −12 mV. In vitro drug release was analyzed from liposomes and an aqueous solution, using Franz diffusion cells and a cellophane dialysis membrane with molecular weight cut-off of 8000 Da. Ex vivo permeation of KT across pig ear skin was studied using a Franz diffusion cell, with phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 at 32 °C as receptor solution. An in vivo drug permeation study was conducted on healthy human volunteers using a tape-stripping technique. The in vitro results showed (i a delayed release when KT was included in elastic liposomes, compared to an aqueous solution of the drug; (ii a flux of 0.278 mg/cm2h and a lag time of about 10 h for ex vivo permeation studies, which may indicate that KT remains in the skin (with the possibility of exerting a local effect before reaching the receptor medium; (iii a good correlation between the total amount permeated, the penetration distance (both determined by tape stripping and transepidermal water loss (TEWL measured during the in vivo permeation studies. Elastic liposomes have the potential to transport the drug through the skin, keep their size and drug charge, and release the drug into deep skin layers. Therefore, elastic liposomes hold promise for the effective topical delivery of KT.

  2. Ameloglyphics: A possible forensic tool for person identification following high temperature and acid exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Manjushree; Juneja, Saurabh; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Bhoomareddy Kantharaj, Yashoda Devi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Forensic odontology is a branch that is evolving over time and has opened newer avenues that may help in the identification of individuals. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface and they are considered as a hard tissue analog to fingerprints. Teeth have the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, and decomposition, and may be used as a forensic evidence. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate if the tooth prints could be used for an individual's identification and reproducibility and permanency of these tooth prints after exposing the teeth to acid and various degrees of temperature. Materials and Methods: 90 tooth prints from 20 freshly extracted maxillary premolar teeth were obtained. Cellophane tape technique was used to record enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface. Ten teeth (one from each patient) were immersed in 36.46% hydrochloric acid and the tooth prints were obtained at various intervals (5 min, 10 min, and 20 min). The other 10 teeth (one from each patient) were incinerated and impression was made at various intervals (80° C, 400° C, 600° C, and 750° C). Tooth prints obtained from different teeth (total of 90 tooth prints) were analyzed using Verifinger® standard SDK version 5.0 software. Results: All the 20 original tooth prints were distinct from each other and no inter-individual or intra-individual similarity was found. The tooth prints from the same tooth after it was exposed to acid or heat were reproducible and showed high to very high similarity with the original tooth print of that particular tooth stored in the database. Conclusion: Tooth prints may be used as an effective aid in person identification even in adverse conditions such as burn and acid attack injuries. PMID:27051220

  3. Properties of a new acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal formulation (ACIDFORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S; Anderson, R A; Chany, C J; Waller, D P; Diao, X H; Vermani, K; Zaneveld, L J

    2001-07-01

    Vaginal prophylactic methodology may prevent heterosexual transmission of the HIV and other sexually transmitted disease-causing organisms as well as unplanned pregnancies. A new delivery system (ACIDFORM) was designed with acid-buffering, bioadhesive, and viscosity-retaining properties to (1) maintain the acidic vaginal milieu (the low pH inactivates many pathogens and spermatozoa), (2) form a protective layer over the vaginal/cervical epithelium (minimizing contact with pathogenic organisms), and (3) provide long-term vaginal retention. A Phase I clinical study with ACIDFORM provided initial information about its safety and showed the formation of a layer over the vaginal/cervical epithelium [1; Amaral et al., Contraception 1999;60:361-6]. To study the properties of the gel (without active ingredient) in more detail, ACIDFORM's acid-buffering, bioadhesive, viscosity-retaining, and spermicidal properties were compared in vitro to marketed formulations, and its long-term stability was assessed. ACIDFORM, either when titrated with NaOH or when mixed directly with semen, is highly acid buffering and much more effective than Aci-Jel, a commercial acid-buffering vaginal product. ACIDFORM adheres well to two model membranes (excised sheep vagina and cellophane) and is more bioadhesive than Conceptrol, Advantage S, Replens, Aci-Jel, and K-Y jelly. On dilution, ACIDFORM also retains its viscosity better than these marketed products. ACIDFORM is spermicidal and is stable for at least 2 years. These results suggest that ACIDFORM has advantages over presently marketed vaginal delivery systems. The gel may either be useful by itself as an antimicrobial contraceptive product or as a formulation vehicle for an active ingredient with antimicrobial and/or contraceptive properties. PMID:11535216

  4. Influence of environmental color on zootechnical performance and feeding behavior during masculinization of Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perila Maciel Rebouças

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise of tilapia in Brazil and the world increasingly needs the best growing conditions. Despite the Nile tilapia has diurnal, your vision is considered a strong sensory stimulus, and as the perception of the color contrast of medium, production losses may be evidence due to stress caused too. Thus, an experiment was conducted at Biotechnology Aquaculture Applied Center (CEBIAQUA, The Fishing Engineering Department, Federal University of Ceará, with the aim of evaluating the influence of the background color translucent on zootechnical performance and feeding behavior of Nile tilapia during masculinization. We used 200 post-larvae (average weight = 0:02 ± 0.01g; mean initial length = 1.10 ± 0.01 cm of Nile tilapia, packed in 40 L aquarium, covered with cellophane, for 28 days. Fish were distributed in a completely randomized in two treatments (blue and green and five replications. Environmental variables analyzed were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and photoperiod and productive performance was evaluated weight, total length, condition factor and lot uniformity. Behavioral observations occurred twice daily, immediately before the first feeding and 2 minutes after each feeding treatment. We found no significant difference in water parameters in two treatments. The weight, length and condition factor did not differ between treatments. There was a higher survival rate, more lot uniformity, and an obvious grouped behavior during feeding in aquaria translucent greens than blues. So for the masculinization of Nile tilapia, it is recommended to translucent green, because the results were most satisfactory.

  5. [The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren and affecting factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Hatice; Keskinoğlu, Pembe

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the factors affecting the presence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren. This investigation was a cross-sectional and analytic study. The dependent variable was the presence of parasites and the independent variables were the characteristics of the children, families, houses, toilets and drinking water. A stool specimen was taken in the morning using the cellophane tape method, and examined the same day by microscopy. Data were evaluated using the Chi square test and logistic regression analysis and p children was 8.6+/-2.0 years. The number of residents in their homes averaged 5.4+/-2.0, the average number of children in the homes was 3.2+/-1.9 and 290 (60.8%) houses were single dwellings. The source for piped water in 404 houses (84.7%) was the city network, and there were modern sanitary facilities (toilets) in 377 (70.6%) houses. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 209 (43.8%) children. According to logistic regression analyses, the rate of Enterobius vermicularis was found to be 3.05 times higher in students from the Sait Guzelcan primary school, if there were more than 6 residents in the home 2.05 times even higher and 2.02 times still higher if there were no sanitary facilities at his/her home. When there was a history of parasites in the family, the risk was significantly decreased. The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren was higher in slum areas, in crowded homes and in those that lacked modern sanitary facilities. PMID:17124657

  6. The importance of cigarette packaging in a 'dark' market: the 'Silk Cut' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Ford, Allison

    2014-05-01

    In a growing number of countries tobacco companies are severely restricted in how they can legally market their products. In these 'dark' markets the role of packaging as a promotional and communications tool becomes more pronounced. How packaging is used for the most expensive cigarette brands in dark markets has received limited attention however, even though these 'premium' cigarette brands significantly impact upon the profitability of tobacco companies. We outline, using retail trade press journals, how packaging was used for premium brand 'Silk Cut' in the UK from 2004 to 2011, following a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorship. From 2004 to 2008 packaging was used to help launch two new variants and during this period Silk Cut market share of the premium sector grew by 1.1%. Overall share of the cigarette market for the Silk Cut house (brand family) fell however due to the continuing decline of the premium sector. From 2008 to 2011 changes to the packaging were much more frequent, including the repeated use of limited-edition designs, and modifications to pack shape, texture, style of opening, cellophane, foil and inner frame. Silk Cut's share of the premium sector grew a further 2.9% from 2008 to 2011, and overall cigarette market share increased. That a premium brand can report any level of growth within such a hostile market, where most advertising, promotion and sponsorship is banned, taxation is among the highest in the world, and in the midst of a recession, is testament to the value of packaging. PMID:23152100

  7. Quantification of ultraviolet photon emission from interaction of charged particles in materials of interest in radiation biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal, E-mail: ahmadsb@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); McNeill, Fiona E., E-mail: fmcneill@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Prestwich, William V., E-mail: prestwic@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Byun, Soo Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Seymour, Colin, E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E., E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    In radiation biology experiments often cells are irradiated using charged particles with the intention that only a specified number of cells are hit by the primary ion track. However, in doing so several other materials such as the cell container and the growth media etc. are also irradiated, and UV radiation emitted from these materials can potentially interact with the cells. We have hypothesized that some “bystander effects” that are thought to be chemically mediated, may be, in fact, a physical effect, where UV is interacting with non-targeted cells. Based upon our hypothesis we quantified the emission of UV from Polypropylene, Mylar, Teflon, and Cellophane which are all commonly used materials in radiation biology experiments. Additionally we measured the NIST standard materials of Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves as these powdered materials are derived from living cells. Protons accelerated up to an energy of 2.2 MeV, in a 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator, were used for irradiation. Beam current was kept to 10 nA, which corresponds to a proton fluence rate of 2.7 × 10{sup 10} protons mm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. All the materials were found to emit light at UV frequencies and intensities that were significant enough to conduct a further investigation for their biological consequences. Mylar and polypropylene are commonly used in radiation induced bystander effect studies and are considered to be non-fluorescent. However our study showed that this is not the case. Significant luminescence observed from the irradiated NIST standard reference materials for Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves verified that the luminescence emission is not restricted only to the polymeric materials that are used to contain cells. It can also occur from ion interactions within the cells as well.

  8. Environmental color affects Nile tilapia reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental color on the reproductive behavior of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two environmental colors were tested by covering the aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm with white (12 groups or blue (13 groups cellophane and observing reproductive behavior in groups of 2 males (10.27 ± 0.45 cm and 3 females (10.78 ± 0.45 cm each. After assignment to the respective environmental color (similar luminosity = 100 to 120 Lux, the animals were observed until reproduction (identified by eggs in the female's mouth or up to 10 days after the first nest building. Photoperiod was from 6:00 h to 18:00 h every day. Food was offered in excess once a day and water quality was similar among aquaria. Daily observations were made at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00 h regarding: a latency to the first nest, b number of nests, c gravel weight removed (the male excavates the nest in the bottom of the aquarium, d nest area, and e mouthbrooding incubation (indication of reproduction. The proportion of reproducing fish was significantly higher (6 of 13 in the group exposed to the blue color compared the group exposed to the white color (1 of 12; Goodman's test of proportions. Moreover, males under blue light removed significantly larger masses of gravel (blue = 310.70 ± 343.50 g > white = 130.38 ± 102.70 g; P = 0.01 and constructed wider nests (blue = 207.93 ± 207.80 cm² > white = 97.68 ± 70.64 cm²; P = 0.03 than the control (white. The other parameters did not differ significantly between light conditions. We concluded that reproduction in the presence of blue light was more frequent and intense than in the presence of white light.

  9. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

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    Prabhath Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61% was most prevalent, followed by Type I′ (28%, Type II (9%, Type III (2%, Type IV (1%, and Type V (1%; in the male population, Type I (33% was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%, Type III (18%, Type IV (14%, Type I′ (10%, and Type V (3%. Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870 and females (κ = 0.870. Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database.

  10. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Koneru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person′s identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1′. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1′ and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions.

