Sample records for cell-to-cell communication signal

  1. Cell-to-cell communication in intact taste buds through ATP signalling from pannexin 1 gap junction hemichannels. (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D


    Isolated taste cells, taste buds and strips of lingual tissue from taste papillae secrete ATP upon taste stimulation. Taste bud receptor (Type II) cells have been identified as the source of ATP secretion. Based on studies on isolated taste buds and single taste cells, we have postulated that ATP secreted from receptor cells via pannexin 1 hemichannels acts within the taste bud to excite neighbouring presynaptic (Type III) cells. This hypothesis, however, remains to be tested in intact tissues. In this report we used confocal Ca(2+) imaging and lingual slices containing intact taste buds to test the hypothesis of purinergic signalling between taste cells in a more integral preparation. Incubating lingual slices with apyrase reversibly blocked cell-to-cell communication between receptor cells and presynaptic cells, consistent with ATP being the transmitter. Inhibiting pannexin 1 gap junction hemichannels with CO(2)-saturated buffer or probenecid significantly reduced cell-cell signalling between receptor cells and presynaptic cells. In contrast, anandamide, a blocker of connexin gap junction channels, had no effect of cell-to-cell communication in taste buds. These findings are consistent with the model for peripheral signal processing via ATP and pannexin 1 hemichannels in mammalian taste buds.

  2. Strategy for signaling molecule detection by using an integrated microfluidic device coupled with mass spectrometry to study cell-to-cell communication. (United States)

    Mao, Sifeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming


    Cell-to-cell communication is a very important physiological behavior in life entity, and most of human behaviors are related to it. Although cell-to-cell communications are attracting much attention and financial support, rare methods have been successfully developed for in vitro cell-to-cell communication study. In this work, we developed a novel method for cell-to-cell communication study on an integrated microdevice, and signaling molecule and metabolites were online-detected by an electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) after on-chip solid-phase extraction. Moreover, we presented a "Surface Tension Plug" on a microchip to control cell-to-cell communication. The microdevice consists of three functional sections: cell coculture channel, targets pretreatment, and targets detection sections. To verify the feasibility of cell-to-cell communications on the integrated microdevice, we studied the communication between the 293 and the L-02 cells. Epinephrine and glucose were successfully detected using an ESI-Q-TOF-MS with short analysis time (communication study.

  3. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication (United States)


    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  4. The evolution of cell-to-cell communication in a sporulating bacterium. (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Nowak, Martin A; Tarnita, Corina E


    Traditionally microorganisms were considered to be autonomous organisms that could be studied in isolation. However, over the last decades cell-to-cell communication has been found to be ubiquitous. By secreting molecular signals in the extracellular environment microorganisms can indirectly assess the cell density and respond in accordance. In one of the best-studied microorganisms, Bacillus subtilis, the differentiation processes into a number of distinct cell types have been shown to depend on cell-to-cell communication. One of these cell types is the spore. Spores are metabolically inactive cells that are highly resistant against environmental stress. The onset of sporulation is dependent on cell-to-cell communication, as well as on a number of other environmental cues. By using individual-based simulations we examine when cell-to-cell communication that is involved in the onset of sporulation can evolve. We show that it evolves when three basic premises are satisfied. First, the population of cells has to affect the nutrient conditions. Second, there should be a time-lag between the moment that a cell decides to sporulate and the moment that it turns into a mature spore. Third, there has to be environmental variation. Cell-to-cell communication is a strategy to cope with environmental variation, by allowing cells to predict future environmental conditions. As a consequence, cells can anticipate environmental stress by initiating sporulation. Furthermore, signal production could be considered a cooperative trait and therefore evolves when it is not too costly to produce signal and when there are recurrent colony bottlenecks, which facilitate assortment. Finally, we also show that cell-to-cell communication can drive ecological diversification. Different ecotypes can evolve and be maintained due to frequency-dependent selection.

  5. The evolution of cell-to-cell communication in a sporulating bacterium.

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    Jordi van Gestel

    Full Text Available Traditionally microorganisms were considered to be autonomous organisms that could be studied in isolation. However, over the last decades cell-to-cell communication has been found to be ubiquitous. By secreting molecular signals in the extracellular environment microorganisms can indirectly assess the cell density and respond in accordance. In one of the best-studied microorganisms, Bacillus subtilis, the differentiation processes into a number of distinct cell types have been shown to depend on cell-to-cell communication. One of these cell types is the spore. Spores are metabolically inactive cells that are highly resistant against environmental stress. The onset of sporulation is dependent on cell-to-cell communication, as well as on a number of other environmental cues. By using individual-based simulations we examine when cell-to-cell communication that is involved in the onset of sporulation can evolve. We show that it evolves when three basic premises are satisfied. First, the population of cells has to affect the nutrient conditions. Second, there should be a time-lag between the moment that a cell decides to sporulate and the moment that it turns into a mature spore. Third, there has to be environmental variation. Cell-to-cell communication is a strategy to cope with environmental variation, by allowing cells to predict future environmental conditions. As a consequence, cells can anticipate environmental stress by initiating sporulation. Furthermore, signal production could be considered a cooperative trait and therefore evolves when it is not too costly to produce signal and when there are recurrent colony bottlenecks, which facilitate assortment. Finally, we also show that cell-to-cell communication can drive ecological diversification. Different ecotypes can evolve and be maintained due to frequency-dependent selection.

  6. The Evolution of Cell-to-Cell Communication in a Sporulating Bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.


    Traditionally microorganisms were considered to be autonomous organisms that could be studied in isolation. However, over the last decades cell-to-cell communication has been found to be ubiquitous. By secreting molecular signals in the extracellular environment microorganisms can indirectly assess

  7. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia


    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  8. Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae (United States)

    Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues into their quorum-sensing pathways. At the core of these pathways lie several homologous small regulatory RNA molecules, the Quorum Regulatory RNAs. Small noncoding RNAs have emerged throughout the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms as key regulators of behavioral and developmental processes. Here, I review our present understanding of the role of the Qrr small RNAs in integrating quorum-sensing signals and in regulating the individual cells response to this information.

  9. Interference of bacterial cell-to-cell communication: A new concept of antimicrobial chemotherapy breaks antibiotic

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    Hidetada eHirakawa


    Full Text Available Bacteria use a cell-to-cell communication activity termed Quorum sensing to coordinate group behaviors in a cell-density dependent manner. Quorum sensing influences the expression profile of diverse genes, including antibiotic tolerance and virulence determinants, via specific chemical compounds called Auto-inducers. During quorum sensing, Gram-negative bacteria typically use an acylated homoserine lactone (AHL called auto-inducer 1 (AI-1. Since the first discovery of quorum sensing in a marine bacterium, it has been recognized that more than 100 species possess this mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. In addition to being of interest from a biological standpoint, quorum sensing is a potential target for antimicrobial chemotherapy. This unique concept of antimicrobial control relies on reducing the burden of virulence rather than killing the bacteria. It is believed that this approach will not only suppress the development of antibiotic resistance, but will also improve the treatment of refractory infections triggered by multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens. In this paper, we review and track recent progress in studies on AHL inhibitors/modulators from a biological standpoint. It has been discovered that both natural and synthetic compounds can disrupt quorum sensing by a variety of means, such as jamming signal transduction, inhibition of signal production and break-down and trapping of signal compounds. We also focus on the regulatory elements that attenuate quorum sensing activities and discuss their unique properties. Understanding the biological roles of regulatory elements might be useful in developing inhibitor applications and understanding how quorum sensing is controlled.

  10. Computing the threshold of the influence of intercellular nanotubes on cell-to-cell communication integrity (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Kostić, Vladimir R.; Balaž, Igor; Kapor, Darko


    We examine the threshold of the influence of the tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) on the cell-to-cell communication integrity. A deterministic model is introduced with the Michaelis-Menten dynamics and the intercellular exchange of substance. The influence of TNTs are considered as a functional perturbation of the main communication and treated as the matrix nearness problems. We analyze communication integrity in terms of the \\emph{pseudospectra} of the exchange, to find the \\emph{distance to instability}. The threshold of TNTs influence is computed for Newman-Gastner and Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi gap junction (GJ) networks.

  11. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review. (United States)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich


    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  12. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review (United States)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich


    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  13. Determinants of cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling.

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    Matthias Jeschke

    Full Text Available Cells reliably sense environmental changes despite internal and external fluctuations, but the mechanisms underlying robustness remain unclear. We analyzed how fluctuations in signaling protein concentrations give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling using analytical theory and numerical simulations. We characterized the dose-response behavior of signaling cascades by calculating the stimulus level at which a pathway responds ('pathway sensitivity' and the maximal activation level upon strong stimulation. Minimal kinase cascades with gradual dose-response behavior show strong variability, because the pathway sensitivity and the maximal activation level cannot be simultaneously invariant. Negative feedback regulation resolves this trade-off and coordinately reduces fluctuations in the pathway sensitivity and maximal activation. Feedbacks acting at different levels in the cascade control different aspects of the dose-response curve, thereby synergistically reducing the variability. We also investigated more complex, ultrasensitive signaling cascades capable of switch-like decision making, and found that these can be inherently robust to protein concentration fluctuations. We describe how the cell-to-cell variability of ultrasensitive signaling systems can be actively regulated, e.g., by altering the expression of phosphatase(s or by feedback/feedforward loops. Our calculations reveal that slow transcriptional negative feedback loops allow for variability suppression while maintaining switch-like decision making. Taken together, we describe design principles of signaling cascades that promote robustness. Our results may explain why certain signaling cascades like the yeast pheromone pathway show switch-like decision making with little cell-to-cell variability.

  14. Cell-to-Cell stochastic fluctuations in apoptotic signaling can decide between life and death

    CERN Document Server

    Raychaudhuri, S; Nguyen, T; Khan, E M; Goldkorn, T


    Apoptosis, or genetically programmed cell death, is a crucial cellular process that maintains the balance between life and death in cells. The precise molecular mechanism of apoptosis signaling and how these two pathways are differentially activated under distinct apoptotic stimuli is poorly understood. We developed a Monte Carlo-based stochastic simulation model that can characterize distinct signaling behaviors in the two major pathways of apoptotic signaling using a novel probability distribution-based approach. Specifically, we show that for a weak death signal, such as low levels of death ligand Fas (CD95) binding or under stress conditions, the type 2 mitochondrial pathway dominates apoptotic signaling. Our results also show signaling in the type 2 pathway is stochastic, where the population average over many cells does not capture the cell-to-cell fluctuations in the time course (~1 - 10 hours) of downstream caspase-3 activation. On the contrary, the probability distribution of caspase-3 activation for...

  15. Simulated microgravity allows to demonstrate cell-to-cell communication in bacteria (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; van Houdt, Rob; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    Through the MELiSSA project, the European Space Agency aims to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forth-coming long term space exploration missions. This production is based on the recycling of the missions organic waste, including CO2 and minerals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospir-illum rubrum S1H is used in MELiSSA to degrade organics with light energy and is the first MELiSSA organism that has been studied in space related environmental conditions (Mastroleo et al., 2009). It was tested in actual space flight to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as in ground simulations of ISS-like ionizing radiation and microgravity. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in liquid medium in 2 devices simulating microgravity conditions, i.e. the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the Random Positioning Machine (RPM). The re-sponse of the bacterium was evaluated at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels using respectively a dedicated whole-genome microarray and high-throughput gel-free quantitative proteomics. Both at transcriptomic and proteomic level, the bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity. The response to low fluid shear modeled microgravity in RWV was different than to randomized microgravity in RPM. Nevertheless, both tests pointed out a change in and a likely interrelation between cell-to-cell communica-tion (i.e. quorum sensing) and cell pigmentation (i.e. photosynthesis) for R. rubrum S1H in microgravity conditions. A new type of cell-to-cell communication molecule in R. rubrum S1H was discovered and characterized. It is hypothised that the lack of convection currents and the fluid quiescence in (simulated) microgravity limits communications molecules to be spread throughout the medium. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated micro-gravity has showed new properties of this well know bacterium

  16. Robustness of MEK-ERK Dynamics and Origins of Cell-to-Cell Variability in MAPK Signaling

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    Sarah Filippi


    Full Text Available Cellular signaling processes can exhibit pronounced cell-to-cell variability in genetically identical cells. This affects how individual cells respond differentially to the same environmental stimulus. However, the origins of cell-to-cell variability in cellular signaling systems remain poorly understood. Here, we measure the dynamics of phosphorylated MEK and ERK across cell populations and quantify the levels of population heterogeneity over time using high-throughput image cytometry. We use a statistical modeling framework to show that extrinsic noise, particularly that from upstream MEK, is the dominant factor causing cell-to-cell variability in ERK phosphorylation, rather than stochasticity in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of ERK. We furthermore show that without extrinsic noise in the core module, variable (including noisy signals would be faithfully reproduced downstream, but the within-module extrinsic variability distorts these signals and leads to a drastic reduction in the mutual information between incoming signal and ERK activity.

  17. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: New Frontiers of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Cancer

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    Chiara Ciardiello


    Full Text Available Extracellular Vesicles (EVs have received considerable attention in recent years, both as mediators of intercellular communication pathways that lead to tumor progression, and as potential sources for discovery of novel cancer biomarkers. For many years, research on EVs has mainly investigated either the mechanism of biogenesis and cargo selection and incorporation, or the methods of EV isolation from available body fluids for biomarker discovery. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of different populations of cancer-derived EVs, with distinct molecular cargo, thus pointing to the possibility that the various EV populations might play diverse roles in cancer and that this does not happen randomly. However, data attributing cancer specific intercellular functions to given populations of EVs are still limited. A deeper functional, biochemical and molecular characterization of the various EV classes might identify more selective clinical markers, and significantly advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis and disease progression of many cancer types.

  18. Cell-to-cell communication in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing hypercortisolism

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    Herve eLefebvre


    Full Text Available It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events which cause the disease favor abnormal adrenal differenciation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms Biofilms in Acute InfectionIndependent of Cell-to-Cell Signaling

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    Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.


    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 hours of infection in thermally-injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections. P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independent of QS.

  20. Events at the host-microbial interface of the gastrointestinal tract III. Cell-to-cell signaling among microbial flora, host, and pathogens: there is a whole lot of talking going on. (United States)

    Clarke, Marcie B; Sperandio, Vanessa


    Humans have an important association with their intestinal microbial flora. The microbial flora helps to shape the mammalian innate immune system, absorbs nutrients, and plays an intricate role on intestinal development. Microbes and mammals communicate with each other through an array of hormone and hormonelike chemical compounds. These "signals," however, are hijacked by bacterial pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic Eschrichia coli (EHEC), to activate its virulence genes, colonize the host, and start the disease process. This review explores the cell-to-cell signaling events in the gastrointestinal tract that lead EHEC to regulate its virulence genes in a coordinate manner.

  1. Rho-ROCK and Rac-PAK signaling pathways have opposing effects on the cell-to-cell spread of Marek's Disease Virus.

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    Nicolas Richerioux

    Full Text Available Marek's Disease Virus (MDV is an avian alpha-herpesvirus that only spreads from cell-to-cell in cell culture. While its cell-to-cell spread has been shown to be dependent on actin filament dynamics, the mechanisms regulating this spread remain largely unknown. Using a recombinant BAC20 virus expressing an EGFPVP22 tegument protein, we found that the actin cytoskeleton arrangements and cell-cell contacts differ in the center and periphery of MDV infection plaques, with cells in the latter areas showing stress fibers and rare cellular projections. Using specific inhibitors and activators, we determined that Rho-ROCK pathway, known to regulate stress fiber formation, and Rac-PAK, known to promote lamellipodia formation and destabilize stress fibers, had strong contrasting effects on MDV cell-to-cell spread in primary chicken embryo skin cells (CESCs. Inhibition of Rho and its ROCKs effectors led to reduced plaque sizes whereas inhibition of Rac or its group I-PAKs effectors had the adverse effect. Importantly, we observed that the shape of MDV plaques is related to the semi-ordered arrangement of the elongated cells, at the monolayer level in the vicinity of the plaques. Inhibition of Rho-ROCK signaling also resulted in a perturbation of the cell arrangement and a rounding of plaques. These opposing effects of Rho and Rac pathways in MDV cell-to-cell spread were validated for two parental MDV recombinant viruses with different ex vivo spread efficiencies. Finally, we demonstrated that Rho/Rac pathways have opposing effects on the accumulation of N-cadherin at cell-cell contact regions between CESCs, and defined these contacts as adherens junctions. Considering the importance of adherens junctions in HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread in some cell types, this result makes of adherens junctions maintenance one potential and attractive hypothesis to explain the Rho/Rac effects on MDV cell-to-cell spread. Our study provides the first evidence that MDV cell-to-cell

  2. A Pro-Drug Approach for Selective Modulation of AI-2-Mediated Bacterial Cell-to-Cell Communication

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    Herman O. Sintim


    Full Text Available The universal quorum sensing autoinducer, AI-2, is utilized by several bacteria. Analogs of AI-2 have the potential to modulate bacterial behavior. Selectively quenching the communication of a few bacteria, in the presence of several others in an ecosystem, using analogs of AI-2 is non-trivial due to the ubiquity of AI-2 processing receptors in many bacteria that co-exist. Herein, we demonstrate that when an AI-2 analog, isobutyl DPD (which has been previously shown to be a quorum sensing, QS, quencher in both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is modified with ester groups, which get hydrolyzed once inside the bacterial cells, only QS in E. coli, but not in S. typhimurium, is inhibited. The origin of this differential QS inhibition could be due to differences in analog permeation of the bacterial membranes or ester hydrolysis rates. Such differences could be utilized to selectively target QS in specific bacteria amongst a consortium of other species that also use AI-2 signaling.

  3. Communication Signals in Lizards. (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles C.


    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  4. Mutation of a chloroplast-targeting signal in Alternanthera mosaic virus TGB3 impairs cell-to-cell movement and eliminates long-distance virus movement. (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Vaira, Anna Maria; Bae, Hanhong; Bragg, Jennifer N; Ruzin, Steven E; Bauchan, Gary R; Dienelt, Margaret M; Owens, Robert A; Hammond, John


    Cell-to-cell movement of potexviruses requires coordinated action of the coat protein and triple gene block (TGB) proteins. The structural properties of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) TGB3 were examined by methods differentiating between signal peptides and transmembrane domains, and its subcellular localization was studied by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and confocal microscopy. Unlike potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, AltMV TGB3 was not associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and accumulated preferentially in mesophyll cells. Deletion and site-specific mutagenesis revealed an internal signal VL(17,18) of TGB3 essential for chloroplast localization, and either deletion of the TGB3 start codon or alteration of the chloroplast-localization signal limited cell-to-cell movement to the epidermis, yielding a virus that was unable to move into the mesophyll layer. Overexpression of AltMV TGB3 from either AltMV or PVX infectious clones resulted in veinal necrosis and vesiculation at the chloroplast membrane, a cytopathology not observed in wild-type infections. The distinctive mesophyll and chloroplast localization of AltMV TGB3 highlights the critical role played by mesophyll targeting in virus long-distance movement within plants.

  5. Phaeobacter sp. strain Y4I utilizes two separate cell-to-cell communication systems to regulate production of the antimicrobial indigoidine. (United States)

    Cude, W Nathan; Prevatte, Carson W; Hadden, Mary K; May, Amanda L; Smith, Russell T; Swain, Caleb L; Campagna, Shawn R; Buchan, Alison


    The marine roseobacter Phaeobacter sp. strain Y4I synthesizes the blue antimicrobial secondary metabolite indigoidine when grown in a biofilm or on agar plates. Prior studies suggested that indigoidine production may be, in part, regulated by cell-to-cell communication systems. Phaeobacter sp. strain Y4I possesses two luxR and luxI homologous N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated cell-to-cell communication systems, designated pgaRI and phaRI. We show here that Y4I produces two dominantAHLs, the novel monounsaturated N-(3-hydroxydodecenoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OHC(12:1)-HSL) and the relatively common N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), and provide evidence that they are synthesized by PhaI and PgaI, respectively.A Tn5 insertional mutation in either genetic locus results in the abolishment (pgaR::Tn5) or reduction (phaR::Tn5) of pigment production. Motility defects and denser biofilms were also observed in these mutant backgrounds, suggesting an overlap in the functional roles of these systems. Production of the AHLs occurs at distinct points during growth on an agar surface and was determined by isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (ID-HPLC-MS/MS) analysis.Within 2 h of surface inoculation, only 3OHC(12:1)-HSL was detected in agar extracts. As surface-attached cells became established (at approximately 10 h), the concentration of 3OHC(12:1)-HSL decreased, and the concentration of C8-HSL increased rapidly over 14 h.After longer (>24-h) establishment periods, the concentrations of the two AHLs increased to and stabilized at approximately 15 nM and approximately 600 nM for 3OHC12:1-HSL and C8-HSL, respectively. In contrast, the total amount of indigoidine increased steadily from undetectable to 642 Mby 48 h. Gene expression profiles of the AHL and indigoidine synthases (pgaI, phaI, and igiD) were consistent with their metabolite profiles. These data provide evidence that pgaRI and phaRI play overlapping roles

  6. Colonic miRNA expression/secretion, regulated by intestinal epithelial PepT1, plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication during colitis.

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    Saravanan Ayyadurai

    Full Text Available PepT1 is a member of the proton-oligopeptide cotransporter family SLC15, which mediates the transport of di/tripeptides from intestinal lumen into epithelial cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a small noncoding RNAs (21-23 nucleotides, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs of their target mRNAs. Although the role of most miRNAs remains elusive, they have been implicated in vital cellular functions such as intestinal epithelial cells differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of intestinal epithelial PepT1 expression on microRNA (miRNA expression/secretion in the colons of control mice and in mice with experimentally induced colonic inflammation (colitis. The colonic miRNA expression was deregulated in both colitis and control mice but the deregulation of miRNA expression/secretion was specific to colonic tissue and did not affect other tissues such as spleen and liver. Intestinal epithelial PepT1-dependent deregulation of colonic miRNA expression not only affects epithelial cells but also other cell types, such as intestinal macrophages. Importantly, we found the miRNA 23b which was known to be involved in inflammatory bowel disease was secreted and transported between cells to impose a gene-silencing effect on recipient intestinal macrophages. Based on our data, we may conclude that the expression of a specific protein, PepT1, in the intestine affects local miRNA expression/secretion in the colon on a tissue specific manner and may play an important role during the induction and progression of colitis. Colonic miRNA expression/secretion, regulated by intestinal epithelial PepT1, could play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication during colitis.

  7. Cell-to-cell signaling influences the fate of prostate cancer stem cells and their potential to generate more aggressive tumors.

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    Luisa Salvatori

    Full Text Available An increasing number of malignancies has been shown to be initiated and propelled by small subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSC. However, whether tumor aggressiveness is driven by CSC and by what extent this property may be relevant within the tumor mass is still unsettled. To address this issue, we isolated a rare tumor cell population on the basis of its CD44(+CD24(- phenotype from the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line DU145 and established its CSC properties. The behavior of selected CSC was investigated with respect to the bulk DU145 cells. The injection of CSC in nude mice generated highly vascularized tumors infiltrating the adjacent tissues, showing high density of neuroendocrine cells and expressing low levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin as well as high levels of vimentin. On the contrary, when a comparable number of unsorted DU145 cells were injected the resulting tumors were less aggressive. To investigate the different features of tumors in vivo, the influence of differentiated tumor cells on CSC was examined in vitro by growing CSC in the absence or presence of conditioned medium from DU145 cells. CSC grown in permissive conditions differentiated into cell populations with features similar to those of cells held in aggressive tumors generated from CSC injection. Differently, conditioned medium induced CSC to differentiate into a cell phenotype comparable to cells of scarcely aggressive tumors originated from bulk DU145 cell injection. These findings show for the first time that CSC are able to generate differentiated cells expressing either highly or scarcely aggressive phenotype, thus influencing prostate cancer progression. The fate of CSC was determined by signals released from tumor environment. Moreover, using microarray analysis we selected some molecules which could be involved in this cell-to-cell signaling, hypothesizing their potential value for prognostic or therapeutic applications.

  8. Chaotic signals in digital communications

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    Eisencraft, Marcio; Suyama, Ricardo


    Chaotic Signals in Digital Communications combines fundamental background knowledge with state-of-the-art methods for using chaotic signals and systems in digital communications. The book builds a bridge between theoretical works and practical implementation to help researchers attain consistent performance in realistic environments. It shows the possible shortcomings of the chaos-based communication systems proposed in the literature, particularly when they are subjected to non-ideal conditions. It also presents a toolbox of techniques for researchers working to actually implement such system

  9. Signals in Communication Engineering History (United States)

    Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.


    This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

  10. Phospholipase C-β1 and β4 contribute to non-genetic cell-to-cell variability in histamine-induced calcium signals in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ishida

    Full Text Available A uniform extracellular stimulus triggers cell-specific patterns of Ca(2+ signals, even in genetically identical cell populations. However, the underlying mechanism that generates the cell-to-cell variability remains unknown. We monitored cytosolic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 concentration changes using a fluorescent IP3 sensor in single HeLa cells showing different patterns of histamine-induced Ca(2+ oscillations in terms of the time constant of Ca(2+ spike amplitude decay and the Ca(2+ oscillation frequency. HeLa cells stimulated with histamine exhibited a considerable variation in the temporal pattern of Ca(2+ signals and we found that there were cell-specific IP3 dynamics depending on the patterns of Ca(2+ signals. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that phospholipase C (PLC-β1, -β3, -β4, -γ1, -δ3 and -ε were expressed at relatively high levels in HeLa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PLC isozymes revealed that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 were specifically involved in the histamine-induced IP3 increases in HeLa cells. Modulation of IP3 dynamics by knockdown or overexpression of the isozymes PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 resulted in specific changes in the characteristics of Ca(2+ oscillations, such as the time constant of the temporal changes in the Ca(2+ spike amplitude and the Ca(2+ oscillation frequency, within the range of the cell-to-cell variability found in wild-type cell populations. These findings indicate that the heterogeneity in the process of IP3 production, rather than IP3-induced Ca(2+ release, can cause cell-to-cell variability in the patterns of Ca(2+ signals and that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 contribute to generate cell-specific Ca(2+ signals evoked by G protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  11. Neural Network Communications Signal Processing (United States)


    Technical Information Report for the Neural Network Communications Signal Processing Program, CDRL A003, 31 March 1993. Software Development Plan for...track changing jamming conditions to provide the decoder with the best log- likelihood ratio metrics at a given time. As part of our development plan we...Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN-91) Volume 2, June 24-28, 1991, pp. 1677-1680. Kohonen, Teuvo, Raivio, Kimmo, Simula, Oli, Venta , 011i, Henriksson

  12. Nonbioluminescent strains of Photobacterium phosphoreum produce the cell-to-cell communication signal N-(3-Hydroxyoctanoyl)homoserine lactone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodgaard, Lars; Dalgaard, Paw; Andersen, Jens Bo


    Bioluminescence is a common phenotype in marine bacteria, such As Vibrio and Photobacterium species, and can be quorum regulated by N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). We extracted a molecule that induced a bacterial AHL monitor (Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 [pZLR4]) from packed cod fillets......, which spoil due to growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum. Interestingly, AHLs were produced by 13 nonbioluminescent strains of P. phosphoreum isolated from the product. Of 177 strains of P. phosphoreum (including 18 isolates from this study), none of 74 bioluminescent strains elicited a reaction......) and shape to N-(3-hydroxyoctanoyl)homoserine lactone, and the presence of this molecule in culture supernatants from a nonbioluminescent strain of P. phosphoreum was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry. Bioluminescence (in a non...

  13. Evolution of stalk/spore ratio in a social amoeba: cell-to-cell interaction via a signaling chemical shaped by cheating risk. (United States)

    Uchinomiya, Kouki; Iwasa, Yoh


    The social amoeba (or cellular slime mold) is a model system for cell cooperation. When food is depleted in the environment, cells aggregate together. Some of these cells become stalks, raising spores to aid in their dispersal. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) is a signaling chemical produced by prespore cells and decomposed by prestalk cells. It affects the rate of switching between prestalk and prespore cells, thereby achieving a stable stalk/spore ratio. In this study we analyzed the evolution of the stalk/spore ratio. Strains may differ in the production and decomposition rates of the signaling chemical, and in the sensitivity of cells to switch in response to the signaling chemical exposure. When two strains with the same stalk/spore ratio within their own fruiting body are combined into a single fruiting body, one strain may develop into prespores to a greater degree than the other. Direct evolutionary simulations and quantitative genetic dynamics demonstrate that if a fruiting body is always formed by a single strain, the cells evolve to produce less signaling chemical and become more sensitive to the signaling chemical due to the cost of producing the chemical. In contrast, if a fruiting body is formed by multiple strains, the cells evolve to become less sensitive to the signaling chemical and produce more signaling chemical in order to reduce the risk of being exploited. In contrast, the stalk-spore ratio is less likely to be affected by small cheating risk.

  14. Notch signaling-mediated cell-to-cell interaction is dependent on E-cadherin adhesion in adult rat anterior pituitary. (United States)

    Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Azuma, Morio; Yashiro, Takashi; Kikuchi, Motoshi


    The rat anterior pituitary is composed of hormone-producing cells, non-hormone-producing cells (referred to as folliculostellate cells) and marginal layer cells. In the adult rat, progenitor cells of hormone-producing cells have recently been reported to be maintained within this non-hormone-producing cell population. In tissue, non-hormone-producing cells construct homophilic cell aggregates by the differential expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. We have previously shown that Notch signaling, a known regulator of progenitor cells in a number of organs, is activated in the cell aggregates. We now investigate the relationship between Notch signaling and E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in the pituitary gland. Immunohistochemically, Notch signaling receptor Notch2 and the ligand Jagged1 were localized within E-cadherin-positive cells in the marginal cell layer and in the main part of the anterior lobe, whereas Notch1 was localized in E-cadherin-positive and -negative cells. Activation of Notch signaling within E-cadherin-positive cells was confirmed by immunostaining of the Notch target HES1. Notch2 and Jagged1 were always co-localized within the same cells suggesting that homologous cells have reciprocal effects in activating Notch signaling. When the E-cadherin function was inhibited by exposure to a monoclonal antibody (DECMA-1) in primary monolayer cell culture, the percentage of HES1-positive cells among Notch2-positive cells was less than half that of the control. The present results suggest that E-cadherin-mediated cell attachment is necessary for the activation of Notch signaling in the anterior pituitary gland but not for the expression of the Notch2 molecule.

  15. Repression of tropolone production and induction of a Burkholderia plantarii pseudo-biofilm by carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a cell-to-cell signaling disrupter produced by Trichoderma virens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengcen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tropolone-tolerant Trichoderma virens PS1-7 is a biocontrol agent against Burkholderia plantarii, causative of rice seedling blight. When exposed to catechol, this fungus dose-dependently produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a sesquiterpene-type autoregulatory signal molecule that promotes self-conidiation of T. virens PS1-7 mycelia. It was, however, uncertain why T. virens PS1-7 attenuates the symptom development of the rice seedlings infested with B. plantarii. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To reveal the antagonism by T. virens PS1-7 against B. plantarii leading to repression of tropolone production in a coculture system, bioassay-guided screening for active compounds from a 3-d culture of T. virens PS1-7 was conducted. As a result, carot-4-en-9,10-diol was identified and found to repress tropolone production of B. plantarii from 10 to 200 µM in a dose-dependent manner as well as attenuate virulence of B. plantarii on rice seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcriptional suppression of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone synthase plaI in B. plantarii was the main mode of action by which carot-4-en-9,10-diol mediated the quorum quenching responsible for repression of tropolone production. In addition, the unique response of B. plantarii to carot-4-en-9,10-diol in the biofilm formed in the static culture system was also found. Although the initial stage of B. plantarii biofilm formation was induced by both tropolone and carot-4-en-9,10-diol, it was induced in different states. Moreover, the B. plantarii biofilm that was induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol at the late stage showed defects not only in matrix structure but also cell viability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that carot-4-en-9,10-diol released by T. virens PS1-7 acts as an interkingdom cell-to-cell signaling molecule against B. plantarii to repress tropolone production and induces pseudo-biofilm to the cells. This observation also led to

  16. Inverter communications using output signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Patrick L.


    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  17. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed


    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  18. Sensing, Signal Processing, and Communication for WBANs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Hamed Fouladi; Ral ChvezSantiago; Pl Ander Floor; Ilangko Balasingham; Tor ARamstad


    A wireless body area network (WBAN) enables real-time monitoring of physiological signals and helps with the early detection of life-threatening diseases. WBAN nodes can be located on, inside, or in close proximity to the body in order to detect vital signals. Measurements from sensors are processed and transmitted over wireless channels. Issues in sensing, signal processing, and com-munication have to be addressed before WBAN can be implemented. In this paper, we survey recent advances in research on sig-nal processing for the sensor measurements, and we describe aspects of communication based on IEEE 802.15.6. We also discuss state-of-the-art WBAN channel modeling in all the frequencies specified by IEEE 802.15.6 as well as the need for new channel models for new different frequencies.

  19. 3rd International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Qilian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming


    The Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of communications, signal processing, and systems. This book is a collection of contributions from the conference and covers such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, and signal processing for communications. The conference was held July 2014 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

  20. Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Qilian; Pi, Yiming


    The Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems. The conference covered such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, signal processing for communications. This book is a collection of contributions coming out of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held September 2013 in Tianjin, China.

  1. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang


    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  2. Radio Science from an Optical Communications Signal (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal


    NASA is currently developing the capability to deploy deep space optical communications links. This creates the opportunity to utilize the optical link to obtain range, doppler, and signal intensity estimates. These may, in turn, be used to complement or extend the capabilities of current radio science. In this paper we illustrate the achievable precision in estimating range, doppler, and received signal intensity of an non-coherent optical link (the current state-of-the-art for a deep-space link). We provide a joint estimation algorithm with performance close to the bound. We draw comparisons to estimates based on a coherent radio frequency signal, illustrating that large gains in either precision or observation time are possible with an optical link.

  3. 49 CFR 220.51 - Radio communications and signal indications. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications and signal indications. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.51 Radio communications and signal indications. (a) No information may be...

  4. Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time (United States)

    Oyola Morales, José R.; Vital-García, Cuauhcihuatl; Hews, Diana K.; Martins, Emília P.


    Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary shift (captured by comparison of S. merriami and S. siniferus) represents an ancient loss of the belly patch by S. siniferus, and the second evolutionary shift, bounded by S. undulatus and S. virgatus, represents a more recent loss of blue belly patch by S. virgatus. Conspicuousness measurements suggest that the species with the recent loss (S. virgatus) is the least conspicuous. Results for two other species (S. siniferus and S. merriami) suggest that over longer periods of evolutionary time, new signal colours have arisen which minimize absolute contrast with the habitat while maximizing conspicuousness to a lizard receiver. Specifically, males of the species representing an ancient loss of blue patch (S. siniferus) are more conspicuous than are females in the UV, whereas S. merriami males have evolved a green element that makes their belly patches highly sexually dimorphic but no more conspicuous than the white bellies of S. merriami females. Thus, our results suggest that natural selection may act more immediately to reduce conspicuousness, whereas sexual selection may have a more complex impact on communicative signals through the introduction of new colours. PMID:28018661

  5. Quorum sensing communication between bacteria and human cells: signals, targets and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eHolm


    Full Text Available Both direct and long-range interactions between pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts are important in the outcome of infections. For cell-to-cell communication, these bacteria employ the quorum sensing (QS system to pass on information of the density of the bacterial population and collectively switch on virulence factor production, biofilm formation and resistance development. Thus, QS allows bacteria to behave as a community to perform tasks which would be impossible for individual cells, e.g. to overcome defense and immune systems and establish infections in higher organisms. This review highlights these aspects of QS and our own recent research on how P.aeruginosa communicates with human cells using the small QS signal molecules N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL. We focus on how this conversation changes the behavior and function of neutrophils, macrophages and epithelial cells and on how the signaling machinery in human cells responsible for the recognition of AHL. Understanding the bacteria-host relationships at both cellular and molecular levels is essential for the identification of new targets and for the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections in the future.

  6. Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication (United States)

    Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard


    It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time

  7. All-optical signal processing data communication and storage applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Benjamin


    This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art of optical signal processing technologies and devices. It presents breakthrough solutions for enabling a pervasive use of optics in data communication and signal storage applications. It presents presents optical signal processing as solution to overcome the capacity crunch in communication networks. The book content ranges from the development of innovative materials and devices, such as graphene and slow light structures, to the use of nonlinear optics for secure quantum information processing and overcoming the classical Shannon limit on channel capacity and microwave signal processing. Although it holds the promise for a substantial speed improvement, today’s communication infrastructure optics remains largely confined to the signal transport layer, as it lags behind electronics as far as signal processing is concerned. This situation will change in the near future as the tremendous growth of data traffic requires energy efficient and ful...

  8. Signal processing for mobile communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ibnkahla, Mohamed


    INTRODUCTIONSignal Processing for Future Mobile Communications Systems: Challenges and Perspectives; Quazi Mehbubar Rahman and Mohamed IbnkahlaCHANNEL MODELING AND ESTIMATIONMultipath Propagation Models for Broadband Wireless Systems; Andreas F. Molisch and Fredrik TufvessonModeling and Estimation of Mobile Channels; Jitendra K. TugnaitMobile Satellite Channels: Statistical Models and Performance Analysis; Giovanni E. Corazza, Alessandro Vanelli-Coralli, Raffaella Pedone, and Massimo NeriMobile Velocity Estimation for Wireless Communications; Bouchra Senadji, Ghazem Azemi, and Boualem Boashash

  9. Healthy sheep that differ in scrapie associated PRNP genotypes exhibit significant differences of expression pattern associated with immune response and cell-to-cell signalling in retropharyngeal lymph nodes. (United States)

    Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schwerin, Manfred


    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis whether prion protein gene (PRNP) associated scrapie susceptibility is connected with physiological changes in tissue involved in pathogen uptake, migration and propagation. Jejunum, ileal Peyer's patches, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, brain stem and liver of healthy and non scrapie-infected sheep with PRNP genotypes representing the scrapie risk class R1 (scrapie-resistant) and R5 (scrapie-susceptible), respectively, were comparatively analysed by microarray technology and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR). Significantly higher expression levels of genes involved in immune response and cell communication pathways in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of R1 sheep in comparison with R5 animals strongly suggest PRNP associated physiological processes with impact as an early barrier in pathogen defence. Equal expression patterns in brain stem suggest no physiological differences in brain of healthy R1 and R5 animals. In addition, similar expression pattern in liver indicates that there are no transcriptional differences in genes of the hepatic energy metabolism between animals of scrapie classes R1 and R5.

  10. Secure Communication via a Recycling of Attenuated Classical Signals (United States)

    Smith, A. Matthew


    We describe a simple method of interleaving a classical and quantum signal in a secure communication system at a single wavelength. The system transmits data encrypted via a one-time pad on a classical signal and produces a single-photon reflection of the encrypted signal. This attenuated signal can be used to observe eavesdroppers and produce fresh secret bits. The system can be secured against eavesdroppers, detect simple tampering or classical bit errors, produces more secret bits than it consumes, and does not require any entanglement or complex wavelength division multiplexing, thus, making continuous secure two-way communication via one-time pads practical.

  11. Exploiting the natural redundancy of chaotic signals in communication systems (United States)

    Marino; Rosa; Grebogi


    Chaotic signals can be used as carriers of information in communication systems. In this work we describe a simple encoding method that allows one to map any desired bit sequence into a chaotic waveform. The redundancy of the resulting information carrying signal enables us to devise a novel signal reconstruction technique that is able to recover relatively large parts of the chaotic signal starting from just a few samples of it. We show that this technique allows one to increase both the transmission reliability and the transmission rate of a communication system even in the presence of noise.

  12. Chemical communication: a jewel sheds light on signal evolution. (United States)

    Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer


    When others show sexy tails or sing elaborate songs, many animals use the language of chemistry to attract potential mates. A study provides insights into the evolutionary conundrum of how new chemical signals can evolve in an established communication system.

  13. Behavioral ecology, endocrinology and signal reliability of electric communication (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Goldina, Anna; Silva, Ana C.; Stoddard, Philip K.


    Summary The balance between the costs and benefits of conspicuous animal communication signals ensures that signal expression relates to the quality of the bearer. Signal plasticity enables males to enhance conspicuous signals to impress mates and competitors and to reduce signal expression to lower energetic and predation-related signaling costs when competition is low. While signal plasticity may benefit the signaler, it can compromise the reliability of the information conveyed by the signals. In this paper we review the effect of signal plasticity on the reliability of the electrocommunication signal of the gymnotiform fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio. We (1) summarize the endocrine regulation of signal plasticity, (2) explore the regulation of signal plasticity in females, (3) examine the information conveyed by the signal, (4) show how that information changes when the signal changes, and (5) consider the energetic strategies used to sustain expensive signaling. The electric organ discharge (EOD) of B. gauderio changes in response to social environment on two time scales. Two hormone classes, melanocortins and androgens, underlie the short-term and long-term modulation of signal amplitude and duration observed during social interaction. Population density drives signal amplitude enhancement, unexpectedly improving the reliability with which the signal predicts the signaler's size. The signal's second phase elongation predicts androgen levels and male reproductive condition. Males sustain signal enhancement with dietary intake, but when food is limited, they ‘go for broke’ and put extra energy into electric signals. Cortisol diminishes EOD parameters, but energy-limited males offset cortisol effects by boosting androgen levels. While physiological constraints are sufficient to maintain signal amplitude reliability, phenotypic integration and signaling costs maintain reliability of signal duration, consistent with theory of honest signaling. PMID:23761465

  14. 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju


    This book brings together papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, which provides a venue to disseminate the latest developments and to discuss the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields. Spanning topics ranging from Communications, Signal Processing and Systems, this book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees (such as NSF, DOD, DOE, etc).

  15. Optimal signal patterns for dynamical cellular communication

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko


    Cells transmit information via signaling pathways, using temporal dynamical patterns. As optimality with respect to environments is the universal principle in biological systems, organisms have acquired an optimal way of transmitting information. Here we obtain optimal dynamical signal patterns which can transmit information efficiently (low power) and reliably (high accuracy) using the optimal control theory. Adopting an activation-inactivation decoding network, we reproduced several dynamical patterns found in actual signals, such as steep, gradual and overshooting dynamics. Notably, when minimizing the power of the input signal, optimal signals exhibit the overshooting pattern, which is a biphasic pattern with transient and steady phases; this pattern is prevalent in actual dynamical patterns as it can be generated by an incoherent feed-forward loop (FFL), a common motif in biochemical networks. We also identified conditions when the three patterns, steep, gradual and overshooting, confer advantages.

  16. Digital signal processing in communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frerking, Marvin E


    An engineer's introduction to concepts, algorithms, and advancements in Digital Signal Processing. This lucidly written resource makes extensive use of real-world examples as it covers all the important design and engineering references.

  17. Signal molecule-mediated hepatic cell communication during liver regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Zheng; Shun-Yan Weng; Yan Yu


    Liver regeneration is a complex and well-orchestrated process, during which hepatic cells are activated to produce large signal molecules in response to liver injury or mass reduction. These signal molecules, in turn, set up the connections and cross-talk among liver cells to promote hepatic recovery. In this review, we endeavor to summarize the network of signal molecules that mediates hepatic cell communication in the regulation of liver regeneration.

  18. Real-time Covert Communications Channel for Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Seleym


    Full Text Available Covert communications channel is considered as a type of secure communications that creates capability to transfer information between entities while hiding the contents of the channel. Multimedia data hiding techniques can be used to establish a covert channel for secret communications within a media carrier. In this paper, a high-rate covert communications channel is developed to exploit an audio stream as a carrier signal using multiple embedding in the Quantization Index Modulation framework. The proposed approach uses multi quantization vectors to increase data transmission rate. The embedding algorithms consider the embedding process as a communications problem, that it uses structured scheme of Multiple Trellis-Coded Quantization jointed with Multiple Trellis-Coded Modulation. Using convolution codes based trellis coding returns a real-time communications, because it can be continuously encoded and decoded. The proposed approach exhibits a high channel capacity due to the increase in data embedding rate without severely increasing in embedding distortion.

  19. [Pheromones: an underestimated communication signal in humans]. (United States)

    Frey, J


    The pheromones are molecules, mainly aliphatic acids, with or without perceptible odor, recognized by specific receptors, the stimulation of which induces neuroendocrine reactions and affects the individual behavior. Olfactory receptors are underexpressed in human, 70 % of genes have become nonfunctional pseudogenes. But the remaining function was tested and is able to induce emotional reactions corresponding to a non-verbal signal of social interactions. In the present study, we review the actual knowledge on the olfactory receptors. They belong to the G-protein-coupled-receptors. Their signal is transduced to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Some HLA-based olfactory cues are shown with reference to recent experiments. The pathophysiological hypotheses are considered with respect to studies in anorexia nervosa and Alzheimer' disease.

  20. Multidimensional Signal Processing for Sensing & Communications (United States)


    dimensional (2D) generalization of spatial modulation was demonstrated in [28] for a planar array. The spatially modulation FM signal from (3) now becomes...the roof of Nichols Hall on the University of Kansas campus. These receive-processed results include the new version of APC along with the...echo from Nichols Hall is now observable). Thus one can conclude that PAPC provides an adaptive solution to enable simultaneous dual-polarized

  1. Time reversal signal processing for communication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.


    Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.

  2. Communication theory and signal processing for transform coding

    CERN Document Server

    El-Shennawy, Khamies Mohammed Ali


    This book is tailored to fulfil the requirements in the area of the signal processing in communication systems. The book contains numerous examples, solved problems and exercises to explain the methodology of Fourier Series, Fourier Analysis, Fourier Transform and properties, Fast Fourier Transform FFT, Discrete Fourier Transform DFT and properties, Discrete Cosine Transform DCT, Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT and Contourlet Transform CT. The book is characterized by three directions, the communication theory and signal processing point of view, the mathematical point of view and utility compu

  3. Serial optical communications and ultra-fast optical signal processing of Tbit/s data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao;


    This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology......This paper reviews our recent advances in ultra-high speed serial optical communications. It describes Tbit/s optical signal processing and various materials allowing for this, as well as network scenarios embracing this technology...

  4. Space-Time Coding and Signal Processing for MIMO Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inaki Berenguer; Xiaodong Wang


    Rapid growth in mobile computing and other wireless multimedia services is inspiring many research and development activities on high-speed wireless communication systems.Main challenges in this area include the development of efficient coding and modulation signal processing techniques for improving the quality and spectral efficiency of wireless systems. The recently emerged space-time coding and signal processing techniques for wireless communication systems employing multiple transmit and receive antennas offer a powerful paradigm for meeting these challenges. This paper provides an overview on the recent development in space-time coding and signal processing techniques for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems. We first review the information theoretic results on the capacities of wireless systems employing multiple transmit and receive antennas. We then describe two representative categories of space-time systems, namely, the BLAST system and the space-time block coding system, both of which have been proposed for next-generation high-speed wireless system. Signal processing techniques for channel estimation and decoding in space-time systems are also discussed. Finally, some other coding and signal processing techniques for wireless systems employing multiple transmit and receive antennas that are currently under intensive research are also briefly touched upon.

  5. Digital signal processing for wireless communication using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S


    This book examines signal processing techniques used in wireless communication illustrated by using the Matlab program. The author discusses these techniques as they relate to Doppler spread; delay spread; Rayleigh and Rician channel modeling; rake receiver; diversity techniques; MIMO and OFDM -based transmission techniques; and array signal processing. Related topics such as detection theory, link budget, multiple access techniques, and spread spectrum are also covered.   ·         Illustrates signal processing techniques involved in wireless communication using Matlab ·         Discusses multiple access techniques such as Frequency division multiple access, Time division multiple access, and Code division multiple access ·         Covers band pass modulation techniques such as Binary phase shift keying, Differential phase shift keying, Quadrature phase shift keying, Binary frequency shift keying, Minimum shift keying, and Gaussian minimum shift keying.

