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  1. Characterization of fetal keratinocytes, showing enhanced stem cell-like properties: a potential source of cells for skin reconstruction.

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    Tan, Kenneth K B; Salgado, Giorgiana; Connolly, John E; Chan, Jerry K Y; Lane, E Birgitte

    2014-08-12

    Epidermal stem cells have been in clinical application as a source of culture-generated grafts. Although applications for such cells are increasing due to aging populations and the greater incidence of diabetes, current keratinocyte grafting technology is limited by immunological barriers and the time needed for culture amplification. We studied the feasibility of using human fetal skin cells for allogeneic transplantation and showed that fetal keratinocytes have faster expansion times, longer telomeres, lower immunogenicity indicators, and greater clonogenicity with more stem cell indicators than adult keratinocytes. The fetal cells did not induce proliferation of T cells in coculture and were able to suppress the proliferation of stimulated T cells. Nevertheless, fetal keratinocytes could stratify normally in vitro. Experimental transplantation of fetal keratinocytes in vivo seeded on an engineered plasma scaffold yielded a well-stratified epidermal architecture and showed stable skin regeneration. These results support the possibility of using fetal skin cells for cell-based therapeutic grafting.

  2. Characterization of Fetal Keratinocytes, Showing Enhanced Stem Cell-Like Properties: A Potential Source of Cells for Skin Reconstruction

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    Tan, Kenneth K.B.; Salgado, Giorgiana; Connolly, John E.; Chan, Jerry K.Y.; Lane, E. Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Summary Epidermal stem cells have been in clinical application as a source of culture-generated grafts. Although applications for such cells are increasing due to aging populations and the greater incidence of diabetes, current keratinocyte grafting technology is limited by immunological barriers and the time needed for culture amplification. We studied the feasibility of using human fetal skin cells for allogeneic transplantation and showed that fetal keratinocytes have faster expansion times, longer telomeres, lower immunogenicity indicators, and greater clonogenicity with more stem cell indicators than adult keratinocytes. The fetal cells did not induce proliferation of T cells in coculture and were able to suppress the proliferation of stimulated T cells. Nevertheless, fetal keratinocytes could stratify normally in vitro. Experimental transplantation of fetal keratinocytes in vivo seeded on an engineered plasma scaffold yielded a well-stratified epidermal architecture and showed stable skin regeneration. These results support the possibility of using fetal skin cells for cell-based therapeutic grafting. PMID:25254345

  3. Characterization of Fetal Keratinocytes, Showing Enhanced Stem Cell-Like Properties: A Potential Source of Cells for Skin Reconstruction

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    Kenneth K.B. Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal stem cells have been in clinical application as a source of culture-generated grafts. Although applications for such cells are increasing due to aging populations and the greater incidence of diabetes, current keratinocyte grafting technology is limited by immunological barriers and the time needed for culture amplification. We studied the feasibility of using human fetal skin cells for allogeneic transplantation and showed that fetal keratinocytes have faster expansion times, longer telomeres, lower immunogenicity indicators, and greater clonogenicity with more stem cell indicators than adult keratinocytes. The fetal cells did not induce proliferation of T cells in coculture and were able to suppress the proliferation of stimulated T cells. Nevertheless, fetal keratinocytes could stratify normally in vitro. Experimental transplantation of fetal keratinocytes in vivo seeded on an engineered plasma scaffold yielded a well-stratified epidermal architecture and showed stable skin regeneration. These results support the possibility of using fetal skin cells for cell-based therapeutic grafting.

  4. Ganglion cell like cells, diagnostic dilemma

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    Anand Shankar Ammanagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous swelling found on the left anterior axillary fold of a 41-year-old man. Gross examination of specimen excised from the dermis showed a well-circumscribed nodule histologically composed of spindle cells with interspersed ganglion cell like cells. On hematoxylin and eosine (H and E staining it was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, fully differentiated tumors that contain mature schwann cells, ganglion cells, fibrous tissue, and nerve fibers. They are commonly found along the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and sometimes in the adrenal medulla. However primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare tumor. Immunohistochemical workup revealed a fibroblastic origin and hence the case was diagnosed as fibromatosis with ganglion cell like fibroblasts. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of ganglioneuromas can occur in other cutaneous lesions and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be offered only on the basis of H and E.

  5. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

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    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  6. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

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    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  7. Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Enhances Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

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    Feng Jiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs play a vital role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence. The mechanisms that maintain the stemness of these cells remain largely unknown. Our previous study indicated that MALAT-1 may serve as an oncogenic long noncoding RNA in pancreatic cancer by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and regulating CSCs markers expression. More significantly, there is emerging evidence that the EMT process may give rise to CSCs, or at least cells with stem cell-like properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that MALAT-1 might enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, our data showed that MALAT-1 could increase the proportion of pancreatic CSCs, maintain self-renewing capacity, decrease the chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs, and accelerate tumor angiogenesis in vitro. In addition, subcutaneous nude mouse xenografts revealed that MALAT-1 could promote tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. The underlying mechanisms may involve in increased expression of self-renewal related factors Sox2. Collectively, we for the first time found the potential effects of MALAT-1 on the stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting a novel role of MALAT-1 in tumor stemness, which remains to be fully elucidated.

  8. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

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    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  9. An evidence for adhesion-mediated acquisition of acute myeloid leukemic stem cell-like immaturities

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    Funayama, Keiji; Shimane, Miyuki; Nomura, Hitoshi [Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Waseda University, 4-3-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Asano, Shigetaka, E-mail: asgtkmd@waseda.jp [Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Waseda University, 4-3-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    For long-term survival in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemia cells, their adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells is indispensable. However, it is still unknown if these events are uniquely induced by the leukemic stem cells. Here we show that TF-1 human leukemia cells, once they have formed a cobblestone area by adhering to mouse bone marrow-derived MS-5 cells, can acquire some leukemic stem cell like properties in association with a change in the CD44 isoform-expression pattern and with an increase in a set of related microRNAs. These findings strongly suggest that at least some leukemia cells can acquire leukemic stem cell like properties in an adhesion-mediated stochastic fashion.

  10. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

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    Hamada, Shin [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hamada, Hirofumi [Laboratory of Oncology, Department of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji (Japan); Kobune, Masayoshi [Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Satoh, Kennichi [Division of Cancer Stem Cell, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called 'cancer stem cells', within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the 'stemness' of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  11. Wnt signaling controls the stem cell-like asymmetric division of the epithelial seam cells during C. elegans larval development.

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    Gleason, Julie E; Eisenmann, David M

    2010-12-01

    Metazoan stem cells repopulate tissues during adult life by dividing asymmetrically to generate another stem cell and a cell that terminally differentiates. Wnt signaling regulates the division pattern of stem cells in flies and vertebrates. While the short-lived nematode C. elegans has no adult somatic stem cells, the lateral epithelial seam cells divide in a stem cell-like manner in each larval stage, usually generating a posterior daughter that retains the seam cell fate and an anterior daughter that terminally differentiates. We show that while wild-type adult animals have 16 seam cells per side, animals with reduced function of the TCF homolog POP-1 have as many as 67 seam cells, and animals with reduced function of the β-catenins SYS-1 and WRM-1 have as few as three. Analysis of seam cell division patterns showed alterations in their stem cell-like divisions in the L2-L4 stages: reduced Wnt signaling caused both daughters to adopt non-seam fates, while activated Wnt signaling caused both daughters to adopt the seam fate. Therefore, our results indicate that Wnt signaling globally regulates the asymmetric, stem cell-like division of most or all somatic seam cells during C. elegans larval development, and that Wnt pathway regulation of stem cell-like behavior is conserved in nematodes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

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    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  13. Low immunogenicity of endothelial derivatives from rat embryonic stem cell-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliane Ladhoff; Michael Bader; Sabine Br(o)sel; Elke Effenberger; Dirk Westermann; Hans-Dieter Volk; Martina Seifert

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are suggested to be immune-privileged, but they carry the risk of uncontrolled expansion and malignancy. Upon differentiation they lose their tumor-forming capacity, but they become immunogenic by the expression of a normal set of MHC molecules. This immunogenicity might trigger rejection after application in regenerative therapies. In this study MHC expression of and immune responses to endothelial derivatives of rat embryonic stem cell-like cells (RESC) under inflammatory conditions were determined in comparison to primary rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs). Cellular as well as humoral allo-recognition was analyzed in vitro. In addition, immune reactions in vivo were assessed by allo-antibody production and determination of interferon-γ (IFNγ)-secreting allo-reactive T cells. RESC derivatives expressed low but significant levels of MHC class I, and no MHC class II. In response to IFNγ MHC class I expression was enhanced, while class II transactivator induction failed completely in these cells; MHC class II expression remained consistently absent. Functionally, the RESC derivatives showed a reduced allo-stimulatory capacity, protection against humoral allo-recognition in vitro and a slightly diminished susceptibility to cytotoxic T cell lysis. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that these cells do not trigger host immune reactions, characterized by no allo-antibody production and no induction of allo-reactive memory T cells. Our results show that endothelial derivatives of RESC have a distinctive reduced immunogenic potency even under inflammatory conditions.

  14. HepG2 cells acquire stem cell-like characteristics after immune cell stimulation.

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    Wang, Hang; Yang, Miqing; Lin, Ling; Ren, Hongzhen; Lin, Chaotong; Lin, Suling; Shen, Guoying; Ji, Binfeng; Meng, Chun

    2016-02-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is currently regarded as one of the main culprits of tumor formation and therapy failure. It is known that chronic inflammation is associated with CSCs, but it is not clear yet how inflammation affects the development of CSCs. In the present study we aimed to examine the relationship between cancer cell stimulation mediated by immune cells and the acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype. Cancer cells derived from single hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells were treated with mouse splenic B cells (MSBCs) and mouse peritoneal macrophage cells (MPMCs), respectively. The stem cell-like characteristics of the resulting HepG2 cells (MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2) were evaluated using different assays, including biomarker assays, in vitro tumoroid and colony forming assays, in vivo tumor forming assays and signal transduction pathway activation assays. Various stemness characteristics of HepG2 cells, including self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity were evaluated. The expression levels of stemness-related genes and its encoded proteins in the MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2 cells were assessed using RT-PCR and FACS analyses. We found that MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2 cells possess hepatic CSC properties, including persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, high tumorigenic capacity and over-expression of CSC-related genes and proteins (i.e., EpCAM, ALDH, CD133 and CD44), compared to the parental cells. We also found that 1x10(3) MSBC-HepG2 and MPMC-HepG2 cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice and that the Notch and SHH signaling pathways were highly activated in MSBC-HepG2 cells. We conclude that the immune system may have a double-edge effect on cancer development. On one hand, immune cells such as B lymphocytes and macrophages may recognize, attack and eliminate cancer cells, whereas on the other hand, they may promote a subset of cancer cells to acquire stem cell-like characteristics.

  15. Cancer stem cell-like cells derived from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

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    Melanie Spyra

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine whether or not cancer stem cells exist in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST. Cells of established lines, primary cultures and freshly dissected tumors were cultured in serum free conditions supplemented with epidermal and fibroblast growth factors. From one established human MPNST cell line, S462, cells meeting the criteria for cancer stem cells were isolated. Clonal spheres were obtained, which could be passaged multiple times. Enrichment of stem cell-like cells in these spheres was also supported by increased expression of stem cell markers such as CD133, Oct4, Nestin and NGFR, and decreased expression of mature cell markers such as CD90 and NCAM. Furthermore, cells of these clonal S462 spheres differentiated into Schwann cells, smooth muscle/fibroblast and neurons-like cells under specific differentiation-inducing cultural conditions. Finally, subcutaneous injection of the spheres into immunodeficient nude mice led to tumor formation at a higher rate compared to the parental adherent cells (66% versus 10% at 2.5 × 10(5. These results provide evidence for the existence of cancer stem cell-like cells in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

  16. Protein expression profile in the differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells into Schwann cell-like cells

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    LI WenTing; SUN HuaLin; XU ZengLu; DING Fei; GU XiaoSong

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, increasing evidence suggested that bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neural lineages. Many studies have reported that MSCs showed morpho-logical changes and expressed a limited number of neural proteins under experimental conditions. However, no proteomic studies on MSCs differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells have been reported. In this study, we isolated MSCs from adult Sprague-Dawley rat femur and tibia bone marrows and in-duced the cells in vitro under specific conditions. By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), we compared the protein profiles of MSCs before and after induced differentiation. We obtained 792 protein spots in the protein profile by 2-DE, and found that 74 spots changed significantly before and after the differentiation using PDQuest software, with 43 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated. We ana-lyzed these 74 spots by a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and by database searching, and found that they could be grouped into various classes, including cytoskeleton and structure proteins, growth factors, metabolic proteins, chaperone proteins, receptor proteins, cell cycle proteins, calcium binding proteins, and other proteins. These proteins also include neural and glial proteins, such as BDNF, CNTF and GFAP. The results may provide valuable proteomic information about the differentiation of MSCs into Schwann cell-like cells.

  17. Protein expression profile in the differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells into Schwann cell-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade,increasing evidence suggested that bone marrow stromal cells(MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neural lineages.Many studies have reported that MSCs showed morphological changes and expressed a limited number of neural proteins under experimental conditions.However,no proteomic studies on MSCs differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells have been reported.In this study,we isolated MSCs from adult Sprague-Dawley rat femur and tibia bone marrows and induced the cells in vitro under specific conditions.By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(2-DE),we compared the protein profiles of MSCs before and after induced differentiation.We obtained 792 protein spots in the protein profile by 2-DE,and found that 74 spots changed significantly before and after the differentiation using PDQuest software,with 43 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated.We analyzed these 74 spots by a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS) and by database searching,and found that they could be grouped into various classes,including cytoskeleton and structure proteins,growth factors,metabolic proteins,chaperone proteins,receptor proteins,cell cycle proteins,calcium binding proteins,and other proteins.These proteins also include neural and glial proteins,such as BDNF,CNTF and GFAP.The results may provide valuable proteomic information about the differentiation of MSCs into Schwann cell-like cells.

  18. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

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    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  19. Th17 cells are long lived and retain a stem cell-like molecular signature.

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    Muranski, Pawel; Borman, Zachary A; Kerkar, Sid P; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Ji, Yun; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Reger, Robert N; Yu, Zhiya; Kern, Steven J; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Ferreyra, Gabriela A; Shen, Wei; Durum, Scott K; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Palmer, Douglas C; Antony, Paul A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Laurence, Arian; Danner, Robert L; Gattinoni, Luca; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2011-12-23

    Th17 cells have been described as short lived, but this view is at odds with their capacity to trigger protracted damage to normal and transformed tissues. We report that Th17 cells, despite displaying low expression of CD27 and other phenotypic markers of terminal differentiation, efficiently eradicated tumors and caused autoimmunity, were long lived, and maintained a core molecular signature resembling early memory CD8(+) cells with stem cell-like properties. In addition, we found that Th17 cells had high expression of Tcf7, a direct target of the Wnt and β-catenin signaling axis, and accumulated β-catenin, a feature observed in stem cells. In vivo, Th17 cells gave rise to Th1-like effector cell progeny and also self-renewed and persisted as IL-17A-secreting cells. Multipotency was required for Th17 cell-mediated tumor eradication because effector cells deficient in IFN-γ or IL-17A had impaired activity. Thus, Th17 cells are not always short lived and are a less-differentiated subset capable of superior persistence and functionality.

  20. NK cell-like behavior of Valpha14i NK T cells during MCMV infection.

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    Johnna D Wesley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV is critically dependent on the innate response for initial containment of viral replication, resolution of active infection, and proper induction of the adaptive phase of the anti-viral response. In contrast to NK cells, the Valpha14 invariant natural killer T cell response to MCMV has not been examined. We found that Valpha14i NK T cells become activated and produce significant levels of IFN-gamma, but do not proliferate or produce IL-4 following MCMV infection. In vivo treatment with an anti-CD1d mAb and adoptive transfer of Valpha14i NK T cells into MCMV-infected CD1d(-/- mice demonstrate that CD1d is dispensable for Valpha14i NK T cell activation. In contrast, both IFN-alpha/beta and IL-12 are required for optimal activation. Valpha14i NK T cell-derived IFN-gamma is partially dependent on IFN-alpha/beta but highly dependent on IL-12. Valpha14i NK T cells contribute to the immune response to MCMV and amplify NK cell-derived IFN-gamma. Importantly, mortality is increased in CD1d(-/- mice in response to high dose MCMV infection when compared to heterozygote littermate controls. Collectively, these findings illustrate the plasticity of Valpha14i NK T cells that act as effector T cells during bacterial infection, but have NK cell-like behavior during the innate immune response to MCMV infection.

  1. Ex vivo differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells into neuronal cell-like lineages

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    Al-Zoubi A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeeb Al-Zoubi,1,2 Feras Altwal,3 Farah Khalifeh,2 Jamil Hermas,4 Ziad Al-Zoubi,5 Emad Jafar,5 Mohammed El-Khateeb,6,7 1Department of Surgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL, USA; 2Stem Cells of Arabia, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Neuroscience, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA; 4Stem Cell Division, Al-Yamama Company, 5Jordan Orthopedic and Spinal Center, 6National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, 7Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan Background: Methods to obtain safe and practical populations of stem cells (SCs at a clinical grade that are able to differentiate into neuronal cell lineages are yet to be developed. In a previous study, we showed that mouse bone marrow-derived SCs (BM-SCs differentiated into neuronal cell-like lineages when put in a neuronal-like environment, which is a special media supplemented with the necessary growth factors needed for the differentiation of SCs into neuronal cell-like lineages. Aim: In this study, we aim to assess the potentials of adult human CD34+ and CD133+ SCs to differentiate into neuronal cell-like lineages ex vivo when placed in a neuronal-like microenvironment. Methods: The neuronal-like microenvironment was created by culturing cells in nonhematopoietic expansion media (NHEM supplemented with growth factors that favor differentiation into neuronal cell lineages (low-affinity nerve growth factor [LNGF], mouse spinal cord extract [mSpE], or both. Cultured cells were assessed for neuronal differentiation by cell morphologies and by expression of GFAP. Results: Our results show that culturing unpurified human BM-derived mononuclear cells (hBM-MNCs in NHEM+LNGF+mSpE did not lead to neuronal differentiation. In contrast, culturing of purified CD34+ hBM-SCs in NHEM+LNGF+mSpE favored their differentiation into astrocyte

  2. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

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    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  3. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  4. Cigarette smoke promotes drug resistance and expansion of cancer stem cell-like side population.

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    Yi An

    Full Text Available It is well known that many patients continue to smoke cigarettes after being diagnosed with cancer. Although smoking cessation has typically been presumed to possess little therapeutic value for cancer, a growing body of evidence suggests that continued smoking is associated with reduced efficacy of treatment and a higher incidence of recurrence. We therefore investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on drug resistance in the lung cancer and head and neck cancer cell lines A549 and UMSCC-10B, respectively. Our results showed that CSC significantly increased the cellular efflux of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. This was accompanied by membrane localization and increased expression of the multi-drug transporter ABCG2. The induced efflux of doxorubicin was reversed upon addition of the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, confirming the role of ABCG2. Treatment with CSC increased the concentration of phosphorylated Akt, while addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked doxorubicin extrusion, suggesting that Akt activation is required for CSC-induced drug efflux. In addition, CSC was found to promote resistance to doxorubicin as determined by MTS assays. This CSC-induced doxurbicin-resistance was mitigated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor, suggesting that nicotine is at least partially responsible for the effect of CSC. Lastly, CSC increased the size of the side population (SP, which has been linked to a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. In summary, CSC promotes chemoresistance via Akt-mediated regulation of ABCG2 activity, and may also increase the proportion of cancer stem-like cells, contributing to tumor resilience. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation following a diagnosis of cancer, and elucidate the mechanisms of continued smoking that may be detrimental to treatment.

  5. Cigarette smoke promotes drug resistance and expansion of cancer stem cell-like side population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi; Kiang, Alan; Lopez, Jay Patrick; Kuo, Selena Z; Yu, Michael Andrew; Abhold, Eric L; Chen, Jocelyn S; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that many patients continue to smoke cigarettes after being diagnosed with cancer. Although smoking cessation has typically been presumed to possess little therapeutic value for cancer, a growing body of evidence suggests that continued smoking is associated with reduced efficacy of treatment and a higher incidence of recurrence. We therefore investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on drug resistance in the lung cancer and head and neck cancer cell lines A549 and UMSCC-10B, respectively. Our results showed that CSC significantly increased the cellular efflux of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. This was accompanied by membrane localization and increased expression of the multi-drug transporter ABCG2. The induced efflux of doxorubicin was reversed upon addition of the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, confirming the role of ABCG2. Treatment with CSC increased the concentration of phosphorylated Akt, while addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked doxorubicin extrusion, suggesting that Akt activation is required for CSC-induced drug efflux. In addition, CSC was found to promote resistance to doxorubicin as determined by MTS assays. This CSC-induced doxurbicin-resistance was mitigated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor, suggesting that nicotine is at least partially responsible for the effect of CSC. Lastly, CSC increased the size of the side population (SP), which has been linked to a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. In summary, CSC promotes chemoresistance via Akt-mediated regulation of ABCG2 activity, and may also increase the proportion of cancer stem-like cells, contributing to tumor resilience. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation following a diagnosis of cancer, and elucidate the mechanisms of continued smoking that may be detrimental to treatment.

  6. Combination of acellular nerve graft and schwann cells-like cells for rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Songtao; Zheng, Yan; Cai, Qiqing; Deng, Zhansheng; Yao, Weitao; Wang, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and transmission electron microscope observation, recovery ratio of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, regenerated myelinated nerve fibers number, nerve fiber diameter, and thickness of the myelin sheath were measured to assess the effect. After six and twelve weeks, the recovery ratio of SFI and wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, NEP, and the result of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers in groups B and C were superior to that of group A (P 0.05). The tissue engineering nerve composed of acellular allogenic nerve scaffold and Schwann cells-like cells can effectively repair the nerve defect in rats and its effect was similar to that of the autogenous nerve grafts.

  7. Preliminary screening and identification of stem cell-like sphere clones in a gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-bing YIN; Shuang-jie WU; Hua-jie ZONG; Bao-jin MA; Duan CAI

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to screen and identify sphere clone cells with characteristics similar to cancer stem cellsin human gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD. GBC-SD cells were cultured in a serum-free culture medium with different concentrations of the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin for generating sphere clones. The mRNA expressions of stem cell-related genes CD133, OCT-4, Nanog, and drug resistance genes ABCG2 and MDR-1 in sphere clones were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Stem cell markers were also analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining. Different amounts of sphere clones were injected into nude mice to test their abilities to form tumors. Sphere clones were formed in serum-free culture medium containing cisplatin (30 pmol/L).Flow cytometry results demonstrated that the sphere clones expressed high levels of stem cell markers CD133+ (97.6%) and CD44+ (77.9%) and low levels of CD24+ (2.3%). These clones also overexpressed the drug resistance genes ABCG2 and MDR-1. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that sphere clones expressed stem cell genes Nanog and OCT-4 284 and 266 times, respectively, more than those in the original GBC-SD cells. Immunofluorescent staining showed that sphere clones overexpressed OCT-4, Nanog, and SOX-2, and Iow expressed MUG1 and vimentin. Tumor formation experiments showed that 1 x 103 sphere clone cells could induce much larger tumors in nude mice than 1 x 105 GBC-SD cells. In conclusion, sphere clones of gallbladder cancer with stem cell-like characteristics can be obtained using suspension cultures of GBC-SD cells in serum-free culture medium containing cisplatin.

  8. Stem cell-like gene expression in ovarian cancer predicts type II subtype and prognosis.

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    Matthew Schwede

    Full Text Available Although ovarian cancer is often initially chemotherapy-sensitive, the vast majority of tumors eventually relapse and patients die of increasingly aggressive disease. Cancer stem cells are believed to have properties that allow them to survive therapy and may drive recurrent tumor growth. Cancer stem cells or cancer-initiating cells are a rare cell population and difficult to isolate experimentally. Genes that are expressed by stem cells may characterize a subset of less differentiated tumors and aid in prognostic classification of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was the genomic identification and characterization of a subtype of ovarian cancer that has stem cell-like gene expression. Using human and mouse gene signatures of embryonic, adult, or cancer stem cells, we performed an unsupervised bipartition class discovery on expression profiles from 145 serous ovarian tumors to identify a stem-like and more differentiated subgroup. Subtypes were reproducible and were further characterized in four independent, heterogeneous ovarian cancer datasets. We identified a stem-like subtype characterized by a 51-gene signature, which is significantly enriched in tumors with properties of Type II ovarian cancer; high grade, serous tumors, and poor survival. Conversely, the differentiated tumors share properties with Type I, including lower grade and mixed histological subtypes. The stem cell-like signature was prognostic within high-stage serous ovarian cancer, classifying a small subset of high-stage tumors with better prognosis, in the differentiated subtype. In multivariate models that adjusted for common clinical factors (including grade, stage, age, the subtype classification was still a significant predictor of relapse. The prognostic stem-like gene signature yields new insights into prognostic differences in ovarian cancer, provides a genomic context for defining Type I/II subtypes, and potential gene targets which following further

  9. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, S.; Tanaka, J.; Okada, S.; Isobe, T.; Yamamoto, G.; Yasuhara, R.; Irie, T.; Akiyama, C.; Kohno, Y.; Tachikawa, T.; Mishima, K., E-mail: mishima-k@dent.showa-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment - Highlights: ► Lin28a is a SP cell-specific factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. ► SP cells in OSCC cells show cancer stem cell-like properties. ► Lin28a regulates OSCC proliferative and invasive activities.

  10. Periodic Pattern of Genetic and Fitness Diversity during Evolution of an Artificial Cell-Like System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Aita, Takuyo; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Genetic and phenotypic diversity are the basis of evolution. Despite their importance, however, little is known about how they change over the course of evolution. In this study, we analyzed the dynamics of the adaptive evolution of a simple evolvable artificial cell-like system using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology that reads an entire single artificial genome. We found that the genomic RNA population increases in fitness intermittently, correlating with a periodic pattern of genetic and fitness diversity produced by repeated diversification and domination. In the diversification phase, a genomic RNA population spreads within a genetic space by accumulating mutations until mutants with higher fitness are generated, resulting in an increase in fitness diversity. In the domination phase, the mutants with higher fitness dominate, decreasing both the fitness and genetic diversity. This study reveals the dynamic nature of genetic and fitness diversity during adaptive evolution and demonstrates the utility of a simplified artificial cell-like system to study evolution at an unprecedented resolution.

  11. Enrichment and Function Research of Large Cell Lung Cancer Stem Cell-like Cells

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    Wenke YUE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective There are no universal method to recognize and screen for lung cancer stem cell markers and indicators. Commonly used methods are flow Cytometry and learning from other cancer stem cell sorting tags to sort lung cancer stem cells. But this method has low specificity screening, the workload is huge. In this study, Serum-free suspension culture was used to enrich lung cancer stem cells, and explore method for lung cancer stem cell screening. Methods Human large lung cancer cell line-L9981 was cultured in serum-free and growth factors added medium, and spheres were obtained. Then the morphological differences of sphere cells and adherent L9981 cells cultured in serum-containing mediums are observed. Cell proliferation was analyzed by Vi-cell viability analyzer; invasion ability was tested by transwell assay; and in vivo tumorigenicity of the two groups of cells was studied in nude mouse. Results Compared with adherent L9981 cells cultured in serum-containing mediums, cells cultured in serum-free medium display sphere appearance. Doubling time of adherent cells and sphere cells are (56.05±1.95 h and (33.00±1.44 h respectively; Spheroid cells had higher invasion and tumorigenicity ability, 5 times and 20 times respectively, than adherent cells. Conclusion Suspension cultured L9981 in Serum-free medium could form spheroid populations. Cells in spheres had higher ability of invasion and Tumorigenicity than adherent L9981 cells. These results indicated spheroid L9981 cells contained enriched lung cancer stem cells, and Serum-free suspension culture can be a candidate method for enriching lung cancer stem cell.

  12. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Stem Cell-Like Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed I; Czarnecka, Anna M; Lewicki, Sławomir; Helbrecht, Igor; Brodaczewska, Klaudia; Koch, Irena; Zdanowski, Robert; Król, Magdalena; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in cancer research has shown that tumors are highly heterogeneous, and multiple phenotypically different cell populations are found in a single tumor. Cancer development and tumor growth are driven by specific types of cells-stem cell-like cancer cells (SCLCCs)-which are also responsible for metastatic spread and drug resistance. This research was designed to verify the presence of SCLCCs in renal cell cancer cell lines. Subsequently, we aimed to characterize phenotype and cell biology of CD105+ cells, defined previously as renal cell carcinoma tumor-initiating cells. The main goal of the project was to describe the gene-expression profile of stem cell-like cancer cells of primary tumor and metastatic origin. Real-time PCR analysis of stemness genes (Oct-4, Nanog and Ncam) and soft agar colony formation assay were conducted to check the stemness properties of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. FACS analysis of CD105+ and CD133+ cells was performed on RCC cells. Isolated CD105+ cells were verified for expression of mesenchymal markers-CD24, CD146, CD90, CD73, CD44, CD11b, CD19, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR and alkaline phosphatase. Hanging drop assay was used to investigate CD105+ cell-cell cohesion. Analysis of free-floating 3D spheres formed by isolated CD105+ was verified, as spheres have been hypothesized to contain undifferentiated multipotent progenitor cells. Finally, CD105+ cells were sorted from primary (Caki-2) and metastatic (ACHN) renal cell cancer cell lines. Gene-expression profiling of sorted CD105+ cells was performed with Agilent's human GE 4x44K v2 microarrays. Differentially expressed genes were further categorized into canonical pathways. Network analysis and downstream analysis were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Metastatic RCC cell lines (ACHN and Caki-1) demonstrated higher colony-forming ability in comparison to primary RCC cell lines. Metastatic RCC cell lines harbor numerous CD105+ cell subpopulations and have

  13. The key components of Schwann cell-like differentiation medium and their effects on gene expression pattern of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbay, Hakan; Little, Christopher J; Lankford, Lee; Olson, Christine A; Sahar, David E

    2015-05-01

    Schwann cell-like cells differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells may have an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Herein, we document the individual effects of growth factors in Schwann cell-like differentiation medium. There were 6 groups in the study. In the control group, we supplemented the rat adipose-derived stem cells with normal cell culture medium. In group 1, we fed the cells with Schwann cell-like differentiation medium (normal cell culture medium supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, forskolin, and glial growth factor). In the other groups, we removed the components of the medium one at a time from the differentiation medium so that group 2 lacked glial growth factor, group 3 lacked forskolin, group 4 lacked basic fibroblast growth factor, and group 5 lacked platelet-derived growth factor. We examined the expression of the Schwann cell-specific genes with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining in each group. Groups 3 and 4, lacking forskolin and basic fibroblast growth factor, respectively, had the highest expression levels of integrin-β4, and p75. Group 1 showed a 3.2-fold increase in the expression of S100, but the expressions of integrin-β4 and p75 were significantly lower compared to groups 3 and 4. Group 2 [glial growth factor (-)] did not express significant levels of Schwann cell-specific genes. The gene expression profile in group 4 most closely resembled Schwann cells. Immunofluorescence staining results were parallel with the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results. Glial growth factor is a key component of Schwann cell-like differentiation medium.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Stem Cell-Like Keratinocytes in Dissected Compound Hair Follicles of the Dog.

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    Dominique J Wiener

    Full Text Available Hair cycle disturbances are common in dogs and comparable to some alopecic disorders in humans. A normal hair cycle is maintained by follicular stem cells which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the bulge area in humans and dogs, the shared particularity of compound hair follicles as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog is a promising model to study human hair cycle and stem cell disorders. To gain insight into the spatial distribution of follicular keratinocytes with stem cell potential in canine compound follicles, we microdissected hair follicles in anagen and telogen from skin samples of freshly euthanized dogs. The keratinocytes isolated from different locations were investigated for their colony forming efficiency, growth and differentiation potential as well as clonal growth. Our results indicate that i compound and single hair follicles exhibit a comparable spatial distribution pattern with respect to cells with high growth potential and stem cell-like characteristics, ii the lower isthmus (comprising the bulge harbors most cells with high growth potential in both, the anagen and the telogen hair cycle stage, iii unlike in other species, colonies with highest growth potential are rather small with an irregular perimeter and iv the keratinocytes derived from the bulbar region exhibit characteristics of actively dividing transit amplifying cells. Our results now provide the basis to conduct comparative studies of normal dogs and those with hair cycle disorders with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients.