  11. Ameloglyphics: A possible forensic tool for person identification following high temperature and acid exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjushree Juneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Forensic odontology is a branch that is evolving over time and has opened newer avenues that may help in the identification of individuals. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface and they are considered as a hard tissue analog to fingerprints. Teeth have the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, and decomposition, and may be used as a forensic evidence. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate if the tooth prints could be used for an individual's identification and reproducibility and permanency of these tooth prints after exposing the teeth to acid and various degrees of temperature. Materials and Methods: 90 tooth prints from 20 freshly extracted maxillary premolar teeth were obtained. Cellophane tape technique was used to record enamel rod end patterns on tooth surface. Ten teeth (one from each patient were immersed in 36.46% hydrochloric acid and the tooth prints were obtained at various intervals (5 min, 10 min, and 20 min. The other 10 teeth (one from each patient were incinerated and impression was made at various intervals (80o C, 400o C, 600o C, and 750o C. Tooth prints obtained from different teeth (total of 90 tooth prints were analyzed using Verifinger® standard SDK version 5.0 software. Results: All the 20 original tooth prints were distinct from each other and no inter-individual or intra-individual similarity was found. The tooth prints from the same tooth after it was exposed to acid or heat were reproducible and showed high to very high similarity with the original tooth print of that particular tooth stored in the database. Conclusion: Tooth prints may be used as an effective aid in person identification even in adverse conditions such as burn and acid attack injuries.

  12. The Mozart effect in biofeedback visual rehabilitation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serena Salvatore, Aloisa Librando, Mariacristina Esposito, Enzo M VingoloDepartment of Ophthalmology, University La Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Alfredo Fiorini Hospital, Terracina, ItalyPurpose: To evaluate the usefulness of acoustic biofeedback by means of Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K. 448 to maintain and/or restore visual performance in a patient with macular pucker and glaucoma.Methods: A 74-year-old patient with open angle glaucoma in both eyes and macular pucker in the right eye (RE underwent visual rehabilitation with acoustic biofeedback by means of the MAIA™ Vision Training Module (Centervue, Padova, Italy 10 minutes each eye once a week for 5 weeks. The patient was asked to move his eyes according to a sound which changed into Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos when the patient locked the fixation target.Results: Best-corrected visual acuity improved in his right eye (RE and was stable in the left eye (LE. Fixation stability improved in both eyes, and retinal sensitivity decreased in the RE and improved in the LE. The characteristic of the macular pucker did not change during the training as demonstrated with optical coherence tomography. The patient was very satisfied with the training, as demonstrated by a 25-item questionnaire (National Eye Institute – Visual Functioning Questionnaire, NEI-VFQ-25. The patient’s reading speed and the character size which he was able to read improved in his RE.Conclusion: Music could enhance synaptic plasticity and affect neural learning and fixation training by means of MAIA vision training. Therefore it can improve visual performance in patients with macular pucker, postpone the surgical time, and assure a better quality of life for the patient.Keywords: glaucoma, macular cellophane, music, vision training

  13. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator's Sex Pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Shanklin, John; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2016-06-01

    Mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology [1]. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species [2-4]. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females [2-7], especially their sex pheromones [8-11]. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius [11-13]. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductive isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes [13-16]. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5's reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. This change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution. PMID:27212404

  14. Estabilidade da cor de doces em massa de polpa de umbu (Spondias tuberosa arr. cam. no estádio de maturação verde Color stability of marmalade made from pulp of unripe umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Madeira Nunes Policarpo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos de umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. maduros são altamente perecíveis, e o aproveitamento deles no estádio de maturação verde, sob a forma de doce é uma interessante alternativa econômica, para o semi-árido nordestino. A conservação da cor, durante o armazenamento, constitui um fator de qualidade dos mais importantes para o consumo, e o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar sua alteração em função de diferentes formulações, embalagens (polipropileno e celofane e temperaturas (33 e 43°C, por 90 dias de armazenamento. A adição de pectina e/ou xarope de glicose não alterou a luminosidade (L*, mas diminuiu os valores de a* ( intensidade do vermelho e b*. ( intensidade do amarelo. Verificou-se diminuição dos valores de L* a* e b*, notadamente para os doces armazenados à temperatura de 43°C e para a formulação sem adição de pectina. A embalagem não exerceu efeito significativo sobre L*( luminosidade, mas afetou a* e b* aos 90 dias de estocagem, em ambas as temperaturas. Os resultados globais indicaram o uso de pectina e xarope de glicose, embalagens de polipropileno e estocagem à temperaturas mais baixas como sendo as condições mais adequadas para preservação da cor.Ripe umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is highly perishable, thus using unripe umbu to make marmalade is an interesting economic alternative for the semi arid northeastern region in Brazil. Color conservation during storage is one of the major quality factors for consumption. This work aimed to evaluate color alteration in function of different formulations, packagings (polypropylene and cellophane and temperatures (33 and 43°C over 90 storage days. Pectin and/or glucose syrup adittion did not alter luminosity (L*, but decreased a* (red intensity and b*(yellow intensity values. L* (luminosity, a* ( red intensity and b* (yellow intensity values were found to decrease, especially for marmalade stored at 43°C and formulation without pectin addition

  15. Chronic partial urethral obstruction in female rats: description of an experimental model and initial results Obstrução parcial uretral crônica em ratos: descrição de um modelo experimental e resultados iniciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of infravesical urinary obstruction in female rats. METHODS: After median caudal laparotomy, the urethra of 14 female rats was delicately separated from the vagina and loosely wrapped with cellophane tape measuring 0.4 x 1.0 cm. The animals were evaluated 4 (n=7 and 8 (n=7 weeks later. Five additional control animals were only subjected to separation of the urethra and vagina and monitored for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After four weeks, three rats presented vesical dilation associated with discrete ureteral ectasis in 2 animals, with the third presenting discrete hydronephrosis in one kidney. After eight weeks, five rats (71.4% presented vesical distension with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis. No significant changes (p>0.05 in serum urea or creatinine occurred in any group compared to preoperative values. CONCLUSION: We present here an inexpensive and simple method for the slow induction of urethral obstruction in adult female rats, with the development of progressive vesical hypertrophy and ureterohydronephrosis, which may be used as an experimental model for the study of different aspects of obstructive nephropathy.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de obstrução urinária infravesical em ratas. MÉTODOS: Após laparotomia caudal mediana, as uretras de 14 ratas foram delicadamente separadas da vagina e frouxamente envoltas com fita de celofane medindo 0.4 x 1.0 cm. Os animais foram avaliados 4 (n=7 e 8 (n=7 semanas depois. Cinco animais adicionais (controle foram submetidos apenas à separação da uretra e da vagina e monitoradas por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Após quatro semanas, três ratas apresentaram dilatação vesical associada a discreta ectasia ureteral em 2 animais, com o terceiro apresentando discreta hidronefrose em um rim. Após oito semanas, cinco ratas (71.4% apresentaram distensão vesical com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Não ocorreram alterações significativas (p>0.05 nos valores

  16. Self-focusing of a pulsed electron beam in gases and their ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relativistic high-intensity pulsed electron beam generated from a Febetron 706 was strongly self-focused in two pressure regions, i.e., below and above 5 Torr. The dependence of the electron energy spectrum on pressure and path length in He was at first studied by measuring depth-dose distributions in an aluminum-blue cellophane stack. Then, maximum doses of the depth-dose curves in the dosimeter placed on the beam axis at 10.4 cm from the cell window were measured as functions of pressure in He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2, D2, N2, O2, N2O, CO2, SF6, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, CH3F, CHClF2, CCl2F2, He + X, Ar + X, and O2 + X (X: additive gas). The strong self-focusing at pressure lower than 5 Torr is attributed to space-charge neutralization by positive ions due to escaping of secondary electrons. Therefore, relative total ionization cross sections for beam electrons could be obtained in this region. When the spa ce-charge neutralization time becomes shorter than a rise time of the pulsed beam, secondary electrons are accelerated by a backward electric field E sub(z) induced by the pulsed beam so that the self-focusing declines abruptly due to electron avalanching. The beam is self-focused again gradually with further increasing pressure because of suppression of this avalanching. The avalanching was analyzed self-consistently for He, Ar, H2, N2, and CH4 by a computer simulation in the pressure region between 5 and 300 Torr. The present computational results indicate that the larger cose is given by the longer mean ionization time t sub(i) which depends on E sub(z)/p. The value of t sub(i) increases with increasing pressure in the pressure region of gradually-increasing self-focusing. (J.P.N.)

  17. 深圳市福田区人群土源性线虫感染调查%Survey on the infection situations of soil-borne nematodes in Futian district of Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范苏云; 石向辉; 顾青; 刘莹; 舒彬

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解福田区人群土源性线虫感染情况及流行病学特征,为制定预防与控制策略提供科学依据.方法 随机选取两个监测点,采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查土源性线虫虫卵,同时对检测者进行知识、行为问卷调查,幼儿园儿童采用透明胶纸肛拭法查蛲虫卵.结果 本次共粪检743人,蛲虫感染率为0.13%,未检出蛔虫、钩虫和鞭虫.儿童透明胶纸肛拭法检测514人,蛲虫感染率为3.11%.人群防治知识知晓率为69.90%,健康行为形成率为77.67%.结论 福田区土源性线虫感染以蛲虫为主,应采取有效的措施进行儿童蛲虫病的防制.%Objective To study the epidemiological characteristics and infection rates of soil-borne nematodes in Futian, so as to provide the scientific basis for the prevention and control of infection. Methods Two monitoring points were randomly selected, and the modified Kato-Katz method was used for detection of soil-borne nematodes eggs. At the same time the knowledge and the behaviour of these subjects were investigated by questionnaire. Pinworms in the children were examined by cellophane anal swab. Results 743 subjects were examined.The pinworm infection rate was 0.13%. Roundworm, hookworm and whipworm was not detected. Pinworms infection rate was 3.11% in 514 children. About 77.67% of people had good personal hygiene, and 69.90% of people knew how to prevent parasitic diseases. Conclusion Pinworms infection was the main source of infection in Futian, we should take some effective measures to reduce infection rate of pinworm in children.

  18. Surveillance results on Geohelminthes disease in Xinyang City of Henan Province in 2010%2010年河南省信阳市土源性线虫病监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑华; 张丽; 黄河秋; 张继

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过了解河南省信阳市居民土源性线虫病感染情况,为制定防治对策和评价防治效果提供科学依据.方法 于2010年,采用改良加藤厚涂片法对监测点内3周岁以上的常住居民进行钩虫、蛔虫、鞭虫及蛲虫检查;3~ 12周岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检查蛲虫卵.结果 监测1 099人,土源性线虫平均感染率为3.91%,与2002年调查结果相比,下降了74.79%,其中蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫、儿童蛲虫感染率分别为2.00%、0.73%、0.18%、1.00%.结论 信阳市人体土源性线虫感染率虽比过去下降,但仍要继续加强寄生虫病防治工作.%[Objective] To understand the infection status of Geohelminthes disease in Xinyang City of Henan Province, and provide scientific evidence for developing control measures and evaluating control effect. [ Methods ] The improved Kato-Katz method was used on the permanent residents above 3 years in monitoring points for the detection of hookworm, roundworm, whipworm and pin-worm examination. The swab anal with cellophane was used to check the pinworm eggs of children aged 3-12 years old. [Results] Totally 1 099 persons were examined, with an average infection rate of Geohelminthes disease of 3. 91% which decreased by 74.79%, compared with that in 2002. The infection rate of roundworm, hookworm, whipworm, and children's pinworm was 2. 00% , 0.73% , 0.18% , 1.00% , respectively. [ Conclusion]The infection rate of Geohelminthes disease is decreasing, but the parasitic diseases control needs to be strengthened.