  6. All-optical signal processing technique for secure optical communication (United States)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Su, Bing; Ye, Ya-lin; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shao-feng; Duan, Tao; Duan, Jie


    Secure optical communication technologies are important means to solve the physical layer security for optical network. We present a scheme of secure optical communication system by all-optical signal processing technique. The scheme consists of three parts, as all-optical signal processing unit, optical key sequence generator, and synchronous control unit. In the paper, all-optical signal processing method is key technology using all-optical exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate based on optical cross-gain modulation effect, has advantages of wide dynamic range of input optical signal, simple structure and so on. All-optical XOR gate composed of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is a symmetrical structure. By controlling injection current, input signal power, delay and filter bandwidth, the extinction ratio of XOR can be greater than 8dB. Finally, some performance parameters are calculated and the results are analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can be achieved over 10Gbps optical signal encryption and decryption, which is simple, easy to implement, and error-free diffusion.

  7. Organelle communication: signaling crossroads between homeostasis and disease. (United States)

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Criollo, Alfredo; Chiong, Mario; Hill, Joseph A; Simmen, Thomas; Quest, Andrew F; Lavandero, Sergio


    Cellular organelles do not function as isolated or static units, but rather form dynamic contacts between one another that can be modulated according to cellular needs. The physical interfaces between organelles are important for Ca2+ and lipid homeostasis, and serve as platforms for the control of many essential functions including metabolism, signaling, organelle integrity and execution of the apoptotic program. Emerging evidence also highlights the importance of organelle communication in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer, skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on organelle communication and the link to human pathologies.

  8. Time Reversal Signal Processing in Communications - A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A W; Candy, J V; Poggio, A J


    A typical communications channel is subjected to a variety of signal distortions, including multipath, that corrupt the information being transmitted and reduce the effective channel capacity. The mitigation of the multipath interference component is an ongoing concern for communication systems operating in complex environments such as might be experienced inside buildings, urban environments, and hilly or heavily wooded areas. Communications between mobile units and distributed sensors, so important to national security, are dependent upon flawless conveyance of information in complex environments. The reduction of this multipath corruption necessitates better channel equalization, i.e., the removal of channel distortion to extract the transmitted information. But, the current state of the art in channel equalization either requires a priori knowledge of the channel or the use of a known training sequence and adaptive filtering. If the ''assumed'' model within the equalization processor does not at least capture the dominant characteristics of the channel, then the received information may still be highly distorted and possibly useless. Also, the processing required for classical equalization is demanding in computational resources. To remedy this situation, many techniques have been investigated to replace classical equalization. Such a technique, the subject of this feasibility study, is Time Reversal Signal Processing (TRSP). Multipath is particularly insidious and a major factor in the deterioration of communication channels. Unlike most other characteristics that corrupt a communications channel, the detrimental effects of multipath cannot be overcome by merely increasing the transmitted power. Although the power in a signal diminishes as a function of the distance between the transmitter and receiver, multipath further degrades a signal by creating destructive interference that results in a loss of received power in a very localized area

  9. Is autoinducer-2 a universal signal for interspecies communication: a comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the synthesis and signal transduction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner-Döbler Irene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication involving the production and detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Recently, it has been proposed that autoinducer-2 (AI-2, a furanosyl borate diester derived from the recycling of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH to homocysteine, serves as a universal signal for interspecies communication. Results In this study, 138 completed genomes were examined for the genes involved in the synthesis and detection of AI-2. Except for some symbionts and parasites, all organisms have a pathway to recycle SAH, either using a two-step enzymatic conversion by the Pfs and LuxS enzymes or a one-step conversion using SAH-hydrolase (SahH. 51 organisms including most Gamma-, Beta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, and Firmicutes possess the Pfs-LuxS pathway, while Archaea, Eukarya, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria prefer the SahH pathway. In all 138 organisms, only the three Vibrio strains had strong, bidirectional matches to the periplasmic AI-2 binding protein LuxP and the central signal relay protein LuxU. The initial two-component sensor kinase protein LuxQ, and the terminal response regulator luxO are found in most Proteobacteria, as well as in some Firmicutes, often in several copies. Conclusions The genomic analysis indicates that the LuxS enzyme required for AI-2 synthesis is widespread in bacteria, while the periplasmic binding protein LuxP is only present in Vibrio strains. Thus, other organisms may either use components different from the AI-2 signal transduction system of Vibrio strains to sense the signal of AI-2, or they do not have such a quorum sensing system at all.

  10. Timing and time signal distribution in digital communications networks (United States)

    Kihara, Masami; Imaoka, Atushi


    The timing signal distribution characteristics of a digital communications network are evaluated to determine the Maximum Time Interval Error (MTIE) of the network; reference is made to the performance of network components such as transmission systems, slave clocks and timing distribution systems in intraoffices. The MTIE of each component is measured and used to determine the allowable MTIE of that component. The maximum number of slave node chains is shown to be 20. Time signal distribution performance is detailed. It is shown that time synchronization accuracy is of the order of submicroseconds between nodes separated by 2400 km over a two year period. For intra-office time signal distribution, the relative time accuracy is less than 3 nanoseconds using an 8 Mb/s round trip digital interface to connect a time signal supply in an office to dispersed equipment.

  11. Signal Conditioning An Introduction to Continuous Wave Communication and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba


    "Signal Conditioning” is a comprehensive introduction to electronic signal processing. The book presents the mathematical basics including the implications of various transformed domain representations in signal synthesis and analysis in an understandable and lucid fashion and illustrates the theory through many applications and examples from communication systems. The ease to learn is supported by well-chosen exercises which give readers the flavor of the subject. Supplementary electronic materials available on including MATLAB codes illuminating applications in the domain of one dimensional electrical signal processing, image processing and speech processing. The book is an introduction for students with a basic understanding in engineering or natural sciences.

  12. Explaining evolution of plant communication by airborne signals. (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Karban, Richard


    In spite of initial doubts about the reality of 'talking trees', plant resistance expression mediated by volatile compounds that come from neighboring plants is now well described. Airborne signals usually improve the resistance of the receiver, but without obvious benefits for the emitter, thus making the evolutionary explanation of this phenomenon problematic. Here, we discuss four possible non-exclusive explanations involving the role of volatiles: in direct defense, as within-plant signals, as traits that synergistically interact with other defenses, and as cues among kin. Unfortunately, there is a lack of knowledge on the fitness consequences of plant communication for both emitter and receiver. This information is crucial to understanding the ecology and evolution of plant communication via airborne cues.

  13. Flash signal evolution in Photinus fireflies: character displacement and signal exploitation in a visual communication system. (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lloyd, James E


    Animal communication is an intriguing topic in evolutionary biology. In this comprehensive study of visual signal evolution, we used a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of the flash communication system of North American fireflies. The North American firefly genus Photinus contains 35 described species with simple ON-OFF visual signals, and information on habitat types, sympatric congeners, and predators. This makes them an ideal study system to test hypotheses on the evolution of male and female visual signal traits. Our analysis of 34 Photinus species suggests two temporal pattern generators: one for flash duration and one for flash intervals. Reproductive character displacement was a main factor for signal divergence in male flash duration among sympatric Photinus species. Male flash pattern intervals (i.e., the duration of the dark periods between signals) were positively correlated with the number of sympatric Photuris fireflies, which include predators of Photinus. Females of different Photinus species differ in their response preferences to male traits. As in other communication systems, firefly male sexual signals seem to be a compromise between optimizing mating success (sexual selection) and minimizing predation risk (natural selection). An integrative model for Photinus signal evolution is proposed.

  14. Multiplexed temporal coding of electric communication signals in mormyrid fishes. (United States)

    Baker, Christa A; Kohashi, Tsunehiko; Lyons-Warren, Ariel M; Ma, Xiaofeng; Carlson, Bruce A


    The coding of stimulus information into patterns of spike times occurs widely in sensory systems. Determining how temporally coded information is decoded by central neurons is essential to understanding how brains process sensory stimuli. Mormyrid weakly electric fishes are experts at time coding, making them an exemplary organism for addressing this question. Mormyrids generate brief, stereotyped electric pulses. Pulse waveform carries information about sender identity, and it is encoded into submillisecond-to-millisecond differences in spike timing between receptors. Mormyrids vary the time between pulses to communicate behavioral state, and these intervals are encoded into the sequence of interspike intervals within receptors. Thus, the responses of peripheral electroreceptors establish a temporally multiplexed code for communication signals, one consisting of spike timing differences between receptors and a second consisting of interspike intervals within receptors. These signals are processed in a dedicated sensory pathway, and recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms by which central circuits can extract behaviorally relevant information from multiplexed temporal codes. Evolutionary change in the anatomy of this pathway is related to differences in electrosensory perception, which appears to have influenced the diversification of electric signals and species. However, it remains unknown how this evolutionary change relates to differences in sensory coding schemes, neuronal circuitry and central sensory processing. The mormyrid electric communication pathway is a powerful model for integrating mechanistic studies of temporal coding with evolutionary studies of correlated differences in brain and behavior to investigate neural mechanisms for processing temporal codes.

  15. Circularly Polarized Light as a Communication Signal in Mantis Shrimps. (United States)

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Templin, Rachel Marie; How, Martin John; Marshall, N Justin


    Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence). The use of the polarization of light is a good example of a potentially covert communication channel, as very few vertebrates are known to use polarization for object-based vision. However, even these patterns are vulnerable to eavesdroppers, as sensitivity to the linearly polarized component of light is widespread among invertebrates due to their intrinsically polarization sensitive photoreceptors. Stomatopod crustaceans appear to have gone one step further in this arms race and have evolved a sensitivity to the circular polarization of light, along with body patterns producing it. However, to date we have no direct evidence that any of these marine crustaceans use this modality to communicate with conspecifics. We therefore investigated circular polarization vision of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus and demonstrate that (1) the species produces strongly circularly polarized body patterns, (2) they discriminate the circular polarization of light, and (3) that they use circular polarization information to avoid occupied burrows when seeking a refuge.

  16. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing......, light sources frequency and phase offset and phase noise. The studied DSP algorithms are considered as key building blocks in digital coherent receivers for the next generation of optical communication systems such as 112-Gb/s dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) optical......) equalizer algorithms are implemented to reduce the inter channel interference (ICI). This PhD thesis also investigates a parallel block-divided overlapped chromatic dispersion DSP compensation algorithm. The essential benefit of using a parallel chromatic dispersion compensation algorithm is that it demands...

  17. 2012 Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Mu, Jiasong; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming; Zhao, Chenglin


    Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems is a collection of contributions coming out of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held October 2012. This book provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, and their interactions in multidisciplinary fields, such as Smart Grid. The book also examines Radar Systems, Sensor Networks, Radar Signal Processing, Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems and Applications. Written by experts and students in the fields of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems.

  18. Sonic hedgehog signaling in kidney fibrosis: a master communicator. (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Tan, Roderick J; Liu, Youhua


    The hedgehog signaling cascade is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that regulates multiple aspects of embryonic development and plays a decisive role in tissue homeostasis. As the best studied member of three hedgehog ligands, sonic hedgehog (Shh) is known to be associated with kidney development and tissue repair after various insults. Recent studies uncover an intrinsic link between dysregulated Shh signaling and renal fibrogenesis. In various types of chronic kidney disease (CKD), Shh is upregulated specifically in renal tubular epithelium but targets interstitial fibroblasts, thereby mediating a dynamic epithelial- mesenchymal communication (EMC). Tubule-derived Shh acts as a growth factor for interstitial fibroblasts and controls a hierarchy of fibrosis-related genes, which lead to the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in renal interstitium. In this review, we recapitulate the principle of Shh signaling, its activation and regulation in a variety of kidney diseases. We also discuss the potential mechanisms by which Shh promotes renal fibrosis and assess the efficacy of blocking this signaling in preclinical settings. Continuing these lines of investigations will provide novel opportunities for designing effective therapies to improve CKD prognosis in patients.

  19. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol


    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  20. Tetherin restricts productive HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Casartelli

    Full Text Available The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24 impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. Tetherin-positive or -negative cells, infected with wild-type or DeltaVpu HIV, were used as donor cells and cocultivated with target lymphocytes. We show that tetherin inhibits productive cell-to-cell transmission of DeltaVpu to targets and impairs that of WT HIV. Tetherin accumulates with Gag at the contact zone between infected and target cells, but does not prevent the formation of virological synapses. In the presence of tetherin, viruses are then mostly transferred to targets as abnormally large patches. These viral aggregates do not efficiently promote infection after transfer, because they accumulate at the surface of target cells and are impaired in their fusion capacities. Tetherin, by imprinting virions in donor cells, is the first example of a surface restriction factor limiting viral cell-to-cell spread.

  1. LDPC Decoding for Signal Dependent Visible Light Communication Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Ming; SHA Xiaoshi; LIANG Xiao; JIANG Ming; WANG Jiaheng; ZHAO Chunming


    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are widely employed in visible light communication (VLC) systems. The general signal dependent Gaussian channel is investigated. Experiment results reveal that symbols on different constellation points under official illumi⁃nance inevitably suffer from different levels of noise due to the multiplication process of APDs. In such a case, conventional log likely⁃hood ratio (LLR) calculation for signal independent channels may cause performance loss. The optimal LLR calculation for decoder is then derived because of the existence of non⁃ignorable APD shot noise. To find the decoding thresholds of the optimal and suboptimal detection schemes, the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chat is further analyzed. Finally a modified minimum sum algorithm is suggested with reduced complexity and acceptable performance loss. Numerical simulations show that, with a reg⁃ular (3, 6) low⁃density parity check (LDPC) code of block length 20,000, 0.7 dB gain is achieved with our proposed scheme over the LDPC decoder designed for signal independent noise. It is also found that the coding performance is improved for a larger modulation depth.

  2. Between cheap and costly signals: the evolution of partially honest communication. (United States)

    Zollman, Kevin J S; Bergstrom, Carl T; Huttegger, Simon M


    Costly signalling theory has become a common explanation for honest communication when interests conflict. In this paper, we provide an alternative explanation for partially honest communication that does not require significant signal costs. We show that this alternative is at least as plausible as traditional costly signalling, and we suggest a number of experiments that might be used to distinguish the two theories.

  3. Molecular evolution of communication signals in electric fish. (United States)

    Zakon, Harold H; Zwickl, Derrick J; Lu, Ying; Hillis, David M


    Animal communication systems are subject to natural selection so the imprint of selection must reside in the genome of each species. Electric fish generate electric organ discharges (EODs) from a muscle-derived electric organ (EO) and use these fields for electrolocation and communication. Weakly electric teleosts have evolved at least twice (mormyriforms, gymnotiforms) allowing a comparison of the workings of evolution in two independently evolved sensory/motor systems. We focused on the genes for two Na(+) channels, Nav1.4a and Nav1.4b, which are orthologs of the mammalian muscle-expressed Na(+) channel gene Nav1.4. Both genes are expressed in muscle in non-electric fish. Nav1.4b is expressed in muscle in electric fish, but Nav1.4a expression has been lost from muscle and gained in the evolutionarily novel EO in both groups. We hypothesized that Nav1.4a might be evolving to optimize the EOD for different sensory environments and the generation of species-specific communication signals. We obtained the sequence for Nav1.4a from non-electric, mormyriform and gymnotiform species, estimated a phylogenetic tree, and determined rates of evolution. We observed elevated rates of evolution in this gene in both groups coincident with the loss of Nav1.4a from muscle and its compartmentalization in EO. We found amino acid substitutions at sites known to be critical for channel inactivation; analyses suggest that these changes are likely to be the result of positive selection. We suggest that the diversity of EOD waveforms in both groups of electric fish is correlated with accelerations in the rate of evolution of the Nav1.4a Na(+) channel gene due to changes in selection pressure on the gene once it was solely expressed in the EO.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gross


    Full Text Available The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1 polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2 cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation.

  5. Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors during Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Liu


    Full Text Available Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

  6. Cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of microalgae. (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil


    This paper reports the cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of a diverse group of microalgae based on the Extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek (XDLVO) approach using the previously reported physico-chemical surface properties. The microalgae included 10 different species of green algae and diatoms from both freshwater and saltwater environments while the substrata included glass, indium-tin oxide (ITO), stainless steel, polycarbonate, polyethylene, and polystryrene. The results indicated that acid-base interactions were the dominating mechanism of interaction for microalgae. For green algae, if at least one of the interacting surfaces was hydrophobic, adhesion at primary minimum was predicted without any energy barrier. However, most diatom systems featured energy barriers for adhesion due to repulsive van der Waals interactions. The results reported in this study are expected to provide useful data and insight into the interaction mechanisms of microalgae cells with each other and with substrata for a number of practical applications including prevention of biofouling of photobioreactors and other man-made surfaces, promotion of biofilm formation in algal biofilm photobioreactors, and developing bioflocculation strategies for energy efficient harvesting of algal biomass. Particularly, Botryococcus braunii and Cerithiopsis fusiformis were identified as promising species for biofloccuation and biofilm formation in freshwater and saltwater aquatic systems, respectively. Finally, based on the observed trends in this study, use of hydrophilic algae and hydrophilic coatings over surfaces are recommended for minimizing biofouling in aquatic systems.

  7. The signaller's dilemma: a cost-benefit analysis of public and private communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Römer

    Full Text Available Understanding the diversity of animal signals requires knowledge of factors which may influence the different stages of communication, from the production of a signal by the sender up to the detection, identification and final decision-making in the receiver. Yet, many studies on signalling systems focus exclusively on the sender, and often ignore the receiver side and the ecological conditions under which signals evolve.We study a neotropical katydid which uses airborne sound for long distance communication, but also an alternative form of private signalling through substrate vibration. We quantified the strength of predation by bats which eavesdrop on the airborne sound signal, by analysing insect remains at roosts of a bat family. Males do not arbitrarily use one or the other channel for communication, but spend more time with private signalling under full moon conditions, when the nocturnal rainforest favours predation by visually hunting predators. Measurements of metabolic CO(2-production rate indicate that the energy necessary for signalling increases 3-fold in full moon nights when private signalling is favoured. The background noise level for the airborne sound channel can amount to 70 dB SPL, whereas it is low in the vibration channel in the low frequency range of the vibration signal. The active space of the airborne sound signal varies between 22 and 35 meters, contrasting with about 4 meters with the vibration signal transmitted on the insect's favourite roost plant. Signal perception was studied using neurophysiological methods under outdoor conditions, which is more reliable for the private mode of communication.Our results demonstrate the complex effects of ecological conditions, such as predation, nocturnal ambient light levels, and masking noise levels on the performance of receivers in detecting mating signals, and that the net advantage or disadvantage of a mode of communication strongly depends on these conditions.

  8. Regulation of cell-to-cell variability in divergent gene expression (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Wu, Shuyang; Pocetti, Christopher; Bai, Lu


    Cell-to-cell variability (noise) is an important feature of gene expression that impacts cell fitness and development. The regulatory mechanism of this variability is not fully understood. Here we investigate the effect on gene expression noise in divergent gene pairs (DGPs). We generated reporters driven by divergent promoters, rearranged their gene order, and probed their expressions using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). We show that two genes in a co-regulated DGP have higher expression covariance compared with the separate, tandem and convergent configurations, and this higher covariance is caused by more synchronized firing of the divergent transcriptions. For differentially regulated DGPs, the regulatory signal of one gene can stochastically `leak' to the other, causing increased gene expression noise. We propose that the DGPs' function in limiting or promoting gene expression noise may enhance or compromise cell fitness, providing an explanation for the conservation pattern of DGPs.

  9. Temporally selective processing of communication signals by auditory midbrain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B


    Perception of the temporal structure of acoustic signals contributes critically to vocal signaling. In the aquatic clawed frog Xenopus laevis, calls differ primarily in the temporal parameter of click rate, which conveys sexual identity and reproductive state. We show here that an ensemble of aud...

  10. Information Transmission in Communication Games Signaling with an Audience (United States)

    Satari, Farishta


    Communication is a goal-oriented activity where interlocutors use language as a means to achieve an end while taking into account the goals and plans of others. Game theory, being the scientific study of strategically interactive decision-making, provides the mathematical tools for modeling language use among rational decision makers. When we…

  11. Effect of Interaction between Chromatin Loops on Cell-to-Cell Variability in Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuoqi Liu


    Full Text Available According to recent experimental evidence, the interaction between chromatin loops, which can be characterized by three factors-connection pattern, distance between regulatory elements, and communication form, play an important role in determining the level of cell-to-cell variability in gene expression. These quantitative experiments call for a corresponding modeling effect that addresses the question of how changes in these factors affect variability at the expression level in a systematic rather than case-by-case fashion. Here we make such an effort, based on a mechanic model that maps three fundamental patterns for two interacting DNA loops into a 4-state model of stochastic transcription. We first show that in contrast to side-by-side loops, nested loops enhance mRNA expression and reduce expression noise whereas alternating loops have just opposite effects. Then, we compare effects of facilitated tracking and direct looping on gene expression. We find that the former performs better than the latter in controlling mean expression and in tuning expression noise, but this control or tuning is distance-dependent, remarkable for moderate loop lengths, and there is a limit loop length such that the difference in effect between two communication forms almost disappears. Our analysis and results justify the facilitated chromatin-looping hypothesis.

  12. Shallow-water acoustic communication with high bit rate BPSK signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, M.B. van; Walree, P.A. van


    BPSK signals have been defined for transmission through a shallow-water acoustic communication channel. The signals were accompanied by two displaced carriers to facilitate carrier recovery. To correct for the adverse effects of time spreading, a pseudo-random learning sequence was transmitted ahead

  13. Feature extraction for two-way automatic communication system outbound signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Presents TWACS, a new communication technology with unique advantages in many regions for power dis tribution networks and singularity detection with wavelet transform, a new valuable way of detecting TWACS signals, and concludes with field results that it has the ability to distinguish TWACS modulation signals effectively from many different noises.

  14. Research on Processing Multi-noise Signals in Mobile Multimedia Communication Based on HFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qinghui; HU Xiulin; ZHUANG Zhaowen; ZENG Yilin; MA Tao; ZHANG Yunyu; YANG Haizhou


    As well known, noise is one of mainobjects of signals processing. However, many kindsof noises are affecting widely on mobile communica-tion along with enlarging mobile networks and rapidlyincreasing application range of multimedia commu-nication. The noises include 1/f noise; burst noise;multichannel noise; thermal and shot noise etc., allof which here are called "multi-noise (MN)" and atthe same time, the signals affected by "multi-noise"is called "multi-noise signals". The article firstly ana-lyzes some disturbance factors of multi-noise that af-fects multimedia flow. Then, it describes briefly hi-erarchical fuzzy control (HFC) technology and its ap-plication procedure for online identification and con-trolling multi-noise signals in mobile multimedia com-munication networks. Lastly, how to make a specialhierarchical fuzzy control program is also discussed.With different test examples, the article demonstratesthe ability of hierarchical fuzzy control to identifyflow states and control signal distortion in multime-dia communication. The hierarchical fuzzy controland hierarchical fuzzy control programs provide anadvanced efficient tool for supervising the distributedstates of multi-noise and movement characteristics ofmulti-noise signals in mobile multimedia communica-tion.

  15. Extraction of periodic signals in chaotic secure communication using Duffing oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun-Cai; Zhao Qing-Chun; Wang An-Bang


    This paper presents a novel approach to extract the periodic signals masked by a chaotic carrier. It verifies that the driven Duffing oscillator is immune to the chaotic carrier and sensitive to certain periodic signals. A preliminary detection scenario illustrates that the frequency and amplitude of the hidden sine wave signal can be extracted from the chaotic carrier by numerical simulation. The obtained results indicate that the hidden messages in chaotic secure communication can be eavesdropped utilizing Duffing oscillators.

  16. Unified Processing Structure for Communication and Navigation signals in modems for lightweight satellite stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Antonov-Antipov (R.I.P.


    Full Text Available The present article shows the design and test of a unified-processing device for detection and demodulation of narrowand broadband communication signals, as well as navigation signals from GLONASS and GPS systems. The specificprocessing for each type of signal is described within the general framework of the proposed device. Performanceindicators, such as symbol error probability (SEP and energy losses, were computed using simulations of the deviceand the corresponding results are presented for discussion.

  17. Bluetooth Communication Interface for EEG Signal Recording in Hyperbaric Chambers. (United States)

    Pastena, Lucio; Formaggio, Emanuela; Faralli, Fabio; Melucci, Massimo; Rossi, Marco; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Ricciardi, Lucio; Storti, Silvia F


    Recording biological signals inside a hyperbaric chamber poses technical challenges (the steel walls enclosing it greatly attenuate or completely block the signals as in a Faraday cage), practical (lengthy cables creating eddy currents), and safety (sparks hazard from power supply to the electronic apparatus inside the chamber) which can be overcome with new wireless technologies. In this technical report we present the design and implementation of a Bluetooth system for electroencephalographic (EEG) recording inside a hyperbaric chamber and describe the feasibility of EEG signal transmission outside the chamber. Differently from older systems, this technology allows the online recording of amplified signals, without interference from eddy currents. In an application of this technology, we measured EEG activity in professional divers under three experimental conditions in a hyperbaric chamber to determine how oxygen, assumed at a constant hyperbaric pressure of 2.8 ATA , affects the bioelectrical activity. The EEG spectral power estimated by fast Fourier transform and the cortical sources of the EEG rhythms estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic analysis were analyzed in three different EEG acquisitions: breathing air at sea level; breathing oxygen at a simulated depth of 18 msw, and breathing air at sea level after decompression.

  18. Over-expression of putative transcriptional coactivator KELP interferes with Tomato mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement. (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Ogata, Takuya; Deguchi, Masakazu; Nagai, Shoko; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi


    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) encodes a movement protein (MP) that is necessary for virus cell-to-cell movement. We have demonstrated previously that KELP, a putative transcriptional coactivator of Arabidopsis thaliana, and its orthologue from Brassica campestris can bind to ToMV MP in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of the transient over-expression of KELP on ToMV infection and the intracellular localization of MP in Nicotiana benthamiana, an experimental host of the virus. In co-bombardment experiments, the over-expression of KELP inhibited virus cell-to-cell movement. The N-terminal half of KELP (KELPdC), which had been shown to bind to MP, was sufficient for inhibition. Furthermore, the over-expression of KELP and KELPdC, both of which were co-localized with ToMV MP, led to a reduction in the plasmodesmal association of MP. In the absence of MP expression, KELP was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm by the localization signal in its N-terminal half. It was also shown that ToMV amplified normally in protoplasts prepared from leaf tissue that expressed KELP transiently. These results indicate that over-expressed KELP interacts with MP in vivo and exerts an inhibitory effect on MP function for virus cell-to-cell movement, but not on virus amplification in individual cells.

  19. Human sensorimotor communication: a theory of signaling in online social interactions. (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Dindo, Haris


    Although the importance of communication is recognized in several disciplines, it is rarely studied in the context of online social interactions and joint actions. During online joint actions, language and gesture are often insufficient and humans typically use non-verbal, sensorimotor forms of communication to send coordination signals. For example, when playing volleyball, an athlete can exaggerate her movements to signal her intentions to her teammates (say, a pass to the right) or to feint an adversary. Similarly, a person who is transporting a table together with a co-actor can push the table in a certain direction to signal where and when he intends to place it. Other examples of "signaling" are over-articulating in noisy environments and over-emphasizing vowels in child-directed speech. In all these examples, humans intentionally modify their action kinematics to make their goals easier to disambiguate. At the moment no formal theory exists of these forms of sensorimotor communication and signaling. We present one such theory that describes signaling as a combination of a pragmatic and a communicative action, and explains how it simplifies coordination in online social interactions. We cast signaling within a "joint action optimization" framework in which co-actors optimize the success of their interaction and joint goals rather than only their part of the joint action. The decision of whether and how much to signal requires solving a trade-off between the costs of modifying one's behavior and the benefits in terms of interaction success. Signaling is thus an intentional strategy that supports social interactions; it acts in concert with automatic mechanisms of resonance, prediction, and imitation, especially when the context makes actions and intentions ambiguous and difficult to read. Our theory suggests that communication dynamics should be studied within theories of coordination and interaction rather than only in terms of the maximization of information

  20. A Linear Subspace Approach to Burst Communication Signal Processing (United States)


    estimators, likelihood ra- tio detectors, and Cramér–Rao bounds, became a simple matter of calculation. This simple beginning then led to improved a vector, vector gradient formulas are applicable. The following are defined for real vectors, dr (or equivalently di). ∇drdTr x = x (237) ∇ drx †dr...Structural Characterization of Locally Optimum Detec- tors in Terms of Locally Optimum Estimators and Correlators,” IEEE Transac- tions on Information

  1. Covert communications using random noise signals: overall system simulation and modulation analysis (United States)

    Chuang, Jack; Narayanan, Ram M.


    In military communications, there exist numerous potential threats to message security. Ultra-wideband (UWB) signals provide secure communications because they cannot, in general, be detected using conventional receivers and they can be made relatively immune from jamming. The security of an UWB signal can be further improved by mixing it with random noise. By using a random noise signal, the user can conceal the message signal within the noise waveform and thwart detection by hostile forces. This paper describes a novel spread spectrum technique that can be used for secure and covert communications. The technique is based on the use of heterodyne correlation techniques to inject coherence in a random noise signal. The modulated signal to be transmitted containing the coherent carrier is mixed with a sample of an ultrawideband random noise signal. The frequency range of the ultra-wideband noise signal is appropriately chosen so that the lower sideband of the mixing process falls over the same frequency range. Both the frequency-converted noise-like signal and the original random noise signal are simultaneously transmitted on orthogonally polarized channels through a dual-polarized transmitting antenna. The receiver consists of a similar dual-polarized antenna that simultaneously receives the two orthogonally polarized transmitted signals, amplifies each in a minimum phase limiting amplifier, and mixes these signals in a double sideband up-converter. The upper sideband of the mixing process recovers the modulated signal, which can then be demodulated. The advantage of this technique lies in the relative immunity of the random noise-like un-polarized transmit signal from detection and jamming. Since the transmit signal "appears" totally un-polarized and noise-like, linearly polarized receivers are unable to identify, decode, or otherwise extract useful information from the signal. The system is immune from interference caused by high power linearly polarized signal

  2. Coherent detection and digital signal processing for fiber optic communications (United States)

    Ip, Ezra

    The drive towards higher spectral efficiency in optical fiber systems has generated renewed interest in coherent detection. We review different detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as hybrid detection methods. We compare the modulation methods that are enabled and their respective performances in a linear regime. An important system parameter is the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) utilized in transmission. Polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude modulation maximizes spectral efficiency and power efficiency as it uses all four available DOF contained in the two field quadratures in the two polarizations. Dual-polarization homodyne or heterodyne downconversion are linear processes that can fully recover the received signal field in these four DOF. When downconverted signals are sampled at the Nyquist rate, compensation of transmission impairments can be performed using digital signal processing (DSP). Software based receivers benefit from the robustness of DSP, flexibility in design, and ease of adaptation to time-varying channels. Linear impairments, including chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), can be compensated quasi-exactly using finite impulse response filters. In practical systems, sampling the received signal at 3/2 times the symbol rate is sufficient to enable an arbitrary amount of CD and PMD to be compensated for a sufficiently long equalizer whose tap length scales linearly with transmission distance. Depending on the transmitted constellation and the target bit error rate, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) should have around 5 to 6 bits of resolution. Digital coherent receivers are naturally suited for the implementation of feedforward carrier recovery, which has superior linewidth tolerance than phase-locked loops, and does not suffer from feedback delay constraints. Differential bit encoding can be used to prevent catastrophic receiver failure due

  3. Clicks, whistles and pulses: Passive and active signal use in dolphin communication (United States)

    Herzing, Denise L.


    The search for signals out of noise is a problem not only with radio signals from the sky but in the study of animal communication. Dolphins use multiple modalities to communicate including body postures, touch, vision, and most elaborately sound. Like SETI radio signal searches, dolphin sound analysis includes the detection, recognition, analysis, and interpretation of signals. Dolphins use both passive listening and active production to communicate. Dolphins use three main types of acoustic signals: frequency modulated whistles (narrowband with harmonics), echolocation (broadband clicks) and burst pulsed sounds (packets of closely spaced broadband clicks). Dolphin sound analysis has focused on frequency-modulated whistles, yet the most commonly used signals are burst-pulsed sounds which, due to their graded and overlapping nature and bimodal inter-click interval (ICI) rates are hard to categorize. We will look at: 1) the mechanism of sound production and categories of sound types, 2) sound analysis techniques and information content, and 3) examples of lessons learned in the study of dolphin acoustics. The goal of this paper is to provide perspective on how animal communication studies might provide insight to both passive and active SETI in the larger context of searching for life signatures.

  4. Digital signal processing techniques for coherent optical communication (United States)

    Goldfarb, Gilad

    Coherent detection with subsequent digital signal processing (DSP) is developed, analyzed theoretically and numerically and experimentally demonstrated in various fiber-optic transmission scenarios. The use of DSP in conjunction with coherent detection unleashes the benefits of coherent detection which rely on the preservaton of full information of the incoming field. These benefits include high receiver sensitivity, the ability to achieve high spectral-efficiency and the use of advanced modulation formats. With the immense advancements in DSP speeds, many of the problems hindering the use of coherent detection in optical transmission systems have been eliminated. Most notably, DSP alleviates the need for hardware phase-locking and polarization tracking, which can now be achieved in the digital domain. The complexity previously associated with coherent detection is hence significantly diminished and coherent detection is once gain considered a feasible detection alternative. In this thesis, several aspects of coherent detection (with or without subsequent DSP) are addressed. Coherent detection is presented as a means to extend the dispersion limit of a duobinary signal using an analog decision-directed phase-lock loop. Analytical bit-error ratio estimation for quadrature phase-shift keying signals is derived. To validate the promise for high spectral efficiency, the orthogonal-wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is suggested. In this scheme the WDM channels are spaced at the symbol rate, thus achieving the spectral efficiency limit. Theory, simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Infinite impulse response filtering is shown to be an efficient alternative to finite impulse response filtering for chromatic dispersion compensation. Theory, design considerations, simulation and experimental results relating to this topic are presented. Interaction between fiber dispersion and nonlinearity remains the last major challenge

  5. Vocal learning of a communicative signal in captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. (United States)

    Russell, Jamie L; McIntyre, Joseph M; Hopkins, William D; Taglialatela, Jared P


    We hypothesized that chimpanzees could learn to produce attention-getting (AG) sounds via positive reinforcement. We conducted a vocal assessment in 76 captive chimpanzees for their use of AG sounds to acquire the attention of an otherwise inattentive human. Fourteen individuals that did not produce AG sounds during the vocal assessment were evaluated for their ability to acquire the use of an AG sound through operant conditioning and to employ these sounds in an attention-getting context. Nine of the 14 chimpanzees were successfully shaped using positive reinforcement to produce an AG sound. In a post-training vocal assessment, eight of the nine individuals that were successfully trained to produce AG sounds generalized the use of these newly acquired signals to communicatively relevant situations. Chimpanzees possess the ability to acquire the use of a communicative signal via operant conditioning and can generalize the use of this newly acquired signal to appropriate communicative contexts.

  6. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states (United States)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana


    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  7. International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Advanced Devices, Signals & Systems and Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Shirur, Yasha; Prasad, Rekha


    This book is a collection of papers presented by renowned researchers, keynote speakers and academicians in the International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Analog Designs, Signals and Systems, and Networking (VCASAN-2013), organized by B.N.M. Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India during July 17-19, 2013. The book provides global trends in cutting-edge technologies in electronics and communication engineering. The content of the book is useful to engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  8. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states (United States)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana


    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  9. Malaria parasites form filamentous cell-to-cell connections during reproduction in the mosquito midgut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingrid Rupp; Gabriele Pradel; Ludmilla Sologub; Kim C Williamson; Matthias Scheuermayer; Luc Reininger; Christian Doerig; Saliha Eksi; Davy U Kombilaa; Matthias Frank


    Physical contact is important for the interaction between animal cells, but it can represent a major challenge for protists like malaria parasites. Recently, novel filamentous cell-cell contacts have been identified in different types of eukaryotic cells and termed nanotubes due to their morphological appearance. Nanotubes represent small dynamic membranous extensions that consist of F-actin and are considered an ancient feature evolved by eukaryotic cells to establish contact for communication. We here describe similar tubular structures in the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum, which emerge from the surfaces of the forming gametes upon gametocyte activation in the mosquito midgut. The filaments can exhibit a length of>100 μm and contain the F-actin isoform actin 2. They actively form within a few minutes after gametocyte activation and persist until the zygote transforms into the ookinete. The filaments originate from the parasite plasma membrane, are close ended and express adhesion proteins on their surfaces that are typically found in gametes, like Pfs230, Pfs48/45 or Pfs25, but not the zygote surface protein Pfs28. We show that these tubular structures represent long-distance cell-to-cell connections between sexual stage parasites and demonstrate that they meet the characteristics of nanotubes. We propose that malaria parasites utilize these adhesive "nanotubes" in order to facilitate intercellular contact between gametes during reproduction in the mosquito midgut.

  10. Multivariate classification of animal communication signals: a simulation-based comparison of alternative signal processing procedures using electric fishes. (United States)

    Crampton, William G R; Davis, Justin K; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Pensky, Marianna


    Evolutionary studies of communication can benefit from classification procedures that allow individual animals to be assigned to groups (e.g. species) on the basis of high-dimension data representing their signals. Prior to classification, signals are usually transformed by a signal processing procedure into structural features. Applications of these signal processing procedures to animal communication have been largely restricted to the manual or semi-automated identification of landmark features from graphical representations of signals. Nonetheless, theory predicts that automated time-frequency-based digital signal processing (DSP) procedures can represent signals more efficiently (using fewer features) than can landmark procedures or frequency-based DSP - allowing more accurate classification. Moreover, DSP procedures are objective in that they require little previous knowledge of signal diversity, and are relatively free from potentially ungrounded assumptions of cross-taxon homology. Using a model data set of electric organ discharge waveforms from five sympatric species of the electric fish Gymnotus, we adopted an exhaustive simulation approach to investigate the classificatory performance of different signal processing procedures. We considered a landmark procedure, a frequency-based DSP procedure (the fast Fourier transform), and two kinds of time-frequency-based DSP procedures (a short-time Fourier transform, and several implementations of the discrete wavelet transform -DWT). The features derived from each of these signal processing procedures were then subjected to dimension reduction procedures to separate those features which permit the most effective discrimination among groups of signalers. We considered four alternative dimension reduction methods. Finally, each combination of reduced data was submitted to classification by linear discriminant analysis. Our results support theoretical predictions that time-frequency DSP procedures (especially DWT

  11. Joint digital signal processing for superchannel coherent optical communication systems. (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Pan, Jie; Detwiler, Thomas; Stark, Andrew; Hsueh, Yu-Ting; Chang, Gee-Kung; Ralph, Stephen E


    Ultra-high-speed optical communication systems which can support ≥ 1Tb/s per channel transmission will soon be required to meet the increasing capacity demand. However, 1Tb/s over a single carrier requires either or both a high-level modulation format (i.e. 1024QAM) and a high baud rate. Alternatively, grouping a number of tightly spaced "sub-carriers" to form a terabit superchannel increases channel capacity while minimizing the need for high-level modulation formats and high baud rate, which may allow existing formats, baud rate and components to be exploited. In ideal Nyquist-WDM superchannel systems, optical subcarriers with rectangular spectra are tightly packed at a channel spacing equal to the baud rate, thus achieving the Nyquist bandwidth limit. However, in practical Nyquist-WDM systems, precise electrical or optical control of channel spectra is required to avoid strong inter-channel interference (ICI). Here, we propose and demonstrate a new "super receiver" architecture for practical Nyquist-WDM systems, which jointly detects and demodulates multiple channels simultaneously and mitigates the penalties associated with the limitations of generating ideal Nyquist-WDM spectra. Our receiver-side solution relaxes the filter requirements imposed on the transmitter. Two joint DSP algorithms are developed for linear ICI cancellation and joint carrier-phase recovery. Improved system performance is observed with both experimental and simulation data. Performance analysis under different system configurations is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed joint DSP algorithms.

  12. Reconfigurable Signal Processing and Hardware Architecture for Broadband Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ying-Chang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a broadband wireless transceiver which can be reconfigured to any type of cyclic-prefix (CP -based communication systems, including orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, single-carrier cyclic-prefix (SCCP system, multicarrier (MC code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA, MC direct-sequence CDMA (MC-DS-CDMA, CP-based CDMA (CP-CDMA, and CP-based direct-sequence CDMA (CP-DS-CDMA. A hardware platform is proposed and the reusable common blocks in such a transceiver are identified. The emphasis is on the equalizer design for mobile receivers. It is found that after block despreading operation, MC-DS-CDMA and CP-DS-CDMA have the same equalization blocks as OFDM and SCCP systems, respectively, therefore hardware and software sharing is possible for these systems. An attempt has also been made to map the functional reconfigurable transceiver onto the proposed hardware platform. The different functional entities which will be required to perform the reconfiguration and realize the transceiver are explained.

  13. A Design of the Signal Processing Hardware Platform for Communication Systems (United States)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Sung Ho

    In this letter, an efficient hardware platform for the digital signal processing for OFDM communication systems is presented. The hardware platform consists of a single FPGA having 900K gates, two DSPs with maximum 8,000 MIPS at 1GHz clock, 2-channel ADC and DAC supporting maximum 125MHz sampling rate, and flexible data bus architecture, so that a wide variety of baseband signal processing algorithms for practical OFDM communication systems may be implemented and tested. The IEEE 802.16d software modem is also presented in order to verify the effectiveness and usefulness of the designed platform.

  14. Signal measurement system for intra-body communication using optical isolation method (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuki; Katsuyama, Jun; Sugiyama, Ryo; Takizawa, Yasuaki; Ishii, Seita; Shinagawa, Mitsuru; Kado, Yuichi


    In this paper, we describe an induced signal measurement on the human body for developing a high-performance transceiver of an intra-body communication system. It is important to isolate awearable transceiver from an electrical instrument for precise measurement. We have developed a probe system using an optical isolation method including a laser diode, photo-diode, and optical fiber. The probe system can be successfully applied to the precise measurement of a receiving signal power at a wearable transceiver. We verify that the experimental results agree with the simulation results based on our previous channel model of intra-body communication.

  15. Covert communications using random noise signals: effects of atmospheric propagation nulls and rain (United States)

    Mohan, Karen M.; Narayanan, Ram M.


    In military communications, there exist numerous potential threats to message security. Ultra-wideband (UWB) signals provide secure communications because they cannot, in general, be detected using conventional receivers and they can be made relatively immune from jamming. The security of an UWB signal can be further improved by mixing it with random noise. By using a random noise signal, the user can conceal the message signal within the noise waveform and thwart detection by hostile forces. This paper describes a novel spread spectrum technique that can be used for secure and covert communications. The technique is based on the use of heterodyne correlation techniques to inject coherence in a random noise signal. The modulated signal to be transmitted containing the coherent carrier is mixed with a sample of an ultra-wideband (UWB) random noise signal. The frequency range of the UWB noise signal is appropriately chosen so that the lower sideband of the mixing process falls over the same frequency range. Both the frequency-converted noise-like signal and the original random noise signal are simultaneously transmitted on orthogonally polarized channels through a dual-polarized transmitting antenna. The receiver consists of a similar dual-polarized antenna that simultaneously receives the two orthogonally polarized transmitted signals, amplifies each in a minimum phase limiting amplifier, and mixes these signals in a double sideband upconverter. The upper sideband of the mixing process recovers the modulated signal, which can then be demodulated. The advantage of this technique lies in the relative immunity of the random noise-like unpolarized transmit signal from detection and jamming. Since the transmitted signal "appears" totally unpolarized and noise-like, linearly polarized receivers are unable to identify, decode, or otherwise extract useful information from the signal. The system is immune from interference caused by high power linearly polarized signal

  16. An Overview on the Applications of Matrix Theory in Wireless Communications and Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang


    Full Text Available This paper overviews the key applications enabled by matrix theory in two major fields of interest in electrical engineering, namely wireless communications and signal processing. The paper focuses on the fundamental role played by matrices in modeling and optimization of wireless communication systems, and in detection, extraction and processing of the information embedded in signals. Among the major applications in wireless communications, the role of matrix representations and decompositions in characterizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM communication systems is described. In addition, this paper points out the important contribution made by matrices in solving signal estimation and detection problems. Special attention is given to the implementation of matrices in sensor array signal processing and the design of adaptive filters. Furthermore, the crucial role played by matrices in representing and processing digital images is depicted by several illustrative applications. This paper concludes with some applications of matrix theory in the area of compressive sensing of signals and by outlining a few open research problems for future study.

  17. Phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals. (United States)

    Macedonia, J M; Stanger, K F


    Phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. Among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. First, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated DNA fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between Lemur catta and the genus Hapalemur. Moreover, our results indicate that L. catta is nested within the Hapalemur clade as the sister taxon to Hapalemur griseus/Hapalemur aureus. We interpret character states shared between Hapalemur simus and L. catta as primitive retentions by L. catta. Second, our findings agree with the DNA data in proposing a sister group relationship for Eulemur coronatus and Eulemur rubriventer. Third, our results question the validity of assigning Varecia variegata to the Lemuridae. For the characters we examined, Varecia more resembled indrids than lemurids, and the position of Varecia could be swapped with any of our outgroups (Indri, Propithecus, Daubentonia) without affecting tree topology. Previous workers sometimes have linked Varecia with various lemurids on grounds of ambiguously defined characters or on incorrect data gleaned from the literature. In those studies, the placement of Varecia in the Lemuridae usually has depended more on the minimization of character state conflicts (i.e. parsimony), than on demonstrable synapomorphies. In addition, data from DNA research have failed to demonstrate any pattern that links Varecia with Lemur, Hapalemur, or Eulemur. Results of the present study suggest that shared Varecia-indrid character states may be symplesiomorphic retentions in the Indridae, and that Varecia could be phyletically more primitive than either the indrids or lemurids.

  18. Chaotic signal detection and estimation based on attractor sets: Applications to secure communications (United States)

    Rohde, G. K.; Nichols, J. M.; Bucholtz, F.


    We consider the problem of detection and estimation of chaotic signals in the presence of white Gaussian noise. Traditionally this has been a difficult problem since generalized likelihood ratio tests are difficult to implement due to the chaotic nature of the signals of interest. Based on Poincare's recurrence theorem we derive an algorithm for approximating a chaotic time series with unknown initial conditions. The algorithm approximates signals using elements carefully chosen from a dictionary constructed based on the chaotic signal's attractor. We derive a detection approach based on the signal estimation algorithm and show, with simulated data, that the new approach can outperform other methods for chaotic signal detection. Finally, we describe how the attractor based detection scheme can be used in a secure binary digital communications protocol.

  19. Expedience of application of MIMO systems of digital communication for complex chaotic signal transmission


    Vasyuta, K. S.; Zakharchenko, I. V.; Ozerov, S. V.


    The paper discusses the expediency of using MIMO digital systems for transmission of chaotic signals as a way of partial solution of electromagnetic compatibility of perspective broadband communication systems with an existing class of narrow-band radio-technical systems.