  15. Ovarian cancer stem cell like side populations are enriched following chemotherapy and overexpress EZH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Siân; Hersey, Jenny M.; Mellor, Paul; Dai, Wei; Santos-Silva, Alessandra; Liber, Daniel; Luk, Louisa; Titley, Ian; Carden, Craig P; Box, Garry; Hudson, David L.; Kaye, Stanley B.; Brown, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy, with cytoreductive surgery, is the cornerstone of treatment of advanced ovarian cancer, however acquired drug resistance is a major clinical obstacle. It has been proposed that subpopulations of tumour cells with stem-cell like properties, such as so-called side populations (SP) which over-express ABC drug-transporters, can sustain the growth of drug resistant tumour cells, leading to tumour recurrence following chemotherapy. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is a key component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) required for maintenance of a stem cell state and overexpression has been implicated in drug resistance and shorter survival of ovarian cancer patients. We observe higher percentage SP in ascites from patients that have relapsed following chemotherapy compared to chemonaive patients, consistent with selection for this subpopulation during platinum-based chemotherapy. Furthermore, ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) and EZH2 are consistently over-expressed in SP compared to non-SP from patients’ tumour cells. SiRNA knockdown of EZH2 leads to loss of SP in ovarian tumour models, reduced anchorage-independent growth and reduced tumour growth in vivo. Together these data support a key role for EZH2 in the maintenance of a drug-resistant tumour-sustaining subpopulation of cells in ovarian cancers undergoing chemotherapy. As such, EZH2 is an important target for anticancer drug development. PMID:21216927

  16. Stem cell-like ALDHbright cellular states in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-01-01

    . This report is the first to show that: (1) loss of responsiveness to erlotinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC can be explained in terms of erlotinib-refractory ALDHbright cells, which have been shown to exhibit stem cell-like properties; and (2) erlotinib-refractory ALDHbright cells are sensitive to the natural agent silibinin. Our findings highlight the benefit of administration of silibinin in combination with EGFR TKIs to target CSCs and minimize the ability of tumor cells to escape cell death in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. PMID:24047698

  17. Lin28B is an oncofetal circulating cancer stem cell-like marker associated with recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Shu-Wen Cheng

    Full Text Available By using an expressed sequence tag bioinformatic algorithm, we identified that Lin28 homolog B (Lin28B may have an oncofetal expression pattern which may facilitate detecting cancer cells in adults. It is also reported to be a potential marker for cancer stem cells. Therefore, we sought to verify oncofetal-stemness characters of Lin28B and test its potential as a circulating cancer stem cell-like marker in adult HCC patients. Lin28B mRNA was examined in a panel of fetal tissue, adult tissue and tumors. Lin28B was over-expressed or knocked down in HepG2 cells to evaluate its potential as a stem cell-like marker. RT-qPCR for Lin28B was performed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with HCC receiving surgery (n=96 and non-HCC controls (n=60 and analyzed its clinical significance. Lin28B showed an oncofetal expression pattern. Its overexpression could upregulate stemness markers (OCT4, Nanog and SOX2 and enhance tumorsphere formation in vitro. Lin28B knockdown had opposite effects. Circulating Lin28B was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 3 cases (5% of non-HCC controls and 32 cases (33.3% of HCC patients. In HCC patients, circulating Lin28B was associated with high tumor grade (P=0.046, large size (P=0.005, high AJCC stage (P=0.044 and BCLC stage (P=0.017. Circulating Lin28B was significantly associated with decreased recurrence-free survival (P<0.001. Circulating Lin28B separated early stage HCC into 2 recurrence-free survival curves (P=0.003. In multivariate analysis, circulating Lin28B was an independent variable associated with early recurrence (P=0.045 and recurrence in early stage HCC (P=0.006. In conclusion, the oncofetal gene Lin28B is a potential oncofetal cancer-stem-cell-like circulating tumor cell marker that correlates with HCC recurrence after hepatectomy. Circulating Lin28B could refine early AJCC stages. Our finding supports the possible use of a TNMC (C for circulating tumor cells staging system

  18. BIS-mediated STAT3 stabilization regulates glioblastoma stem cell-like phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chang-Nim; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Song, Byunghoo; Youn, Dong-Ye; Cui, Mei Nu; Kim, Hong Sug; Park, Gyeong Sin; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic and stem-like cells that are responsible for resistance to conventional therapy. Bcl-2-intreacting cell death suppressor (BIS; also known as BAG3) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in human cancers with various origins, including glioblastoma. In the present study, to investigate the role of BIS in GSC subpopulation, we examined the expression profile of BIS in A172 and U87-MG glioblastoma cell lines under specific in vitro culture conditions that enrich GSC-like cells in spheres. Both BIS mRNA and protein levels significantly increased under the sphere-forming condition as compared with standard culture conditions. BIS depletion resulted in notable decreases in sphere-forming activity and was accompanied with decreases in SOX-2 expression. The expression of STAT3, a master regulator of stemness, also decreased following BIS depletion concomitant with decreases in the nuclear levels of active phosphorylated STAT3, while ectopic STAT3 overexpression resulted in recovery of sphere-forming activity in BIS-knockdown glioblastoma cells. Additionally, immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy revealed that BIS physically interacts with STAT3. Furthermore, BIS depletion increased STAT3 ubiquitination, suggesting that BIS is necessary for STAT3 stabilization in GSC-like cells. BIS depletion also affected epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related genes as evidenced by decrease in SNAIL and MMP-2 expression and increase in E-cadherin expression in GSC-like cells. Our findings suggest that high levels of BIS expression might confer stem-cell-like properties on cancer cells through STAT3 stabilization, indicating that BIS is a potential target in cancer therapy. PMID:27145367

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Like Cells Derived from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

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    Tatsuhito Himeno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN have been reported, no dependable treatment of DPN has been achieved. Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs ameliorate DPN. Here we demonstrate a differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into MSC-like cells and investigate the therapeutic potential of the MSC-like cell transplantation on DPN. Research Design and Methods. For induction into MSC-like cells, GFP-expressing iPSCs were cultured with retinoic acid, followed by adherent culture for 4 months. The MSC-like cells, characterized with flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses, were transplanted into muscles of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Three weeks after the transplantation, neurophysiological functions were evaluated. Results. The MSC-like cells expressed MSC markers and angiogenic/neurotrophic factors. The transplanted cells resided in hindlimb muscles and peripheral nerves, and some transplanted cells expressed S100β in the nerves. Impairments of current perception thresholds, nerve conduction velocities, and plantar skin blood flow in the diabetic mice were ameliorated in limbs with the transplanted cells. The capillary number-to-muscle fiber ratios were increased in transplanted hindlimbs of diabetic mice. Conclusions. These results suggest that MSC-like cell transplantation might have therapeutic effects on DPN through secreting angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and differentiation to Schwann cell-like cells.

  20. JARID1B Expression Plays a Critical Role in Chemoresistance and Stem Cell-Like Phenotype of Neuroblastoma Cells.

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    Yung-Ting Kuo

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is a common neural crest-derived extracranial solid cancer in children. Among all childhood cancers, NB causes devastating loss of young lives as it accounts for 15% of childhood cancer mortality. Neuroblastoma, especially high-risk stage 4 NB with MYCN amplification has limited treatment options and associated with poor prognosis. This necessitates the need for novel effective therapeutic strategy. JARID1B, also known as KDM5B, is a histone lysine demethylase, identified as an oncogene in many cancer types. Clinical data obtained from freely-accessible databases show a negative correlation between JARID1B expression and survival rates. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the role of JARID1B in the enhancement of stem cell-like activities and drug resistance in NB cells. We showed that JARID1B may be overexpressed in either MYCN amplification (SK-N-BE(2 or MYCN-non-amplified (SK-N-SH and SK-N-FI cell lines. JARID1B expression was found enriched in tumor spheres of SK-N-BE(2 and SK-N-DZ. Moreover, SK-N-BE(2 spheroids were more resistant to chemotherapeutics as compared to parental cells. In addition, we demonstrated that JARID1B-silenced cells acquired a decreased propensity for tumor invasion and tumorsphere formation, but increased sensitivity to cisplatin treatment. Mechanistically, reduced JARID1B expression led to the downregulation of Notch/Jagged signaling. Collectively, we provided evidence that JARID1B via modulation of stemness-related signaling is a putative novel therapeutic target for treating malignant NB.

  1. Derivation of corneal endothelial cell-like cells from rat neural crest cells in vitro.

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    Chengqun Ju

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of inducing rat neural crest cells (NCC to differentiate to functional corneal endothelial cell (CEC-like cells in vitro. Rat NCC were induced with adult CEC-derived conditioned medium. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR assay were used to detect expression of the corneal endothelium differentiation marker N-cadherin and transcription factors FoxC1 and Pitx2. CFDA SE-labeled CEC-like cells were transplanted to the corneal endothelium of a rat corneal endothelium deficiency model, and an eye-down position was maintained for 24 hours to allow cell attachment. The animals were observed for as long as 2 months after surgery and underwent clinical and histological examination. Spindle-like NCC turned to polygonal CEC-like after induction and expressed N-cadherin, FoxC1, Pitx2, zonula occludens-1 and sodium-potassium pump Na(+/K(+ ATPase. The corneas of the experimental group were much clearer than those of the control group and the mean corneal thickness in the experimental group was significantly less than in the control group7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery. Confocal microscopy through focusing and histological analysis confirmed that green fluorescence-positive CEC-like cells formed a monolayer covering the Descemet's membrane in the experimental group. In conclusion, CEC-like cells derived from NCCs displayed characters of native CEC, and the induction protocol provides guidance for future human CEC induction from NCC.

  2. Cellular prion protein controls stem cell-like properties of human glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Alessandro; Bajetto, Adriana; Thellung, Stefano; Begani, Giulia; Villa, Valentina; Nizzari, Mario; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Solari, Agnese; Gatti, Monica; Pagano, Aldo; Würth, Roberto; Daga, Antonio; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-01-01

    Prion protein (PrPC) is a cell surface glycoprotein whose misfolding is responsible for prion diseases. Although its physiological role is not completely defined, several lines of evidence propose that PrPC is involved in self-renewal, pluripotency gene expression, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Moreover, PrPC regulates different biological functions in human tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). We analyzed the role of PrPC in GBM cell pathogenicity focusing on tumor-initiating cells (TICs, or cancer stem cells, CSCs), the subpopulation responsible for development, progression and recurrence of most malignancies. Analyzing four GBM CSC-enriched cultures, we show that PrPC expression is directly correlated with the proliferation rate of the cells. To better define its role in CSC biology, we knocked-down PrPC expression in two of these GBM-derived CSC cultures by specific lentiviral-delivered shRNAs. We provide evidence that CSC proliferation rate, spherogenesis and in vivo tumorigenicity are significantly inhibited in PrPC down-regulated cells. Moreover, PrPC down-regulation caused loss of expression of the stemness and self-renewal markers (NANOG, Sox2) and the activation of differentiation pathways (i.e. increased GFAP expression). Our results suggest that PrPC controls the stemness properties of human GBM CSCs and that its down-regulation induces the acquisition of a more differentiated and less oncogenic phenotype. PMID:27229535

  3. Efficient Induction and Isolation of Human Primordial Germ Cell-Like Cells from Competent Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Naoko; Surani, M Azim

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported a robust and defined culture system for the specification of human primordial germ cell-like cells (hPGCLCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro (Irie et al. Cell 160: 253-268, 2015). Similar attempts previously produced hPGCLCs from hPSCs at a very low efficiency, and the resulting cells were not fully characterized. A key step, which facilitated efficient hPGCLC specification from hPSCs, was the induction of a "competent" state for PGC fate via the medium containing a cocktail of four inhibitors. The competency of hPSCs can be maintained indefinitely and interchangeably with the conventional/low-competent hPSCs. Specification of hPGCLC occurs following sequential expression of key germ cell fate regulators, notably SOX17 and BLIMP1, as well as initiation of epigenetic resetting over 5 days. The hPGCLCs can be isolated using specific cell surface markers without the need for generating germ cell-specific reporter hPSC lines. This powerful method for the induction and isolation of hPGCLCs can be applied to both hESCs and iPSCs, which can be used for advances in human germ line biology.

  4. Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and cancer stem cell-like properties in cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through AKT/β-catenin/Snail signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Binhua; Ning, Fen; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cai, Shao-Hui; Du, Jun

    2014-01-15

    Cisplatin is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the therapeutic effect is disappointing, partly due to drug resistance. Emerging evidence showed that chemoresistance associates with acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and cancer stem cell-like properties. However, the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. In this study, we showed that cisplatin-resistant A549 cells (A549/CDDP) acquire EMT phenotype associated with migratory and invasive capability. A549/CDDP cells also displayed enhanced cancer stem cell-like properties. Increased expression of transcription factor Snail, but not ZEB1, Slug and Twist, was observed in A549/CDDP cells. Knockdown of Snail reversed EMT and significantly attenuated migration, invasion and cancer stem cell-like properties of A549/CDDP cells. Conversely, overexpressed Snail in A549 cells induced EMT and cancer stem cell-like properties. Finally, we demonstrated that activated AKT signal leads to increased β-catenin expression and subsequently up-regulates Snail in A549/CDDP cells. Taken together, these results revealed that AKT/β-catenin/Snail signaling pathway is mechanistically associated with cancer stem cell-like properties and EMT features of A549/CDDP cells, and thus, this pathway could be a novel target for the treatment of NSCLC. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Efficient induction of inner ear hair cell-like cells from mouse ES cells using combination of Math1 transfection and conditioned medium from ST2 stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouji, Yukiteru; Sakagami, Masaharu; Omori, Hiroko; Higashiyama, Shinji; Kawai, Norikazu; Kitahara, Tadashi; Wanaka, Akio; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2017-08-01

    We sought to establish a more efficient technique for induction of inner ear hair cell-like cells (HC-like cells) from embryonic stem cells (ES cells) by using a combination of two previously reported methods; ST2 stromal cell-conditioned medium, known to be favorable for HC-like cell induction (HIST2 method), and ES cells with transfer of the Math1 gene (Math1-ES cells). Math1-ES cells carrying Tet-inducible Math1 were cultured for 14days with doxycycline in conditioned medium from cultures of ST2 stromal cells following formation of 4-day embryoid bodies (EBs). Although each of the previously introduced methods have been reported to induce approximately 20% HC-like cells and 10% HC-like cells in their respective populations in EB outgrowths at the end of the culture periods, the present combined method was able to generate approximately 30% HC-like cells expressing HC-related markers (myosin6, myosin7a, calretinin, α9AchR, Brn3c), which showed remarkable formation of stereocilia-like structures. Analysis of expressions of marker genes specific for cochlear (Lmod3, Emcn) and vestibular (Dnah5, Ptgds) cells indicated that our HIST2 method may lead to induction of cochlear- and vestibular-type cells. In addition, continuous Math1 induction by doxycycline without use of the HIST2 method preferentially induced cochlear markers with negligible effects on vestibular marker induction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Slugging their way to immortality: driving mammary epithelial cells into a stem cell-like state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soady, Kelly; Smalley, Matthew J

    2012-09-10

    Delineating the molecular factors that define and maintain the mammary stem cell state is vital for understanding normal development and tumourigenesis. A recent study by Guo and colleagues identifies two master transcriptional regulators of mammary stem cells, Slug and Sox9, ectopic expression of which confers stem cell attributes on differentiated mammary epithelial cells. Slug and Sox9 expression was also shown to determine in vivo metastatic potential of human breast cancer cell lines. Understanding these factors in the context of normal lineage differentiation is an important step toward elucidating the mammary epithelial cell hierarchy and the origins of cancer stem cells.

  7. Control of Oxidative Stress and Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-like Cells by Jun Dimerization Protein 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Shyh-Shin, E-mail: chiouss@kmu.edu.tw [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wang, Sophie Sheng-Wen; Wu, Deng-Chyang [Department of Gastroenterology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chu [School of Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Kao, Li-Pin [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-26

    We report here that the Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) plays a critical role as a cofactor for the transcription factors nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and MafK in the regulation of the antioxidants and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). JDP2 associates with Nrf2 and MafK (Nrf2-MafK) to increase the transcription of antioxidant response element-dependent genes. Oxidative-stress-inducing reagent led to an increase in the intracellular accumulation of ROS and cell proliferation in Jdp2 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In Jdp2-Cre mice mated with reporter mice, the expression of JDP2 was restricted to granule cells in the brain cerebellum. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-like cells were generated from DAOY medulloblastoma cell by introduction of JDP2, and the defined factor OCT4. iPSC-like cells expressed stem cell-like characteristics including alkaline phosphatase activity and some stem cell markers. However, such iPSC-like cells also proliferated rapidly, became neoplastic, and potentiated cell malignancy at a later stage in SCID mice. This study suggests that medulloblastoma cells can be reprogrammed successfully by JDP2 and OCT4 to become iPSC-like cells. These cells will be helpful for studying the generation of cancer stem cells and ROS homeostasis.

  8. Control of Oxidative Stress and Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-like Cells by Jun Dimerization Protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Yamaguchi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here that the Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2 plays a critical role as a cofactor for the transcription factors nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and MafK in the regulation of the antioxidants and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. JDP2 associates with Nrf2 and MafK (Nrf2-MafK to increase the transcription of antioxidant response element-dependent genes. Oxidative-stress-inducing reagent led to an increase in the intracellular accumulation of ROS and cell proliferation in Jdp2 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In Jdp2-Cre mice mated with reporter mice, the expression of JDP2 was restricted to granule cells in the brain cerebellum. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-like cells were generated from DAOY medulloblastoma cell by introduction of JDP2, and the defined factor OCT4. iPSC-like cells expressed stem cell-like characteristics including alkaline phosphatase activity and some stem cell markers. However, such iPSC-like cells also proliferated rapidly, became neoplastic, and potentiated cell malignancy at a later stage in SCID mice. This study suggests that medulloblastoma cells can be reprogrammed successfully by JDP2 and OCT4 to become iPSC-like cells. These cells will be helpful for studying the generation of cancer stem cells and ROS homeostasis.

  9. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hair cells are the mechanosensory cells thatconvert sound and motion signals into electrical i m-pulses in cochlear and vestibular end organs of innerear.Although mature mammals nor mally do notgenerate new hair cells,recentin vivoandin vitrostudies have demonstrated mitotic activity and i m-mature-looking hair cells in mammalian vestibularepithelia after exposure to ototoxic drugs[1-3],sug-gesting that vestibular hair cell regeneration inmammals may be inducible.However,the possibil-ity of auditory hair ce...

  10. Acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties in non-small cell lung cancer with acquired resistance to afatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Shien, Kazuhiko; Miyoshi, Yuichiro; Ohtsuka, Tomoaki; Suzawa, Ken; Watanabe, Mototsugu; Maki, Yuho; Soh, Junichi; Asano, Hiroaki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2015-10-01

    Afatinib is an irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that is known to be effective against the EGFR T790M variant, which accounts for half of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to reversible EGFR-TKIs. However, acquired resistance to afatinib was also observed in clinical use. Thus, elucidating and overcoming the mechanisms of resistance are important issues in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, we established various afatinib-resistant cell lines and investigated the resistance mechanisms. EGFR T790M mutations were not detected using direct sequencing in established resistant cells. Several afatinib-resistant cell lines displayed MET amplification, and these cells were sensitive to the combination of afatinib plus crizotinib. As a further investigation, a cell line that acquired resistance to afatinib plus crizotinib, HCC827-ACR, was established from one of the MET amplified-cell lines. Several afatinib-resistant cell lines including HCC827-ACR displayed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features and epigenetic silencing of miR-200c, which is a suppresser of EMT. In addition, these cell lines also exhibited overexpression of ALDH1A1 and ABCB1, which are putative stem cell markers, and resistance to docetaxel. In conclusion, we established afatinib-resistant cells and found that MET amplification, EMT, and stem cell-like features are observed in cells with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. This finding may provide clues to overcoming resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

  11. Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft, D.C.E.; Bindslev, D.A.; Melsen, B.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background aims. For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular

  12. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Noriko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Tohru, E-mail: tkimura@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shinohara, Takashi [Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Toru, E-mail: tnakano@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  13. Long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 enhances stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiao, Feng; Hu, Hai; Han, Ting; Yuan, Cuncun; Wang, Lei; Jin, Ziliang; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    .... The mechanisms that maintain the stemness of these cells remain largely unknown. Our previous study indicated that MALAT-1 may serve as an oncogenic long noncoding RNA in pancreatic cancer by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT...

  14. Conditionally reprogrammed normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells display a progenitor-cell-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Saenz

    Full Text Available Mammary epithelial (ME cells cultured under conventional conditions senesce after several passages. Here, we demonstrate that mouse ME cells isolated from normal mammary glands or from mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-Neu-induced mammary tumors, can be cultured indefinitely as conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs on irradiated fibroblasts in the presence of the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cell surface progenitor-associated markers are rapidly induced in normal mouse ME-CRCs relative to ME cells. However, the expression of certain mammary progenitor subpopulations, such as CD49f+ ESA+ CD44+, drops significantly in later passages. Nevertheless, mouse ME-CRCs grown in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix gave rise to mammary acinar structures. ME-CRCs isolated from MMTV-Neu transgenic mouse mammary tumors express high levels of HER2/neu, as well as tumor-initiating cell markers, such as CD44+, CD49f+, and ESA+ (EpCam. These patterns of expression are sustained in later CRC passages. Early and late passage ME-CRCs from MMTV-Neu tumors that were implanted in the mammary fat pads of syngeneic or nude mice developed vascular tumors that metastasized within 6 weeks of transplantation. Importantly, the histopathology of these tumors was indistinguishable from that of the parental tumors that develop in the MMTV-Neu mice. Application of the CRC system to mouse mammary epithelial cells provides an attractive model system to study the genetics and phenotype of normal and transformed mouse epithelium in a defined culture environment and in vivo transplant studies.

  15. Enrichment of cancer stem cell-like cells by culture in alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Li; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Sun, Guang-wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2014-05-10

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are most likely the reason of cancer reoccurrence and metastasis. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the characteristics of CSCs, it is necessary to develop efficient culture systems to culture and expand CSCs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) culture system based on alginate gel (ALG) beads was reported to enrich CSCs. Two cell lines derived from different histologic origins were encapsulated in ALG beads respectively and the expansion of CSCs was investigated. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) culture, the proportion of cells with CSC-like phenotypes was significantly increased in ALG beads. Expression levels of CSC-related genes were greater in ALG beads than in 2D culture. The increase of CSC proportion after being cultured within ALG beads was further confirmed by enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, increased metastasis ability and higher anti-cancer drug resistance were also observed in 3D-cultured cells. Furthermore, we found that it was hypoxia, through the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that occurred in ALG beads to induce the increasing of CSC proportion. Therefore, ALG bead was an efficient culture system for CSC enrichment, which might provide a useful platform for CSC research and promote the development of new anti-cancer therapies targeting CSCs.

  16. Energy metabolism characterization of a novel cancer stem cell-like line 3AB-OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palorini, Roberta; Votta, Giuseppina; Balestrieri, Chiara; Monestiroli, Andrea; Olivieri, Sandro; Vento, Renza; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando

    2014-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) have a central role in driving tumor growth. Since metabolism is becoming an important diagnostic and therapeutic target, characterization of CSC line energetic properties is an emerging need. Embryonic and adult stem cells, compared to differentiated cells, exhibit a reduced mitochondrial activity and a stronger dependence on aerobic glycolysis. Here, we aimed to comparatively analyze bioenergetics features of the human osteosarcoma 3AB-OS CSC-like line, and the parental osteosarcoma MG63 cells, from which 3AB-OS cells have been previously selected. Our results suggest that 3AB-OS cells depend on glycolytic metabolism more strongly than MG63 cells. Indeed, growth in glucose shortage or in presence of galactose or pyruvate (mitochondrial specific substrates) leads to a significant reduction of their proliferation compared to MG63 cells. Accordingly, 3AB-OS cells show an increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and a larger accumulation of lactate in the culture medium. In line with these findings 3AB-OS cells as compared to MG63 cells present a reduced mitochondrial respiration, a stronger sensitivity to glucose depletion or glycolysis inhibition and a lessened sensitivity to oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors. Additionally, in contrast to MG63 cells, 3AB-OS display fragmented mitochondria, which become networked as they grow in glucose-rich medium, while almost entirely loose these structures growing in low glucose. Overall, our findings suggest that 3AB-OS CSC energy metabolism is more similar to normal stem cells and to cancer cells characterized by a glycolytic anaerobic metabolism.

  17. Evidence that high-migration drug-surviving MOLT4 leukemia cells exhibit cancer stem cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Meng; Jin, Yujie; Deng, Chaohua; Xu, Hui; An, Changqing; Hao, Ling; Yang, Xiangyong; Deng, Xinzhou; Tu, Zhenbo; Li, Xinran; Xiao, Ruijing; Zhang, Qiuping

    2016-07-01

    Leukemia represents a spectrum of hematological malignancies threatening human health. Resistance to treatments and metastasis of leukemia are the main causes of death in patients. Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are the initiating cells of leukemia as well as the main source of drug resistance, invasion and metastasis. Consequently, eliminating LSCs is a prerequisite to eradicate leukemia. Preliminary studies in our laboratory have shown that chemokines and their related receptors play an important role in the drug resistance and metastasis of leukemic cells. In this study, we obtained high migration drug-surviving (short term) MOLT4 cells (hMDSCs-MOLT4) with treatment of doxorubicin (DOX) after Transwell assay. Then we detected stem cell-associated molecular markers on hMDSCs-MOLT4 cells and the parental MOLT4 cells by FCM, QPCR, western blotting, H&E staining and immunohisto-chemistry experimental techniques in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we explored its impact on drug resistance and tumor formation. Then we found that compared with the parental MOLT4 cells, the mRNA expression levels of stem cell-related factors Sox2, Oct4, C-myc, Klf4, Nanog, Bmi-1, CXCR4 are increased in hMDSCs-MOLT4 cells, together with the protein expression levels of Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, Nanog, CXCR4 and CD34. Our results indicated that hMDSCs-MOLT4 cells exhibited strong drug resistance and certain cancer stem cell-like characteristics. It is the first indication that the targeting stemness factors such as Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, Nanog and CXCR4 may represent plausible options for eliminating T-ALL stem-like cells. The present findings shed light on the relationship between drug-tolerant leukemic cells and cancer stem cells.

  18. Differentiation of rat iPS cells and ES cells into granulosa cell-like cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zhang; Hui Li; Zhao Wu; XiaoJun Tan; Fengying Liu; Xianghong Huang; Xiaoling Fang

    2013-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is an ovarian defect characterized by the premature depletion of ovarian follicles before 40 years of age,representing one major cause of female infertility.Stem cells provide the possibility of a potential treatment for POF.In this study,rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were co-cultured with granulosa cells (GCs) to differentiate to GC-like cells.The level of estradiol (E2) analyzed by radioimmunoassay showed that the E2 concentration of the culture supernatant of co-cultured rat iPSCs and ESCs increased in a time-dependent manner,compared with the GCs group that has an opposite trend.The expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) was confirmed by immunostaining.These results indicated that rat iPSCs and ESCs were effectively induced to GC-like cells through indirect cell-to-cell contact.Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression level of marker genes in POF,including BMP15,FMR1,FSHR,INHA,AMH,NOBOX,FOXO3,EIF2B,FIGLA,and GDF9.The BMP15,FSHR,INHA,AMH,NOBOX,and GDF9 genes were significantly up-regulated in iPSCs and ESCs cocultured with GCs in comparison with ceils that were not co-cultured.Thus,here we demonstrated an available method to differentiate rat iPSCs and ESCs into GC-like cells in vitro for the possible cell therapy of POF.

  19. Research on Isolation and Clone of Embryonic Stem Cell-Like in Bovine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; YANG Qi; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; YANG Chun-rong; LEI An-min; GAO Zhi-min; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai

    2002-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cell would be invaluable for researching the aspect of animal cloning, production transgenic animal and discussion of gene function in vitro. With the object of establishing an effective culture system for isolation and clone of bovine pluripotent stem cell, we cultured bovine embryos and mouse embryos including morula blastula and hatached blastula and obtained animal ICM on Primary marine embryonic fibroblast (Primary murine embryonic fibroblast, PMEF) feeder layer with tissue medium(DMEM supplemented with 15ml/100ml NBS ,0.1μmol/L Na2SeO3, 0. 1mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol, 1 000ng/ml LIF,10 ng/ml IGF, 1mmol/L necessary amino acid and 1mmol/L L-glutamine), then, we obtained mouse ICM and bovine ICM. Moreover, we isolated and cloned the 6 passage bovine ES like cells(12 cell lines) and 9 passage marine ES like cells (52 cell lines) deriving from bovine ICM and murine ICM respectively on the feeder layer of PMEF by disaggregating ICM and ES cell clones of bovine and murine into smaller clumps through digesting with 0. 125g/100ml trypsin and 0.02g/100ml EDTA and scattering with a glass needle. The pluripotency of both murine and bovine ES like cells was identified with morphological character, histochemistry identification, karyotype analysis and differentiation of ES cells in vitro or in vivo. This result showed that bovine embryonic stem cell and murine embryonic stem cell had developmental pluripotency.

  20. The C. elegans engrailed homolog ceh-16 regulates the self-renewal expansion division of stem cell-like seam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinxin; Tian, E; Xu, Yanhua; Zhang, Hong

    2009-09-15

    Stem cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric division to maintain the dynamic equilibrium of the stem cell pool and also to generate a variety of differentiated cells. The homeostatic mechanism controlling the choice between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is poorly understood. We show here that ceh-16, encoding the C. elegans ortholog of the transcription factor Engrailed, controls symmetric and asymmetric division of stem cell-like seam cells. Loss of function of ceh-16 causes certain seam cells, which normally undergo symmetric self-renewal expansion division with both daughters adopting the seam cell fate, to divide asymmetrically with only one daughter retaining the seam cell fate. The human engrailed homolog En2 functionally substitutes the role of ceh-16 in promoting self-renewal expansion division of seam cells. Loss of function of apr-1, encoding the C. elegans homolog of the Wnt signaling component APC, results in transformation of self-renewal maintenance seam cell division to self-renewal expansion division, leading to seam cell hyperplasia. The apr-1 mutation suppresses the seam cell division defect in ceh-16 mutants. Our study reveals that ceh-16 interacts with the Wnt signaling pathway to control the choice between self-renewal expansion and maintenance division and also demonstrates an evolutionarily conserved function of engrailed in promoting cell proliferation.

  1. Rad6 upregulation promotes stem cell-like characteristics and platinum resistance in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasagara, Ranganatha R.; Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Spencer, Sebastian M.; Clark, David W.; Barnett, Reagan; Bachaboina, Lavanya; Scalici, Jennifer; Rocconi, Rodney P.; Piazza, Gary A.; Palle, Komaraiah

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most deadly cancer in women in the United States and despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments survival rates have not significantly improved in decades. The poor prognosis for ovarian cancer patients is largely due to the extremely high (80%) recurrence rate of ovarian cancer and because the recurrent tumors are often resistant to the widely utilized platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, expression of Rad6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, was found to strongly correlate with ovarian cancer progression. Furthermore, in ovarian cancer cells Rad6 was found to stabilize β-catenin promoting stem cell-related characteristics, including expression of stem cell markers and anchorage-independent growth. Cancer stem cells can promote chemoresistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis, all of which are limiting factors in treating ovarian cancer. Thus it is significant that Rad6 overexpression led to increased resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin and correlated with tumor cell invasion. These findings show the importance of Rad6 in ovarian cancer and emphasize the need for further studies of Rad6 as a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26679603

  2. Neurospheres from rat adipose-derived stem cells could be induced into functional Schwann cell-like cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yanchang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schwann cells (SC which are myelin-forming cells in peripheral nervous system are very useful for the treatment of diseases of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient large number of SC for clinical use, so alternative cell systems are desired. Results Using a procedure similar to the one used for propagation of neural stem cells, we could induce rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC into floating neurospheres. In addition to being able to differentiate into neuronal- and glial-like cells, neurospheres could be induced to differentiate into SC-like cells. SC-like cells were bi- or tri-polar in shape and immunopositive for nestin and SC markers p75, GFAP and S-100, identical to genuine SC. We also found that SC-like cells could induce the differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells efficiently, perhaps through secretion of soluble substances. We showed further that SC-like cells could form myelin structures with PC12 cell neurites in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ADSC could differentiate into SC-like cells in terms of morphology, phenotype and functional capacities. SC-like cells induced from ADSC may be useful for the treatment of neurological diseases.