  19. Evaluation effective irradiated feed on immunity system (ho moral) of vaccinated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to survey the application of gamma radiation in removes fungal contamination of poultry grain and its effect on immunity titer relation to vaccinate SFF chickens. First the different kinds of contaminations, then different kinds of fungal contaminations and their amount in the samples of poultry grain were determined, they were calculated fungal colonies in the starter grain from 9x103 to non countable and in the finisher grain from 0 to 102 colonies, and the highest contaminations were Aspergillosis. Then biochemical analysis, determining the existence and the amount of Aflatoxin in the poultry grain before irradiation were done and except two samples, the rest were not found to be contaminated. After that doses of 1,2,3,4,5,5.1,5,3,5.3,5.5,5.7 and 6 kilo Grays was applied in order to decrease or removal fungal contamination in the samples. Finally 6 kilo Gray dose had removed the fungal contamination in the samples. After the removal of the fungal contamination, the samples were stoked in cellophane packaging for 4 to 5 months at different temperatures and moistures and no contamination was observed. Then biochemical analysis, determining the existence the amount of Aflatoxin (in the above mentioned two cases) in the poultry grain after was done. It was noted that 6 kilo Gray dose does not have any negative effect on the grain compound. In additional this dose had removed the Aflatoxin in the two mentioned cases. Then 72 of chickens were divided into three groups. Each group was kept for two months. Each group (24 of chickens) divided into two classes that first class (12 of chickens) was fed normal grain (non-irradiated) and the second group was fed irradiated grain. Meanwhile the chickens were weighed in the beginning and end of each period. That no difference on average weight between the chickens fed on irradiated and non-irradiated grains were noted. The chickens were vaccinated at 20 days old, in each of three periods of

  20. Biological Effects Produced by Intense Pulsed Light (Xe-Cl on the Cartilage of the Tongue Chick Embryo Using Various Filters Efectos Biológicos Producidos por la Luz Pulsada Intensa (Xe-Cl sobre el Cartílago Lingual del Embrión de Pollo Usando Diversos Filtros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E Avila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Laser used correctly in the medical practice offers clear advantages compared with traditional therapies. The improvement and even the elimination of many significant skin lesions can be achieved with reduced risks to patients. However, it is important to keep security measures and understand the possible effects on an experimental model. The chick embryo is a good model to evaluate the direct effects of non-ionizing radiation for its easy handling and availability. The purpose of this communication is to show our histological findings in organs of the chick embryo with and without protective barrier to be subjected to radiation excimer. We used the following issuers: intense pulsed light (excimer Xe-Cl laser of 308 nm wavelength. It was irradiated embryos through an open window on eggshells. Aseptically the eggs were kept for 24 hours in an incubator. The protective barriers were used with and without colored glass, latex, cellophane, paper, polycarbonate of different colors and thicknesses. The most outstanding results, with no barrier and barriers with transparent and green were intense marked congestion in capillaries, edema and focus the necrosis. We concluded that the tissue changes observed are consistent with possible side effects of these radiations fototérmicos we warned about possible side effects when they are applied indiscriminately. We believe it is important to explore different means to safeguard the safety of operators and patients.El láser utilizado correctamente en la práctica médica ofrece claras ventajas cuando se compara con las terapias tradicionales. La mejoría e incluso la eliminación significativa de muchas lesiones cutáneas se pueden lograr con riesgos reducidos para los pacientes. Sin embargo, es importante guardar medidas de seguridad y conocer los posibles efectos en un modelo experimental. El embrión de pollo es un buen modelo para evaluar los efectos directos de radiaciones no ionizantes por su f

  1. Avaliação da qualidade físico-química e aceitabilidade de passas de pêssego submetidas à desidratação osmótica Evaluation of physico-chemical quality and acceptance of dried peaches submitted to osmotic dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2005-12-01

    indicated that the coating reduced solid incorporation and increased water loss. The dried peaches obtained under Treatments 1 and 2 were submitted to sensorial evaluation and presented a good general acceptance. Dried fruits stored at room temperature showed microbiological contamination after 40 days irrespective of the package (plastic bag, polyethylene package or cellophane package while fruits treated with chemical preservative (Treatment 3 did not show visual microbiological contamination at such period of storage.

  2. Assessment of metabolic capacity of Trichoderma inhamatum Bol12 QD biocontrol on native strains of Phytophthora infestans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puño Ramon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a cause of decreased crop yield of tomato, to control these losses, farmers use chemicals. This has consequences for the environment, human health and beneficial organisms in the ecosystem. The objective was to obtain and identify native isolates of Trichoderma spp. In soil planted with tomato Tlayacapan, Morelos (Mexico, Alternaria solani problems and Phytophthora infestans, also determine their antagonistic capacity in vitro. Trichoderma was isolated directly from soil by dilution in culture medium plate with potato dextrose agar (PDA. On the other side plate dilutions of yeast T. QD Bol12 inhamatum crops produced in batch for 30 days to compare the effectiveness of biocontrol. The filtered yeast inhibited mycelial growth kinetic of the agent in laboratory with the 1:2 dilution growth was 32.5% for the 1:4 dilution mycelial growth was 69.1% and finally to the dilution of 1:8 of the yeast biocontrol mycelium grew to 95.2%. To demonstrate the inhibitory activity on the pathogen in field crops, there were 3 L batch for four months. The application of three doses (undiluted, diluted 1:2 and 1:4 plus a control dilution water only was performed in a complete block design with four replications randomly with the tomato crop, belonging to the variety Santa Cruz Kada Gigante in the plots of the Academic Rural United Campesina Carmen Pampa. Statistical analysis by Duncan's test showed that the pure leaven reduce infection by Phytophthora infestans significantly in tomato. Appeared another tomato plant pathogen, Septoria lycopersici, in the course of fieldwork. We also evaluated the effect of the dose of yeast to this disease, and also noticed a significant reduction with all doses of yeast. These experiments demonstrated that the seeds of T. QD Bol12 inhamatum have biocontrol effect on the tomato crop. The antagonistic capacity was assessed using the cellophane and the kind of antagonism with the dual culture

  3. 重庆沙坪坝区土源性线虫感染现况调查%Investigation on the Current Situation of Human Soil-borne Nematode Infection in Shapingba District of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹宏; 杨连建; 陈敏; 李廷荣; 陈音汁

    2013-01-01

    2009年12月~2010年2月采用分层随机整群抽样法,按重庆沙坪坝区东南西北4个方位,随机抽取2个街道和2个乡镇,按《全国人体重要寄生虫病现状调查实施细则》开展调查.采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查12周岁以上常住居民肠道土源性线虫感染情况,以透明胶纸肛拭法检查12周岁及以下儿童蛲虫感染情况.共检查2 121人,感染率为9.6% (203/2 121),其中钩虫、蛔虫和鞭虫的感染率分别为9.3% (197/2 121)、0.4% (8/2 121)和0.1%(2/2 121),均以轻度感染为主;年龄组50岁以上感染率最高,为15.5% (160/1 030);职业以农民感染率最高,为22.3% (113/506);文化程度越高,感染率越低(P<0.01).城市人口感染率(2.1%)远低于农村人口感染率(17.3%)(x2=140.443 5,P<0.01).提示重庆市沙坪坝区人群中土源性线虫的感染率远低于Ⅱ类地区标准,且以钩虫感染为主.%By stratified cluster sampling method, 2 urban and 2 rural fields were selected from Shapingba district of Chongqing for survey in December 2009 to February 2010. According to the Administrating Regulations of National Investigation on Important Human Parasitic Diseases, Kato-Katz method was used to examine human intestinal soil-borne nematode eggs, and adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied to examine Enterobius infection for children under 12 years old. 203 cases were found positive in 2121 subjects, with an infection rate of 9.6%(203/2 121), and the infection rate of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura with mild infection mostly was 9.3% (197/2 121), 0.4% (8/2 121) and 0.1%(2/2 121), respectively. The rate among people over 50 years old was 15.5% (160/1 030), and the fanners was with 22.3%( 113/506). The higher the education level, the lower the infection rate(P<0.01), and there was a significant difference in the prevalence between ruban (2.1%) and rural people (17.3%) (x2=140.443 5, P<0.01). The infection rate of soil

  4. Investigation of Soil-Transmitted Nematode Infections in Xuchang City of Henan Province in 2012%河南省许昌市2012年土源性线虫感染调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金华

    2015-01-01

    The Weidu District, Yanling County and Yuzhou City were selected in Xuchang City for investigation of the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections in 2012, in accordance with the National Monitoring Program for Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis ( 2011 Revised Edition ) . Kato-Katz technique was used to detect soil-transmitted nematodes in feces of residents over 3 years old, and the cellophane tape peri-anal swab method was used to detect pinworm eggs in children between 3-12 years. A total of 2 991 fecal samples were examined. The total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was 4.3%(128/2 991), decreased by 63.0% and 55.1% when compared with that in 2010 (11.6%) and that in Henan Province in 2004 (9.5%) respectively. The infection rates of roundworms, whipworms, hookworms and pinworms were 3.7%(110/2 991), 0.3%(9/2 991) , 0.1%(3/2 991) , and 0.2% ( 6/2 991) , respectively, all showing mild intensity of infection. The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was highest in farmers (5.5%, 113/2 059), followed by children (3.1%, 3/98).%2012按照《全国土源性线虫病监测方案(2011修订版)》要求抽取河南省许昌市魏都区、鄢陵县和禹州市作为土源性线虫调查点。采用改良加藤厚涂片法(一粪三检)对调查点3周岁以上居民进行土源性线虫检测。同时,对3~12周岁儿童采用透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫卵,373份肛拭样品中检出阳性1份,阳性率为0.3%。共检测2991份粪样,土源性线虫总感染率为4.3%(128/2991),与2004年河南省土源性线虫感染率(9.5%)相比,下降了55.1%,与2010年的11.6%相比下降了63.0%。蛔虫、鞭虫、钩虫和蛲虫感染率分别为3.7%(110/2991)、0.3%(9/2991)、0.1%(3/2991)和0.2%(6/2991),均为轻度感染。农民土源性线虫感染率(5.5%,113/2059)最高,散居儿童(3.1%,3/98)次之。

  5. 土源性线虫感染对儿童生长发育影响及相关因素分析%Correlation between soil-transmitted nematode infections and children's growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兵; 王国飞; 张林秀; 罗仁福; 王聚君; Alexis Medina; Karen Eggleston; Scott Rozelle; Scott Smith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China and the correlation between soil-transmitted nematode infections and children' s growth.Methods The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections was determined by Kato-Katz technique,and in part of the children,the examination of Enterobius vermicularis eggs was performed by using the cellophane swab method.The influencing factors were surveyed by using a standardized questionnaire.The relationship between soil-transmitted nematode infections and children's growth was analyzed by the ordinary least square (OLS)method.Results A total of 1 707 children were examined,with a soil-transmitted nematode infection rate of 22.2%.The results of OLS analysis showed that there existed the negative correlation between soil-transmitted nematode infections and the indexes of children' s growth including BMI,the weight-for-age Z score and height-for-age Z score.Furthermore,other correlated variables included the age,gender,educational level of mother and raising livestock and poultry,etc.Conclusions Children' s retardation is still a serious issue in the southwest poor areas of China and correlated with the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes.For improving children's growth,it is greatly significant to enhance the deworming and health education about parasitic diseases in mothers.%目的 了解中国西南贫困地区儿童土源性线虫感染现状,分析其对儿童生长发育的影响.方法 在四川省和贵州省随机选取3个国家级贫困县,采用改良加藤厚涂片法对受检儿童粪便进行病原学检查并进行问卷调查.采用普通最小二乘法(OLS)分析土源性线虫感染情况、个体特征、饮食卫生习惯和家庭特征等相关因素对儿童身体质量指数(BMI)、身高和体重的影响.结果 共粪检1 707名儿童,土源性线虫感染率为22.2%.OLS分析显示感染土源性线虫、性别、年龄、母亲受教育程