  20. Reconstruction of chaotic signals with applications to chaos-based communications

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jiu Chao


    This book provides a systematic review of the fundamental theory of signal reconstruction and the practical techniques used in reconstructing chaotic signals. Specific applications of signal reconstruction methods in chaos-based communications are expounded in full detail, along with examples illustrating the various problems associated with such applications.The book serves as an advanced textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in electronic and information engineering, automatic control, physics and applied mathematics. It is also highly suited for general nonlinear scientists who wi

  1. Communicative Signals Promote Object Recognition Memory and Modulate the Right Posterior STS. (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Ludlum, Ruth S; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Kanwal, Simren


    Detection of communicative signals is thought to facilitate knowledge acquisition early in life, but less is known about the role these signals play in adult learning or about the brain systems supporting sensitivity to communicative intent. The current study examined how ostensive gaze cues and communicative actions affect adult recognition memory and modulate neural activity as measured by fMRI. For both the behavioral and fMRI experiments, participants viewed a series of videos of an actress acting on one of two objects in front of her. Communicative context in the videos was manipulated in a 2 × 2 design in which the actress either had direct gaze (Gaze) or wore a visor (NoGaze) and either pointed at (Point) or reached for (Reach) one of the objects (target) in front of her. Participants then completed a recognition memory task with old (target and nontarget) objects and novel objects. Recognition memory for target objects in the Gaze conditions was greater than NoGaze, but no effects of gesture type were seen. Similarly, the fMRI video-viewing task revealed a significant effect of Gaze within right posterior STS (pSTS), but no significant effects of Gesture. Furthermore, pSTS sensitivity to Gaze conditions was related to greater memory for objects viewed in Gaze, as compared with NoGaze, conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the ostensive, communicative signal of direct gaze preceding an object-directed action enhances recognition memory for attended items and modulates the pSTS response to object-directed actions. Thus, establishment of a communicative context through ostensive signals remains an important component of learning and memory into adulthood, and the pSTS may play a role in facilitating this type of social learning.

  2. A secure communication method for a high-power information signal based on chaotic masking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建芬; 李农


    In this paper, we present a secure communication method for a high-power information signal based on chaoticmasking. In the transmitter, an adaptive controller is adopted to pick up the change of the information signal, andto inject the controller's error into the transmitting system. At the same time, the information is directly added tothe chaotic signal in transmission to drive the receiving system. In the receiver, another adaptive controller is usedto maintain chaotic synchronization of the transmitting and receiving systems and to recover the information signal.Since the synchronization error is independent from the information signal, the power of the information signal can beequivalent to that of the chaotic signal, and the frequency of the information signal can be set within the range of theprincipal frequencies of the chaotic signal. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that thepresented method not only enhances the degree of security of low-dimensional chaotic systems but also significantlyimproves the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving end.

  3. Identification of poultry meat-derived fatty acids functioning as quorum sensing signal inhibitors of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) (United States)

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a compound that plays a key role in bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing). Previous research has shown certain food matrices inhibit this signaling compound. Using the reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, quorum sensing inhibitors contained in poultry meat...

  4. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks. (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R


    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  5. Signaling in a polluted world: oxidative stress as an overlooked mechanism linking contaminants to animal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Marasco


    Full Text Available The capacity to communicate effectively with other individuals plays a critical role in the daily life of an individual and can have important fitness consequences. Animals rely on a number of visual and non-visual signals, whose production brings costs to the individual. The theory of honest signaling states that these costs are higher for low than for high-quality individuals, which prevents cheating and makes signals, such as skin and plumage colouration, indicators of individual’s quality or condition. The condition-dependent nature of signals makes them ideally suited as indicators of environmental quality, implying that signal production might be affected by contaminants. In this mini-review article, we have made the point that oxidative stress (OS is one overlooked mechanism linking exposure to contaminants to signaling because (i many contaminants can influence the individual’s oxidative balance, and (ii generation of both visual and non-visual signals is sensitive to oxidative stress. To this end, we have provided the first comprehensive review on the way both non-organic (heavy metals, especially mercury and organic (persistent organic pollutants contaminants may influence either OS or sexual signaling. We have also paid special attention to emerging classes of pollutants like brominated flame-retardants and perfluoroalkoxy alkanes in order to stimulate research in this area. We have finally provided suggestions and warnings for future work on the links among OS, sexual signaling and contaminant exposure.

  6. Optical techniques for signal distribution and control in advanced radar and communication systems (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.


    It is concluded that optical techniques offer some advantages for signal distribution and control in advanced radar and communication systems. They are clearly ideal for transporting microwave signals over considerable distances, as in remote positioning of radar receivers, provided high dynamic range is not required and an enclosed transmission path is essential. They are an elegant means of distributing low level r.f. or i.f. signals around an active phased array where these signals are of relatively constant amplitude (as in mixer local oscillator applications). However, there is currently a rather restrictive limit on the size of distribution network possible. Optical techniques are obviously suitable for distributing digital control signals to phased array modules and confer considerable immunity to interference. They are less suitable for high dynamic range signals, such as the received radar returns, either at r.f. or when downcovered to i.f. Future developments in coherent optics or in fast optical A/D technology could, however, influence this conclusion. Currently, the optimum applications for optical techniques appear to be i.f. beamformers for multibeam communication satellite systems and in calibration/monitoring systems for phased arrays.

  7. Signal Quality Outage Analysis for Ultra-Reliable Communications in Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerardino, Guillermo Andrés Pocovi; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Lauridsen, Mads


    Ultra-reliable communications over wireless will open the possibility for a wide range of novel use cases and applications. In cellular networks, achieving reliable communication is challenging due to many factors, particularly the fading of the desired signal and the interference. In this regard......, we investigate the potential of several techniques to combat these main threats. The analysis shows that traditional microscopic multiple-input multiple-output schemes with 2x2 or 4x4 antenna configurations are not enough to fulfil stringent reliability requirements. It is revealed how such antenna...

  8. Probability and Random Processes With Applications to Signal Processing and Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Scott


    Miller and Childers have focused on creating a clear presentation of foundational concepts with specific applications to signal processing and communications, clearly the two areas of most interest to students and instructors in this course. It is aimed at graduate students as well as practicing engineers, and includes unique chapters on narrowband random processes and simulation techniques. The appendices provide a refresher in such areas as linear algebra, set theory, random variables, and more. Probability and Random Processes also includes applications in digital communications, informati

  9. To signal or not to signal? Chemical communication by urine-borne signals mirrors sexual conflict in crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breithaupt Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual selection theory predicts that females, being the limiting sex, invest less in courtship signals than males. However, when chemical signals are involved it is often the female that initiates mating by producing stimuli that inform about sex and/or receptivity. This apparent contradiction has been discussed in the literature as 'the female pheromone fallacy'. Because the release of chemical stimuli may not have evolved to elicit the male's courtship response, whether these female stimuli represent signals remains an open question. Using techniques to visualise and block release of urine, we studied the role of urine signals during fighting and mating interactions of crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. Test individuals were blindfolded to exclude visual disturbance from dye release and artificial urine introduction. Results Staged female-male pairings during the reproductive season often resulted in male mating attempts. Blocking female urine release in such pairings prevented any male courtship behaviour. Artificial introduction of female urine re-established male mating attempts. Urine visualisation showed that female urine release coincides with aggressive behaviours but not with female submissive behaviour in reproductive interactions as well as in intersexual and intrasexual fights. In reproductive interactions, females predominately released urine during precopulatory aggression; males subsequently released significantly less urine during mating than in fights. Conclusions Urine-blocking experiments demonstrate that female urine contains sex-specific components that elicit male mating behaviour. The coincidence of chemical signalling and aggressive behaviour in both females and males suggests that urine release has evolved as an aggressive signal in both sexes of crayfish. By limiting urine release to aggressive behaviours in reproductive interactions females challenge their potential mating partners at the same

  10. Design of two-dimensional signal constellations for visible light communication (United States)

    Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jun-Bo; Zheng, Beixiong; Guan, Rui; Chen, Ming


    This paper investigates a two-dimensional signal space for visible light communication (VLC) by taking into account some practical constraints. We first present the relationship between the signal space and basis functions, and then find the basis function yielding the largest signal space. Besides, to improve the symbol error rate (SER) performance of the system, we design the constellations by maximizing the minimum Euclidean distance among all constellation pairs. The original optimization problem is non-convex and relaxed to a convex one through a linear approximation method. Simulation results show that the optimized design provides significant signal-to-noise ratio gain (up to 6 dB at the SER of 10-4 for half-illumination target) over the heuristic design.

  11. An Extraction Method of Weak Low-Frequency Magnetic Communication Signals Based on Multisensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang


    Full Text Available It is a technical challenge to effectively remove the influence of magnetic noise from the vicinity of the receiving sensors on low-frequency magnetic communication. The traditional denoising methods are difficult to extract high-quality original signals under the condition of low SNR (the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, we analyze the numerical characteristics of the low-frequency magnetic field and propose the algorithms of the fast optimization of blind source separation (FOBSS and the frequency-domain correlation extraction (FDCE. FOBSS is based on blind source separation (BSS. Signal extraction of low SNR can be implemented through FOBSS and FDCE. This signal extraction method is verified in multiple field experiments which can remove the magnetic noise by about 25 dB or more.

  12. Long-Distance Communication and Signal Amplification in Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti eShah


    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is an inducible defense mechanism in plants that confers enhanced resistance against a variety of pathogens. SAR is activated in the uninfected systemic (distal organs in response to a prior (primary infection elsewhere in the plant. SAR is associated with the activation of salicylic acid (SA signaling and the priming of defense responses for robust activation in response to subsequent infections. The activation of SAR requires communication by the primary infected tissues with the distal organs. The vasculature functions as a conduit for the translocation of factors that facilitate long-distance intra-plant communication. In recent years, several metabolites putatively involved in long-distance signaling have been identified. These include the methyl ester of SA (MeSA, the abietane diterpenoid dehydroabietinal (DA, the dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid (AzA, and a glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P-dependent factor. Long-distance signaling by some of these metabolites also requires the lipid-transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE 1. The relative contribution of these factors in long-distance signaling is likely influenced by environmental conditions, for example light. In the systemic leaves, the AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (ALD1-dependent production of the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip, FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1 signaling, as well as SA synthesis and downstream signaling are required for the activation of SAR. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction between long-distance SAR signals and details the recently discovered role of Pip in defense amplification and priming that allows plants to acquire immunity at the systemic level. Recent advances in SA signaling and perception are also highlighted.

  13. Oseltamivir expands quasispecies of influenza virus through cell-to-cell transmission. (United States)

    Mori, Kotaro; Murano, Kensaku; Ohniwa, Ryosuke L; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagata, Kyosuke


    The population of influenza virus consists of a huge variety of variants, called quasispecies, due to error-prone replication. Previously, we reported that progeny virions of influenza virus become infected to adjacent cells via cell-to-cell transmission pathway in the presence of oseltamivir. During cell-to-cell transmission, viruses become infected to adjacent cells at high multiplicity since progeny virions are enriched on plasma membrane between infected cells and their adjacent cells. Co-infection with viral variants may rescue recessive mutations with each other. Thus, it is assumed that the cell-to-cell transmission causes expansion of virus quasispecies. Here, we have demonstrated that temperature-sensitive mutations remain in progeny viruses even at non-permissive temperature by co-infection in the presence of oseltamivir. This is possibly due to a multiplex infection through the cell-to-cell transmission by the addition of oseltamivir. Further, by the addition of oseltamivir, the number of missense mutation introduced by error-prone replication in segment 8 encoding NS1 was increased in a passage-dependent manner. The number of missense mutation in segment 5 encoding NP was not changed significantly, whereas silent mutation was increased. Taken together, we propose that oseltamivir expands influenza virus quasispecies via cell-to-cell transmission, and may facilitate the viral evolution and adaptation.

  14. A Simple Semaphore Signaling Technique for Ultra-High Frequency Spacecraft Communications (United States)

    Butman, S.; Satorius, E.; Ilott, P.


    For planetary lander missions such as the upcoming Phoenix mission to Mars, the most challenging phase of the spacecraft-to-ground communications is during the critical phase termed entry, descent, and landing (EDL). At 8.4 GHz (X-band), the signals received by the largest Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas can be too weak for even 1 bit per second (bps) and therefore not able to communicate critical information to Earth. Fortunately, the lander s ultra-high frequency (UHF) link to an orbiting relay can meet the EDL requirements, but the data rate needs to be low enough to fit the capability of the UHF link during some or all of EDL. On Phoenix, the minimum data rate of the as-built UHF radio is 8 kbps and requires a signal level at the Odyssey orbiter of at least -120 dBm. For lower signaling levels, the effective data rate needs to be reduced, but without incurring the cost of rebuilding and requalifying the equipment. To address this scenario, a simple form of frequency-shift keying (FSK) has been devised by appropriately programming the data stream that is input to the UHF transceiver. This article describes this technique and provides performance estimates. Laboratory testing reveals that input signal levels at -140 dBm and lower can routinely be demodulated with the proposed signaling scheme, thereby providing a 20-dB and greater margin over the 8-kbps threshold.

  15. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [for multilevel digital communication systems (United States)

    Simon, M. K.


    Multilevel amplitude-shift-keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, and the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems are discussed. A technique is presented for extracting symbol sync from an MASK or QASK signal. The scheme is a generalization of the data transition tracking loop used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop was analyzed in terms of its mean-squared jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  16. Phylogenetic comparative analysis of electric communication signals in ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae). (United States)

    Turner, Cameron R; Derylo, Maksymilian; de Santana, C David; Alves-Gomes, José A; Smith, G Troy


    Electrocommunication signals in electric fish are diverse, easily recorded and have well-characterized neural control. Two signal features, the frequency and waveform of the electric organ discharge (EOD), vary widely across species. Modulations of the EOD (i.e. chirps and gradual frequency rises) also function as active communication signals during social interactions, but they have been studied in relatively few species. We compared the electrocommunication signals of 13 species in the largest gymnotiform family, Apteronotidae. Playback stimuli were used to elicit chirps and rises. We analyzed EOD frequency and waveform and the production and structure of chirps and rises. Species diversity in these signals was characterized with discriminant function analyses, and correlations between signal parameters were tested with phylogenetic comparative methods. Signals varied markedly across species and even between congeners and populations of the same species. Chirps and EODs were particularly evolutionarily labile, whereas rises differed little across species. Although all chirp parameters contributed to species differences in these signals, chirp amplitude modulation, frequency modulation (FM) and duration were particularly diverse. Within this diversity, however, interspecific correlations between chirp parameters suggest that mechanistic trade-offs may shape some aspects of signal evolution. In particular, a consistent trade-off between FM and EOD amplitude during chirps is likely to have influenced the evolution of chirp structure. These patterns suggest that functional or mechanistic linkages between signal parameters (e.g. the inability of electromotor neurons increase their firing rates without a loss of synchrony or amplitude of action potentials) constrain the evolution of signal structure.

  17. From communication signals to human language and thought: evolution or revolution? (United States)

    Chernigovskaya, T V


    This article addresses a question which has in recent years been widely discussed: that of the specific features of mental functions and language in humans as compared with other higher biological species. The main hypotheses of the origin and evolution of humans and their language are discussed, along with studies identifying genes responsible for higher functions. The cognitive capacities of animals and their communication signals are addressed, as are the basic principles of brain functions.

  18. Honest signaling and oxidative stress: the special case of avian acoustic communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eCasagrande


    Full Text Available Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs or constraints determined by the oxidative status of an individual can assure the honesty of visual signals, such as sexually selected color ornaments. However, acoustic communication has been largely overlooked in this respect. Here, we describe the few available studies that have considered the role of oxidative status in mediating vocal behavior in adult and nestling birds. Further, we discuss the theoretical principles of how the honesty of avian acoustic signals may be maintained by an organism’s oxidative status. We here distinguish between studies that considered songs and begging calls as indicators of oxidative status and studies where vocalizations were assumed to be the source of oxidative costs. We outline experimental and methodological issues related to the study of bird vocalizations and oxidative stress and describe opportunities for future work in this field of research. Investigating the interactions between acoustic signals and redox state may help address some unresolved questions in avian vocalization, thereby increasing our understanding of the evolutionary pressures shaping animal communication. Finally, we argue that it will be important to extend this line of research beyond birds and include other taxa as well.

  19. Behavioural innovation and cultural transmission of communication signal in black howler monkeys. (United States)

    Briseño-Jaramillo, M; Estrada, A; Lemasson, A


    Social traditions based on communication signals are widespread in birds, cetaceans and humans, but surprisingly rare in nonhuman primates known for having genetically-determined vocal repertoires. This study presents the first description of a singular case of behaviour associated with calling (placing a hand in front of the mouth while vocalizing: HFM) in black howler monkeys. We showed, first, that HFM was found only in a subset of the groups observed, at the same geographical location, and was age- and sex-specific. There was an audience effect on HFM, with highest rates when a neighbouring group was visible. HFM was non-randomly combined with audio-visual signals and always performed while roaring. High HFM rates triggered more vocal responses from group members and male neighbours, and HFM signalers temporally synchronized their behaviour in a predictable way. Finally, the positioning of the hand systematically modified the call's auditory structure. Altogether these results support the idea that HFM is an innovated, culturally transmitted communication signal that may play a role in inter-group competition and intra-group cohesion. This study opens new lines of research about how nonhuman primates developed strategies to overcome their constraints in acoustic plasticity very early in the primate lineage.

  20. Auditory Signal Processing in Communication: Perception and Performance of Vocal Sounds (United States)

    Prather, Jonathan F.


    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. PMID:23827717

  1. A New Signaling Architecture THREP with Autonomous Radio-Link Control for Wireless Communications Systems (United States)

    Hirono, Masahiko; Nojima, Toshio

    This paper presents a new signaling architecture for radio-access control in wireless communications systems. Called THREP (for THREe-phase link set-up Process), it enables systems with low-cost configurations to provide tetherless access and wide-ranging mobility by using autonomous radio-link controls for fast cell searching and distributed call management. A signaling architecture generally consists of a radio-access part and a service-entity-access part. In THREP, the latter part is divided into two steps: preparing a communication channel, and sustaining it. Access control in THREP is thus composed of three separated parts, or protocol phases. The specifications of each phase are determined independently according to system requirements. In the proposed architecture, the first phase uses autonomous radio-link control because we want to construct low-power indoor wireless communications systems. Evaluation of channel usage efficiency and hand-over loss probability in the personal handy-phone system (PHS) shows that THREP makes the radio-access sub-system operations in a practical application model highly efficient, and the results of a field experiment show that THREP provides sufficient protection against severe fast CNR degradation in practical indoor propagation environments.

  2. Compensation of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion in fiber-optic communication lines in microwave signals transmittion. (United States)

    Ermolaev, A. N.; Krishpents, G. P.; Davydov, V. V.; Vysoczkiy, M. G.


    Methods of dispersion compensation in fiber-optic communication lines. A new proposed method of electronic dispersion compensation in the transmission of microwave signals through fiber-optic lines. Represents is proposed the results of experimental studies of this method.

  3. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako eUchiyama


    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  4. Prosody Signals the Emergence of Intentional Communication in the First Year of Life: Evidence from Catalan-Babbling Infants (United States)

    Esteve-Gibert, Nuria; Prieto, Pilar


    There is considerable debate about whether early vocalizations mimic the target language and whether prosody signals emergent intentional communication. A longitudinal corpus of four Catalan-babbling infants was analyzed to investigate whether children use different prosodic patterns to distinguish communicative from investigative vocalizations…

  5. Calculation of mutual information for nonlinear communication channel at large signal-to-noise ratio (United States)

    Terekhov, I. S.; Reznichenko, A. V.; Turitsyn, S. K.


    Using the path-integral technique we examine the mutual information for the communication channel modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with additive Gaussian noise. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation is one of the fundamental models in nonlinear physics, and it has a broad range of applications, including fiber optical communications—the backbone of the internet. At large signal-to-noise ratio we present the mutual information through the path-integral, which is convenient for the perturbative expansion in nonlinearity. In the limit of small noise and small nonlinearity we derive analytically the first nonzero nonlinear correction to the mutual information for the channel.

  6. Low complexity method for spreading sequence estimation of DSSS signal in non-cooperative communication systems*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Liang; Wang Fuping; Wang Zanji


    It is a necessary step to estimate the spreading sequence of direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal for blind despreading and demodulation in non-cooperative communications. Two innovative and effective detection statistics axe proposed to implement the synchronization and spreading sequence estimation procedure. The proposed algorithm also has a low computational complexity with only linear additions and modifications. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm performs quite well in low SNR environment, and is much better than all the existing typical algorithms with a comprehensive consideration both in performance and computational complexity.

  7. Silicon Nanowires for All-Optical Signal Processing in Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua;


    to the large mode mismatch and index mismatch. Both end-coupling and grating-coupling solution utilizing nano-structures were demonstrated with optimized coupling efficiencies, which make the silicon on-chip nanowire devices more practical for real optical communication systems.......Silicon (Si), the second most abundant element on earth, has dominated in microelectronics for many decades. It can also be used for photonic devices due to its transparency in the range of optical telecom wavelengths which will enable a platform for a monolithic integration of optics...... process. In the last four years, we investigated and demonstrated different ultra-fast all-optical nonlinear signal processing applications in silicon nanowires for optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM) systems, including wavelength conversion, signal regeneration, ultra-fast waveform sampling...

  8. Visible light communications using predistortion signal to enhance the response of passive optical receiver (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Hung-Yu; Liang, Kevin; Wei, Liang-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung


    Traditional visible light communication (VLC) uses positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode (PD) or avalanche PD as the optical receivers (Rx). We demonstrate using a solar cell as the VLC Rx. The solar cell is flexible and low cost and converts the optical signal into an electrical signal directly without the need of external power supply. In addition to acting as the VLC passive Rx, the converted electrical signal from the solar cell can charge up the battery of the Rx nodes. Hence, the proposed scheme can be a promising candidate for the future Internet of Things network. However, a solar cell acting as a VLC Rx is very challenging, since the response of the solar cell is limited. Here, we propose and demonstrate using predistortion to significantly enhance the solar cell Rx response for the first time up to the authors' knowledge. Experimental results show that the response of the solar cell Rx is significantly enhanced; and the original 2-kHz detection bandwidth of the solar cell can be enhanced by 250 times for receiving 500-kbit/s VLC signal at a transmission distance of 1 m. The operation principle, the generated voltage by the solar cell, and the maximum data rates achieved at different transmission distances are also studied.

  9. Eph/ephrin-B-mediated cell-to-cell interactions govern MTS20(+) thymic epithelial cell development. (United States)

    Montero-Herradón, Sara; García-Ceca, Javier; Sánchez Del Collado, Beatriz; Alfaro, David; Zapata, Agustín G


    Thymus development is a complex process in which cell-to-cell interactions between thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are essential to allow a proper maturation of both thymic cell components. Although signals that control thymocyte development are well known, mechanisms governing TEC maturation are poorly understood, especially those that regulate the maturation of immature TEC populations during early fetal thymus development. In this study, we show that EphB2-deficient, EphB2LacZ and EphB3-deficient fetal thymuses present a lower number of cells and delayed maturation of DN cell subsets compared to WT values. Moreover, deficits in the production of chemokines, known to be involved in the lymphoid seeding into the thymus, contribute in decreased proportions of intrathymic T cell progenitors (PIRA/B(+)) in the mutant thymuses from early stages of development. These features correlate with increased proportions of MTS20(+) cells but fewer MTS20(-) cells from E13.5 onward in the deficient thymuses, suggesting a delayed development of the first epithelial cells. In addition, in vitro the lack of thymocytes or the blockade of Eph/ephrin-B-mediated cell-to-cell interactions between either thymocytes-TECs or TECs-TECs in E13.5 fetal thymic lobes coursed with increased proportions of MTS20(+) TECs. This confirms, for the first time, that the presence of CD45(+) cells, corresponding at these stages to DN1 and DN2 cells, and Eph/ephrin-B-mediated heterotypic or homotypic cell interactions between thymocytes and TECs, or between TECs and themselves, contribute to the early maturation of MTS20(+) TECs.

  10. Enhancing Performance of Optical Communication Systems with Advanced Optical Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Glesk


    Full Text Available Growing needs to transport large amount of data, penetration of multimedia into our daily lives, and quickly expanding e-Commerce sector triggered an unparallel demand for the new generation of fast, secure, and energy savvy communication networks.Today we already benefit from many advances which revolutionized data and voice communication. Commercially deployed Dense Wavelength Division Multiple Access (DWDMA networks today are capable of transporting tens of Gigabits of data per second over a single WDM channel thus offering tremendous aggregate data throughputs over a single optical fibre. As a consequence, new bottlenecks have emerged at the fibre endpoints where data detection, routing, and switching must take place. Today's routers use electronics to process all incoming optical traffic. However the available bandwidth offered by current electronics can no longer keep up with these rapidly growing demands. To address these challenges and with goal in mind to eliminate this bottleneck, the research community has been looking long and hard for appropriate alternative solutions. One of taken approaches can be described as optical signal processing. As we will demonstrate it can be very powerful tool to improve performance of advanced communication networks especially when coupled with technologies and approaches which will enable device integration and packaging.

  11. Myosin-Va-dependent cell-to-cell transfer of RNA from Schwann cells to axons. (United States)

    Sotelo, José R; Canclini, Lucía; Kun, Alejandra; Sotelo-Silveira, José R; Xu, Lei; Wallrabe, Horst; Calliari, Aldo; Rosso, Gonzalo; Cal, Karina; Mercer, John A


    To better understand the role of protein synthesis in axons, we have identified the source of a portion of axonal RNA. We show that proximal segments of transected sciatic nerves accumulate newly-synthesized RNA in axons. This RNA is synthesized in Schwann cells because the RNA was labeled in the complete absence of neuronal cell bodies both in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that the transfer is prevented by disruption of actin and that it fails to occur in the absence of myosin-Va. Our results demonstrate cell-to-cell transfer of RNA and identify part of the mechanism required for transfer. The induction of cell-to-cell RNA transfer by injury suggests that interventions following injury or degeneration, particularly gene therapy, may be accomplished by applying them to nearby glial cells (or implanted stem cells) at the site of injury to promote regeneration.

  12. Cell-to-cell spread and massive vacuole formation after Cryptococcus neoformans infection of murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadevall Arturo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between macrophages and Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn is critical for containing dissemination of this pathogenic yeast. However, Cn can either lyse macrophages or escape from within them through a process known as phagosomal extrusion. Both events result in live extracellular yeasts capable of reproducing and disseminating in the extracellular milieu. Another method of exiting the intracellular confines of cells is through host cell-to-cell transfer of the pathogen, and this commonly occurs with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV and CD4+ T cells and macrophages. In this report we have used time-lapse imaging to determine if this occurs with Cn. Results Live imaging of Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with murine macrophages revealed cell-to-cell spread of yeast cells from infected donor cells to uninfected cells. Although this phenomenon was relatively rare its occurrence documents a new capacity for this pathogen to infect adjacent cells without exiting the intracellular space. Cell-to-cell spread appeared to be an actin-dependent process. In addition, we noted that cryptococcal phagosomal extrusion was followed by the formation of massive vacuoles suggesting that intracellular residence is accompanied by long lasting damage to host cells. Conclusion C. neoformans can escape the intracellular confines of macrophages in an actin dependent manner by cell-to-cell transfer of the yeast leading to infection of adjacent cells. In addition, complete extrusion of internalized Cn cells can lead to the formation of a massive vacuole which may be a sign of damage to the host macrophage. These observations document new outcomes for the interaction of C. neoformans with host cells that provide precedents for cell biological effects that may contribute to the pathogenesis of cryptococcal infections.

  13. Cell-to-cell spread and massive vacuole formation after Cryptococcus neoformans infection of murine macrophages


    Casadevall Arturo; Alvarez Mauricio


    Abstract Background The interaction between macrophages and Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) is critical for containing dissemination of this pathogenic yeast. However, Cn can either lyse macrophages or escape from within them through a process known as phagosomal extrusion. Both events result in live extracellular yeasts capable of reproducing and disseminating in the extracellular milieu. Another method of exiting the intracellular confines of cells is through host cell-to-cell transfer of the ...

  14. Metabolic Adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to Oxygen Stress by Cell-to-Cell Clumping and Flocculation (United States)

    Bible, Amber N.; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K.; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S.; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B.


    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists. PMID:26407887

  15. Metabolic adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to oxygen stress by cell-to-cell clumping and flocculation. (United States)

    Bible, Amber N; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B; Alexandre, Gladys


    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists.

  16. Human Cytomegalovirus US28 Facilitates Cell-to-Cell Viral Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Noriega


    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV encodes a number of viral proteins with homology to cellular G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. These viral GPCRs, including US27, US28, UL33, and UL78, have been ascribed numerous functions during infection, including activating diverse cellular pathways, binding to immunomodulatory chemokines, and impacting virus dissemination. To investigate the role of US28 during virus infection, two variants of the clinical isolate TB40/E were generated: TB40/E-US28YFP expressing a C-terminal yellow fluorescent protein tag, and TB40/E-FLAGYFP in which a FLAG-YFP cassette replaces the US28 coding region. The TB40/E-US28YFP protein localized as large perinuclear fluorescent structures at late times post-infection in fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells. Interestingly, US28YFP is a non-glycosylated membrane protein throughout the course of infection. US28 appears to impact cell-to-cell spread of virus, as the DUS28 virus (TB40/E-FLAGYFP generated a log-greater yield of extracellular progeny whose spread could be significantly neutralized in fibroblasts. Most strikingly, in epithelial cells, where dissemination of virus occurs exclusively by the cell-to-cell route, TB40/E-FLAGYFP (DUS28 displayed a significant growth defect. The data demonstrates that HCMV US28 may contribute at a late stage of the viral life cycle to cell-to-cell dissemination of virus.

  17. An Integrated Signaling-Encryption Mechanism to Reduce Error Propagation in Wireless Communications: Performance Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Matalgah, Mustafa M [ORNL; Bobrek, Miljko [ORNL


    Traditional encryption techniques require packet overhead, produce processing time delay, and suffer from severe quality of service deterioration due to fades and interference in wireless channels. These issues reduce the effective transmission data rate (throughput) considerably in wireless communications, where data rate with limited bandwidth is the main constraint. In this paper, performance evaluation analyses are conducted for an integrated signaling-encryption mechanism that is secure and enables improved throughput and probability of bit-error in wireless channels. This mechanism eliminates the drawbacks stated herein by encrypting only a small portion of an entire transmitted frame, while the rest is not subject to traditional encryption but goes through a signaling process (designed transformation) with the plaintext of the portion selected for encryption. We also propose to incorporate error correction coding solely on the small encrypted portion of the data to drastically improve the overall bit-error rate performance while not noticeably increasing the required bit-rate. We focus on validating the signaling-encryption mechanism utilizing Hamming and convolutional error correction coding by conducting an end-to-end system-level simulation-based study. The average probability of bit-error and throughput of the encryption mechanism are evaluated over standard Gaussian and Rayleigh fading-type channels and compared to the ones of the conventional advanced encryption standard (AES).

  18. Brain and face: communicating signals of health in the left and right sides of the face. (United States)

    Reis, V A; Zaidel, D W


    In human communication and mate selection the appearance of health sends signals regarding biological fitness. We compared the appearance of health in the sides of the face to previous results on left-right facial asymmetry in the appearance of beauty (1). The stimuli were created by aligning the left and right sides of the face each with its own mirror image. Here, participants viewed 38 pairs of left-left and right-right faces and judged which member of the pair looked healthier. No significant interaction emerged between decision (health vs attractiveness) and face side. Rather, in women's faces right-right was significantly more healthy and attractive than left-left, while in men's faces there was no significant left-right difference. In biology and evolution, health and beauty are closely linked and the findings here confirm this relationship in human faces.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Planktonic Microcrustacean Locomotion: Turning Wake Vortices into Communication Signals (United States)

    Yen, Jeannette; Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    It has long been hypothesized that aquatic microcrustaceans, such as planktonic copepods, are able to distinguish an attractive mate from a lunging predator by sensing their respective hydrodynamic signatures in the form of coherent vortical structures. We develop a hybrid Cartesian/Immersed-Boundary numerical method for simulating the flow around a swimming copepod. A realistic copepod-like body is constructed, which includes most important parts of the animals anatomy: the antenulles, legs, and tail. The kinematics of the individual body parts are prescribed using laboratory observations and measurements. We will report numerical simulations for a copepod advancing at steady velocity over a range of Reynolds numbers, 10communication signals.

  20. Signal Processing for Wireless Communication MIMO System with Nano- Scaled CSDG MOSFET based DP4T RF Switch. (United States)

    Srivastava, Viranjay M


    In the present technological expansion, the radio frequency integrated circuits in the wireless communication technologies became useful because of the replacement of increasing number of functions, traditional hardware components by modern digital signal processing. The carrier frequencies used for communication systems, now a day, shifted toward the microwave regime. The signal processing for the multiple inputs multiple output wireless communication system using the Metal- Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) has been done a lot. In this research the signal processing with help of nano-scaled Cylindrical Surrounding Double Gate (CSDG) MOSFET by means of Double- Pole Four-Throw Radio-Frequency (DP4T RF) switch, in terms of Insertion loss, Isolation, Reverse isolation and Inter modulation have been analyzed. In addition to this a channel model has been presented. Here, we also discussed some patents relevant to the topic.

  1. Cytokinins and auxin communicate nitrogen availability as long-distance signal molecules in pineapple (Ananas comosus). (United States)

    Tamaki, Vívian; Mercier, Helenice


    This work aimed at identifying a possible role of phytohormones in long-distance (root-shoot) signaling under nitrogen deficiency. Three-months old pineapple plants were transferred from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to nitrogen-free MS (-N). During the first 24h on -N, 20 plants were harvested every 4h. After 30 days in -N, the remaining plants were transferred back to regular MS (+N) and 20 plants harvested every 4h for the first 24h. Following the harvests, endogenous levels of nitrate (NO(3)(-)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), isopentenyladenine (iP), isopentenyladenine riboside (iPR), zeatin (Z) and zeatin riboside (ZR) were analyzed in roots and leaves. In N-starved plants, the NO(3)(-) level dropped by 20% in roots between the first (4h) and the second harvest (8h). In leaves a reduction of 20% was found 4h later. Accumulation of IAA peaked in leaves at 16h. In roots, the accumulation of IAA only started at 16h while the leaf content was already in decline, which suggests that the hormone might have traveled from the leaves to the roots, communicating N-shortage. The contents of the four cytokinins were generally low in both, shoot and roots, and remained almost unchanged during the 24h of analysis. After N re-supply, roots showed a NO(3)(-) peak at 8h whereas the foliar concentration increased 4h later. Hormone levels in roots climaxed at 8h, this coinciding with the highest NO(3)(-) concentration. In leaf tissue, a dramatic accumulation was only observed for Z and ZR, and the peak was seen 4h later than in roots, suggesting that Z-type cytokinins might have traveled from the roots to the leaves. These findings provide evidence that there is a signaling pathway for N availability in pineapple plants, communicated upwards through cytokinins (N-supplemented plants) and downwards through auxin (N-starved plants).

  2. Communication of Ca(2+) signals via tunneling membrane nanotubes is mediated by transmission of inositol trisphosphate through gap junctions. (United States)

    Lock, Jeffrey T; Parker, Ian; Smith, Ian F


    Tunneling membrane nanotubes (TNTs) are thin membrane projections linking cell bodies separated by many micrometers, which are proposed to mediate signaling and even transfer of cytosolic contents between distant cells. Several reports describe propagation of Ca(2+) signals between distant cells via TNTs, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Utilizing a HeLa M-Sec cell line engineered to upregulate TNTs we replicated previous findings that mechanical stimulation elicits robust cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations that propagate to surrounding, physically separate cells. However, whereas this was previously interpreted to involve intercellular communication through TNTs, we found that Ca(2+) signal propagation was abolished - even in TNT-connected cells - after blocking ATP-mediated paracrine signaling with a cocktail of extracellular inhibitors. To then establish whether gap junctions may enable cell-cell signaling via TNTs under these conditions, we expressed sfGFP-tagged connexin-43 (Cx43) in HeLa M-Sec cells. We observed robust communication of mechanically-evoked Ca(2+) signals between distant but TNT-connected cells, but only when both cells expressed Cx43. Moreover, we also observed communication of Ca(2+) signals evoked in one cell by local photorelease of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). Ca(2+) responses in connected cells began after long latencies at intracellular sites several microns from the TNT connection site, implicating intercellular transfer of IP3 and subsequent IP3-mediated Ca(2+) liberation, and not Ca(2+) itself, as the mediator between TNT-connected, Cx43-expressing cells. Our results emphasize the need to control for paracrine transmission in studies of cell-cell signaling via TNTs and indicate that, in this cell line, TNTs do not establish cytosolic continuity between connected cells but rather point to the crucial importance of connexins to enable communication of cytosolic Ca(2+) signals via TNTs.

  3. Global Dynamics of a Virus Dynamical Model with Cell-to-Cell Transmission and Cure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqian Zhang


    Full Text Available The cure effect of a virus model with both cell-to-cell transmission and cell-to-virus transmission is studied. By the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is obtained. The locally asymptotic stability of the virus-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium is considered by investigating the characteristic equation of the model. The globally asymptotic stability of the virus-free equilibrium is proved by constructing suitable Lyapunov function, and the sufficient condition for the globally asymptotic stability of the endemic equilibrium is obtained by constructing suitable Lyapunov function and using LaSalle invariance principal.

  4. Asymptotic behaviors of a cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection model perturbed by white noise (United States)

    Liu, Qun


    In this paper, we analyze a mathematical model of cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells perturbed by stochastic perturbations. First of all, we investigate that there exists a unique global positive solution of the system for any positive initial value. Then by using Lyapunov analysis methods, we study the asymptotic property of this solution. Moreover, we discuss whether there is a stationary distribution for this system and if it owns the ergodic property. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  5. Optical phase-locked loop signal sources for phased-array communications antennas (United States)

    Langley, Lloyd N.; Edge, Colin; Wale, Michael J.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Seeds, Alwyn J.; Walton, Channing; Wright, James G.; Coryell, Louis A.


    A coherent, optical heterodyne approach to signal generation and beamforming is particularly advantageous in multi-beam mobile phased arrays. Use of optical technology allows an optimum distribution of weight and power to be achieved between the antenna face and central electronics, together with an efficient implementation of the beamforming function and a modular design approach in which the basic building blocks are frequency-independent. Systems of this type employ a pair of optical carriers with a difference frequency equal to the required microwave signal. Phased- locking is necessary in order to achieve sufficiently low phase noise in the radio communication link. Optical phase locked loops (OPLLs) have been shown to be potential candidates for this application, yet work still needs to be done to bring them from the laboratory to field demonstrations. This paper describes the construction of a laser-diode OPLL subsystem for evaluation in a proof-of- concept beamforming system. This involves optimization of the loop design, development of single-frequency laser diodes with the correct linewidth, modulation and tuning characteristics and integration into a micro-optic assembly with custom wideband electronics.

  6. From cues to signals: evolution of interspecific communication via aposematism and mimicry in a predator-prey system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenna D S Lehmann

    Full Text Available Current theory suggests that many signaling systems evolved from preexisting cues. In aposematic systems, prey warning signals benefit both predator and prey. When the signal is highly beneficial, a third species often evolves to mimic the toxic species, exploiting the signaling system for its own protection. We investigated the evolutionary dynamics of predator cue utilization and prey signaling in a digital predator-prey system in which prey could evolve to alter their appearance to mimic poison-free or poisonous prey. In predators, we observed rapid evolution of cue recognition (i.e. active behavioral responses when presented with sufficiently poisonous prey. In addition, active signaling (i.e. mimicry evolved in prey under all conditions that led to cue utilization. Thus we show that despite imperfect and dishonest signaling, given a high cost of consuming poisonous prey, complex systems of interspecific communication can evolve via predator cue recognition and prey signal manipulation. This provides evidence supporting hypotheses that cues may serve as stepping-stones in the evolution of more advanced communication and signaling systems that incorporate information about the environment.

  7. From cues to signals: evolution of interspecific communication via aposematism and mimicry in a predator-prey system. (United States)

    Lehmann, Kenna D S; Goldman, Brian W; Dworkin, Ian; Bryson, David M; Wagner, Aaron P


    Current theory suggests that many signaling systems evolved from preexisting cues. In aposematic systems, prey warning signals benefit both predator and prey. When the signal is highly beneficial, a third species often evolves to mimic the toxic species, exploiting the signaling system for its own protection. We investigated the evolutionary dynamics of predator cue utilization and prey signaling in a digital predator-prey system in which prey could evolve to alter their appearance to mimic poison-free or poisonous prey. In predators, we observed rapid evolution of cue recognition (i.e. active behavioral responses) when presented with sufficiently poisonous prey. In addition, active signaling (i.e. mimicry) evolved in prey under all conditions that led to cue utilization. Thus we show that despite imperfect and dishonest signaling, given a high cost of consuming poisonous prey, complex systems of interspecific communication can evolve via predator cue recognition and prey signal manipulation. This provides evidence supporting hypotheses that cues may serve as stepping-stones in the evolution of more advanced communication and signaling systems that incorporate information about the environment.

  8. Coherent demodulation of microwave signals by using optical heterodyne technique with applications to point to point indoor wireless communications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Juarez, A; Gomez-Colin, M R; Rojas-Hernandez, A G [Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Zaldivar-Huerta, I E; Aguayo-Rodriguez, G [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Rodriguez-Asomoza, J, E-mail: [Universidad de las Americas-Puebla (Mexico)


    An optical communications system using a couple microstrip antennas for distributing point to point analog TV with coherent demodulation based on optical heterodyne in close vicinity is reported in this paper. In the proposed experimental setup, two optical waves at different wavelengths are mixed and applied to a photodetector. Then a beat signal with a frequency equivalent to the spacing of the two wavelengths is obtained at the output of the photodetector. This signal corresponds to a microwave signal located at 1.25 GHz, which it is used as a microwave carrier in the transmitter and as a local oscillator in the receiver of our optical communication system. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated transmitting a TV signal of 66-72 MHz.

  9. Long-Range Signaling in MutS and MSH Homologs via Switching of Dynamic Communication Pathways. (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Francis, Joshua; Sharma, Monika; Law, Sean M; Predeus, Alexander V; Feig, Michael


    Allostery is conformation regulation by propagating a signal from one site to another distal site. This study focuses on the long-range communication in DNA mismatch repair proteins MutS and its homologs where intramolecular signaling has to travel over 70 Å to couple lesion detection to ATPase activity and eventual downstream repair. Using dynamic network analysis based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations, multiple preserved communication pathways were identified that would allow such long-range signaling. The pathways appear to depend on the nucleotides bound to the ATPase domain as well as the type of DNA substrate consistent with previously proposed functional cycles of mismatch recognition and repair initiation by MutS and homologs. A mechanism is proposed where pathways are switched without major conformational rearrangements allowing for efficient long-range signaling and allostery.

  10. Coherent demodulation of microwave signals by using optical heterodyne technique with applications to point to point indoor wireless communications systems (United States)

    García-Juárez, A.; Zaldívar-Huerta, I. E.; Aguayo-Rodríguez, G.; Rodríguez-Asomoza, J.; Gómez-Colín, M. R.; Rojas-Hernández, A. G.


    An optical communications system using a couple microstrip antennas for distributing point to point analog TV with coherent demodulation based on optical heterodyne in close vicinity is reported in this paper. In the proposed experimental setup, two optical waves at different wavelengths are mixed and applied to a photodetector. Then a beat signal with a frequency equivalent to the spacing of the two wavelengths is obtained at the output of the photodetector. This signal corresponds to a microwave signal located at 1.25 GHz, which it is used as a microwave carrier in the transmitter and as a local oscillator in the receiver of our optical communication system. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated transmitting a TV signal of 66-72MHz.

  11. Testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone have different regulatory effects on electric communication signals of male Brachyhypopomus gauderio. (United States)

    Goldina, Anna; Gavassa, Sat; Stoddard, Philip K


    The communication signals of electric fish can be dynamic, varying between the sexes on a circadian rhythm and in response to social and environmental cues. In the gymnotiform fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio waveform shape of the electric organ discharge (EOD) is regulated by steroid and peptide hormones. Furthermore, EOD amplitude and duration change on different timescales and in response to different social stimuli, suggesting that they are regulated by different mechanisms. Little is known about how androgen and peptide hormone systems interact to regulate signal waveform. We investigated the relationship between the androgens testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the melanocortin peptide hormone α-MSH, and their roles in regulating EOD waveform of male B. gauderio. Males were implanted with androgen (T, 11-KT, or blank), and injected with α-MSH before and at the peak of androgen effect. We compared the effects of androgen implants and social interactions by giving males a size-matched male stimulus with which they could interact electrically. Social stimuli and both androgens increased EOD duration, but only social stimuli and 11-KT elevated amplitude. However, no androgen enhanced EOD amplitude to the extent of a social stimulus, suggesting that a yet unidentified hormonal pathway regulates this signal parameter. Additionally, both androgens increased response of EOD duration to α-MSH, but only 11-KT increased response of EOD amplitude to α-MSH. Social stimuli had no effect on EOD response to α-MSH. The finding that EOD amplitude is preferentially regulated by 11-KT in B. gauderio may provide the basis for independent control of amplitude and duration.

  12. Design of Discrete Time Radio Receiver for the Demodulation of Power-Separated Co-Channel Satellite Communication Signals (United States)


    video broadcasting [7]. ViaSat-1 (pictured in Figure 1), a high capacity Ka - band communications satellite went into service on 16 January 2012 as the...Video Broadcasting- satellite , Second Generation 8PSK 8- Phase Shift Keying GTED Gardner Timing Error Detector HP High Power signal, in layered...Spectral Density QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SNR Signal to Noise Ratio SRRC Squared Raised

  13. Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems (United States)


    saturating is indeed happening and if so, the causal physical mechanism. Figure 1: Doppler Power Profile for Direct and Surface Scattered Signals Figure 2...communications literature, is an important factor in determining the nature of optimal signal equalization, demodulation and decoding algorithms. As...bending of the mounting mechanism or another physical factor . A repeat of this experiment with a sturdier mount- ing mechanism will help resolve this

  14. Cytorhabdovirus P3 genes encode 30K-like cell-to-cell movement proteins. (United States)

    Mann, Krin S; Bejerman, Nicolas; Johnson, Karyn N; Dietzgen, Ralf G


    Plant viruses encode movement proteins (MP) to facilitate cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata. In this study, using trans-complementation of a movement-defective turnip vein-clearing tobamovirus (TVCV) replicon, we show for the first time for cytorhabdoviruses (lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) and alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV)) that their P3 proteins function as MP similar to the TVCV P30 protein. All three MP localized to plasmodesmata when ectopically expressed. In addition, we show that these MP belong to the 30K superfamily since movement was inhibited by mutation of an aspartic acid residue in the critical 30K-specific LxD/N50-70G motif. We also report that Nicotiana benthamiana microtubule-associated VOZ1-like transcriptional activator interacts with LNYV P3 and TVCV P30 but not with ADV P3 or any of the MP point mutants. This host protein, which is known to interact with P3 of sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus, may be involved in aiding the cell-to-cell movement of LNYV and TVCV.

  15. From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing. (United States)

    Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M; Wold, Barbara J


    Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30-100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states.

  16. Effect of promoter architecture on the cell-to-cell variability in gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sanchez


    Full Text Available According to recent experimental evidence, promoter architecture, defined by the number, strength and regulatory role of the operators that control transcription, plays a major role in determining the level of cell-to-cell variability in gene expression. These quantitative experiments call for a corresponding modeling effort that addresses the question of how changes in promoter architecture affect variability in gene expression in a systematic rather than case-by-case fashion. In this article we make such a systematic investigation, based on a microscopic model of gene regulation that incorporates stochastic effects. In particular, we show how operator strength and operator multiplicity affect this variability. We examine different modes of transcription factor binding to complex promoters (cooperative, independent, simultaneous and how each of these affects the level of variability in transcriptional output from cell-to-cell. We propose that direct comparison between in vivo single-cell experiments and theoretical predictions for the moments of the probability distribution of mRNA number per cell can be used to test kinetic models of gene regulation. The emphasis of the discussion is on prokaryotic gene regulation, but our analysis can be extended to eukaryotic cells as well.