  3. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Dominik [Research Group Molecular Neuro-Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard [Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Naujokat, Cord, E-mail: cord.naujokat@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-04-16

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  4. Accurate Classification of Germinal Center B-Cell-Like/Activated B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Using a Simple and Rapid Reverse Transcriptase-Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Assay: A CALYM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Bagacean, Cristina; Marchand, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Figeac, Martin; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Molina, Thierry Jo; Fest, Thierry; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Leroy, Karen; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-04-09

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is subdivided into germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like subtypes. Unfortunately, these lymphomas are difficult to differentiate in routine diagnosis, impeding the development of treatments. Patients with these lymphomas can benefit from specific therapies. We therefore developed a simple and rapid classifier based on a reverse transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and 14 gene signatures. Compared with the Affymetrix U133+2 gold standard, all 46 samples (95% CI, 92%-100%) of a validation cohort classified by both techniques were attributed to the expected subtype. Similarly, 93% of the 55 samples (95% CI, 82%-98%) of a second independent series characterized with a mid-throughput gene expression profiling method were classified correctly. Unclassifiable sample proportions reached 13.2% and 13.8% in these cohorts, comparable with the frequency originally reported. The developed assay was also sensitive enough to obtain reliable results from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and flexible enough to include prognostic factors such as MYC/BCL2 co-expression. Finally, in a series of 135 patients, both overall (P = 0.01) and progression-free (P = 0.004) survival differences between the two subtypes were confirmed. Because the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method is already in use and requires only common instruments and reagents, it could easily be applied to clinical trial patient stratification to help in treatment decisions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Liposomal Formulation for Delivering Anticancer Drug to Breast Cancer Stem-Cell-Like Cells and its Pharmacokinetics in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ajaz; Mondal, Sujan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2016-03-07

    The objective of the present study is to develop a liposomal formulation for delivering anticancer drug to breast cancer stem-cell-like cells, ANV-1, and evaluate its pharmacokinetics in an animal model. The anticancer drug ESC8 was used in dexamethasone (Dex)-associated liposome (DX) to form ESC8-entrapped liposome named DXE. ANV-1 cells showed high-level expression of NRP-1. To enhance tumor regression, we additionally adapted to codeliver the NRP-1 shRNA-encoded plasmid using the established DXE liposome. In vivo efficacy of DXE-NRP-1 was carried out in mice bearing ANV-1 cells as xenograft tumors and the extent of tumor growth inhibition was evaluated by tumor-size measurement. A significant difference in tumor volume started to reveal between DXE-NRP-1 group and DXE-Control group. DXE-NRP-1 group showed ∼4 folds and ∼2.5 folds smaller tumor volume than exhibited by untreated and DXE-Control-treated groups, respectively. DXE disposition was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats following an intraperitoneal dose (3.67 mg/kg of ESC8 in DXE). The plasma concentrations of ESC8 in the DXE formulation were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental analysis. ESC8 had a half-life of 11.01 ± 0.29 h, clearance of 2.10 ± 3.63 L/kg/h, and volume of distribution of 33.42 ± 0.83 L/kg. This suggests that the DXE liposome formulation could be administered once or twice daily for therapeutic efficacy. In overall, we developed a potent liposomal formulation with favorable pharmacokinetic and tumor regressing profile that could sensitize and kill highly aggressive and drug-resistive cancer stem-cell-like cells.

  6. Caulobacter chromosome in vivo configuration matches model predictions for a supercoiled polymer in a cell-like confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Sun-Hae; Toro, Esteban; Mortensen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    is the contour length, and cell-to-cell distribution of the interloci distance r is a universal function of r/n0.22 with broad cell-to-cell variability. For DNA segments greater than about 300 kb, the mean interloci distances scale as n, in agreement with previous observations. The 0.22 value of the scaling......We measured the distance between fluorescent-labeled DNA loci of various interloci contour lengths in Caulobacter crescentus swarmer cells to determine the in vivo configuration of the chromosome. For DNA segments less than about 300 kb, the mean interloci distances, 〈r〉, scale as n0.22, where n...... exponent for short DNA segments is consistent with theoretical predictions for a branched DNA polymer structure. Predictions from Brownian dynamics simulations of the packing of supercoiled DNA polymers in an elongated cell-like confinement are also consistent with a branched DNA structure, and simulated...

  7. ID3 contributes to the acquisition of molecular stem cell-like signature in microvascular endothelial cells: its implication for understanding microvascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta K; Voelkel, Norbert F; Felty, Quentin

    2015-03-01

    While significant progress has been made to advance our knowledge of microvascular lesion formation, yet the investigation of how stem-like cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of microvascular diseases is still in its infancy. We assessed whether the inhibitor of DNA binding and differentiation 3 (ID3) contributes to the acquisition of a molecular stem cell-like signature in microvascular endothelial cells. The effects of stable ID3 overexpression and SU5416 treatment - a chemical inducer of microvascular lesions, had on the stemness signature were determined by flow cytometry, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry. Continuous ID3 expression produced a molecular stemness signature consisting of CD133(+) VEGFR3(+) CD34(+) cells. Cells exposed to SU5416 showed positive protein expression of ID3, VEGFR3, CD34 and increased expression of pluripotent transcription factors Oct-4 and Sox-2. ID3 overexpressing cells supported the formation of a 3-D microvascular lesion co-cultured with smooth muscle cells. In addition, in vivo microvascular lesions from SuHx rodent model showed an increased expression of ID3, VEGFR3, and Pyk2 similar to SU5416 treated human endothelial cells. Further investigations into how normal and stem-like cells utilize ID3 may open up new avenues for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms which are underlying the pathological development of microvascular diseases.

  8. LIN28B Activation by PRL-3 Promotes Leukemogenesis and a Stem Cell-like Transcriptional Program in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianbiao; Chan, Zit-Liang; Bi, Chonglei; Lu, Xiao; Chong, Phyllis S Y; Chooi, Jing-Yuan; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Ching, Ying Qing; Zhou, Yafeng; Osato, Motomi; Tan, Tuan Zea; Ng, Chin Hin; Ng, Siok-Bian; Wang, Shi; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee-Joo

    2017-03-01

    PRL-3 (PTP4A3), a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is also upregulated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor prognosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, constitutive expression of PRL-3 in human AML cells sustains leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, PRL-3 phosphatase activity dependently upregulates LIN28B, a stem cell reprogramming factor, which in turn represses the let-7 mRNA family, inducing a stem cell-like transcriptional program. Notably, elevated levels of LIN28B protein independently associate with worse survival in AML patients. Thus, these results establish a novel signaling axis involving PRL-3/LIN28B/let-7, which confers stem cell-like properties to leukemia cells that is important for leukemogenesis.Implications: The current study offers a rationale for targeting PRL-3 as a therapeutic approach for a subset of AML patients with poor prognosis. Mol Cancer Res; 15(3); 294-303. ©2016 AACR.

  9. Loss of PRDM1/BLIMP-1 function contributes to poor prognosis for activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Y; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Tzankov, A

    2017-01-01

    PRDM1/BLIMP-1, a master regulator of plasma-cell differentiation, is frequently inactivated in activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Little is known about its genetic aberrations and relevant clinical implications. A large series of patients with de novo DLBC...

  10. Multipotent Neural Crest Stem Cell-Like Cells from Rat Vibrissa Dermal Papilla Induce Neuronal Differentiation of PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs transplants have been approved for treating central nervous system (CNS injuries and diseases; however, their clinical applications are limited. Here, we model the therapeutic potential of dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vitro. DPCs were isolated from rat vibrissae and characterized by immunocytofluorescence, RT-PCR, and multidifferentiation assays. We examined whether these cells could secrete neurotrophic factors (NTFs by using cocultures of rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 with conditioned medium and ELISA assay. DPCs expressed Sox10, P75, Nestin, Sox9, and differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and neurons under specific inducing conditions. The DPC-conditioned medium (DPC-CM induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and promoted neurite outgrowth. Results of ELISA assay showed that compared to BMSCs, DPCs secreted more brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Moreover, we observed that, compared with the total DPC population, sphere-forming DPCs expressed higher levels of Nestin and P75 and secreted greater amounts of GDNF. The DPCs from craniofacial hair follicle papilla may be a new and promising source for treating CNS injuries and diseases.

  11. Simultaneous Expression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Cancer-Associated Fibroblast-Like Properties in a Primary Culture of Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Shirai, Takuma; Takamatsu, Kazuhiko; Kunihiro, Shiori; Ishii, Hirokazu [Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Nishikata, Takahito, E-mail: nisikata@konan-u.ac.jp [Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Frontier Institute for Biomolecular Engineering Research (FIBER), Konan University, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-31

    The importance of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in cancer biology has been recently highlighted owing to their critical roles in cancer growth, progression, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. We have previously established a primary culture of breast cancer cells, which showed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like properties. In this study, we found that the primary culture also showed CAF-like properties. For example, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) and its downstream genes, nuclear factor-kappa B2 (NF-κB2) and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), and many enzymes involved in glycolysis, such as GAPDH, LDH, PGAM1, and PKM2, were highly overexpressed in the primary culture. Moreover, media conditioned with the primary culture cells enhanced the growth of breast cancer cells. Similar to previous CAF studies, this enhancement suggested to be occurred through fibroblast growth factor signaling. This MCKH primary culture cell, which showed simultaneous expression of tumorigenic and CAF properties, offers a unique experimental system for studying the biology of CAFs.

  12. Zinc Up-Regulates Insulin Secretion from β Cell-Like Cells Derived from Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Tooth (SHED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuyoup; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Pae, Eung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) offer several advantages over other stem cell sources. Using SHED, we examined the roles of zinc and the zinc uptake transporter ZIP8 (Zrt- and irt-like protein 8) while inducing SHED into insulin secreting β cell-like stem cells (i.e., SHED-β cells). We observed that ZIP8 expression increased as SHED differentiated into SHED-β cells, and that zinc supplementation at day 10 increased the levels of most pancreatic β cell markers—particularly Insulin and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). We confirmed that SHED-β cells produce insulin successfully. In addition, we note that zinc supplementation significantly increases insulin secretion with a significant elevation of ZIP8 transporters in SHED-β cells. We conclude that SHED can be converted into insulin-secreting β cell-like cells as zinc concentration in the cytosol is elevated. Insulin production by SHED-β cells can be regulated via modulation of zinc concentration in the media as ZIP8 expression in the SHED-β cells increases. PMID:27983594

  13. Zinc Up-Regulates Insulin Secretion from β Cell-Like Cells Derived from Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Tooth (SHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuyoup Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED offer several advantages over other stem cell sources. Using SHED, we examined the roles of zinc and the zinc uptake transporter ZIP8 (Zrt- and irt-like protein 8 while inducing SHED into insulin secreting β cell-like stem cells (i.e., SHED-β cells. We observed that ZIP8 expression increased as SHED differentiated into SHED-β cells, and that zinc supplementation at day 10 increased the levels of most pancreatic β cell markers—particularly Insulin and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2. We confirmed that SHED-β cells produce insulin successfully. In addition, we note that zinc supplementation significantly increases insulin secretion with a significant elevation of ZIP8 transporters in SHED-β cells. We conclude that SHED can be converted into insulin-secreting β cell-like cells as zinc concentration in the cytosol is elevated. Insulin production by SHED-β cells can be regulated via modulation of zinc concentration in the media as ZIP8 expression in the SHED-β cells increases.

  14. Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hua, Rui-Xi; Du, Yi-Qun; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yu Fang; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2016-09-27

    Mel-18, a polycomb group protein, has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor and be down-regulated in several human cancers including gastric cancer. It was also found that Mel-18 negatively regulates self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study aimed to clarify its role in gastric CSCs and explore the mechanisms. We found that low-expression of Mel-18 was correlated with poor prognosis and negatively correlated with overexpression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Gli1 in 101 gastric cancer tissues. Mel-18 was down-regulated in cultured spheroid cells, which possess CSCs, and overexpression of Mel-18 inhibits cells sphere-forming ability and tumor growth in vivo. Besides, Mel-18 was lower-expressed in ovary metastatic lesions compared with that in primary lesions of gastric cancer, and Mel-18 overexpression inhibited the migration ability of gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of Mel-18 resulted in down-regulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells and the expression of Mel-18 was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-21 in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, miR-21 overexpression partially restored sphere-forming ability, migration potential and chemo-resistance in Mel-18 overexpressing gastric cancer cells. These results suggests Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells.

  15. Identification of subpopulations in mesenchymal stem cell-like cultures from human umbilical cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majore Ingrida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of cell types can be identified in the adherent fraction of bone marrow mononuclear cells including more primitive and embryonic-like stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, lineage-committed progenitors as well as mature cells such as osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Different methods are described for the isolation of single bone marrow stem cell subpopulations – beginning from ordinary size sieving, long term cultivation under specific conditions to FACS-based approaches. Besides bone marrow-derived subpopulations, also other tissues including human umbilical cord (UC have been recently suggested to provide a potential source for MSC. Although of clinical importance, these UC-derived MSC populations remain to be characterized. It was thus the aim of the present study to identify possible subpopulations in cultures of MSC-like cells obtained from UC. We used counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE as a novel strategy to successfully address this question. Results UC-derived primary cells were separated by CCE and revealed differentially-sized populations in the fractions. Thus, a subpopulation with an average diameter of about 11 μm and a small flat cell body was compared to a large sized subpopulation of about 19 μm average diameter. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of certain MSC stem cell markers including CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, respectively, although these markers were expressed at higher levels in the small-sized population. Moreover, this small-sized subpopulation exhibited a higher proliferative capacity as compared to the total UC-derived primary cultures and the large-sized cells and demonstrated a reduced amount of aging cells. Conclusion Using the CCE technique, we were the first to demonstrate a subpopulation of small-sized UC-derived primary cells carrying MSC-like characteristics according to the presence of various mesenchymal stem cell markers. This is also supported by the

  16. Established thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cell-like cell lines differentiate into mature thymic epithelial cells and support T cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Chen

    Full Text Available Common thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cells (TEPCs differentiate into cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs, which are required for the development and selection of thymocytes. Mature TEC lines have been widely established. However, the establishment of TEPC lines is rarely reported. Here we describe the establishment of thymic epithelial stomal cell lines, named TSCs, from fetal thymus. TSCs express some of the markers present on tissue progenitor/stem cells such as Sca-1. Gene expression profiling verifies the thymic identity of TSCs. RANK stimulation of these cells induces expression of autoimmune regulator (Aire and Aire-dependent tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs in TSCs in vitro. TSCs could be differentiated into medullary thymic epithelial cell-like cells with exogenously expressed NF-κB subunits RelB and p52. Importantly, upon transplantation under the kidney capsules of nude mice, TSCs are able to differentiate into mature TEC-like cells that can support some limited development of T cells in vivo. These findings suggest that the TSC lines we established bear some characteristics of TEPC cells and are able to differentiate into functional TEC-like cells in vitro and in vivo. The cloned TEPC-like cell lines may provide useful tools to study the differentiation of mature TEC cells from precursors.

  17. Long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8+ T cells with a naïve-like profile upon yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Soneson, Charlotte; Cagnon, Laurène; Gannon, Philippe O; Allard, Mathilde; Abed Maillard, Samia; Montandon, Nicole; Rufer, Nathalie; Waldvogel, Sophie; Delorenzi, Mauro; Speiser, Daniel E

    2015-04-08

    Efficient and persisting immune memory is essential for long-term protection from infectious and malignant diseases. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine is a live attenuated virus that mediates lifelong protection, with recent studies showing that the CD8(+) T cell response is particularly robust. Yet, limited data exist regarding the long-term CD8(+) T cell response, with no studies beyond 5 years after vaccination. We investigated 41 vaccinees, spanning 0.27 to 35 years after vaccination. YF-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily detected in almost all donors (38 of 41), with frequencies decreasing with time. As previously described, effector cells dominated the response early after vaccination. We detected a population of naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells that was stably maintained for more than 25 years and was capable of self-renewal ex vivo. In-depth analyses of markers and genome-wide mRNA profiling showed that naïve-like YF-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinees (i) were distinct from genuine naïve cells in unvaccinated donors, (ii) resembled the recently described stem cell-like memory subset (Tscm), and (iii) among all differentiated subsets, had profiles closest to naïve cells. Our findings reveal that CD8(+) Tscm are efficiently induced by a vaccine in humans, persist for decades, and preserve a naïveness-like profile. These data support YF vaccination as an optimal mechanistic model for the study of long-lasting memory CD8(+) T cells in humans.

  18. API5 confers cancer stem cell-like properties through the FGF2-NANOG axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K-H; Cho, H; Kim, S; Lee, H-J; Oh, S J; Woo, S R; Hong, S-O; Jang, H S; Noh, K H; Choi, C H; Chung, J-Y; Hewitt, S M; Kim, J-H; Son, M; Kim, S-H; Lee, B I; Park, H-C; Bae, Y-K; Kim, T W

    2017-01-01

    Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity. Critically, these CSC-like properties mediated by API5 are dependent on FGFR1 signaling, which is triggered by E2F1-dependent FGF2 expression. Furthermore, we uncovered the FGF2-NANOG molecular axis as a downstream component of API5 signaling that is conserved in cervical cancer patients. Finally, we found that the blockade of FGFR signaling is an effective strategy to control API5high human cancer. Thus, our findings reveal a crucial role of API5 in linking immune resistance and CSC-like properties, and provide the rationale for its therapeutic application for the treatment of API5+ refractory tumors. PMID:28092370

  19. Chemopreventive effect of PSP through targeting of prostate cancer stem cell-like population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Sze-Ue; Lee, Terence Kin-Wah; Liu, Ji; Lee, Davy Tak-Wing; Chiu, Yung-Tuen; Ma, Stephanie; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin; Wong, Yong-Chuan; Chan, Franky Leung; Ling, Ming-Tat

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested that prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSC) are responsible for cancer initiation as well as disease progression. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are only effective in targeting the more differentiated cancer cells and spare the CSCs. Here, we report that PSP, an active component extracted from the mushroom Turkey tail (also known as Coriolus versicolor), is effective in targeting prostate CSCs. We found that treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 with PSP led to the down-regulation of CSC markers (CD133 and CD44) in a time and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PSP treatment not only suppressed the ability of PC-3 cells to form prostaspheres under non-adherent culture conditions, but also inhibited their tumorigenicity in vivo, further proving that PSP can suppress prostate CSC properties. To investigate if the anti-CSC effect of PSP may lead to prostate cancer chemoprevention, transgenic mice (TgMAP) that spontaneously develop prostate tumors were orally fed with PSP for 20 weeks. Whereas 100% of the mice that fed with water only developed prostate tumors at the end of experiment, no tumors could be found in any of the mice fed with PSP, suggesting that PSP treatment can completely inhibit prostate tumor formation. Our results not only demonstrated the intriguing anti-CSC effect of PSP, but also revealed, for the first time, the surprising chemopreventive property of oral PSP consumption against prostate cancer.

  20. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; ZENG, ZHAOSHI; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B.; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut ) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer i...

  1. Characterizing cancer cells with cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz Thomas A; Lacerda Lara; Xu Wei; Robertson Fredika; Ueno Naoto T; Lucci Anthony; Landis Melissa D; Rodriguez Angel A; Li Li; Cohen Evan; Gao Hui; Krishnamurthy Savitri; Zhang Xiaomei; Debeb Bisrat G; Cristofanilli Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the first suggestion of prospectively identifiable cancer stem cells in solid tumors, efforts have been made to characterize reported cancer stem cell surrogates in existing cancer cell lines, and cell lines rich with these surrogates have been used to screen for cancer stem cell targeted agents. Although 293T cells were derived from human embryonic kidney, transplantation of these cells into the mammary fat pad yields aggressive tumors that self-renew as evidenced b...

  2. Inhibition of MALT1 protease activity is selectively toxic for activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferch, Uta; Kloo, Bernhard; Gewies, Andreas; Pfänder, Vera; Düwel, Michael; Peschel, Christian; Krappmann, Daniel; Ruland, Jürgen

    2009-10-26

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of lymphoma in humans. The aggressive activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of DLBCL is characterized by constitutive NF-kappaB activity and requires signals from CARD11, BCL10, and the paracaspase MALT1 for survival. CARD11, BCL10, and MALT1 are scaffold proteins that normally associate upon antigen receptor ligation. Signal-induced CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes couple upstream events to IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB activation. MALT1 also possesses a recently recognized proteolytic activity that cleaves and inactivates the negative NF-kappaB regulator A20 and BCL10 upon antigen receptor ligation. Yet, the relevance of MALT1 proteolytic activity for malignant cell growth is unknown. Here, we demonstrate preassembled CBM complexes and constitutive proteolysis of the two known MALT1 substrates in ABC-DLBCL, but not in germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL. ABC-DLBCL cell treatment with a MALT1 protease inhibitor blocks A20 and BCL10 cleavage, reduces NF-kappaB activity, and decreases the expression of NF-kappaB targets genes. Finally, MALT1 paracaspase inhibition results in death and growth retardation selectively in ABC-DLBCL cells. Thus, our results indicate a growth-promoting role for MALT1 paracaspase activity in ABC-DLBCL and suggest that a pharmacological MALT1 protease inhibition could be a promising approach for lymphoma treatment.

  3. Valproic acid inhibits irradiation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell-like characteristics in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Ayako; Ninomiya, Itasu; Harada, Shinichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Okamoto, Koichi; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Sakai, Seisho; Makino, Isamu; Kinoshita, Jun; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Fushida, Sachio; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, and is characterized by poor response to current therapy and a dismal survival rate. In this study we investigated whether irradiation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) TE9 cells and whether the classic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) suppresses these changes. First, we showed that 2 Gy irradiation induced spindle cell-like morphologic changes, decreased expression of membranous E-cadherin, upregulated vimentin expression, and altered the localization of β-catenin from its usual membrane-bound location to cytoplasm in TE9 cells. Irradiation induced upregulation of transcription factors including Slug, Snail, and Twist, which regulate EMT. Stimulation by irradiation resulted in increased TGF-β1 and HIF-1α expression and induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, irradiation enhanced CD44 expression, indicating acquisition of cancer stem-like cell properties. In addition, irradiation enhanced invasion and migration ability with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases. These findings indicate that single-dose irradiation can induce EMT in ESCC cells. Second, we found that treatment with 1 mM VPA induced reversal of EMT caused by irradiation in TE9 cells, resulting in attenuated cell invasion and migration abilities. These results suggest that VPA might have clinical value to suppress irradiation-induced EMT. The reversal of EMT by HDAC inhibitors may be a new therapeutic strategy to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy in ESCC by inhibiting the enhancement of invasion and metastasis.

  4. 6-Shogaol Inhibits Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cell-Like Spheroids by Modulation of Notch Signaling Pathway and Induction of Autophagic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anasuya; Vasudevan, Smreti; Sengupta, Suparna

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) pose a serious obstacle to cancer therapy as they can be responsible for poor prognosis and tumour relapse. In this study, we have investigated inhibitory activity of the ginger-derived compound 6-shogaol against breast cancer cells both in monolayer and in cancer-stem cell-like spheroid culture. The spheroids were generated from adherent breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol was effective in killing both breast cancer monolayer cells and spheroids at doses that were not toxic to noncancerous cells. The percentages of CD44+CD24-/low cells and the secondary sphere content were reduced drastically upon treatment with 6-shogaol confirming its action on CSCs. Treatment with 6-shogaol caused cytoplasmic vacuole formation and cleavage of microtubule associated protein Light Chain3 (LC3) in both monolayer and spheroid culture indicating that it induced autophagy. Kinetic analysis of the LC3 expression and a combination treatment with chloroquine revealed that the autophagic flux instigated cell death in 6-shogaol treated breast cancer cells in contrast to the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-induced cell death got suppressed in the presence of chloroquine and a very low level of apoptosis was exhibited even after prolonged treatment of the compound, suggesting that autophagy is the major mode of cell death induced by 6-shogaol in breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol reduced the expression levels of Cleaved Notch1 and its target proteins Hes1 and Cyclin D1 in spheroids, and the reduction was further pronounced in the presence of a γ-secretase inhibitor. Secondary sphere formation in the presence of the inhibitor was also further reduced by 6-shogaol. Together, these results indicate that the inhibitory action of 6-shogaol on spheroid growth and sustainability is conferred through γ-secretase mediated down-regulation of Notch signaling. The efficacy of 6-shogaol in monolayer and cancer stem cell-like spheroids raise hope for its

  5. Isolation and transplantation of corneal endothelial cell-like cells derived from in-vitro-differentiated human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Pang, Kunpeng; Wu, Xinyi

    2014-06-15

    The maintenance of corneal dehydration and transparency depends on barrier and pump functions of corneal endothelial cells (CECs). The human CECs have no proliferation capacity in vivo and the ability to divide in vitro under culture conditions is dramatically limited. Thus, the acquisition of massive cells analogous to normal human CECs is extremely necessary whether from the perspective of cellular basic research or from clinical applications. Here we report the derivation of CEC-like cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) through the periocular mesenchymal precursor (POMP) phase. Using the transwell coculture system of hESCs with differentiated human corneal stromal cells, we induced hESCs to differentiate into POMPs. Then, CEC-like cells were derived from POMPs with lens epithelial cell-conditioned medium. Within 1 week, CEC-like cells that expressed the corneal endothelium (CE) differentiation marker N-cadherin and transcription factors FoxC1 and Pitx2 were detectable. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based isolation of the N-cadherin/vimentin dual-positive population enriches for CEC-like cells. The isolated CEC-like cells were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFDA SE) and seeded onto posterior acellular porcine corneal matrix lamellae to construct the CEC-like cell sheets. Pump function parameters of the CEC-like cell sheets approximated those of human donor corneas. Importantly, when the CEC-like cell sheets were transplanted into the eyes of rabbit CE dysfunction models, the corneal transparency was restored gradually. In conclusion, CEC-like cells derived from hESCs displayed characteristics of native human CECs. This renewable source of human CECs offers massive cells for further studies of human CEC biological characteristics and potential applications of replacement therapies as substitution for donor CECs in the future.

  6. Derivation and long-term culture of an embryonic stem cell-like line from zebrafish blastomeres under feeder-free condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sing Yee; Goh, Crystal Wei Pin; Gan, Jen Yang; Lee, Youn Sing; Lam, Millie Kuen Kuen; Hong, Ni; Hong, Yunhan; Chan, Woon Khiong; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2014-10-01

    Existing zebrafish embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are derived and maintained using feeder layers. We describe here the derivation and long-term culture of an ES cell-like line derived from zebrafish blastomeres without the use of feeder cells. This line, designated as ZES1, has been maintained for more than 800 days in defined Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, zebrafish embryo extract, trout serum, and human basic fibroblast growth factor. ZES1 cells possessed a morphology typical of ES cells, being round or polygonal in shape with a large nucleus and sparse cytoplasm and were mostly diploid. The cells formed individual colonies consisting of tightly packed cells that stained positively for alkaline phosphatase. ZES1 cells also formed embryoid bodies when transferred onto uncoated wells. The pluripotent nature of ZES1 cells was confirmed when they could be induced to differentiate in vitro into several cell types, through low- or high-density culture conditions. Treatment with retinoic acid also induced the differentiation of ZES1 cells into primarily neuronal cells. Using immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction, we showed that Sox2, a known pluripotent marker in mammalian ES cells, was also present in ZES1 cells. Chimera experiments revealed that fluorescent-labeled ZES1 cells microinjected into zebrafish blastulas participated in the formation of all three germ layers. Using GFP-labeled ZES1 cells, chimera germline transmission was also demonstrated at the F1 generation. In conclusion, ZES1 cells possess both in vitro and in vivo pluripotency characteristics, indicating that nonmammalian ES cells can be readily derived and maintained for a long term under feeder-free culture conditions.

  7. Stem cell-like differentiation potentials of endometrial side population cells as revealed by a newly developed in vivo endometrial stem cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP, but not endometrial main population cells (EMP, exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom, a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo

  8. TNFα enhances cancer stem cell-like phenotype via Notch-Hes1 activation in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hong, Hannah S; Liu, Zi Xiao; Kim, Reuben H; Kang, Mo K; Park, No-Hee; Shin, Ki-Hyuk

    2012-07-20

    Cancer stem-like cell (CSC; also known as tumor initiating cell) is defined as a small subpopulation of cancer cells within a tumor and isolated from various primary tumors and cancer cell lines. CSCs are highly tumorigenic and resistant to anticancer treatments. In this study, we found that prolonged exposure to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a major proinflammatory cytokine, enhances CSC phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, such as an increase in tumor sphere-forming ability, stem cell-associated genes expression, chemo-radioresistance, and tumorigenicity. Moreover, activation of Notch1 signaling was detected in the TNFα-exposed cells, and suppression of Notch1 signaling inhibited CSC phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of a Notch downstream target, Hes1, led to suppression of CSC phenotype in the TNFα-exposed cells. We also found that Hes1 expression is commonly upregulated in OSCC lesions compared to precancerous dysplastic lesions, suggesting the possible involvement of Hes1 in OSCC progression and CSC in vivo. In conclusion, inflammatory cytokine exposure may enhance CSC phenotype of OSCC, in part by activating the Notch-Hes1 pathway.

  9. Potential role of vascular smooth muscle cell-like progenitor cell therapy in the suppression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Sub; Choi, Geum Hee; Hahn, Soli; Yoo, Young Sun; Lee, Ji Youl; Lee, Taeseung

    2013-02-08

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are a growing problem worldwide, yet there is no known medical therapy. The pathogenesis involves degradation of the elastic lamina by two combined mechanisms: increased degradation of elastin by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and decreased formation of elastin due to apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we set out to examine the potential role of stem cells in the attenuation of AAA formation by inhibition of these pathogenetic mechanisms. Muscle-derived stem cells from murine skeletal muscles were isolated and stimulated with PDGF-BB in vitro for differentiation to VSMC-like progenitor cells (VSMC-PC). These cells were implanted in to elastase-induced AAAs in rats. The cell therapy group had decreased rate of aneurysm formation compared to control, and MMP expression at the genetic, protein and enzymatic level were also significantly decreased. Furthermore, direct implantation of VSMC-PCs in the intima of harvested aortas was visualized under immunofluorescent staining, suggesting that these cells were responsible for the inhibition of MMPs and consequent attenuation of AAA formation. These results show a promising role of stem cell therapy for the treatment of AAAs, and with further studies, may be able to reach clinical significance.

  10. ALDH1A1 maintains ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. METHODS: Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780 and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70 as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. RESULTS: ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01. ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1 were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. CONCLUSION: This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

  11. Activated Schwann Cell-Like Cells on Aligned Fibrin-Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Structures: A Novel Construct for Application in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Christina M A P; Morton, Tatjana J; Banerjee, Asmita; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Schmidhammer, Robert; Redl, Heinz; Ruenzler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration search for ways to support gold standard therapy (autologous nerve grafts) and to improve results by bridging nerve defects with different kinds of conduits. In this study, we describe electrospinning of aligned fibrin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers in an attempt to create a biomimicking tissue-like material seeded with Schwann cell-like cells (SCLs) in vitro for potential use as an in vivo scaffold. Rat adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) were differentiated into SCLs and evaluated with flow cytometry concerning their differentiation and activation status [S100b, P75, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and protein 0 (P0)]. After receiving the proliferation stimulus forskolin, SCLs expressed S100b and P75; comparable to native, activated Schwann cells, while cultured without forskolin, cells switched to a promyelinating phenotype and expressed S100b, MAG, and P0. Human fibrinogen and thrombin, blended with PLGA, were electrospun and the alignment and homogeneity of the fibers were proven by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun scaffolds were seeded with SCLs and the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs was evaluated with phalloidin/propidium iodide staining. Carrier fibrin gels containing rASCs acted as a self-shaping matrix to form a tubular structure. In this study, we could show that rASCs can be differentiated into activated, proliferating SCLs and that these cells react to minimal changes in stimulus, switching to a promyelinating phenotype. Aligned electrospun fibrin-PLGA fibers promoted the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs, which also rolled the fibrin-PLGA matrix into a tubular scaffold. These in vitro findings favor further in vivo testing.

  12. Stem cell-like dog placenta cells afford neuroprotection against ischemic stroke model via heat shock protein upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seongjin; Tajiri, Naoki; Franzese, Nick; Franzblau, Max; Bae, Eunkyung; Platt, Simon; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the dog placenta as a viable source of stem cells for stroke therapy. Immunocytochemical evaluation of phenotypic markers of dog placenta cells (DPCs) cultured in proliferation and differentiation medium revealed that DPCs expressed both stem cell and neural cell markers, respectively. Co-culture with DPCs afforded neuroprotection of rat primary neural cells in a dose-dependent manner against oxygen-glucose deprivation. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed that transplantation of DPCs, in particular intravenous and intracerebral cell delivery, produced significant behavioral recovery and reduced histological deficits in ischemic stroke animals compared to those that received intra-arterial delivery of DPCs or control stroke animals. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies implicated elevated expression of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) as a potential mechanism of action underlying the observed therapeutic benefits of DPCs in stroke. This study supports the use of stem cells for stroke therapy and implicates a key role of Hsp27 signaling pathway in neuroprotection.

  13. Environment-responsive fluorescent nucleoside analogue probe for studying oligonucleotide dynamics in a model cell-like compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Maroti G; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2013-11-21

    The majority of fluorescent nucleoside analogue probes that have been used in the in vitro study of nucleic acids are not suitable for cell-based biophysical assays because they exhibit excitation maxima in the UV region and low quantum yields within oligonucleotides. Therefore, we propose that the photophysical characterization of oligonucleotides labeled with a fluorescent nucleoside analogue in reverse micelles (RM), which are good biological membrane models and UV-transparent, could provide an alternative approach to studying the properties of nucleic acids in a cell-like confined environment. In this context, we describe the photophysical properties of an environment-sensitive fluorescent uridine analogue (1), based on the 5-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidine core, in micelles and RM. The emissive nucleoside, which is polarity- and viscosity-sensitive, reports the environment of the surfactant assemblies via changes in its fluorescence properties. The nucleoside analogue, incorporated into an RNA oligonucleotide and hybridized to its complementary DNA and RNA oligonucleotides, exhibits a significantly higher fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and anisotropy in RM than in aqueous buffer, which is consistent with the environment of RM. Collectively, our results demonstrate that nucleoside 1 could be utilized as a fluorescent label to study the function of nucleic acids in a model cellular milieu.