  6. 芗城区2011年国家级土源性线虫病监测报告%Report on soil-transmitted nematodiasis in national surveillance sites in Xiangcheng District in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝建; 周俊仁; 张志魁; 魏美羡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Xiangcheng District of Fujian Province in 2011.Methods Dazai village of Xiangcheng District of Zhangzhou City was selected in 2011.Kato-Katz method was used to detect the eggs of intestinal helminthes and cellophane tape was used to detect the eggs of pinworm among children age 3 to 12.Soil samples in the vegetable garden,orchard and other plantations were collected from 15 families and hookworm larvae in the soil were isolated,cultured and identified.Results A total of 1022 persons were detected.146 persons were infected with soil-transmitted nematodes and the infection rate was 14.29%.The infection rate of hookworm was 10.76%(110/1 022).Ascaris and Trichuris were not found.115 children were detected among them 36 were found infected with pinworm,the infection rate was 31.3%.10 soil samples from the vegetable garden were examined and 6 of them contained hookworm larvae.5 soil samples from the orchard were examined and 4 of them contained hookworm larvae.All of them were identified as New-World hookworm.Conclusion Comparing with the results of the first phase of the five-year surveillance results,a decreasing trend of the soil-transmitted nematode infections was revealed in 2011,but a relatively high rate of hookworm infection in children was noticed.%目的 分析芗城区2011年土源性线虫感染及变化情况.方法 2011年在芗城区天宝镇大寨村,采用改良加藤厚涂片法粪检肠道蠕虫卵(一粪三检);对3~12周岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫;随机选择采集15户家庭的蔬菜园、果园及其它种植地的土襄标本进行钩蚴培养,每户1份,每份300 g.结果 共检查1 022人,感染者146人,总感染率为14.29%,其中,钩虫感染者110人,感染率为10.76%;未发现蛔虫与鞭虫.检测儿童115人,蛲虫感染者36人,感染率为31.30%.检测蔬菜地土壤10份,分离钩蚴阳性6份;水果地土壤5份,

  7. Investigation on Pinworm Infection and Relative Factors on Prevalence among Urban and Rural Preschool Children in Xianyang City%咸阳市城乡学龄前儿童蛲虫感染情况及相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉平; 安荣; 石小玲; 王丽; 李彦魁

    2013-01-01

    A total of Eight hundred eighty-six children from 3 to 7 years old in 8 kindergartens were sampled in urban and rural area in Xianyang City from March to May 2012.The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs.Children's hygiene habits,clinical symptoms and hygienic condition were surveyed by questionnairing.The total infection rate of pinworm was 11.2%(99/886).The rate in males and females was 10.4%(52/500) and 12.2%(47/386),respectively.The infection rate in rural kindergartens (19.1%,70/367) was higher than that of urban kindergartens (5.6%,29/519)(x2=39.39,P<0.01).Among the investigated children aged 3-7 years,the infection rate in 4-5years group (12.7%) was the highest,but no statistical difference was found among age groups(P>0.05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the hygiene habits such as washing hands before eating (OR=0.180),drinking unboiled water and eating non-cooked food(OR=2.473),cleaning perianal region frequently(OR=0.836),cutting nails frequently (OR=0.450),drying the quilt regularly (OR=0.224) and health education (OR=0.639) were the influence factors on pinworm infection.The main symptoms of pinworm infection include pruritus and bruxism.%2012年3~5月采用透明胶纸法对咸阳市区和农村8所幼儿园的3~7岁共886名儿童进行蛲虫感染情况调查,同时对儿童卫生习惯、临床症状和幼儿园卫生状况进行问卷调查.受检儿童蛲虫总感染率为11.2% (99/886).男童、女童感染率分别为10.4% (52/500)和12.2% (47/386).农村儿童感染率(19.1%,70/367)明显高于城区儿童(5.6%,29/519)(x2=39.39,P<0.01).不同年龄组中,4~5岁组的感染率最高(12.7%,29/229),不同年龄之间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).经多因素非条件Logistic回归分析显示,饭前便后是否洗手(OR=0.180)、是否有生食生饮习惯(OR=2.473)、是否经常清洗肛周(OR=0.836)、是否勤剪指甲(OR=0.450)

  8. Investigation on pinworm infection of pre-school children in Xinxiang,Henan Province%河南省新乡市学龄前儿童蛲虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜旭; 张展; 高翔; 田竹云; 张英豪; 付海林; 刘慧; 张岩; 田兵飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infection status of pre-school children in Xinxiang city.Methods The method of adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube was used to detect the eggs.A total of 994 samples were collected at 7∶30-9∶30 a.m.in 5 kindergartens (3 in suburb,2 in urban) which were chosen at random.Eggs data were collected,the infection rates were calculated and x2 analysis was used for the infection rate comparing.Results The total pinworm infection rate was 4.93% (49/994).The pinworm infection rate was 4.71% (25/531) for boys,and 5.18% (24/463) for girls with no significant difference.The pinworm infection rate of the children in 2-3 years old group was 3.17%(17/536) and 6.99% (32/458) in 4-6 years old group with significant difference (x2=7.71,P < 0.05).The pinworm infection rate was 5.77%(14/387) in suburb and 3.62%(35/607) in urban with no significant difference.Conclusion The pinworm infection rate of pre-school children in Xinxiang City now is lower than the average level of China.And the pinworm infection rate is closely related with the children ages.%目的 了解新乡市学龄前儿童蛲虫感染情况,为蛲虫病防治提供依据. 方法 随机抽取新乡市城区2所、郊区3所幼儿园,采用透明胶纸肛拭法于上午7:30~9:30对994名学龄前儿童进行蛲虫感染情况调查,以检获虫卵者为阳性,计算感染率,感染率的比较采用x2分析. 结果 受检儿童蛲虫总感染率为4.93%(49/994).男童感染率为4.71%(25/531),女童感染率为5.18% (24/463),二者差异无统计学意义;2~3岁组感染率为3.17%(17/536),4~6岁组感染率为6.99% (32/458),二者差异有统计学意义(x2=7.71,P<0.05);郊区感染率为5.77%(14/387),城区感染率为3.62%(35/607),二者差异无统计学意义. 结论 新乡市学龄前儿童的蛲虫感染率为4.93%,儿童蛲虫感染率与年龄有关.

  9. Analysis on the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年辽宁省土源性线虫病监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚德高; 毛丽翠; 于美娜; 刘波; 王健辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2006-2010年辽宁省土源性线虫病流行情况,为寄生虫病的预防控制决策提供科学依据.方法 按照辽北、辽中、辽南地区分布,每地区选择一个市作为监测点,调查对象选择年龄3周岁以上常住居民,收集受检者粪便,采用改良加藤法(一粪三检)检查土源性线虫卵,计算土源性线虫感染率.12岁以下儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检查蛲虫.结果 2006-2010年,辽宁省累计调查6579人次,各年土源性线虫感染率依次为5.88%、0.67%、0.39%、0、0.57%,人群感染情况呈波动下降趋势.0~10岁年龄组的土源性线虫感染率为1.06%,在各年龄组中最高.不同性别人群间土源性线虫感染率差异无统计学意义(x2=2.000,P>0.05).60岁以上年龄组人群蛔虫感染率为1.11%,在各年龄组中最高.不同性别人群间蛔虫感染率差异无统计学意义(x2=2.000,P >0.05).结论 辽宁省属于土源性线虫病低流行区,但高危人群仍然具有较高的感染率,应继续开展监测工作.%Objective To understand and analyze the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Liaoning Province.Methods A city was chosen as monitoring point in every area distributing in the north,middle and south of Liaoning Province.The stool samples of the residents above 3 years old were collected and examined with modified Kato-Katz thick smear “one stool specimen-three slides”,and adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied for examining the eggs of Enerobius vermicularis in children aged 3-12.Results 6579 persons were investigated from 2006 to 2010,the yearly infection rates were 5.88%,0.67%,0.39%,0 and 0.57%.A declined tendency was showed.The highest infection rate was 1.06%,which appeared in the age group below 10.There were no significant differences between different genders about soil-transmitted nematode infections rates(x2 =2.000,P > 0.05).The age group above 60 had the

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among middle and primary school students%2000~2009年济南市中小学生肠道寄生虫感染情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵群力; 张萍; 李新爱; 田庆新; 雷畅; 何琳娜; 周怀瑜

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解济南市中小学生肠道寄生虫感染情况,为学校开展健康教育、制定寄生虫病防治对策和开展驱虫治疗提供科学依据. 方法 采用改良加藤厚涂法检测蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫和华支睾吸虫虫卵,透明胶纸法检测蛲虫虫卵.结果 肠道寄生虫总感染率为9.16%,共查出5种寄生虫,其中蛔虫、鞭虫、钩虫、蛲虫、华支睾吸虫感染率分别为3.91%、2.05%、0.74%、2.00%和0.46%.城、乡中小学生寄生虫总感染率分别为5.50%和13.18%,差异有统计学意义(x2=38.0585,P<0.05);男性华支睾吸虫感染率为0.85%,女性为0.09%,差异有统计学意义(x2=5.1422,P<0.05). 结论 2000~2009年济南市中小学生肠道寄生虫感染率呈下降趋势,但农村感染率仍然偏高,建议把肠道寄生虫防治的重点放在农村,采取有效防治措施,降低人群感染率.%Objectives To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among middle and primary school students and to provide a scientific basis for health education and parasitosis control strategies. Methods Species of intestinal parasites were determined using Kato's thick smear method or the cellophane tape method. Results Five strains of intestinal parasites were found. The total infection rate was 9. 16% , with Ascaris lumbricoides infection accounting for 3. 91% , Trichuris trichiura infection accounting for 2. 05% , hookworm infection accounting for 0. 74% , Enterobius ver-micularis infection accounting for 2. 00% , and Clonorchis sinensis infection accounting for 0. 46%. The infection rates of urban and rural students were 5. 50% and 13. 18% , respectively. There was a significant difference in the rates of infection (x2 =38. 0585, P<0.05). The rate of C. sinensis infection differed significantly (x2 = 5. 1422, P<0. 05) in males (0.85%) and females (0.09%). Conclusion The overall rate of infection with intestinal parasites among middle and primary school

  11. 2011-2012年沭阳县土源性线虫感染调查%Survey of infections of soil-transmitted nematodes in Shuyang County,Jiang-su Province,2011 and 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏良祥; 刘剑峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the status of infections of soil-transmitted nematodes of residents in Shuyang County,Jiang-su Province from 2011 to 2012. Methods Totally 2 140 residents of Machang Town and Longji Town in Shuyang County,Jiangsu Province were investigated,and their stool samples were collected and detected by Kato-Katz technique,and in addition,the chil-dren aged 3-12 years were examined by the cellophane anal swab method,in 2011 and 2012. Results In 2011,the total infec-tion rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 1.06%(11/1 034),the infection rate of hookworm was 1.06%(11/1 034),the infec-tion rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 0,the infection rate of Trichuris trichiura was 0,and the infection rate of Enterobius vermicu-laris was 0;In 2012,the total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 0.99%(11/1 106),the infection rate of hookworm was 0.27%(3/1 106),the infection rate of A. lumbricoides was 0.09(1/1 106),the infection rate of T. trichiura was 0,and the in-fection rate of E. vermicularis was 2.69%(7/223). Conclusion The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes of residents in Shuyang County is low,but the surveillance is still necessary.%目的:了解2011-2012年江苏省沭阳县居民土源性线虫感染状况。方法采用Kato-Katz法对沭阳县马厂镇葛荡村和龙集镇吴圩村2140名居民开展土源性寄生虫感染调查,对3~12岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检测。结果2011年和2012年沭阳县居民土源性线虫总感染率分别为1.06%(11/1034)和0.99%(11/1106);钩虫感染率分别为1.06%(11/1034)和0.27%(3/1106),蛔虫感染率分别为0(0/1034)和0.09%(1/1106),鞭虫感染率均为0;3~12岁儿童蛲虫感染率分别为0(0/198)和2.69%(7/223)。结论沭阳县居民土源性线虫感染率较低,需做好监测工作。