  17. Natural sequence variants of yeast environmental sensors confer cell-to-cell expression variability. (United States)

    Fehrmann, Steffen; Bottin-Duplus, Hélène; Leonidou, Andri; Mollereau, Esther; Barthelaix, Audrey; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M; Yvert, Gaël


    Living systems may have evolved probabilistic bet hedging strategies that generate cell-to-cell phenotypic diversity in anticipation of environmental catastrophes, as opposed to adaptation via a deterministic response to environmental changes. Evolution of bet hedging assumes that genotypes segregating in natural populations modulate the level of intraclonal diversity, which so far has largely remained hypothetical. Using a fluorescent P(met17)-GFP reporter, we mapped four genetic loci conferring to a wild yeast strain an elevated cell-to-cell variability in the expression of MET17, a gene regulated by the methionine pathway. A frameshift mutation in the Erc1p transmembrane transporter, probably resulting from a release of laboratory strains from negative selection, reduced P(met17)-GFP expression variability. At a second locus, cis-regulatory polymorphisms increased mean expression of the Mup1p methionine permease, causing increased expression variability in trans. These results demonstrate that an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) can simultaneously have a deterministic effect in cis and a probabilistic effect in trans. Our observations indicate that the evolution of transmembrane transporter genes can tune intraclonal variation and may therefore be implicated in both reactive and anticipatory strategies of adaptation.

  18. Earliest Holozoan Expansion of Phosphotyrosine Signaling (United States)

    Suga, Hiroshi; Torruella, Guifré; Burger, Gertraud; Brown, Matthew W.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki


    Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling is involved in development and maintenance of metazoans’ multicellular body through cell-to-cell communication. Tyrosine kinases (TKs), tyrosine phosphatases, and other proteins relaying the signal compose the cascade. Domain architectures of the pTyr signaling proteins are diverse in metazoans, reflecting their complex intercellular communication. Previous studies had shown that the metazoan-type TKs, as well as other pTyr signaling proteins, were already diversified in the common ancestor of metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filastereans (which are together included in the clade Holozoa) whereas they are absent in fungi and other nonholozoan lineages. However, the earliest-branching holozoans Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea, as well as the two fungi-related amoebae Fonticula and Nuclearia, have not been studied. Here, we analyze the complete genome sequences of two ichthyosporeans and Fonticula, and RNAseq data of three additional ichthyosporeans, one corallochytrean, and Nuclearia. Both the ichthyosporean and corallochytrean genomes encode a large variety of receptor TKs (RTKs) and cytoplasmic TKs (CTKs), as well as other pTyr signaling components showing highly complex domain architectures. However, Nuclearia and Fonticula have no TK, and show much less diversity in other pTyr signaling components. The CTK repertoires of both Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea are similar to those of Metazoa, Choanoflagellida, and Filasterea, but the RTK sets are totally different from each other. The complex pTyr signaling equipped with positive/negative feedback mechanism likely emerged already at an early stage of holozoan evolution, yet keeping a high evolutionary plasticity in extracellular signal reception until the co-option of the system for cell-to-cell communication in metazoans. PMID:24307687

  19. Food deprivation reduces and leptin increases the amplitude of an active sensory and communication signal in a weakly electric fish. (United States)

    Sinnett, Philip M; Markham, Michael R


    Energetic demands of social communication signals can constrain signal duration, repetition, and magnitude. The metabolic costs of communication signals are further magnified when they are coupled to active sensory systems that require constant signal generation. Under such circumstances, metabolic stress incurs additional risk because energy shortfalls could degrade sensory system performance as well as the social functions of the communication signal. The weakly electric fish Eigenmannia virescens generates electric organ discharges (EODs) that serve as both active sensory and communication signals. These EODs are maintained at steady frequencies of 200-600Hz throughout the lifespan, and thus represent a substantial metabolic investment. We investigated the effects of metabolic stress (food deprivation) on EOD amplitude (EODa) and EOD frequency (EODf) in E. virescens and found that only EODa decreases during food deprivation and recovers after restoration of feeding. Cortisol did not alter EODa under any conditions, and plasma cortisol levels were not changed by food deprivation. Both melanocortin hormones and social challenges caused transient EODa increases in both food-deprived and well-fed fish. Intramuscular injections of leptin increased EODa in food-deprived fish but not well-fed fish, identifying leptin as a novel regulator of EODa and suggesting that leptin mediates EODa responses to metabolic stress. The sensitivity of EODa to dietary energy availability likely arises because of the extreme energetic costs of EOD production in E. virescens and also could reflect reproductive strategies of iteroparous species that reduce social signaling and reproduction during periods of stress to later resume reproductive efforts when conditions improve.

  20. The role of Notch signaling in kidney podocytes. (United States)

    Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Oliva Trejo, Juan Alejandro; Tanaka, Eriko


    The Notch signaling pathway is a basic cell-to-cell communication mechanism. This pathway is activated by the interaction between Notch receptors and the ligands of adjacent cells. Once activated, Notch receptors are cleaved and the intracellular domains translocate into the nucleus, where the transcription of target genes starts. In the mammalian kidney, Notch receptors are activated during nephrogenesis. Afterwards, in the mature glomeruli, the Notch pathway becomes silent. However, many researchers have reported the activation of Notch receptors in mature podocytes under pathological conditions. In this review, we discuss the role of Notch signaling in podocytes.

  1. New connections: Cell to cell HIV-1 transmission, resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies, and an envelope sorting motif. (United States)

    Smith, S Abigail; Derdeyn, Cynthia A


    HIV-1 infection from cell to cell may provide an efficient mode of viral spread in vivo and could therefore present a significant challenge for preventative or therapeutic strategies based on broadly neutralizing antibodies. Indeed, Li et al show that the potency and magnitude of multiple HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody classes are decreased during cell to cell infection in a context dependent manner. A functional motif in gp41 appears to contribute to this differential susceptibility by modulating exposure of neutralization epitopes.

  2. Evidence for protonic communication at the speed of sound: An alternate mechanism for specific biological signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtl, Bernhard; Schneider, Matthias F


    Local changes in pH are known to significantly alter the state and activity of proteins and in particular enzymes. pH variations induced by pulses propagating along soft interfaces (e.g. the lipid bilayer) would therefore constitute an important pillar towards a new physical mechanism of biochemical regulation and biological signaling. Here we investigate the pH-induced physical perturbation of a lipid interface and the physiochemical nature of the subsequent acoustic propagation. Pulses are stimulated by local acidification of a lipid monolayer and propagate, in analogy to sound, at velocities controlled by the two-dimensional compressibility of the interface. With transient local pH changes of 0.6 units directly observed at the interface and velocities up to 1.4 m/s this represents hitherto the fastest protonic communication observed. Furthermore simultaneously propagating mechanical and electrical changes in the lipid interface up to 8 mN/m and 100 mV are detected, exposing the thermodynamic nature of thes...

  3. Microphone Array Signal Processing and Active Noise Control for the In-Helmet Speech Communication Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For in-helmet voice communication, the currently used Communication-Cap-based Audio (CCA) systems have a number of recognized logistical issues and inconveniences...

  4. Alpha-synuclein cell-to-cell transfer and seeding in grafted dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Angot

    Full Text Available Several people with Parkinson's disease have been treated with intrastriatal grafts of fetal dopaminergic neurons. Following autopsy, 10-22 years after surgery, some of the grafted neurons contained Lewy bodies similar to those observed in the host brain. Numerous studies have attempted to explain these findings in cell and animal models. In cell culture, α-synuclein has been found to transfer from one cell to another, via mechanisms that include exosomal transport and endocytosis, and in certain cases seed aggregation in the recipient cell. In animal models, transfer of α-synuclein from host brain cells to grafted neurons has been shown, but the reported frequency of the event has been relatively low and little is known about the underlying mechanisms as well as the fate of the transferred α-synuclein. We now demonstrate frequent transfer of α-synuclein from a rat brain engineered to overexpress human α-synuclein to grafted dopaminergic neurons. Further, we show that this model can be used to explore mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein. Thus, we present evidence both for the involvement of endocytosis in α-synuclein uptake in vivo, and for seeding of aggregation of endogenous α-synuclein in the recipient neuron by the transferred α-synuclein. Finally, we show that, at least in a subset of the studied cells, the transmitted α-synuclein is sensitive to proteinase K. Our new model system could be used to test compounds that inhibit cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein and therefore might retard progression of Parkinson neuropathology.

  5. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hatzinakos


    Full Text Available As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN, which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1 a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2 a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  6. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling (United States)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios


    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  7. Advanced Ring-Shaped Microelectrode Assay Combined with Small Rectangular Electrode for Quasi-In vivo Measurement of Cell-to-Cell Conductance in Cardiomyocyte Network (United States)

    Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Tomoyo; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji


    To predict the risk of fatal arrhythmia induced by cardiotoxicity in the highly complex human heart system, we have developed a novel quasi-in vivo electrophysiological measurement assay, which combines a ring-shaped human cardiomyocyte network and a set of two electrodes that form a large single ring-shaped electrode for the direct measurement of irregular cell-to-cell conductance occurrence in a cardiomyocyte network, and a small rectangular microelectrode for forced pacing of cardiomyocyte beating and for acquiring the field potential waveforms of cardiomyocytes. The advantages of this assay are as follows. The electrophysiological signals of cardiomyocytes in the ring-shaped network are superimposed directly on a single loop-shaped electrode, in which the information of asynchronous behavior of cell-to-cell conductance are included, without requiring a set of huge numbers of microelectrode arrays, a set of fast data conversion circuits, or a complex analysis in a computer. Another advantage is that the small rectangular electrode can control the position and timing of forced beating in a ring-shaped human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPS)-derived cardiomyocyte network and can also acquire the field potentials of cardiomyocytes. First, we constructed the human iPS-derived cardiomyocyte ring-shaped network on the set of two electrodes, and acquired the field potential signals of particular cardiomyocytes in the ring-shaped cardiomyocyte network during simultaneous acquisition of the superimposed signals of whole-cardiomyocyte networks representing cell-to-cell conduction. Using the small rectangular electrode, we have also evaluated the response of the cell network to electrical stimulation. The mean and SD of the minimum stimulation voltage required for pacing (VMin) at the small rectangular electrode was 166+/-74 mV, which is the same as the magnitude of amplitude for the pacing using the ring-shaped electrode (179+/-33 mV). The results showed that the

  8. Communication Pattern Regarding Alarms and Patient Signals Between Nurses, Other Health Care Actors, Patients and Devices. (United States)

    Solvoll, Terje; Hanenburg, Adrienne; Giordanego, Alain; Hartvigsen, Gunnar


    CallMeSmart is a context aware communication system for hospitals. The system is being used by nurses and the physicians at the Oncology department, University Hospital of North Norway. CallMeSmart has been designed to increase the efficiency of communication between the nurse-physician and physician-physician. In this study, we have looked at the communication pathways between nurse-nurse and patient-nurse: how nurses define a preference of calling somebody, how alarms and tasks are prioritized, and how this could be implemented into the CallMeSmart system to improve the system for the nurses. This paper discusses how the communication pathways of the patient alarm system can be improved for health care actors in hospitals by revealing the communication patterns according to an alarm between those actors. We address the communication pattern between nurses, other health care actors, patients and the devices used, and discuss possible improvements of this communication.

  9. Genotoxic Potential of 1.6 GHz Wireless Communication Signal: In vivo Two-Year Bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayalaxmi, Vijay (University of Texas at San Antonio); Sasser, Lyle B.(SELF-EMPLOYED CONSULTANTS); Morris, J E.(GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.); Wilson, Bary W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Larry E.(SELF-EMPLOYED CONSULTANTS)


    Timed-pregnant Fischer 344 rats (from nineteenth day of gestation) and their nursing offspring (until weaning) were exposed to a far-field 1.6 GHz Iridium wireless communication signal for 2 h/day, 5 days/week. Far-field whole-body exposures were conducted with a field intensity of 0.43 mW/cm 2 and whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.036 to 0.077 W/kg (0.10 to 0.22 W/kg in the brain). This was followed by chronic, head-only exposures of male and female offspring to a near-field 1.6 GHz signal for 2 h/day, 5 days/week, over 2 years. Near-field exposures were conducted at an SAR of 0.16 or 1.6 W/kg in the brain. Concurrent sham-exposed and cage control rats were also included in the study. At the end of 2 years, all rats were necropsied. Bone marrow smears were examined for the extent of genotoxicity, assessed from the presence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. The results indicated that the incidence of micronuclei/ 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes were not significantly different between 1.6 GHz-exposed, sham-exposed and cage control rats. The group mean frequencies were 5.6 6 1.8 (130 rats exposed to 1.6 GHz at 0.16 W/kg SAR), 5.4 6 1.5 (135 rats exposed to 1.6 GHz at 1.6 W/kg SAR), 5.6 6 1.7 (119 sham-exposed rats), and 5.8 6 1.8 (100 cage control rats). In contrast, positive control rats treated with mitomycin C exhibited significantly elevated incidence of micronuclei/2000 polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells; the mean frequency was 38.2 6 7.0 (five rats). Thus there was no evidence for excess genotoxicity in rats that were chronically exposed to 1.6 GHz compared to sham-exposed and cage controls.

  10. Can Cell to Cell Thermal Runaway Propagation be Prevented in a Li-ion Battery Module? (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Lopez, Carlos; Orieukwu, Josephat


    Increasing cell spacing decreased adjacent cell damage center dotElectrically connected adjacent cells drained more than physically adjacent cells center dotRadiant barrier prevents propagation when fully installed between BP cells center dotBP cells vent rapidly and expel contents at 100% SOC -Slower vent with flame/smoke at 50% -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 160 degC center dotLG cells vent but do not expel contents -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 200 degC center dotSKC LFP modules did not propagate; fuses on negative terminal of cell may provide a benefit in reducing cell to cell damage propagation. New requirement in NASA-Battery Safety Requirements document: JSC 20793 Rev C Requirements - Thermal Runaway Propagation a. For battery designs greater than a 80-Wh energy employing high specific energy cells (greater than 80 watt-hours/kg, for example, lithium-ion chemistries) with catastrophic failure modes, the battery shall be evaluated to ascertain the severity of a worst-case single-cell thermal runaway event and the propensity of the design to demonstrate cell-to-cell propagation in the intended application and environment. NASA has traditionally addressed the threat of thermal runaway incidents in its battery deployments through comprehensive prevention protocols. This prevention-centered approach has included extensive screening for manufacturing defects, as well as robust battery management controls that prevent abuse-induced runaway even in the face of multiple system failures. This focused strategy has made the likelihood of occurrence of such an event highly improbable. b. The evaluation shall include all necessary analysis and test to quantify the severity (consequence) of the event in the intended application and environment as well as to identify design modifications to the battery or the system that could appreciably reduce that severity. In addition to prevention protocols, programs developing battery designs with

  11. The Azospirillum brasilense Che1 chemotaxis pathway controls swimming velocity, which affects transient cell-to-cell clumping. (United States)

    Bible, Amber; Russell, Matthew H; Alexandre, Gladys


    The Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway of Azospirillum brasilense contributes to chemotaxis and aerotaxis, and it has also been found to contribute to regulating changes in cell surface adhesive properties that affect the propensity of cells to clump and to flocculate. The exact contribution of Che1 to the control of chemotaxis and flocculation in A. brasilense remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Che1 affects reversible cell-to-cell clumping, a cellular behavior in which motile cells transiently interact by adhering to one another at their nonflagellated poles before swimming apart. Clumping precedes and is required for flocculation, and both processes appear to be independently regulated. The phenotypes of a ΔaerC receptor mutant and of mutant strains lacking cheA1, cheY1, cheB1, or cheR1 (alone or in combination) or with che1 deleted show that Che1 directly mediates changes in the flagellar swimming velocity and that this behavior directly modulates the transient nature of clumping. Our results also suggest that an additional receptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are implicated in mediating other Che1-independent changes in clumping identified in the present study. Transient clumping precedes the transition to stable clump formation, which involves the production of specific extracellular polysaccharides (EPS); however, production of these clumping-specific EPS is not directly controlled by Che1 activity. Che1-dependent clumping may antagonize motility and prevent chemotaxis, thereby maintaining cells in a metabolically favorable niche.

  12. Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems (United States)


    complexity of co- herent equalizer adaptation algorithms. This is joint work with MIT/WHOI Joint Program Student , Atulya Yellepeddi and is motivated by...communications signals, to achieve the specified improvements. The work this quarter focused on the continued development and analysis of an Expectation ...the Doppler shift of the direct arrival is essentially zero and the spread remains sta- ble at approximately 2.5 Hz with only a small rise at higher

  13. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions. (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji


    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  14. Long-distance multi-channel bidirectional chaos communication based on synchronized VCSELs subject to chaotic signal injection (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Yuan; Li, Jia-Chao; He, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-Dong; Song, Ting-Ting; Xu, Chang-Jun; Wang, Gui-Jin


    A novel long-distance multi-channel bidirectional chaos communication system over multiple paths based on two synchronized 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is proposed and studied theoretically. These two responding VCSELs (R-VCSELs) can output similar chaotic signals served as chaotic carrier in two linear polarization (LP) modes with identical signal injection from a driving VCSEL (D-VCSEL), which is subject to optical feedback and optical injection, simultaneously. Through the numerical simulations, high quality chaos synchronization between the two R-VCSELs can be obtained. Besides, the effects of varied qualities of chaos synchronization on communication performances in 20 km single mode fiber (SMF) channels are investigated by regulating different internal parameters mismatch after adopting chaos masking (CMS) technique. With the decrease of the maximum cross correlation coefficient (Max-C) between the two R-VCSELs, the bit error rate (BER) of decoded message increase. Meanwhile, the BER can still be less than 10-9 when the Max-C degrades to 0.982. Based on high quality synchronization, when the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) links are introduced, 4n messages of 10 Gbit/s can transmit in 180 km SMF channels over n coupling paths, bidirectionally and simultaneously. Thorough tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating long-distance, multi-channel, bidirectional chaos communication based on VCSELs with chaotic signal injection.

  15. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kibe, Toshiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiaki [Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ueda, Masahiro [Natural Science Centre for Research and Education, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Norifumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru [Department of Virology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuouku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kishida, Michiko, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  16. Communications (United States)

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane


    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  17. Rate dependence of cell-to-cell variations of lithium-ion cells (United States)

    An, Fuqiang; Chen, Lufan; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jianbo; Li, Ping


    Lithium-ion cells are commonly used in a multicell configuration in power devices and electric vehicles, making the cell-to-cell variation (CtCV) a key factor to consider in system design and management. Previous studies on CtCV have two major limitations: the number of cells is usually less than one hundred, and the cells are usually commercial cells already subjected to cell-screenings. In this article, we first make a statistical analysis on the CtCV of 5473 fresh cells from an automotive battery manufacturer before the cell-screening process. Secondly, 198 cells are randomly selected from these 5473 cells and the rate dependence of the CtCV is examined, focusing on the correlations of capacity versus weight and capacity versus resistance, corresponding to thermodynamic and kinetic factors, respectively. The rate dependence of these two correlations is explained from a phenomenological model. Finally, eight cells from the 198 cells are further characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method to elucidate the kinetic origins of the CtCV.

  18. Histochemical approaches to assess cell-to-cell transmission of misfolded proteins in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Natale


    Full Text Available Formation, aggregation and transmission of abnormal proteins are common features in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. The mechanisms underlying protein alterations in neurodegenerative diseases remain controversial. Novel findings highlighted altered protein clearing systems as common biochemical pathways which generate protein misfolding, which in turn causes protein aggregation and protein spreading. In fact, proteinaceous aggregates are prone to cell-to-cell propagation. This is reminiscent of what happens in prion disorders, where the prion protein misfolds thus forming aggregates which spread to neighbouring cells. For this reason, the term prionoids is currently used to emphasize how several misfolded proteins are transmitted in neurodegenerative diseases following this prion-like pattern. Histochemical techniques including the use of specific antibodies covering both light and electron microscopy offer a powerful tool to describe these phenomena and investigate specific molecular steps. These include: prion like protein alterations; glycation of prion-like altered proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs; mechanisms of extracellular secretion; interaction of AGEs with specific receptors placed on neighbouring cells (RAGEs. The present manuscript comments on these phenomena aimed to provide a consistent scenario of the available histochemical approaches to dissect each specific step.

  19. Plasmodesmal-mediated cell-to-cell transport in wheat roots is modulated by anaerobic stress (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.; Fujiwara, T.; Lucas, W. J.


    Cell-to-cell transport of small molecules and ions occurs in plants through plasmodesmata. Plant roots are frequently subjected to localized anaerobic stress, with a resultant decrease in ATP. In order to determine the effect of this stress on plasmodesmal transport, fluorescent dyes of increasing molecular weight (0.46 to 1OkDa) were injected into epidermal and cortical cells of 3-day-old wheat roots, and their movement into neighboring cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Anaerobiosis was generated by N2 gas or simulated by the presence of sodium azide, both of which reduced the ATP levels in the tissue by over 80%. In the absence of such stress, the upper limit for movement, or size exclusion limit (SEL), of cortical plasmodesmata was roots, indicating that plasmodesmata may be conduits for nucleotide (ATP and ADP) exchange between cells. Upon imposition of stress, the SEL rose to between 5 and 10 kDa. This response of plasmodesmata to a decrease in the level of ATP suggests that they are constricted by an ATP-dependent process so as to maintain a restricted SEL. When roots are subjected to anaerobic stress, an increase in SEL may permit enhanced delivery of sugars to the affected cells of the root where anaerobic respiration could regenerate the needed ATP.

  20. The Development of Pointing Perception in Infancy: Effects of Communicative Signals on Covert Shifts of Attention (United States)

    Daum, Moritz M.; Ulber, Julia; Gredebäck, Gustaf


    The present study aims to investigate the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication with respect to infants' perception of pointing gestures. Infants were presented with still images of pointing hands (cue) in combination with an acoustic stimulus. The communicative content of this acoustic stimulus was varied from being human and…

  1. Rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment S6-encoded nonstructural protein has a cell-to-cell movement function. (United States)

    Li, Yi; Bao, Yi M; Wei, Chun H; Kang, Zhen S; Zhong, Yong W; Mao, Peng; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhang L; Schiemann, Joachim; Nelson, Richard S


    Rice dwarf virus (RDV) is a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, which is composed of viruses with segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. Proteins that support the intercellular movement of these viruses in the host have not been identified. Microprojectile bombardment was used to determine which open reading frames (ORFs) support intercellular movement of a heterologous virus. A plasmid containing an infectious clone of Potato virus X (PVX) defective in cell-to-cell movement and expressing either beta-glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used for cobombardment with plasmids containing ORFs from RDV gene segments S1 through S12 onto leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX was restored by cobombardment with a plasmid containing S6. In the absence of S6, no other gene segment supported movement. Identical results were obtained with Nicotiana tabacum, a host that allows fewer viruses to infect and spread within its tissue. S6 supported the cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX in sink and source leaves of N. benthamiana. A mutant S6 lacking the translation start codon did not complement the cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX. An S6 protein product (Pns6)-enhanced GFP fusion was observed near or within cell walls of epidermal cells from N. tabacum. By immunocytochemistry, unfused Pns6 was localized to plasmodesmata in rice leaves infected with RDV. S6 thus encodes a protein with characteristics identical to those of other viral proteins required for the cell-to-cell movement of their genome and therefore is likely required for the cell-to-cell movement of RDV.

  2. Stomatal movement in response to long distance- communicated signals initiated by heat shock in partial roots of Commelina communis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The systematic or long-distance signal transmission plays crucial roles in animal lives. Compared with animals, however, much less is known about the roles of long-distance signal communication in plant lives. Using the model plant Commelina communis L., we have probed the root to shoot communication mediated by heat-shock signals. The results showed that a heat shock of 5 min at 40℃ in partial roots, i.e. half or even 1/4 root system, could lead to a significant decrease in stomatal conductance. The regulation capability depends on both heat shock temperature and the amount of root system, i.e. with higher temperature and more roots stressed, the leaf conductance would decrease more significantly. Interestingly, the stomatal regulation by heat shock signal is in a manner of oscillation: when stomata conductance decreased to the lowest level within about 30 min, it would increase rapidly and sometimes even exceed the initial level, and after several cycles the stomata conductance would be finally stabilized at a lower level. Feeding xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants could lead to a decrease in stomata conductance, suggesting that the heat shock-initiated signal is basically a positive signal. Further studies showed that heat shock was not able to affect ABA content in xylem sap, and also, not able to lead to a decrease in leaf water status, which suggested that the stomatal regulation was neither mediated by ABA nor by a hydraulic signal. Heat shock could lead to an increase in xylem sap H2O2 content, and moreover, the removal of H2O2 by catalase could partially recover the stomatal inhibition by xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants, suggesting that H2O2 might be able to act as one of the root signals to control the stomatal movement. Due to the fact that heat-shock and drought are usually two concomitant stresses, the stomatal regulation by heat-shock signal should be of significance for plant response to stresses. The observation for the

  3. Computational modeling of allosteric communication reveals organizing principles of mutation-induced signaling in ABL and EGFR kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit


    Full Text Available The emerging structural information about allosteric kinase complexes and the growing number of allosteric inhibitors call for a systematic strategy to delineate and classify mechanisms of allosteric regulation and long-range communication that control kinase activity. In this work, we have investigated mechanistic aspects of long-range communications in ABL and EGFR kinases based on the results of multiscale simulations of regulatory complexes and computational modeling of signal propagation in proteins. These approaches have been systematically employed to elucidate organizing molecular principles of allosteric signaling in the ABL and EGFR multi-domain regulatory complexes and analyze allosteric signatures of the gate-keeper cancer mutations. We have presented evidence that mechanisms of allosteric activation may have universally evolved in the ABL and EGFR regulatory complexes as a product of a functional cross-talk between the organizing αF-helix and conformationally adaptive αI-helix and αC-helix. These structural elements form a dynamic network of efficiently communicated clusters that may control the long-range interdomain coupling and allosteric activation. The results of this study have unveiled a unifying effect of the gate-keeper cancer mutations as catalysts of kinase activation, leading to the enhanced long-range communication among allosterically coupled segments and stabilization of the active kinase form. The results of this study can reconcile recent experimental studies of allosteric inhibition and long-range cooperativity between binding sites in protein kinases. The presented study offers a novel molecular insight into mechanistic aspects of allosteric kinase signaling and provides a quantitative picture of activation mechanisms in protein kinases at the atomic level.

  4. Modelling the Impact of Cell-To-Cell Transmission in Hepatitis B Virus (United States)


    Cell-free virus is a well-recognized and efficient mechanism for the spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the liver. Cell-to-cell transmission (CCT) can be a more efficient means of virus propagation. Despite experimental evidence implying CCT occurs in HBV, its relative impact is uncertain. We develop a 3-D agent-based model where each hepatocyte changes its viral state according to a dynamical process driven by cell-free virus infection, CCT and intracellular replication. We determine the relative importance of CCT in the development and resolution of acute HBV infection in the presence of cytolytic (CTL) and non-CTL mechanisms. T cell clearance number is defined as the minimum number of infected cells needed to be killed by each T cell at peak infection that results in infection clearance within 12 weeks with hepatocyte turnover (HT, number of equivalent livers) ≤3. We find that CCT has very little impact on the establishment of infection as the mean cccDNA copies/cell remains between 15 to 20 at the peak of the infection regardless of CCT strength. In contrast, CCT inhibit immune-mediated clearance of acute HBV infection as higher CCT strength requires higher T cell clearance number and increases the probability of T cell exhaustion. An effective non-CTL inhibition can counter these negative effects of higher strengths of CCT by supporting rapid, efficient viral clearance and with little liver destruction. This is evident as the T cell clearance number drops by approximately 50% when non-CTL inhibition is increased from 10% to 80%. Higher CCT strength also increases the probability of the incidence of fulminant hepatitis with this phenomenon being unlikely to arise for no CCT. In conclusion, we report the possibility of CCT impacting HBV clearance and its contribution to fulminant hepatitis. PMID:27560827

  5. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Mediates Epithelial–Mesenchymal Communication and Promotes Renal Fibrosis


    Ding, Hong; Zhou, Dong; Hao, Sha; Zhou, Lili; He, Weichun; Nie, Jing; Hou, Fan Fan; Liu, Youhua


    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a developmental signal cascade that plays an essential role in regulating embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigated the potential role of Shh signaling in renal interstitial fibrogenesis. Ureteral obstruction induced Shh, predominantly in the renal tubular epithelium of the fibrotic kidneys. Using Gli1lacZ knock-in mice, we identified renal interstitial fibroblasts as Shh-responding cells. In cultured renal fibroblasts, recombinant Shh prote...


    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney


    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...


    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli


    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  8. The Role of Positive and Negative Signaling Communication by Strong and Weak Ties in the Shaping of Safe Sex Subjective Norms of Adolescents in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.; Westhoff, Yvette


    We propose the theory that subjective (injunctive) social norms are shaped through two intertwined processes: positive and negative signaling communication by the personal social network and construal of the communicated social norm. Construal is evoked by the strength of the relation between a tie

  9. Parameter estimation of DSSS signals in non-cooperative communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoming; Zhang Zhongzhao


    A new adaptive estimator for direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signals using fourth-order cumulant based adaptive method is considered. The general higher-order statistics may not be easily applied in signal processing with too complex computation. Based on the fourth-order cumulant with 1-D slices and adaptive filters, an efficient algorithm is proposed to solve the problem and is extended for nonstationary stochastic processes. In order to achieve thc accurate parameter estimation of direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signals, the firrst step uses the modified fourth-order cumulant to reduce the computing complexity. While the second step employs an adaptive recursive system to estimate the power spectrum in the frequency domain. In the case of intercepted signals without large enough data samples, the estimator provides good performance in parameter estimation and white Gaussian noise suppression. Computer simulations are included to corroborate the theoretical development with different signal-to-noise ratio conditions and recursive coefficients.

  10. Low probability of intercept-based adaptive radar waveform optimization in signal-dependent clutter for joint radar and cellular communication systems (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang


    In this paper, we investigate the problem of low probability of intercept (LPI)-based adaptive radar waveform optimization in signal-dependent clutter for joint radar and cellular communication systems, where the radar system optimizes the transmitted waveform such that the interference caused to the cellular communication systems is strictly controlled. Assuming that the precise knowledge of the target spectra, the power spectral densities (PSDs) of signal-dependent clutters, the propagation losses of corresponding channels and the communication signals is known by the radar, three different LPI based criteria for radar waveform optimization are proposed to minimize the total transmitted power of the radar system by optimizing the multicarrier radar waveform with a predefined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraint and a minimum required capacity for the cellular communication systems. These criteria differ in the way the communication signals scattered off the target are considered in the radar waveform design: (1) as useful energy, (2) as interference or (3) ignored altogether. The resulting problems are solved analytically and their solutions represent the optimum power allocation for each subcarrier in the multicarrier radar waveform. We show with numerical results that the LPI performance of the radar system can be significantly improved by exploiting the scattered echoes off the target due to cellular communication signals received at the radar receiver.

  11. Optimal space communications techniques. [discussion of video signals and delta modulation (United States)

    Schilling, D. L.


    The encoding of video signals using the Song Adaptive Delta Modulator (Song ADM) is discussed. The video signals are characterized as a sequence of pulses having arbitrary height and width. Although the ADM is suited to tracking signals having fast rise times, it was found that the DM algorithm (which permits an exponential rise for estimating an input step) results in a large overshoot and an underdamped response to the step. An overshoot suppression algorithm which significantly reduces the ringing while not affecting the rise time is presented along with formuli for the rise time and the settling time. Channel errors and their effect on the DM encoded bit stream were investigated.

  12. When the brain speaks for itself : exploiting hemodynamic brain signals for motor-independent communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorger, B.


    Communication is an essential element of human interaction but can be compromised in several clinical conditions. In the so-called 'locked-in' syndrome (LIS), resulting from a severe motor paralysis, patients are literally confined to their own bodies, while at the same time being fully conscious an

  13. General model of signal propagation in a Raman amplified single-mode fiber based coherent optical communication system (United States)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming


    The distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) has been widely utilized in state-of-the-art coherent optical communication systems using multi-level modulation formatted signals in order to improve transmission performance. A general model based on Jones vector notation governing the signal propagation under Raman amplified link is proposed. Primary physics including both linear and nonlinear effects have been taken into account. The numerical approach for solving the equations is illustrated in detail. Using the model, system characterization and optimization can be easily performed. We also compare our model with the commonly used coarse-step method. It is found that the coarse-step method will exaggerate the cross-polarization modulation induced impairments by over 6 dB and will become unusable when the pump power is as high as several Watts. The proposed model provides a guideline for the simulation of Raman amplified coherent transmission systems.

  14. Time domain zero-padding based adaptive-PAM signal transmission with high spectral efficiency in IMDD optical communication system (United States)

    Zhang, Fangliu; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Cheng, Yun; Xiao, Minlei; Chen, Lin


    In this paper, an adaptive pulse amplitude modulation (APAM) scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in the intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) optical communications system. In the proposed scheme, the channel is divided into two sub-channels, and different PAM mapping can be chosen for different sub-channel according to the fading conditions. In addition, the 20-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission of 24 Gbit/s 16/4-APAM signal with the spectral efficiency (SE) up to 6 bit/s/Hz is experimentally demonstrated. The experiment results show that the bit error rate (BER) of the 16/4-APAM signal can be achieved less than 2.4e-2.

  15. Air pollution impedes plant-to-plant communication, but what is the signal? (United States)

    Blande, James D; Li, Tao; Holopainen, Jarmo K


    Since the first reports that undamaged plants gain defensive benefits following exposure to damaged neighbors, the idea that plants may signal to each other has attracted much interest. There has also been substantial debate concerning the ecological significance of the process and the evolutionary drivers. Part of this debate has centered on the distance over which signaling between plants occurs in nature. In a recent study we showed that an ozone concentration of 80 ppb, commonly encountered in nature, significantly reduces the distance over which plant-plant signaling occurs in lima bean. We went on to show that degradation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles by ozone is the likely mechanism for this. The key question remaining from our work was that if ozone is degrading the signal in transit between plants, which chemicals are responsible for transmitting the signal in purer air? Here we present the results of a small scale experiment testing the role of the two most significant herbivore-induced terpenes and discuss our results in terms of other reported functions for these chemicals in plant-plant signaling.

  16. Prostaglandin E2 reduces the release and infectivity of new cell-free virions and cell-to-cell HIV-1 transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Clemente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The course of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infection is influenced by a complex interplay between viral and host factors. HIV infection stimulates several proinflammatory genes, such as cyclooxigense-2 (COX-2, which leads to an increase in prostaglandin (PG levels in the plasma of HIV-1-infected patients. These genes play an indeterminate role in HIV replication and pathogenesis. The effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 on HIV infection is quite controversial and even contradictory, so we sought to determine the role of PGE2 and the signal transduction pathways involved in HIV infection to elucidate possible new targets for antiretrovirals. RESULTS: Our results suggest that PGE2 post-infection treatment acts in the late stages of the viral cycle to reduce HIV replication. Interestingly, viral protein synthesis was not affected, but a loss of progeny virus production was observed. No modulation of CD4 CXCR4 and CCR5 receptor expression, cell proliferation, or activation after PGE2 treatment was detected. Moreover, PGE2 induced an increase in intracellular cAMP (cyclic AMP levels through the EP2/EP4 receptors. PGE2 effects were mimicked by dbcAMP and by a specific Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP agonist, 8-Cpt-cAMP. Treatment with PGE2 increased Rap1 activity, decreased RhoA activity and subsequently reduced the polymerization of actin by approximately 30% compared with untreated cells. In connection with this finding, polarized viral assembly platforms enriched in Gag were disrupted, altering HIV cell-to-cell transfer and the infectivity of new virions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that PGE2, through Epac and Rap activation, alters the transport of newly synthesized HIV-1 components to the assembly site, reducing the release and infectivity of new cell-free virions and cell-to-cell HIV-1 transfer.

  17. Multi-scale characean experimental system: from electrophysiology of membrane transporters to cell-to-cell connectivity, cytoplasmic streaming and auxin metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Beilby


    Full Text Available The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology.

  18. Multi-Scale Characean Experimental System: From Electrophysiology of Membrane Transporters to Cell-to-Cell Connectivity, Cytoplasmic Streaming and Auxin Metabolism. (United States)

    Beilby, Mary J


    The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology.

  19. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)


    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  20. Relative Roles of Gap Junction Channels and Cytoplasm in Cell-to-Cell Diffusion of Fluorescent Tracers (United States)

    Safranyos, Richard G. A.; Caveney, Stanley; Miller, James G.; Petersen, Nils O.


    Intercellular (tissue) diffusion of molecules requires cytoplasmic diffusion and diffusion through gap junctional (or cell-to-cell) channels. The rates of tissue and cytoplasmic diffusion of fluorescent tracers, expressed as an effective diffusion coefficient, De, and a cytoplasmic diffusion coefficient, Dcyt, have been measured among the developing epidermal cells of a larval beetle, Tenebrio molitor L., to determine the contribution of the junctional channels to intercellular diffusion. Tracer diffusion was measured by injecting fluorescent tracers into cells and quantitating the rate of subsequent spread into adjacent cells. Cytoplasmic diffusion was determined by fluorescence photobleaching. These experiments show that gap junctional channels constitute approximately 70-80% of the total cell-to-cell resistance to the diffusion of organic tracers at high concentrations in this tissue. At low concentrations, however, the binding of tracer to cytoplasm slows down the cytoplasmic diffusion, which may limit intercellular diffusion.

  1. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3 (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.


    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  2. Signal processing approaches to secure physical layer communications in multi-antenna wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Y-W Peter; Kuo, C-C Jay


    This book introduces various signal processing approaches to enhance physical layer secrecy in multi-antenna wireless systems. Wireless physical layer secrecy has attracted much attention in recent years due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and its inherent vulnerability to eavesdropping. While most articles on physical layer secrecy focus on the information-theoretic aspect, we focus specifically on the signal processing aspects, including beamforming and precoding techniques for data transmission and discriminatory training schemes for channel estimation. The discussions will c

  3. [Action of antibiotics as signalling molecules]. (United States)

    Bulgakova, V G; Vinogradova, K A; Orlova, T I; Kozhevin, P A; Polin, A N


    It was thought that antibiotics should be produced by soil microorganisms to inhibit the growth of competitors in natural habitats. Yet it has been shown that antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations may have a role as signalling molecules providing cell-to-cell communication in bacteria in the environment. Antibiotics modulate gene transcription and regulate gene expression in microbial populations. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics may cause a number of phenotypic and genotypic changes in microorganisms. These transcription changes are dependent on the interaction of antibiotics with macromolecular receptors such as ribosome or RNA-polymerase. Antibiotic signalling and quorum-sensing system are important regulatory mechanisms in bacteria. It was demonstrated that antibiotics interfered with quorum-sensing system.

  4. Reinforcement Delay Fading during Differential Reinforcement of Communication: The Effects of Signals on Response Maintenance (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.


    Signals during delays to reinforcement may lessen reductions in responding that typically occur when there is a delay between a response and its reinforcer. Sparse applied research has been devoted to understanding the conditions under which responding may be maintained when delays to reinforcement are introduced. We evaluated the extent to which…

  5. The Effects of Hearing Protectors on Speech Communication and the Perception of Warning Signals (United States)


    sensorineural hearing loss (S) . While the...Figure 1. Effect of earmuffs on the audibility of a signal in noise by a subject with normal hearing (N) and one with sensorineural hearing loss (S). Upper...investigated the psychological and social effects of " sudden hearing loss " by occluding the ears of normal- hearing individuals. Subjects wore earplugs

  6. Network coding based joint signaling and dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for inter optical network unit communication in passive optical networks (United States)

    Wei, Pei; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng


    As an innovative and promising technology, network coding has been introduced to passive optical networks (PON) in recent years to support inter optical network unit (ONU) communication, yet the signaling process and dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in PON with network coding (NC-PON) still need further study. Thus, we propose a joint signaling and DBA scheme for efficiently supporting differentiated services of inter ONU communication in NC-PON. In the proposed joint scheme, the signaling process lays the foundation to fulfill network coding in PON, and it can not only avoid the potential threat to downstream security in previous schemes but also be suitable for the proposed hybrid dynamic bandwidth allocation (HDBA) scheme. In HDBA, a DBA cycle is divided into two sub-cycles for applying different coding, scheduling and bandwidth allocation strategies to differentiated classes of services. Besides, as network traffic load varies, the entire upstream transmission window for all REPORT messages slides accordingly, leaving the transmission time of one or two sub-cycles to overlap with the bandwidth allocation calculation time at the optical line terminal (the OLT), so that the upstream idle time can be efficiently eliminated. Performance evaluation results validate that compared with the existing two DBA algorithms deployed in NC-PON, HDBA demonstrates the best quality of service (QoS) support in terms of delay for all classes of services, especially guarantees the end-to-end delay bound of high class services. Specifically, HDBA can eliminate queuing delay and scheduling delay of high class services, reduce those of lower class services by at least 20%, and reduce the average end-to-end delay of all services over 50%. Moreover, HDBA also achieves the maximum delay fairness between coded and uncoded lower class services, and medium delay fairness for high class services.

  7. MIMO系统的信号检测算法%Research on Signal Detection Algorithms For MIMO Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田根林; 李华


    In the high-speed broadband wireless communication systems, Multi-input and multi-output(MIMO) technology can improve transmission rate and spectrum efficiencies without any increase of system bandwidth and transmitting power. Thus, the signal detection for MIMO systems is challenging because of the channel noise and multipath fading, and has become the biggest block of development. In this paper, most attention is concentrated on the signal detection algorithms for MIMO Communication Systems, through the comparision with the existent algorithms and the simulations, we can conclude that the signal detection algorithm based on sphere decoding has a better detection effect. Due to the introduction of the interference cancellation and the ordering rule, the algorithm optimality of ZF-OSIC and MMSE-OSIC is both improved effectively.%在高速宽带无线通信系统中,MIMO技术能够在不增加系统带宽和发射功率的情况下,有效提高系统传输速率和频谱效率。然而,由于不同发射天线发出的信号的相互干扰以及无线通信系统的多径效应,使得MIMO系统的信号检测面临巨大挑战,严重阻碍了MIMO技术的广泛应用。因此本文主要针对MIMO系统的信号检测算法进行研究,通过算法比较和仿真验证可以得出,基于球形译码的信号检测(SD)算法具有更优的检测结果。由于引入干扰抵消和排序机制,ZF-OSIC和MMSE-OSIC算法在性能方面得到了提升。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Havrilyuk


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper there is the comparative analysis of standards and methods of measurements of electromagnetic interference, those are caused by electrical equipment of new types of rolling stock with AC and DC-current electric traction in accordance with the normative documents are adopted in Ukraine and the EU. The development on this basis the measuring method of current interference in traction network, generated by the electrical equipment of electric rolling stock (ERS applicable to testing the new types of rolling stock for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC with different systems of railway signaling is also needed. Methodology. The testing method has been offered. It includes measurements in power circuits of rolling stock, as well as in track devices of signalization systems. Findings. Norms and methods tests of a rolling stock on electromagnetic compatibility with track circuits (TC were analyzed. It was found that a large variety of electricity supply systems, signalization and link in Europe makes it necessary to test new types of electric rolling stock for electromagnetic compatibility with pick up unit in each country separately, taking into account the features used in its systems. It is greatly increases the cost of introducing new types of rolling stock. The test method of electric rolling stock EMC with track circuits has been developed; it includes measurement in power circuits of rolling stock, as well as in track devices of signalization systems. Measurements in accordance with the proposed methodology for electric rolling stock with asynchronous traction drive when driving on sections electrified at AC and DC have been carried out. The values of the interference current in track circuit to all the frequencies of the signal current have been defined. It is shown that under some modes of the train the interference current exceed the permissible values. Originality. The method for measuring interference current generated

  9. Turning signals into meaning--'shared decision making' meets communication theory. (United States)

    Kasper, Jürgen; Légaré, France; Scheibler, Fülöp; Geiger, Friedemann


    Shared decision making (SDM) is being increasingly challenged for promoting an innovative role model while adhering to an archaic approach to patient-clinician communication, both in clinical practice and the research field. Too often, SDM has been studied at the individual level, which ignores the interpersonal system between patients and physicians. We aimed to encourage debate by reflecting on the essentials of SDM in terms of epistemology. We operationalized the SDM core concept of information exchange in terms of social systems theory. An epistemological analysis of the term information refers to its inherent process character. Exchange of information thereby becomes synonymous with social sense construction, indicating that, rather than just being a vehicle, the act of communication itself is the information. We plead for the adoption of existing dyadic analytical methods such as those offered by the interpersonal paradigm. Implications of an updated concept of information for the use of SDM-evaluation methods, for SDM-goal setting, and for clinical practice of SDM are described.

  10. Sodium channel genes and the evolution of diversity in communication signals of electric fishes: convergent molecular evolution. (United States)

    Zakon, Harold H; Lu, Ying; Zwickl, Derrick J; Hillis, David M


    We investigated whether the evolution of electric organs and electric signal diversity in two independently evolved lineages of electric fishes was accompanied by convergent changes on the molecular level. We found that a sodium channel gene (Na(v)1.4a) that is expressed in muscle in nonelectric fishes has lost its expression in muscle and is expressed instead in the evolutionarily novel electric organ in both lineages of electric fishes. This gene appears to be evolving under positive selection in both lineages, facilitated by its restricted expression in the electric organ. This view is reinforced by the lack of evidence for selection on this gene in one electric species in which expression of this gene is retained in muscle. Amino acid replacements occur convergently in domains that influence channel inactivation, a key trait for shaping electric communication signals. Some amino acid replacements occur at or adjacent to sites at which disease-causing mutations have been mapped in human sodium channel genes, emphasizing that these replacements occur in functionally important domains. Selection appears to have acted on the final step in channel inactivation, but complementarily on the inactivation "ball" in one lineage, and its receptor site in the other lineage. Thus, changes in the expression and sequence of the same gene are associated with the independent evolution of signal complexity.

  11. Communicating the Signal of Climate Change in The Presence of Non-Random Noise (United States)

    Mann, M. E.


    The late Stephen Schneider spoke eloquently of the double ethical bind that we face: we must strive to communicate effectively but honestly. This is no simple task given the considerable "noise" generated in our public discourse by vested interests instead working to misinform the public. To do so, we must convey what is known in plainspoken jargon-free language, while acknowledging the real uncertainties that exist. Further, we must explain the implications of those uncertainties, which in many cases imply the possibility of greater, not lesser, risk. Finally, we must not be averse to discussing the policy implications of the science, lest we fail to provide our audience with critical information that can help them make informed choices about their own actions as citizens. I will use examples from my current collaboration with Washington Post editorial cartoonist Tom Toles.

  12. Electronic control of gene expression and cell behaviour in Escherichia coli through redox signalling (United States)

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; McKay, Ryan; Ueda, Hana; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Pottash, Alex Eli; Zargar, Amin; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.


    The ability to interconvert information between electronic and ionic modalities has transformed our ability to record and actuate biological function. Synthetic biology offers the potential to expand communication `bandwidth' by using biomolecules and providing electrochemical access to redox-based cell signals and behaviours. While engineered cells have transmitted molecular information to electronic devices, the potential for bidirectional communication stands largely untapped. Here we present a simple electrogenetic device that uses redox biomolecules to carry electronic information to engineered bacterial cells in order to control transcription from a simple synthetic gene circuit. Electronic actuation of the native transcriptional regulator SoxR and transcription from the PsoxS promoter allows cell response that is quick, reversible and dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the imposed electronic signals. Further, induction of bacterial motility and population based cell-to-cell communication demonstrates the versatility of our approach and potential to drive intricate biological behaviours.

  13. Optimal space communications techniques. [using digital and phase locked systems for signal processing (United States)

    Schilling, D. L.