  14. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dental pulp cells possess stem cell like potential and thus may be potential candidates for tissue engineering purposes particularly in the oro-facial region. Successful tissue engineering ideally requires that newly formed bone adapts its mass, shape, and trabecular...... and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation...

  15. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by inflammatory priming elicits mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, M; Zanotto, M; Malpeli, G; Bassi, G; Perbellini, O; Chilosi, M; Bifari, F; Krampera, M

    2015-03-17

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination and may be induced by local inflammation. We asked whether the inflammation-induced acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype by neoplastic epithelial cells is associated with the onset of mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-regulatory properties that may enhance tumour immune escape. Cell lines of lung adenocarcinoma (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were co-cultured with T, B and NK cells before and after EMT induction by either the supernatant of mixed-lymphocyte reactions or inflammatory cytokines. EMT occurrence following inflammatory priming elicited multiple immune-regulatory effects in cancer cells resulting in NK and T-cell apoptosis, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation of regulatory T and B cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, but not Fas ligand pathway, was involved at least in part in these effects, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors. EMT induced by inflammatory stimuli confers to cancer cells some mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties, which could be a cue for cancer progression and metastatic dissemination by favouring immune escape.

  16. Molecular and cellular features of murine craniofacial and trunk neural crest cells as stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kunie; Obayashi, Takeshi; Sakayori, Nobuyuki; Yamanishi, Emiko; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Osumi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Toru; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding differentiation capacities and easier access from adult tissues, cells derived from neural crest cells (NCCs) have fascinated scientists in developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Differentiation potentials of NCCs are known to depend on their originating regions. Here, we report differential molecular features between craniofacial (cNCCs) and trunk (tNCCs) NCCs by analyzing transcription profiles and sphere forming assays of NCCs from P0-Cre/floxed-EGFP mouse embryos. We identified up-regulation of genes linked to carcinogenesis in cNCCs that were not previously reported to be related to NCCs, which was considered to be, an interesting feature in regard with carcinogenic potentials of NCCs such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. Wnt signal related genes were statistically up-regulated in cNCCs, also suggesting potential involvement of cNCCs in carcinogenesis. We also noticed intense expression of mesenchymal and neuronal markers in cNCCs and tNCCs, respectively. Consistent results were obtained from in vitro sphere-forming and differentiation assays. These results were in accordance with previous notion about differential potentials of cNCCs and tNCCs. We thus propose that sorting NCCs from P0-Cre/floxed-EGFP mice might be useful for the basic and translational research of NCCs. Furthermore, these newly-identified genes up-regulated in cNCC would provide helpful information on NC-originating tumors, developmental disorders in NCC derivatives, and potential applications of NCCs in regenerative medicine.

  17. 6-Shogaol Inhibits Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cell-Like Spheroids by Modulation of Notch Signaling Pathway and Induction of Autophagic Cell Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasuya Ray

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs pose a serious obstacle to cancer therapy as they can be responsible for poor prognosis and tumour relapse. In this study, we have investigated inhibitory activity of the ginger-derived compound 6-shogaol against breast cancer cells both in monolayer and in cancer-stem cell-like spheroid culture. The spheroids were generated from adherent breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol was effective in killing both breast cancer monolayer cells and spheroids at doses that were not toxic to noncancerous cells. The percentages of CD44+CD24-/low cells and the secondary sphere content were reduced drastically upon treatment with 6-shogaol confirming its action on CSCs. Treatment with 6-shogaol caused cytoplasmic vacuole formation and cleavage of microtubule associated protein Light Chain3 (LC3 in both monolayer and spheroid culture indicating that it induced autophagy. Kinetic analysis of the LC3 expression and a combination treatment with chloroquine revealed that the autophagic flux instigated cell death in 6-shogaol treated breast cancer cells in contrast to the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-induced cell death got suppressed in the presence of chloroquine and a very low level of apoptosis was exhibited even after prolonged treatment of the compound, suggesting that autophagy is the major mode of cell death induced by 6-shogaol in breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol reduced the expression levels of Cleaved Notch1 and its target proteins Hes1 and Cyclin D1 in spheroids, and the reduction was further pronounced in the presence of a γ-secretase inhibitor. Secondary sphere formation in the presence of the inhibitor was also further reduced by 6-shogaol. Together, these results indicate that the inhibitory action of 6-shogaol on spheroid growth and sustainability is conferred through γ-secretase mediated down-regulation of Notch signaling. The efficacy of 6-shogaol in monolayer and cancer stem cell-like spheroids raise

  18. Adenoviral overexpression of Lhx2 attenuates cell viability but does not preserve the stem cell like phenotype of hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genz, Berit [Institute for Experimental Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock (Germany); Thomas, Maria [Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (Germany); Pützer, Brigitte M. [Institute of Experimental Gene Therapy and Cancer Research, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock (Germany); Siatkowski, Marcin; Fuellen, Georg [Institute for Biostatistics and Informatics in Medicine and Ageing Research, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock (Germany); Vollmar, Brigitte [Institute for Experimental Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock (Germany); Abshagen, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.abshagen@uni-rostock.de [Institute for Experimental Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are well known initiators of hepatic fibrosis. After liver cell damage, HSC transdifferentiate into proliferative myofibroblasts, representing the major source of extracellular matrix in the fibrotic organ. Recent studies also demonstrate a role of HSC as progenitor or stem cell like cells in liver regeneration. Lhx2 is described as stem cell maintaining factor in different organs and as an inhibitory transcription factor in HSC activation. Here we examined whether a continuous expression of Lhx2 in HSC could attenuate their activation and whether Lhx2 could serve as a potential target for antifibrotic gene therapy. Therefore, we evaluated an adenoviral mediated overexpression of Lhx2 in primary HSC and investigated mRNA expression patterns by qRT-PCR as well as the activation status by different in vitro assays. HSC revealed a marked increase in activation markers like smooth muscle actin alpha (αSMA) and collagen 1α independent from adenoviral transduction. Lhx2 overexpression resulted in attenuated cell viability as shown by a slightly hampered migratory and contractile phenotype of HSC. Expression of stem cell factors or signaling components was also unaffected by Lhx2. Summarizing these results, we found no antifibrotic or stem cell maintaining effect of Lhx2 overexpression in primary HSC. - Highlights: • We performed adenoviral overexpression of Lhx2 in primary hepatic stellate cells. • Hepatic stellate cells expressed stem cell markers during cultivation. • Cell migration and contractility was slightly hampered upon Lhx2 overexpression. • Lhx2 overexpression did not affect stem cell character of hepatic stellate cells.

  19. CD4-Transgenic Zebrafish Reveal Tissue-Resident Th2- and Regulatory T Cell-like Populations and Diverse Mononuclear Phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Christopher T; Nagaraju, Raghavendar T; Athanasiadis, Emmanouil I; Gray, Caroline; Fernandez Del Ama, Laura; Johnston, Simon A; Secombes, Christopher J; Cvejic, Ana; Hurlstone, Adam F L

    2016-11-01

    CD4(+) T cells are at the nexus of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of CD4(+) T cells, and it is unclear whether their differentiation into specialized subsets is conserved in early vertebrates. In this study, we have created transgenic zebrafish with vibrantly labeled CD4(+) cells allowing us to scrutinize the development and specialization of teleost CD4(+) leukocytes in vivo. We provide further evidence that CD4(+) macrophages have an ancient origin and had already emerged in bony fish. We demonstrate the utility of this zebrafish resource for interrogating the complex behavior of immune cells at cellular resolution by the imaging of intimate contacts between teleost CD4(+) T cells and mononuclear phagocytes. Most importantly, we reveal the conserved subspecialization of teleost CD4(+) T cells in vivo. We demonstrate that the ancient and specialized tissues of the gills contain a resident population of il-4/13b-expressing Th2-like cells, which do not coexpress il-4/13a Additionally, we identify a contrasting population of regulatory T cell-like cells resident in the zebrafish gut mucosa, in marked similarity to that found in the intestine of mammals. Finally, we show that, as in mammals, zebrafish CD4(+) T cells will infiltrate melanoma tumors and obtain a phenotype consistent with a type 2 immune microenvironment. We anticipate that this unique resource will prove invaluable for future investigation of T cell function in biomedical research, the development of vaccination and health management in aquaculture, and for further research into the evolution of adaptive immunity.

  20. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dental pulp cells possess stem cell like potential and thus may be potential candidates for tissue engineering purposes particularly in the oro-facial region. Successful tissue engineering ideally requires that newly formed bone adapts its mass, shape, and trabecular...... and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...

  1. Snail-induced EMT promotes cancer stem cell-like properties in head and neck cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OTA, ICHIRO; MASUI, TAKASHI; KURIHARA, MIYAKO; YOOK, JONG-IN; MIKAMI, SHINJI; KIMURA, TAKAHIRO; SHIMADA, KEIJI; KONISHI, NOBORU; YANE, KATSUNARI; YAMANAKA, TOSHIAKI; KITAHARA, TADASHI

    .... We demonstrated that Snail is one of the master regulators that promotes EMT and mediates cancer cell migration and invasion in many types of malignancies including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC...

  2. Doublecortin-like kinase 1 exhibits cancer stem cell-like characteristics in a human colon cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianna Li; Charles F.Bellows

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) are implicated in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis,metastasis,and therapeutic resistance.The identification of these cells could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies.Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) has been viewed as a marker for gastrointestinal stem cells that fuel the self-renewal process,however others view them as a marker of Tuft cells or as an enteroendocrine subtype.The purpose of this study was to use a colon cancer cell line to identify and characterize the stem-like characteristics of the DCLK1+ cell population.Methods:To enrich stem-like cells,HCT116 cells (derived from colon adenocarcinomas) were cultured using serum-free media to form spheres under both normal oxygen and hypoxia condition.DCLK1 transcript expression in the adherent parental cells and spheroids was quantified using quantitative real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [(q)RT-PCR].DCLK1 protein expression was determined using flow cytometry.Self-renewal capability from adherent parental cells and spheroids was determined using extreme limiting dilution analysis (ELDA).Results:Under both normal oxygen and hypoxia condition,the adherent parental cells were composed of cells that express low levels of DCLK1.However,spheroids exhibited an increased frequency of cells expressing DCLK1 on both mRNA and protein levels.Cells derived from spheroids also possess stronger self-renewal capability.Conclusions:The higher fraction of DCLK1+ cells exhibited by spheroids and hypoxia reflects the stemlike characteristics of these cells.DCLK1 may represent an ideal marker to study and develop effective strategies to overcome chemo-resistance and relapse of colon cancer.

  3. Role of the planar cell polarity pathway in regulating ectopic hair cell-like cells induced by Math1 and testosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Kai; Ma, Rui; Yang, Juan-Mei; Luo, Wen-Wei; Han, Zhao; Cong, Ning; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-07-30

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates cochlear extension and coordinates orientation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Retroviral-mediated introduction of the Math1 transcription factor leads to the transdifferentiation of some mature supporting cells into hair cells. Testosterone, a gonadal sex steroid hormone, is associated with neuroprotection and regeneration in Central Nervous System (CNS) development. Experiments were performed in vitro using Ad5-EGFP-Math1/Ad5-Math1 in neonatal mouse cochleas. Establishment of ectopic hair-cell like cell(HCLC) polarity in the lesser epithelial ridge (LER) with or without testosterone-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime bovine serum albumin (testosterone-BSA) treatment was investigated to determine the role of the PCP pathway in regulating ectopic regenerated (HCLCs) through induction by Math1 and testosterone treatment. After Math1 infection, new ectopic regenerated HCLCs were detected in the LER. After the HCLCs developed actin-rich stereocilia, the basal bodies moved from the center to the distal side. Moreover, the narrower, non-sensory LER region meant that the convergent extension (CE) was also established after transfection with Math1. After 9 days of in vitro testosterone-BSA treatment, more Edu(+), Sox2(+), and HCLC cells were observed in the LER with an accompanying downregulation of E-cadherin. Interestingly, the CE of the Ad5-EGFP-math1 treated LER is altered, but the intrinsic cellular polarity of the HCLCs is not obviously changed. In summary, our results indicate that PCP signaling is involved in the development of ectopic HCLCs and the CE of the ectopic sensory region is altered by testosterone-BSA through downregulation of cell-cell adhesion. Testosterone-BSA and Math1 treatment could promote an increase in HCLCs in the LER through proliferation and transdifferentiation.

  4. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Maturation Process of β-Cell-Like Cells Obtained from an Optimized Differentiation Protocol of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, Daniela; López-Beas, Javier; Lachaud, Christian C.; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Smani, Tarik; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Soria, Bernat

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) retain the extraordinary capacity to differentiate into different cell types of an adult organism, including pancreatic β-cells. For this particular lineage, although a lot of effort has been made in the last ten years to achieve an efficient and reproducible differentiation protocol, it was not until recently that this aim was roughly accomplished. Besides, several studies evidenced the impact of resveratrol (RSV) on insulin secretion, even though the mechanism by which this polyphenol potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is still not clear. The aim of this study was to optimize an efficient differentiation protocol that mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis and to investigate whether RSV may improve the final maturation step to obtain functional insulin-secreting cells. Our results indicate that treatment of hESCs (HS-181) with activin-A induced definitive endoderm differentiation as detected by the expression of SOX17 and FOXA2. Addition of retinoic acid (RA), Noggin and Cyclopamine promoted pancreatic differentiation as indicated by the expression of the early pancreatic progenitor markers ISL1, NGN3 and PDX1. Moreover, during maturation in suspension culture, differentiating cells assembled in islet-like clusters, which expressed specific endocrine markers such as PDX1, SST, GCG and INS. Similar results were confirmed with the human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) line MSUH-001. Finally, differentiation protocols incorporating RSV treatment yielded numerous insulin-positive cells, induced significantly higher PDX1 expression and were able to transiently normalize glycaemia when transplanted in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice thus promoting its survival. In conclusion, our strategy allows the efficient differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic endoderm capable of generating β-cell-like cells and demonstrates that RSV improves the maturation process. PMID:25774684

  5. Menstrual blood cells display stem cell-like phenotypic markers and exert neuroprotection following transplantation in experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlongan, Cesar V; Kaneko, Yuji; Maki, Mina; Yu, Seong-Jin; Ali, Mohammed; Allickson, Julie G; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2010-04-01

    Cell therapy remains an experimental treatment for neurological disorders. A major obstacle in pursuing the clinical application of this therapy is finding the optimal cell type that will allow benefit to a large patient population with minimal complications. A cell type that is a complete match of the transplant recipient appears as an optimal scenario. Here, we report that menstrual blood may be an important source of autologous stem cells. Immunocytochemical assays of cultured menstrual blood reveal that they express embryonic-like stem cell phenotypic markers (Oct4, SSEA, Nanog), and when grown in appropriate conditioned media, express neuronal phenotypic markers (Nestin, MAP2). In order to test the therapeutic potential of these cells, we used the in vitro stroke model of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and found that OGD-exposed primary rat neurons that were co-cultured with menstrual blood-derived stem cells or exposed to the media collected from cultured menstrual blood exhibited significantly reduced cell death. Trophic factors, such as VEGF, BDNF, and NT-3, were up-regulated in the media of OGD-exposed cultured menstrual blood-derived stem cells. Transplantation of menstrual blood-derived stem cells, either intracerebrally or intravenously and without immunosuppression, after experimentally induced ischemic stroke in adult rats also significantly reduced behavioral and histological impairments compared to vehicle-infused rats. Menstrual blood-derived cells exemplify a source of "individually tailored" donor cells that completely match the transplant recipient, at least in women. The present neurostructural and behavioral benefits afforded by transplanted menstrual blood-derived cells support their use as a stem cell source for cell therapy in stroke.

  6. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J.V.; Jonker, M.J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have de

  7. Snail-induced EMT promotes cancer stem cell-like properties in head and neck cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ichiro; Masui, Takashi; Kurihara, Miyako; Yook, Jong-In; Mikami, Shinji; Kimura, Takahiro; Shimada, Keiji; Konishi, Noboru; Yane, Katsunari; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Furthermore, EMT can induce a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype in a number of tumor types. We demonstrated that Snail is one of the master regulators that promotes EMT and mediates cancer cell migration and invasion in many types of malignancies including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, we investigated the role of Snail in inducing and maintaining CSC-like properties through EMT in HNSCC. We established HNSCC cell lines transfected with Snail. Stem cell markers were evaluated with real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. CSC properties were assessed using sphere formation and WST-8 assays as well as chemosensitivity and chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo invasion assays. Introduction of Snail induced EMT properties in HNSCC cells. Moreover, Snail-induced EMT maintained the CSC-like phenotype, and enhanced sphere formation capability, chemoresistance and invasive ability. These data suggest that Snail could be one of the critical molecular targets for the development of therapeutic strategies for HNSCC.

  8. Essential role of MALT1 protease activity in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Lenz, Georg; Ngo, Vu; Posvitz-Fejfar, Anita; Rebeaud, Fabien; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Penas, Eva-Maria Murga; Dierlamm, Judith; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Thome, Margot

    2009-01-01

    A key element for the development of suitable anti-cancer drugs is the identification of cancer-specific enzymatic activities that can be therapeutically targeted. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue transformation protein 1 (MALT1) is a proto-oncogene that contributes to tumorigenesis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, the least curable subtype of DLBCL. Recent data suggest that MALT1 has proteolytic activity, but it is unknown whether this activity...

  9. Ex vivo generation of interstitial and Langerhans cell-like dendritic cell subset-based vaccines for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutten, Tim; Thordardottir, Soley; Hobo, Willemijn; Hübel, Jessica; van der Waart, Anniek B; Cany, Jeannette; Dolstra, Harry; Hangalapura, Basav N

    2014-06-01

    Autologous, patient-specific, monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) vaccines have been successfully applied in the clinical studies so far. However, the routine application of this strategy has been hampered by the difficulties in generating sufficient numbers of DC and the poor DC vaccine quality because of pathology or prior treatment received by the patients. The immunotherapeutic potential of other subsets of DC has not been thoroughly investigated because of their rarity in tissues and difficulties associated with their ex vivo generation. The high expansion and differentiation potential of CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB), into different DC subsets make them an attractive alternative DC source for cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to generate a large number of different DC subsets from CD34 HPC and evaluate their functionality in comparison with MoDC. Our culture protocol generated a clinically relevant number of mature CD1a myeloid DC and CD207 Langerhans cells (LC)-like DC subsets from CD34 HPC with >95% purity. Both DC subsets exhibited a cytokine profile that favors cytotoxic T-cell responses. Furthermore, UCB-DC and UCB-LC demonstrated superior induction of proliferation of both allogeneic as well as viral antigen-specific CD8 T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies revealed that UCC-DC and UCB-LC can efficiently expand minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA) HA-1-specific cytotoxic T cells in the peripheral blood of leukemia patients and prime MiHA HA-1-specific and HA-2-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro. These preclinical findings support the pharmaceutical development of the described culture protocol for clinical evaluation.

  10. Opposing roles of TGF-β in prostaglandin production by human follicular dendritic cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jongseon; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Seungkoo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2016-08-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are recognized as important immune regulators. Using human follicular dendritic cell (FDC)-like HK cells, we have investigated the immunoregulatory role of PGs and their production mechanisms. The present study was aimed at determining the role of TGF-β in IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by immunoblotting. COX-2 is the key enzyme responsible for PG production in HK cells. TGF-β, when added simultaneously with IL-1β, gave rise to an additive effect on COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. However, TGF-β inhibited IL-1β-stimulated COX-2 expression when it was added at least 12h before IL-1β addition. The inhibitory effect of TGF-β was specific to IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression in HK cells. The stimulating and inhibitory effects of TGF-β were reproduced in IL-1β-stimulated PG production. Based on our previous results of the essential requirement of ERK and p38 MAPKs in TGF-β-induced COX-2 expression, we examined whether the differential activation of these MAPKs would underlie the opposing activities of TGF-β. The phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPKs was indeed enhanced or suppressed by the simultaneous treatment or pre-treatment, respectively. These results suggest that TGF-β exerts opposing effects on IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression in HK cells by differentially regulating activation of ERK and p38 MAPKs.

  11. The C. elegans CBFbeta homolog, BRO-1, regulates the proliferation, differentiation and specification of the stem cell-like seam cell lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Zhang, Yuxia; Huang, Xinxin; Sun, Yinyan; Zhang, Hong

    2007-09-15

    The RUNX/CBFbeta heterodimeric transcription factor plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation in a variety of developmental contexts. Aberrant function of Runx and CBFbeta has been causally related to the development of various diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia, gastric cancer and cleidocranial dysplasia. The underlying mechanism of the RUNX/CBFbeta complex in regulation of cell proliferation is still poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans CBFbeta homolog, bro-1, is essential for the proliferation, differentiation and specification of a row of stem cell-like lineages, called seam cells. BRO-1 forms complex with the C. elegans RUNX homolog, RNT-1, and augments the DNA-binding activity of RNT-1. The RNT-1/BRO-1 complex directly interacts with the C. elegans Groucho homolog, UNC-37, whose loss of function mutations display similar defects in the proliferation of seam cells as those of bro-1 and rnt-1 mutants. Additionally, the defects in seam cell division in bro-1 mutants are substantially rescued by the inactivation of the negative regulators of the G1 to S phase cell cycle progression, including the lin-35 Rb, fzr-1 Cdh1 and cki-1 CIP homologs. Our studies indicate that the transcriptional repression activity of the RNT-1/BRO-1 complex regulates the G1 to S cell cycle progression during seam cell division.

  12. Insights into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Activated B-Cell-like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Its Therapeutic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Georg [Translational Oncology, Department of Medicine A, Albert-Schweitzer Campus 1, University Hospital Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany); Cluster of Excellence EXC 1003, Cells in Motion, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Within the last couple of years, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has significantly improved. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have led to the discovery of several molecularly defined subtypes that are characterized by specific oncogene addictions and significant differences in their outcome. Next generation sequencing efforts combined with RNA interference screens frequently identify crucial oncogenes that lead to constitutive activation of various signaling pathways that drive lymphomagenesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL subtype that is characterized by poor prognosis. A special emphasis is put on findings that might impact therapeutic strategies of affected patients.

  13. Insights into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Activated B-Cell-like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Its Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Lenz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the last couple of years, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL has significantly improved. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have led to the discovery of several molecularly defined subtypes that are characterized by specific oncogene addictions and significant differences in their outcome. Next generation sequencing efforts combined with RNA interference screens frequently identify crucial oncogenes that lead to constitutive activation of various signaling pathways that drive lymphomagenesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the activated B-cell-like (ABC DLBCL subtype that is characterized by poor prognosis. A special emphasis is put on findings that might impact therapeutic strategies of affected patients.

  14. Wogonin suppresses stem cell-like traits of CD133 positive osteosarcoma cell via inhibiting matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Do Luong; Kwon, Taeho; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Sharma, Neelesh; Gera, Meeta; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Kim, Nameun; Kim Cho, Somi; Lee, Dong Sun; Park, Yang Ho; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2017-06-12

    Several efforts have been deployed to cure osteosarcoma, a high-grade malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents. However, some challenges such as drug resistance, relapse, and tumour metastasis remain owing to the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC). There is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and safe therapies. Wogonin, an extract from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been considered as a promising natural and safe compound for anti-tumourigenesis, particularly to inhibit tumour invasion and metastasis. Hoechst 33,342 staining, wound healing assay, sphere formation assay, western blotting, and gelatin zymography assays were performed in CD133 positive osteosarcoma cell. In this study, we examined the effect of Wogonin on the mobility of human osteosarcoma CSC. Wogonin induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma CSC, inhibits its mobility in vitro via downregulation of MMP-9 expression, and represses its renewal ability. We demonstrated that Wogonin decreases the renewal capacity of CSC. By inhibiting the formation of and reducing the size of spheres, Wogonin at a concentration of 40-80 μM effectively minimizes potential risk from CSC. Taken together, we have demonstrated a new approach for developing a potential therapy for osteosarcoma.

  15. Essential role of MALT1 protease activity in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Lenz, Georg; Ngo, Vu; Posvitz-Fejfar, Anita; Rebeaud, Fabien; Guzzardi, Montserrat; Penas, Eva-Maria Murga; Dierlamm, Judith; Chan, Wing C; Staudt, Louis M; Thome, Margot

    2009-11-24

    A key element for the development of suitable anti-cancer drugs is the identification of cancer-specific enzymatic activities that can be therapeutically targeted. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue transformation protein 1 (MALT1) is a proto-oncogene that contributes to tumorigenesis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, the least curable subtype of DLBCL. Recent data suggest that MALT1 has proteolytic activity, but it is unknown whether this activity is relevant for tumor growth. Here we report that MALT1 is constitutively active in DLBCL lines of the ABC but not the GCB subtype. Inhibition of the MALT1 proteolytic activity led to reduced expression of growth factors and apoptosis inhibitors, and specifically affected the growth and survival of ABC DLBCL lines. These results demonstrate a key role for the proteolytic activity of MALT1 in DLBCL of the ABC subtype, and provide a rationale for the development of pharmacological inhibitors of MALT1 in DLBCL therapy.

  16. Lin28a is a putative factor in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in side population cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, S; Tanaka, J; Okada, S; Isobe, T; Yamamoto, G; Yasuhara, R; Irie, T; Akiyama, C; Kohno, Y; Tachikawa, T; Mishima, K

    2013-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are among the target cells of cancer therapy because they are uniquely involved in both cancer progression and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. We identified side population (SP) cells, which are known to be an enriched population of CSC, in five oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC9, SCC25, TOSCC7, TOSCC17, and TOSCC23). The percentages of SP cells ranged from 0% to 3.3%, with TOSCC23 cells showing the highest percentages of SP cells (3.3% of the total cell population). The SP cells isolated from TOSCC23 cells also showed greater cell proliferation and invasion compared to non-SP (MP) cells. Therefore, our initial findings suggested that SP cells were enriched for CSC-like cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of cell proliferation-related and anti-apoptotic genes was greater in SP cells compared to MP cells. We focused on Lin28a, which showed the highest expression (approximately 22-fold) among the upregulated genes. The overexpression of Lin28a in TOSCC23 cells increased their proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. These findings suggest that Lin28a is an appropriate CSC target molecule for OSCC treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural stem cell-like cells derived from autologous bone mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guojun; Wang, Yali; Xu, Zhenyu; Fang, Feng; Xu, Renmei; Wang, Yue; Hu, Xiaoli; Fan, Lixing; Liu, Houqi

    2013-01-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. Autologous MSCs may be a better cell source and have been studied for the treatment of cerebral palsy because of their functions in tissue repair and the regulation of immunological processes. To assess neural stem cell-like (NSC-like) cells derived from autologous marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 60 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this open-label, non-randomised, observer-blinded controlled clinical study with a 6-months follow-up. For the transplantation group, a total of 30 cerebral palsy patients received an autologous NSC-like cells transplantation (1-2 × 107 cells into the subarachnoid cavity) and rehabilitation treatments whereas 30 patients in the control group only received rehabilitation treatment. We recorded the gross motor function measurement scores, language quotients, and adverse events up to 6 months post-treatment. The gross motor function measurement scores in the transplantation group were significantly higher at month 3 (the score increase was 42.6, 95% CI: 9.8-75.3, P=.011) and month 6 (the score increase was 58.6, 95% CI: 25.8-91.4, P=.001) post-treatment compared with the baseline scores. The increase in the Gross Motor Function Measurement scores in the control group was not significant. The increases in the language quotients at months 1, 3, and 6 post-treatment were not statistically significant when compared with the baseline quotients in both groups. All the 60 patients survived, and none of the patients experienced serious adverse events or complications. Our results indicated that NSC-like cells are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to establish the efficacy of this procedure.

  18. The characteristics of Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells are modified by substrate topography with cell-like features and the polymer surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan LH

    2015-08-01

    those on a flat pST surface. This method, which provided substrates in vitro with cell-like features, enabled the study of effects of topographies that are similar to those experienced by cells in vivo. The observations establish that such a physical environment has an effect on cancer cell behavior independent of the characteristics of the substrate. The results support the concept that the physical topography of a cell’s environment may modulate crucial oncological signaling pathways; this suggests the possibility of cancer therapies that target pathways associated with the response to mechanical stimuli. Keywords: surface characteristics, cell culture platforms, physical microenvironment, cell response, drug targets, mechanical forces

  19. Interim positron emission tomography scan associated with international prognostic index and germinal center B cell-like signature as prognostic index in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanic, Hélène; Mareschal, Sylvain; Mechken, Férial; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Cornic, Marie; Maingonnat, Catherine; Bertrand, Philippe; Clatot, Florian; Bohers, Elodie; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Rainville, Vinciane; Ruminy, Philippe; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Becker, Stéphanie; Vera, Pierre; Jardin, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is essential to optimize the initial staging and to predict the prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To assess the relationship between the germinal center B cell-like/activated B cell-like (GCB/ABC) classification and PET scan features in DLBCL, 57 cases treated with rituximab and a cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP)/CHOP-like regimen were analyzed. The expression profile of 18 GCB/ABC related genes and five genes coding for glucose transporters (GLUTs) was determined from frozen tissues using DASL (cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, Ligation and extension) technology. According to the gene expression profile (GEP), 30 cases of DLBCL were classified as GCB subtype (2-year progression-free survival [PFS] 76%) and 27 cases as ABC subtype (2-year PFS 51%, p = 0.03). Using a semiquantitative assessment of the decrease in standard uptake value (SUV) at interim PET performed after 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy, we defined fast (n = 36) and slow (n = 9) metabolic responders. In multivariate analysis, GCB/ABC subtype, age-adjusted international prognostic index (aaIPI) and slow/fast metabolic response were independent variables that predicted outcome. A score incorporating aaIPI, fast/slow metabolic response and GCB/ABC classification was used to define two groups with highly significantly distinct outcomes. Our study suggests that the combination of GEP, aaIPI and interim PET more accurately predicts DLBCL prognosis and is therefore suitable for tailoring therapeutic strategies.

  20. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into inner ear hair cell-like cells using stromal cell conditioned medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouji, Y; Ishizaka, S; Nakamura-Uchiyama, F; Yoshikawa, M

    2012-05-24

    Hearing loss is mainly caused by loss of sensory hair cells (HCs) in the organ of Corti or cochlea. Although embryonic stem (ES) cells are a promising source for cell therapy, little is known about the efficient generation of HC-like cells from ES cells. In the present study, we developed a single-medium culture method for growing embryoid bodies (EBs), in which conditioned medium (CM) from cultures of ST2 stromal cells (ST2-CM) was used for 14-day cultures of 4-day EBs. At the end of the 14-day cultures, up to 20% of the cells in EB outgrowths expressed HC-related markers, including Math1 (also known as Atoh1), myosin6, myosin7a, calretinin, α9AchR and Brn3c (also known as Pou4f3), and also showed formation of stereocilia-like structures. Further, we found that these cells were incorporated into the developing inner ear after transplantation into chick embryos. The present inner ear HC induction method using ST2-CM (HIST2 method) is quite simple and highly efficient to obtain ES-derived HC-like cells with a relatively short cultivation time.

  1. MiR-1207 overexpression promotes cancer stem cell-like traits in ovarian cancer by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyan; Liu, Aibin; Zhu, Jinrong; Lei, Fangyong; Wu, Shu; Zhang, Xin; Ye, Liping; Cao, Lixue; He, Shanyang

    2015-10-06

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is strictly controlled by multiple negative regulators. However, how tumor cells override the negative regulatory effects to maintain constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is commonly observed in various cancers, remains puzzling. In current study, we reported that overexpression of miR-1207 in ovarian cancer activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by directly targeting and suppressing secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), AXIN2 and inhibitor of β-catenin and TCF-4 (ICAT), which are vital negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We found that the expression of miR-1207 was ubiquitously upregulated in both ovarian cancer tissues and cells, which inversely correlated with patient overall survival. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-1207 enhanced, while silencing miR-1207 reduced, stem cell-like traits of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, including tumor sphere formation capability and proportion of SP+ and CD133+ cells. Importantly, upregulating miR-1207 promoted, while silencing miR-1207 inhibited, the tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells. Hence, our results suggest that miR-1207 plays a vital role in promoting the cancer stem cell-like phenotype in ovarian cancer and might represent a potential target for anti-ovarian cancer therapy.