  12. Investigation on the status of major human parasites in the rural areas of Xinyu Jiangxi Province%江西省新余市农村寄生虫现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊青; 周弃粕; 卢春林; 李春艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study current status and influential factors of major human parasitic diseases in the rural areas of Xinyu,Jiangxi Province,and also to predict the trend and identify the high risk population,so as to provide scientific evidence for the development of control strategies and evaluation of the effects of prevention and control.Methods Modified thick smear Kato-Katz method,test tube filter paper culture,adhesive cellophane anal swab,saline smear and iodine staining method were used for feces ex-amination to detect nematodes,tapeworms,protozoa and liver flukes.Results In the 764 examinees from the 3 rural survey points,the number of people with positive infection was 53,with an infection rate of 6.94%,of which the infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was 0.13% and those of hookworm,Trichuris trichiura,Enterobius vermicularis and liver fluke were 5.24%,0.26%,1.05% and 0.26% respectively.Neither tenia nor protozoa were detected.Conclusion The infection rate of human parasites among rural inhabit-ants of Yushui area,Xinyu city,as obtained from the survey was obviously decreased,as compared with the average infection rate a-mong the inhabitants of Jiangxi Province in 2004,with hookworm infection as the main infection and elderly farmers with an age of 50 and older as chief victims.%目的:了解和掌握新余市农村重点寄生虫感染现状及影响因素,预测流行趋势,明确高危人群,为制定本市重点寄生虫病防治策略和评价防治效果提供科学依据。方法本次调查采用改良加藤厚涂片法、试管滤纸培养法、透明胶纸肛拭法、生理盐水涂片法和碘液涂片法对受检者进行粪检,查找线虫、绦虫、原虫以及肝吸虫。结果3个农村调查点,共计764名受检者(制片1538张),其中感染阳性人数为53人,感染率为6.94%,其中蛔虫感染率为0.13%、钩虫感染率为5.24%、鞭虫感染率为0.26%、蛲虫感染率为1.18

  13. Investigation on common human soil-transmitted nematode infections in Quanzhou City in 2012%泉州市人体常见土源性线虫感染现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解泉州市人体常见土源性线虫感染流行现状,为今后制定防控措施提供科学依据。方法2012年抽查2个县(区)各5个乡镇3岁以上常住人口,应用粪便改良加藤氏厚涂片法检测钩虫、蛔虫、鞭虫、蛲虫虫卵;每县(区)随机抽取1所幼儿园儿童,采用透明胶纸肛拭法检查蛲虫虫卵。对调查数据进行统计分析。结果共粪检1919人,仅检出钩虫感染69例,总感染率为3.60%。不同地区、不同性别钩虫感染率差异无统计学意义;不同年龄、不同职业感染率差异有统计学意义。各县(区)幼儿园儿童均未检出蛲虫感染。结论鞭虫、蛔虫和蛲虫防治措施效果显著,钩虫感染率有上升趋势。应加强钩虫病的防治。%Objective To understand the epidemic situation of common human soil-transmitted nematode infections in Quan-zhou City in 2012,so as to provide the evidence for improving the prevention and control measures. Methods The residents aged above 3 years from 5 townships in 2 counties were investigated to detect the parasite eggs(hookworm,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trich-uris trichura)by Kato-Katz technique. One kindergarten of each county was randomly selected and 228 children were investigated to detect Enterubius vermicularis eggs by the cellophane tape anus test. Results The total hookworm infection rate was 3.60%(69/1919). For the hookworm infection rates,there was no significant difference among different areas and between different genders, but there were significant differences among different age groups and different careers. No Enterubius vermicularis eggs were detect-ed. Conclusion The effect of the prevention and control of Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichura and Enterubius vermicularis in-fections is remarkable. However,the infection rate of hookworm has a rising trend and the prevention and control of hookworm in-fection should be strengthened.

  14. 2006-2010年苏北地区土源性线虫病防治监测%Surveillance of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in northern Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓军; 江文才; 曹汉钧; 金小林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the control effect on soil-transmitted nematodiasis in surveillance sites of northern Jiangsu Province. Methods According to "The Monitoring Program on Soil-transmitted Nematodiasis in Jiangsu Province" , the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes were detected by the Kato-Katz technique and cellophane anal swab technique, and the infection rates were predicted by the horizontal average speed development method in the surveillance sites from 2006 to 2010. Results The overall infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes declined to 3.13% and the intensities of the infections were mild in past 5 years in the northern Jiangsu Province, and the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius ver-micularis were 0.77%, 0.89%, 1.49 and 1.19%, respectively. The overall infection rates showed a downtrend. The predicted result also demonstrated that the future infection rates should keep a continuous downtrend, but the decreasing speed should be slower than before. Conclusion The infections of soil-transmitted nematodes in the northern Jiangsu Province have been controlled basically, and we should adjust the control strategy including surveillance and chemotherapy in the main risk population.%目的 观察江苏省苏北地区土源性线虫病防治效果.方法 根据《江苏省土源性线虫病监测方案》要求,采用改良加藤厚涂片法和透明胶纸肛拭法检测土源性线虫感染率,应用平均发展速度法预测监测点未来感染率.结果 经过5年防治,苏北地区土源性线虫感染率降至3.13%,均为轻度感染.其中蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫和蛲虫感染率分别为0.77%、0.89%、1.49%和1.19%,总感染率呈下降趋势;平均发展速度法预测结果也显示土源性线虫感染率仍将进一步下降,但下降趋势有所减缓.结论 苏北地区土源性线虫病已基本控制,应调整防治策略;同时继续做好监测和重点人群服药工作.

  15. 2002年与2011年宁夏农村人群土源性线虫感染状况比较%Comparison on status of soil transmitted nematodes infection in Ningxia rural populations between 2002 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴向林; 马荣; 冯运灵; 付益仁

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解宁夏2002年和2011年农村人群土源性线虫感染状况变化,为今后寄生虫病的防治提供科学依据.方法 分别于2002年和201 1年按全国寄生虫调查方案对宁夏永宁县等7个县(区)的46个调查点的人群采用随机抽样方法抽取调查对象,采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查粪便中蛔虫、鞭虫和钩虫虫卵,对3 ~12岁儿童采用透明纸肛拭法检测蛲虫虫卵,分析比较2次调查人群土源性线虫感染状况结果.结果 2002年查出土源性线虫有蛔虫、蛲虫、鞭虫、钩虫,感染率分别为5.79%(627/10 829)、6.65%(171/2 570)、0.20%(7/10 829)、0.08%(3/10 829);2011年查出的土源性线虫有蛔虫和蛲虫,感染率分别为3.77%(306/8 089)和2.89% (204/7 042).2002年,7个县中土源性线虫感染率高于5%的有5个县,其中彭阳县最高,为12.42%;2011年感染率高于5%的县区仅有海原县,为5.06%.两次调查12岁以下年龄组儿童土源性线虫感染率均最高;性别、民族间感染率差异无统计学意义;两个年度学龄前儿童和学生的土源性线虫感染率高于其他职业人群(,x22002=62.44,P<0.05;x22011=27.29,P<0.05).结论 宁夏土源性线虫感染率由2002年的6.04%(808/13399)下降到201 1年的3.36%(509/15131),但个别经济落后、卫生条件较差地区,学龄前儿童和小学生仍是今后防治工作重点.%Objective To understand the changes of soil transmitted nematodes infection status in Ningxia rural population between 2002 and 2011 and provide a scientific basis for prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases in the future Methods Random samples were collected from the residents at 46 survey points in seven counties (districts) of Ningxia according to the National Parasite Survey Program in 2002 and 2011.Roundworms eggs,whip worm eggs,pinworm eggs were detected in the stool with Kato-Katz thick smear and pinworm eggs were detected with cellophane anal swab method for

  16. 唐山市不同职业人群面部蠕形螨感染情况调查及影响因素分析%Facial Demodex infection and factors affecting its prevalence among individuals in different occupations in the City of Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪璘; 王娜; 王菁菁; 董琳琳; 尤茜怡; 苏盈莹; 张慧; 田喜凤; 李冀

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查唐山市不同职业人群(在校生、银行职员、化妆品销售员)面部蠕形螨感染情况,并探讨蠕形螨感染相关因素. 方法 采用挤压法和透明胶带纸粘贴法,对鼻尖和鼻翼侧部进行蠕形螨的检查,同时调查受检者的年龄、性别等基本情况. 结果 共调查825人,面部蠕形螨感染244人,感染率29.58%,其中男性感染率为28.90%,女性感染率为30.08%;学生感染率为27.01%(其中小学生8.07%,初中生20.11%,高中生25.73%,大学生52.20%),银行职员为37.86%,化妆品销售员为37.00%;皮脂型蠕形螨感染者占8.61%,毛囊型占79.92%,混合型占11.47%;油性皮肤者感染率为42.91%,干燥型皮肤者感染率为24.37%,混合型皮肤者感染率为21.82%;患有酒糟鼻、痤疮等面部疾病者感染率为82.61%,高于无面部疾病者28.05%(x2=31.98,P<0.05);居住环境潮湿的受检者感染率为51.75%,高于居住环境干燥者17.81%(x2 =103.31,P<0.05). 结论 唐山市不同职业人群面部蠕形螨感染率不同.蠕形螨感染与年龄、性别、职业、皮肤类型、面部疾病、生活条件、居住(工作)环境及个人卫生习惯等有关.%Objectives This study examined the prevalence of demodicidosis of the face among individuals in the occupations of student (elementary, middle, and high school students and college students), bank clerk, and cosmetics saleswoman in Tangshan. This study also examined factors related to demodicidosis. Methods The tip and wings of the nose and nose flank were checked for demodicidosis using skin scrapings collected with cellophane tape. Tested individuals were surveyed regarding their age, sex, profession, skin type, facial conditions, living conditions, and home (work) environment, and personal hygiene. Results In total, 825 patients were studied; 244 had demodicidosis for a total rate of infection of 29. 58%. The rate of infection among males was 28. 90% and that

  17. 三峡库区土源性线虫感染现状流行病学调查%Investigation of prevalent status of soil-borne nematode in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成果; 罗飞; 蒋诗国; 罗兴建; 谢君

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of soil-bome nematode in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods 15 counties were selected in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas.The local populations of 4 villages from different directions were investigated by the same questionnaire. Stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The Enterobius vermicularis egg of children below 12 years old were examined by the adhesive cellophane anal swab method. Results Etiological examination was conducted for 30 820 people. The average infection rate of geohelminthes was 12.92%, with a range of 3.86%-24.90%. The infection rates of roundworm, whipworm, hookworm and oxyurid were 8.62%, 4.18%, 0.57% and 4.73%, respectively. The rate of roundworm infection was higher than other (x2=2354.35,P0.05). The general infection rate,roundworm infection rate and whipworm infection rate were the highest in 50 and 60 age group. There were significant difference of infection rates among different age groups (x2= 184.32,P<0.01). The infection rates of preschool children (13.64%), farmers (13.29%) and students (11.61%) were higher than people of other occupations (x2=41.23,f<0.01). The infection rates of illiteracies (18.24%), primary school students (14.01%)and preschool children (13.64%) were higher than people of other educations (x2=214.43, P<0.01). The infection rate of hookworm increased with the increase in age (F =43.86,P<0.01).Infection with single parasite was 91.50%. Conclusions The infection rate of soil-bome nematode decreased greatly when compared with that of the Second National Survey of Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, but soil-borne nematode was still the principal endemic parasite. The infection rates of preschool children, primary school students and farmers were high. The roundworm was main soil-borne nematode