    Digital multiplication of two waveforms using delta modulation (DM) is discussed. It is shown that while conventional multiplication of two N bit words requires N2 complexity, multiplication using DM requires complexity which increases linearly with N. Bounds on the signal-to-quantization noise ratio (SNR) resulting from this multiplication are determined and compared with the SNR obtained using standard multiplication techniques. The phase locked loop (PLL) system, consisting of a phase detector, voltage controlled oscillator, and a linear loop filter, is discussed in terms of its design and system advantages. Areas requiring further research are identified.

  14. A Novel Efficient Cluster-Based MLSE Equalizer for Satellite Communication Channels with -QAM Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalakas Vassilis


    Full Text Available In satellites, nonlinear amplifiers used near saturation severely distort the transmitted signal and cause difficulties in its reception. Nevertheless, the nonlinearities introduced by memoryless bandpass amplifiers preserve the symmetries of the -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM constellation. In this paper, a cluster-based sequence equalizer (CBSE that takes advantage of these symmetries is presented. The proposed equalizer exhibits enhanced performance compared to other techniques, including the conventional linear transversal equalizer, Volterra equalizers, and RBF network equalizers. Moreover, this gain in performance is obtained at a substantially lower computational cost.

  15. Critical role of gap junction communication, calcium and nitric oxide signaling in bystander responses to focal photodynamic injury. (United States)

    Calì, Bianca; Ceolin, Stefano; Ceriani, Federico; Bortolozzi, Mario; Agnellini, Andrielly H R; Zorzi, Veronica; Predonzani, Andrea; Bronte, Vincenzo; Molon, Barbara; Mammano, Fabio


    Ionizing and nonionizing radiation affect not only directly targeted cells but also surrounding "bystander" cells. The underlying mechanisms and therapeutic role of bystander responses remain incompletely defined. Here we show that photosentizer activation in a single cell triggers apoptosis in bystander cancer cells, which are electrically coupled by gap junction channels and support the propagation of a Ca2+ wave initiated in the irradiated cell. The latter also acts as source of nitric oxide (NO) that diffuses to bystander cells, in which NO levels are further increased by a mechanism compatible with Ca(2+)-dependent enzymatic production. We detected similar signals in tumors grown in dorsal skinfold chambers applied to live mice. Pharmacological blockade of connexin channels significantly reduced the extent of apoptosis in bystander cells, consistent with a critical role played by intercellular communication, Ca2+ and NO in the bystander effects triggered by photodynamic therapy.

  16. Design and Implementation of an Efficient Software Communications Architecture Core Framework for a Digital Signal Processors Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Murtada


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Software Communications Architecture (SCA was developed to improve software reuse and interoperability in Software Defined Radios (SDR. However, there have been performance concerns since its conception. Arguably, the majority of the problems and inefficiencies associated with the SCA can be attributed to the assumption of modular distributed platforms relying on General Purpose Processors (GPPs to perform all signal processing. Approach: Significant improvements in cost and power consumption can be obtained by utilizing specialized and more efficient platforms. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs present such a platform and have been widely used in the communications industry. Improvements in development tools and middleware technology opened the possibility of fully integrating DSPs into the SCA. This approach takes advantage of the exceptional power, cost and performance characteristics of DSPs, while still enjoying the flexibility and portability of the SCA. Results: This study presents the design and implementation of an SCA Core Framework (CF for a TI TMS320C6416 DSP. The framework is deployed on a C6416 Device Cycle Accurate Simulator and TI C6416 Development board. The SCA CF is implemented by leveraging OSSIE, an open-source implementation of the SCA, to support the DSP platform. OIS’s ORBExpress DSP and DSP/BIOS are used as the middleware and operating system, respectively. A sample waveform was developed to demonstrate the framework’s functionality. Benchmark results for the framework and sample applications are provided. Conclusion: Benchmark results show that, using OIS ORBExpress DSP ORB middleware has an impact for decreasing the Software Memory Footprint and increasing the System Performance compared with PrismTech's e*ORB middleware.

  17. Temporary threshold shifts at 1500 and 2000 Hz induced by loud voice signals communicated through earphones in the pinball industry. (United States)

    Idota, Nozomi; Horie, Seichi; Tsutsui, Takao; Inoue, Jinro


    To assess the risk of hearing loss among workers using earphones as communication devices at noisy worksites, we compared temporary threshold shifts (TTS) between ears on which workers wore earphones and ears on which no earphones were worn. We measured ambient noise and personal noise exposure as well as noise generated by and passed through earphones by applying frequency analysis at three pinball facilities during their hours of actual operation. We assessed hearing levels before and after a work shift (prework and postwork) of 54 workers by pure tone audiometry at six frequencies. The time-weighted averages for ambient noise and personal noise exposure exceeded 85 dB(A) and 90 dB(A), respectively. Overall sound pressure levels generated by and passing through earphones reached 109 dB(A). The one-third octave band spectrum of the earphone noise during the shift exceeded 90 dB(SPL) in the range of 315-2000 Hz. The number of ears demonstrating a TTS, defined as a shift of 10 dB or more in postwork over prework hearing thresholds, was significantly greater at 1500 and 2000 Hz among ears with earphones (P communication devices in noisy environments are exposed to high risk of hearing loss, particularly at the frequencies of 1500 and 2000 Hz. Ideally, hearing conservation programs for such workers should account for potential hearing losses at frequencies of 2000 Hz or lower frequencies induced by amplified voice signals.

  18. A Nonlinear Mixed Effects Approach for Modeling the Cell-To-Cell Variability of Mig1 Dynamics in Yeast. (United States)

    Almquist, Joachim; Bendrioua, Loubna; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan; Jirstrand, Mats


    The last decade has seen a rapid development of experimental techniques that allow data collection from individual cells. These techniques have enabled the discovery and characterization of variability within a population of genetically identical cells. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) modeling is an established framework for studying variability between individuals in a population, frequently used in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but its potential for studies of cell-to-cell variability in molecular cell biology is yet to be exploited. Here we take advantage of this novel application of NLME modeling to study cell-to-cell variability in the dynamic behavior of the yeast transcription repressor Mig1. In particular, we investigate a recently discovered phenomenon where Mig1 during a short and transient period exits the nucleus when cells experience a shift from high to intermediate levels of extracellular glucose. A phenomenological model based on ordinary differential equations describing the transient dynamics of nuclear Mig1 is introduced, and according to the NLME methodology the parameters of this model are in turn modeled by a multivariate probability distribution. Using time-lapse microscopy data from nearly 200 cells, we estimate this parameter distribution according to the approach of maximizing the population likelihood. Based on the estimated distribution, parameter values for individual cells are furthermore characterized and the resulting Mig1 dynamics are compared to the single cell times-series data. The proposed NLME framework is also compared to the intuitive but limited standard two-stage (STS) approach. We demonstrate that the latter may overestimate variabilities by up to almost five fold. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the inferred population model are used to predict the distribution of key characteristics of the Mig1 transient response. We find that with decreasing levels of post-shift glucose, the transient response of Mig1 tend

  19. A Nonlinear Mixed Effects Approach for Modeling the Cell-To-Cell Variability of Mig1 Dynamics in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Almquist

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a rapid development of experimental techniques that allow data collection from individual cells. These techniques have enabled the discovery and characterization of variability within a population of genetically identical cells. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME modeling is an established framework for studying variability between individuals in a population, frequently used in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but its potential for studies of cell-to-cell variability in molecular cell biology is yet to be exploited. Here we take advantage of this novel application of NLME modeling to study cell-to-cell variability in the dynamic behavior of the yeast transcription repressor Mig1. In particular, we investigate a recently discovered phenomenon where Mig1 during a short and transient period exits the nucleus when cells experience a shift from high to intermediate levels of extracellular glucose. A phenomenological model based on ordinary differential equations describing the transient dynamics of nuclear Mig1 is introduced, and according to the NLME methodology the parameters of this model are in turn modeled by a multivariate probability distribution. Using time-lapse microscopy data from nearly 200 cells, we estimate this parameter distribution according to the approach of maximizing the population likelihood. Based on the estimated distribution, parameter values for individual cells are furthermore characterized and the resulting Mig1 dynamics are compared to the single cell times-series data. The proposed NLME framework is also compared to the intuitive but limited standard two-stage (STS approach. We demonstrate that the latter may overestimate variabilities by up to almost five fold. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the inferred population model are used to predict the distribution of key characteristics of the Mig1 transient response. We find that with decreasing levels of post-shift glucose, the transient

  20. Synaptic communication and signal processing among sensory cells in taste buds (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirupa


    Taste buds (sensory structures embedded in oral epithelium) show a remarkable diversity of transmitters synthesized and secreted locally. The known transmitters accumulate in a cell type selective manner, with 5-HT and noradrenaline being limited to presynaptic cells, GABA being synthesized in both presynaptic and glial-like cells, and acetylcholine and ATP used for signalling by receptor cells. Each of these transmitters participates in local negative or positive feedback circuits that target particular cell types. Overall, the role of ATP is the best elucidated. ATP serves as a principal afferent transmitter, and also is the key trigger for autocrine positive feedback and paracrine circuits that result in potentiation (via adenosine) or inhibition (via GABA or 5-HT). While many of the cellular receptors and mechanisms for these circuits are known, their impact on sensory detection and perception remains to be elaborated in most instances. This brief review examines what is known, and some of the open questions and controversies surrounding the transmitters and circuits of the taste periphery. PMID:24665098

  1. A fast BK-type KCa current acts as a postsynaptic modulator of temporal selectivity for communication signals

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    Tsunehiko eKohashi


    Full Text Available Temporal patterns of spiking often convey behaviorally relevant information. Various synaptic mechanisms and intrinsic membrane properties can influence neuronal selectivity to temporal patterns of input. However, little is known about how synaptic mechanisms and intrinsic properties together determine the temporal selectivity of neuronal output. We tackled this question by recording from midbrain electrosensory neurons in mormyrid fish, in which the processing of temporal intervals between communication signals can be studied in a reduced in vitro preparation. Mormyrids communicate by varying interpulse intervals (IPIs between electric pulses. Within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp, the temporal patterns of afferent spike trains are filtered to establish single-neuron IPI tuning. We performed whole-cell recording from ELp neurons in a whole-brain preparation and examined the relationship between intrinsic excitability and IPI tuning. We found that spike frequency adaptation of ELp neurons was highly variable. Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs of strongly adapting (phasic neurons were more sharply tuned to IPIs than weakly adapting (tonic neurons. Further, the synaptic filtering of IPIs by tonic neurons was more faithfully converted into variation in spiking output, particularly at short IPIs. Pharmacological manipulation under current- and voltage-clamp revealed that tonic firing is mediated by a fast, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa current (BK that speeds up action potential repolarization. These results suggest that BK currents can shape the temporal filtering of sensory inputs by modifying both synaptic responses and PSP-to-spike conversion. Slow SK-type KCa currents have previously been implicated in temporal processing. Thus, both fast and slow KCa currents can fine-tune temporal selectivity.

  2. Estimation of Potential Interference Immunity of Radio Reception with Spatial Signal Processing in Mutipath Radio-Communication Channels. Part II. Meter and Decimeter Ranges (United States)

    Lvov, A. V.; Metelev, S. L.


    We propose simulation models for estimating the interference immunity of radio reception using the spatial processing of signals in the airborne and ground-based communication channels of the meter and decimeter wavelength ranges. The ultimate achievable interference immunity under various radio-wave propagation conditions is studied.

  3. Estimation of the Potential Interference Immunity of Radio Reception with Spatial Signal Processing in Multipath Radio-Communication Channels. I. Decameter Range (United States)

    Metelev, S. A.; Lvov, A. V.


    We propose a method for estimating potential interference immunity of radio reception in the multipath radio-communication channels. Using this method for the modified Watterson model of the decameter radio channel, we study the achievable interference immunity of devices with spatial signal processing.

  4. Competition in notch signaling with cis enriches cell fate decisions.

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    Pau Formosa-Jordan

    Full Text Available Notch signaling is involved in cell fate choices during the embryonic development of Metazoa. Commonly, Notch signaling arises from the binding of the Notch receptor to its ligands in adjacent cells driving cell-to-cell communication. Yet, cell-autonomous control of Notch signaling through both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms is known to occur as well. Examples include Notch signaling arising in the absence of ligand binding, and cis-inhibition of Notch signaling by titration of the Notch receptor upon binding to its ligands within a single cell. Increasing experimental evidences support that the binding of the Notch receptor with its ligands within a cell (cis-interactions can also trigger a cell-autonomous Notch signal (cis-signaling, whose potential effects on cell fate decisions and patterning remain poorly understood. To address this question, herein we mathematically and computationally investigate the cell states arising from the combination of cis-signaling with additional Notch signaling sources, which are either cell-autonomous or involve cell-to-cell communication. Our study shows that cis-signaling can switch from driving cis-activation to effectively perform cis-inhibition and identifies under which conditions this switch occurs. This switch relies on the competition between Notch signaling sources, which share the same receptor but differ in their signaling efficiency. We propose that the role of cis-interactions and their signaling on fine-grained patterning and cell fate decisions is dependent on whether they drive cis-inhibition or cis-activation, which could be controlled during development. Specifically, cis-inhibition and not cis-activation facilitates patterning and enriches it by modulating the ratio of cells in the high-ligand expression state, by enabling additional periodic patterns like stripes and by allowing localized patterning highly sensitive to the precursor state and cell-autonomous bistability

  5. The Sexual Behaviour of Chagas' Disease Vectors: Chemical Signals Mediating Communication between Male and Female Triatomine Bugs

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    Gabriel Manrique


    Full Text Available Chemical communication mechanisms that mediate sexual behaviour in triatomine bugs are reviewed with regard to source, identity, and function of sex pheromones. Males attempt to copulate but may be rejected, depending on female age and nutritional status. Triatomine males locate partners through sex pheromones emitted by the metasternal glands (MGs of females. These activate males, inducing them to leave their refuges and initiate flight. Wandering males display anemotactic orientation modulated by chemical signals emitted from female MGs. Analyses of the MG secretions of several species resulted in the identification of numerous ketones, acetals, and alcohols. Occlusion experiments showed that Brindley’s gland products were not required for mating. Metasternal gland volatiles are emitted by virgin male and female bugs, with detection over females occurring more consistently, especially during the early scotophase, suggesting female calling behaviour. Mating triatomine females have been reported to attract males that tend to copulate successively with them. Mating males prolong mating and postcopulatory mate guarding in the presence of other males. This is indicative of a polyandrous mating system in several triatomine species. Its potential advantages remain unknown, and comparative studies are required to increase our understanding of triatomine reproductive strategies.

  6. Chikungunya virus neutralization antigens and direct cell-to-cell transmission are revealed by human antibody-escape mutants.

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    Chia Yin Lee


    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics throughout Africa and Asia, causing infectious arthritis and reportedly linked with fatal infections in newborns and elderly. Previous studies in animal models indicate that humoral immunity can protect against CHIKV infection, but despite the potential efficacy of B-cell-driven intervention strategies, there are no virus-specific vaccines or therapies currently available. In addition, CHIKV has been reported to elicit long-lasting virus-specific IgM in humans, and to establish long-term persistence in non-human primates, suggesting that the virus might evade immune defenses to establish chronic infections in man. However, the mechanisms of immune evasion potentially employed by CHIKV remain uncharacterized. We previously described two human monoclonal antibodies that potently neutralize CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape antibody-dependent neutralization to identify the CHIKV E2 domain B and fusion loop "groove" as the primary determinants of CHIKV interaction with these antibodies. Furthermore, for the first time, we have also demonstrated direct CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission, as a mechanism that involves the E2 domain A and that is associated with viral resistance to antibody-dependent neutralization. Identification of CHIKV sub-domains that are associated with human protective immunity, will pave the way for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. Moreover, the clear demonstration of CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission and its possible role in the establishment of CHIKV persistence, will also inform the development of future anti-viral interventions. These data shed new light on CHIKV-host interactions that will help to combat human CHIKV infection and inform future studies of CHIKV pathogenesis.

  7. Exploring the contextual sensitivity of factors that determine cell-to-cell variability in receptor-mediated apoptosis.

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    Suzanne Gaudet

    Full Text Available Stochastic fluctuations in gene expression give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein levels which can potentially cause variability in cellular phenotype. For TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand variability manifests itself as dramatic differences in the time between ligand exposure and the sudden activation of the effector caspases that kill cells. However, the contribution of individual proteins to phenotypic variability has not been explored in detail. In this paper we use feature-based sensitivity analysis as a means to estimate the impact of variation in key apoptosis regulators on variability in the dynamics of cell death. We use Monte Carlo sampling from measured protein concentration distributions in combination with a previously validated ordinary differential equation model of apoptosis to simulate the dynamics of receptor-mediated apoptosis. We find that variation in the concentrations of some proteins matters much more than variation in others and that precisely which proteins matter depends both on the concentrations of other proteins and on whether correlations in protein levels are taken into account. A prediction from simulation that we confirm experimentally is that variability in fate is sensitive to even small increases in the levels of Bcl-2. We also show that sensitivity to Bcl-2 levels is itself sensitive to the levels of interacting proteins. The contextual dependency is implicit in the mathematical formulation of sensitivity, but our data show that it is also important for biologically relevant parameter values. Our work provides a conceptual and practical means to study and understand the impact of cell-to-cell variability in protein expression levels on cell fate using deterministic models and sampling from parameter distributions.

  8. Silence in Intercultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jun


    In communication, most of people's attention focuses on verbal communication, nonverbal language as a means of exchange is often ignored. However, nonverbal language continues sending signals, and most of these signals are sent to conversational partners unconsciously. So correct understanding of these signals will help people improve effectiveness of communication. This article will focus on silence, a major part of nonverbal communication, exploring its communicative functions and cultural differences.

  9. A versatile complementation assay for cell-to-cell and long distance movements by cucumber mosaic virus based agro-infiltration. (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Min; Li, Chun; Miriam, Karwitha; Zhang, Xue; Tao, Xiaorong


    Microinjection, bombardment or tobamovirus and potexvirus based assay has been developed to identify the putative movement protein (MP) or to characterize plasmodesma-mediated macromolecular transport. In this study, we developed a versatile complementation assay for the cell-to-cell and long distance movements of macromolecules by agro-infiltration based on the infectious clones of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The movement-deficient CMV reporter was constructed by replacing the MP on RNA 3 with ER targeted GFP. The ectopic expression of CMV MP was able to efficiently move the RNA3-MP::erGFP reporter from the original cell to neighboring cells, whereas CMV MP-M5 mutant was unable to initiate the movement. Importantly, the presence of CMV RNA1 and RNA2 can dramatically amplify the movement signals once the RNA3-MP::erGFP reporter moves out of the original cell. The appropriate observation time for this movement complementation assay was at 48-72 hours post infiltration (hpi), whereas the optimal incubation temperature was between 25 and 28 °C. The ectopic co-expression of MPs from other virus genera, NSm from tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) or NSvc4 from rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), could also facilitate the movement of the RNA3::erGFP reporter from the original cell into other cells. The chimeric mutant virus created by substituting the MP of CMV RNA3 with NSm from TSWV or NSvc4 from RSV move systemically in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by agro-infiltration. This agro-infiltration complementation assay is simple, efficient and reliable. Our approach provides an alternative and powerful tool with great potentials in identifying putative movement protein and characterizing macromolecular trafficking.

  10. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  11. Collective Calcium Dynamics in Networks of Communicating Cells (United States)

    Byrd, Tommy; Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo; Mugler, Andrew

    Cells can sense and encode information about their environment with remarkable precision. These properties have been studied extensively for single cells, but intercellular communication is known to be important for both single- and multicellular organisms. Here, we examine calcium dynamics of fibroblast cells exposed to external ATP stimuli, and the effects of communication and stimulus strength on cells' response. Experimental results show that increasing communication strength induces a greater fraction of cells to exhibit oscillatory calcium dynamics, but the frequencies of oscillation do not systematically shift with ATP strength. We developed a model of calcium signaling by adding noise, communication, and cell-to-cell variability to the model of Tang and Othmer. This model reproduces cells' increased tendency to oscillate as a function of communication strength, and frequency encoding is nearly removed at the global level. Our model therefore suggests that the propensity of cells to oscillate, rather than frequency encoding, determines the response to external ATP. These results suggest that the system lies near a critical boundary separating non-oscillatory and oscillatory calcium dynamics.

  12. Illumination distribution and signal transmission for indoor visible light communication with different light-emitting diode arrays and pre-equality circuits (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Liou, Cheng-Jyun; Siao, Syuan-Ruei


    The purpose of this study was to seek the optimal design for light-emitting diode (LED) arrays and pre-equality circuits in indoor visible lighting illumination combined with communication. The optical and communicational properties of illumination distribution and signal transmission were investigated. These illumination distributions of array sources were derivate and simulated and actually can be used in free-space communication. Simulated results show the total flux size was rectangle>radial>circlearray, and real measurements also showed the total flux was rectangle>radial>circlearray. The simulated and measured results have a similarity of over 98% by normalized cross correlation. In addition, when the distance of the installed lamp from the wall was 1 m, the rectangular array had the best illumination uniformity of 77.24%, and the size of uniformity was the rectangle>radial≈circle array. Finally, the gain and constant-current pre-equality circuits were used in free-space communication with a carrier frequency from 1 KHz to 1 MHz at a distance of 1.8 m. Both the received signal intensity and divergence angle were rectangle>radial>circle array. The constant-current pre-equality circuit could add the divergence angle from ±18.6 deg to ±36.68 deg in the rectangle array at a carrier frequency of 1 MHz.

  13. Impact of the Use of Object Request Broker Middleware for Inter-Component Communications in C6416 Digital Signal Processor Based Software Communications Architecture Radio Systems

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    Mohamed I. Yousef


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an in-depth analysis of the performance of Software Communications Architecture (SCA component-based waveform applications in terms of inter-component communications. The main limitation with SCA, in the context of embedded systems, is the additional cost introduced by the use of Object Request Broker (ORB middleware. The ORB middleware handles the interaction between components and objects in SCA distributed environment. This interaction should be highly efficient, due to the real time nature of SCA systems and transparent to the application programmer. Approach: We can achieve high efficiency in SCA systems by enhancing the Inter-Process Communications (IPC mechanisms in Operating systems (OS micro kernels, while we achieve transparency through Interface Definition Language (IDL. Different encoding mechanisms like “External Data Representation (XDR, Network Data Representation (NDR and Common Data Representation (CDR facilitate inter-component communication transparently and efficiently”. Marshalling procedures format data from the local machine representation to common network representations. A most common encoding mechanism for Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA systems is CDR representation. Measurements have been performed with ORBExpress DSP as a CORBA distribution and Open Source SCA Implementation Embedded (OSSIE for SCA implementation. In order to perform these measurements we proposed two metrics for profiling the ORB that are invocation and marshalling. In addition, we propose three elements of data types to evaluate the performance of ORB middleware that are, Basic, Array and Sequence data types. Results: The CORBA bus is really the part, which brings an overhead to the SCA radio systems. This overhead is due to method invocations that have been carried out by ORB middleware. Conclusion: Performance benchmarks of ORBExpress DSP middleware show that, although using CORBA for

  14. Development towards cell-to-cell monolithic integration of a thin-film solar cell and lithium-ion accumulator (United States)

    Agbo, Solomon N.; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Yu, Shicheng; Tempel, Hermann; Kungl, Hans; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Rau, Uwe; Astakhov, Oleksandr


    This work focuses on the potentials of monolithic integrated thin-film silicon solar cell and lithium ion cell in a simple cell-to-cell integration without any control electronics as a compact power solution for portable electronic devices. To demonstrate this we used triple-junction thin-film silicon solar cell connected directly to a lithium ion battery cell to charge the battery and in turn discharge the battery through the solar cell. Our results show that with appropriate voltage matching the solar cell provides efficient charging for lab-scale lithium ion storage cell. Despite the absence of any control electronics the discharge rate of the Li-ion cell through the non-illuminated solar cell can be much lower than the charging rate when the current voltage (IV) characteristics of the solar cell is matched properly to the charge-discharge characteristics of the battery. This indicates good sustainability of the ultimately simple integrated device. At the maximum power point, solar energy-to-battery charging efficiency of 8.5% which is nearly the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was obtained indicating potential for loss-free operation of the photovoltaic (PV)-battery integration. For the rest of the charging points, an average of 8.0% charging efficiency was obtained.

  15. Cell-to-cell contact of human monocytes with infected arterial smooth-muscle cells enhances growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae. (United States)

    Puolakkainen, Mirja; Campbell, Lee Ann; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Richards, Theresa; Patton, Dorothy L; Kuo, Cho-Chou


    Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect arterial cells. It has been shown that coculture of human monocytes (U937) and endothelial cells promotes infection of C. pneumoniae in endothelial cells and that the enhancement was mediated by a soluble factor (insulin-like growth factor 2) secreted by monocytes. In this study, it is shown that coculture of monocytes with C. pneumoniae enhances infection of C. pneumoniae in arterial smooth-muscle cells 5.3-fold at a monocyte-to-smooth-muscle cell ratio of 5. However, unlike endothelial cells, no enhancement was observed if monocytes were placed in cell culture inserts or if conditioned medium from monocyte cultures was used, which suggests that cell-to-cell contact is critical. The addition of mannose 6-phosphate or octyl glucoside, a nonionic detergent containing a sugar group, to cocultures inhibited the enhancement. These findings suggest that the monocyte-smooth-muscle cell interaction may be mediated by mannose 6-phosphate receptors present on monocytes.

  16. Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to-Cell Interactions in Physiological as well as Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Schiera


    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are involved in a great variety of physiological events occurring in the nervous system, such as cross talk among neurons and glial cells in synapse development and function, integrated neuronal plasticity, neuronal-glial metabolic exchanges, and synthesis and dynamic renewal of myelin. Many of these EV-mediated processes depend on the exchange of proteins, mRNAs, and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, which occurs among glial and neuronal cells. In addition, production and exchange of EVs can be modified under pathological conditions, such as brain cancer and neurodegeneration. Like other cancer cells, brain tumours can use EVs to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance, and to transfer molecules into the surrounding cells, thus transforming their phenotype. Moreover, EVs can function as a way to discard material dangerous to cancer cells, such as differentiation-inducing proteins, and even drugs. Intriguingly, EVs seem to be also involved in spreading through the brain of aggregated proteins, such as prions and aggregated tau protein. Finally, EVs can carry useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diseases. Herein we summarize possible roles of EVs in brain physiological functions and discuss their involvement in the horizontal spreading, from cell to cell, of both cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies.

  17. Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Linked to C9orf72-ALS/FTD

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    Thomas Westergard


    Full Text Available Aberrant hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic change underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. RNA transcripts containing these expansions undergo repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN-T to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs. DPRs are found as aggregates throughout the CNS of C9orf72-ALS/FTD patients, and some cause degeneration when expressed in vitro in neuronal cultures and in vivo in animal models. The spread of characteristic disease-related proteins drives the progression of pathology in many neurodegenerative diseases. While DPR toxic mechanisms continue to be investigated, the potential for DPRs to spread has yet to be determined. Using different experimental cell culture platforms, including spinal motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from C9orf72-ALS patients, we found evidence for cell-to-cell spreading of DPRs via exosome-dependent and exosome-independent pathways, which may be relevant to disease.

  18. Role of Rice stripe virus NSvc4 in cell-to-cell movement and symptom development in Nicotiana benthamiana

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    Yi eXu


    Full Text Available Our previous work has demonstrated that the NSvc4 protein of Rice stripe virus (RSV functions as a cell-to-cell movement protein. However, the mechanisms whereby RSV traffics through plasmodesmata (PD are unknown. Here we provide evidence that the NSvc4 moves on the actin filament and endoplasmic reticulum (ER network, but not microtubules, to reach cell wall PD. Disruption of cytoskeleton using different inhibitors altered NSvc4 localization to PD, thus impeding RSV infection of Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analyses and deletion mutagenesis experiment revealed that the N-terminal 125 amino acids (AAs of the NSvc4 determine PD targeting and that a transmembrane domain spanning AAs 106 to 125 is critical for PD localization. We also found that the NSvc4 protein can localize to chloroplasts in infected cells. Analyses using deletion mutants revealed that the N-terminal 73 AAs are essential for chloroplast localization. Furthermore, expression of NSvc4 from a Potato virus X (PVX vector resulted in more severe disease symptoms than PVX alone in systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves. Expression of NSvc4 in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf-9 cells did not elicit tubule formation, but instead resulted in punctate foci at the plasma membrane. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the movement mechanisms whereby RSV infects host plants.

  19. Role of cell-to-cell variability in activating a positive feedback antiviral response in human dendritic cells.

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    Jianzhong Hu

    Full Text Available In the first few hours following Newcastle disease viral infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the induction of IFNB1 is extremely low and the secreted type I interferon response is below the limits of ELISA assay. However, many interferon-induced genes are activated at this time, for example DDX58 (RIGI, which in response to viral RNA induces IFNB1. We investigated whether the early induction of IFNBI in only a small percentage of infected cells leads to low level IFN secretion that then induces IFN-responsive genes in all cells. We developed an agent-based mathematical model to explore the IFNBI and DDX58 temporal dynamics. Simulations showed that a small number of early responder cells provide a mechanism for efficient and controlled activation of the DDX58-IFNBI positive feedback loop. The model predicted distributions of single cell responses that were confirmed by single cell mRNA measurements. The results suggest that large cell-to-cell variation plays an important role in the early innate immune response, and that the variability is essential for the efficient activation of the IFNB1 based feedback loop.

  20. Physical and chemical analysis of lithium-ion battery cell-to-cell failure events inside custom fire chamber (United States)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Field, Christopher R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Williams, Bradley A.; Myers, Kristina M.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.


    A 5-cubic meter decompression chamber was re-purposed as a fire test chamber to conduct failure and abuse experiments on lithium-ion batteries. Various modifications were performed to enable remote control and monitoring of chamber functions, along with collection of data from instrumentation during tests including high speed and infrared cameras, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, real-time gas analyzers, and compact reconfigurable input and output devices. Single- and multi-cell packages of LiCoO2 chemistry 18650 lithium-ion batteries were constructed and data was obtained and analyzed for abuse and failure tests. Surrogate 18650 cells were designed and fabricated for multi-cell packages that mimicked the thermal behavior of real cells without using any active components, enabling internal temperature monitoring of cells adjacent to the active cell undergoing failure. Heat propagation and video recordings before, during, and after energetic failure events revealed a high degree of heterogeneity; some batteries exhibited short burst of sparks while others experienced a longer, sustained flame during failure. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, dimethyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were detected via gas analysis, and the presence of these species was consistent throughout all failure events. These results highlight the inherent danger in large format lithium-ion battery packs with regards to cell-to-cell failure, and illustrate the need for effective safety features.

  1. Evolution of electric communication signals in the South American ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae): A phylogenetic comparative study using a sequence-based phylogeny. (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Proffitt, Melissa R; Ho, Winnie W; Mullaney, Claire B; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Alves-Gomes, José A; Smith, G Troy


    The electric communication signals of weakly electric ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) provide a valuable model system for understanding the evolution and physiology of behavior. Apteronotids produce continuous wave-type electric organ discharges (EODs) that are used for electrolocation and communication. The frequency and waveform of EODs, as well as the structure of transient EOD modulations (chirps), vary substantially across species. Understanding how these signals have evolved, however, has been hampered by the lack of a well-supported phylogeny for this family. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the Apteronotidae by using sequence data from three genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, recombination activating gene 2, and cytochrome oxidase B) in 32 species representing 13 apteronotid genera. This phylogeny and an extensive database of apteronotid signals allowed us to examine signal evolution by using ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) and phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) models. Our molecular phylogeny largely agrees with another recent sequence-based phylogeny and identified five robust apteronotid clades: (i) Sternarchorhamphus+Orthosternarchus, (ii) Adontosternarchus, (iii) Apteronotus+Parapteronotus, (iv) Sternarchorhynchus, and (v) a large clade including Porotergus, 'Apteronotus', Compsaraia, Sternarchogiton, Sternarchella, and Magosternarchus. We analyzed novel chirp recordings from two apteronotid species (Orthosternarchus tamandua and Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus), and combined data from these species with that from previously recorded species in our phylogenetic analyses. Some signal parameters in O. tamandua were plesiomorphic (e.g., low frequency EODs and chirps with little frequency modulation that nevertheless interrupt the EOD), suggesting that ultra-high frequency EODs and "big" chirps evolved after apteronotids diverged from other gymnotiforms. In contrast to previous studies, our PGLS analyses using the

  2. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein restricts cell-to-cell spread of Shigella flexneri at the cell periphery. (United States)

    Lee, Soo Young; Gertler, Frank B; Goldberg, Marcia B


    Shigella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease in humans. Shigella utilize the host actin cytoskeleton to enter cells, move through the cytoplasm of cells and pass into adjacent cells. Ena/VASP family proteins are highly conserved proteins that participate in actin-dependent dynamic cellular processes. We tested whether Ena/VASP family members VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein), Mena (mammalian-enabled) or EVL (Ena-VASP-like) contribute to Shigella flexneri spread through cell monolayers. VASP and EVL restricted cell-to-cell spread without significantly altering actin-based motility, whereas Mena had no effect on these processes. Phosphorylation of VASP on Ser153, Ser235 and Thr274 regulated its subcellular distribution and function. VASP derivatives that lack the Ena/VASP homology 1 (EVH1) domain or contain a phosphoablative mutation of Ser153 were defective in restricting S. flexneri spread, indicating that the EVH1 domain and phosphorylation on Ser153 are required for this process. The EVH1 domain and Ser153 of VASP were required for VASP localization to focal adhesions, and localization of VASP to focal adhesions and/or the leading edge was required for restriction of spread. The contribution of the EVH1 domain was from both the donor and the recipient cell, whereas the contribution of Ser153 phosphorylation was only from the donor cell. Thus, unlike host proteins characterized in Shigella pathogenesis that promote bacterial spread, VASP and EVL function to limit it. The ability of VASP and EVL to limit spread highlights the critical role of focal adhesion complexes and/or the leading edge in bacterial passage between cells.

  3. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro, E-mail:; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi


    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies.

  4. Quantifying the integration of quorum-sensing signals with single-cell resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Long


    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell communication in bacteria is a process known as quorum sensing that relies on the production, detection, and response to the extracellular accumulation of signaling molecules called autoinducers. Often, bacteria use multiple autoinducers to obtain information about the vicinal cell density. However, how cells integrate and interpret the information contained within multiple autoinducers remains a mystery. Using single-cell fluorescence microscopy, we quantified the signaling responses to and analyzed the integration of multiple autoinducers by the model quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Our results revealed that signals from two distinct autoinducers, AI-1 and AI-2, are combined strictly additively in a shared phosphorelay pathway, with each autoinducer contributing nearly equally to the total response. We found a coherent response across the population with little cell-to-cell variation, indicating that the entire population of cells can reliably distinguish several distinct conditions of external autoinducer concentration. We speculate that the use of multiple autoinducers allows a growing population of cells to synchronize gene expression during a series of distinct developmental stages.

  5. Signaling Pathways in Exosomes Biogenesis, Secretion and Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Emiliani


    Full Text Available Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (30–100 nm derived from the endosomal system, which have raised considerable interest in the last decade. Several studies have shown that they mediate cell-to-cell communication in a variety of biological processes. Thus, in addition to cell-to-cell direct interaction or secretion of active molecules, they are now considered another class of signal mediators. Exosomes can be secreted by several cell types and retrieved in many body fluids, such as blood, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition to proteins and lipids, they also contain nucleic acids, namely mRNA and miRNA. These features have prompted extensive research to exploit them as a source of biomarkers for several pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, exosomes also appear attractive as gene delivery vehicles. Furthermore, exosome immunomodulatory and regenerative properties are also encouraging their application for further therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be addressed: exosome biogenesis and secretion mechanisms have not been clearly understood, and physiological functions, as well as pathological roles, are far from being satisfactorily elucidated.

  6. The Effect of Phase-Shifting between Pumping and Signal Lights on Transmission Performance of Optical Fiber Communication Systems with in-Line PSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, the effect of phase-shifting between pumping light and input signal light in an optical Phase-Sensitive Amplifier (PSA) on dispersion compensation for optical fiber communication systems using PSA as in-line amplifiers is theoretically analyzed by computer simulation. From our simulation, we've got the result that the eye-pattern degradation of the high-speed signal increases rapidly with the accretion of fiber dispersion and also increases with the increasing of phase shift. But if the phase shift is controlled in a certain range, it won't affect the system performance. Otherwise, the system performance will be seriously degraded. At all events, the shifting range of PSA's phase, which shifts at both sides of zero, will be half of that which shifts at only one side.

  7. Electronic polarization-division demultiplexing based on digital signal processing in intensity-modulation direct-detection optical communication systems. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kazuro


    We propose a novel configuration of optical receivers for intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM · DD) systems, which can cope with dual-polarization (DP) optical signals electrically. Using a Stokes analyzer and a newly-developed digital signal-processing (DSP) algorithm, we can achieve polarization tracking and demultiplexing in the digital domain after direct detection. Simulation results show that the power penalty stemming from digital polarization manipulations is negligibly small.

  8. Reliable Signal Transduction (United States)

    Wollman, Roy

    Stochasticity inherent to biochemical reactions (intrinsic noise) and variability in cellular states (extrinsic noise) degrade information transmitted through signaling networks. We analyzed the ability of temporal signal modulation - that is dynamics - to reduce noise-induced information loss. In the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium (Ca(2 +)) , and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF- κB) pathways, response dynamics resulted in significantly greater information transmission capacities compared to nondynamic responses. Theoretical analysis demonstrated that signaling dynamics has a key role in overcoming extrinsic noise. Experimental measurements of information transmission in the ERK network under varying signal-to-noise levels confirmed our predictions and showed that signaling dynamics mitigate, and can potentially eliminate, extrinsic noise-induced information loss. By curbing the information-degrading effects of cell-to-cell variability, dynamic responses substantially increase the accuracy of biochemical signaling networks.

  9. Biological Inspired Stochastic Optimization Technique (PSO for DOA and Amplitude Estimation of Antenna Arrays Signal Processing in RADAR Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Hammed


    Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic global optimization technique known as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for joint estimation of amplitude and direction of arrival of the targets in RADAR communication system. The proposed scheme is an excellent optimization methodology and a promising approach for solving the DOA problems in communication systems. Moreover, PSO is quite suitable for real time scenario and easy to implement in hardware. In this study, uniform linear array is used and targets are supposed to be in far field of the arrays. Formulation of the fitness function is based on mean square error and this function requires a single snapshot to obtain the best possible solution. To check the accuracy of the algorithm, all of the results are taken by varying the number of antenna elements and targets. Finally, these results are compared with existing heuristic techniques to show the accuracy of PSO.

  10. Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems (United States)


    methodology within the framework of asymptotic random matrix theory (RMT) to explicitly model the time variability of acoustic channels and using...this to predict un- derwater acoustic communications systems performance. Specifically, current theory to date was applied to the problem of determining...and improvement in equaliza- tion performance. The theory was also applied to the problem of evaluating the relative performance of linear vs decision

  11. Intratesticular signals regulate germ cell progression and production of qualitatively mature spermatozoa in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria eMeccariello


    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis, a highly conserved process in vertebrates, is mainly under the hypothalamic-pituitary control, being regulated by the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH, in response to stimulation exerted by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH from hypothalamic neurons. At testicular level, gonadotropins bind specific receptors located on the somatic cells regulating the production of steroids and factors necessary to ensure a correct spermatogenesis. Indeed, besides the endocrine route, a complex network of cell-to-cell communications regulates germ cell progression, and a combination of endocrine and intragonadal signals sustains the production of high quality mature spermatozoa. In this review we focus on the recent advances in the area of the intragonadal signals supporting sperm development.

  12. Effect of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoprotein G on virus attachment, penetration, growth curve and direct cell-to-cell spread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhaogang; ZHANG Manfu


    The secreted alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein G (gG) works differently from other proteins. Analysis of the role of ILTV gG in virus attachment, penetration, direct cell-to-cell spread (CTCS) and the growth curve showed that gG or its antibody had no effect on ILTV attachment and penetration and that the gG antibody reduced the virus plaque size and the one-step growth curve on chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells, but gG did not affect the virus plaque size or the one-step growth curve on CEL cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) detection showed that ILTV gG is located in the perinuclear region and the membrane of the CEL cells. These results suggested that ILTV gG might contribute to direct cell-to-cell transmission.

  13. Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Devie


    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-grid (V2G and grid-to-vehicle (G2V strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated.

  14. Communication: The origin of many-particle signals in nonlinear optical spectroscopy of non-interacting particles (United States)

    Mukamel, Shaul


    Nonlinear spectroscopy signals detected by fluorescence from dilute samples of N non-interacting molecules are usually adequately described by simply multiplying the single molecule response by N. We show that signals that scale with higher powers of N are generated by the joint detection of several particles. This can be accomplished by phase sensitive detection such as phase cycling, photo-acoustic modulation, or by Hanbury-Brown Twiss photon coincidence. Such measurements can dissect the ensemble according to the number of excited particles.

  15. Proposed use of a digital signal processor in an experimental tactile hearing aid for the profoundly deaf: preliminary communication. (United States)

    Mathijssen, R W; Leliveld, W H


    An experimental system for a tactile hearing aid using a digital signal processor (DSP) is being developed. This system can be used to test and evaluate not only the familiar techniques for a tactile hearing aid, such as energy level display, filterbank analysis, etc., but also novel techniques. The system is being developed especially to try out new recognition strategies, because the currently available strategies are not satisfactory. A portable tactile hearing aid that can recognize certain environmental sounds (alarm sounds) and certain features from the speech signal (such as pitch, voiced/voiceless, or even complete phonemes), being a good support for lipreading, should be the final result of the experiments.

  16. Study of Signal Processing Algorithm in the Receiving End of Through-the-Earth Communications of Elastic Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-jing GUO; Jun YANG; Wei-tao MU; Geng CHEN


    In the research of elastic wave signal detection algorithm,a method based on adaptive wavelet analysis and segmentation threshold processing of the channel noise removal methods is suggested to overcome the effect of noise,which is produced by absorption loss,scattering loss,reflection loss and multi-path effect during the elastic wave in the transmission underground.The method helps to realize extraction and recovery of weak signal of elastic wave from th multi-path channel,and simulation study is carried out about wavelet de-noising effects of the elastic wave and obtained satisfactory resuits.

  17. Chemical communication in Ropalidia marginata: Dufour's gland contains queen signal that is perceived across colonies and does not contain colony signal. (United States)

    Mitra, Aniruddha; Saha, Paromita; Chaoulideer, Maximilian Elihu; Bhadra, Anindita; Gadagkar, Raghavendra


    Queens of the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata appear to maintain reproductive monopoly through pheromone rather than through physical aggression. Upon queen removal, one of the workers (potential queen, PQ) becomes extremely aggressive but drops her aggression immediately upon returning the queen. If the queen is not returned, the PQ gradually drops her aggression and becomes the next queen of the colony. In a previous study, the Dufour's gland was found to be at least one source of the queen pheromone. Queen-worker classification could be done with 100% accuracy in a discriminant analysis, using the compositions of their respective Dufour's glands. In a bioassay, the PQ dropped her aggression in response to the queen's Dufour's gland macerate, suggesting that the queen's Dufour's gland contents mimicked the queen herself. In the present study, we found that the PQ also dropped her aggression in response to the macerate of a foreign queen's Dufour's gland. This suggests that the queen signal is perceived across colonies. This also suggests that the Dufour's gland in R. marginata does not contain information about nestmateship, because queens are attacked when introduced into foreign colonies, and hence PQ is not expected to reduce her aggression in response to a foreign queen's signal. The latter conclusion is especially significant because the Dufour's gland chemicals are adequate to classify individuals correctly not only on the basis of fertility status (queen versus worker) but also according to their colony membership, using discriminant analysis. This leads to the additional conclusion (and precaution) that the ability to statistically discriminate organisms using their chemical profiles does not necessarily imply that the organisms themselves can make such discrimination.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells rescue cardiomyoblasts from cell death in an in vitro ischemia model via direct cell-to-cell connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Levente


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are promising candidates for cell based therapies in myocardial infarction. However, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Our aim was to explore the possible role of direct cell-to-cell interaction between ischemic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and normal MSCs. Using an in vitro ischemia model of 150 minutes of oxygen glucose deprivation we investigated cell viability and cell interactions with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Our model revealed that adding normal MSCs to the ischemic cell population significantly decreased the ratio of dead H9c2 cells (H9c2 only: 0.85 ± 0.086 vs. H9c2+MSCs: 0.16 ± 0.035. This effect was dependent on direct cell-to-cell contact since co-cultivation with MSCs cultured in cell inserts did not exert the same beneficial effect (ratio of dead H9c2 cells: 0.90 ± 0.055. Confocal microscopy revealed that cardiomyoblasts and MSCs frequently formed 200-500 nm wide intercellular connections and cell fusion rarely occurred between these cells. Conclusion Based on these results we hypothesize that mesenchymal stem cells may reduce the number of dead cardiomyoblasts after ischemic damage via direct cell-to-cell interactions and intercellular tubular connections may play an important role in these processes.

  19. Two basic (hydrophilic) regions in the movement protein of Parietaria mottle virus have RNA binding activity and are required for cell-to-cell transport. (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Coll-Bonfill, Nuria; Aramburu, Jose; Pallás, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Galipienso, Luis


    The movement protein (MP) of parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Bioinformatics analysis identified two hydrophilic non-contiguous regions (R1 and R2) rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine and with the predicted secondary structure of an α-helix. Different approaches were used to determine the implication of the R1 and R2 regions in RNA binding, plasmodesmata (PD) targeting and cell-to-cell movement. EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay) showed that both regions have RNA-binding activity whereas that mutational analysis reported that either deletion of any of these regions, or loss of the basic amino acids, interfered with the viral intercellular movement. Subcellular localization studies showed that PMoV MP locates at PD. Mutants designed to impeded cell-to-cell movement failed to accumulate at PD indicating that basic residues in both R1 and R2 are critical for binding the MP at PD.

  20. Functional characterization of an AQP0 missense mutation, R33C, that causes dominant congenital lens cataract, reveals impaired cell-to-cell adhesion. (United States)

    Kumari, Sindhu S; Gandhi, Jason; Mustehsan, Mohammed H; Eren, Semih; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan


    Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) performs dual functions in the lens fiber cells, as a water pore and as a cell-to-cell adhesion molecule. Mutations in AQP0 cause severe lens cataract in both humans and mice. An arginine to cysteine missense mutation at amino acid 33 (R33C) produced congenital autosomal dominant cataract in a Chinese family for five generations. We re-created this mutation in wild type human AQP0 (WT-AQP0) cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis, and cloned and expressed the mutant AQP0 (AQP0-R33C) in heterologous expression systems. Mutant AQP0-R33C showed proper trafficking and membrane localization like WT-AQP0. Functional studies conducted in Xenopus oocytes showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water permeability between AQP0-R33C and WT-AQP0. However, the cell-to-cell adhesion property of AQP0-R33C was significantly reduced (P cataract suggest that the conserved positive charge of Extracellular Loop A may play an important role in bringing fiber cells closer. The proposed schematic models illustrate that cell-to-cell adhesion elicited by AQP0 is vital for lens transparency and homeostasis.

  1. An important role for syndecan-1 in herpes simplex virus type-1 induced cell-to-cell fusion and virus spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah A Karasneh

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1 is a common human pathogen that relies heavily on cell-to-cell spread for establishing a lifelong latent infection. Molecular aspects of HSV-1 entry into host cells have been well studied; however, the molecular details of the spread of the virus from cell-to-cell remain poorly understood. In the past, the role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG during HSV-1 infection has focused solely on the role of HS chains as an attachment receptor for the virus, while the core protein has been assumed to perform a passive role of only carrying the HS chains. Likewise, very little is known about the involvement of any specific HSPGs in HSV-1 lifecycle. Here we demonstrate that a HSPG, syndecan-1, plays an important role in HSV-1 induced membrane fusion and cell-to-cell spread. Interestingly, the functions of syndecan-1 in fusion and spread are independent of the presence of HS on the core protein. Using a mutant CHO-K1 cell line that lacks all glycosaminoglycans (GAGs on its surface (CHO-745 we demonstrate that the core protein of syndecan-1 possesses the ability to modulate membrane fusion and viral spread. Altogether, we identify a new role for syndecan-1 in HSV-1 pathogenesis and demonstrate HS-independent functions of its core protein in viral spread.