  2. The role of additive neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal memory model with grid-cell like input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Appleby

    Full Text Available Recently, we presented a study of adult neurogenesis in a simplified hippocampal memory model. The network was required to encode and decode memory patterns despite changing input statistics. We showed that additive neurogenesis was a more effective adaptation strategy compared to neuronal turnover and conventional synaptic plasticity as it allowed the network to respond to changes in the input statistics while preserving representations of earlier environments. Here we extend our model to include realistic, spatially driven input firing patterns in the form of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. We compare network performance across a sequence of spatial environments using three distinct adaptation strategies: conventional synaptic plasticity, where the network is of fixed size but the connectivity is plastic; neuronal turnover, where the network is of fixed size but units in the network may die and be replaced; and additive neurogenesis, where the network starts out with fewer initial units but grows over time. We confirm that additive neurogenesis is a superior adaptation strategy when using realistic, spatially structured input patterns. We then show that a more biologically plausible neurogenesis rule that incorporates cell death and enhanced plasticity of new granule cells has an overall performance significantly better than any one of the three individual strategies operating alone. This adaptation rule can be tailored to maximise performance of the network when operating as either a short- or long-term memory store. We also examine the time course of adult neurogenesis over the lifetime of an animal raised under different hypothetical rearing conditions. These growth profiles have several distinct features that form a theoretical prediction that could be tested experimentally. Finally, we show that place cells can emerge and refine in a realistic manner in our model as a direct result of the sparsification performed by the dentate gyrus

  3. Treatment with retinoic acid and lens epithelial cell-conditioned medium in vitro directed the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards corneal endothelial cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Chen, Jun-Zhao; Shao, Chun-Yi; Li, Chuan-Yin; Zhang, Yi-Dan; Lu, Wen-Juan; Fu, Yao; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-02-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have extensive self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into all tissue-specific cell lineages, including corneal endothelial cells (CECs). They are a promising prospect for the future of regenerative medicine. The method of derivation of CECs from ESCs and iPSCs, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, mouse ESCs and iPSCs were induced to differentiate into CECs using CEC embryonic development events as a guide. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) treatment during the embryoid body (EB) differentiation step was used to promote neural crest (NC) cell differentiation as first step and was followed by a second induction in CEC- or lens epithelial cell (LEC)-conditioned medium (CM) to ultimately generate CEC-like cells. During the corresponding differentiation stages, NC developmental markers and CEC differentiation markers were detected at the protein level using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and at the mRNA level by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). During the first stage, the data indicated that 4 days of treatment with 1 μM RA starting on day 4 of EB formation favored NC cell differentiation and that plating on gelatin-coated plates led to cell migration out of the EBs. The second-stage differentiation results showed that the CM, particularly the LEC-CM, enhanced the yield of polygonal cells with CEC-specific marker expression shown by ICC and RT-qPCR. This study demonstrates that mouse ESCs and iPSCs were induced and expressed CEC differentiation markers when subjected to a two-step inducement process, suggesting that they are a promising resource for corneal endothelium failure replacement therapy in the future.

  4. Anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis kill cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Massaguer, Anna; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    Key players in translational regulation such as ribosomes might represent powerful, but hitherto largely unexplored, targets to eliminate drug-refractory cancer stem cells (CSCs). A recent study by the Lisanti group has documented how puromycin, an old antibiotic derived from Streptomyces alboniger that inhibits ribosomal protein translation, can efficiently suppress CSC states in tumorspheres and monolayer cultures. We have used a closely related approach based on Biolog Phenotype Microarrays (PM), which contain tens of lyophilized antimicrobial drugs, to assess the chemosensitivity profiles of breast cancer cell lines enriched for stem cell-like properties. Antibiotics directly targeting active sites of the ribosome including emetine, puromycin and cycloheximide, inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis such as dactinomycin, ribotoxic stress agents such as daunorubicin, and indirect inhibitors of protein synthesis such as acriflavine, had the largest cytotoxic impact against claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer cells. Thus, biologically aggressive, treatment-resistant breast cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties exhibit exacerbated chemosensitivities to anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics targeting protein synthesis. These results suggest that old/existing microbicides might be repurposed not only as new cancer therapeutics, but also might provide the tools and molecular understanding needed to develop second-generation inhibitors of ribosomal translation to eradicate CSC traits in tumor tissues. PMID:25970790

  5. Anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis kill cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Massaguer, Anna; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    Key players in translational regulation such as ribosomes might represent powerful, but hitherto largely unexplored, targets to eliminate drug-refractory cancer stem cells (CSCs). A recent study by the Lisanti group has documented how puromycin, an old antibiotic derived from Streptomyces alboniger that inhibits ribosomal protein translation, can efficiently suppress CSC states in tumorspheres and monolayer cultures. We have used a closely related approach based on Biolog Phenotype Microarrays (PM), which contain tens of lyophilized antimicrobial drugs, to assess the chemosensitivity profiles of breast cancer cell lines enriched for stem cell-like properties. Antibiotics directly targeting active sites of the ribosome including emetine, puromycin and cycloheximide, inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis such as dactinomycin, ribotoxic stress agents such as daunorubicin, and indirect inhibitors of protein synthesis such as acriflavine, had the largest cytotoxic impact against claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer cells. Thus, biologically aggressive, treatment-resistant breast cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties exhibit exacerbated chemosensitivities to anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics targeting protein synthesis. These results suggest that old/existing microbicides might be repurposed not only as new cancer therapeutics, but also might provide the tools and molecular understanding needed to develop second-generation inhibitors of ribosomal translation to eradicate CSC traits in tumor tissues.

  6. Red-blood-cell-like BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particles: Preparation and application to adsorption of heavy metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoliang; Li, Peitao; Zhang, Hepeng; Li, Xiangjie; Tian, Lei; Wang, Hai; Chen, Xin; Ali, Nisar; Ali, Zafar; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2016-03-01

    A novel kind of red-blood-cell-like bovine serum albumin (BSA)/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle is prepared at room temperature by a facile and rapid one-step method based on coordination between BSA and zinc ion. The morphology of the monodisperse hybrid particle shows oblate spheroidal type with a one sided single hole on the surface. The hybrid particle is constructed with BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 nanoplates of 35 nm thick. The average particle size of hybrid particle is 2.3 μm, and its BET specific surface area is 146.64 cm2/g. To clarify the evolution of BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle, SEM and elemental analysis as a function of particle growth time are investigated. The formation mechanism of BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle, which can be described as crystallization, coordination and self-assembly process, is illustrated in detail. The as-prepared BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particle is used for adsorption of Cu2+. The hybrid particle displayed excellent adsorption properties on Cu2+. The adsorption efficiency of BSA/Zn3(PO4)2 hybrid particles at 5 min and 30 min are 86.33% and 98.9%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity is 6.85 mg/g. Thus, this kind of novel adsorbent shows potential application value in ultra-fast and highly efficient removal of Cu2+.

  7. TAP-deficient human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M; Tomita, Y; Yuno, A; Matsumura, K; Ikeda, T; Takamatsu, K; Haga, E; Koba, C; Nishimura, Y; Senju, S

    2013-05-01

    We previously reported a method to generate dendritic cell (DC)-like antigen-presenting cells (APC) from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the method is relatively complicated and laborious. In the current study, we attempted to establish a method through which we could obtain a large number of functional APC with a simple procedure. We transduced iPS cell-derived CD11b(+) myeloid cells with genes associated with proliferative or anti-senescence effects, enabling the cells to propagate for more than 4 months in a macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent manner while retaining their capacity to differentiate into functional APC. We named these iPS cell-derived proliferating myeloid cells 'iPS-ML', and the iPS-ML-derived APC 'ML-DC'. In addition, we generated TAP2-deficient iPS cell clones by zinc finger nuclease-aided targeted gene disruption. TAP2-deficient iPS cells and iPS-ML avoided recognition by pre-activated allo-reactive CD8(+) T cells. TAP2-deficient ML-DC expressing exogenously introduced HLA-A2 genes stimulated HLA-A2-restricted MART-1-specific CD8(+) T cells obtained from HLA-A2-positive allogeneic donors, resulting in generation of MART-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines. TAP-deficient iPS-ML introduced with various HLA class I genes may serve as an unlimited source of APC for vaccination therapy. If administered into allogeneic patients, ML-DC with appropriate genetic modifications may survive long enough to stimulate antigen-specific CTL and, after that, be completely eliminated. Based on the present study, we propose an APC-producing system that is simple, safe and applicable to all patients irrespective of their HLA types.

  8. In vitro differentiation of germ cells from stem cells: a comparison between primordial germ cells and in vitro derived primordial germ cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, W; Chen, C; De Felici, M; Shen, W

    2015-10-15

    Stem cells are unique cell types capable to proliferate, some of them indefinitely, while maintaining the ability to differentiate into a few or any cell lineages. In 2003, a group headed by Hans R. Schöler reported that oocyte-like cells could be produced from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. After more than 10 years, where have these researches reached? Which are the major successes achieved and the problems still remaining to be solved? Although during the last years, many reviews have been published about these topics, in the present work, we will focus on an aspect that has been little considered so far, namely a strict comparison between the in vitro and in vivo developmental capabilities of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) isolated from the embryo and the PGC-like cells (PGC-LCs) produced in vitro from different types of stem cells in the mouse, the species in which most investigation has been carried out. Actually, the formation and differentiation of PGCs are crucial for both male and female gametogenesis, and the faithful production of PGCs in vitro represents the basis for obtaining functional germ cells.

  9. FLT3 mutations in early T-cell precursor ALL characterize a stem cell like leukemia and imply the clinical use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Neumann

    Full Text Available Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL has been identified as high-risk subgroup of acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL with a high rate of FLT3-mutations in adults. To unravel the underlying pathomechanisms and the clinical course we assessed molecular alterations and clinical characteristics in a large cohort of ETP-ALL (n = 68 in comparison to non-ETP T-ALL adult patients. Interestingly, we found a high rate of FLT3-mutations in ETP-ALL samples (n = 24, 35%. Furthermore, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL was characterized by a specific immunophenotype (CD2+/CD5-/CD13+/CD33-, a distinct gene expression pattern (aberrant expression of IGFBP7, WT1, GATA3 and mutational status (absence of NOTCH1 mutations and a low frequency, 21%, of clonal TCR rearrangements. The observed low GATA3 expression and high WT1 expression in combination with lack of NOTCH1 mutations and a low rate of TCR rearrangements point to a leukemic transformation at the pluripotent prothymocyte stage in FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL. The clinical outcome in ETP-ALL patients was poor, but encouraging in those patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (3-year OS: 74%. To further explore the efficacy of targeted therapies, we demonstrate that T-ALL cell lines transfected with FLT3 expression constructs were particularly sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In conclusion, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL defines a molecular distinct stem cell like leukemic subtype. These data warrant clinical studies with the implementation of FLT3 inhibitors in addition to early allogeneic stem cell transplantation for this high risk subgroup.

  10. Human cancer cells with stem cell-like phenotype exhibit enhanced sensitivity to the cytotoxicity of IL-2 and IL-15 activated natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Wang, Guoping; He, Sisi; Liu, Qin; Sun, Jianhong; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-02-01

    Tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. Nature killer (NK) cells are best known for their ability to directly recognize and kill malignant cells. However, the susceptibility of cancer stem cells to NK cells is not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that human CD44+CD24- breast CSCs were shown enhanced sensitivity to IL-2 and IL-15 activated NK cells. CD44+CD24- CSCs expressed higher levels of NKG2D ligands ULBP1, ULBP2 and MICA. Blockade assay showed that the sensitivity of CSCs to NK cells-mediated lysis was mainly dependent on NKG2D. Furthermore, redox oxygen species (ROS)-low tumor cells were more sensitive to NK cells. The presence of antioxidant enzymes inhibitor L-S,R-buthionine sulfoximine or H2O2 retarded the cytotoxicity of NK cells to CD44+CD24- CSCs. In addition, NK cells could readily target CD133+ colonal CSCs. Our findings provide novel targets for NK cells-based immunotherapy and are of great importance for translational medicine.

  11. Upregulated miR-132 in Lgr5(+) gastric cancer stem cell-like cells contributes to cisplatin-resistance via SIRT1/CREB/ABCG2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanfang; Guo, Xiaohe; Zhang, Dezhong; Fan, Yingying; Qin, Lei; Dong, Shuping; Zhang, Lanfang

    2017-09-01

    Cisplatin resistance has long been a major problem that restricts its use. A novel paradigm in tumor biology suggests that gastric tumor chemo-resistance is driven by gastric cancer stem cell-like (GCSCs). Growing evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to chemo-resistance in gastric cancer (GC). Here, Lgr5(+) cells derived from gastric cancer cell lines displayed stem cell-like features. Flow cytometry demonstrated the presence of a variable fraction of Lgr5 in 19 out of 20 GC specimens. By comparing the miRNA expression profiles of Lgr5(+) GCSCs and Lrg5(-) cells, we established the upregulation of miR-132 in Lgr5(+) GCSCs. The enhanced miR-132 expression correlated chemo-resistance in GC patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with low miR-132 expression survived obviously longer. Functional assays results indicated that miR-132 promoted cisplatin resistance in Lgr5(+) GCSCs in vitro and in vivo. Further dual-luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that SIRT1 was the direct target of miR-132. The expression of miR-132 was inversely correlated with SIRT1 in gastric cancer specimens. Furthermore, through PCR array we discovered ABCG2 was one of the downstream targets of SIRT1. Overexpression of SIRT1 down-regulated ABCG2 expression by promoting the de-acetylation of the transcription factor CREB. CREB was further activated ABCG2 via binding to the promoter of ABCG2 to induce transcription. Thus, we concluded that miR-132 regulated SIRT1/CREB/ABCG2 signaling pathway contributing to the cisplatin resistance and might serve as a novel therapeutic target against gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Is buffer a good proxy for a crowded cell-like environment? A comparative NMR study of calmodulin side-chain dynamics in buffer and E. coli lysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Latham

    Full Text Available Biophysical studies of protein structure and dynamics are typically performed in a highly controlled manner involving only the protein(s of interest. Comparatively fewer such studies have been carried out in the context of a cellular environment that typically involves many biomolecules, ions and metabolites. Recently, solution NMR spectroscopy, focusing primarily on backbone amide groups as reporters, has emerged as a powerful technique for investigating protein structure and dynamics in vivo and in crowded "cell-like" environments. Here we extend these studies through a comparative analysis of Ile, Leu, Val and Met methyl side-chain motions in apo, Ca(2+-bound and Ca(2+, peptide-bound calmodulin dissolved in aqueous buffer or in E. coli lysate. Deuterium spin relaxation experiments, sensitive to pico- to nano-second time-scale processes and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion experiments, reporting on millisecond dynamics, have been recorded. Both similarities and differences in motional properties are noted for calmodulin dissolved in buffer or in lysate. These results emphasize that while significant insights can be obtained through detailed "test-tube" studies, experiments performed under conditions that are "cell-like" are critical for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of protein motion in vivo and therefore for elucidating the relation between motion and function.

  13. Immune gene expression profiling of Proliferative Kidney Disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reveals a dominance of anti-inflammatory, antibody and T helper cell-like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Holland, Jason W

    2013-07-16

    The myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is the causative agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) targeting primarily the kidney of infected fish where it causes a chronic lymphoid immunopathology. Although known to be associated with suppression of some cellular aspects of innate immunity and a prominent lymphocytic hyperplasia, there remains a considerable knowledge gap in our understanding of the underlying immune mechanisms driving PKD pathogenesis. To provide further insights, the expression profiles of a panel of innate/inflammatory and adaptive immune molecules were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss following a natural exposure to the parasite. Relative to controls, fish with early to advanced stages of kidney pathology exhibited up-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11, although remaining refractory towards genes indicative of macrophage activity. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and anti-inflammatory markers, including cathelicidin (CATH) and IL-10 were markedly up-regulated during clinical disease. Up-regulation of adaptive immune molecules, including cell markers and antibody genes reflect the lymphocytic dominance of this disease and the likely importance of lymphocyte subsets in PKD pathogenesis. Up-regulation of T helper (TH) cell-like response genes and transcription factors implies that T. bryosalmonae may elicit a complex interplay between TH cell subsets. This work, for the first time in the study of fish-myxozoan interactions, suggests that PKD pathogenesis is shaped by an anti-inflammatory phenotype, a profound B cell/antibody response and dysregulated TH cell-like activities. A better understanding of the functional roles of fish immune cells and molecules in PKD pathogenesis may facilitate future development of control measures against this disease.

  14. Level of Notch activation determines the effect on growth and stem cell-like features in glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Karina; Villingshøj, Mette; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) are cancer cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties found in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and they are assigned a central role in tumor initiation, progression and relapse. The Notch pathway is important for maintenance and cell fate decisions...... in the normal NSC population. Notch signaling is often deregulated in GBM and recent results suggest that this pathway plays a significant role in bCSC as well. We therefore wished to further elucidate the role of Notch activation in GBM-derived bCSC....

  15. Retinoic acid promotes the proliferation of primordial germ cell-like cells differentiated from mouse skin-derived stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Wang, Jun-Jie; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Ge, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Rui; Li, Lan; Li, Bo; Shen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) have the potential to differentiate into gametes and are a potential resource for research and clinical applications. Sufficient amount of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is an important requirement for successful differentiation of SDSCs into gametes in vitro. Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A-derived small lipophilic molecule, promotes the growth of PGCs in vivo; however, the role of RA on the proliferation of PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) derived from SDSCs remains unknown. In this study, SDSCs were induced to differentiate into the embryoid body and cocultured with mouse fibroblasts to form PGCLCs. The proliferation of PGCLCs with the presence of various concentrations of RA was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that the 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine-positive ratio of PGCLCs was increased after the cells were treated with 5-μM RA, and flow cytometry results showed that the number of cells in the S phase was increased significantly. The messenger RNA expression levels of cell cycle-related genes, CCND1 and CDK2, were also increased. Furthermore, RA effectively promoted the external proliferation of endogenous PGCs when 11.5-days postcoitum fetal mouse genital ridges were cultured in vitro. In conclusion, 5-μM RA promoted the proliferation of SDSCs-derived PGCLCs and endogenous PGCs. Our study will provide a valuable model system for studying the differentiation of stem cells into gametes in vitro.

  16. A Comparative Study on Self Adaptive Semantic Focused Crawler and Novel Focused Cell like Membrane Computing Crawler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Gunasekaran; M Anisha; P R Joe Dhanith

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus to avoid problem of downloading lot of web pages several crawlers are designed that improves the efficiency of crawling specific documents. Two crawlers namely Self adaptive Semantic Focussed and Cell Membrane Computing Focussed Crawler has been studied with comparison.

  17. Basic fibroblast growth factor is critical to reprogramming buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) primordial germ cells into embryonic germ stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caizhu; Deng, Yanfei; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Peng; Wei, Jingwei; Luo, Chan; Lu, Fenghua; Yang, Sufang; Shi, Deshun

    2017-03-15

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are destined to form gametes in vivo, and they can be reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells in vitro. Buffalo PGC have been reported to be reprogrammed into EG-like cells, but the identities of the major signaling pathways and culture media involved in this derivation remain unclear. Here, the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and downstream signaling pathways on the reprogramming of buffalo PGCs into EG-like cells were investigated. Results showed bFGF to be critical to buffalo PGCs to dedifferentiate into EG-like cells (20 ng/mL is optimal) with many characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, including alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, expression of pluripotency marker genes such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-1, CDH1, and TRA-1-81, and the capacity to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers. After chemically inhibiting pathways or components downstream of bFGF, data showed that inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway led to significantly lower EG cell derivation, while inhibition of P53 activity resulted in an efficiency of EG cell derivation comparable to that in the presence of bFGF. These results suggest that the role of bFGF in PGC-derived EG-like cell generation is mainly due to the activation of the PI3K/AKT/P53 pathway, in particular, the inhibition of P53 function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute

    2004-01-01

    in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported...

  19. N-cadherin/FGFR promotes metastasis through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem/progenitor cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X; Anzovino, A; Kim, S; Suyama, K; Yao, J; Hulit, J; Agiostratidou, G; Chandiramani, N; McDaid, H M; Nagi, C; Cohen, H W; Phillips, G R; Norton, L; Hazan, R B

    2014-06-26

    N-cadherin and HER2/neu were found to be co-expressed in invasive breast carcinomas. To test the contribution of N-cadherin and HER2 in mammary tumor metastasis, we targeted N-cadherin expression in the mammary epithelium of the MMTV-Neu mouse. In the context of ErbB2/Neu, N-cadherin stimulated carcinoma cell invasion, proliferation and metastasis. N-cadherin caused fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) upmodulation, resulting in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem/progenitor like properties, involving Snail and Slug upregulation, mammosphere formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. N-cadherin potentiation of the FGFR stimulated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation resulting in differential effects on metastasis. Although ERK inhibition suppressed cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation and stem/progenitor cell properties, it did not affect invasion or EMT. Conversely, AKT inhibition suppressed invasion through Akt 2 attenuation, and EMT through Snail inhibition, but had no effect on cyclin D1 expression, cell proliferation or mammosphere formation. These findings suggest N-cadherin/FGFR has a pivotal role in promoting metastasis through differential regulation of ERK and AKT, and underscore the potential for targeting the FGFR in advanced ErbB2-amplified breast tumors.

  20. Inhibition of MEK and GSK3 supports ES cell-like domed colony formation from avian and reptile embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanoh, Shota; Okazaki, Kenji; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2013-07-01

    As amniotes diversified, mammals may have modified mechanisms of cellular pluripotency along with the acquisition of a placenta. What then defined pluripotent states in the ancestral amniotes? To study the evolutionary background of pluripotency in amniotes, we tested the effects of extracellular effectors on primary culture cells from avian and reptile embryos in serum-free medium. When treated with a combination of a MEK inhibitor and a GSK3 inhibitor (2i condition), chicken early embryos formed domed colonies (DCs), which were morphologically indistinguishable from the colonies formed by mouse and rat naïve embryonic stem cells. However, no DCs formed when cells from further-developed embryos were cultured in the 2i condition, indicating that there is a clear boundary of DC-forming ability at around the stage of primitive streak elongation. Quail embryos at the blastoderm and cleavage stages also formed DCs in the 2i condition, which is consistent with the notion that the appearance of DCs corresponds with the presence of pluripotent cells in embryos. Gecko blastoderms also formed DCs in the 2i condition, but gastrulas did not. ERK activation by bFGF caused an effect opposite to that of the 2i condition, namely, it dispersed colonies of cells even from early embryos in all species examined. These results suggest that the regulation of pluripotency by FGF/ERK signaling may date back at least to the common ancestor of mammals, birds, and reptiles. However, gene expression analysis indicated the possibility that mammalian pluripotency transcription factors function differently in non-mammalian amniotes.

  1. Fast computation of radiation pressure force exerted by multiple laser beams on red blood cell-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ming-Jiang; Yang, Ming-Lin; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Mature red blood cells (RBC) do not contain huge complex nuclei and organelles, makes them can be approximately regarded as homogeneous medium particles. To compute the radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted by multiple laser beams on this kind of arbitrary shaped homogenous nano-particles, a fast electromagnetic optics method is demonstrated. In general, based on the Maxwell's equations, the matrix equation formed by the method of moment (MOM) has many right hand sides (RHS's) corresponding to the different laser beams. In order to accelerate computing the matrix equation, the algorithm conducts low-rank decomposition on the excitation matrix consisting of all RHS's to figure out the so-called skeleton laser beams by interpolative decomposition (ID). After the solutions corresponding to the skeletons are obtained, the desired responses can be reconstructed efficiently. Some numerical results are performed to validate the developed method.

  2. Testing the Hypothesis of Biofilm as a Source for Soft Tissue and Cell-Like Structures Preserved in Dinosaur Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Higby Schweitzer

    Full Text Available Recovery of still-soft tissue structures, including blood vessels and osteocytes, from dinosaur bone after demineralization was reported in 2005 and in subsequent publications. Despite multiple lines of evidence supporting an endogenous source, it was proposed that these structures arose from contamination from biofilm-forming organisms. To test the hypothesis that soft tissue structures result from microbial invasion of the fossil bone, we used two different biofilm-forming microorganisms to inoculate modern bone fragments from which organic components had been removed. We show fundamental morphological, chemical and textural differences between the resultant biofilm structures and those derived from dinosaur bone. The data do not support the hypothesis that biofilm-forming microorganisms are the source of these structures.

  3. Testing the Hypothesis of Biofilm as a Source for Soft Tissue and Cell-Like Structures Preserved in Dinosaur Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Moyer, Alison E; Zheng, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of still-soft tissue structures, including blood vessels and osteocytes, from dinosaur bone after demineralization was reported in 2005 and in subsequent publications. Despite multiple lines of evidence supporting an endogenous source, it was proposed that these structures arose from contamination from biofilm-forming organisms. To test the hypothesis that soft tissue structures result from microbial invasion of the fossil bone, we used two different biofilm-forming microorganisms to inoculate modern bone fragments from which organic components had been removed. We show fundamental morphological, chemical and textural differences between the resultant biofilm structures and those derived from dinosaur bone. The data do not support the hypothesis that biofilm-forming microorganisms are the source of these structures.

  4. Hair cell-like cells generation induced by nature culture of cochlear sensory epithelia in rat%小鼠耳蜗感觉上皮细胞的自然培养诱导毛细胞的产生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 李胜利; 朱宏亮; 姚小宝; 王晓侠

    2003-01-01

    Object To establish rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro and apply them to study mammalian hair cell regeneration.Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques,cochlear sensory epithelial cells of rat were cultured.Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine(BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells.Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large,flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokerafin,a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell.The appearance of calretinin-positive cells were also confirmed in 3rd passage culture by immunostaining.Conclusions Postnatal rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture,this phenomenon suggested thatprogenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells was still need more study.%目的培养小鼠耳蜗上皮细胞,寻找听觉毛细胞的前体细胞,从而研究听觉毛细胞的再生.方法改良细胞培养基和培养技术,建立小鼠耳蜗听觉上皮细胞的培养;用免疫细胞化学方法和BrdU标记法检测培养细胞的性质和分裂状态.结果培养的听觉上皮细胞表现为大而扁平的上皮细胞形态,并且表达上皮细胞的标志F-actin和cytokeratin,部分新生的细胞可被早期毛细胞的特异标志calretinin着染,表明有听毛细胞样的细胞产生.这种现象经3次传代培养后仍然存在.结论自然细胞培养方法可能诱导小鼠听觉毛细胞的产生,在小鼠的耳蜗内可能存在听觉毛细胞的前体细胞,而这些前体细胞是否是组织特异性干细胞还需要更进一步的研究.

  5. TMPRSS4 induces cancer stem cell-like properties in lung cancer cells and correlates with ALDH expression in NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aberasturi, Arrate L; Redrado, Miriam; Villalba, Maria; Larzabal, Leyre; Pajares, Maria J; Garcia, Javier; Evans, Stephanie R; Garcia-Ros, David; Bodegas, Maria Elena; Lopez, Lissett; Montuenga, Luis; Calvo, Alfonso

    2016-01-28

    Metastasis involves a series of changes in cancer cells that promote their escape from the primary tumor and colonization to a new organ. This process is related to the transition from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype (EMT). Recently, some authors have shown that migratory cells with an EMT phenotype share properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which allow them to form a new tumor mass. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS4 is highly expressed in some solid tumors, promotes metastasis and confers EMT features to cancer cells. We hypothesized that TMPRSS4 could also provide CSC properties. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 reduces E-cadherin and induces N-cadherin and vimentin in A549 lung cancer cells, supporting an EMT phenotype. These changes are accompanied by enhanced migration, invasion and tumorigenicity in vivo. TMPRSS4 expression was highly increased in a panel of lung cancer cells cultured as tumorspheres (a typical assay to enrich for CSCs). H358 and H441 cells with knocked-down TMPRSS4 levels were significantly less able to form primary and secondary tumorspheres than control cells. Moreover, they showed a lower proportion of ALDH+ cells (examined by FACS analysis) and lower expression of some CSC markers than controls. A549 cells overexpressing TMPRSS4 conferred the opposite phenotype and were also more sensitive to the CSC-targeted drug salinomycin than control cells, but were more resistant to regular chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil). Analysis of 70 NSCLC samples from patients revealed a very significant correlation between TMPRSS4 expression and CSC markers ALDH (p = 0.0018) and OCT4 (p = 0.0004), suggesting that TMPRSS4 is associated with a CSC phenotype in patients' tumors. These results show that TMPRSS4, in addition to inducing EMT, can also promote CSC features in lung cancer; therefore, CSC-targeting drugs could be an appropriate treatment for TMPRSS4+ tumors.

  6. Breast cancer stem cell-like cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than non-stem cells: role of ATM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog-Young Kim

    Full Text Available There are contradictory observations about the different radiosensitivities of cancer stem cells and cancer non-stem cells. To resolve these contradictory observations, we studied radiosensitivities by employing breast cancer stem cell (CSC-like MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB453 cells as well as their corresponding non-stem cells. CSC-like cells proliferate without differentiating and have characteristics of tumor-initiating cells [1]. These cells were exposed to γ-rays (1.25-8.75 Gy and survival curves were determined by colony formation. A final slope, D(0, of the survival curve for each cell line was determined to measure radiosensitivity. The D(0 of CSC-like and non-stem MDA-MB-453 cells were 1.16 Gy and 1.55 Gy, respectively. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells (0.94 Gy vs. 1.56 Gy. After determination of radiosensitivity, we investigated intrinsic cellular determinants which influence radiosensitivity including cell cycle distribution, free-radical scavengers and DNA repair. We observed that even though cell cycle status and antioxidant content may contribute to differential radiosensitivity, differential DNA repair capacity may be a greater determinant of radiosensitivity. Unlike non-stem cells, CSC-like cells have little/no sublethal damage repair, a low intracellular level of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM and delay of γ-H2AX foci removal (DNA strand break repair. These results suggest that low DNA repair capacity is responsible for the high radiosensitivity of these CSC-like cells.

  7. STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li, E-mail: lin.796@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Olson, Veronica [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Bekaii-Saab, Tanios [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Jiayuh, E-mail: lin.674@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower

  8. Disulfiram modulated ROS–MAPK and NFκB pathways and targeted breast cancer cells with cancer stem cell-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, N C; Fombon, I S; Liu, P; Brown, S; Kannappan, V; Armesilla, A L; Xu, B; Cassidy, J; Darling, J L; Wang, W

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that disulfiram (DS), an anti-alcoholism drug, is cytotoxic to cancer cell lines and reverses anticancer drug resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the major cause of chemoresistance leading to the failure of cancer chemotherapy. This study intended to examine the effect of DS on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Methods: The effect of DS on BC cell lines and BCSCs was determined by MTT, western blot, CSCs culture and CSCs marker analysis. Results: Disulfiram was highly toxic to BC cell lines in vitro in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. In Cu-containing medium (1 μ), the IC50 concentrations of DS in BC cell lines were 200–500 n. Disulfiram/copper significantly enhanced (3.7–15.5-fold) cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (PAC). Combination index isobologram analysis demonstrated a synergistic effect between DS/Cu and PAC. The increased Bax and Bcl2 protein expression ratio indicated that intrinsic apoptotic pathway may be involved in DS/Cu-induced apoptosis. Clonogenic assay showed DS/Cu-inhibited clonogenicity of BC cells. Mammosphere formation and the ALDH1+VE and CD24Low/CD44High CSCs population in mammospheres were significantly inhibited by exposure to DS/Cu for 24 h. Disulfiram/copper induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activated its downstream apoptosis-related cJun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, the constitutive NFκB activity in BC cell lines was inhibited by DS/Cu. Conclusion: Disulfiram/copper inhibited BCSCs and enhanced cytotoxicity of PAC in BC cell lines. This may be caused by simultaneous induction of ROS and inhibition of NFκB. PMID:21487404

  9. The crucial role of Activin A on the formation of primordial germ cell-like cells from skin-derived stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Tan, Hui; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Yin, Shen; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Lan; Dyce, Paul; Li, Julang; Yang, Xiao; Shi, Qing-Hua; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are founder cells of the germ cell lineage, and can be differentiated from stem cells in an induced system in vitro. However, the induction conditions need to be optimized in order to improve the differentiation efficiency. Activin A (ActA) is a member of the TGF-β super family and plays an important role in oogenesis and folliculogenesis. In the present study, we found that ActA promoted PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) formation from mouse skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) in both embryoid body-like structure (EBLS) differentiation and the co-culture stage in a dose dependent manner. ActA treatment (100 ng/ml) during EBLS differentiation stage and further co-cultured for 6 days without ActA significantly increased PGCLCs from 53.2% to 82.8%, and as well as EBLS differentiation without ActA followed by co-cultured with 100 ng/ml ActA for 4 to 12 days with the percentage of PGCLCs increasing markedly in vitro. Moreover, mice treated with ActA at 100 ng/kg body weight from embryonic day (E) 5.5-12.5 led to more PGCs formation. However, the stimulating effects of ActA were interrupted by Smad3 RNAi, and in an in vitro cultured Smad3(-/-) mouse skin cells scenario. SMAD3 is thus likely a key effecter molecule in the ActA signaling pathway. In addition, we found that the expression of some epiblast cell markers, Fgf5, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and Wnt3, was increased in EBLSs cultured for 4 days or PGCLCs co-cultured for 12 days with ActA treatment. Interestingly, at 16 days of differentiation, the percentage of PGCLCs was decreased in the presence of ActA, but the expression of meiosis-relative genes, such as Stra8, Dmc1, Sycp3 and Sycp1, was increased. In conclusion, our data here demonstrated that ActA can promote PGCLC formation from SDSCs in vitro, at early stages of differentiation, and affect meiotic initiation of PGCLCs in later stages.