  18. 厦门、漳州2市11县(区)儿童蛲虫感染情况调查%Investigation on Enterobius vermicularis infection in children of Xiamen and Zhangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝建; 李莉莎; 李燕榕

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解厦门与漳州市辖区的城乡儿童蛲虫感染情况,分析蛲虫感染的危险因素,为蛲虫病的防治提供指导. 方法 2011年选取厦门与漳州市辖区的11个县市(区)11所幼儿园及3所小学为调查点,采用圆底试管透明胶纸肛拭法检查2~12周岁的儿童和小学一、二年级学生蛲虫感染情况.通过问卷调查受检儿童及其家庭的基本情况、卫生习惯和学校环境等相关知识,并分析蛲虫感染的影响因素. 结果 共调查2市11个县(区)11所幼儿园和3所小学的儿童1 651名,回收合格问卷1 452份.儿童蛲虫总感染率为13.57% (224/1 651),其中,漳州市的芗城区感染率最高,为30.36% (34/112),厦门市湖里区感染率为0,即未发现蛲虫感染者.漳州镇区蛲虫总感染率18.08%(161/890),显著高于厦门城区总蛲虫感染率2.28% (63/761),两者差异具有统计学意义(x2=33.67,P<0.01).男童感染率为12.97% (114/879),女童感染率为14.25% (110/662),两者差异无统计学意义(x2=0.5737,P>0.05).蛲虫感染的主要影响因素为儿童的居住地,父母亲文化、职业,教室地面情况和儿童寄读境况等. 结论 漳州镇区的儿童蛲虫感染情况依然严重,应针对蛲虫感染的相关影响因素采取相应的防控措施,以保护儿童的身心健康.%Objective To investigate the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection in children of Xiamen and Zhangzhou cities,and analyze its risk factors.Methods In 2011,11 kindergartens and 3 primary schools in Xiamen and Zhangzhou were chosen as investigation spots,respectively.Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube.Information of children's family condition,health behavior and school environment was collected by questionnaire,then the risk factors of the infection were analyzed.Results Totally 1 651 children were examined,and 1 452 qualified questionnaires were collected.The total prevalence

  19. Investigation and analysis of intestinal parasitic diseases infection status among primary school students in Lingao County of Hainan%临高县小学生肠道寄生虫病感染情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赛凤; 吕刚; 芦亚君; 甘秀凤

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查海南省临高县小学生肠道寄生虫病的感染情况,了解该地区肠道寄生虫病的流行状况和影响因素,为肠道寄生虫病在当地小学生中的防治提供科学数据和理论性依据.方法 2015年6~8月以临高县小学1~3年级学生为调查对象,以粪便为检验物使用生理盐水涂片法、饱和硝酸钠浮聚法检查蛔虫卵、鞭虫卵及钩虫卵;使用透明胶纸粘贴法检查蛲虫卵.检出虫卵者确定为感染者,依虫卵种类不同分别计数并进行统计分析.结果 本次调查共采集粪便标本1125份,肠道寄生虫病总感染率为48.53%.蛔虫病、鞭虫病、钩虫病、蛲虫病的感染率分别为6.13%、4.36%、0.98%、37.07%.一年级、二年级、三年级学生感染率分别是58.19%、48.43%、37.57%,不同年级感染率比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=31.454,P<0.05);男学生、女学生的感染率分别是7.20%、4.27%,不同性别之间感染率比较差异具有统计学意义(χ2=3.965,P<0.05).结论 临高县小学生肠道寄生线虫病的感染情况仍比较严重,蛲虫病感染率最高,钩虫病感染率最低;肠道寄生虫病是该地区危害儿童健康和生长发育的主要因素之一,当地卫生部门应定期普查普治,加强卫生宣教,关注儿童健康.%Objective To understand epidemic status and influencing factors of intestinal parasitic disease among pupils in Lingao County and provide scientific data and theoretical basis for the prevention and control of intesti-nal parasitic disease in the local primary school. Methods A total of 1125 fecal samples were acquired from the grade 1~3 students in primary school in Liangao County, who was randomly selected from June to August in 2015. Normal sa-line smear and saturated sodium nitrate flotation method were used to detect the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, hook-worm and Trichuris trichi in fecal samples. Pinworm eggs were detected by cellophane tape method. Each kind of eggs was

  20. 福建省2006-2010年土源性线虫感染的监测%Surveillance on the Prevalence of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in Fujian in 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝建; 李莉莎; 张榕燕; 李燕榕; 张智芳; 郑国斌; 方彦炎; 林陈鑫; 江典伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalent trend of soil-transmitted nematode infection in Fujian Province during the past 5 year surveillance and evaluate the control effect. Methods From 2006 to 2010, fecal samples of the inhabitants of 3 years old and above were collected every November and examined for intestinal helminth eggs by the modified Kato' s thick smear technique at the 2 surveillance sites: Punan village of Zhangzhou and Cushan village of Shaowii. Cellophane tapes were used to detect pinworm eggs for children aged 3-12. Soil samples were also collected from vegetable field, lavatory, courtyard and kitchen of 20 randomly selected families (in 2 villages) each with stool egg-positive findings and examined for ascaris eggs by a modified saturated sodium nitrate floatation method. Results The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infection at the surveillance sites decreased from 45.3% (946/2 087) in 2006 to 15.1% (226/1 494) in 2010, with a reduction of 66.6%. Among the infected subjects, hookworm infection occupied 75%-85%, while ascaris or trichuris infections each accounted for less than 10%. In terms of infection intensity, 65.2%-85.5% of the hookworm infection was light, and majority of the infected subjects were farmers. The pinworm prevalence in children were still high although it had dropped down from 46.1% (140/304) in 2006 to 29.8% (36/121) in 2010, declined by 35.4%. In the 5 years, totally 400 soil samples from 100 families were examined and 21 samples were found ascaris egg positive with viable eggs in only one sample. Conclusion The 5 year surveillance reveals a decreasing trend of the soil-transmitted nematode prevalence but shows a relatively high hookworm infection rate in the population and pinworm infection in children.%目的 分析福建省土源性线虫感染及变化情况,为制定该地区土源性线虫病防治策略与评价防治效果提供科学依据.方法 2006-2010年对福建省漳州市浦南镇浦南村和邵武市鼓山

  1. Analysis on the epidemioiogical situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections at monitoring spots from 2006 to 2009%2006-2009年土源性线虫病监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖丹; 臧炜; 张雪强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand and analyze the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections at monitoring spots.Methods The stool samples of the residents at 22 monitoring spots were collected and examined for Ascaris lumbricoides.Trichuris trichiura and hookworms with modified KatoKatz thick smear"one stool specimen-three slides"from September to November from 2006 to 2009,and additional adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied for examining the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3~12.other parasite species detected were registered as well.Soil samples were collected for microscopic examination on fertilized or unfertilized ascaris eggs,and identification of live and dead fertilized ascaris eggs at each monitoring spot.Results The total of 90 957 persons from 22 monitoring spots were investigated from 2006 to 2009,the yearly infection rates of soil-trapsmitted nematode were 20.9%,18.9%,16.6%and 13.3%respectively,showing a declined tendency.The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematode was higher in the females than that in the males.Children were still the high risk population for soil-transmitted nematode infection.The yearly infection rates of A.lumbricoides were 10.1%,8.9%,7.4%and 6.4%.The yearly infection rates of T. trichiura were 5.9%,5.7%,6.6%and 5.2%.The yearly infection rates of hookworlns were 8.9%,9.0%,6.8%and 5.8%from 2006 to 2009.While the yearly infection rates of Enterobius vermicularis were 10.0%,10.0%,7.4%and 7.0%respectively in children aged 3-12 from 2006 to 2009.The result of soil samplirig survey showed that the detection rates of ascaris eggs in the soil were 37.1%,29.5%,25.9%and 31.3%,indicating persistent contamination of ascaris eggs in the soil.Conclusion According to the 4 years monitoring,the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was declined year by year,but the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was still high in some highly epidemic areas.It is necessary to continue monitoring

  2. 2006-2010年广西武鸣县土源性线虫病监测结果分析%Analysis on surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Wuming County of Guangxi from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万孝玲; 杨益超; 区方奇; 张伟尉; 许洪波; 吴钦华; 李树林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Wuming county,and to provide the scientific evidence for establishing the control policy and evaluating the effectiveness of prevention.Methods From 2006 to 2010,fecal samples of the inhabitants of 3 years old and above were collected,the Kato-Katz's thick smears was used to detect the eggs of soil-transmitted nematode and cellophane tape was used to detect the eggs of pinworm for children aged between 3 and 12 years.Roundworm eggs in soil were tested by modified saturated sodium nitrate floatation method.The living abiliti of roundworm eggs was determined by light microscope.Results Totally 5 216 people were examined from 2006 to 2010,including 2700 males and 2472 females.The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode were 4.09%,3.41%,1.44%,2.65% and 1.14% respectively,with a trend of decreasing each year.In terms of infection intensity,all of the infection was light.And the pinworm infection rates of children aged between 3 and 12 years were 27.69%,17.36%,25.86%,23.76% and 18.97% respectively during the five years.200 soil samples collected from different environments were examined,roundworm egg was found in 12 samples,and 2 were alive.Conclusion The epidemic of soil-transmitted nematode had already stepped into the low infection stage at surveillance sites.However,the pinworm infection rate in children maintained at a high level.Therefore,it is very important to strengthen comprehensive prevention and control measures in children.%目的 掌握广西武鸣县土源性线虫感染流行规律,为制订土源性线虫病防治策略与效果评价提供科学依据.方法 2006-2010年,采集武鸣县3周岁以上常住居民粪便标本,采用改良加藤厚涂片法检测土源性线虫卵;同时对3~12周岁儿童采用透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫卵;采用饱和硝酸钠浮聚法检测土壤中的蛔虫卵,用直接镜检

  3. INVESTIGATION ON THE STATUS OF SOIL BORNE NEMATODE DISEASE IN YANQING DISTRICT OF BEIJING CITY%北京市延庆区土源性线虫病现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光; 田丽丽; 万帝; 张镇权; 娄畅; 张英英; 刘书平

    2016-01-01

    了解北京市延庆区土源性线虫感染现状,并对居民土源性线虫感染相关知识的认知、行为、态度进行调查。根据地形、经济水平、行政区划等综合情况,按照分层随机抽样原则首先抽取4个乡(镇),每个乡(镇)抽取1个村调查居民250人,同时采集便标本,采用改良加藤厚涂片法( Kato⁃Katz法)检测肠道蠕虫卵(蛔虫卵、鞭虫卵、钩虫卵),用试管滤纸培养法鉴别钩虫虫种,3~6岁儿童采用透明胶纸肛拭法,检查蛲虫虫卵。结果共调查居民1000名,检出蛔虫卵1例,蛔虫感染率为0�1%,未检出其他虫卵。被调查居民中,58�60%听说过土源性线虫,知道蛔虫、鞭虫感染途径者占30�20%,3�80%的调查对象知道钩虫感染途径,50�20%知道寄生虫能对人造成危害,42�90%知道如何预防寄生虫病。能做到饭前便后洗手者占91�70%,26�70%有饮用生水习惯,7�40%用新鲜粪便施肥,1�2%赤脚下地劳动。在就诊意向方面,愿意花钱购买驱虫药服用者占98�10%,70�40%愿意改掉寄生虫感染风险不良行为习惯。延庆区居民对土源性线虫防治的健康行为持有率还有待进一步提高,应继续加强对高危人群的健康教育。%To explore the soil⁃transmitted nematodes infection status in Yanqing District of Beijing, and their cognition, behavior, attitude in the residents. The subjects were selected, according to the terrain, economic level, administrative division. 4 towns were selected, 250 villagers in each town, by using stratified random sampling method. The stool specimens were collected. The Kato Katz method was used to detect helminth eggs ( roundworm eggs, whipworm eggs and hookworm eggs) . The test tube filter paper culture method was used to determine the hookworm species. The cellophane tape anal swab method was used to examine pinworm eggs for 3 to 6 years