  2. Communications interface for wireless communications headset (United States)

    Seibert, Marc A. (Inventor); Culotta, Jr., Anthony Joseph (Inventor)


    A universal interface adapter circuit interfaces, for example, a wireless communications headset with any type of communications system, including those that require push-to-talk (PTT) signaling. The interface adapter is comprised of several main components, including an RF signaling receiver, a microcontroller and associated circuitry for decoding and processing the received signals, and programmable impedance matching and line interfacing circuitry for interfacing a wireless communications headset system base to a communications system. A signaling transmitter, which is preferably portable (e.g., handheld), is employed by the wireless headset user to send signals to the signaling receiver. In an embodiment of the invention directed specifically to push-to-talk (PTT) signaling, the wireless headset user presses a button on the signaling transmitter when they wish to speak. This sends a signal to the microcontroller which decodes the signal and recognizes the signal as being a PTT request. In response, the microcontroller generates a control signal that closes a switch to complete a voice connection between the headset system base and the communications system so that the user can communicate with the communications system. With this arrangement, the wireless headset can be interfaced to any communications system that requires PTT signaling, without modification of the headset device. In addition, the interface adapter can also be configured to respond to or deliver any other types of signals, such as dual-tone-multiple-frequency (DTMF) tones, and on/off hook signals. The present invention is also scalable, and permits multiple wireless users to operate independently in the same environment through use of a plurality of the interface adapters.

  3. Disruption of Cell-to-Cell Signaling Does Not Abolish the Antagonism of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis toward the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum in Algal Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prol García, María Jesús; D'Alvise, Paul; Gram, Lone


    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates Phaeobacter gallaeciensis antagonism in broth systems; however, we demonstrate here that QS is not important for antagonism in algal cultures. QS mutants reduced Vibrio anguillarum to the same extent as the wild type. Consequently, a combination of probiotic Phaeobac......Quorum sensing (QS) regulates Phaeobacter gallaeciensis antagonism in broth systems; however, we demonstrate here that QS is not important for antagonism in algal cultures. QS mutants reduced Vibrio anguillarum to the same extent as the wild type. Consequently, a combination of probiotic...

  4. Statistical Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development: Impact of Mutations in Genes Involved in Twitching Motility, Cell-to-Cell Signaling, and Stationary-Phase Sigma Factor Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Kato, Junichi


    developments of the biofilms were quantified by the computer program COMSTAT (A. Heydorn, A. T. Nielsen, M. Hentzer, C. Sternberg, M. Givskov, B. K. Ersboll, and S. Molin, Microbiology 146:2395-2407, 2000). Two structural key variables, average thickness and roughness, formed the basis for an analysis......Four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild type, DeltapilHIJK mutant, lasI mutant, and rpoS mutant) were genetically tagged with the green fluorescent protein, and the development of flow chamber-grown biofilms by each of them was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The structural...... of variance model comprising the four P. aeruginosa strains, five time points (55, 98, 146, 242, and 314 h), and three independent rounds of biofllm experiments. The results showed that the wild type, the DeltapilHIJK mutant, and the rpoS mutant display conspicuously different types of temporal biofilm...

  5. Alive communication. (United States)

    Fogel, Alan; Garvey, Andrea


    The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model, based on a dynamic systems perspective and the metaphor of aliveness in communication. Traditional concepts and methods for the study of communication are relatively static and based on the metaphor of signal and response. These traditional methods lend themselves to relatively simplified measures of frequencies and durations, sequences and co-occurrences: a model of objectified communication. The concept of alive communication focuses on the dynamically changing aspects of communication using three related components: coregulation, ordinary variability, and innovation. Like living organisms, alive communication develops over time as it forms dynamically stable patterns. Aliveness can be applied to communication at any age, in any species, between species, in any form including time-delayed practices using written symbols, and with non-living objects. The model provides a tool for evaluating the "life-likeness" of communication with animate and inanimate objects and robotic devices, and for assessing and treating communicative difficulties--in which aliveness is missing--within and between dyads/families.

  6. 非协同突发信号的检测与解调%Detection and Demodulation of Burst Signal for Non-cooperative Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宇培; 梁先明; 廖龙灵


    According to the waveform protocol and frame structure of the Third Generation Maritime Satellite Communication,energy detection is combined with matching filter to realize burst signal detection,then fre-quency estimation and phase estimation is performed according to the result of signals detection. And then signal demodulation is realized through combining initialization phase estimation with phase locked loop ( PLL) . Both theoretical deduction and simulation indicate the method adapts to lower signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR) , higher frequency offset and bigger dynamic range. Signal detection probability approaches to 100 percent,and the demodulation bit error rate(BER) is under 2í10-3 when the Eb/N0 is above 10 dB.%根据典型的海事三代卫星通信帧格式,首先采用能量检测算法结合匹配滤波法进行有效的突发信号的检测,然后根据信号检测的结果进行了突发信号的频率估计和初相估计,再采用初相注入结合锁相环的方式实现突发信号的解调。理论推导和计算仿真表明,该方法能够适应较低信噪比、较大频偏和起伏动态的影响,当信噪比大于10 dB时,信号检测概率基本达到100%,解调误码率低于2×10-3。

  7. Acoustic Communications Measurement Systems (ACOMMS) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Design and develop adaptive signal processing techniques to improve underwater acoustic communications and networking. Phase coherent and incoherent signal...

  8. Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction for Integration of Radar and Communication Systems Based on OFDM Signals with Block Golay Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zi-qi


    Full Text Available Integration of radar and communication systems based on OFDM signals results in large Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Limited by the code rate, algorithm that use the Golay sequence code to restrain PAPR can only be applied under the condition of a few subcarriers. This study proposes an algorithm to restrain the PAPR of systems with a large number of subcarriers. The algorithm combines the group parallel code with the optimization of weight coefficients. First, bit streams are divided into several groups of parallel bits. Next, every group proceeds with Golay sequence coding, data symbol modulating and inverse Fourier transform. Finally, the parallel result is combined with an OFDM symbol. Before the parallel data are combined, several weight coefficients for every group are introduced; thus, the system has several candidate symbols for transmitting. Then the symbol with minimum PAPR is then selected as the transmitting signal, and the PAPR of the whole system is reduced. PAPR performance, Bit Error Radio (BER and wideband ambiguity function of three block methods with different coding rate are also simulated. The simulations show that the PAPR of the system decreases and the BER performance improves significantly. The signal exhibits a thumbtack ambiguity function, which suggests good resolution and accuracy for distance and velocity measurements.

  9. The role of microbial signals in plant growth and development. (United States)

    Ortíz-Castro, Randy; Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; López-Bucio, José


    Plant growth and development involves a tight coordination of the spatial and temporal organization of cell division, cell expansion and cell differentiation. Orchestration of these events requires the exchange of signaling molecules between the root and shoot, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. The interactions that occur between plants and their associated microorganisms have long been of interest, as knowledge of these processes could lead to the development of novel agricultural applications. Plants produce a wide range of organic compounds including sugars, organic acids and vitamins, which can be used as nutrients or signals by microbial populations. On the other hand, microorganisms release phytohormones, small molecules or volatile compounds, which may act directly or indirectly to activate plant immunity or regulate plant growth and morphogenesis. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the identification of signals from free-living bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in a beneficial way. Evidence has accumulated indicating that classic plant signals such as auxins and cytokinins can be produced by microorganisms to efficiently colonize the root and modulate root system architecture. Other classes of signals, including N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, which are used by bacteria for cell-to-cell communication, can be perceived by plants to modulate gene expression, metabolism and growth. Finally, we discuss the role played by volatile organic compounds released by certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in plant immunity and developmental processes. The picture that emerges is one in which plants and microbes communicate themselves through transkingdom signaling systems involving classic and novel signals.

  10. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff


    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  11. Disruption in connexin-based communication is associated with intracellular Ca²⁺ signal alterations in astrocytes from Niemann-Pick type C mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Sáez

    Full Text Available Reduced astrocytic gap junctional communication and enhanced hemichannel activity were recently shown to increase astroglial and neuronal vulnerability to neuroinflammation. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease, an autosomal lethal neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. Therefore, we investigated whether the lack of NPC1 expression in murine astrocytes affects the functional state of gap junction channels and hemichannels. Cultured cortical astrocytes of NPC1 knock-out mice (Npc1⁻/⁻ showed reduced intercellular communication via gap junctions and increased hemichannel activity. Similarly, astrocytes of newborn Npc1⁻/⁻ hippocampal slices presented high hemichannel activity, which was completely abrogated by connexin 43 hemichannel blockers and was resistant to inhibitors of pannexin 1 hemichannels. Npc1⁻/⁻ astrocytes also showed more intracellular Ca²⁺ signal oscillations mediated by functional connexin 43 hemichannels and P2Y₁ receptors. Therefore, Npc1⁻/⁻ astrocytes present features of connexin based channels compatible with those of reactive astrocytes and hemichannels might be a novel therapeutic target to reduce neuroinflammation in NPC disease.

  12. Low-density subculture: a technical note on the importance of avoiding cell-to-cell contact during mesenchymal stromal cell expansion. (United States)

    Balint, Richard; Richardson, Stephen M; Cartmell, Sarah H


    Numerous scientific studies and clinical trials are carried out each year exploring the use of mesenchymal stromal cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, the effective and reliable expansion of this very important cell type remains a challenge. In this study the importance of cell-to-cell contact during expansion has been explored on the proliferation and differentiation potential of the produced cells. Cells were cultured up to passage 5 under conditions where cell-to-cell contact was either probable (40-70% confluence; see supporting information, Protocol A) or where it was unlikely (10-50% confluence; see supporting information, Protocol B). The effect of the two different conditions on expansion efficiency; proliferation rate and tri-lineage differentiation potential was assessed. Differences in immunophenotype, cell size and senescence were also investigated. Protocol B cultures expanded twice as fast as those cultured with Protocol A. In passage 5 experiments low confluence expanded cells displayed a 10% higher overall proliferation rate, and produced 23% more cells in growth, 12% more in osteogenic, 77% more in adipogenic, but 27% less in chondrogenic medium. Differentiation potential wasn't decisively affected at the mRNA level. However, Protocol B favoured bone and cartilage differentiation at the secretional level. Protocol A populations showed reduced purity, expressing CD105 in only 76% compared to the 96.7% in Protocol B cultures. Protocol A populations also contained significantly more (+4.2%) senescent cells, however, no difference was found in cell size between the two protocols. The findings of this study suggest that cell-to-cell contact, and therefore high confluence levels, is detrimental to MSC quality.

  13. Cell-to-cell transformation in Escherichia coli: a novel type of natural transformation involving cell-derived DNA and a putative promoting pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Etchuuya

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is not assumed to be naturally transformable. However, several recent reports have shown that E. coli can express modest genetic competence in certain conditions that may arise in its environment. We have shown previously that spontaneous lateral transfer of non-conjugative plasmids occurs in a colony biofilm of mixed E. coli strains (a set of a donor strain harbouring a plasmid and a plasmid-free recipient strain. In this study, with high-frequency combinations of strains and a plasmid, we constructed the same lateral plasmid transfer system in liquid culture. Using this system, we demonstrated that this lateral plasmid transfer was DNase-sensitive, indicating that it is a kind of transformation in which DNase-accessible extracellular naked DNA is essential. However, this transformation did not occur with purified plasmid DNA and required a direct supply of plasmid from co-existing donor cells. Based on this feature, we have termed this transformation type as 'cell-to-cell transformation'. Analyses using medium conditioned with the high-frequency strain revealed that this strain released a certain factor(s that promoted cell-to-cell transformation and arrested growth of the other strains. This factor is heat-labile and protease-sensitive, and its roughly estimated molecular mass was between ∼9 kDa and ∼30 kDa, indicating that it is a polypeptide factor. Interestingly, this factor was effective even when the conditioned medium was diluted 10(-5-10(-6, suggesting that it acts like a pheromone with high bioactivity. Based on these results, we propose that cell-to-cell transformation is a novel natural transformation mechanism in E. coli that requires cell-derived DNA and is promoted by a peptide pheromone. This is the first evidence that suggests the existence of a peptide pheromone-regulated transformation mechanism in E. coli and in Gram-negative bacteria.

  14. A protein G fragment from the salmonid viral hemorrhagic septicemia rhabdovirus induces cell-to-cell fusion and membrane phosphatidylserine translocation at low pH. (United States)

    Estepa, A M; Rocha, A I; Mas, V; Pérez, L; Encinar, J A; Nuñez, E; Fernandez, A; Gonzalez Ros, J M; Gavilanes, F; Coll, J M


    The fusion-related properties of segments p9, p3, p4, and p9 + p2 surrounding the p2 phospholipid-binding domain of the protein G (pG) of the salmonid rhabdovirus of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) (Nuñez, E., Fernandez, A. M., Estepa, A., Gonzalez-Ros, J. M., Gavilanes, F., and Coll, J. M. (1998) Virology 243, 322-330; Estepa, A., and Coll, J. M. (1996) Virology 216, 60-70), have been studied at neutral and fusion (low) pH values by using its derived peptides. Cell-to-cell fusion, translocation of phosphatidylserine, and inhibition of fusion of pG-transfected cells defined the p9 + p2 (fragment 11, sequence 56-110) as a fragment with higher specific activity for anionic phospholipid aggregation than the previously reported p2. While fragment 11, p2, and p3 showed interactions with anionic phospholipids, p9 and p4 showed no interactions with any phospholipids. When added to a cell monolayer model at low pH, fragment 11 induced pH-dependent cell-to-cell fusion and translocated phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the membrane. At low pH and in the presence of anionic phospholipids, fragment 11 showed more than 80% beta-sheet conformation (IR and CD spectroscopies). Finally, anti-fragment 11 antibodies inhibited low pH-dependent pG-transfected cell-to-cell fusion. All of the data support the conclusion that fragment 11 is a primary determinant of some of the viral cell fusion events in VHSV.

  15. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  16. Communication between microorganisms as a basis for production of virulence factors. (United States)

    Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bogiel, Tomasz; Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja


    Quorum sensing (QS), or cell-to-cell communication in bacteria, is achieved through the production and subsequent response to the accumulation of extracellular signal molecules called autoinductors. The main role of QS is regulation of production of virulence factors in bacteria. Bacterial pathogenicity is often manifested by the expression of various cell-associated and secreted virulence factors, such as exoenzymes, toxins and biofilm. In bacteria, the expression of virulence factors is controlled coordinately by the global regulatory QS systems, which includes the AI-1/LuxIR-, AI-2/LuxS-, AI-3/QsC-, AIP/Agr-based systems. The regulation of production of virulence factors is extremely complex and many components influence it.

  17. Regulation of the Host Antiviral State by Intercellular Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Assil


    Full Text Available Viruses usually induce a profound remodeling of host cells, including the usurpation of host machinery to support their replication and production of virions to invade new cells. Nonetheless, recognition of viruses by the host often triggers innate immune signaling, preventing viral spread and modulating the function of immune cells. It conventionally occurs through production of antiviral factors and cytokines by infected cells. Virtually all viruses have evolved mechanisms to blunt such responses. Importantly, it is becoming increasingly recognized that infected cells also transmit signals to regulate innate immunity in uninfected neighboring cells. These alternative pathways are notably mediated by vesicular secretion of various virus- and host-derived products (miRNAs, RNAs, and proteins and non-infectious viral particles. In this review, we focus on these newly-described modes of cell-to-cell communications and their impact on neighboring cell functions. The reception of these signals can have anti- and pro-viral impacts, as well as more complex effects in the host such as oncogenesis and inflammation. Therefore, these “broadcasting” functions, which might be tuned by an arms race involving selective evolution driven by either the host or the virus, constitute novel and original regulations of viral infection, either highly localized or systemic.

  18. Digital and analog communication systems (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.


    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  19. Cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides play a combined role in the death of Lachanchea thermotolerans during mixed-culture alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri; Branco, Patrícia; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Caldeira, Jorge; Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils


    The roles of cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides in the early death of Lachanchea thermotolerans CBS2803 during anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae S101 were investigated using a commercially available, double-compartment fermentation system separated by cellulose membranes with different pore sizes, i.e. 1000 kDa for mixed- and single-culture fermentations, and 1000 and 3.5-5 kDa for compartmentalized-culture fermentations. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography were used to determine an antimicrobial peptidic fraction in the fermentations. Our results showed comparable amounts of the antimicrobial peptidic fraction in the inner compartments of the mixed-culture and 1000 kDa compartmentalized-culture fermentations containing L. thermotolerans after 4 days of fermentation, but a lower death rate of L. thermotolerans in the 1000 kDa compartmentalized-culture fermentation than in the mixed-culture fermentation. Furthermore, L. thermotolerans died off even more slowly in the 3.5-5 kDa than in the 1000 kDa compartmentalized-culture fermentation, which coincided with the presence of less of the antimicrobial peptidic fraction in the inner compartment of that fermentation than of the 1000 kDa compartmentalized-culture fermentation. Taken together, these results indicate that the death of L. thermotolerans in mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae is caused by a combination of cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides.

  20. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S. [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Christopher D., E-mail: [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); The Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)


    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction.

  1. The potato virus X TGBp2 protein association with the endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in but is not sufficient for viral cell-to-cell movement (United States)

    Mitra, Ruchira; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie


    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and coat protein are required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP fused to TGBp2 were bombarded to leaf epidermal cells and GFP:TGBp2 moved cell to cell in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves but not in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. GFP:TGBp2 movement was observed in TGBp1-transgenic N. tabacum, indicating that TGBp2 requires TGBp1 to promote its movement in N. tabacum. In this study, GFP:TGBp2 was detected in a polygonal pattern that resembles the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed TGBp2 has two putative transmembrane domains. Two mutations separately introduced into the coding sequences encompassing the putative transmembrane domains within the GFP:TGBp2 plasmids and PVX genome, disrupted membrane binding of GFP:TGBp2, inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in N. benthamiana and TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum, and inhibited PVX movement. A third mutation, lying outside the transmembrane domains, had no effect on GFP:TGBp2 ER association or movement in N. benthamiana but inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum and PVX movement in either Nicotiana species. Thus, ER association of TGBp2 may be required but not be sufficient for virus movement. TGBp2 likely provides an activity for PVX movement beyond ER association.

  2. The glycoprotein and the matrix protein of rabies virus affect pathogenicity by regulating viral replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread. (United States)

    Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Li, Jianwei; Schnell, Matthias J; Dietzschold, Bernhard


    While the glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is known to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of rabies, the function of the RV matrix protein (M) in RV pathogenicity is not completely clear. To further investigate the roles of these proteins in viral pathogenicity, we constructed chimeric recombinant viruses by exchanging the G and M genes of the attenuated SN strain with those of the highly pathogenic SB strain. Infection of mice with these chimeric viruses revealed a significant increase in the pathogenicity of the SN strain bearing the RV G from the pathogenic SB strain. Moreover, the pathogenicity was further increased when both G and M from SB were introduced into SN. Interestingly, the replacement of the G or M gene or both in SN by the corresponding genes of SB was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of viral replication and viral RNA synthesis. In addition, a chimeric SN virus bearing both the M and G genes from SB exhibited more efficient cell-to-cell spread than a chimeric SN virus in which only the G gene was replaced. Together, these data indicate that both G and M play an important role in RV pathogenesis by regulating virus replication and facilitating cell-to-cell spread.

  3. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  4. Dependence of the bit error rate on the signal power and length of a single-channel coherent single-span communication line (100 Gbit s-1) with polarisation division multiplexing (United States)

    Gurkin, N. V.; Konyshev, V. A.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.


    We have studied experimentally and using numerical simulations and a phenomenological analytical model the dependences of the bit error rate (BER) on the signal power and length of a coherent single-span communication line with transponders employing polarisation division multiplexing and four-level phase modulation (100 Gbit s-1 DP-QPSK format). In comparing the data of the experiment, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis, we have found two optimal powers: the power at which the BER is minimal and the power at which the fade margin in the line is maximal. We have derived and analysed the dependences of the BER on the optical signal power at the fibre line input and the dependence of the admissible input signal power range for implementation of the communication lines with a length from 30 - 50 km up to a maximum length of 250 km.

  5. Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue-Derived CD4 T Cells. (United States)

    Galloway, Nicole L K; Doitsh, Gilad; Monroe, Kathryn M; Yang, Zhiyuan; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Levy, David N; Greene, Warner C


    The progressive depletion of CD4 T cells underlies clinical progression to AIDS in untreated HIV-infected subjects. Most dying CD4 T cells correspond to resting nonpermissive cells residing in lymphoid tissues. Death is due to an innate immune response against the incomplete cytosolic viral DNA intermediates accumulating in these cells. The viral DNA is detected by the IFI16 sensor, leading to inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation, and the induction of pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death. We now show that cell-to-cell transmission of HIV is obligatorily required for activation of this death pathway. Cell-free HIV-1 virions, even when added in large quantities, fail to activate pyroptosis. These findings underscore the infected CD4 T cells as the major killing units promoting progression to AIDS and highlight a previously unappreciated role for the virological synapse in HIV pathogenesis.

  6. Cellular uptake and cell-to-cell transfer of polyelectrolyte microcapsules within a triple co-culture system representing parts of the respiratory tract (United States)

    Kuhn, Dagmar A.; Hartmann, Raimo; Fytianos, Kleanthis; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Parak, Wolfgang J.


    Polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules around 3.4 micrometers in diameter were added to epithelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells in vitro and their uptake kinetics were quantified. All three cell types were combined in a triple co-culture model, mimicking the human epithelial alveolar barrier. Hereby, macrophages were separated in a three-dimensional model from dendritic cells by a monolayer of epithelial cells. While passing of small nanoparticles has been demonstrated from macrophages to dendritic cells across the epithelial barrier in previous studies, for the micrometer-sized capsules, this process could not be observed in a significant amount. Thus, this barrier is a limiting factor for cell-to-cell transfer of micrometer-sized particles.

  7. A Cell-to-Cell Battery Equalizer With Zero-Current Switching and Zero-Voltage Gap Based on Quasi-Resonant LC Converter and Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Yunlong; Zhang, Chenghui; Cui, Naxin


    voltage gap for large balancing current and ZVG between cells. Instead of a dedicated equalizer for each cell, only one balancing converter is employed and shared by all cells, reducing the size and implementation cost. Moreover, the equalization current can be regulated as needed by controlling the duty...... cycle of the BDDC, which not only prevents efficiently over-equalization but also abridges the balancing time. Simulation and experimental results show the proposed scheme exhibits outstanding balancing performance, and the energy conversion efficiency is higher than 98%. The validity of the proposed...... these difficulties, an innovative direct cell-to-cell battery equalizer based on quasi-resonant LC converter (QRLCC) and boost DC-DC converter (BDDC) is proposed. The QRLCC is employed to gain zero-current switching (ZCS), leading to a reduction of power losses. The BDDC is employed to enhance the equalization...

  8. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima P Damodaran

    Full Text Available To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers. These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes.

  9. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (United States)

    Damodaran, Shima P; Eberhard, Stephan; Boitard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Jairo Garnica; Wang, Yuxing; Bremond, Nicolas; Baudry, Jean; Bibette, Jérôme; Wollman, Francis-André


    To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers) and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers). These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes.

  10. The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission (United States)

    Lemaire, Morgane; Masquelier, Cécile; Beraud, Cyprien; Rybicki, Arkadiusz; Servais, Jean-Yves; Iserentant, Gilles; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Perez Bercoff, Danielle


    The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines. PMID:27598717

  11. 引入外加黏附信号的无线中继传感器远程通信%Research of Remote Communication of Wireless Relay Sensor Based on Adhesion Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬普; 郑均辉


    Plus adhesion signal, introduced this article, using traditional relay wireless sensor devices in a communications system, with the help of additional adhesion signal of the supplementary function of signal energy and maintain the channel characteristic, to realize wireless remote communication relay sensor. Puts forward the introduction of plus adhesion method of wireless remote communication relay sensor signal, through Repeaters adhesion purification and adhesion switching sig-nal to form high adhesion degrees, through the wireless relay exchange implements complex sensor communication link for adhesion.%引入外加黏附信号,利用传统无线中继传感器通信系统中设备,借助外加黏附信号的补充信号能量和维持信道特性的功能,实现无线中继传感器远程通信。提出的引入外加黏附信号的无线中继传感器远程通信方法,通过中继器的黏附纯化和黏附交换形成高黏附度信号对,进而建立远程无线中继传感器信道,通过对无线中继传感器通信链路进行黏附交换实现了复杂网络的无线中继传感器远程通信。仿真实验表明,构建的远程无线中继传感器通信系统的传输效率随着系统通信用户的增多而增加,该系统能有效提高无线中继传感器通信的传输效率和通信距离。

  12. Macula densa cell signaling involves ATP release through a maxi anion channel. (United States)

    Bell, Phillip Darwin; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Sabirov, Ravshan; Hayashi, Seiji; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Manabe, Ken-Ichi; Kovacs, Gergely; Okada, Yasunobu


    Macula densa cells are unique renal biosensor cells that detect changes in luminal NaCl concentration ([NaCl](L)) and transmit signals to the mesangial cellafferent arteriolar complex. They are the critical link between renal salt and water excretion and glomerular hemodynamics, thus playing a key role in regulation of body fluid volume. Since identification of these cells in the early 1900s, the nature of the signaling process from macula densa cells to the glomerular contractile elements has remained unknown. In patch-clamp studies of macula densa cells, we identified an [NaCl](L)-sensitive ATP-permeable large-conductance (380 pS) anion channel. Also, we directly demonstrated the release of ATP (up to 10 microM) at the basolateral membrane of macula densa cells, in a manner dependent on [NaCl](L), by using an ATP bioassay technique. Furthermore, we found that glomerular mesangial cells respond with elevations in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration to extracellular application of ATP (EC(50) 0.8 microM). Importantly, we also found increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration with elevations in [NaCl](L), when fura-2-loaded mesangial cells were placed close to the basolateral membrane of macula densa cells. Thus, cell-to-cell communication between macula densa cells and mesangial cells, which express P2Y(2) receptors, involves the release of ATP from macula densa cells via maxi anion channels at the basolateral membrane. This mechanism may represent a new paradigm in cell-to-cell signal transduction mediated by ATP.

  13. Technology for Onboard to Trackside Wireless Communication in Metro Signaling System%地铁信号系统中车-地无线通信技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    信号系统中关键的车-地通信技术无线局域网,近年来已衍生出了多种通信方式。主要从无线技术标准和安全性出发,详细介绍了无线电台、裂缝波导管和漏缆3种基于开放空间的无线车-地通信方式的特性以及安装,并对这3种车-地通信方式进行了简单的技术比较,最终推荐出较适合于工程实际的车-地通信方式。%The key technology of onboard to trackside communications for wireless LAN in the signaling system has generated a variety of means of communication in the recent years.Mainly from the standards and safety of wireless technology,it describes in detail the characteristics and installation of cab radio,crack waveguide and leaky cable for wireless onboard to trackside communication based on the three kinds of open space communications.It makes a simple technology comparison of the three kinds of onboard to trackside communications.The recommendation is the more engineering suitable to the actual onboard to trackside communication.

  14. 基于区域管制模式下的雷达信号通信可靠性分析%Reliability analysis of radar signal communication based on area control mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了对区域管制模式下雷达信号传输系统的保障性进行定量评估,采用建立雷达信号传输可靠性数学模型的方法,并利用当前雷达信号传输保障数据对建立的模型进行了测算,从而得到了提高雷达信号传输可靠性的实现方法。%In order to evaluate the supportability of radar signal transmission system in area control mode, the method of establishing reliability mathematical model of radar signal transmission is used, and the radar signal transmission operation data is adopted to calculate the established model. Thus the method to improve the reliability of radar signal communication is obtained.

  15. Assessment of the Communicative and Coordination Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children Using Social Signal Processing (United States)

    Delaherche, Emilie; Chetouani, Mohamed; Bigouret, Fabienne; Xavier, Jean; Plaza, Monique; Cohen, David


    To cooperate with a partner, it is essential to communicate by sharing information through all available avenues, including hand gestures, gazes, head gestures and naturally, speech. In this paper, we compare the communicative and coordination skills of children with typical development to those of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in…

  16. Both asymmetric mitotic segregation and cell-to-cell invasion are required for stable germline transmission of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Landmann


    Parasitic filarial nematodes that belong to the Onchocercidae family live in mutualism with Wolbachia endosymbionts. We developed whole-mount techniques to follow the segregation patterns of Wolbachia through the somatic and germline lineages of four filarial species. These studies reveal multiple evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that are required for Wolbachia localization to the germline. During the initial embryonic divisions, Wolbachia segregate asymmetrically such that they concentrate in the posteriorly localized P2 blastomere, a precursor to the adult germline and hypodermal lineages. Surprisingly, in the next division they are excluded from the germline precursor lineage. Rather, they preferentially segregate to the C blastomere, a source of posterior hypodermal cells. Localization to the germline is accomplished by a distinct mechanism in which Wolbachia invade first the somatic gonadal cells close to the ovarian distal tip cell, the nematode stem cell niche, from the hypodermis. This tropism is associated with a cortical F-actin disruption, suggesting an active engulfment. Significantly, germline invasion occurs only in females, explaining the lack of Wolbachia in the male germline. Once in the syncytial environment of the ovaries, Wolbachia rely on the rachis to multiply and disperse into the germ cells. The utilization of cell-to-cell invasion for germline colonization may indicate an ancestral mode of horizontal transfer that preceded the acquisition of the mutualism.

  17. A Cell-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Three-Resonant-State Switched-Capacitor Converters for Series-Connected Battery Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Shang


    Full Text Available Due to the low cost, small size, and ease of control, the switched-capacitor (SC battery equalizers are promising among active balancing methods. However, it is difficult to achieve the full cell equalization for the SC equalizers due to the inevitable voltage drops across Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET switches. Moreover, when the voltage gap among cells is larger, the balancing efficiency is lower, while the balancing speed becomes slower as the voltage gap gets smaller. In order to soften these downsides, this paper proposes a cell-to-cell battery equalization topology with zero-current switching (ZCS and zero-voltage gap (ZVG among cells based on three-resonant-state SC converters. Based on the conventional inductor-capacitor (LC converter, an additional resonant path is built to release the charge of the capacitor into the inductor in each switching cycle, which lays the foundations for obtaining ZVG among cells, improves the balancing efficiency at a large voltage gap, and increases the balancing speed at a small voltage gap. A four-lithium-ion-cell prototype is applied to validate the theoretical analysis. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed topology has good equalization performances with fast equalization, ZCS, and ZVG among cells.

  18. Downregulation of the NbNACa1 gene encoding a movement-protein-interacting protein reduces cell-to-cell movement of Brome mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana. (United States)

    Kaido, Masanori; Inoue, Yosuke; Takeda, Yoshika; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Atsushi; Mori, Masashi; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Okuno, Tetsuro; Mise, Kazuyuki


    The 3a movement protein (MP) plays a central role in the movement of the RNA plant virus, Brome mosaic virus (BMV). To identify host factor genes involved in viral movement, a cDNA library of Nicotiana benthamiana, a systemic host for BMV, was screened with far-Western blotting using a recombinant BMV MP as probe. One positive clone encoded a protein with sequence similarity to the alpha chain of nascent-polypeptide-associated complex from various organisms, which is proposed to contribute to the fidelity of translocation of newly synthesized proteins. The orthologous gene from N. benthamiana was designated NbNACa1. The binding of NbNACa1 to BMV MP was confirmed in vivo with an agroinfiltration-immunoprecipitation assay. To investigate the involvement of NbNACa1 in BMV multiplication, NbNACa1-silenced (GSNAC) transgenic N. benthamiana plants were produced. Downregulation of NbNACa1 expression reduced virus accumulation in inoculated leaves but not in protoplasts. A microprojectile bombardment assay to monitor BMV-MP-assisted viral movement demonstrated reduced virus spread in GSNAC plants. The localization to the cell wall of BMV MP fused to green fluorescent protein was delayed in GSNAC plants. From these results, we propose that NbNACa1 is involved in BMV cell-to-cell movement through the regulation of BMV MP localization to the plasmodesmata.

  19. Ser/Thr kinase-like protein of Nicotiana benthamiana is involved in the cell-to-cell movement of Bamboo mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fang Cheng

    Full Text Available To investigate the plant genes affected by Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV infection, we applied a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique to screen genes with differential expression. A serine/threonine kinase-like (NbSTKL gene of Nicotiana benthamiana is upregulated after BaMV infection. NbSTKL contains the homologous domain of Ser/Thr kinase. Knocking down the expression of NbSTKL by virus-induced gene silencing reduced the accumulation of BaMV in the inoculated leaves but not in the protoplasts. The spread of GFP-expressing BaMV in the inoculated leaves is also impeded by a reduced expression of NbSTKL. These data imply that NbSTKL facilitates the cell-to-cell movement of BaMV. The subcellular localization of NbSTKL is mainly on the cell membrane, which has been confirmed by mutagenesis and fractionation experiments. Combined with the results showing that active site mutation of NbSTKL does not change its subcellular localization but significantly affects BaMV accumulation, we conclude that NbSTKL may regulate BaMV movement on the cell membrane by its kinase-like activity. Moreover, the transient expression of NbSTKL does not significantly affect the accumulation of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus X (PVX; thus, NbSTKL might be a specific protein facilitating BaMV movement.

  20. Alanine scanning of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV 2b protein identifies different positions for cell-to-cell movement and gene silencing suppressor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Nemes

    Full Text Available The multifunctional 2b protein of CMV has a role in the long distance and local movement of the virus, in symptom formation, in evasion of defense mediated by salicylic acid as well as in suppression of RNA silencing. The role of conserved amino acid sequence domains were analyzed previously in the protein function, but comprehensive analysis of this protein was not carried out until recently. We have analyzed all over the 2b protein by alanine scanning mutagenesis changing three consecutive amino acids (aa to alanine. We have identified eight aa triplets as key determinants of the 2b protein function in virus infection. Four of them (KKQ/22-24/AAA, QNR/31-33/AAA, RER/34-36/AAA, SPS/40-42/AAA overlap with previously determined regions indispensable in gene silencing suppressor function. We have identified two additional triplets necessary for the suppressor function of the 2b protein (LPF/55-57/AAA, NVE/10-12/AAA, and two other positions were required for cell-to-cell movement of the virus (MEL/1-3/AAA, RHV/70-72/AAA, which are not essential for suppressor activity.

  1. The regulated secretory pathway in CD4(+ T cells contributes to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 cell-to-cell spread at the virological synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Jolly


    Full Text Available Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 at the virological synapse (VS is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4(+ T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and cell biology of primary CD4(+ T cells from normal individuals and patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and report that the HIV-1 VS displays a regulated secretion phenotype that shares features with polarized secretion at the T cell immunological synapse (IS. Cell-cell contact at the VS re-orientates the microtubule organizing center (MTOC and organelles within the HIV-1-infected T cell towards the engaged target T cell, concomitant with polarization of viral proteins. Directed secretion of proteins at the T cell IS requires specialized organelles termed secretory lysosomes (SL and we show that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env localizes with CTLA-4 and FasL in SL-related compartments and at the VS. Finally, CD4(+ T cells that are disabled for regulated secretion are less able to support productive cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread. We propose that HIV-1 hijacks the regulated secretory pathway of CD4(+ T cells to enhance its dissemination.

  2. GAPDH--a recruits a plant virus movement protein to cortical virus replication complexes to facilitate viral cell-to-cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kaido


    Full Text Available The formation of virus movement protein (MP-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum is required for efficient intercellular movement of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV, a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus. We found that these cortical punctate structures constitute a viral replication complex (VRC in addition to the previously reported aggregate structures that formed adjacent to the nucleus. We identified host proteins that interacted with RCNMV MP in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a tandem affinity purification method followed by mass spectrometry. One of these host proteins was glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A, which is a component of the Calvin-Benson cycle in chloroplasts. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A reduced RCNMV multiplication in the inoculated leaves, but not in the single cells, thereby suggesting that GAPDH-A plays a positive role in cell-to-cell movement of RCNMV. The fusion protein of NbGAPDH-A and green fluorescent protein localized exclusively to the chloroplasts. In the presence of RCNMV RNA1, however, the protein localized to the cortical VRC as well as the chloroplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and GST pulldown assay confirmed in vivo and in vitro interactions, respectively, between the MP and NbGAPDH-A. Furthermore, gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A inhibited MP localization to the cortical VRC. We discuss the possible roles of NbGAPDH-A in the RCNMV movement process.

  3. 乘性噪声干扰下的通信信号偏差控制器设计与研究%Design and research of communication signal deviation controller in multiplicative noise interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梅; 周晓东


    乘性噪声干扰相对于加性噪声干扰具有更强的时变特性和抗滤波性,传统方法难以实现有效的滤波控制,乘性噪声在远程无线通信中会导致信道偏差,为解决这一问题提出了一种基于窄带阻抗匹配的乘性噪声干扰下的通信信号偏差控制方法,并进行控制器的硬件系统设计。设计了基于窄带阻抗匹配远程通信信号的乘性噪声干扰滤波算法,以此为基础进行通信信号偏差控制器系统硬件电路设计。在 EPM7128AETI100上连入各芯片的读/写程序,得到3种通信信号偏差复位方式,采用 MAX7000AE 系列器件实现硬件接口设计,采用分段拟合的方式补偿非线性失真,实现乘性噪声干扰滤波器设计和信号偏差控制器设计。实验结果表明,采用该设计系统能有效滤除了通信信号中的乘性噪声污染,接收信号及其频谱的畸变得到有效补偿,改善了通信质量,提高了远程无线通信的稳定性和可靠性。%Multiplicative noise interference,compared with the additive noise interference,has more strong time⁃varying characteristic and filtering resistance performance,but it is difficult for traditional method to realize the effective control of the filtering because multiplicative noise can cause channel deviation in the remote wireless communication. In order to solve this problem,a control method of the communication signal deviation in multiplicative noise interference based on narrow⁃band im⁃pedance matching is proposed to design the hardware system of the controller. A multiplicative noise interference filtering algo⁃rithm based on narrow⁃band impedance matching remote communication signal was designed. Based on this algorithm,a hard⁃ware circuit was designed for the communication signal deviation controller system. The read and write program in each chip is connected on EPM7128AETI100 to obtain the three kinds of communication signal

  4. Take-over: multiple mechanisms of inter-adipocyte communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Günter Müller


    Adipose tissue mass in mammals is thought to expand with an increase in both volume and total number of the adipocytes. Recent findings suggest that in normal-weight as well as obese individuals, the adipocyte number is set during adolescence prior to adulthood, whereas the subsequent increase in size predominantly drives obesity. The simultaneous existence of large and small adipocytes and their unsynchronized growth, even within the same adipose tissue depot, argues against simple filling-up of emerging adipocytes with lipids and lipid droplets (LDs). Consequently, it is tempting to speculate about signals sent by large adipocytes to order small adipocytes the take-over of the burden of lipid loading. Currently there is experimental evidence for three distinct types of inter-adipocyte signals, i.e, cell-to-cell contacts, adipokines, and other soluble factors and microvesicles. Very recently,microvesicles have been shown (i) to harbour the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (c)AMP-degrading phosphodiesterase Gce1 and 5'-nucleotidase CD73, (ii) to be released from large adipocytes, (iii) to interact with small adipocytes, and (iv) to transfer Gce1 and CD73 to plasma membranes and LDs of small adipocytes where they degrade (c)AMP. This sequence of events leads to the up-regulation of lipid storage in small adipocytes in response to the microvesicle-encoded 'take-over' signal from large adipocytes. A model is proposed for the maturation of small adipocytes driven by large ones along a gradient of those inter-adipocyte signals.Pharmacological modulation of inter-adipocyte communication and thereby adipocyte maturation may be useful for the therapy of metabolic diseases.

  5. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco


    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  6. Large Uav Electronic Communication Signal Anti-jamming Method Study and Simulation%大型无人机电子通讯信号抗干扰方法研究仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利芳; 荆丽丽


    进行大型无人机电子通讯信号抗干扰方法研究与仿真,通过GPS系统确定信号的来源与方向定位,利用GPS定位信息准确计算最小均方、最大信噪比与最小方差,依据选择最优准则,实现对复杂抗干扰信号的削弱与排除.仿真实验表明,针对干扰信号,该种自适应滤波抗干扰算法具有较强的抑制与削弱能力,并扩大了干扰信号搜索范围,有效抵抗复杂的干扰信号,与常规抗干扰算法比较更为可靠,为无人机电子通讯抗干扰方法研究提供更好的保障.%Large uavs electronic communication signal anti-jamming method research and simulation, through the GPS posi-tioning system to determine the signal source and direction, using GPS positioning information to calculate the minimum mean square accurately, and maximum signal-to-noise ratio and minimum variance, on the basis of choosing the optimal criterion, implementation of complex interference signals and ruled out. Simulation results show that, in view of the interfer-ence signal, this kind of adaptive filter anti-jamming algorithm has strong inhibition and weaken the ability, and expand the search range of the interference signal, effective against complex jamming signal, compared with conventional anti-jam-ming algorithm is more reliable, for unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) electronic communication anti-jamming method re-search for better security.

  7. Digital communication device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention concerns a digital communication device like a hearing aid or a headset. The hearing aid or headset has a power supply, a signal processing device, means for receiving a wireless signal and a receiver or loudspeaker, which produces an audio signal based on a modulated pulsed signal...... point is provided which is in electrical contact with the metal of the metal box and whereby this third connection point is connected to the electric circuitry of the communication device at a point having a stable and well defined electrical potential. In this way the electro-and magnetic radiation...

  8. Communications technology (United States)

    Cuccia, C. Louis; Sivo, Joseph


    The technologies for optimized, i.e., state of the art, operation of satellite-based communications systems are surveyed. Features of spaceborne active repeater systems, low-noise signal amplifiers, power amplifiers, and high frequency switches are described. Design features and capabilities of various satellite antenna systems are discussed, including multiple beam, shaped reflector shaped beam, offset reflector multiple beam, and mm-wave and laser antenna systems. Attitude control systems used with the antenna systems are explored, along with multiplexers, filters, and power generation, conditioning and amplification systems. The operational significance and techniques for exploiting channel bandwidth, baseband and modulation technologies are described. Finally, interconnectivity among communications satellites by means of RF and laser links is examined, as are the roles to be played by the Space Station and future large space antenna systems.

  9. Bell scenarios with communication (United States)

    Brask, J. B.; Chaves, R.


    Classical and quantum physics provide fundamentally different predictions about experiments with separate observers that do not communicate, a phenomenon known as quantum nonlocality. This insight is a key element of our present understanding of quantum physics, and also enables a number of information processing protocols with security beyond what is classically attainable. Relaxing the pivotal assumption of no communication leads to new insights into the nature quantum correlations, and may enable new applications where security can be established under less strict assumptions. Here, we study such relaxations where different forms of communication are allowed. We consider communication of inputs, outputs, and of a message between the parties. Using several measures, we study how much communication is required for classical models to reproduce quantum or general no-signalling correlations, as well as how quantum models can be augmented with classical communication to reproduce no-signalling correlations.

  10. The sixth sense: hematopoietic stem cells detect danger through purinergic signaling. (United States)

    Rossi, Lara; Salvestrini, Valentina; Ferrari, Davide; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Lemoli, Roberto M


    Over the past decade, extracellular nucleotides (such as ATP and UTP) have emerged as key immunomodulators. This family of molecules, already known for its key metabolic functions, has been the focus of intense investigation that has unambiguously shown its crucial role as mediators of cell-to-cell communication. More recently, in addition to its involvement in inflammation and immunity, purinergic signaling has also been shown to modulate BM-derived stem cells. Extracellular nucleotides promote proliferation, CXCL12-driven migration, and BM engraftment of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells. In addition, purinergic signaling acts indirectly on hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells by regulating differentiation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in BM-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells, which are part of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche. HSC research has recently blended into the field of immunology, as new findings highlighted the role played by immunologic signals (such as IFN-α, IFN-γ, or TNF-α) in the regulation of the HSC compartment. In this review, we summarize recent reports unveiling a previously unsuspected ability of HSCs to integrate inflammatory signals released by immune and stromal cells, with particular emphasis on the dual role of extracellular nucleotides as mediators of both immunologic responses and BM stem cell functions.

  11. Multichannel Human Body Communication (United States)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy


    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  12. Exosomes as Intercellular Signaling Organelles Involved in Health and Disease: Basic Science and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ciccia


    Full Text Available Cell to cell communication is essential for the coordination and proper organization of different cell types in multicellular systems. Cells exchange information through a multitude of mechanisms such as secreted growth factors and chemokines, small molecules (peptides, ions, bioactive lipids and nucleotides, cell-cell contact and the secretion of extracellular matrix components. Over the last few years, however, a considerable amount of experimental evidence has demonstrated the occurrence of a sophisticated method of cell communication based on the release of specialized membranous nano-sized vesicles termed exosomes. Exosome biogenesis involves the endosomal compartment, the multivesicular bodies (MVB, which contain internal vesicles packed with an extraordinary set of molecules including enzymes, cytokines, nucleic acids and different bioactive compounds. In response to stimuli, MVB fuse with the plasma membrane and vesicles are released in the extracellular space where they can interact with neighboring cells and directly induce a signaling pathway or affect the cellular phenotype through the transfer of new receptors or even genetic material. This review will focus on exosomes as intercellular signaling organelles involved in a number of physiological as well as pathological processes and their potential use in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  13. Application Analysis of TD-LTE Technology in Train-Ground Wireless Communication for Transit Signaling System%TD-LTE技术在城轨信号系统车-地通信中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In urban rail transit signaling system, the train-ground wireless communication is one of key technologies of communication based train control (CBTC) system, transmitting the important data information concerning trafifc operation safety. In view of the fact that WLAN technology widely used in CBTC signal system has interference risks, it is not suitable for high speed and mobile environment, while the development of TD-LTE technology has provided a new concept for train-ground wireless communication. The paper analyzes the present application of WLAN technology and TD-LTE technology, and mainly describes the feasibility of TD-LTE technology to be used in transit signaling system, and analyzes in details of train-ground wireless communication scheme based on TD-LTE technology for multi service transmission platform.%城市轨道交通信号系统中的车-地无线通信是基于通信的列车控制(CBTC)系统的关键技术之一,传输涉及行车安全的重要数据信息。而针对目前被CBTC信号系统广泛应用的WLAN技术存在的干扰风险、不适应高速移动环境等实际情况,TD-LTE(分时长期演进)技术的崛起及发展为车-地无线通信提供了新的思路。分析WLAN技术和TD-LTE技术的应用现状,着重阐述TD-LTE技术应用于城市轨道交通信号系统的可行性,并对基于TD-LTE技术承载多业务传输平台的车-地通信方案进行了详细分析。

  14. 多载频相位编码雷达通信一体化研究%Research on Integrated Radar and Communication Based on Multi-carrier Phase Modulation Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朗; 薛广然; 唐尧; 杜自成


    为了最大程度地利用资源和减小电磁干扰,电子战平台的雷达通信一体化设计有着尤为重要的意义。针对通信中成熟应用且在雷达中有较好前景的正交多载频波形,提出直接序列扩频正交频分复用( OFDM)进行雷达通信一体化的想法。给出了实现方法,重点对该一体化信号模糊函数进行求解和分析,指出增加子载波数目信号分辨性能更佳;随机的信息流仅对模糊函数的邻道干扰项造成影响,为进一步优化一体化信号旁瓣性能提供了理论依据。最终的仿真结果和性能分析表明,该一体化信号能够实现雷达通信一体化的目的。%In order to make full utilization of resources and reduce electromagnetic interference,integration of radar and communication on the electronic warfare platform shows great significance. Since the multi-carrier signal has been widely used in communication and also shows good performances in radar detecting,an inte-grated radar and communication signal based on direct-sequence spread spectrum OFDM ( Orthogonal Fre-quency Division Multiplexing) is put forward. How to achieve the system is discussed afterwards. The ambi-guity function of the integrated signal is worked out to analyze the radar characteristics in detail. The conclu-sions that signal resolution performance grows with the increase of the sub-carrier number and random se-quence only influences adjacent channel interference of the ambiguity function define research directions to improve the signal sidelobe performance. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the integrated signal not only satisfies conventional radar detection but also shows good communication performance.