  10. Neural stem cell-like cells derived from autologous bone mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for cerebral palsy, which refers to a category of brain diseases that are associated with chronic motor disability in children. Autologous MSCs may be a better cell source and have been studied for the treatment of cerebral palsy because of their functions in tissue repair and the regulation of immunological processes. Methods To assess neural stem cell–like (NSC-like cells derived from autologous marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy, a total of 60 cerebral palsy patients were enrolled in this open-label, non-randomised, observer-blinded controlled clinical study with a 6-months follow-up. For the transplantation group, a total of 30 cerebral palsy patients received an autologous NSC-like cells transplantation (1-2 × 107 cells into the subarachnoid cavity and rehabilitation treatments whereas 30 patients in the control group only received rehabilitation treatment. Results We recorded the gross motor function measurement scores, language quotients, and adverse events up to 6 months post-treatment. The gross motor function measurement scores in the transplantation group were significantly higher at month 3 (the score increase was 42.6, 95% CI: 9.8–75.3, P=.011 and month 6 (the score increase was 58.6, 95% CI: 25.8–91.4, P=.001 post-treatment compared with the baseline scores. The increase in the Gross Motor Function Measurement scores in the control group was not significant. The increases in the language quotients at months 1, 3, and 6 post-treatment were not statistically significant when compared with the baseline quotients in both groups. All the 60 patients survived, and none of the patients experienced serious adverse events or complications. Conclusion Our results indicated that NSC-like cells are safe and effective for the treatment of motor deficits related to cerebral palsy. Further randomised clinical

  11. Inhibition of CD147 expression by RNA interference reduces proliferation, invasion and increases chemosensitivity in cancer stem cell-like HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Liu, Xian; Lin, Kang; Peng, Hongxin; Cho, William C; Wang, Shukui

    2015-10-01

    The association between CD147 and cancer stem cells (CSCs) provides a new angle for cancer treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological roles of CD147 in colorectal CSCs. The Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector was used to isolate CSCs and pYr-mir30-shRNA was used to generate short hairpin RNA (shRNA) specifically for CD147. After RNA interference (RNAi), CD147 was evaluated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, and its biological functions were assessed by MTT and invasion assays. The results showed that the differentiation of isolated CSC-like HT-29 cells was blocked and these cells were highly positive for CD44 and CD147. RNAi-mediated CD147 silencing reduced the expression of CD147 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the activities of proliferation and invasion were decreased obviously in CSCs. Knockdown of CD147 increased the chemosensitivity of CSC-like cells to gemcitabine, cisplatin, docetaxel at 0.1, 1 and 10 µM respectively, however, there was no significant difference among the three groups to paclitaxel at 10 µM. In conclusion, these results suggest that CD147 plays an important role in colorectal CSCs and might be regarded as a novel CSC-specific targeted strategy against colorectal cancer.

  12. Synergistic effect of oridonin and a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We demonstrate the synergistic antitumor effect of oridonin and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 on the non-germinal center B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (non-GCB DLBCL both in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism may be multifunctional, involving apoptosis, AKT/mTOR and NF-kB inactivation, and ROS-mediated DNA damage response. Our findings pave the way for a new potential treatment option for non-GCB DLBCL with the combination of oridonin and NVP-BEZ235.

  13. Critical role of PI3K signaling for NF-kappaB-dependent survival in a subset of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Bernhard; Nagel, Daniel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Grau, Michael; Düwel, Michael; Vincendeau, Michelle; Dörken, Bernd; Lenz, Peter; Lenz, Georg; Krappmann, Daniel

    2011-01-04

    The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents a very aggressive human lymphoma entity. Constitutive NF-κB activation caused by chronic active B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is common feature of many ABC DLBCL cells; however, the pathways linking BCR signaling to the NF-κB prosurvival network are largely unknown. Here we report that constitutive activity of PI3K and the downstream kinase PDK1 are essential for the viability of two ABC DLBCL cell lines that carry mutations in the BCR proximal signaling adaptor CD79B. In these cells, PI3K inhibition reduces NF-κB activity and decreases the expression of NF-κB target genes. Furthermore, PI3K and PDK1 are required for maintaining MALT1 protease activity, which promotes survival of the affected ABC DLBCL cells. These results demonstrate a critical function of PI3K-PDK1 signaling upstream of MALT1 protease and NF-κB in distinct ABC DLBCL cells and provide a rationale for the pharmacologic use of PI3K inhibitors in DLBCL therapy.

  14. Rapid and transient activation of gamma/delta T cells to interferon gamma production, NK cell-like killing and antigen processing during acute virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma/delta T cells are the majority peripheral blood T cells in young cattle. The role of gamma/delta T cells in innate responses against infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was analyzed on 5 consecutive days following infection. Before infection, bovine gamma/delta T cells expressed...

  15. MicroRNA profiling of cisplatin-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines enriched with cancer-stem-cell-like and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruma Dey; Ghuwalewala, Sangeeta; Das, Pijush; Mandloi, Sapan; Alam, Sk Kayum; Chakraborty, Jayanta; Sarkar, Sajal; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Panda, Chinmoy Kumar; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is of major public health problem in India. Current investigation was aimed to identify the specific deregulated miRNAs which are responsible for development of resistance phenotype through regulating their resistance related target gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cisplatin-resistant OSCC cell lines were developed from their parental human OSCC cell lines and subsequently characterised. The resistant cells exhibited enhanced proliferative, clonogenic capacity with significant up-regulation of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), c-Myc, survivin, β-catenin and a putative cancer-stem-like signature with increased expression of CD44, whereas the loss of E-cadherin signifies induced EMT phenotype. A comparative analysis of miRNA expression profiling in parental and cisplatin-resistant OSCC cell lines for a selected sets (deregulated miRNAs in head and neck cancer) revealed resistance specific signature. Moreover, we observed similar expression pattern for these resistance specific signature miRNAs in neoadjuvant chemotherapy treated and recurrent tumours compared to those with newly diagnosed primary tumours in patients with OSCC. All these results revealed that these miRNAs play an important role in the development of cisplatin-resistance mainly through modulating cancer stem-cell-like and EMT-type properties in OSCC. PMID:27045798

  16. Overexpression of snail induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and a cancer stem cell-like phenotype in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Samuel, Shaija; Evans, Kurt W; Lu, Jia; Xia, Ling; Zhou, Yunfei; Sceusi, Eric; Tozzi, Federico; Ye, Xiang-Cang; Mani, Sendurai A; Ellis, Lee M

    2012-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process providing tumor cells with the ability to migrate and escape from the primary tumor and metastasize to distant sites. Recently, EMT was shown to be associated with the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in breast cancer. Snail is a transcription factor that mediates EMT in a number of tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Our study was done to determine the role of Snail in mediating EMT and CSC function in CRC. Human CRC specimens were stained for Snail expression, and human CRC cell lines were transduced with a retroviral Snail construct or vector control. Cell proliferation and chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin of the infected cells were determined by the MTT (colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Migration and invasion were determined in vitro using modified Boyden chamber assays. EMT and putative CSC markers were analyzed using Western blotting. Intravenous injection of tumor cells was done to evaluate their metastatic potential in mice. Snail was overexpressed in human CRC surgical specimens. This overexpression induced EMT and a CSC-like phenotype in human CRC cells and enhanced cell migration and invasion (P Snail overexpression also led to an increase in metastasis formation in vivo (P Snail-overexpressing CRC cells were more chemoresistant to oxaliplatin than control cells. Increased Snail expression induces EMT and the CSC-like phenotype in CRC cells, which enhance cancer cell invasion and chemoresistance. Thus, Snail is a potential therapeutic target in metastatic CRC.

  17. Overexpression of SDF-1 activates the NF-κB pathway to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like phenotypes of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingxin; Guo, Sufen; Liu, Chunfeng; Zhao, Yiling; Feng, Chong; Liu, Yunshuang; Wang, Tao; Li, Caijuan

    2016-03-01

    The formation of EMT and EMT-induced CSC-like phenotype is crucial for the metastasis of tumor cells. The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is upregulated in various human carcinomas, which is closely associated with proliferation, migration, invasion and prognosis of malignancies. However, limited attention has been directed towards the effect of SDF-1 on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) or cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype formation in breast cancer cells and the related mechanism. In the present study, we screened MCF-7 cells with low SDF-1 expression level for the purpose of evaluating whether SDF-1 is involved in EMT and CSC-like phenotype formation in MCF-7 cells. The pEGFP-N1-SDF-1 plasmid was transfected into MCF-7 cells, and the stably overexpressed SDF-1 in MCF-7 cells was confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Colony formation assay, MTT, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay demonstrated that overexpression of SDF-1 significantly boosted the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells compared with parental (PSDF-1 overexpressing MCF-7 cells (PSDF-1 overexpressed MCF-7 cells in comparison with parental (PSDF-1 induced the activation of NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. Conversely, suppressing or silencing p65 expression by antagonist or RNA interference could remarkably increase the expression of E-cadherin in SDF-1 overexpressed MCF-7 cells (PSDF-1 enhanced EMT by activating the NF-κB pathway of MCF-7 cells and further induced the formation of CSC-like phenotypes, ultimately promoting the proliferation and metastasis of MCF-7 cells. Therefore, SDF-1 may further be assessed as a potential target for gene therapy of breast cancer.

  18. Reduced TRMU expression increases the sensitivity of hair-cell-like HEI-OC-1 cells to neomycin damage in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuhong; Sun, Shan; Waqas, Muhammad; Zhang, Xiaoli; Qian, Fuping; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Mingshu; Zhang, Shasha; Wang, Yongming; Tang, Mingliang; Li, Huawei; Chai, Renjie

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are ototoxic to the cochlear hair cells, and mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major mechanisms behind ototoxic drug-induced hair cell death. TRMU (tRNA 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase) is a mitochondrial protein that participates in mitochondrial tRNA modifications, but the role of TRMU in aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity remains to be elucidated. In this study, we took advantage of the HEI-OC-1 cell line to investigate the role of TRMU in aminoglycoside-induced cell death. We found that TRMU is expressed in both hair cells and HEI-OC-1 cells, and its expression is significantly decreased after 24 h neomycin treatment. We then downregulated TRMU expression with siRNA and found that cell death and apoptosis were significantly increased after neomycin injury. Furthermore, when we down-regulated TRMU expression, we observed significantly increased mitochondrial dysfunction and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after neomycin injury, suggesting that TRMU regulates mitochondrial function and ROS levels. Lastly, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine rescued the mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis that was induced by TRMU downregulation, suggesting that ROS accumulation contributed to the increased aminoglycosides sensitivity of HEI-OC-1 cells after TRMU downregulation. This study provides evidence that TRMU might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. PMID:27405449

  19. Optimization of culture conditions for the expansion of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem or stromal cell-like cells using xeno-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlapatka, Tim; Moretti, Pierre; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Hass, Ralf; Marquardt, Nicole; Jacobs, Roland; Kasper, Cornelia

    2011-04-01

    First isolated from bone marrow, mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) were shown to be present in several postnatal and extraembryonic tissues as well as in a large variety of fetal tissues (e.g., fatty tissue, dental pulp, placenta, umbilical cord blood, and tissue). In this study, an optimized protocol for the expansion of MSC-like cells from whole umbilical cord tissue under xeno-free culture conditions is proposed. Different fetal calf sera and human serum (HS) were compared with regard to cell proliferation and MSC marker stability in long-term expansion experiments, and HS was shown to support optimal growth conditions. Additionally, the optimal concentration of HS during the cultivation was determined. With regard to cell proliferative potential, apoptosis, colony-forming unit fibroblast frequency, and cell senescence, our findings suggest that an efficient expansion of the cells is carried out best in media supplemented with 10% HS. Under our given xeno-free culture conditions, MSC-like cells were found to display in vitro immunoprivileged and immunomodulatory properties, which were assessed by co-culture and transwell culture experiments with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These findings may be of great value for the establishment of biotechnological protocols for the delivery of sufficient cell numbers of high quality for regenerative medicine purposes.

  20. c-Myb knockdown increases the neomycin-induced damage to hair-cell-like HEI-OC1 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wenwen; Fan, Zhaomin; Qian, Fuping; Zhang, Daogong; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Sun, Gaoying; Qi, Jieyu; Zhang, Shasha; Tang, Mingliang; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Wang, Haibo

    2017-01-23

    c-Myb is a transcription factor that plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been reported that c-Myb is expressed within the chicken otic placode, but whether c-Myb exists in the mammalian cochlea, and how it exerts its effects, has not been explored yet. Here, we investigated the expression of c-Myb in the postnatal mouse cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and found that c-Myb was expressed in the hair cells (HCs) of mouse cochlea as well as in cultured HEI-OC1 cells. Next, we demonstrated that c-Myb expression was decreased in response to neomycin treatment in both cochlear HCs and HEI-OC1 cells, suggesting an otoprotective role for c-Myb. We then knocked down c-Myb expression with shRNA transfection in HEI-OC1 cells and found that c-Myb knockdown decreased cell viability, increased expression of pro-apoptotic factors, and enhanced cell apoptosis after neomycin insult. Mechanistic studies revealed that c-Myb knockdown increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species and decreased Bcl-2 expression, both of which are likely to be responsible for the increased sensitivity of c-Myb knockdown cells to neomycin. This study provides evidence that c-Myb might serve as a new target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced HC loss.

  1. P01.14PRESENCE OF A STEM CELL-LIKE CELL SUBPOPULATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH ENHANCED SURVIVAL OF GLIOBLASTOMA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetsch, D.; Spiegl-Kreinecker, S.; Kiesel, B.; Widhalm, G.; Laaber, M.; Knosp, E.; Hainfellner, J.; Marosi, C.; Berger, W.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumours characterised by a dismal prognosis and limited treatment response. The current standard of care for GBM patients includes after tumour resection, radiotherapy (RT) followed by concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). Even at this maximal therapy the prognosis of GBM patients remains poor with a median survival of 15 months. It is believed that a subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSC) is responsible for maintaining a tumour after therapy thus causing recurrence after gross total resection. Accordingly aim of this study was to correlate the presence of GSCs with the predictive and prognostic glioblastoma biomarkers MGMT promoter methylation and TERT promoter mutation, respectively. In addition we investigated the prognostic quality of a GSC subpopulation on patient overall survival. For that purpose 33 primary and recurrent GBM patients operated at the Medical University of Vienna since September 2009 were included in this project. Every resected tumour sample was cultured in parallel as adherent monolayer under standard and as spheroids under GSC culture conditions. Fourteen out of 33 GBM tissue specimens (42%) developed into adherent and neurosphere cultures (termed GCSpos), while the remaining 19 (58%) could solely grow as adherent monolayer (termed GSCneg). The mean age of GSCpos patients was significantly lower as compared to the GSCneg subgroup (53 versus 63 years). The GSCpos cohort was characterized by significantly enhanced occurrence of MGMT promoter methylation and TERT promoter mutation. Surprisingly, GCSpos compared to GCSneg patients showed a significant prolonged overall survival (p = 0.0045). Summarizing our data suggest that GBM tumours harbouring GSC characteristics might be more likely to respond to standard therapy with TMZ due to the favourable MGMT promoter methylation status explaining, beside lower patient age

  2. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L;

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC ...

  3. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC ...

  4. BORIS up-regulates OCT4 via histone methylation to promote cancer stem cell-like properties in human liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuying; Chen, Kefei; Liu, Zhongjian; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Rongce; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiaoqin; He, Jingyang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianguo; Qin, Yang; Li, Bo

    2017-09-10

    Accumulating evidence has revealed the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in chemoresistance and recurrence. BORIS, a testes-specific CTCF paralog, has been shown to be associated with stemness traits of embryonic cancer cells and epithelial CSCs. We previously reported that BORIS is correlated with the expression of the CSC marker CD90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These results encourage us to wonder whether BORIS exerts functions on CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells. Here, we report that BORIS was enriched in HCC tissues. Exogenous overexpression of BORIS promoted CSC-like properties, including self-renewal, chemoresistance, migration and invasion in Huh7 and HCCLM3 cells. Conversely, BORIS knockdown suppressed CSC-like properties in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells and inhibited tumorigenicity in SMMC-7721 cells. Moreover, BORIS alteration did not affect the DNA methylation status of the minimal promoter and exon 1 region of OCT4. However, BORIS overexpression enhanced the amount of BORIS bound on the OCT4 promoter and increased H3K4me2, while reducing H3K27me3; BORIS depletion decreased BORIS and H3K4me2 on the OCT4 promoter, while increasing H3K27me3. These results revealed that BORIS is associated with the CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells through the epigenetic regulation of OCT4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. c-Myb knockdown increases the neomycin-induced damage to hair-cell-like HEI-OC1 cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Yu; Wenwen Liu; Zhaomin Fan; Fuping Qian; Daogong Zhang; Yuechen Han; Lei Xu; Gaoying Sun; Jieyu Qi; Shasha Zhang; Mingliang Tang; Jianfeng Li; Renjie Chai; Haibo Wang

    2017-01-01

    c-Myb is a transcription factor that plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been reported that c-Myb is expressed within the chicken otic placode, but whether c-Myb exists in the mammalian cochlea, and how it exerts its effects, has not been explored yet. Here, we investigated the expression of c-Myb in the postnatal mouse cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and found that c-Myb was expressed in the hair cells (HCs) of mouse cochlea as well as in cultured HEI-OC1...

  6. The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is required for growth of CD44⁺CD24⁻ stem cell-like breast cancer cells in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Lauren L C; Almendro, Vanessa; Marusyk, Andriy; Shipitsin, Michail; Schemme, Janina; Walker, Sarah R; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga; Kim, Jessica J; Choudhury, Sibgat A; Maruyama, Reo; Wu, Zhenhua; Gönen, Mithat; Mulvey, Laura A; Bessarabova, Marina O; Huh, Sung Jin; Silver, Serena J; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Hee Eun; Anderson, Karen S; Richardson, Andrea L; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri; Liu, X Shirley; Root, David E; Hahn, William C; Frank, David A; Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-07-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity is a major clinical problem because tumor cell subtypes display variable sensitivity to therapeutics and may play different roles in progression. We previously characterized 2 cell populations in human breast tumors with distinct properties: CD44+CD24- cells that have stem cell-like characteristics, and CD44-CD24+ cells that resemble more differentiated breast cancer cells. Here we identified 15 genes required for cell growth or proliferation in CD44+CD24- human breast cancer cells in a large-scale loss-of-function screen and found that inhibition of several of these (IL6, PTGIS, HAS1, CXCL3, and PFKFB3) reduced Stat3 activation. We found that the IL-6/JAK2/Stat3 pathway was preferentially active in CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells compared with other tumor cell types, and inhibition of JAK2 decreased their number and blocked growth of xenografts. Our results highlight the differences between distinct breast cancer cell types and identify targets such as JAK2 and Stat3 that may lead to more specific and effective breast cancer therapies.

  7. Proteogenomic analysis of NCC-S1M, a gastric cancer stem cell-like cell line that responds to anti-PD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Won; Um, Hyejin; Yang, Hanna; Ko, Woori; Kim, Dae-Yong; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2017-03-11

    To elucidate signaling pathways that regulate gastric cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes and immune checkpoint, we performed a proteogenomic analysis of NCC-S1M, which is a gastric cancer cell line with CSC-like characteristics and is the only syngeneic gastric tumor cell line transplant model created in the scientific community. We found that the NCC-S1M allograft was responsive to anti-PD-1 treatment, and overexpressed Cd274 encoding PD-L1. PD-L1 was transcriptionally activated by loss of the TGF-β signaling. Il1rl1 protein was overexpressed in NCC-S1M cells compared with NCC-S1 cells that are less tumorigenic and less chemoresistant. Il1rl1 knockdown in NCC-S1M cells reduced tumorigenic potential and in vivo chemoresistance. Our proteogenomic analysis demonstrates a role of Smad4 loss in the PD-L1 immune evasion, as well as Il1rl1's role in CSC-like properties of NCC-S1M. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genistein Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Like Cells Isolated from High and Low Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Yasaman; Sharifi Rad, Mohammad Reza; Taghipour, Mousa; Chenari, Nooshafarin; Ghaderi, Abbas; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh

    2016-12-01

    Objective: Brain tumors cause great mortality and morbidity worldwide, and success rates with surgical treatment remain very low. Several recent studies have focused on introduction of novel effective medical therapeutic approaches. Genistein is a member of the isoflavonoid family which has proved to exert anticancer effects. Here we assessed the effects of genistein on the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF in low and high grade gliomas in vitro. Materials and Methods: High and low grade glioma tumor tissue samples were obtained from a total of 16 patients, washed with PBS, cut into small pieces, digested with collagenase type I and cultured in DMEM containing 10% FBS. When cells reached passage 3, they were exposed to genistein and MMP-2 and VEGF gene transcripts were determined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: Expression of MMP-2 demonstrated 580-fold reduction in expression in low grade glioma cells post treatment with genistein compared to untreated cells (P value= 0.05). In cells derived from high grade lesions, expression of MMP-2 was 2-fold lower than in controls (P value> 0.05). Genistein caused a 4.7-fold reduction in VEGF transcript in high grade glioma cells (P value> 0.05) but no effects were evident in low grade glioma cells. Conclusion. Based on the data of the present study, low grade glioma cells appear much more sensitive to genistein and this isoflavone might offer an appropriate therapeutic intervention in these patients. Further investigation of this possibility is clearly warranted.

  9. A mix of S and ΔS variants of STAT3 enable survival of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M; Turton, K B; Zhu, F; Li, Y; Grindle, K M; Annis, D S; Lu, L; Drennan, A C; Tweardy, D J; Bharadwaj, U; Mosher, D F; Rui, L

    2016-01-01

    Activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL) is characterized by increased expression and activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). ABC DLBCL cells require STAT3 for growth in culture. In ABC DLBCL cells, eosinophils and perhaps all cells, four variant STAT3 mRNAs (Sα, ΔSα, Sβ and ΔSβ) are present as a result of two alternative splicing events, one that results in the inclusion of a 55-residue C-terminal transactivation domain (α) or a truncated C-terminal domain with 7 unique residues (β) and a second that includes (S) or excludes (ΔS) the codon for Ser-701 in the linker between the SH2 and C-terminal domains. A substantial literature indicates that both α and β variants are required for optimal STAT3 function, but nothing is known about functions of ΔS variants. We used a knockdown/re-expression strategy to explore whether survival of ABC DLBCL cells requires that the four variants be in an appropriate ratio. No single variant rescued survival as well as STAT3Sα-C, Sα with activating mutations (A661C and N663C) in the SH2 domain. Better rescue was achieved when all four variants were re-expressed or Sα and ΔSα or Sβ and ΔSβ were re-expressed in pairs. Rescue correlated with expression of STAT3-sensitive genes NFKBIA and NFKBIZ. We consider a variety of explanations why a mix of S and ΔS variants of STAT3 should enable survival of ABC DLBCL cells. PMID:26727576

  10. Epigenetic remodeling in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in two tracks and employs embryonic stem cell-like signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Muench, Marcus O; Fomin, Marina E; Xiao, Jianqiao; Zhou, Mi; de Smith, Adam; Martín-Subero, José I; Heath, Simon; Houseman, E Andres; Roy, Ritu; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2015-03-11

    We investigated DNA methylomes of pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALLs) using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-definition microarrays, along with RNA expression profiles. Epigenetic alteration of B-ALLs occurred in two tracks: de novo methylation of small functional compartments and demethylation of large inter-compartmental backbones. The deviations were exaggerated in lamina-associated domains, with differences corresponding to methylation clusters and/or cytogenetic groups. Our data also suggested a pivotal role of polycomb and CTBP2 in de novo methylation, which may be traced back to bivalency status of embryonic stem cells. Driven by these potent epigenetic modulations, suppression of polycomb target genes was observed along with disruption of developmental fate and cell cycle and mismatch repair pathways and altered activities of key upstream regulators.

  11. Heat Shock Factor 1 Depletion Sensitizes A172 Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide via Suppression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Nim Im

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting cell death suppressor (BIS. HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, although it is still unclear whether this interaction is critical in the regulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs. In this study, we examined whether small interfering RNA-mediated BIS knockdown decreased protein levels of HSF1 and subsequent nuclear localization under GSC-like sphere (SP-forming conditions. Consistent with BIS depletion, HSF1 knockdown also reduced sex determining region Y (SRY-box 2 (SOX2 expression, a marker of stemness, accompanying the decrease in SP-forming ability and matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2 activity. When HSF1 or BIS knockdown was combined with temozolomide (TMZ treatment, a standard drug used in glioblastoma therapy, apoptosis increased, as measured by an increase in poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, whereas cancer stem-like properties, such as colony-forming activity and SOX2 protein expression, decreased. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting BIS or HSF1 could be a viable therapeutic strategy for GSCs resistant to conventional TMZ treatment.

  12. Heat Shock Factor 1 Depletion Sensitizes A172 Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide via Suppression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chang-Nim; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) interacting cell death suppressor (BIS). HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, although it is still unclear whether this interaction is critical in the regulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we examined whether small interfering RNA-mediated BIS knockdown decreased protein levels of HSF1 and subsequent nuclear localization under GSC-like sphere (SP)-forming conditions. Consistent with BIS depletion, HSF1 knockdown also reduced sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) expression, a marker of stemness, accompanying the decrease in SP-forming ability and matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) activity. When HSF1 or BIS knockdown was combined with temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, a standard drug used in glioblastoma therapy, apoptosis increased, as measured by an increase in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, whereas cancer stem-like properties, such as colony-forming activity and SOX2 protein expression, decreased. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting BIS or HSF1 could be a viable therapeutic strategy for GSCs resistant to conventional TMZ treatment. PMID:28241425

  13. Long Noncoding RNA lncCAMTA1 Promotes Proliferation and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of Liver Cancer by Inhibiting CAMTA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li-Juan; Li, Yan; Wang, Shu-Dong; Wang, Xin-Sen; Fang, Fang; Wang, Wei-Yao; Lv, Peng; Zhao, Dong-Hai; Wei, Feng; Qi, Ling

    2016-09-23

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common subtype of liver malignancy, and it is characterized by poor prognosis because of cancer stem cell (CSC)-mediated high postsurgical recurrence rates. Thus, targeting CSCs, or HCC cells with CSC-like properties, is an effective strategy for HCC therapy. Here, using long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) microarray analysis, we identified a novel lncRNA termed lncCAMTA1 that is increased in both liver CSCs and HCC. High lncCAMTA1 expression in HCC indicates poor clinical outcome. In vitro and in vivo functional experiments showed that overexpression of lncCAMTA1 promotes HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Conversely, depletion of lncCAMTA1 inhibits HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that lncCAMTA1 physically associates with the calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) promoter, induces a repressive chromatin structure, and inhibits CAMTA1 transcription. Furthermore, CAMTA1 is required for the effects of lncCAMTA1 on HCC cell proliferation and CSC-like properties, and the expression of lncCAMTA1 and CAMTA1 is significantly negatively correlated in HCC tissues. Collectively, our study revealed the important roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of lncCAMTA1 on HCC, and suggested that lncCAMTA1 could be an effective prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  14. Long Noncoding RNA lncCAMTA1 Promotes Proliferation and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of Liver Cancer by Inhibiting CAMTA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common subtype of liver malignancy, and it is characterized by poor prognosis because of cancer stem cell (CSC-mediated high postsurgical recurrence rates. Thus, targeting CSCs, or HCC cells with CSC-like properties, is an effective strategy for HCC therapy. Here, using long noncoding RNA (lncRNA microarray analysis, we identified a novel lncRNA termed lncCAMTA1 that is increased in both liver CSCs and HCC. High lncCAMTA1 expression in HCC indicates poor clinical outcome. In vitro and in vivo functional experiments showed that overexpression of lncCAMTA1 promotes HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Conversely, depletion of lncCAMTA1 inhibits HCC cell proliferation, CSC-like properties, and tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that lncCAMTA1 physically associates with the calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1 promoter, induces a repressive chromatin structure, and inhibits CAMTA1 transcription. Furthermore, CAMTA1 is required for the effects of lncCAMTA1 on HCC cell proliferation and CSC-like properties, and the expression of lncCAMTA1 and CAMTA1 is significantly negatively correlated in HCC tissues. Collectively, our study revealed the important roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of lncCAMTA1 on HCC, and suggested that lncCAMTA1 could be an effective prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  15. Functional heterogeneity within the CD44 high human breast cancer stem cell-like compartment reveals a gene signature predictive of distant metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Terp, Mikkel Green; Christensen, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    The CD44(hi) compartment in human breast cancer is enriched in tumor-initiating cells; however the functional heterogeneity within this subpopulation remains poorly defined. We used a triple-negative breast cancer cell line with a known bi-lineage phenotype to isolate and clone CD44(hi) single......-cells that exhibited mesenchymal/Basal B and luminal/Basal A features, respectively. Herein we demonstrate in this and other triple-negative breast cancer cell lines that rather than CD44(hi)/CD24(-) mesenchymal-like Basal B cells, the CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) epithelioid Basal A cells retained classical cancer stem cell...... of estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancers. These findings strongly favor functional heterogeneity in the breast cancer cell compartment and hold promise for further refinements of prognostic marker profiling. Our work confirms that, in addition to cancer stem cells with mesenchymal-like morphology...

  16. Coupling of small leucine-rich proteoglycans to hypoxic survival of a progenitor cell-like subpopulation in Rhesus Macaque intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shishu; Leung, Victor Y L; Long, Dan; Chan, Danny; Lu, William W; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Zhou, Guangqian

    2013-09-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a major spinal disorder that associates with neck and back pain. Recent studies of clinical samples and animal models for IVD degeneration have identified cells with multi-potency in the IVD. However, IVD tissue-specific progenitor cells and their niche components are not clear, although degenerated IVD-derived cells possess in vitro characteristics of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs). Here, we firstly identified the tissue-specific intervertebral disc progenitor cells (DPCs) from healthy Rhesus monkey and report the niche components modulated the survival of DPCs under hypoxia. DPCs possess clonogenicity, multipotency and retain differentiation potential after extended expansion in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the nucleus pulposus-derived DPCs are sensitive to low oxygen tension and undergo apoptosis under hypoxic conditions due to their inability to induce/stabilize hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). The presence of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRP), biglycan or decorin, can reduce the susceptibility of DPCs to hypoxia-induced apoptosis via promoting the activation/stabilization of HIF-1α and HIF-2α. As IVD is avascular, we propose SLRPs are niche components of DPCs in IVD homeostasis, providing new insights in progenitor cell biology and niche factors under a hypoxic microenvironment.

  17. Helicobacter pylori upregulates Nanog and Oct4 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to promote cancer stem cell-like properties in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Xin; Tang, Bo; Xiao, Yu-Feng; Xie, Rui; Qin, Yong; Luo, Gang; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Dong, Hui; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is considered a major risk factor for gastric cancer. CagA behaves as a major bacterial oncoprotein playing a key role in H. pylori-induced tumorigenesis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to possess the ability to initiate tumorigenesis and promote progression. Although studies have suggested that cancer cells can exhibit CSC-like properties in the tumor microenvironment, it remains unclear whether H. pylori infection could induce the emergence of CSC-like properties in gastric cancer cells and, the underlying mechanism. Here, gastric cancer cells were co-cultured with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain or a CagA isogenic mutant strain. We found that H. pylori-infected gastric cancer cells exhibited CSC-like properties, including an increased expression of CSC specific surface markers CD44 and Lgr5, as well as that of Nanog, Oct4 and c-myc, which are known pluripotency genes, and an increased capacity for self-renewal, whereas these properties were not observed in the CagA isogenic mutant strain-infected cells. Further studies revealed that H. pylori activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in a CagA-dependent manner and that the activation of this pathway was dependent upon CagA-positive H. pylori-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at the C-terminal Ser675 and Ser552 residues in a c-met- and/or Akt-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that this activation was responsible for H. pylori-induced CSC-like properties. Moreover, we found the promoter activity of Nanog and Oct4 were upregulated, and β-catenin was observed to bind to these promoters during H. pylori infection, while a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor suppressed promoter activity and binding. Taken together, these results suggest that H. pylori upregulates Nanog and Oct4 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to promote CSC-like properties in gastric cancer cells.