  4. 北京市2006-2010年土源性线虫病监测结果分析%Analysis on surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Beijing municipality, 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何战英; 甘亚弟; 王小梅; 王全意; 黎新宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Beijing during 2006-2010,and the awareness rate of villagers about the major parasitic diseases in 14 districts.Methods The residents at monitoring spot of Daxing District in Beijing were examined for Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichiura and hookworms with modified Kato-Katz thick smear"one stool specimen-three slides" from September to November from 2006 to 2010.Adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied for examining the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3-12,other parasite species detected were registered as well.At the same time,soil samples of 10 household garden and surrounding were collected for microscopic examination on fertilized or unfertilized Ascaris eggs and identification of live and dead fertilized Ascaris eggs.A questionnaire survey about major parasitic diseases was carried out in 14 districts of Beijing,2010.One village was selected each district.Other districts in the city center were not included.Results A total of 5 172 persons was investigated during 5 years,including 356 children aged 3-12.Cases infected by soiltransmitted nematodes were not detected.A total 200 soil samples was collected and no Ascaris eggs was detected in the soil.A total of 283 villagers coming from 14 districts was investigated about relevant knowledge of major parasitic diseases control,their pass rate of prevention knowledge was 85.16%(241/283) and the pass rate of health behavior was 91.52% (259/283).Conclusion The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes at monitoring spot of Beijing was low,the proportion that villagers take correct measures to prevent the parasite diseases was high,but the risk of infection still exists.It is necessary to continue monitoring and developing health education.%目的 了解2006-2010年北京市土源性线虫病监测点的感染状况及14个辖区的村民对重点寄生虫病的知晓情况.方法 2006

  5. Survey of intestinal parasitic infections and related knowledge and behavior of residents in Jiaodong area of Shandong Province%山东省胶东地区居民肠道寄生虫感染及相关认知行为状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王用斌; 万功群; 黄炳成; 许艳; 孔祥礼; 张本光; 卜秀芹; 赵长磊; 张佃波; 缪峰; 陈锡欣

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解山东省胶东地区肠道寄生虫感染及相关认知行为现状,为制定现阶段相应的防治策略提供科学依据。方法按照分层抽样法,选择胶东地区6个县的18个村作为调查点。采用改良加藤厚涂片法(Kato-Katz)检测调查点≥3岁常住居民粪便中的常见肠道寄生虫虫卵,12岁以下儿童以透明胶纸肛拭法检查蛲虫卵。每调查点随机抽取50户家庭,采用结构式问卷调查家庭基本情况及居民寄生虫病防治知识知晓和卫生行为形成情况等。结果粪检6163人,肠道寄生虫总感染率6.91%,其中鞭虫、蛔虫、钩虫感染率分别为6.56%、0.62%、0.21%;12岁以下儿童蛲虫感染率为0.51%;未检测到华支睾吸虫、带绦虫等其他虫卵。人群寄生虫病防治知识知晓率为49.54%;饭前洗手、便后洗手、生吃瓜果蔬菜洗净、下地干农活不光脚、不喝生水等健康行为形成率分别为97.78%、91.95%、88.81%、92.42%、86.48%。结论胶东地区人群肠道寄生虫感染水平较低,但地区间差异较大;寄生虫病防治知识知晓率不高,但卫生行为形成情况较好。应加强健康教育及重点人群服药,积极推进农村改水改厕工程,尽快降低肠道寄生虫病的危害。%Objective To understand the status of intestinal parasitic infections and the related knowledge and behavior in residents of Jiaodong area of Shandong Province,so as to provide the evidence for making an appropriate preventive and control strategy. Methods A total of 18 villages from 6 counties in Jiaodong area were selected as investigation sites according to the stratified sampling method. The feces samples of the permanent residents aged above 3 years were collected and examined by Kato-Katz technique to find the intestinal parasite eggs,and the children under 12 years old were examined by the method of cellophane anal swab to detect the Enterobius vermicularis eggs. In

  6. Analysis on results of investigation on soil-transmitted nematode infections at the surveillance sites in Jiangsu from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年江苏省土源性线虫病监测点调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈明学; 金小林; 江文才; 曹汉钧; 徐祥珍; 高琪

    2012-01-01

    Objective Objective To analyze the prevalent trend of soil-transmitted nematode infections at the surveillance sites in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2010.Methods The national surveillance site of soil-transmitted nematode infections was located in Huaji village of Shuyang County in Suqian City.There were eighty three provincial and municipal level surveillance sites.From 2006 to 2010,fecal samples of the residents of 3 years old and above were collected in every autumn and the intestinal helminth eggs were examined with the modified Kato-Katz thick smear technique.Soil samples which were also collected from vegetable fields,lavatory,courtyard and kitchen of 10 randomly selected families with stool egg-positive,were examined for Ascaris eggs by a modified saturated sodium nitrate floated method.Cellophane tapes were applied to detect pinworm eggs for children aged 3-12 years old.Results The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode in residents and pinworm in children at the Shuyang County surveillance sites reduced from 1.81%(19/1049) and 4.72% (5/106) in 2006 to 1.23% (13/1061) and 0(0/90) in 2010 respectively,and infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode and pinworm decreased 32.04% and 100% respectively.The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode in residents and pinworm in children also showed a downtrend in other surveillance sites,from 2.61% (2547/97405) and 2.42% (3187/131 965) in 2006 to 0.84% (900/107 233) and 0.95% (1 015/106 959) in 2010 respectively,The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematode and pinworm decreased 67.82% and 60.74% respectively.The infection intensity in all infected people was light.None of Ascaris eggs was found in all 200 soil samples from 50 families.Conclusion The infection rates of soil-transmitted nematode in residents and pinworm in children showed a decreased trend and kept a low level of prevalence in Jiangsu Province during 2006-2010.%目的 分析江苏省土源性线虫病监测点2006

  7. Surveillance of soil-transmitted nematode infection at a national surveillance spot in Shandong Province from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年山东省国家级监测点土源性线虫感染情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 魏庆宽; 孔祥礼; 陈锡欣; 石增宝; 马成涛; 张本光; 万功群; 赵长磊; 王用斌; 张佃波; 缪峰; 付兆义; 卜秀芹

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解山东省国家级监测点2006-2010年人群土源性线虫病感染率变化及影响因素,掌握流行规律,为制定防治策略提供科学依据.方法 对监测点常住人口土源性线虫感染情况进行调查,采用改良加藤厚涂片法检查粪便蛔虫、鞭虫和钩虫等虫卵,3~12周岁儿童加做透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫虫卵.结果 2006-2010年共检查5076人次,土源性线虫感染率从2006年的27.9%降为2010年的7.2%,下降幅度达74.19%,x2检验呈逐年下降趋势(x2=189.530,P<0.01).蛔虫和鞭虫的平均感染率分别为2.8%、14.2%,感染率均呈逐年下降趋势(x2蛔=33.448,x2鞭=160.528,P均<0.01).钩虫感染每年仅1例或2例,无统计学意义.感染者以50岁以上和20岁以下年龄段为主,并且随年龄的增加,感染率有上升趋势(x2 =111.458,P<0.01).以农民感染率最高,其次为学生和学龄前儿童(x2 =77.175,P<0.01).3~ 12岁儿童蛲虫感染率2010年降为2.2%,且逐年下降(x2=11.856,P<0.05).结论 山东省国家级监测点2006-2010年人群土源性线虫感染率呈下降趋势,老人、儿童和农民为防治的重点人群.%Objective To understand the infection status and related factors of soil-transmitted nematodes at the national surveillance spot of Shangdong Province,and provide the scientific evidence for making the control policy.Methods Kato-Katz thick smears was applied for examining the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in fecal samples collected among local residents,additionally,the adhesive cellophane anal swab method was used for detecting Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3-12.Results A total of 5076 people received the examination from 2006 to 2010.The average infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was reduced from 27.9% in 2006 to 7.2% in 2010,decreased by 74.19%.The rate showed an annual decline trend by Chi-square test (x2 =189.530,P < 0.01).The average infection

  8. Survey of infections of intestinal parasites and related factors in north-west Shandong Province%鲁西北地区居民肠道寄生虫感染及相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 缪峰; 孔祥礼; 王用斌; 卜秀芹; 张本光; 赵长磊; 刘新; 陈锡欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of intestinal parasites and related knowledge and behavior factors of the residents in north-west Shandong Province,so as to provide the evidence for taking targeted preventive measures. Meth-ods Eighteen villages were randomly selected as survey spots by the stratified multi-stage sample method. The Kato-Katz tech-nique was used to detect intestinal parasite eggs among the residents and the cellophane tape anus test was used to detect Entero-bius vermicularis eggs among 3-12 years old children. Questionnaires were applied to investigate related knowledge and behavior factors about the intestinal parasite infections in the residents. Results Totally 6 366 residents were detected for intestinal para-sites and the infection rate was 0.28%(18 cases). Totally 895 children were detected for E. vermicularis and the infection rate was 5.70%(51 cases). Totally 2 915 residents were investigated by questionnaires and the awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 26.72%. The formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC,washing fruit and vegetable before eating,never drinking unboiled water were 55.42%,42.87%,43.54%and 83.04%respectively. The aware-ness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases of 3-12 years old children was 12.24%;and the formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC were 47.04%and 30.44%respectively. Conclusions The total infection rate of intesti-nal parasites is low but the E. vermicularis infection rate is high among children in north-west Shandong Province. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases and the formation rates of healthy behaviors are all low. Therefore ,the tar-geted health education should be taken to increase the awareness rate and guide the residents to develop their healthy behaviors.%目的:了解鲁西北地区居民肠道寄生虫感染情况及相关认知状况,为采取有针对性的防治措

  9. Analysis on the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematode infections at the monitoring spot of Chongqing from 2006 to 2010%重庆市2006—2010年土源性线虫病国家级监测点监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢君; 吴成果; 罗飞; 蒋诗国; 李珊珊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand infection status and epidemic law of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Chongqing.Methods The stool samples of the residents at monitoring spot of Chongqing were collected and examined for Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichuris trichiura and hookworms with modified Kato-Katz thick smear "one stool specimen-three slides" from September to November during 2006-2010,and adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied additionally for examining the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis in children aged 3-12.Ten soil samples were collected for microscopic examination on fertilized or unfertilized Ascaris eggs and the living ability of fertilized Ascaris eggs was determined.Results The total of 5 071 persons were investigated from 2006 to 2010 and the annual infection rates were 5.79%,13.52%,16.63%,8.62%and 2.81% showing a declined tendency (x2=3.65,P < 0.01).The infection rates of females were higher than males in 2007 and 2008 (x2=4.66,P < 0.05;x2 =25.29,P < 0.01).The infection rate of 5-year-old was in the highest level in 2006 and 2010.In 2010 the infection rate of 50-year-old was in the highest level.The ancylostomiasis and Ascaris were the major soil transmitted nematode diseases.The infection rates of Enterobius vermicularis were not significantly different between boys and girls.It showed a declined tendency in pinworm infection in girls(x2=16.36,P < 0.01)while it showed no difference in boys(x2=8.45,P > 0.05).The positive rates of Ascaris eggs in soil samples were 52.5%,37.5%,17.5%,30.0% and 20.0% showing a declined tendency (x2 =16.36,P < 0.01).Conclusion According to the 5 years monitoring,the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was declined,but health education and mass chemotherapy should be enhanced continuously.%目的 掌握重庆市土源性线虫病流行动态和流行规律.方法 2006-2010年,每年9-12月在重庆市监测点采集年龄3周岁以上的全体常驻居民粪便,采用改良加