  15. Effect of small chain N acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals on biofilms of food-borne pathogens. (United States)

    A, Jamuna Bai; V, Ravishankar Rai


    Quorum sensing or cell to cell communication which includes inter- and intra-cellular communication has been implicated in the production of virulence factor and formation of biofilm in food-borne pathogens. In the present study, the effect of quorum sensing signals on the biofilms of food-borne pathogens has been elucidated. N-butryl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone belonging to acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) family of signaling molecules were investigated for their effect on the biofilm formation (attachment and exopolymeric substance production) in the food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahemolyticus. The signaling molecules at a concentration of 1 µM were capable of increasing biofilm formation in all the tested pathogens. There was an increase in the attachment of the bacterial cells and biomass as observed by microtiter plate assay and exopolymeric substances production in the biofilms in presence of the AHLs. Further, it needs to be elucidated if the effect of AHLS on the biofilms of E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium is SdiA dependent.

  16. 一种基于方向调制的双波束扩频安全通信系统%A Dual-beam Spread Spectrum Signal Based on Directional Modulation for Secure Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪涛; 宋茂忠; 刘渝


    A dual-beam spread spectrum signal based on directional modulation is proposed to increase the difficulty of the wireless communication tapping. The transmitted signal is not only associated with the spread spectrum sequence but also with the azimuth angle of the receiver. Therefore, this signal is a space spread spectrum signal modulated by the azimuth angle. Simulation results show that the proposed signal offers a safety method for the data transmission compared with the traditional spread spectrum signal.%为了提高通信信息在无线传输过程中的窃听难度,该文提出了一种基于方向调制的双波束扩频信号.发射信号不仅与使用的扩频序列有关,而且与接收机相对于发射机的空间方位信息有关,是一种扩频序列和空间方位信息共同调制的空间扩频信号.仿真结果表明相比于传统的扩频信号,双波束方向调制扩频信号为通信信息在信息传输层面上提供了一种更加安全的无线传输方法.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Bacteria Communication in Continuous Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Barbarossa


    Full Text Available Quorum sensing is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication mechanism and is based on gene regulatory networks, which control and regulate the production of signaling molecules in the environment. In the past years, mathematical modeling of quorum sensing has provided an understanding of key components of such networks, including several feedback loops involved. This paper presents a simple system of delay differential equations (DDEs for quorum sensing of Pseudomonas putida with one positive feedback plus one (delayed negative feedback mechanism. Results are shown concerning fundamental properties of solutions, such as existence, uniqueness, and non-negativity; the last feature is crucial for mathematical models in biology and is often violated when working with DDEs. The qualitative behavior of solutions is investigated, especially the stationary states and their stability. It is shown that for a certain choice of parameter values, the system presents stability switches with respect to the delay. On the other hand, when the delay is set to zero, a Hopf bifurcation might occur with respect to one of the negative feedback parameters. Model parameters are fitted to experimental data, indicating that the delay system is sufficient to explain and predict the biological observations.

  18. Physics of the fastest communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh Monga


    A communication system involves the transmission of information from source to destination and after receiving all the information all the information or a complete signal an acknowledgement is then sent to the source by the destination itself to let the source know that is (destination) has received the signal. In this paper we examine about how to reduce the time of acknowledgement to make the communication faster. In this paper we present a method of sending an acknowledgement signal, in which the last quantum (sample) of the signal is used to compute the time of acknowledgement. The formula for calculating the time of acknowledgement in the case of a continuous time signal and a discrete time signal is also derived in the paper. This technique is applicable for analog communication, digital communication and space communication.

  19. Digital communication system (United States)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)


    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  20. Detection of a Low Power Communication Signal in the Presence of a Strong Co-Channel TV Broadcast Interference Using a Kalman Filter (United States)


    digital terrestrial television broadcast standards, from [5]. ..................6 Figure 3. SCM and MCM, from [6...correction FFT fast Fourier transform GI guard interval HDTV high definition television ICA independent component analysis IDFT inverse discrete Fourier...phase-shift keying xiv SCM single carrier modulation SDTV standard definition television SIR signal-to-interference ratio SNR signal-to-noise

  1. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham


    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  2. Plasmodesmata-mediated intercellular signaling during plant growth and development. (United States)

    Yadav, Shri R; Yan, Dawei; Sevilem, Iris; Helariutta, Ykä


    Plasmodesmata (PD) are cytoplasmic channels that connect neighboring cells for cell-to-cell communication. PD structure and function vary temporally and spatially to allow formation of symplastic domains during different stages of plant development. Reversible deposition of callose at PD plays an important role in controlling molecular trafficking through PD by regulating their size exclusion limit. Previously, we reported several semi-dominant mutants for CALLOSE SYNTHASE 3 (CALS3) gene, which overproduce callose at PD in Arabidopsis. By combining two of these mutations in a LexA-VP16-ER (XVE)-based estradiol inducible vector system, a tool known as the "icals3m system" was developed to temporally obstruct the symplastic connections in a specified spatial domain. The system has been successfully tested and used, in combination with other methods, to investigate the route for mobile signals such as the SHR protein, microRNA165/6, and cytokinins in Arabidopsis roots, and also to understand the role of symplastic domain formation during lateral root development. We envision that this tool may also be useful for identifying tissue-specific symplastic regulatory networks and to analyze symplastic movement of metabolites.

  3. 卫星通信中数字调相信号调制方式识别方法研究%Automatic recognition for the digital phase modulated signals in satellite communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田上成; 王可人; 金虎


    Communication signals' modulation recognition has great signality in non-cooperative communication. To investigate the automatic modulation recognition of high-order digital phase modulated signals widely used in satellite communication currently , such as QPSK, 8PSK,16 APSK and 32 APSK, an algorithm for modulation recognition based on higher-order cumulants of signal and genetic algorithm is proposed. The paper recommends the different modulations in satellite communication. It is shown that the high-order cumulants which are higher than four-order can provide some useful information of signals through the recognition of QPSK, 8PSK and {16APSK、32APSK} , which is based on higher-order cumulants. Then, the signals that belong to {16APSK、32APSK} will be treated with genetic algorithm, which is a fast-convergent and better stable genetic algorithm. The ratio of signals' amplitudes will be gained finally. Then the modulation of 16APSK and 32APSK could be recognized based on the ratio It is invariant with respect to difference of amplitude and phase, it is robust and widely usable. The efficiency of the algorithm is proved in theory. Computer simulations show that the proposed recognition algorithm is effective in performance, and the application of this algorithm in low signal-to-noise ratio with a specified sample size results in high probability of correct identification( >96% ) .%通信信号的调制样式识别在非协作通信中具有重要的研究意义.针对DVB-S2采用的高阶调制方式,提出了一种针对数字调相信号自动识别算法.首先介绍了不同调制样式的特点,并利用调制信号的八阶累积量和四阶累积量特征的关系,提取出一种新的特征参数,对QPSK、8PSK和/16APSK、32APSK/信号进行了区分.然后通过对高阶APSK信号进行统计分析,采用一种快速收敛且有效的遗传算法,得到信号均方幅度比,提取出APSK信号的统计特征参数,从而对/16APSK、32APSK/信号

  4. Simulation study of communication link for Pioneer Saturn/Uranus atmospheric entry probe. [signal acquisition by candidate modem for radio link (United States)

    Hinrichs, C. A.


    A digital simulation is presented for a candidate modem in a modeled atmospheric scintillation environment with Doppler, Doppler rate, and signal attenuation typical of the radio link conditions for an outer planets atmospheric entry probe. The results indicate that the signal acquisition characteristics and the channel error rate are acceptable for the system requirements of the radio link. The simulation also outputs data for calculating other error statistics and a quantized symbol stream from which error correction decoding can be analyzed.

  5. Wireless communication with chaos. (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Peng; Baptista, Murilo S; Grebogi, Celso


    The modern world fully relies on wireless communication. Because of intrinsic physical constraints of the wireless physical media (multipath, damping, and filtering), signals carrying information are strongly modified, preventing information from being transmitted with a high bit rate. We show that, though a chaotic signal is strongly modified by the wireless physical media, its Lyapunov exponents remain unaltered, suggesting that the information transmitted is not modified by the channel. For some particular chaotic signals, we have indeed proved that the dynamic description of both the transmitted and the received signals is identical and shown that the capacity of the chaos-based wireless channel is unaffected by the multipath propagation of the physical media. These physical properties of chaotic signals warrant an effective chaos-based wireless communication system.

  6. Submarine Communications .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Singh


    Full Text Available Submarines operating in deep water are virtually cut off from the outer world. It becomes very important and essential to convey survivable and critical information to the submarine during the time it operates under water. Conventional means of radio communication do not serve any useful purpose as the higher frequencies get attenuated very sharply in sea water. At VLF band, which is presently being used by most of the world Navies, signal can penetrate only upto 8-10 m of depth. This depth is not sufficient under hostile environment. ELF is another band where listening depth is around 100 m but data rate is very low. This paper summarizes the various means of communication used to send messages to submarine while cruising at various depths. It seems that in the near future blue-green laser is going to be the vital means of sending large information to a submarine operating much deeper (500-700 m with unrestricted speed.

  7. Postcultural Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben


    When we as scholars use the concept of intercultural communication in its classic definition, as communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, we perpetuate the notion that national differences influence communication more than other differences; in doing so, ethnic minorities...

  8. Single-antenna Blind Signal Separation Algorithm for Time-frequency Overlapped Digital Communication Signal with Distinct Carrier Frequency%单天线接收时频混叠的异频数字通信信号盲源分离算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞利会; 王军; 唐斌


    本文针对单天线接收时频混叠数字通信信号的盲源分离问题,基于源信号之间载波差异性,构建单天线接收信号虚拟多通道模型,实现了源信号分离与重构。该算法通过对单天线接收混合信号进行短时傅里叶变换,分析各个中心频率的源信号频域特性,提取各个源信号的幅度与相位信息。利用提取信息,实现源信号分离与重构。仿真结果表明,该算法可以有效的实现单天线接收时频混叠数字通信信号的盲源分离。%In this paper,based on the carrier frequency distinct feature among original sources,a blind signal separation method is proposed for the single-antenna time-frequency overlapped digital communication signal.The method changes the single-antenna recording into multi-channel model based the feature that the carrier frequency of original sources are differ-ent from each other.Then,the method analyzes spectral information obtained by the short time Fourier transform to extract amplitude and phase values at each center frequency of overlapped signals.Using those extracted information enables sig-nals from single-antenna data to be separated and reconstructed.The simulation tests demonstrate the feasible feasibility of the proposed approach for single-channel time-frequency overlapped digital communication signal separation.

  9. Habitat-induced degradation of sound signals: Quantifying the effects of communication sounds and bird location on blur ratio, excess attenuation, and signal-to-noise ratio in blackbird song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, T.; Larsen, O N; Pedersen, Simon Boel


    The habitat-induced degradation of the full song of the blackbird (Turdus merula) was quantified by measuring excess attenuation, reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio, the latter measure representing the degree of blurring of amplitude and frequency patterns over time. All three...

  10. Research on Receiving Technology Based on Blind Signal Separation for Satellite MIMO Communication System%基于盲分离的卫星MIMO系统接收技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛吉荣; 万坚; 陈绍贺; 程建


    针对卫星MIMO(Multi-Input Multi-Output)通信系统,提出采用盲分离的思路对各卫星信号进行接收.考虑到盲分离性能易受噪声、混合矩阵病态性的影响,分析了噪声对接收性能影响最小时信道传输矩阵(即盲分离中的混合矩阵)应满足的条件,并给出了满足此条件的等距线阵的构建方式.通过计算机仿真分析了在此方式下,等距线阵的方位角、间距以及信号频率对盲分离接收的影响,最后得出对天线阵列建设具有一定指导意义的结论,为进一步进行实验奠定基础.%Methods of using blind signal processing was proposed to receive the communication signal in Satellite MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output) system. Since the receiving performance was affected by noise and illness of mixing matrix, the channel transfer matrix (also called mixing matrix in blind signal processing) that minimized the noise affection was analyzed. The relationship between the transfer matrix and the uniform linear array's parameter such as azimuth angle, distance between two adjacent antennas and the frequency was also analyzed by simulation. Final, some conclusions useful in designing an antenna array in satellite communication system were given out.

  11. Strategic Aspects of Communication (United States)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  12. The Effect of SRS on Signal Power in Single-mode Silica Fiber in DWDM Optical Communication System with Equally Spaced Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jiamin; FANG Qiang; LIU Juan; WANG Yongchang


    Assuming that the Raman gain profile of silica fiber is a triangular function, we derive analytic solutions of N-channel steady-state forward SRS coupling wave equation with equal (but arbitrary) channel spacing. Considering the SRS cross coupling among N-channels, the analytic solutions are applicable to arbitrary signal light power. The results point out that the sequence mi=pi(z)/pi(0) [pi(z) and pi(0) is the power of signal light of i-th channel at transmission length z and 0, respectively. i=1,2,...N] maintains a geometric progression with the common ratio q in the transmission process. The common ratio q varies as a exponential function of the effective transmission length, the sum of input light power and the channel spacing, respectively.

  13. Using convolutional decoding to improve time delay and phase estimation in digital communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Mason, John J. (Albuquerque, NM)


    The time delay and/or phase of a communication signal received by a digital communication receiver can be estimated based on a convolutional decoding operation that the communication receiver performs on the received communication signal. If the original transmitted communication signal has been spread according to a spreading operation, a corresponding despreading operation can be integrated into the convolutional decoding operation.

  14. UHF2: a 0.6-μm 25-GHz BiCMOS technology for mixed-signal wireless communications applications (United States)

    Hemmenway, Don; Baldwin, Frank; Butler, John D.; Crouch, Clay; Delgado, Jose; Jayne, Mike; Johnston, Jeffrey M.; Lowther, Rex; Netzer, Michael; Richmond, Susan; Rivoli, Anthony; Rouse, George; Santi, Ron; Yue, Yun


    A 0.6 micrometers RF BiCMOS technology was developed by the modular integration of a 25 GHz fT, 35 GHz fMAX NPN transistor and high-quality passive components into an existing 0.6 micrometers analog CMOS process. The resultant process technology supports low-cost, mixed-signal RF applications up to 2.5 GHz.

  15. MicroRNA-mediated cancer metastasis regulation via heterotypic signals in the microenvironment. (United States)

    Ma, Haizhong; Liang, Chunli; Wang, Guangxue; Jia, Sujuan; Zhao, Qian; Xiang, Zhendong; Li, Yuan; Cho, William C; Pestell, Richard G; Liang, Li; Yu, Zuoren


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to regulate tumor progression and metastasis via direct interaction with target genes within cells. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the secretion of miRNAs into environment via cancer cell exosomes, called "exosomal shuttle small RNA". Microenvironmental miRNAs are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication, and they play important roles in regulating cancer metastasis. RNA analysis indicates enrichment of the miRNA population in cell-culturing medium. miRNA-conditioned medium is able to mediate the function of miRNAs in regulating cancer cell migration and invasion. Here we combine our recent work with literature discussing multiple mechanisms through which exosomal miRNAs regulate cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. We summarize a heterotypic signaling pathway by which miRNA regulates the cellular secretion and tumor microenvironment in control of breast cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, exosomal miRNAs are able to regulate cancer metastasis via heterotypic signals in the microenvironment.

  16. Coordination using Implicit Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul


    We explore a basic noise-free signaling scenario where coordination and communication are naturally merged. A random signal X_1,...,X_n is processed to produce a control signal or action sequence A_1,...,A_n, which is observed and further processed (without access to X_1,...,X_n) to produce a third sequence B_1,...,B_n. The object of interest is the set of empirical joint distributions p(x,a,b) that can be achieved in this setting. We show that H(A) >= I(X;A,B) is the necessary and sufficient condition for achieving p(x,a,b) when no causality constraints are enforced on the encoders. We also give results for various causality constraints. This setting sheds light on the embedding of digital information in analog signals, a concept that is exploited in digital watermarking, steganography, cooperative communication, and strategic play in team games such as bridge.

  17. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical...... experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  18. Design and Analysis of Underwater Optical Communication Transceiver System Based on Digital Signal Processor%基于数字信号处理机的水下光通信收发系统设计及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀寒; 周田华; 贺岩; 朱小磊; 陈卫标


    A high speed and high reliable underwater optical communication transceiver system based on digital signal processor (DSP) is proposed, and the modulation timing sequence and signal processing procedure is analyzed. In the transmitter, the DSP accomplishes Reed-Solomon codes encoding of the information need to be sent and filtering, threshold decision, the decoding and demodulation of the received information. The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) accomplishes the modulation of the information encoded in the DSP. Under the condition that the pulse width after underwater propagation is less than 100 ns and the frequency deviation from the mean is less than 15% , the dependence of the pulse position modulation (PPM) modulation rate on the chosen Galois field is discussed and the signal processing speed as well as the interfaces communication speed are analyzed. The analytical results show that the designed transmitter system can accomplish full-duplex and real time communication with a speed as high as 73 kbit/s. which can be used for real-time communication of multi-media information, such as voice and images. The pulse shape of laser after a propagation of 100 m in case Ⅱ water is simulated through Matlab as well as the timing sequence of a frame of data transmitted through FPGA and sampled sequence of a frame of data obtained through analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The structure of the designed transceiver provides a certain reference to the design and accomplishment of underwater optical communication system in the future.%设计了一种基于数字信号处理机(DSP)的高速高可靠性水下光通信收发系统,并分析了调制时序和信号处理过程.在收发机中,DSP完成待发送信息的里德-所罗门码编码和接收信息的滤波、门限判决、解调解码,现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)完成编码后信息的脉冲位置调制(PPM).针对激光脉冲水下传输后脉宽展宽小于100 ns,激光重复频率偏离均值小于15

  19. 宽带移动通信BPSK调频信号冲激响应增强算法%Broadband Mobile Communication BPSK FM Signal Impulse Response Enhancement Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅容芳; 蔡百川; 梅建国


    宽带移动通信信道处于微多径条件下由于带宽受限和多径传播导致的码间干扰使信号发生畸变,需要进行BPSK调制,增强冲激响应。在移动通信系统微多径条件下,提出一种宽带移动通信BPSK调频信号冲激响应增强算法,设计极大似然判决反馈均衡的宽带移动通信信号前馈调制算法,设计多径条件下宽带移动通信信道模型与最优接收机,得到多径条件下时延扩展与信道特性测量模型,在输入端周期性地发送超过信道脉冲响应长度的数据训练序列,基于极大似然准则进行BPSK调频信号调制,跟踪信道变化的能力,实现微多径条件下宽带移动通信的前馈调制。结果表明,算法能使波达方向角的相关峰值增强,调制特性更为稳健,输出信道冲激响应有较好的增益,增强带宽,提高了通信质量,展示了算法在移动通信信道改善方面的应用价值。%The broadband mobile communication channel in multipath conditions has limited bandwidth and multipath propagation, it causes inter symbol interference distortion of the signal. The maximum likelihood decision feedback broad⁃band mobile communication signal modulation algorithm is proposed based on the feed forward balanced multipath condi⁃tions, the broadband mobile communication channel model and the optimal receiver is obtained, get the measurement mod⁃el of multipath delay spread and under the condition of channel characteristics, at the input end periodically over the length of the training sequence data the channel impulse response is enhanced, BPSK FM signal modulation is obtained based on the maximum likelihood criterion, ability of tracking channel is improved, feed-forward modulation broadband mobile com⁃munication micro multipath conditions is realized. Results show that the algorithm can make the correlation peak in the di⁃rection of arrival angle enhance, modulation characteristics

  20. Serotonergic activation of 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptors modulates sexually dimorphic communication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. (United States)

    Smith, G Troy; Combs, Nicole


    Serotonin modulates agonistic and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species. 5HT(1A) and 5HT(1B) receptors mediate many serotonergic effects on social behavior, but other receptors, including 5HT(2) receptors, may also contribute. We investigated serotonergic regulation of electrocommunication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. During social interactions, these fish modulate their electric organ discharges (EODs) to produce signals known as chirps. Males chirp more than females and produce two chirp types. Males produce high-frequency chirps as courtship signals; whereas both sexes produce low-frequency chirps during same-sex interactions. Serotonergic innervation of the prepacemaker nucleus, which controls chirping, is more robust in females than males. Serotonin inhibits chirping and may contribute to sexual dimorphism and individual variation in chirping. We elicited chirps with EOD playbacks and pharmacologically manipulated serotonin receptors to determine which receptors regulated chirping. We also asked whether serotonin receptor activation generally modulated chirping or more specifically targeted particular chirp types. Agonists and antagonists of 5HT(1B/1D) receptors (CP-94253 and GR-125743) did not affect chirping. The 5HT(1A) receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT specifically increased production of high-frequency chirps. The 5HT(2) receptor agonist DOI decreased chirping. Receptor antagonists (WAY-100635 and MDL-11939) opposed the effects of their corresponding agonists. These results suggest that serotonergic inhibition of chirping may be mediated by 5HT(2) receptors, but that serotonergic activation of 5HT(1A) receptors specifically increases the production of high-frequency chirps. The enhancement of chirping by 5HT(1A) receptors may result from interactions with cortisol and/or arginine vasotocin, which similarly enhance chirping and are influenced by 5HT(1A) activity in other systems.

  1. A Simple Expression for the Matrix Gradient of a Diagonal Element of R in QR Decomposition for Use in MIMO Communications and Signal Processing (United States)


    est bien connu que n’importe quelle matrice A peut être décomposée, ou factorisée, puisque A = QR où Q est une matrice à colonnes ortho- normales...signal plus bruit A, il est intéressant de connaı̂tre les effets du bruit surQ etR . À cette fin, les gradients des élémentsQ etR par rapport àA

  2. Effects of muscle conductivity on signal transmission of intra-body communications%肌肉电导率对人体通信信号传输的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾雪芝; 高跃明; 潘少恒; 麦炳源; 韦孟宇; 杜民


    肌肉组织具有良好的电导率且占据人体较大体积,研究肌肉电导率在人体通信中的作用,有助于掌握电流耦合信号传输特性,提高人体建模的准确性.采用有限元法建立电流耦合信号在肢体传输的准静态场模型,研究不同频率下肌肉电导率的变化引起各组织层总电流密度分布的变化,重点分析肌肉各向异性电导率对耦合电流信号传输的影响,最后通过实验测量验证有限元模型.结果表明,超过64%的电流信号流经肌肉层,并且肌肉电导率越大流经肌肉层的电流越多;在1kHz~1MHz范围内,肌肉各向异性电导率对人体信号传输有较大影响;考虑肌肉电导率各向异性的模型更接近人体实验结果.%The muscle occupies the large volume of the human body and has good electrical conductivity. The research on effect of muscle conductivity in intra-body communication can help for analyzing the transmission characteristics of current coupling signal, as well as improving the accuracy of model. The quasi-static model based on the finite element method (FEM) was established and analyzed, for current coupling signal transmission through the limb. The variation of total current density distribution resulted from the muscle conductivity at different frequency was studied. Then the effects of muscle anisotropic conductivity were emphatically analyzed. Finally, the FEM model was verified by experimental measurements. The results showed that more than 64% of the current signal transmitted through the muscle layer. And the larger muscle conductivity, the more current propagates through the muscle. In 1 kHz ~1 MHz, the anisotropic conductivity of muscle has a great effect on signal transmission of intra-body communications. What's more , the model with muscle anisotropic conductivity closer to real human body.

  3. Analysis of a faster-than-Nyquist signaling-based transmission scheme for optical communication systems%基于超 Nyquist 在光通信系统中传输方案的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王演祎; 王智鑫; 张俊文; 杨超; 迟楠


    The Faster-Than-Nyquist (FTN)signaling-based scheme is a high spectral efficiency transmission scheme for large-capacity optical communication systems.This paper reviews the latest FTN signaling-based transmission schemes in the world, such as cascaded multi-modulus blind equalization FTN,digital FTN and Soft Output FTN (SOFTN).The cascaded multi-modulus blind equalization FTN can effectively suppress noise and inter-channel crosstalk,the digital FTN can effectively sim-plify the system structure and the SOFTN has the highest spectral efficiency.It analyzes and compares in detail their perform-ances and principles,which can be used as the basis for the design of future long-range large-capacity fiber-optic communication systems.%基于 FTN(超 Nyquist)方案是一种高频谱效率传输方案。文章总结了目前国际上最新的基于 FTN 传输方案:级联多模盲均衡 FTN、数字 FTN 和 SOFTN(软输出 FTN)。其中,级联多模盲均衡 FTN 方案能有效地抑制噪声和信道间串扰,数字FTN 方案能有效地简化系统结构,而 SOFTN 方案的频谱效率最高。对这三种方案的性能和原理进行了详细分析和比较,以期作为未来长距离、大容量光纤通信系统设计的依据。

  4. Property analysis of a HAPS communication scheme based on MIMO for signal' s cooperative reception%HAPS通信中基于MIMO的信号协作接收方案性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍辰杰; 陈树新; 张衡阳


    分析了在HAPS中应用协作通信的需求。研究了HAPS通信信道在不同仰角区域的特性,在此基础上提出一种HAPS通信中基于MIMO的信号协作接收方案,并在不同仰角区域中对该协作接收方案进行性能仿真.仿真结果表明,在中、低仰角区域内使用该协作接收方案能够获得较大的组合分集增益,但是。对于高仰角区域此协作通信方案的性能改善不明显.最后,就上述2种现象产生的原因进行了分析。%First the demand of applying cooperative communication via HAPS is analyzed. Then the character of HAPS communication channel in different elevation angles is studied. This paper presents a HAPS communication scheme based on MIMO for signal's cooperative reception on the basis of two works mentioned above. And a property simulation towards the cooperative reception scheme in different elevation angles is made. The simulation results shows the following:The cooperative reception scheme can obtain a relatively large combining diversity gain in middle& low-elevation angle area. However, there is little property improvement in high-elevation angle by using this scheme. Finally, the reason why different results occur in different elevation angles is analyzed.

  5. Wireless communications circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yichuang


    This new book examines integrated circuits, systems and transceivers for wireless and mobile communications. It covers the most recent developments in key RF, IF, analogue, mixed-signal components and single-chip transceivers in CMOS technology.

  6. Intracellular distribution, cell-to-cell trafficking and tubule-inducing activity of the 50 kDa movement protein of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus fused to green fluorescent protein. (United States)

    Satoh, H; Matsuda, H; Kawamura, T; Isogai, M; Yoshikawa, N; Takahashi, T


    The 50 kDa protein (50KP) encoded by ORF2 of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed transiently in cells of Nicotiana occidentalis and Chenopodium quinoa leaves. Its intracellular distribution, cell-to-cell trafficking in leaf epidermis and tubule formation on the surface of protoplasts were analysed. The 50KP-GFP fluorescence was distributed as small irregular spots or a fibrous network structure on the periphery of epidermal cells and protoplasts of both plant species. In leaf epidermis of N. occidentalis, the protein spread from the cells that produced it into neighbouring cells in both young and mature leaves and targetted plasmodesmata in these cells. In contrast, GFP was restricted to single cells in most cases in mature leaves. When 50KP and GFP were co-expressed in leaf epidermis of N. occidentalis, GFP spread more widely from the initial cells that produced it than when GFP was expressed alone, suggesting that 50KP facilitated the cell-to-cell trafficking of GFP. 50KP-GFP was able to complement local spread of 50KP-deficient virus when expressed transiently in leaf epidermis of C. quinoa. Expression of 50KP-GFP in protoplasts resulted in the production of tubular structures protruding from the surface. Mutational analyses showed that the C-terminal region (aa 287-457) was not essential for localization to plasmodesmata, cell-to-cell trafficking, complementation of movement of 50KP-deficient virus or tubule formation on protoplasts. In contrast, deletions in the N-terminal region resulted in the complete disruption of all these activities.

  7. Speech communications in noise (United States)


    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  8. Antibodies to several conformation-dependent epitopes of gp120/gp41 inhibit CCR-5-dependent cell-to-cell fusion mediated by the native envelope glycoprotein of a primary macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolate


    Verrier, Florence C.; Charneau, Pierre; Altmeyer, Ralf; Laurent, Stephanie; Borman, Andrew M.; Girard, Marc


    The β-chemokine receptor CCR-5 is essential for the efficient entry of primary macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates into CD4+ target cells. To study CCR-5-dependent cell-to-cell fusion, we have developed an assay system based on the infection of CD4+ CCR-5+ HeLa cells with a Semliki Forest virus recombinant expressing the gp120/gp41 envelope (Env) from a primary clade B HIV-1 isolate (BX08), or from a laboratory T cell line-adapted strain (LAI). In this system, gp120/gp41 of the “nonsyncytium-ind...

  9. ZTE Communications Guidetines for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Remit of Journal ZTE Communications publishes original theoretical papers, research findings, and surveys on a broad range of communications topics, including communications and information system design, optical fiber and electro-optical engineering, microwave technology, radio wave propagation, antenna engineering, electromagnetics, signal and image processing, and power engineering. The journal is designed to be an integrated forum for university academics and industry researchers from around the world.

  10. Communication skills. (United States)

    Ellison, Deborah


    The front-line nurse is responsible for providing direct patient care, patient satisfaction, care coordination, policy, safety, and communication during a 12-hour shift. Every nurse has the opportunity to make a positive impact on patient outcomes through day-to-day advocacy for patients, nurses, and the nursing profession. Communication is a means of advocacy that provides the avenue to which a positive impact can be made. There are multiple barriers to effective communication in the day-to-day communication of the front-line nurse. Interprofessional communication and shared governance models offer ways to improve communication within nursing and within a systems approach.

  11. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou


    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  12. DIORAMA Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galassi, Mark C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Diorama is written as a collection of modules that can run in separate threads or in separate processes. This defines a clear interface between the modules and also allows concurrent processing of different parts of the pipeline. The pipeline is determined by a description in a scenario file[Norman and Tornga, 2012, Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The scenario manager parses the XML scenario and sets up the sequence of modules which will generate an event, propagate the signal to a set of sensors, and then run processing modules on the results provided by those sensor simulations. During a run a variety of “observer” and “processor” modules can be invoked to do interim analysis of results. Observers do not modify the simulation results, while processors may affect the final result. At the end of a run results are collated and final reports are put out. A detailed description of the scenario file and how it puts together a simulation are given in [Tornga and Norman, 2014]. The processing pipeline and how to program it with the Diorama API is described in Tornga et al. [2015] and Tornga and Wakeford [2015]. In this report I describe the communications infrastructure that is used.

  13. Data communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability.

  14. Communication loophole in a Bell-EPR-Bohm experiment: standard no-signaling may not always be enough to exclude local realism

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, David


    Assuming perfect detection efficiency, we present an (indeterministic) model for an EPR-Bohm experiment which reproduces the singlet correlations, without contradicting Bell's original locality condition. In this model we allow the probability distribution $\\rho_{\\lambda}$ of the state $\\lambda$ at the source to depend parametrically on the orientation $\\xi$ of one of the measuring devices: $\\rho_{\\lambda}(\\lambda,\\xi)$. In a Bell experiment, no-signaling between the source and each one of the devices would seem clearly sufficient to rule such an influence; however, not even schemes where the choice of observables takes place during the on-flight time of the particles can prevent, in some situations, a model of this type from violating the local bounds. In particular, a random shift $\\rho_{\\lambda}(\\lambda,\\xi_1) \\rightarrow \\rho_{\\lambda}(\\lambda,\\xi_2) \\rightarrow...\\rightarrow \\rho_{\\lambda}(\\lambda,\\xi_n)$ allows the model to perform a "subensemble selection" for each of the terms involved in the inequali...

  15. Communication (action with communicative content). (United States)

    Russo, M T


    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas.

  16. Communicative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Writing, like all other aspects of language , is communicative.Communicative writing takes an important part in English learn-ing.Communicative writing assignments train students to turn personal observations into impersonal prose , avoid value judgments unwelcome in the sciences, and write with economy and precision .In the English language classroom , however, writing often lacks this.Why?There are lots of reasons , as there are lots of ways to make the writing we do with students more communicative .

  17. Cultural Communications. (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  18. Communication Links



    This interactive tutorial helps learners to: Identify key upward, lateral, downward, and informal communication links in their organizations. , Reflect on the benefits, control, satisfaction, information filters, and feedback mechanism of various communication links in the organizations. OCL1000 Communicating Change in Complex Organizations

  19. Existential Communication. (United States)

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social…

  20. Stereotypes Communication (United States)

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan


    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  1. Existential Communication. (United States)

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social setting, and…

  2. Universal Limit on Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael


    I derive a universal upper bound on the capacity of any communication channel between two distant systems. The Holevo quantity, and hence the mutual information, is at most of order $E \\Delta t / \\hbar$, where $E$ the average energy of the signal, and $\\Delta t$ is the amount of time for which detectors operate. The bound does not depend on the size or mass of the emitting and receiving systems, nor on the nature of the signal. No restrictions on preparing and processing the signal are imposed. As an example, I consider the encoding of information in the transverse or angular position of a signal emitted and received by systems of arbitrarily large cross-section. In the limit of a large message space, quantum effects become important even if individual signals are classical, and the bound is upheld.

  3. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M


    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  4. Airway Epithelial Cell Integrity Protects from Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Signals. (United States)

    Losa, Davide; Köhler, Thilo; Bacchetta, Marc; Saab, Joanna Bou; Frieden, Maud; van Delden, Christian; Chanson, Marc


    Cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions regulates airway epithelial cell homeostasis and maintains the epithelium host defense. Quorum-sensing molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinate the expression of virulence factors by this respiratory pathogen. These bacterial signals may also incidentally modulate mammalian airway epithelial cell responses to the pathogen, a process called interkingdom signaling. We investigated the interactions between the P. aeruginosa N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12) quorum-sensing molecule and human airway epithelial cell gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). C12 degradation and its effects on cells were monitored in various airway epithelial cell models grown under nonpolarized and polarized conditions. Its concentration was further monitored in daily tracheal aspirates of colonized intubated patients. C12 rapidly altered epithelial integrity and decreased GJIC in nonpolarized airway epithelial cells, whereas other quorum-sensing molecules had no effect. The effects of C12 were dependent on [Ca(2+)]i and could be prevented by inhibitors of Src tyrosine family and Rho-associated protein kinases. In contrast, polarized airway cells grown on Transwell filters were protected from C12 except when undergoing repair after wounding. In vivo during colonization of intubated patients, C12 did not accumulate, but it paralleled bacterial densities. In vitro C12 degradation, a reaction catalyzed by intracellular paraoxonase 2 (PON2), was impaired in nonpolarized cells, whereas PON2 expression was increased during epithelial polarization. The cytotoxicity of C12 on nonpolarized epithelial cells, combined with its impaired degradation allowing its accumulation, provides an additional pathogenic mechanism for P. aeruginosa infections.

  5. Communication shapes sensory response in multicellular networks. (United States)

    Potter, Garrett D; Byrd, Tommy A; Mugler, Andrew; Sun, Bo


    Collective sensing by interacting cells is observed in a variety of biological systems, and yet, a quantitative understanding of how sensory information is collectively encoded is lacking. Here, we investigate the ATP-induced calcium dynamics of monolayers of fibroblast cells that communicate via gap junctions. Combining experiments and stochastic modeling, we find that increasing the ATP stimulus increases the propensity for calcium oscillations, despite large cell-to-cell variability. The model further predicts that the oscillation propensity increases with not only the stimulus, but also the cell density due to increased communication. Experiments confirm this prediction, showing that cell density modulates the collective sensory response. We further implicate cell-cell communication by coculturing the fibroblasts with cancer cells, which we show act as "defects" in the communication network, thereby reducing the oscillation propensity. These results suggest that multicellular networks sit at a point in parameter space where cell-cell communication has a significant effect on the sensory response, allowing cells to simultaneously respond to a sensory input and the presence of neighbors.

  6. Subaperture clutter filter with CFAR signal detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Naething, Richard M.


    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of whether a received signal comprising radar clutter further comprises a communication signal. The communication signal can comprise of a preamble, a data symbol, communication data, etc. A first portion of the radar clutter is analyzed to determine a radar signature of the first portion of the radar clutter. A second portion of the radar clutter can be extracted based on the radar signature of the first portion. Following extraction, any residual signal can be analyzed to retrieve preamble data, etc. The received signal can be based upon a linear frequency modulation (e.g., a chirp modulation) whereby the chirp frequency can be determined and the frequency of transmission of the communication signal can be based accordingly thereon. The duration and/or bandwidth of the communication signal can be a portion of the duration and/or the bandwidth of the radar clutter.

  7. Chaotic systems in optical communications (United States)

    Siuzdak, J.


    Communications application of chaotic oscillations of lasers with optoelectronic feedback was discussed. The possibility of eavesdropping of the transmission was analyzed. It was proved that if the rogue party precisely knows parameters of the chaotic system it may recreate the entire signals solely by observation of the optical signal power causing security breach.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing signaling molecule N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone induces matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression via the AP1 pathway in rat fibroblasts. (United States)

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Minematsu, Takeo; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Yamane, Takumi; Kanazawa, Toshiki; Huang, Lijuan; Asada, Mayumi; Nagase, Takashi; Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Sanada, Hiromi


    Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism, which is responsible for regulating a number of bacterial virulence factors and biofilm maturation and therefore plays an important role for establishing wound infection. Quorum-sensing signals may induce inflammation and predispose wounds to infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, the interaction has not been well investigated. We examined the effects of the P. aeruginosa las quorum-sensing signal, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL), on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression in Rat-1 fibroblasts. 3OC12-HSL upregulated the expression of the MMP9 gene bearing an activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site in the promoter region. We further investigated the mechanism underlying this effect. c-Fos gene expression increased rapidly after exposure to 3OC12-HSL, and nuclear translocation of c-Fos protein was observed; both effects were reduced by pretreatment with an AP-1 inhibitor. These results suggest that 3OC12-HSL can alter MMP9 gene expression in fibroblasts via the AP-1 signaling pathway.

  9. Wavelet transform domain communication systems (United States)

    Orr, Richard S.; Pike, Cameron; Lyall, Michael J.


    In this paper we introduce a new class of communications systems called wavelet transform domain (WTD) systems. WTD systems are transmultiplexer (TMUX) structures in which information to be communicated over a channel is encoded, via an inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT), as the wavelet coefficients of the transmitted signal, and extracted at the receiver by a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). WTD constructs can be used for covert, or low probability of intercept/detection (LPI/D) communications, baseband bandwidth efficient communications, or code-division multiple access (CDMA). This paper concentrates on the spread spectrum applications.

  10. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran


    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  11. 应用于宽频率范围的小卫星通信侦察信号处理方案*%Signal Processing Design of Wide Frequency Range Moonlet-based Communications Reconnaissance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      According to the growing demand of moonlet-based electronic reconnaissance equipment,a signal pro-cessing design scheme for wide frequency range communication reconnaissance is proposed in which the complex functions such as signals digital down conversion,spectrum analysis,data storage and transfer are realized in a low density FPGA(Field-Programmable Gate Array). Filters and memories are used repeatedly in the FPGA to take full advantage of resources and reduce the number of components,so that miniaturization,low power con-sumption,full functions,high efficiency for moonlet-based equipment are achieved. The feasibility of the scheme is verified by test.%  针对日益增强的小卫星平台搭载电子侦察载荷的需求,提出一种应用于宽频率范围的通信侦察信号处理方案,在一片集成度较低的FPGA中完成信号数字下变频、频谱分析、数据存储和传输等复杂功能。通过在FPGA中进行滤波器、存储器复用等办法,充分利用现有FPGA的资源,减少器件数量,实现了平台对载荷小型化、低功耗、功能全、效率高的要求。试验结果验证了该设计的实用性。

  12. A Beam Tracking Algorithm Based on Satellite Beacon Signals for Phased Array in Mobile Satellite Communications%一种基于信标的移动卫通相控阵波束跟踪算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 张慧


    In this paper a beam tracking algorithm based on satellite beacon signals is proposed and realized. The method is suitable for all kinds of phased array type mobile satellite communication antennas. It overcomes the difficulty of detecting the extremely weak satellite beacon signals and then the tracking performance is greatly improved. The highlight of the algorithm is the beam tracking process can be run without the help of gyroscopes and thus improves the survivability in the extreme environments. The algorithm was implemented and verified in a Ku band phased array mobile satellite antenna.%提出并实现了一种利用卫星信标信号来实施基于相控阵天线的波束跟踪算法。该方法适用于采用相控阵天线技术的各种卫星“动中通”天线,克服了卫星信标信号强度弱,检测困难的弱点,提高了跟踪信噪比,同时采用了软件无线电方式解调可以提供最大的灵活性。跟踪算法的最大优点是没有任何陀螺仪的辅助,极大地提高了天线在各种极端运动环境下的适应能力。算法最终在自行研制的Ku波段相控阵移动卫星天线系统上获得验证。

  13. Performance analysis of low-complexity adaptive frequency-domain equalization and MIMO signal processing for compensation of differential mode group delay in mode-division multiplexing communication systems using few-mode fibers (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi


    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.

  14. How do communication systems emerge? (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Blythe, Richard A; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A


    Communication involves a pair of behaviours--a signal and a response--that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a theoretical perspective why this should be the case, nor if there are any other routes to communication. Here, we develop an analytical model to examine how communication can emerge. We show that: (i) a state of non-interaction is evolutionarily stable, and so communication will not necessarily emerge even when it is in both parties' interest; (ii) the conditions for sensory manipulation are more stringent than for ritualization, and hence ritualization is likely to be more common; and (iii) communication can arise by a third route, when the intention to communicate can itself be communicated, but this may be limited to humans. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of a functional approach to communication.

  15. Digital signal processing: Handbook (United States)

    Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.

    The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.

  16. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    Strategizing Communication offers a unique perspective on the theory and practice of strategic communication. Written for students and practitioners interested in learning about and acquiring tools for dealing with the technological, environmental and managerial challenges, which organizations face...... when communicating in today’s mediascape, this book presents an array of theories, concepts and models through which we can understand and practice communication strategically. The core of the argument is in the title: strategizing – meaning the act of making something strategic. This entails looking...... beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...

  17. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard


    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  18. Cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides play a combined role in the death of Lachanchea thermotolerans during mixed-culture alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri; Branco, Patrícia; Almeida, Maria Gabriela


    The roles of cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides in the early death of Lachanchea thermotolerans CBS2803 during anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae S101 were investigated using a commercially available, double-compartment fermentation system separated...... by cellulose membranes with different pore sizes, i.e. 1000 kDa for mixed- and single-culture fermentations, and 1000 and 3.5-5 kDa for compartmentalized-culture fermentations. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography were used to determine an antimicrobial peptidic fraction in the fermentations. Our results......-culture fermentation than in the mixed-culture fermentation. Furthermore, L. thermotolerans died off even more slowly in the 3.5-5 kDa than in the 1000 kDa compartmentalized-culture fermentation, which coincided with the presence of less of the antimicrobial peptidic fraction in the inner compartment...

  19. 空间光通信中分布式天线的信号检测研究%Signal detection algorithm in free-space optical communication systems with distributed transmit antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明; 李书明; 杨绍文


    The distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique is one of the effective ways to mitigate the effect of atmospheric turbulence and reduce the packet error rate in free-space optical communications. Because the time of laser propagation is different and random among atmospheric turbulence links, signals arrive at the receiving antennas randomly and asynchronously, which causes the problem of inter-symbol interference. But linear detection algorithms are more complicated to solve it for the free-space optical (FSO) system with distributed transmit antennas. The valuable information obtained from signs of distributed receiving antennas depends on combining mode, and the performance of anti-interference is determined by the detection algorithm. Focusing on the problem above, this paper proposes the algorithm based on maximum likelihood detection and Neyman-Pearson (NP) fusion criterion for distributed receiving antennas system. Simulation results show that when receiving signal is synchronous, NP algorithm has better robustness,it is comparable to optimal combining (OC) algorithm, and it is better than the equal gain combining (EGO algorithm. When receiving signal is asynchronous, NP algorithm is better than EGC and OC algorithms, which improves spatial diversity performance in the distributed antennas system,suppressing inter-symbol interference.%针对空间光通信中随机信道传播时延导致接收信号符号间干扰的特殊性使分布式发射天线多入多出(MIMO)信号的线性检测算法更加复杂这一问题,提出了一种基于Neyman-Pearson(NP)融合准则的分布式天线信号检测算法.仿真结果表明,当接收信号同步时,NP算法具有较好的健壮性,其性能优于等增益合并(EGC)算法,与最佳合并(OC)算法相当;当接收信号异步时,NP算法要明显优于EGC和OC算法,抑制接收符号间干扰,能体现出分布式天线系统的空间分集性能.

  20. Methanol may function as a cross-kingdom signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L Dorokhov

    Full Text Available Recently, we demonstrated that leaf wounding results in the synthesis of pectin methylesterase (PME, which causes the plant to release methanol into the air. Methanol emitted by a wounded plant increases the accumulation of methanol-inducible gene mRNA and enhances antibacterial resistance as well as cell-to-cell communication, which facilitates virus spreading in neighboring plants. We concluded that methanol is a signaling molecule involved in within-plant and plant-to-plant communication. Methanol is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, recent data showed that methanol is a natural compound in normal, healthy humans. These data call into question whether human methanol is a metabolic waste product or whether methanol has specific function in humans. Here, to reveal human methanol-responsive genes (MRGs, we used suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries of HeLa cells lacking ADH and exposed to methanol. This design allowed us to exclude genes involved in formaldehyde and formic acid detoxification from our analysis. We identified MRGs and revealed a correlation between increases in methanol content in the plasma and changes in human leukocyte MRG mRNA levels after fresh salad consumption by volunteers. Subsequently, we showed that the methanol generated by the pectin/PME complex in the gastrointestinal tract of mice induces the up- and downregulation of brain MRG mRNA. We used an adapted Y-maze to measure the locomotor behavior of the mice while breathing wounded plant vapors in two-choice assays. We showed that mice prefer the odor of methanol to other plant volatiles and that methanol changed MRG mRNA accumulation in the mouse brain.We hypothesize that the methanol emitted by wounded plants may have a role in plant-animal signaling. The known positive effect of plant food intake on human health suggests a role for

  1. Advances in communication systems and electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xu


    This volume contains contributions from participants in the 2007 International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists Topics covered include communications theory, communications protocols, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, electronics, power engineering, control engineering, signal processing, and industrial applications. The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in communication systems and electrical engineering and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on communication systems a

  2. A role of TDIF peptide signaling in vascular cell differentiation is conserved among euphyllophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eHirakawa


    Full Text Available Peptide signals mediate a variety of cell-to-cell communication crucial for plant growth and development. During Arabidopsis thaliana vascular development, a CLE (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related family peptide hormone, TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor, regulates procambial cell fate by its inhibitory activity on xylem differentiation. To address if this activity is conserved among vascular plants, we performed comparative analyses of TDIF signaling in non-flowering vascular plants (gymnosperms, monilophytes and lycophytes. We identified orthologs of TDIF/CLE as well as its receptor TDR/PXY (TDIF RECEPTOR/PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM in Ginkgo biloba, Adiantum aethiopicum and Selaginella kraussiana by RACE-PCR. The predicted TDIF peptide sequences in seed plants and monilophytes were identical to that of A. thaliana TDIF. We examined the effects of exogenous CLE peptide-motif sequences of TDIF in these species. We found that liquid culturing of dissected leaves or shoots was useful for examining TDIF activity during vascular development. TDIF treatment suppressed xylem/tracheary element differentiation of procambial cells in G. bioloba and A. aethiopicum leaves. In contrast, neither TDIF nor putative endogenous TDIF inhibited xylem differentiation in developing shoots and rhizophores of S. kraussiana. These data suggest that activity of TDIF in vascular development is conserved among extant euphyllophytes. In addition to the conserved function, via liquid culturing of its bulbils, we found a novel inhibitory activity on root growth in the monilophyte Asplenium x lucrosum suggesting lineage-specific co-option of peptide signaling occurred during the evolution of vascular plant organs.