  18. EpCAM-regulated intramembrane proteolysis induces a cancer stem cell-like gene signature in hepatitis B virus-infected hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Saravana Kumar Kailasam; Zhang, Hao; Diab, Ahmed; Pascuzzi, Pete E.; Lefrançois, Lydie; Fares, Nadim; Bancel, Brigitte; Merle, Philippe; Andrisani, Ourania

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocytes in which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is replicating exhibit loss of the chromatin modifying polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), resulting in re-expression of specific, cellular PRC2-repressed genes. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a PRC2-repressed gene, normally expressed in hepatic progenitors, but re-expressed in hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSCs). Herein, we investigated the functional significance of EpCAM re-expression in HBV-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Employing molecular approaches (transfections, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunoblotting, qRT-PCR), we investigated the role of EpCAM-regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in HBV replicating cells in vitro, and in liver tumors from HBV X/c-myc mice and chronically HBV infected patients. Results EpCAM undergoes RIP in HBV replicating cells, activating canonical Wnt signaling. Transfection of Wnt-responsive plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) identified a GFP + population of HBV replicating cells. These GFP+/Wnt+ cells exhibited cisplatin- and sorafenib-resistant growth resembling hCSCs, and increased expression of pluripotency genes NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, and hCSC markers BAMBI, CD44 and CD133. These genes are referred as EpCAM RIP and Wnt-induced hCSC-like gene signature. Interestingly, this gene signature is also overexpressed in liver tumors of X/c-myc bitransgenic mice. Clinically, a group of HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinomas was identified, exhibiting elevated expression of the hCSC-like gene signature and associated with reduced overall survival post-surgical resection. Conclusions The hCSC-like gene signature offers promise as prognostic tool for classifying subtypes of HBV-induced HCCs. Since EpCAM RIP and Wnt signaling drive expression of this hCSC-like signature, inhibition of these pathways can be explored as therapeutic strategy for this subtype of HBV-associated HCCs. Lay summary In this study, we provide evidence

  19. Anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis kill cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Key players in translational regulation such as ribosomes might represent powerful, but hitherto largely unexplored, targets to eliminate drug-refractory cancer stem cells (CSCs). A recent study by the Lisanti group has documented how puromycin, an old antibiotic derived from Streptomyces alboniger that inhibits ribosomal protein translation, can efficiently suppress CSC states in tumorspheres and monolayer cultures. We have used a closely related approach based on Biolog Phenotype Microarray...

  20. Activation of MAPK pathways due to DUSP4 loss promotes cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, Justin M; Schwarz, Luis J; Bhola, Neil E; Kurupi, Richard; Owens, Phillip; Miller, Todd W; Gómez, Henry; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-10-15

    Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is an aggressive disease that lacks a clinically approved targeted therapy. Traditional chemotherapy is effective in BLBC, but it spares the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like population, which is likely to contribute to cancer recurrence after the initial treatment. Dual specificity phosphatase-4 (DUSP4) is a negative regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is deficient in highly aggressive BLBCs treated with chemotherapy, leading to aberrant MAPK activation and resistance to taxane-induced apoptosis. Herein, we investigated how DUSP4 regulates the MAP-ERK kinase (MEK) and c-jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) pathways in modifying CSC-like behavior. DUSP4 loss increased mammosphere formation and the expression of the CSC-promoting cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. These effects were caused in part by loss of control of the MEK and JNK pathways and involved downstream activation of the ETS-1 and c-JUN transcription factors. Enforced expression of DUSP4 reduced the CD44(+)/CD24(-) population in multiple BLBC cell lines in a MEK-dependent manner, limiting tumor formation of claudin-low SUM159PT cells in mice. Our findings support the evaluation of MEK and JNK pathway inhibitors as therapeutic agents in BLBC to eliminate the CSC population.

  1. Inhibition of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V enhances the cetuximab-induced radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells likely through EGFR N-glycan alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaomin; Liu, Ting; Wang, Qiongyao; Zhu, Weiliang; Meng, Hui; Guo, Linlang; Wei, Ting; Zhang, Jian

    2017-05-23

    N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V), an enzyme that catalyses the formation of the N-linked β-1-6 branching of oligosaccharides, is related to the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Cetuximab (C225) is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor used as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of NPC. In this study, we used GnT-V as a molecular target to further sensitize cetuximab-treated NPC cells to radiation. The results from two NPC cell lines (CNE1 and CNE2) revealed that the silencing of GnT-V enhanced cetuximab-induced radiosensitivity by decreasing the β-1-6 branching of oligosaccharides on the EGFR. GnT-V down-regulation combined with cetuximab decreased the survival fraction, healing rate and cell viability and increased the apoptosis rate. Concomitantly, the combination of cetuximab and irradiation did not change the EGFR mRNA and protein levels and decreased the β-1-6 branching on the EGFR. Subsequently, we further explored the signalling downstream of EGF, particularly the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, and discovered that treatment consisting of GnT-V down-regulation, irradiation and cetuximab was negatively correlated with phospho-Akt and phspho-PI3K. Finally, an in vivo experiment with radiotherapy revealed that the combination of GnT-V down-regulation and cetuximab decelerated tumour growth. In summary, our study demonstrated that the combination of decreased GnT-V activity and cetuximab enhanced NPC radiosensitivity, and the possible mechanism underlying this effect might involve the N-linked β1-6 branching of the EGFR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  3. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Ohno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1 the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2 the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  4. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy...... in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical...

  5. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  6. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    kimchi lactobacilli on batch fermentation increased the cell density and lactic acid production with low nutrients .... first series of fermentations were carried out using pure cultures of each ... Each number represents the mean. ± SD of three ...

  7. A Truncated form of CD200 (CD200S Expressed on Glioma Cells Prolonged Survival in a Rat Glioma Model by Induction of a Dendritic Cell-Like Phenotype in Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Kobayashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CD200 induces immunosuppression in myeloid cells expressing its receptor CD200R, which may have consequences for tumor immunity. We found that human carcinoma tissues express not only full-length CD200 (CD200L but also its truncated form, CD200S. Although CD200S is reported to antagonize the immunosuppressive actions of CD200L, the role of CD200S in tumor immunity has never been investigated. We established rat C6 glioma cell lines that expressed either CD200L or CD200S; the original C6 cell line did not express CD200 molecules. The cell lines showed no significant differences in growth. Upon transplantation into the neonatal Wistar rat forebrain parenchyma, rats transplanted with C6-CD200S cells survived for a significantly longer period than those transplanted with the original C6 and C6-CD200L cells. The C6-CD200S tumors were smaller than the C6-CD200L or C6-original tumors, and many apoptotic cells were found in the tumor cell aggregates. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs in C6-CD200S tumors displayed dendritic cell (DC-like morphology with multiple processes and CD86 expression. Furthermore, CD3+, CD4+ or CD8+ cells were more frequently found in C6-CD200S tumors, and the expression of DC markers, granzyme, and perforin was increased in C6-CD200S tumors. Isolated TAMs from original C6 tumors were co-cultured with C6-CD200S cells and showed increased expression of DC markers. These results suggest that CD200S activates TAMs to become DC-like antigen presenting cells, leading to the activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which induce apoptotic elimination of tumor cells. The findings on CD200S action may provide a novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of carcinomas.

  8. Substrate affinity of photosensitizers derived from chlorophyll-a: the ABCG2 transporter affects the phototoxic response of side population stem cell-like cancer cells to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Janet; Jackson, Jennifer D; Zheng, Xiang; Pandey, Suresh K; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2010-10-04

    Photosensitizers (PS) synthesized with the aim of optimizing photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors do not always fulfill their potential when tested in vitro and in vivo in different tumor models. The ATP-dependent transporter ABCG2, a multidrug resistant pump expressed at variable levels in cancerous cells, can bind and efflux a wide range of structurally different classes of compounds including several PS used preclinically and clinically such as porphyrins and chlorins. ABCG2 may lower intracellular levels of substrate PS below the threshold for cell death in tumors treated by PDT, leaving resistant cells to repopulate the tumor. To determine some of the structural factors that affect substrate affinity of PS for ABCG2, we used an ABCG2-expressing cell line (HEK 293 482R) and its nonexpressing counterpart, and tyrosine kinase ABCG2 inhibitors in a simple flow cytometric assay to identify PS effluxed by the ABCG2 pump. We tested a series of conjugates of substrate PS with different groups attached at different positions on the tetrapyrrole macrocycle to examine whether a change in affinity for the pump occurred and whether such changes depended on the position or the structure/type of the attached group. PS without substitutions including pyropheophorbides and purpurinimides were generally substrates for ABCG2, but carbohydrate groups conjugated at positions 8, 12, 13, and 17 but not at position 3 abrogated ABCG2 affinity regardless of structure or linking moiety. At position 3, affinity was retained with the addition of iodobenzene, alkyl chains and monosaccharides, but not with disaccharides. This suggests that structural characteristics at position 3 may offer important contributions to requirements for binding to ABCG2. We examined several tumor cell lines for ABCG2 activity, and found that although some cell lines had negligible ABCG2 activity in bulk, they contained a small ABCG2-expressing side population (SP) thought to contain cells which are responsible

  9. Kinetic assay shows that increasing red cell volume could be a treatment for sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Henry, Eric R.; Hofrichter, James; Smith, Jeffrey F.; Cellmer, Troy; Dunkelberger, Emily B.; Metaferia, Belhu B.; Jones-Straehle, Stacy; Boutom, Sarah; Christoph, Garrott W.; Wakefield, Terri H.; Link, Mary E.; Staton, Dwayne; Vass, Erica R.; Miller, Jeffery L.; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Tisdale, John F.; Eaton, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been known for more than 60 years that the cause of sickle cell disease is polymerization of a hemoglobin mutant, hydroxyurea is the only drug approved for treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration. This drug, however, is only partially successful, and the discovery of additional drugs that inhibit fiber formation has been hampered by the lack of a sensitive and quantitative cellular assay. Here, we describe such a method in a 96-well plate format that is based on laser-induced polymerization in sickle trait cells and robust, automated image analysis to detect the precise time at which fibers distort (“sickle”) the cells. With this kinetic method, we show that small increases in cell volume to reduce the hemoglobin concentration can result in therapeutic increases in the delay time prior to fiber formation. We also show that, of the two drugs (AES103 and GBT440) in clinical trials that inhibit polymerization by increasing oxygen affinity, one of them (GBT440) also inhibits sickling in the absence of oxygen by two additional mechanisms. PMID:28096387

  10. Identification of Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-like Cells from Laryngeal Mucos in Beagle%比格犬会厌黏膜来源干细胞的分离培养与生物学特性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁媛媛; 韩鹏; 杨润琴; 刘阳; 邓志宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨建立喉部黏膜间充质干细胞的分离培养方法,并对其生物学特性进行鉴定,为进一步研究其在喉部瘢痕中形成的作用及喉部组织工程提供参考.方法:以比格犬喉部会厌背侧(舌面)黏膜为研究对象,采用消化培养的方法分离具有间充质干细胞样细胞.选取第3代细胞对其进行生物学特性鉴定,首先利用MTT法检测其增殖活性及克隆形成情况,然后通过流式细胞术检测细胞表面分子标记物CD29及CD34的表达情况,最后应用第3代细胞对其进行成脂肪细胞和成骨细胞分化培养,观察其分化能力.结果:分离培养细胞形态较为一致,绝大多数呈梭形,排列不规则.MTT增殖活性实验及克隆形成试验结果显示,所分离的细胞具有良好的增殖活性和克隆形成率;流式细胞术结果显示,该细胞表达CD29间充质干细胞细胞表面标记物,低表达造血干细胞细胞表面标记物CD34;同时,该细胞诱导分化成脂肪细胞和成骨细胞实验表明,其具有多向分化潜能.结论:从比格犬会厌背侧黏膜分离的细胞具有间充质干细胞样特性,为进一步研究喉部瘢痕形成机制及喉部组织工程提供了技术基础.%Objective:To establish the methods of isolation and cultivation of mesenchymal cells from laryngeal mucosa of beagle and investigate the biological characteristics of the isolated cells.Methods:Laryngeal mucosa were harvested by enzyme digestion.And the third passage of cells were collected to determine the clone formation ability and growth kinetics.And flow cytometry method was used to detect the expression of CD29 and CD34.Then the third passage of isolated cells was treated with adipogenic nutrient media and osteogenic nutrient media respectively.Results:After being subcultured,the sizes of isolated cells were similar,and the majority of them were spindle-shaped with disorderly arrangement.The flow cytometry results showed that the

  11. Hybrid cells derived from breast epithelial cell/breast cancer cell fusion events show a differential RAF-AKT crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Cem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise to stable M13MDA435 hybrid cells, which are characterised by a unique gene expression profile and migratory behaviour. Here we investigated the involvement of the PLC-β/γ1, PI3K/AKT and RAS-RAF-ERK signal transduction cascades in the EGF and SDF-1α induced migration of two M13MDA435 hybrid cell clones in comparison to their parental cells. Results Analysis of the migratory behaviour by using the three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay showed that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells as well as M13MDA435 hybrid cells, but not the breast cancer cell line, responded to EGF stimulation with an increased locomotory activity. By contrast, SDF-1α solely stimulated the migration of M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells, whereas the migratory activity of the other cell lines was blocked. Analysis of signal transduction cascades revealed a putative differential RAF-AKT crosstalk in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrid cell clones. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 effectively blocked the EGF induced migration of M13MDA435-3 hybrid cells, whereas the EGF induced locomotion of M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells was markedly increased. Analysis of RAF-1 S259 phosphorylation, being a major mediator of the negative regulation of RAF-1 by AKT, showed decreased pRAF-1 S259 levels in LY294002 treated M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells. By contrast, pRAF-1 S259 levels remained unaltered in the other cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling by Ly294002 relieves the AKT mediated phosphorylation of RAF-1, thereby restoring MAPK signalling. Conclusions Here we show that hybrid cells could evolve exhibiting a

  12. The repressive effect of miR-148a on TGF beta-SMADs signal pathway is involved in the glabridin-induced inhibition of the cancer stem cells-like properties in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Jiang

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Current standard practices for treatment of HCC are less than satisfactory because of cancer stem cells (CSCs-mediated post-surgical recurrence. For this reason, targeting the CSCs or the cancer cells with CSCs-like properties has become a new approach for the treatment of HCC. GLA exhibits anti-tumor effects in that it attenuates the proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of human cancer cells. However, the functions of GLA in the regulation of CSCs-like properties in HCC cells, and the molecular mechanisms underlying in remain obscure. Here we found that GLA attenuated the CSCs-like properties by the microRNA-148a (miR-148a-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β/SMAD2 signal pathway in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7, and MHCC97H. Indeed, GLA inhibited the activations/expressions of both TGFβ-induced and the endogenous SMAD2. Further, GLA improved the expression of miR-148a in a dose/time-dependent manner. MiR-148a, which targeted the SMAD2-3'UTR, decreased the expression and function of SMAD2. Knockdown of miR-148a abolished the GLA-induced inhibition of TGF-β/SMAD2 signal pathway and the CSCs-like properties in HCC cells. Our study found a novel mechanism that GLA inhibits the CSCs-like properties of HCC cells by miR-148a-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/SMAD2 signal pathway, which may help to identify potential targets for the therapies of HCC.

  13. 人脐血间充质干细胞体外诱导分化为类雪旺细胞的初步研究%Experimental Study on the Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Schwann Cell-like in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇大鹏; 肖玉周

    2011-01-01

    目的:体外定向诱导人脐血间充质干细胞(HUCBMSCs),分化为类雪旺细胞(SC-like).方法:(1)采用Ficoll密度梯度离心法分离健康产妇脐带血中单个核细胞进行体外培养,用流式细胞术检测细胞表达的表面抗原CD90,SH2,CD34和CD45.(2)第3次传代所得的HUCBMSCs,加入加有β-巯基乙醇(β-ME)、全反式黄酸(RA)、Forskolin、b-FGF、PDGF、HRG的含10%胎牛血清(FBS)的低糖DMEM培养基(L-DMEM)诱导,7 d后免疫组织化学染色法检测.结果:(1)HUCBMSCs在体外培养以梭形细胞为主;流式细胞仪检测显示,细胞高表达表面抗原CD90和SH2,低表达表面抗原CD34和CD45.(2)诱导7 d后,细胞免疫组化显示,GFAP阳性率为81.88%±2.43%.结论:在一定条件下,HUCBMSCs可以在体诱导分化为SC-like,组成人工神经,移植修复周围神经缺损.%Objective:To induce the human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (HUCBMSCs) to differentiate into schwann cell-like (SC-like) in vitro. Methods: ( 1 ) Mononuclear cells were separated from umbilical cord blood of healthy parturients by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and cultured in vitro.The expression of surface antigens CD90, SH2, CD34 and CI45 were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). (2)The third passage cells were cultured in low carbohydrates~Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium ( L-DMEM )containing 10% fetal bovine serum(FBS), β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), retinoic acid(RA), forskolin, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) and beregulin(HRG). On 7th day,the cells were identified by immunocytocbemistry. Results: ( 1 )The majority of HUCBMSCs cultured in vitro displayed a spindle shaped appearance. FCM showed that the surface antigens CD90 and SH2 were highly expressed in these cells, while the CD34 and CD45 were very low. (2) On 7th day, the results of immunocytochemistry showed that the cells were positive for GFAP. The positive percentageswere 81.88% ± 2.43

  14. LY294002抑制小细胞肺癌干细胞样细胞自我更新%Inhibition of self-renewal of lung cancer stem cell like cells from small cell lung cancer cell line cultured in vitro by LY294002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易恒仲; 龙灵芝; 周源; 曹建国; 张坚松

    2013-01-01

      目的:研究Akt活性抑制剂LY294002抑制源自人小细胞肺癌NCI-H446细胞系肺癌球形成细胞即肺癌干细胞样细胞(LCSLCs)自我更新作用。方法:体外培养NCI-H446细胞系细胞。以干细胞条件培养基用超低粘附6孔细胞培养板悬浮培养富集和扩增LCSLCs。裸鼠皮下成瘤实验鉴别LCSLCs高致瘤特性。Western blot分析LCSLCs中Akt蛋白磷酸化水平。肿瘤球形成试验检测LY294002对LCSLCs自我更新的影响。结果:干细胞条件培养基悬浮培养6d,NCI-H446细胞系细胞呈三维非粘附性球体生长。 LCSLCs具有高致瘤特性。与NCI-H446细胞系细胞比较,LCSLCs信号分子Akt组成性活化。 LY294002有效降低LCSLCs中Akt磷酸化水平,并以剂量依赖方式抑制LCSLCs肺癌球形成(P<0.05)。结论:靶向干预小细胞肺癌LCSLCs信号分子Akt组成性活化可能成为抑制肺癌干细胞特性治疗小细胞肺癌的新策略。%Objective To investigate LY294002, a inhibitor specific to Akt activities, suppress the self-re-newal of lung cancer stem cell like cells (LCSLCs) from small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 cell line cul-tured in vitro. Methods Human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line was cultured in vitro. Cells were plat-ed in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming, namely LCSLCs. In vivo tumorigenicity ex-periments were used to examine height tumorigenicity of LCSLCs. The phosphorylation level of signaling molecule Akt protein was determined using Wester bolt. Tumor sphere formation assay was used to the inhibitory effects of LY294002 on the self-renewal of LCSLCs. Results The small cell lung cancer cells were plated in stem cell con-ditioned culture medium in 6-well plates at a density of 5,000 cells/well which allowed for the formation of colonies separated from each other for 6d. LCSLCs had the height tumorigenicity in vivo in nude mouse model. The phosphorylation level of signaling molecule

  15. A mycosis fungoides d'emblee showing morphological change in infiltrating lymphoid cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hidekazu (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-11-01

    A 67-year-old woman was treated with electron beam irradiation for Mycosis fungoides d'emblee. Blast-like cells were remarkably increased after irradiation, which replaced mycosis cells. Morphological analysis showed that these cells were similar to those observed in cases of classic mycosis fungoides. Such a noticeable increase of blast-like cells seemed be attributable not only to the aggravation of the underlying disease but also to the involvement of electron beam irradiation. (N.K.).

  16. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells show considerable promise for regenerative medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasymiak-Krzyżanowska, Izabela; Niedojadło, Alicja; Karwat, Jolanta; Kotuła, Lidia; Gil-Kulik, Paulina; Sawiuk, Magdalena; Kocki, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    The stromal-vascular cell fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue can be an abundant source of both multipotent and pluripotent stem cells, known as adipose-derived stem cells or adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs). The SVF also contains vascular cells, targeted progenitor cells, and preadipocytes. Stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue express common surface antigens, show the ability to adhere to plastic, and produce forms that resemble fibroblasts. They are characterized by a high proliferation potential and the ability to differentiate into cells of meso-, ecto- and endodermal origin. Although stem cells obtained from an adult organism have smaller capabilities for differentiation in comparison to embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs), the cost of obtaining them is significantly lower. The 40 years of research that mainly focused on the potential of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) revealed a number of negative factors: the painful sampling procedure, frequent complications, and small cell yield. The number of stem cells in adipose tissue is relatively large, and obtaining them is less invasive. Sampling through simple procedures such as liposuction performed under local anesthesia is less painful, ensuring patient comfort. The isolated cells are easily grown in culture, and they retain their properties over many passages. That is why adipose tissue has recently been treated as an attractive alternative source of stem cells. Essential aspects of ADSC biology and their use in regenerative medicine will be analyzed in this article.

  17. Nanotextured polymer substrates show enhanced cancer cell isolation and cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhymin; Sajid, Adeel; Arif Iftakher Mahmood, M.; Motasim Bellah, Mohammad; Allen, Peter B.; Kim, Young-Tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2015-06-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the early stages of cancer is a great challenge because of their exceedingly small concentration. There are only a few approaches sensitive enough to differentiate tumor cells from the plethora of other cells in a sample like blood. In order to detect CTCs, several antibodies and aptamers have already shown high affinity. Nanotexture can be used to mimic basement membrane to further enhance this affinity. This article reports an approach to fabricate nanotextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using micro reactive ion etching (micro-RIE). Three recipes were used to prepare nanotextured PDMS using oxygen and carbon tetrafluoride. Micro-RIE provided better control on surface properties. Nanotexturing improved the affinity of PDMS surfaces to capture cancer cells using surface immobilized aptamers against cell membrane overexpressed with epidermal growth factor receptors. In all cases, nanotexture of PDMS increased the effective surface area by creating nanoscale roughness on the surface. Nanotexture also enhanced the growth rate of cultured cells compared to plain surfaces. A comparison among the three nanotextured surfaces demonstrated an almost linear relationship between the surface roughness and density of captured tumor cells. The nanotextured PDMS mimicked biophysical environments for cells to grow faster. This can have many implications in microfluidic platforms used for cell handling.

  18. Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Monnier, Sylvain; Cappello, Giovanni; Le Berre, Mael; Piel, Matthieu

    2015-11-23

    The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells.

  19. Salvianolic acid A shows selective cytotoxicity against multidrug-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Longjiang; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Shouju; Wang, Jiandong; Yuan, Caiyun; Niu, Jia; Wang, Chengsheng; Lu, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause for incurable breast cancer. Salvianolic acid A (SAA), the hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen/Red Sage), was examined for cytotoxicities to MDR MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and their parental counterparts. We have shown that SAA inhibited proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and induced apoptosis dose dependently to the two kinds of cancer cells. However, the resistant cells were significantly susceptible to the inhibition of SAA compared with the parental cells. SAA increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 6.2-fold in the resistant cells, whereas the level of SAA-induced ROS changed only by 1.6-fold in their parental counterparts. Thus, the data showed that the selective cytotoxicity resulted from the hypersensitivity of the resistant cells to the strongly elevated ROS by SAA. In addition, SAA-triggered apoptosis was associated with increased caspase-3 activity, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulated Bcl-2 expression, and upregulated Bax expression in the resistant cells. Moreover, SAA downregulated the level of P-glycoprotein, which was overexpressed in the resistant cells. This indicated that SAA modulated MDR. Furthermore, SAA showed higher antitumor activity than did doxorubicin in xenografts established from the resistant cells. The present work raised a possibility that SAA might be considered a potential choice to overcome MDR for the selective susceptibility of the resistant breast cancer cells to SAA treatment.

  20. Thymidine kinase 1 deficient cells show increased survival rate after UV-induced DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, T; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Balanced deoxynucleotide pools are known to be important for correct DNA repair, and deficiency for some of the central enzymes in deoxynucleotide metabolism can cause imbalanced pools, which in turn can lead to mutagenesis and cell death. Here we show that cells deficient for the thymidine salvage...

  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Huntington's disease show CAG-repeat-expansion-associated phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded stretch of CAG trinucleotide repeats that results in neuronal dysfunction and death. Here, The HD Consortium reports the generation and characterization of 14 induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from HD patients and controls. Microarray profiling revealed CAG-repeat-expansion-associated gene expression patterns that distinguish patient lines from controls, and early onset versus late onset HD. Differentiated HD neural cells showed disease-associated changes in electrophysiology, metabolism, cell adhesion, and ultimately cell death for lines with both medium and longer CAG repeat expansions. The longer repeat lines were however the most vulnerable to cellular stressors and BDNF withdrawal, as assessed using a range of assays across consortium laboratories. The HD iPSC collection represents a unique and well-characterized resource to elucidate disease mechanisms in HD and provides a human stem cell platform for screening new candidate therapeutics.

  3. Phase precession in hippocampal interneurons showing strong functional coupling to individual pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Andrew P; Cowen, Stephen L; Burke, Sara N; Barnes, Carol A; McNaughton, Bruce L

    2006-12-27

    Although hippocampal interneurons typically do not show discrete regions of elevated firing in an environment, such as seen in pyramidal cell place fields, they do exhibit significant spatial modulation (McNaughton et al., 1983a). Strong monosynaptic coupling between pyramidal neurons and nearby interneurons in the CA1 stratum pyramidale has been strongly implicated on the basis of significant, short-latency peaks in cross-correlogram plots (Csicsvari et al., 1998). Furthermore, interneurons receiving a putative monosynaptic connection from a simultaneously recorded pyramidal cell appear to inherit the spatial modulation of the latter (Marshall et al., 2002). Buzsaki and colleagues hypothesize that interneurons may also adopt the firing phase dynamics of their afferent place cells, which show a phase shift relative to the hippocampal theta rhythm as a rat passes through the place field ("phase precession"). This study confirms and extends the previous reports by showing that interneurons in the dorsal and middle hippocampus with putative monosynaptic connections with place cells recorded on the same tetrode share other properties with their pyramidal cell afferents, including the spatial scale of the place field of pyramidal cell, a characteristic of the septotemporal level of the hippocampus from which the cells are recorded, and the rate of phase precession, which is slower in middle regions. Furthermore, variations in pyramidal cell place field scale within each septotemporal level attributable to task variations are similarly associated with variations in interneuron place field scale. The available data strongly suggest that spatial selectivity of CA1 stratum pyramidale interneurons is inherited from a small cluster of local pyramidal cells and is not a consequence of spatially selective synaptic input from CA3 or other sources.

  4. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Li, Qian; Ali, Shahjahan; Lezmi, Stephane; Chen, Hong; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Laegreid, William W; Saif, Taher A; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S

    2014-05-29

    Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition. Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher's exact test. Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells. Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular, phenotypical, and mechanical signatures

  5. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xin

    2014-05-29

    Background: Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition.Methods: Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher\\'s exact test.Results: Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells.Conclusions: Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular

  6. Memory in induced pluripotent stem cells: reprogrammed human retinal-pigmented epithelial cells show tendency for spontaneous redifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qirui; Friedrich, Amy M; Johnson, Lincoln V; Clegg, Dennis O

    2010-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from a variety of somatic cell types via introduction of transcription factors that mediate pluripotency. However, it is unknown that all cell types can be reprogrammed and whether the origin of the parental cell ultimately determines the behavior of the resultant iPS cell line. We sought to determine whether human retinal-pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells could be reprogrammed, and to test the hypothesis that reprogrammed cells retain a "memory" of their origin in terms of propensity for differentiation. We reprogrammed primary fetal RPE cells via lentiviral expression of OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, and Nanog. The iPS cell lines derived from RPE exhibited morphologies similar to human embryonic stem cells and other iPS cell lines, expressed stem cell markers, and formed teratomas-containing derivatives of all three germ layers. To test whether these iPS cells retained epigenetic imprints from the parental RPE cells, we analyzed their propensity for spontaneous differentiation back into RPE after removal of FGF2. We found that some, but not all, iPS lines exhibited a marked preference for redifferentiation into RPE. Our results show that RPE cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency, and suggest that they often retain a memory of their previous state of differentiation.

  7. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  8. Monocytes from HIV+ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and increased foam cell formation after transendothelial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAISA, Anna; HEARPS, Anna C.; ANGELOVICH, Thomas A.; PEREIRA, Candida F.; ZHOU, Jingling; SHI, Margaret D.Y.; PALMER, Clovis S.; MULLER, William A.; CROWE, Suzanne M.; JAWOROWSKI, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Design HIV+ individuals have an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease which is independent of antiretroviral therapy and traditional risk factors. Monocytes play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis, and HIV-related chronic inflammation and monocyte activation may contribute to increased atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Methods Using an in vitro model of atherosclerotic plaque formation, we measured the transendothelial migration of purified monocytes from age-matched HIV+ and uninfected donors and examined their differentiation into foam cells. Cholesterol efflux and the expression of cholesterol metabolism genes were also assessed. Results Monocytes from HIV+ individuals showed increased foam cell formation compared to controls (18.9% vs 0% respectively, p=0.004) and serum from virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals potentiated foam cell formation by monocytes from both uninfected and HIV+ donors. Plasma TNF levels were increased in HIV+ vs control donors (5.9 vs 3.5 pg/ml, p=0.02) and foam cell formation was inhibited by blocking antibodies to TNF receptors, suggesting a direct effect on monocyte differentiation to foam cells. Monocytes from virologically suppressed HIV+ donors showed impaired cholesterol efflux and decreased expression of key genes regulating cholesterol metabolism, including the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (p=0.02). Conclusions Monocytes from HIV+ individuals show impaired cholesterol efflux and are primed for foam cell formation following trans-endothelial migration. Factors present in HIV+ serum, including elevated TNF levels, further enhance foam cell formation. The pro-atherogenic phenotype of monocytes persists in virologically suppressed HIV+ individuals and may contribute mechanistically to increased atherosclerosis in this population. PMID:26244384

  9. The reverse transcription inhibitor abacavir shows anticancer activity in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carlini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transposable Elements (TEs comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1 and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT. Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC, a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI, on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications.

  10. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 bas

  11. P38/NF-κB/snail pathway is involved in caffeic acid-induced inhibition of cancer stem cells-like properties and migratory capacity in malignant human keratinocyte.

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    Ye Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is the most common cancer throughout the world. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and the acquisition of cancer stem cells (CSCs-like properties emerge as critical steps in the metastasis of human skin cancers. Caffeic acid (CaA exerts anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effects of CaA on the migratory capability and on the CSCs-like properties of skin cancer cells, and the molecular mechanisms underlying it are not fully understood. METHODS: Malignant HaCaT cells were treated by CaA. Transwell assay was performed to determine that CaA attenuated the migratory capability; Spheroid formation assay was performed to confirm that CaA decreased the CSCs-like phenotype; Treated malignant HaCaT cells were molecularly characterized by RT-PCR, Western blots, Southwestern blot, and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: In CaA-treated malignant human keratinocyte (malignant HaCaT cells, inhibition of the migratory capability and CSCs-like phenotype were observed. CaA up-regulated the phosphorylation of p38, and down-regulated the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB/snail signal pathway. Indeed, p38 decreased the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB to the promoter of snail gene, which resulted in the transcriptional inactivation of snail. Blockage of p38 attenuated the CaA-induced inhibition of migratory capability and CSCs-like phenotype in malignant HaCaT cells. CONCLUSIONS: CaA attenuates the migratory capability and CSCs-like Properties of malignant human keratinocyte, in which, p38-mediated down-regulation of NF-κB/snail signal pathway is involved.

  12. The TrkAIII oncoprotein inhibits mitochondrial free radical ROS-induced death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by augmenting SOD2 expression and activity at the mitochondria, within the context of a tumour stem cell-like phenotype.

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    Pierdomenico Ruggeri

    Full Text Available The developmental and stress-regulated alternative TrkAIII splice variant of the NGF receptor TrkA is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs, correlates with worse outcome in high TrkA expressing unfavourable tumours and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, we report that constitutive TrkAIII expression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells inhibits Rotenone, Paraquat and LY83583-induced mitochondrial free radical reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated death by stimulating SOD2 expression, increasing mitochondrial SOD2 activity and attenuating mitochondrial free radical ROS production, in association with increased mitochondrial capacity to produce H2O2, within the context of a more tumour stem cell-like phenotype. This effect can be reversed by the specific TrkA tyrosine kinase inhibitor GW441756, by the multi-kinase TrkA inhibitors K252a, CEP-701 and Gö6976, which inhibit SOD2 expression, and by siRNA knockdown of SOD2 expression, which restores the sensitivity of TrkAIII expressing SH-SY5Y cells to Rotenone, Paraquat and LY83583-induced mitochondrial free radical ROS production and ROS-mediated death. The data implicate the novel TrkAIII/SOD2 axis in promoting NB resistance to mitochondrial free radical-mediated death and staminality, and suggest that the combined use of TrkAIII and/or SOD2 inhibitors together with agents that induce mitochondrial free radical ROS-mediated death could provide a therapeutic advantage that may also target the stem cell niche in high TrkA expressing unfavourable NB.