  10. 重庆市小学生蛲虫感染相关影响因素分析%Influence Factors of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among Pupils in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成果; 谢君; 罗兴建; 雷群建; 刘庆蓉; 肖邦忠; 李珊珊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate Enterobius vermicularis infection among primary school students and its influence factors in Chongqing. Methods Beibei and Changshou were selected as investigated points from October to December 2011. One primary school was randomly chosen from each of the 5 different directions in every investigated point. Adhesive cellophane anal swab was used to examine pinworm eggs for 3 consecutive days. Information on children's family, hygiene habits and school environment was collected by questionnairing. Results The total infection rate of E. vermicularis was 6.7%(71/1 071). The infection rate in rural schools (7.9%, 60/755) was higher than that of urban schools (3.8%, 12/316) (X2=6.1169, P0.05). Among the investigated children aged 6-12 years, the infection rate in 6-year-old children (16.03%) was highest. There was a statistical significance among age groups (X2=29.1492, P<0.01). With the increase of age, the rate decreased. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that location (OR=0.411), age groups (OR =0.714), education level of mothers (OR=0.568), materials of classroom-ground (OR =0.116) and types of boarding (OR=0.272) were the influence factors on E. vermicularis infection in primary schools (P<0.05). Conclusions Pinworm control should more focused on rural children, younger group, mothers with lower education, classroom with cement ground and lodging schools in Chongqing City.%目的 了解重庆市小学生的蛲虫感染现状及相关影响因素分析. 方法 于2011年10~12月选择重庆市主城区的北碚和远郊区的长寿作为调查点,每个调查点划分为5个片区,每个片区随机抽取1所小学.采用透明胶纸肛拭法查蛲虫卵,连续检查3d.同时对受检对象及其家庭的基本情况、卫生习惯和学校生活环境等进行问卷调查. 结果 重庆市小学生蛲虫总感染率为6.7%(71/1 071),其中农村学生的感染率(7.9%,60/755)显著高于城区(3.8%,12/316) (x2

  11. 2010年陆丰市重点寄生虫病人群感染状况调查%Analysis on the survey results of the population infection status of important parasitic diseases in Lufeng city in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉平; 林胜辉; 刘福吉; 周福昌; 邓登红; 黄克涛; 张汉元; 黄桂淞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To know about and grasp the population infection status of important parasitic diseases in Lufeng city and provide scientific basis for making the control countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. Methods The stool samples of permanent residents over 3 years old were collected and examined by modified Kato-Katz technique for the eggs of important parasites such as hookworm, ascaris and whipworm. At the meantime, children at 3-12 years old were examined for threadworm by cellophane swab method. Results 1 000 persons took stool examination in 5 survey sites,with 79 being found infected and mean infection rate of 7.9%,of which the infection rates of hookworm,ascaris, whipworm and threadworm were 2.6%,0.3%,4.9% and 0.2%,respectively. 970 children were examined for threadworm, with an infection rate of 12.6%.EPGs of hookworm,ascaris and whipworm infected persons were 24.2,120 and 25.7, respectively, and all were mild infection.The survey site with the highest infection rate by tool examination was Chengdong town (14.5%),and the site with the lowest infection rate was Beiyang town (5.0%). Difference between the infection rates in different survey sites was statistically significant (x2=15.86,P>0.05). Conclusions The population infection status of important parasitic diseases in Lufeng city was at a lower level. The infection rates of ascaris and hookworm and the threadworm of children were apparently lower than the infection levels in the current-status survey of human important parasitic diseases of Guangdong province in 2001-2004.%目的 了解和掌握陆丰市重点寄生虫病人群感染状况,为制订防治对策和评价防治效果提供科学依据.方法 采集3周岁以上常住居民粪便标本,采用改良加藤厚涂片法(Kato-Katz)一粪三检,检测钩虫、蛔虫、鞭虫等重点寄生虫虫卵,同时采用透明胶纸肛拭子法检测3~12周岁儿童蛲虫卵.结果 5个调查点共粪检1 000人,感染人数79人

  12. Investigation on prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors for children in southwest areas of China%中国西南地区儿童土源性线虫感染及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兵; Scott Rozelle; 王国飞; 张林秀; 罗仁福; 田洪春; 唐丽娜; 王聚君; Alexis Medina; Paul Wise

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status and main risk factors of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China so as to provide the evidence for making the control programs for soil-transmitted nematodiasis. Methods The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections was determined by Kato-Katz technique and influencing factors were surveyed by using a standardized questionnaire, and in part of the children, the examination of Enterobius vermicularis eggs was performed by using ihe cellophane swab method. The relationship between soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors was analyzed by the multiple probit estimated method. Results A total of 1 707 children were examined, with a soil-transmitted nematode infection rate of 22.2%, the crowd infection rates oiAscaris lumhricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura were 16.0%, 3.8% and 6.6% respectively and 495 children were examined on Enterobius vermicularis eggs, with the infection rate of 5.1%. The results of probit estimated analysis suggested that the effects of 4 factors on soil-transmitted nematode infections were significant (all P values were less than 0.05) .namely the number of sib, educational level of mother, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry. Among the factors above, the educational level of mother could reduce the probability of infection (ME= -0.074) ,while the number of sib, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry could increase the probability of the infections (with ME of 0.028,-0.112 and 0.080, respectively). Conclusions Soil-transmitted nematode infection rates are still in a high level for children in southwest poor areas of China, with Ascaris lumbricoides as a priority. The changes of children' s bad health habits, raising livestock and poultry habits, and implementing the health education about parasitic diseases in mothers would be of great significance for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis

  13. Monitoring of soil-transmitted nematodes in Santai County of Mianyang in 2013%绵阳市三台县2013年土源性线虫病监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史映红; 肖永常; 刘世安

    2014-01-01

    目的 掌握三台县土源性线虫流行规律,为制订防治对策和评价防治效果提供科学依据.方法 整群抽取一个村3周岁以上常住居民,收集粪便,采用改良加藤厚涂片法(Kato-Katz)作蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫等寄生虫卵检测,对3~12周岁儿童采用透明胶纸肛拭法检测蛲虫卵.在监测点所在村随机抽取15户农户,采集每户蔬菜、水果或其它作物种植地的土样,分别检测、计数美洲钩蚴和十二指肠钩蚴. 结果 共调查1 007人,其中82人感染1种或1种以上寄生虫,总体感染率为8.14% (82/1 007).钩虫、蛔虫、鞭虫和蛲虫的感染率分别为6.95% (70/1 007)、0.70% (7/1 007)、0.10% (1/1 007)和3.42% (4/117).各虫种之间感染率存在统计学意义差异(x2=200.56,P<0.05);男、女性别感染率分别为7.50%和8.73%,其感染率差异无统计学意义(x2=0.51,P>0.05);50岁以上年龄组和文化程度低者土源性线虫感染率较高.农民的感染率最高达8.53%.检测土壤样本15份,土壤钩蚴阳性7份. 结论 三台县土源性线虫感染率呈下降趋势,农民和文化程度低者的感染率较高,应采取有效措施来降低这些人群的感染率.%Objective To study the epidemiological characteristics of soil-transmitted nematodes in Santai,Mianyang for prevention and control.Methods All residents above aged 3 were selected as survey sample,whose stool samples were collected and examined with Kato-Katz method,3 tests for each sample to check the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes.Meanwhile,cellophane tape method was adopted to check the eggs of pinworm for children aged from 3 to 12.15 families were selected randomly to test their soil in various environment to identify larva of America or duodenal hook worms.Results Four types of soil-transmitted nematodes were found from 1 007 residents investigated.The total infection rate was 8.17%(82/1 007),among which roundworm 0.70% (7/1 007),hookworm 6.95% (70

  14. Enterobius vermicularis Infection Status among Children in 9 Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities of China%中国9省(区、市)儿童蛲虫感染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖丹; 王聚君; 朱慧慧; 诸廷俊; 臧炜; 钱门宝; 李红梅; 周长海; 王国飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis among children in 9Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/MM) of China,and analyze its risk factors.Method From April to December 2011,one provincial capital (prefecture-level city) and one county (city,district) were chosen as investigation spots from Guangdong,Guangxi,Hainan,Chongqing,Sichuan,Zhejiang,Fujian,Anhui and Guizhou,respectively.Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube.Information of children's family condition,health behavior and school environment were collected by questionnairing.Results 14 964 children were examined,and 14 582 qualified questionnaires were collected.The total prevalence was 17.8% (2659/14964).Of the 9 P/A/M,the prevalence was highest in Hainan Province (51.1%,869/1701) and lowest in Anhui Province(0.8%,13/1 589).The prevalence in urban areas (7.3%,552/7581) was lower than that of rural areas (28.5%,2 107/7 383)(x2=1156.73,P<0.01).The highest prevalence in urban and rural areas was found in Haikou City(38.0%,322/847) and Wanning City (64.1%,547/854) of Hainan Province.The prevalence rate in males and females was 17.4%(1410/8 128) and 18.3% (1249/6834),respectively (x2=2.192,P>0.05).The highest prevalence in males (61.2%,300/490)and females (67.9%,247/364) was found in children of Wanning City.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that residence,education level of parents,occupation of parents,nail biting,types of classroom ground and type of boarding were the risk factors on E.vermicularis infection.Conclusion The prevalence of enterobiasis in children is still high in many areas of China,and the prevention and control measures should be taken according to the risk factors.%目的 了解中国9省(区、市)城乡儿童蛲虫感染情况,分析蛲虫病感染的危险因素,为蛲虫病的防治提供指导. 方法 于2011年4~12月分别选取广东、广西

  15. Isolation and Purification of Active Compound fromTrichoderma viridescensand Its Inhibitory Activities AgainstPhytopathogens%渐绿木霉抑菌物质的分离纯化及其对植物病原菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张量; 张敬泽

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]An antagonistic compound against Phytophthoraspp. was obtained fromTrichoderma spp. and its biocontrol potential was evaluated for controlling phytopathogens, thus providing a scientific basis for utilization of biocontrol strains and their antagonistic compounds.[Method] Trichoderma strains producing antagonistic compounds were screened by the cellophane method and grew on PDA as inoculants, and then were transfered into rice media for isolation of antagonistic compounds. The cultures of theTrichodermastrains from the rice media were extracted, filtered and concentrated, and initial crude extract was obtained. The crude extract was further purified by column and thin-layer chromatography and the active fractions were ascertained by the biological activity determination. Based on the chemical property of the active fraction obtained, their chemical structure was identified by analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The biological activity of different types of plant pathogens was determined with the antagonistic compound obtained, including the oomyceteP. capsiciandP. melonis, ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum and basidiomyceteRhizoctonia solani.[Result] The initial screening assays showed that the strain TS0404 of T. viridescens produced an antagonistic compound with strong inhibitory activity againstP. capsici. The results of isolation, purification and bioactivity determination displayed that the active fraction obtained was yellow oily liquid. Mass spectra revealed the biggest ion peak of active fraction was 166, which was identified as 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6-PP). The bioactive determination demonstrated that the 6-PP had significant inhibitory activity against hyphal growth ofP. capsici,P. melonis,R. solani andF. oxysporum(EC50 115.26, 99.58, 126.46 and 315.75μg·mL-1, respectively) but the inhibitory effect onP. melonis was the best among them and hyphal growth was completely inhibited when its concentration reached 300μg·mL-1