  3. Industrial Communications. (United States)

    Lindsay, Dan

    Intended for seniors planning a career in industry as skilled laborers, this specialized course in Industrial Communications offers the student basic communications skills which he will need in his work and in his daily life. Since class activities center around short, factual oral reports, class size will be limited to 20, providing a maximum of…

  4. Interracial Communication (United States)

    Harris, Tina M.


    This course explores the inextricable and multidimensional relationships among race, culture, and communication by providing students with an extensive theoretical framework to enhance their understanding of interracial communication. Specific attention is geared toward the construction of one's own racial and ethnic identity as well as those of…

  5. Communicating up (United States)

    Lum, Lydia


    Chief communicators at many U.S. institutions are interested in forging closer ties with governing boards. Proponents say such relationships can increase board trust and confidence in communicators before a crisis occurs, making it easier to manage the institution's reputation and limit negative publicity when one does. At some institutions, such…

  6. Communication Theoretic Data Analytics


    Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Lun; Zheng, Lizhong; Poor, H. Vincent


    Widespread use of the Internet and social networks invokes the generation of big data, which is proving to be useful in a number of applications. To deal with explosively growing amounts of data, data analytics has emerged as a critical technology related to computing, signal processing, and information networking. In this paper, a formalism is considered in which data is modeled as a generalized social network and communication theory and information theory are thereby extended to data analy...

  7. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim


    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make...... a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...... and management databases, i.e. EBSCOhost and ProQuest. Findings – Papers were coded into three main categories. The results show that the majority of the papers are concerned with disclosure themes. Considerably less salient are papers that fall under process-oriented themes and the outcomes/consequences of CSR...

  8. Communicating health. (United States)

    Chatterjee, A


    Routine production of communication materials without paying attention to utilization, field test, and impact analysis is ineffective. The concept of information, education, and communication (IEC) should encompass voluntary activity of health education in a tradition of innovation. One seminal factor may be the communication technologies developed by the National Technology Missions. The missions were participatory by seeking solutions among communities and analyzing health issues from the perspective of those directly involved, rather than from the top down. The prime focus of the national drinking water mission was convenience, hence messages concentrating on health advantages were ignored. At this juncture, influencing health behavior required decentralization reflecting local cultures. Thus community-based partners became the foundation of a strategy of communicating safe water. As national strategies emerged in each of the technology missions, communication addressed advocacy of the need for political will, dissemination of technical information, and influencing patterns of behavior. Despite learning a new understanding, the danger exists that IEC remains just another label of mass communication with posters, advertisements, brochures, radio, and television. Decisions on contraceptive choice and use requires more than just accurate information; it requires the power to make such a decision. A new approach demands a priority for communication skills taking into account people's aspirations. The HIV-AIDS crisis underlines the urgency with which communication has to respond to health challenges. A series of experiments facilitated by the World Conservation Union helped build communication capabilities among environmental groups working in Latin America, Africa, and India. The International Reference Center on Water and Sanitation initiated pilot communication projects in West Africa for community health.

  9. Honeybee communication: a signal for danger. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V


    Scout honeybees recruit other bees to visit a newly discovered food source through the famous 'waggle dance'. Now a new study reports that other nest mates can induce the dancer to stop advertising, if they have experienced danger at that location.

  10. A Radio Communication System for Neuronal Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Yang Maoquan; Wang Xiaojun; Guang Kui; Zhang Xiao


    To collect neuronal activity data from awake, freely behaving animals, we developed miniature telemetry recording system. The integrated system consists of four major components: l) Microelectrodes and micro-driver assembly, 2) analog front end (AFE), 3) programmable system on chip (PSoC), and 4) ra- dio transceiver and the LabVIEW were used as a platform for the graphic user interface. The result showed the system was able to record and analyze neuronal recordings in freely moving animals and lasted continuously for a time period of a week or more. This is very useful for the study of the interdisciplinary research of neu- roscience and information engineering techniques. The circuits and architecture of the devices can be adapted for neurobiology and research with other small animals.

  11. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannides Andreas A


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG. The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. Methods The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types – Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test, and activity between objects (active test. The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. Results The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main MFG170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: MFG100, MFG170, and MFG200 – all showed preference for faces. Conclusion Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in MFG

  12. A new class of quorum quenching molecules from Staphylococcus species affects communication and growth of gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yun Chu

    Full Text Available The knowledge that many pathogens rely on cell-to-cell communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing, opens a new disease control strategy: quorum quenching. Here we report on one of the rare examples where Gram-positive bacteria, the 'Staphylococcus intermedius group' of zoonotic pathogens, excrete two compounds in millimolar concentrations that suppress the quorum sensing signaling and inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. These compounds were isolated from Staphylococcus delphini. They represent a new class of quorum quenchers with the chemical formula N-[2-(1H-indol-3-ylethyl]-urea and N-(2-phenethyl-urea, which we named yayurea A and B, respectively. In vitro studies with the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL responding receptor LuxN of V. harveyi indicated that both compounds caused opposite effects on phosphorylation to those caused by AHL. This explains the quorum quenching activity. Staphylococcal strains producing yayurea A and B clearly benefit from an increased competitiveness in a mixed community.

  13. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po


    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  14. Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga


    Full Text Available The concept of culture has become one of strategic importance for all disciplines studying human and social universe, being invested today with multiple explanatory connotations. Meanwhile, conjunction and theoretical approaches we witness interference, under the imperative of interdisciplinary vision lead us, often up to a damaging confusion between communication and culture. Distinction between symbolic and instrumental, of culture and civilization are necessary to not confuse the contents of symbolic culture media of communication technology. An inventory of issues and social transformations that have acquired an indisputable relevance in contemporary development equation surgery is necessary but difficult. It should be mentioned two of them, given their global significance: the rediscovery of culture as a defining factor of the social and importance that have acquired communication processes in living societies. In fact, between the two aspects there is a relationship of inherent and consubstantiality, validated by actual historical experience. Culture and Communication is now a binomial with terms interchangeably, the two processes intertwined in a single block. Welding of the two dimensions was otherwise devoted to the vocabulary of social sciences and humanities through the concepts of culture media and intercultural communication. If we examine the paradigm shift in the theoretical space of the last century, the most surprising phenomena that we observe is that theories concerning communication space literally invaded the area that was traditionally reserved for theories about culture. For theorists today, communication is a structural constituent and all definitions, descriptions and characterizations that build on contemporary culture.

  15. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten


    Wireless communication is omnipresent today, but this development has led to frequency spectrum becoming a limited resource. Furthermore, wireless devices become more and more energy-limited, due to the demand for continual wireless communication of higher and higher amounts of information....... The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...

  16. Science communication as political communication. (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A


    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  17. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  18. Communicating EAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios (Schaeffe......Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios......’s communication of EAM and Sound Art....

  19. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc


    networks, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and cognitive radio. Location based approaches are found to allevi- ate significant signaling overhead in various forms of modern communication paradigms that are very information hungry in terms of channel state information at the transmitter......This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...

  20. Introduction to digital mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Akaiwa, Yoshihiko


    Introduces digital mobile communications with an emphasis on digital transmission methods This book presents mathematical analyses of signals, mobile radio channels, and digital modulation methods. The new edition covers the evolution of wireless communications technologies and systems. The major new topics are OFDM (orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing), MIMO (multi-input multi-output) systems, frequency-domain equalization, the turbo codes, LDPC (low density parity check code), ACELP (algebraic code excited linear predictive) voice coding, dynamic scheduling for wireless packet data t

  1. Signals and systems with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Won Young; Song, Ik H; Cho, Yong S


    Covers some of the theoretical foundations and mathematical derivations that can be used in higher-level related subjects such as signal processing, communication, and control, minimizing the mathematical difficulty and computational burden. This book illustrates the usage of MATLAB and Simulink for signal and system analysis and design.


    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor


    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  3. Communicating biosecurity. (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L


    Shifting from risk-calculation orientations focusing on populations to preparedness perspectives that model uncertainty through scenario-based projections, biosecurity debates redefined notions of "health" and "security." Nevertheless, a key focus of biosecurity discussions--the domain labeled "communication"--has not been fundamentally rethought, even as it has expanded and professionalized. Bracketing preconceived ideas about the term's content, the article traces debates about biosecurity "communication" from the 1990s to the present, drawing on ethnography and textual analysis. Using a notion of biocommunicability, the cultural modeling of how discourse is produced, circulates, and is received, the article analyzes assumptions regarding subjects, subject-positions, objects, spatializing and temporalizing practices, scales, economies of affect, and regimes of ethics that are built into discourse about "communication." Ironically, the conviction that "communication" is of marginal importance as a focus of critical inquiry, seemingly shared by most medical anthropologists, enables these assumptions to fundamentally shape discussions of biosecurity and emergency management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Podgórecki


    Full Text Available The paper presents the most significant factors that influence interpersonal and group communication in multicultural environment in education. It highlights main theories of intercultural communication and its effectiveness as well as ones which deal with coping with conflicts in the intercultural environment. In contemporary times, which require working in multicultural environment, communicative skills become more and more important. In teachers’ work cultural awareness and being openminded about differences between nations and cultures are essential. These skills are especially important while there is a need to avoid or overcome problems, conflicts which may occur. The author shows the significance of these factors. The article closes with the recommendations and clues concerning effective intercultural communication.

  5. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan


    Full Text Available In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing, others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching, thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching.

  6. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Kusch, Angelika [Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin D-13353 (Germany); Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Dumler, Inna, E-mail: [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany)


    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  7. Aesthetic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole


    Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting. As communic......Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting....... As communication inevitably makes use of a sensuous medium, such as light or sound, all communication has an aesthetic dimension. In the 19th Century, an important distinction was made between pure and applied art, following Immanuel Kant's separation of theory of knowledge, moral theory and aesthetic theory....... Whereas pure art is produced in order to be observed, applied art has to fulfill practical purposes as well. Modern organizations, defined as systems of communication, may use art works to embellish and define themselves. But they inevitably use applied art as a practical tool in their normal...

  8. Statistical theory of signal detection

    CERN Document Server

    Helstrom, Carl Wilhelm; Costrell, L; Kandiah, K


    Statistical Theory of Signal Detection, Second Edition provides an elementary introduction to the theory of statistical testing of hypotheses that is related to the detection of signals in radar and communications technology. This book presents a comprehensive survey of digital communication systems. Organized into 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the theory of signal detection and the typical detection problem. This text then examines the goals of the detection system, which are defined through an analogy with the testing of statistical hypotheses. Other chapters consider

  9. Cetacean vocal learning and communication. (United States)

    Janik, Vincent M


    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies.

  10. Information efficiency in visual communication (United States)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur


    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  11. Non-Gaussian Statistical Communication Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, David


    The book is based on the observation that communication is the central operation of discovery in all the sciences. In its "active mode" we use it to "interrogate" the physical world, sending appropriate "signals" and receiving nature's "reply". In the "passive mode" we receive nature's signals directly. Since we never know a prioriwhat particular return signal will be forthcoming, we must necessarily adopt a probabilistic model of communication. This has developed over the approximately seventy years since it's beginning, into a Statistical Communication Theory (or SCT). Here it is the set or

  12. Fundamentals of statistical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Steven M


    A unified presentation of parameter estimation for those involved in the design and implementation of statistical signal processing algorithms. Covers important approaches to obtaining an optimal estimator and analyzing its performance; and includes numerous examples as well as applications to real- world problems. MARKETS: For practicing engineers and scientists who design and analyze signal processing systems, i.e., to extract information from noisy signals — radar engineer, sonar engineer, geophysicist, oceanographer, biomedical engineer, communications engineer, economist, statistician, physicist, etc.

  13. Classes of communication and the conditions for their evolution. (United States)

    Tamura, Kohei; Ihara, Yasuo


    Evolution of communication is conceptualized as a coevolutionary process in which evolution of signaler and that of receiver occur in an interdependent manner. Three classes of communication, mutualistic, altruistic, and exploiting, are distinguished depending on who gains a benefit or suffers a cost from successful communication. Communication is also dichotomized according to whether individuals are innately able to send and receive relevant signals or they have to acquire those signals culturally. We develop two-locus haploid models that represent the coevolutionary nature of the evolution of communication, and derive the conditions under which communicators can invade a population of non-communicators and those under which a population of communicators is evolutionarily stable against the invasion by non-communicators for each of the three classes of communication. Analysis of the models reveals that interaction among siblings enables the invasion of communication and that the optimal probability of interaction with siblings depends on the class of communication and the mode of signal transmission. In addition, cultural exploiting communication is more likely to invade a population of non-communicators than is genetic exploiting communication under certain circumstances.

  14. Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N


    Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

  15. Cuticular hydrocarbon divergence in the jewel wasp Nasonia : evolutionary shifts in chemical communication channels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buellesbach, J.; Gadau, J.; Beukeboom, L. W.; Echinger, F.; Raychoudhury, R.; Werren, J. H.; Schmitt, T.


    The evolution and maintenance of intraspecific communication channels constitute a key feature of chemical signalling and sexual communication. However, how divergent chemical communication channels evolve while maintaining their integrity for both sender and receiver is poorly understood. In this s

  16. L1CAM Binds ErbB Receptors through Ig-Like Domains Coupling Cell Adhesion and Neuregulin Signalling (United States)

    Grijota-Martinez, Carmen; Lakomá, Jarmila; Baars, Sigrid; Garcia-Alonso, Luis; Cabedo, Hugo


    During nervous system development different cell-to-cell communication mechanisms operate in parallel guiding migrating neurons and growing axons to generate complex arrays of neural circuits. How such a system works in coordination is not well understood. Cross-regulatory interactions between different signalling pathways and redundancy between them can increase precision and fidelity of guidance systems. Immunoglobulin superfamily proteins of the NCAM and L1 families couple specific substrate recognition and cell adhesion with the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Thus it has been shown that L1CAM-mediated cell adhesion promotes the activation of the EGFR (erbB1) from Drosophila to humans. Here we explore the specificity of the molecular interaction between L1CAM and the erbB receptor family. We show that L1CAM binds physically erbB receptors in both heterologous systems and the mammalian developing brain. Different Ig-like domains located in the extracellular part of L1CAM can support this interaction. Interestingly, binding of L1CAM to erbB enhances its response to neuregulins. During development this may synergize with the activation of erbB receptors through L1CAM homophilic interactions, conferring diffusible neuregulins specificity for cells or axons that interact with the substrate through L1CAM. PMID:22815787

  17. Identification of poultry meat-derived fatty acids functioning as quorum sensing signal inhibitors to autoinducer-2 (AI-2). (United States)

    Widmer, K W; Soni, K A; Hume, M E; Beier, R C; Jesudhasan, P; Pillai, S D


    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a compound that plays a key role in bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing). Previous research has shown certain food matrices inhibit this signaling compound. Using the reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, quorum-sensing inhibitors contained in poultry meat wash (PMW) samples were characterized by molecular weight and hydrophobic properties using liquid chromatography systems. Most fractions that demonstrated AI-2 inhibition were 13.7 kDa or less, and had hydrophobic properties. Hexane was used to extract inhibitory compounds from a PMW preparation and the extract was further separated by gas chromatography (GC). Several fatty acids were identified and quantified. Linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid were each tested for inhibition at 0.1, 1, and 10 mM concentrations. All samples expressed AI-2 inhibition (ranging from approximately 25% to 99%). Fatty acids, combined in concentrations equivalent to those determined by GC analysis, expressed inhibition at 59.5%, but higher combined concentrations (10- and 100-fold) had inhibition at 84.4% and 69.5%, respectively. The combined fatty acids (100-fold) did not demonstrate a substantial decrease in colony plate counts, despite presenting high AI-2 inhibition. These fatty acids, through modulating quorum sensing by inhibition, may offer a unique means to control foodborne pathogens and reduce microbial spoilage.

  18. Signal Words (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  19. Covert underwater acoustic communications. (United States)

    Ling, Jun; He, Hao; Li, Jian; Roberts, William; Stoica, Petre


    Low probability of detection (LPD) communications are conducted at a low received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to deter eavesdroppers to sense the presence of the transmitted signal. Successful detection at intended receiver heavily relies on the processing gain achieved by employing the direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technique. For scenarios that lack a sufficiently low SNR to maintain LPD, another metric, referred to as low probability of interception (LPI), is of interest to protect the privacy of the transmitted information. If covert communications take place in underwater acoustic (UWA) environments, then additional challenges are present. The time-varying nature of the UWA channel prevents the employment of a long spreading waveform. Furthermore, UWA environments are frequency-selective channels with long memory, which imposes challenges to the design of the spreading waveform. In this paper, a covert UWA communication system that adopts the DSSS technique and a coherent RAKE receiver is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the design of a spreading waveform that not only accounts for the transceiver structure and frequency-selective nature of the UWA channel, but also possesses a superior LPI. The proposed techniques are evaluated using both simulated and SPACE'08 in-water experimental data.

  20. Communicating Science (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.


    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  1. Interlimb communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    A continual coordination between the two legs is necessary for maintaining a symmetric walking pattern and adapting to changes in the external environment. Recent evidence in animals and humans suggests that spinal interneuronal circuits under supraspinal control may mediate communication between...... the lower limbs. The overall objective of the present thesis was to further investigate and elucidate neural pathways underlying interlimb communication in humans, focusing primarily on the possible interlimb connections to the biceps femoris muscle. The major aims were 1) to investigate whether interlimb...... walking (Study IV). The results of the this thesis provide new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying human interlimb communication, as well as their functional relevance to human locomotion. Although it is difficult to propose the exact neural pathways mediating interlimb reflexes...

  2. Management & Communication

    CERN Multimedia


    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 sept...

  3. Communication & Management

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux


    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 s...

  4. Roadmap of optical communications (United States)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas


    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  5. Digital Communication Using Chaotic Pulse Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Rulkov, N F; Tsimring, L S; Volkovskii, A R; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Larson, L; Yao, K


    Utilization of chaotic signals for covert communications remains a very promising practical application. Multiple studies indicated that the major shortcoming of recently proposed chaos-based communication schemes is their susceptibility to noise and distortions in communication channels. In this talk we discuss a new approach to communication with chaotic signals, which demonstrates good performance in the presence of channel distortions. This communication scheme is based upon chaotic signals in the form of pulse trains where intervals between the pulses are determined by chaotic dynamics of a pulse generator. The pulse train with chaotic interpulse intervals is used as a carrier. Binary information is modulated onto this carrier by the pulse position modulation method, such that each pulse is either left unchanged or delayed by a certain time, depending on whether ``0'' or ``1'' is transmitted. By synchronizing the receiver to the chaotic pulse train we can anticipate the timing of pulses corresponding to ...

  6. Secure Wireless Communication for AF Relay System with Hybrid Signals%基于混合信号的放大转发中继系统的物理层安全传输

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 王文杰; 殷勤业


    Relay system can improve the secrecy of a wireless communication with physical layer security algorithms. Most of these algorithms include two stages:during the first stage,the source node sends coded messages to the relays,and during the second stage,the relays forward the received messages to the destination node.Usually,there is no protection dur-ing the first stage,thus most of the secrecy analysis is based on the assumption that there is no direct channel between the source and the eavesdropper.In a practical system,when the eavesdropper is located near the source,the secrecy rate of all these algorithms is down to zero.In this paper,a novel three-stage algorithm with hybrid signals is proposed,which can offer full protection on a relay system.The algorithm results in a non-convex optimal problem,and a sub-optimal solution with low computational complexity is proposed.The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve much better secrecy performance than traditional algorithms when the eavesdropper is near the source node.%中继系统可以增强物理层安全算法的系统性能,这种系统一般包含两阶段的通信过程:从信源到中继节点,在从中继节点到目的节点。通常来说,第一阶段的信息传输缺乏保护,如果窃听者距离信源节点比较近的话,系统性能就无法保证了。该文提出了一种基于混合信号的三阶段的传输方法确保整个传输过程中的保密性能,这样,当窃听者接近信源节点的时候,仍可以保证系统的安全性能。这种方法的优化解是一个复杂的非凸优化问题,该文中建议了一种低复杂度的次优解来解决其中的优化问题。理论分析以及方针结果证明,该方法可以有效确保系统的全过程的安全性能。

  7. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V


    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  8. Digital communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba


    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  9. Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Romary, Laurent


    The chapter tackles the role of scholarly publication in the research process (quality, preservation) and looks at the consequences of new information technologies in the organization of the scholarly communication ecology. It will then show how new technologies have had an impact on the scholarly communication process and made it depart from the traditional publishing environment. Developments will address new editorial processes, dissemination of new content and services, as well as the development of publication archives. This last aspect will be covered on all levels (open access, scientific, technical and legal aspects). A view on the possible evolutions of the scientific publishing environment will be provided.

  10. Constructive communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard


    Richard Ellis is a consultant in communications and the successful author of 'Communication for Engineers'. In each chapter he highlights key points and situations, and provides exercises to consolidate what has already been learnt. The book ends with a 'toolbox' of useful information on subjects such as writing letters, spelling, punctuation, using abbreviations, studying for exams, using libraries and training.Written in clear, informative English, with the emphasis on the practical, this book is essential reading for both students and professionals in the con

  11. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication. (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C; Toni, Ivan


    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender) and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver) relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus). The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  12. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij


    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  13. Nonverbal Communications in Native North America (United States)

    Taylor, Allan Ross


    This article describes several types of native American nonspeech communications systems, including the Plains sign language, distance signaling of various kinds, picture writing and whistle speech. See FL 508 188 for availability. (CLK)

  14. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress. (United States)

    Vielhaber, Mary E.


    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  15. Wireless Communication over Dispersive Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.


    Broadband wireless communication systems require high transmission rates, where the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is larger than the channel coherence bandwidth. This gives rise to time dispersion of the transmitted symbols or frequency-selectivity with different frequency components exhibitin


    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor


    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...


    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor


    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  18. Magnetostatic communication (United States)

    Daily, William D.


    A system for providing communication of information by modulating a magnetostatic field with a magnetostatic transmitter that modulates said magnetostatic field to contain the information and detecting the information in the modulated field at a distance with a magnetostatic detector that detects the modulated magnetic field containing the information.


    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor


    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  20. Core Communications (United States)

    Block, Greg; Ross, J. D.; Mulder, David


    The website--it is where people go to find out anything and everything about a school, college, or university. In the relatively short life of the Internet, institutional websites have moved from the periphery to center stage and become strategically integral communications and marketing tools. As the flow of information accelerates and new…

  1. Simulating Rain Fade In A Communication System (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Nagy, Lawrence A.; Svoboda, James K.


    Automated, computer-controlled assembly of electronic equipment developed for use in simulation testing of downlink portion of Earth/satellite microwave digital communication system. Designed to show effects upon performance of system of rain-induced fading in received signal and increases in transmitted power meant to compensate for rain-induced fading. Design of communication system improved iteratively in response to results of simulations, leading eventually to design ensuring clear, uninterrupted transmission of digital signals.

  2. An introduction to analog and digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Haykin, Simon


    The second edition of this accessible book provides readers with an introductory treatment of communication theory as applied to the transmission of information-bearing signals. While it covers analog communications, the emphasis is placed on digital technology. It begins by presenting the functional blocks that constitute the transmitter and receiver of a communication system. Readers will next learn about electrical noise and then progress to multiplexing and multiple access techniques.

  3. FMCW Radar with Broadband Communication Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrenechea, P.; Elferink, F.H.; Janssen, J.A.A.J.


    The use of amplitude modulation to encode information onto an FMCW radar signal is proposed in this paper. This new technique, that has been named AM-FMCW communicating radar, provides a new channel for broadband communication by reusing the radar frequencies and without introducing any distortion i

  4. Communicating with Accelerated Observers in Minkowski Spacetime (United States)

    FLores, F. J.


    Our goal here is to determine the spatial and temporal constraints on communication between two observers at least one of which moves with constant proper acceleration in two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. We take as a simplified model of communication one observer bouncing a light signal off another observer. Our derivations use only elementary…

  5. Communicating Science (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas


    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  6. Astronomy Communication (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.


    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link:

  7. Digital communication communication, multimedia, security

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Christoph


    The authors give a detailed summary about the fundamentals and the historical background of digital communication. This includes an overview of the encoding principles and algorithms of textual information, audio information, as well as images, graphics, and video in the Internet. Furthermore the fundamentals of computer networking, digital security and cryptography are covered. Thus, the book provides a well-founded access to communication technology of computer networks, the internet and the WWW. Numerous pictures and images, a subject-index and a detailed list of historical personalities in

  8. Increased susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to equine herpes virus type 1 infection upon mitogen stimulation: a role of the cell cycle and of cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. (United States)

    van der Meulen, Karen M; Nauwynck, Hans J; Pensaert, Maurice B


    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses, causing abortion and nervous system disorders, even in vaccinated animals. During the cell-associated viremia, EHV-1 is carried by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), mainly lymphocytes. In vitro, monocytes are the most important fraction of PBMC in which EHV-1 replicates, however, mitogen stimulation prior to EHV-1 infection increases the percentage of infected lymphocytes. The role of the cell cycle in viral replication and the role of cluster formation in cell-to-cell transmission of the virus were examined in mitogen-stimulated PBMC. Involvement of the cell cycle was examined by stimulating PBMC with ionomycin/phorbol dibutyrate (IONO/PDB) during 0, 12, 24 and 36 h prior to inoculation. Cell cycle distribution at the moment of inoculation and the percentage of EHV-1 antigen-positive PBMC at 0, 12 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi) were determined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. The role of clusters was examined by immunofluorescence staining within clusters of stimulated PBMC using antibodies against EHV-1. Significant correlations were found between the increase of cells in the S- or G2/M-phase after a certain time interval of prestimulation and the increase of EHV-1 antigen-positive cells. The percentage of clusters with adjacent infected cells significantly increased from 3.3% at 8 hpi to 23.7% at 24 hpi and the maximal number of adjacent infected cells increased from 2 to 7. Addition of anti-EHV-1 hyperimmune serum did not significantly alter these percentages. Mitogen stimulation favours EHV-1 infection in PBMC by: (i) initiating cell proliferation and (ii) inducing formation of clusters, thereby facilitating direct cell-associated transmission of virus.

  9. The equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gp21/22a, the herpes simplex virus type 1 gM homolog, is involved in virus penetration and cell-to-cell spread of virions. (United States)

    Osterrieder, N; Neubauer, A; Brandmuller, C; Braun, B; Kaaden, O R; Baines, J D


    Experiments to analyze the function of the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) glycoprotein gM homolog were conducted. To this end, an Rk13 cell line (TCgM) that stably expressed EHV-1 gM was constructed. Proteins with apparent M(r)s of 46,000 to 48,000 and 50,000 to 55,000 were detected in TCgM cells with specific anti-gM antibodies, and the gM protein pattern was indistinguishable from that in cells infected with EHV-1 strain RacL11. A viral mutant (L11deltagM) bearing an Escherichia coli lacZ gene inserted into the EHV-1 strain RacL11 gM gene (open reading frame 52) was purified, and cells infected with L11deltagM did not contain detectable gM. L11deltagM exhibited approximately 100-fold lower titers and a more than 2-fold reduction in plaque size relative to wild-type EHV-1 when grown and titrated on noncomplementing cells. Viral titers were reduced only 10-fold when L11deltagM was grown on the complementing cell line TCgM and titrated on noncomplementing cells. L11deltagM also exhibited slower penetration kinetics compared with those of the parental EHV-1 RacL11. It is concluded that EHV-1 gM plays important roles in the penetration of virus into the target cell and in spread of EHV-1 from cell to cell.

  10. Cell-Free versus Cell-to-Cell Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1: Exploring the Link among Viral Source, Viral Trafficking, and Viral Replication. (United States)

    Dutartre, Hélène; Clavière, Mathieu; Journo, Chloé; Mahieux, Renaud


    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are complex retroviruses mainly infecting CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In addition, antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are targeted in vivo by both viruses, although to a lesser extent. Interaction of HIV-1 with DCs plays a key role in viral dissemination from the mucosa to CD4(+) T lymphocytes present in lymphoid organs. While similar mechanisms may occur for HTLV-1 as well, most HTLV-1 data were obtained from T-cell studies, and little is known regarding the trafficking of this virus in DCs. We first compared the efficiency of cell-free versus cell-associated viral sources of both retroviruses at infecting DCs. We showed that both HIV-1 and HTLV-1 cell-free particles are poorly efficient at productively infecting DCs, except when DC-SIGN has been engaged. Furthermore, while SAMHD-1 accounts for restriction of cell-free HIV-1 infection, it is not involved in HTLV-1 restriction. In addition, cell-free viruses lead mainly to a nonproductive DC infection, leading to trans-infection of T-cells, a process important for HIV-1 spread but not for that of HTLV-1. Finally, we show that T-DC cell-to-cell transfer implies viral trafficking in vesicles that may both increase productive infection of DCs ("cis-infection") and allow viral escape from immune surveillance. Altogether, these observations allowed us to draw a model of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 trafficking in DCs.

  11. What a Dinner Party! Mechanisms and Functions of Interkingdom Signaling in Host-Pathogen Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Kendall


    Full Text Available Chemical signaling between cells is an effective way to coordinate behavior within a community. Although cell-to-cell signaling has mostly been studied in single species, it is now appreciated that the sensing of chemical signals across kingdoms can be an important regulator of nutrient acquisition, virulence, and host defense. In this review, we focus on the role of interkingdom signaling in the interactions that occur between bacterial pathogens and their mammalian hosts. We discuss the quorum-sensing (QS systems and other mechanisms used by these bacteria to sense, respond to, and modulate host signals that include hormones, immune factors, and nutrients. We also describe cross talk between these signaling pathways and strategies used by the host to interfere with bacterial signaling, highlighting the complex bidirectional signaling networks that are established across kingdoms.

  12. Energy efficiency in wireless communication systems (United States)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Palmer, Joseph McRae


    Wireless communication systems and methods utilize one or more remote terminals, one or more base terminals, and a communication channel between the remote terminal(s) and base terminal(s). The remote terminal applies a direct sequence spreading code to a data signal at a spreading factor to provide a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal. The DSSS signal is transmitted over the communication channel to the base terminal which can be configured to despread the received DSSS signal by a spreading factor matching the spreading factor utilized to spread the data signal. The remote terminal and base terminal can dynamically vary the matching spreading factors to adjust the data rate based on an estimation of operating quality over time between the remote terminal and base terminal such that the amount of data being transmitted is substantially maximized while providing a specified quality of service.

  13. Phloem-mobile signals affecting flowers: applications for crop breeding. (United States)

    McGarry, Roisin C; Kragler, Friedrich


    Transport of endogenous macromolecules within and between tissues serves as a signaling pathway to regulate numerous aspects of plant growth. The florigenic FT gene product moves via the phloem from leaves to apical tissues and induces the flowering program in meristems. Similarly, short interfering RNA (siRNA) signals produced in source or sink tissues move cell-to-cell and long distance via the phloem to apical tissues. Recent advances in identifying these mobile signals regulating flowering or the epigenetic status of targeted tissues can be applicable to crop-breeding programs. In this review, we address the identity of florigen, the mechanism of allocation, and how virus-induced flowering and grafting of transgenes producing siRNA signals affecting meiosis can produce transgene-free progenies useful for agriculture.

  14. A proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling responses to 3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone, a bacterial quorum-sensing signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chunjuan, E-mail: [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Liu, Fang, E-mail: [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Zhao, Qian, E-mail: [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Jia, Zhenhua, E-mail: [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Song, Shuishan, E-mail: [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL can change the expression of diverse proteins in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL responsive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plant could have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHL. -- Abstract: N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are a class of bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) signals that are commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria for cell-to-cell communication. Recently, it has become evident that AHLs can regulate plant root growth and trigger plant defense responses; however, little is known about the plant response mechanisms to bacterial QS signals. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC8-HSL), a bacterial QS signal. The results revealed that the abundance of 53 protein spots was significantly altered; two thirds of these proteins were found to be up-regulated after 3OC8-HSL treatment. Thirty-four proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. These 3OC8-HSL-responsive proteins, in addition to one protein of unknown function, are implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including metabolism of carbohydrate and energy, protein biosynthesis and quality control systems, defense response and signal transduction and cytoskeleton remodeling. Our bioinformatic analysis indicated that the chloroplasts are the intracellular organelles most influenced by the exposure to 3OC8-HSL. Our data indicate that plants have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHLs that may play important roles in the interaction between plants and bacteria.

  15. Advanced satellite communication system (United States)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen


    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  16. Detection and response to unauthorized access to a communication device (United States)

    Smith, Rhett; Gordon, Colin


    A communication gateway consistent with the present disclosure may detect unauthorized physical or electronic access and implement security actions in response thereto. A communication gateway may provide a communication path to an intelligent electronic device (IED) using an IED communications port configured to communicate with the IED. The communication gateway may include a physical intrusion detection port and a network port. The communication gateway may further include control logic configured to evaluate physical intrusion detection signal. The control logic may be configured to determine that the physical intrusion detection signal is indicative of an attempt to obtain unauthorized access to one of the communication gateway, the IED, and a device in communication with the gateway; and take a security action based upon the determination that the indication is indicative of the attempt to gain unauthorized access.

  17. Communication Strategies


    Strate, Simon Wolter; Loznica, Javor; Nærland, Kristoffer; Skipper, Mads Christian; Jensen, Charlotte Haagen


    This project focuses on the oil company, Shell, and their way of conducting themselves on social media sites, specifically Facebook and twitter. We establish this by using social media theory, and corporate campaign theories, and applying these to the content that Shell puts out on these particular social media sites. Furthermore, the project establishes a critical evaluation of the weight and presence of social media within modern corporate communication and issue management.

  18. Technology Evaluation of Programmable Communicating Thermostats with Radio Broadcast Data System Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth


    Programmable Communicating Thermostats are thermostats that can be programmed by the user to respond to signals indicating a grid-level system emergency or pricing event. The California Energy Commission is considering standards that would include a requirement for Programmable Communicating Thermostats in residential and small commercial applications. The current specification for Programmable Communicating Thermostats requires Radio Data System communications to Programmable Communicating Thermostats. This study tested the signal strength and reliability of Radio Data System signals at 40 customer sites within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, which is serviced by 17 radio stations that already transmit Radio Data System signals. The study also tested the functionality of a commercially available Programmable Communicating Thermostat for compliance with California Energy Commission design standards. Test results demonstrated that Radio Data System is capable of reliably sending price and emergency signals. This study also provides evidence that existing Programmable Communicating Thermostats, on receiving a Radio Data System pricing or event signal, are capable of automatically increasing set points to a customer-determined or utility-determined level, thus providing air-conditioning demand response within seconds or just a few (less than 5) minutes.

  19. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS procedure for quantification of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal in bacterial culture after acetylation for characterization of new quorum sensing inhibitors. (United States)

    Maurer, Christine K; Steinbach, Anke; Hartmann, Rolf W


    The appearance of antibiotic resistance requires novel therapeutic strategies. One approach is to selectively attenuate bacterial pathogenicity by interfering with bacterial cell-to-cell communication known as quorum sensing. The PQS quorum sensing system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs as signal molecule the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-(1H)-quinolone), a key contributor to virulence and biofilm formation. Thus, interference with PQS production is considered as promising approach for the development of novel anti-infectives. Therefore, in this study, we developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric approach for reliable quantification of PQS in P. aeruginosa cultures for activity determination of new quorum sensing inhibitors. The poor chromatographic properties of PQS reported by others could be overcome by fast microwave-assisted acetylation. The validation procedure including matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, selectivity, carry-over, accuracy and precision, stability of the processed sample, and limit of quantification demonstrated that the method fulfilled all requirements of common validation guidelines. Its applicability was successfully proven in routine testing. In addition, two-point calibration was shown to be applicable for fast and reliable PQS quantification saving time and resources. In summary, the described method provides a powerful tool for the discovery of new quorum sensing inhibitors as potential anti-infectives and illustrated the usefulness of chemical derivatization, acetylation, in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

  20. Communicating Arctic Change (Invited) (United States)

    Serreze, M.


    Nowhere on the planet are emerging signals of climate change more visible than in the Arctic. Rapid warming, a quickly shrinking summer sea ice cover, and thawing permafrost, will have impacts that extend beyond the Arctic and may reverberate around the globe. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) of the University of Colorado has taken a leading role in trying to effectively communicate the science and importance of Arctic change. Our popular “Sea Ice News and Analysis” web site tracks the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover and provides scientific analysis with language that is accurate yet accessible to a wide audience. Our Education Center provides accessible information on all components of the Earth’s cryosphere, the changes being seen, and how scientists conduct research. A challenge faced by NSIDC is countering the increasing level of confusion and misinformation regarding Arctic and global change, a complex problem that reflects the low level of scientific literacy by much of the public, the difficulties many scientists face in communicating their findings in accurate but understandable terms, and efforts by some groups to deliberately misrepresent and distort climate change science. This talk will outline through examples ways in which NSIDC has been successful in science communication and education, as well as lessons learned from failures.

  1. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry


    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  2. Characterization of an Acoustic Communication Channel with Pseudorandom Binary Sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walree, P.A. van; Bertolotto, G.


    The joint European project "UUV Covert Acoustic Communications" explores methods for underwater communication at low signal-to-noise ratios. The first phase of the project focuses on characterization of the communication channel. Sea trials were conducted in two littoral environments in September 20

  3. 47 CFR 73.667 - TV subsidiary communications services. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV subsidiary communications services. 73.667... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.667 TV subsidiary communications services. (a) Subsidiary communications services are those transmitted within the TV aural baseband signal,...

  4. Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence%Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper investigates intercultural communication ethics is a vital element to promote intercultural communication competence. Firstly, it defines the concept of intercultural communication ethics; Secondly, it illustrates the relation between ethics and the key point of intercultural communication competence; and finally addresses how intercultural communication ethics can improve intercultural communication competence.

  5. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos


    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  6. Communication theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goldie, Charles M


    This book is an introduction, for mathematics students, to the theories of information and codes. They are usually treated separately but, as both address the problem of communication through noisy channels (albeit from different directions), the authors have been able to exploit the connection to give a reasonably self-contained treatment, relating the probabilistic and algebraic viewpoints. The style is discursive and, as befits the subject, plenty of examples and exercises are provided. Some examples and exercises are provided. Some examples of computer codes are given to provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas.

  7. Radio communication for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC): A tutorial and survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José


    Over the last decade, railway industry has seen a huge transition from conventional railway signalling systems to modern, communication-based signalling systems. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern communication-based system that uses radio communication to transfer timely...... communication technology used. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi, despite being originally developed for stationary users within a limited area, has prevailed as the de-facto radio technology for CBTC. Unfortunately, very limited literature is publicly available on this topic due to the highly competitive nature of the railway...... industry. We believe that this paper fills the much-needed gap. It aims to present a comprehensive tutorial, as well as a survey of the stateof- the-art, of CBTC and the role of radio communication in it. The operation and fundamental components of a CBTC system are discussed. A summary of the evolution...

  8. Quorum sensing signaling networks in bacteria and the potential application%细菌群体感应信号网络及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳; 李军; 段云飞; 刘晓光


    Quorum sensing ( QS) in bacteria is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism mediated by small diffusible signal molecules that trigger changes in a set of gene expression in a population-dependent manner to coordinate collective behavior in response to envi-ronmental challenges using sophisticated intercellular communication networks .Bacteria use quorum sensing communication circuits to regulate a diverse array of physiological activities , as well as the interactions with host .The nature of the QS chemical signals , the sig-nal relay mechanisms differ , and the target genes and phenotypes controlled by bacterial QS systems are also species -or strain-specific with diversity.Here we focused on the QS networks consisting of multiple QS circuits in the same isolate of bacteria and their interplay that globally modulate bacterial gene expression , social behavior and adaptation to changing environment , as well as their integrated in-to other regulatory systems to form complex signal transduction networks in bacteria .QS as a novel molecular target displayed great po-tential for application in the fields of agriculture , medicine and environment .%群体感应( Quorum sensing , QS)是一种细菌细胞与细胞间的通讯系统,即细菌通过分泌扩散性小分子信号感知细菌群体的密度,从而引起一组特定基因在转录水平协调表达。大量研究已表明,群体感应系统控制细菌多种生理行为和过程,以及与真核宿主(寄主)的互作。参与群体感应调控的信号分子多种多样,QS系统所调控的功能也具有多样性,甚至菌株专化性。通过聚焦同一细菌中由多个QS系统组成的信号网络,综合评述了不同QS系统之间如何相互作用全局调控基因表达,以及QS系统如何通过与其它全局调控系统整合精细调节细菌的社会行为以及环境适应性及其应用前景。

  9. Communication Subsystems for Emerging Wireless Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida


    Full Text Available The paper describes a multi-disciplinary design of modern communication systems. The design starts with the analysis of a system in order to define requirements on its individual components. The design exploits proper models of communication channels to adapt the systems to expected transmission conditions. Input filtering of signals both in the frequency domain and in the spatial domain is ensured by a properly designed antenna. Further signal processing (amplification and further filtering is done by electronics circuits. Finally, signal processing techniques are applied to yield information about current properties of frequency spectrum and to distribute the transmission over free subcarrier channels.

  10. By-product information can stabilize the reliability of communication. (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, G D


    Although communication underpins many biological processes, its function and basic definition remain contentious. In particular, researchers have debated whether information should be an integral part of a definition of communication and how it remains reliable. So far the handicap principle, assuming signal costs to stabilize reliable communication, has been the predominant paradigm in the study of animal communication. The role of by-product information produced by mechanisms other than the communicative interaction has been neglected in the debate on signal reliability. We argue that by-product information is common and that it provides the starting point for ritualization as the process of the evolution of communication. Second, by-product information remains unchanged during ritualization and enforces reliable communication by restricting the options for manipulation and cheating. Third, this perspective changes the focus of research on communication from studying signal costs to studying the costs of cheating. It can thus explain the reliability of signalling in many communication systems that do not rely on handicaps. We emphasize that communication can often be informative but that the evolution of communication does not cause the evolution of information because by-product information often predates and stimulates the evolution of communication. Communication is thus a consequence but not a cause of reliability. Communication is the interplay of inadvertent, informative traits and evolved traits that increase the stimulation and perception of perceivers. Viewing communication as a complex of inadvertent and derived traits facilitates understanding of the selective pressures shaping communication and those shaping information and its reliability. This viewpoint further contributes to resolving the current controversy on the role of information in communication.

  11. Steganography in arrhythmic electrocardiogram signal. (United States)

    Edward Jero, S; Ramu, Palaniappan; Ramakrishnan, S


    Security and privacy of patient data is a vital requirement during exchange/storage of medical information over communication network. Steganography method hides patient data into a cover signal to prevent unauthenticated accesses during data transfer. This study evaluates the performance of ECG steganography to ensure secured transmission of patient data where an abnormal ECG signal is used as cover signal. The novelty of this work is to hide patient data into two dimensional matrix of an abnormal ECG signal using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition based steganography method. A 2D ECG is constructed according to Tompkins QRS detection algorithm. The missed R peaks are computed using RR interval during 2D conversion. The abnormal ECG signals are obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Percentage Residual Difference, Kullback-Leibler distance and Bit Error Rate are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.

  12. Robust Satellite Communications Under Hostile Interference (United States)


    Gaussian Noise BER Bit Error Rate BLER Block Error Rate BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying CODEC Coder and Decoder CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check dB...Satellite Communication SNR Signal to Noise Ratio STK Systems Took Kit TDRS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Toff Idle Time of a Transmitter Ton...Received Signal-to- Noise Ratio at the Jammer ...................................................... 15  3.2.2  SNR Threshold for Repeating the Signal

  13. Modulation of Chaotic Signals and Generalized Nets Modelling in Computer Communication%混沌信号调制在计算机通信网络中的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    混沌信号的调制不需要低层信息信号与混沌信号相比较,信息信号通过允许更高安全级别的混沌信号频谱进行传送.为了更好地编码,该调制信号采用静音功能进行加密,揭示了混沌信号在普通网络中的调制和解调器的模拟与仿真.%The modulation of chaotic signals does not require a lower level of the information signals, compared to the chaotic carry signal. The information signal is spread over the spectrum of the chaotic signal, which permits a higher security level. In addition the modulation signal is encrypted by a hush function for a better encoding. A new contribution to modelling and simulating chaotic modulators and demodulators-generalized nets will be revealed in this issue.

  14. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan


    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  15. Wildlife Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik

    This report contains a progress report for the ph.d. project titled “Wildlife Communication”. The project focuses on investigating how signal processing and pattern recognition can be used to improve wildlife management in agriculture. Wildlife management systems used today experience habituation...... from wild animals which makes them ineffective. An intelligent wildlife management system could monitor its own effectiveness and alter its scaring strategy based on this...

  16. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome


    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  17. Creativity in clinical communication: from communication skills to skilled communication. (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget


    Medical Education 2011: 45: 217-226 Objectives  The view that training in communication skills produces skilled communication is sometimes criticised by those who argue that communication is individual and intuitive. We therefore examine the validity of the concept of communication as a skill and identify alternative principles to underpin future development of this field. Methods  We critically examine research evidence about the nature of clinical communication, and draw from theory and evidence concerning education and evaluation, particularly in creative disciplines. Results  Skilled communication cannot be fully described using the concept of communication skills. Attempts to do so risk constraining and distorting pedagogical development in communication. Current education practice often masks the difficulties with the concept by introducing subjectivity into the definition and assessment of skills. As all clinical situations differ to some extent, clinical communication is inherently creative. Because it is rarely possible to attribute specific effects to specific elements of communication, communication needs to be taught and evaluated holistically. Conclusions  For communication teaching to be pedagogically and clinically valid in supporting the inherent creativity of clinical communication, it will need to draw from education theory and practice that have been developed in explicitly creative disciplines.

  18. Signaling aggression. (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T


    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  19. Fidelity in planar cell polarity signalling. (United States)

    Ma, Dali; Yang, Chung-hui; McNeill, Helen; Simon, Michael A; Axelrod, Jeffrey D


    The polarity of Drosophila wing hairs displays remarkable fidelity. Each of the approximately 30,000 wing epithelial cells constructs an actin-rich prehair that protrudes from its distal vertex and points distally. The distal location and orientation of the hairs is virtually error free, thus forming a nearly perfect parallel array. This process is controlled by the planar cell polarity signalling pathway. Here we show that interaction between two tiers of the planar cell polarity signalling mechanism results in the observed high fidelity. The first tier, mediated by the cadherin Fat, dictates global orientation by transducing a directional signal to individual cells. The second tier, orchestrated by the 7-pass transmembrane receptor Frizzled, aligns each cell's polarity with that of its neighbours through the action of an intercellular feedback loop, enabling polarity to propagate from cell to cell. We show that all cells need not respond correctly to the presumably subtle signal transmitted by Fat. Subsequent action of the Frizzled feedback loop is sufficient to align all the cells cooperatively. This economical system is therefore highly robust, and produces virtually error-free arrays.

  20. UWB communication receiver feedback loop (United States)

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.


    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.