  13. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

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    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  14. Amnion-derived mesenchymal stromal cells show a mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Julia; Lang, Ingrid; Siwetz, Monika; Fröhlich, Julia; Huppertz, Berthold

    2014-06-01

    The amnionic membrane is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), which are readily available and show a potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Before these cells can be applied clinically, careful characterization is necessary, especially as primary cells are known to change their phenotype in culture. We analyzed the mesenchymal phenotype of hAMSC at different stages after isolation using immunohistochemistry. Shortly after isolation (1 day), 92 % (± 7 %) of the hAMSC expressed the mesenchymal marker vimentin, 2 % (± 1 %) stained for the epithelial marker cytokeratin-7 and 5 % (± 4 %) co-expressed these markers. After 5 days, the double positive cells slightly increased to 7 % (± 3 %), while exclusive expression of cytokeratin-7 or vimentin remained unchanged (1 % ± 2 % and 92 % ± 1 %, respectively). After the first passage, all attached cells were vimentin-positive, while 54 % (± 9 %) co-expressed cytokeratin-7 and vimentin. Thus, we conclude that under culture, hAMSC adopt a hybrid mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype. It is also essential to perform microscopical examination during the first days after isolation to detect contaminations with human amnion-derived epithelial cells in cultures of hAMSC.

  15. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

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    Rabih El-Merahbi

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs, including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS. Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs.

  16. Allorestricted cytotoxic T cells specific for human CD45 show potent antileukemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrolia, Persis J; Reid, Steven D; Gao, Liquan; Schultheis, Beate; Dotti, Gianpietro; Brenner, Malcolm K; Melo, Junia V; Goldman, John M; Stauss, Hans J

    2003-02-01

    Recent advances have made haploidentical transplantation for leukemia feasible, but the rigorous T-cell depletion used contributes to the high relapse rates observed. We have attempted to improve the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect by generating allorestricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) directed against human CD45. Such CTLs should recognize patient hematopoietic cells including leukemia, enhancing donor cell engraftment and improving the GVL effect, but they should not recognize host nonhematopoietic tissues or donor cells from the graft. Using the T2 binding assay, 4 CD45-derived peptides were found to bind HLA-A2 molecules. These peptides were used to generate cytotoxic T-cell lines from HLA-A2(-) donors by sequential stimulation with peptide-pulsed HLA-A2(+) stimulators, and the lines obtained were screened for peptide-specific cytotoxicity. Using one of these peptides (P1218), it was possible to generate peptide-specific, allorestricted CTLs in 3 of 7 responders. P1218-specific CTL lines show potent cytotoxicity against hematopoietic cell lines coexpressing HLA-A2 and CD45 but not CD45 loss variants. Studies with stable transfectants of 293 cells demonstrated recognition by P1218-specific CTLs of endogenously expressed CD45. Likewise P1218-specific CTLs recognized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HLA-A2(+) patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and leukemic blasts in HLA-A2(+) patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they were unable to lyse HLA-A2(+) fibroblasts or HLA-A2(-) normal PBMCs. Coculture of CD34(+) PBMCs and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) with P1218-specific CTL significantly inhibited colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) formation in HLA-A2(+) healthy controls and CML patients but resulted in no significant inhibition in HLA-A2(-) healthy controls. These studies demonstrate that P1218-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have potent activity against leukemic progenitors and suggest that

  17. Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid-like features lack intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and show aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masaaki; Kohashi, Kenichi; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Abe, Tatsuro; Yamada, Yuichi; Shiota, Masaki; Imada, Kenjiro; Naito, Seiji; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-03-01

    In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), tumor cells with rhabdoid features are characterized by eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. In RCC, tumor cells have also been observed resembling rhabdomyoblasts or rhabdoid but without intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and here, we defined these rhabdoid-like features of these cells. To this end, we studied a series of clear cell RCC (ccRCC) with rhabdoid features and compared them with a series of ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features to clarify the differences in the immunohistochemical profile and biological behavior. From 695 cases of ccRCC (80.8 % of all RCCs), 18 cases with rhabdoid features (2.1 % of all RCCs) and 25 cases with rhabdoid-like features (2.9 % of all RCCs) were investigated. The 5-year survival rate for ccRCC with rhabdoid features was 44.7 % and for ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features 30.3 %. Although ccRCC with rhabdoid features showed immunohistochemical co-expression of epithelial markers and vimentin as seen in malignant rhabdoid tumors, ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features showed no such co-expression. Multivariate analyses of cancer-specific survival revealed that perinephric tissues invasion was an independent prognostic factor in ccRCC with rhabdoid features (p = 0.0253) but not in ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features. In summary, although their prognosis is similar, the marker profile and pattern of extension of ccRCC with rhabdoid-like is different from that of ccRCC with rhabdoid features. Therefore, ccRCC with rhabdoid-like features should be distinguished from ccRCC with rhabdoid features.

  18. Cells derived from porcine aorta tunica media show mesenchymal stromal-like cell properties in in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Bernardini, Chiara; Alessandri, Marco; Mangano, Chiara; Zannoni, Augusta; Bianchi, Francesca; Sarli, Giuseppe; Calzà, Laura; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica

    2014-02-15

    Several studies have already described the presence of specialized niches of precursor cells in vasculature wall, and it has been shown that these populations share several features with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Considering the relevance of MSCs in the cardiovascular physiopathology and regenerative medicine, and the usefulness of the pig animal model in this field, we reported a new method for MSC-like cell isolation from pig aorta. Filling the vessel with a collagenase solution for 40 min, all endothelial cells were detached and discarded and then collagenase treatment was repeated for 4 h to digest approximately one-third of the tunica media. The ability of our method to select a population of MSC-like cells from tunica media could be ascribed in part to the elimination of contaminant cells from the intimal layer and in part to the overnight culture in the high antibiotic/antimycotic condition and to the starvation step. Aortic-derived cells show an elongated, spindle shape, fibroblast-like morphology, as reported for MSCs, stain positively for CD44, CD56, CD90, and CD105; stain negatively for CD34 and CD45; and express CD73 mRNA. Moreover, these cells show the classical mesenchymal trilineage differentiation potential. Under our in vitro culture conditions, aortic-derived cells share some phenotypical features with pericytes and are able to take part in the formation of network-like structures if cocultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, our work reports a simple and highly suitable method for obtaining large numbers of precursor MSC-like cells derived from the porcine aortic wall.

  19. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Dalmas, E; Nout, M J R; Abee, T

    2010-07-01

    Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested by a 4 log CFU ml(-1) reduction, within the first 15 min of exposure. Tempe extracts also rapidly inactivated B. cereus spores upon germination. Viability and membrane permeability assessments using fluorescence probes showed rapid inactivation and permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane confirming the bactericidal mode of action. Cooked beans and Rhizopus grown on different media did not show antibacterial activity, indicating the unique association of the antibacterial activity with tempe. Subsequent characterization of the antibacterial activity revealed that heat treatment and protease addition nullified the bactericidal effect, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the bioactive compound. During fermentation of soya beans with Rhizopus, compounds are released with extensive antibacterial activity against B. cereus cells and spores. The results show the potential of producing natural antibacterial compounds that could be used as ingredients in food preservation and pathogen control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. A novel metabolite from aspergillus ochraceus JGI 25 showing cytotoxicity to hela cells

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    Varalakshmi K Nadumane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the isolation of filamentous fungi, extraction of metabolites, and evaluation of the cytotoxic properties on HeLa cells and normal human lymphocytes. We isolated fungi from the soil by serial dilution method. One of the isolates was chosen and identified as Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm (Trichocomaceae by standard techniques. The metabolites were extracted using methanol. Different concentrations of the extract were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity on HeLa cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the safety of the extract was checked on normal human lymphocytes. The extract was purified by chromatographic techniques like thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. The extract showed significant cytotoxic potential on HeLa cells at low concentrations with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of <50 ΅g/ml. The extract gave 10 fractions by thin layer chromatography, and fraction B had higher toxicity than the rest. This fraction gave a single peak by high-performance liquid chromatography and had a mass-to-charge ratio of 905.65, which did not match any of the earlier known fungal metabolites or metabolites from other strains of A. ochraceus. The metabolite from A. ochraceus is alkaloid in nature, cytotoxic to HeLa cells, and appears to be a novel with anticancer potentials, which could be explored further for characterization of the active component.

  1. Liver cell adenoma showing sequential alteration of radiological findings suggestive of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Kogure; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Satoshi Sekiguchi; Kazuyuki Ishida; Takehiko Igarashi; Yuta Wakui; Takao Iwasaki; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2009-01-01

    A liver tumor 35 mm in diameter was found incidentally in a 40-year-old woman who had no history of liver diseases or the use of oral contraceptives. Radiological diagnostics showed the typical findings of liver cell adenoma (LCA). Dynamic computed tomography revealed that the tumor showed a homogenous enhancement in the arterial phase and almost the same enhancement as the surrounding liver parenchyma in the delayed phase. The tumor was found to contain fat on magnetic resonance imaging. A benign fat containing liver tumor was suggested. However, radiological findings altered, which caused us to suspect that a welldifferentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) containing fat was becoming dedifferentiated. Partial hepatectomy was performed and the pathological findings showed the typical findings of LCA. This case was an extremely rare LCA, which had no background of risk for LCA and developed the sequential alteration of the radiological findings to suspect well-differentiated HCC.

  2. 人胆管癌CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh细胞亚群的分选及其肿瘤干细胞样特性的鉴定%Sorting of CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh subset cells in human human cholangiocardnoma and the identificantion of their cancer stem cell-like properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 王敏; 秦仁义; 申铭; 王欣; 田锐; 江建新; 石程剑

    2010-01-01

    Objective To sort CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh subset cells in human cholangiocarcinoma and identify their cancer stem cell-like properties. Methods The expression and rate of CD24, CD44 and EpCAM in 6 cases of human cholangiocacinomas were assayed by flow cytometry. The fresh specimens from two cases of cholangiocarcinoma were obtained and implanted subcutaneously into NOD/SCID mice for the establishment of xenografts model. CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh subset cells were sorted from xenografts by flow cytometry and their tumorigenic potential, self-renewal ability and differentiation ability were assessed. Results The expression rate of CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh cells ranged from 0. 58% to 2.43% (mean= 0. 94% ) in 6 cholangiocarcinoma specimens and 2 xenografts. CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh subset cells sorted from 2 xenografts were found to be highly tumorigenic in NOD/SCID mice. CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh cells consistently formed tumors with 1000 cells in 3/8 mice. In contrast, CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh tumor cells were less tumorigenic and formed tumors with 50 000 cells in 1/8 mice. CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh cells were passaged in NOD/SCID mice and formed tumors that recapitulated the histological features and heterogeneity of the original patient tumor. Conclusion CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh subset cells were discriminated in human cholangiocarcinoma, and they had highly tumorigenic, self-renewal ability and differentiation ability. It was first confirmed that CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh cells may be human cholangiocarcinoma cancer stem cells.%目的 检测及分选人胆管癌中的CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh细胞亚群,探讨其是否具有肿瘤干细胞样生物学特性.方法 流式细胞术检测6例人胆管癌中CD24、CD44、EpCAM的表达率;取2例人胆管癌新鲜标本种植到NOD/SCID鼠皮下,建立荷人胆管癌小鼠模型.流式细胞术分选CD24+ CD44+ EpCAMhigh亚群细胞,NOD/SCID鼠移植瘤试验鉴定其成瘤和分化能力.结果 6例人胆管癌组织标本和2例移植瘤中,CD24

  3. The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found at high concentrations in food; they may even appear together at toxic concentrations. The present work examines, via real-time cell analysis, whether histamine and tyramine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cell cultures. Employing a constant equipotency ratio, their interaction was examined via the combination index (CI) method of Chou & Talalay. Co-treatment with tyramine and histamine was associated with a stronger cytotoxic effect than was treatment with either BA or on its own. Indeed, a synergistic interaction (CIhistamine, at concentrations below the legal limit, increases the cytotoxicity of tyramine at concentrations frequently reached in some foods. The synergistic cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine should be taken into account when establishing legal limits designed to ensure consumer safety.

  4. 人前列腺癌细胞系DU145中肿瘤干细胞样侧群细胞的分离%Identification of cancer stem cell -like side population cells in human prostate cancer cell line DU 145

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷波; 刘岗; 张辉; 李明; 隋文印; 宋永胜

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To identify the side population (SP) cells from human prostate cancer cell line DU 145 and characterize DU 145 SP cells preliminary. Methods: Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was applied to isolate SP cells from DU 145 cell line. The isolated SP cells were cultured in serum - free medium to observe the growth pattern. Reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT - PCR) was used to detect the expression of ABCG2 in DU 145 SP cells and parental DU 145 cells. Results: SP cells were isolated from DU 145 cells by flow cytometry, with a proportion of 1.1%. When cultured in serum -free medium, SP cells showed a clustered growth pattern compared to the parental DU 145 cells. Furthermore, a higher expression of ABCG2 in SP cells was detected by RT -PCR in contrast to parental DU 145 cells. Conclusion; DU 145 cell line contained SP cells with cancer stem cell properties.%目的:分离人前列腺癌细胞系DU 145中的侧群(side population, SP)细胞,并初步分析其生物学特性.方法:采用荧光激活细胞分类(fluorescence activated cell sorting,FACS)技术,从DU 145细胞中分离出侧群细胞,并检测其比例;继而培养于无血清培养基中,观察其生长特性.采用反转录聚合酶链反应( RT-PCR)技术检测侧群细胞中ABCG2的表达水平.结果:DU 145细胞中存在含量极少的侧群细胞,比例约1.1%;培养于无血清培养基中成簇生长.和对应的母系DU 145细胞相比,DU 145侧群细胞的ABCG2表达增高.结论:人前列腺癌细胞系DU 145中存在具有肿瘤干细胞特性的侧群细胞.

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Wehrli, Bernhard [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L{sup −1} molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L{sup −1}. From OPV, copper (14 μg L{sup −1}), zinc (87 μg L{sup −1}) and silver (78 μg L{sup −1}) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. - Highlights: • Photovoltaics may be disposed in the environment after usage. • Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic (OPV) cells were compared. • Morphological and molecular effects were assessed in zebrafish embryos. • Environmental condition affected metal leaching and ecotoxicological activity. • Damaged CIGS cells pose higher risk to the environment than OPV cells.

  6. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I W; Mills, Monte D; Forbes, Brian J; Davidson, Stefanie L; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B; Nichols, Charles W; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P; Maguire, Albert M; Aleman, Tomas S

    2015-12-01

    To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC.

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L(-1) molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L(-1). From OPV, copper (14 μg L(-1)), zinc (87 μg L(-1)) and silver (78 μg L(-1)) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk.

  8. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA.

  9. Stem cells derived from testis show promise for treating a wide variety of medical conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karim Nayernia

    2007-01-01

    @@ The continuation of the spermatogenic process throughout life relies on a proper regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of germline testis stem cells,the spermatogonial stem cells.These are single cells situated on the basal membrane of the seminiferous epithelium.Only 0.03%of all germ cells are spermatogonial stem cells(SSCs)[1-3].To maintain spermatogenesis,the processes of self-renewal and differentiation of SSCS must be precisely regulated by intrinsic gene expression in the stem cells and extrinsic signals,including soluble factors or adhesion molecules from the surrounding microenvironment,the stem cell niche.

  10. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Haitham A.; Dina M. M. AlSadek; Mohit P. Mathew; Chen-Zhong Li; Djansugurova, Leyla B.; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hafiz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show s...

  11. Sphaeropsidin A shows promising activity against drug-resistant cancer cells by targeting regulatory volume increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 μM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl− and the decreased HCO3− concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na–K–2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554

  12. Ataxia telangiectasia derived iPS cells show preserved x-ray sensitivity and decreased chromosomal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawatase, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Okamura, Kohji; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Takada, Shuji; Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu; Masuda, Akira; Nasu, Michiyo; Hata, Kenichiro; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Higuchi, Akon; Takubo, Kaiyo; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2014-06-27

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a neurodegenerative inherited disease with chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. iPS cells lacking ATM (AT-iPS cells) exhibited hypersensitivity to X-ray irradiation, one of the characteristics of the disease. While parental ataxia telangiectasia cells exhibited significant chromosomal abnormalities, AT-iPS cells did not show any chromosomal instability in vitro for at least 80 passages (560 days). Whole exome analysis also showed a comparable nucleotide substitution rate in AT-iPS cells. Taken together, these data show that ATM is involved in protection from irradiation-induced cell death.

  13. Igs Expressed by Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells Show Limited Binding-Site Structure Variability

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, P.

    2013-05-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiuwei, E-mail: qiuwei_xu@merck.com; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H. [Merck Research Laboratories (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid {beta}-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  15. Human Airway Primary Epithelial Cells Show Distinct Architectures on Membrane Supports Under Different Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate drug development for lung delivery, it is highly demanding to establish appropriate airway epithelial cell models as transport barriers to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of drug molecules. Besides the cancer-derived cell lines, as the primary cell model, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells have been used for drug screenings because of physiological relevance to in vivo. Therefore, to accurately interpret drug transport data in NHBE measured by different laboratories, it is important to know biophysical characteristics of NHBE grown on membranes in different culture conditions. In this study, NHBE was grown on the polyester membrane in a different medium and its transport barrier properties as well as cell architectures were fully characterized by functional assays and confocal imaging throughout the days of cultures. Moreover, NHBE cells on inserts in a different medium were subject to either of air-interfaced culture (AIC) or liquid-covered culture (LCC) condition. Cells in the AIC condition were cultivated on the membrane with medium in the basolateral side only, whereas cells with medium in apical and basolateral sides under the LCC condition. Quantitative microscopic imaging with biophysical examination revealed distinct multilayered architectures of differentiated NHBE cells, suggesting NHBE as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeting drug transport.

  16. 大鼠脂肪干细胞来源的施万细胞样细胞髓鞘形成能力的研究%Investigation of myelin formation ability in Schwann cell-like cells from rats adipose-derived stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许勇峰; 刘岚

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究大鼠脂肪干细胞(ADSC)来源的施万细胞样细胞的髓鞘形成能力.方法 取大鼠脂肪组织分离、培养及鉴定ADSC,使用heregulin、成纤维细胞生长因子、血小板衍生生长因子和forskolin将ADSC诱导为施万细胞样细胞.将施万细胞样细胞和PC12细胞共培养.光镜(×100)下观察施万细胞样细胞的形态,免疫细胞化学染色检测其表面标志物表达,电镜观察其髓鞘形成能力.结果 大鼠ADSC均表达中胚层标志物fibronectin,极少数表达神经干细胞标志物nestin.ADSC诱导的施万细胞样细胞的形态为双极或三极细胞,施万细胞标志物胶质纤维酸性蛋白和S100表达阳性.电镜观察发现,施万细胞样细胞和PC12细胞形成髓鞘样结构.结论 大鼠ADSC来源的施万细胞样细胞具有髓鞘形成能力.%Objective To investigate the myelin formation ability of Schwann cell (SC)-like cells from rats adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). Methods Rats ADSC were harvested, cultured and identified from rats fat tissue. Heregulin, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and forskolin were used to induce rats ADSC into SC-like cells, which were then co-cultured with PC12 cells. The morphology of SC-like cells was observed under phase contrast (×100); immunocytochemistry was used to detect the surface markers of SC-like cells; transmission electron microscope was used to identify myelin formation ability of SC-like cells. Results Rats ADSC expressed mesodermal marker fibronectin, only few cells expressed neural stem cell marker nestin. SC-like cells from rats ADSC were bi- or tri- polar in shape, positively immunostained for SC markers glial fabrilary acidic protein and S100. Electron microscope results showed that SC-like cells could form myelin structures with PC12 cells in vitro. Conclusion SC-like cells from rats ADSC could form myelin in vitro.

  17. Resonant microchannel volume and mass measurements show that suspended cells swell during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sungmin; Kang, Joon Ho; Oh, Seungeun; Kirschner, Marc W; Mitchison, T J; Manalis, Scott

    2015-11-23

    Osmotic regulation of intracellular water during mitosis is poorly understood because methods for monitoring relevant cellular physical properties with sufficient precision have been limited. Here we use a suspended microchannel resonator to monitor the volume and density of single cells in suspension with a precision of 1% and 0.03%, respectively. We find that for transformed murine lymphocytic leukemia and mouse pro-B cell lymphoid cell lines, mitotic cells reversibly increase their volume by more than 10% and decrease their density by 0.4% over a 20-min period. This response is correlated with the mitotic cell cycle but is not coupled to nuclear osmolytes released by nuclear envelope breakdown, chromatin condensation, or cytokinesis and does not result from endocytosis of the surrounding fluid. Inhibiting Na-H exchange eliminates the response. Although mitotic rounding of adherent cells is necessary for proper cell division, our observations that suspended cells undergo reversible swelling during mitosis suggest that regulation of intracellular water may be a more general component of mitosis than previously appreciated.

  18. Tolerogenic dendritic cells show gene expression profiles that are different from those of immunogenic dendritic cells in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gae; Jung, Nam-Chul; Lee, Jun-Ho; Song, Jie-Young; Ryu, Sang-Young; Seo, Han Geuk; Han, Sung Gu; Ahn, Keun Jae; Hong, Kwan Soo; Choi, Jinjung; Lim, Dae-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) play an important role in inducing peripheral tolerance; however, few tDC-specific markers have been identified. The aims of this study were to examine whether tDCs show a different gene expression profile from that of immunogenic DCs and identify specific gene markers of each cell type, in DBA/1 mice. tDCs were generated by treating immature DCs (imDCs) with TNF-α and type II collagen. The gene expression profiles of mature (m)DCs and tDCs were then investigated by microarray analysis and candidate markers were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Supervised selection identified 75 gene signatures, 63 of which were consistently upregulated in mDCs and 12 of which were upregulated only in tDCs. Additionally, 10 genes were overexpressed or equally expressed in both tDCs and mDCs. Scin (tDC-specific genes) and Orm1, Pdlim4 and Enpp2 (mDC-specific genes) were validated by real-time qRT-PCR. Taken together, these results clearly show that tDCs and mDCs can be identified according to their expression of specific gene markers.

  19. Ginsenoside Rh2 Showing Ability to Induce Apoptosis in HeLa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the inhibitory mechanisms of ginsenoside G-Rh2 on the growth of tumor cells. G-Rh2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. G-Rh2 induced apoptotic manifestations in HeLa cells as evidenced by the changes in the cell morphology, the DNA fragmentation and the activation of caspases. Caspase inhibitors, caspase family inhibitor, z-Val-Ala-Asp-fmk(z-VAD-fmk); caspase-1 inhibitor, Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl-ketone(Ac-YVAD-cmk); caspase-3 inhibitor, z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fmk(z-DEVE-fmk) and caspase-8 inhibitor, z-Ile-Glu-Asp-fmk(z-IETD-fmk) effectively attenuated G-Rh2-induced cell death. The activities of caspase-1 and caspase-3 were increased in the G-Rh2-induced apoptotic process. However, caspase inhibitors can not inhibit G-Rh-2 induced cell death completely. These results suggest that G-Rh2-induced cell death is mediated by the activation of caspase cascade, but there might be some other pathways for induction of this apoptosis.

  20. The Lcn2-engineered HEK-293 cells show senescence under stressful condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Bahmani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Lipocalin2 (Lcn2 gene is highly expressed in response to various types of cellular stresses. The precise role of Lcn2 has not been fully understood yet. However, it plays a key role in controlling vital cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism. Recently it was shown that Lcn2 decreases senescence and increases proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC with finite life span under either normal or oxidative stress conditions. However, Lcn2 effects on immortal cell line with infinite proliferation are not defined completely.  Materials and Material and Methods: HEK-293 cells were transfected with recombinant pcDNA3.1 containing Lcn2 fragment (pcDNA3.1-Lcn2. Expression of lipocalin2 in transfected cells was evaluated by RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, and ELISA. Different cell groups were treated with H2O2 and WST-1 assay was performed to determine their proliferation rate. Senescence was studied by β-galactosidase and gimsa staining methods as well as evaluation of the expression of senescence-related genes by real time RT-PCR. Results: Lcn2 increased cell proliferation under normal culture condition, while the proliferation slightly decreased under oxidative stress.  This decrease was further found to be attributed to senescence. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that under harmful conditions, Lcn2 gene is responsible for the regulation of cell survival through senescence.

  1. Aged mother cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae show markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laun, P; Pichova, A; Madeo, F; Fuchs, J; Ellinger, A; Kohlwein, S; Dawes, I; Fröhlich, K U; Breitenbach, M

    2001-01-01

    ...) lead to a shortening of the life span of yeast mother cells. Deletions of yeast genes coding for the superoxide dismutases or the catalases, as well as changes in atmospheric oxygen concentration, considerably shortened the life span...

  2. A developmental stage of hyphal cells shows riboflavin overproduction instead of sporulation in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, Susanne; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2013-12-01

    The hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii develops a mycelium. Nutritional stress leads to its differentiation into sporangia. These generate spores. In parallel, the yellow pigment riboflavin is produced. Intracellularly accumulated riboflavin, made visible as a bright green fluorescence, was observed in only 60% of the hyphal cells. For the remaining 40%, it was unclear whether these cells simply export riboflavin or its biosynthesis remains down-regulated in contrast to the accumulating cells. The approach followed in this work was to convert the hyphae into protoplasts by enzymatic degradation of the cell wall. Afterwards, the protoplasts were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of riboflavin accumulation. When a reporter strain expressing lacZ under the control of the most important riboflavin biosynthesis promoter, RIB3, was used, green protoplasts were found to have more than tenfold greater reporter activity than hyaline protoplasts. This was true on the basis of total protein as well as on the basis of hexokinase specific activity, a marker for constitutive expression. These results allow the conclusion that hyphal cells of A. gossypii differ in phenotype regarding riboflavin overproduction and accumulation.

  3. Human perivascular stem cells show enhanced osteogenesis and vasculogenesis with Nel-like molecule I protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarinam, Asal; James, Aaron W; Zara, Janette N; Goyal, Raghav; Corselli, Mirko; Pan, Angel; Liang, Pei; Chang, Le; Rackohn, Todd; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Péault, Bruno; Soo, Chia

    2013-06-01

    An ideal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source for bone tissue engineering has yet to be identified. Such an MSC population would be easily harvested in abundance, with minimal morbidity and with high purity. Our laboratories have identified perivascular stem cells (PSCs) as a candidate cell source. PSCs are readily isolatable through fluorescent-activated cell sorting from adipose tissue and have been previously shown to be indistinguishable from MSCs in the phenotype and differentiation potential. PSCs consist of two distinct cell populations: (1) pericytes (CD146+, CD34-, and CD45-), which surround capillaries and microvessels, and (2) adventitial cells (CD146-, CD34+, and CD45-), found within the tunica adventitia of large arteries and veins. We previously demonstrated the osteogenic potential of pericytes by examining pericytes derived from the human fetal pancreas, and illustrated their in vivo trophic and angiogenic effects. In the present study, we used an intramuscular ectopic bone model to develop the translational potential of our original findings using PSCs (as a combination of pericytes and adventitial cells) from human white adipose tissue. We evaluated human PSC (hPSC)-mediated bone formation and vascularization in vivo. We also examined the effects of hPSCs when combined with the novel craniosynostosis-associated protein, Nel-like molecule I (NELL-1). Implants consisting of the demineralized bone matrix putty combined with NELL-1 (3 μg/μL), hPSC (2.5×10(5) cells), or hPSC+NELL-1, were inserted in the bicep femoris of SCID mice. Bone growth was evaluated using microcomputed tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry over 4 weeks. Results demonstrated the osteogenic potential of hPSCs and the additive effect of hPSC+NELL-1 on bone formation and vasculogenesis. Comparable osteogenesis was observed with NELL-1 as compared to the more commonly used bone morphogenetic protein-2. Next, hPSCs induced greater implant vascularization than the unsorted

  4. Hybrid embryonic stem cell-derived tetraploid mice show apparently normal morphological, physiological, and neurological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Frieder; Zevnik, Branko; Brüning, Jens; Röhl, Mathias; Willuweit, Antje; Rode, Anja; Hennek, Thomas; Kauselmann, Gunther; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Kühn, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. This method allows the immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps. To provide a baseline for the analysis of ES mouse mutants, we performed a phenotypic characterization of wild-type B6129S6F(1) ES mice in relation to controls of the same age, sex, and genotype raised from normal matings. The comparison of 90 morphological, physiological, and behavioral parameters revealed elevated body weight and hematocrit as the only major difference of ES mice, which exhibited an otherwise normal phenotype. We further demonstrate that ES mouse mutants can be produced from mutant hybrid ES cells and analyzed within a period of only 4 months. Thus, ES mouse technology is a valid research tool for rapidly elucidating gene function in vivo.

  5. Novel small molecule drugs inhibit tumor cell metabolism and show potent anti-tumorigenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojel-Hansen, Christina; Erichsen, Kamille Dumong; Christensen, Mette Knak

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapidly dividing tumor cells have an increased demand for nutrients to support their characteristic unabated growth; this demand is met by an increased availability of nutrients such as amino acids through vasculogenesis and by the enhanced cellular entry of nutrients through the upre......BACKGROUND: Rapidly dividing tumor cells have an increased demand for nutrients to support their characteristic unabated growth; this demand is met by an increased availability of nutrients such as amino acids through vasculogenesis and by the enhanced cellular entry of nutrients through...... the upregulation of specific transporters. Deprivation of intracellular amino acids or block of amino acid uptake has been shown to be cytotoxic to many established human cancer cell lines in vitro and in human cancer xenograft models. RESULTS: In this paper, we provide evidence that the two small molecule...... oxyphenisatine analogs TOP001 and TOP216 exert their anti-cancer effect by affecting tumor cell metabolism and inducing intracellular amino acid deprivation, leading to a block of cell proliferation. GCN2-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α as well as mTOR pathway inhibition supports the above notion. In addition...

  6. Novel small molecule drugs inhibit tumor cell metabolism and show potent anti-tumorigenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojel-Hansen, Christina; Erichsen, Kamille Dumong; Christensen, Mette Knak

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapidly dividing tumor cells have an increased demand for nutrients to support their characteristic unabated growth; this demand is met by an increased availability of nutrients such as amino acids through vasculogenesis and by the enhanced cellular entry of nutrients through the upre......BACKGROUND: Rapidly dividing tumor cells have an increased demand for nutrients to support their characteristic unabated growth; this demand is met by an increased availability of nutrients such as amino acids through vasculogenesis and by the enhanced cellular entry of nutrients through...... the upregulation of specific transporters. Deprivation of intracellular amino acids or block of amino acid uptake has been shown to be cytotoxic to many established human cancer cell lines in vitro and in human cancer xenograft models. RESULTS: In this paper, we provide evidence that the two small molecule...... oxyphenisatine analogs TOP001 and TOP216 exert their anti-cancer effect by affecting tumor cell metabolism and inducing intracellular amino acid deprivation, leading to a block of cell proliferation. GCN2-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2a as well as mTOR pathway inhibition supports the above notion. In addition...

  7. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46(+)/CD3(-)) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small number of NK cells was detected in milk from quarters before and during an E. coli challenge. In vitro cultures of primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cells stimulated with UV irradiated E. coli induced significant migration of peripheral blood NK cells (pbNK) within 2h. Furthermore, pbNK cells significantly reduced counts of live E. coli in vitro within 2h of culture. The results show that bovine NK cells have the capacity to migrate to the site of infection and produce antibacterial mediators. These findings introduce NK cells as a leukocyte population in the mammary gland with potential functions in the innate immune response in bovine mastitis.

  8. Markers for sebaceoma show a spectrum of cell cycle regulators, tumor suppressor genes, and oncogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sebaceoma is a tumor for which the causative oncogenes are not well-understood. Sebaceomas demonstrate some histopathologic features similar to basal cell carcinoma (BCC, such as palisading borders and basaloid cells with additional features, including foamy cytoplasm and indented nuclei. Aims: We examine multiple cell-cycle, oncogene, and tumor suppressor gene markers in sebaceomas, to try to find some suitable biological markers for this tumor, and compare with other published studies. Materials and Methods: We investigated a panel of immunohistochemical (IHC stains that are important for cellular signaling, including a cell cycle regulator, tumor suppressor gene, oncogene, hormone receptor, and genomic stability markers in our cohort of sebaceomas. We collected 30 sebaceomas from three separate USA dermatopathology laboratories. The following IHC panel: Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/CD227, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cyclin D1, human breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA-1, C-erb-2, Bcl-2, human androgen receptor (AR, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27 kip1 , p53, topoisomerase II alpha, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and Ki-67 were tested in our cases. Results: EMA/CD227 was positive in the well-differentiated sebaceomas (13/30. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B was positive in tumors with intermediate differentiation (22/30. The less well-differentiated tumors failed to stain with EMA and AR. Most of the tumors with well-differentiated palisaded areas demonstrated positive staining for topoisomerase II alpha, p27 kip1 , and p53, with positive staining in tumoral basaloid areas (22/30. Numerous tumors were focally positive with multiple markers, indicating a significant degree of variability in the complete group. Conclusions: Oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle regulators, and hormone receptors are variably expressed in sebaceomas. Our results suggest that in these tumors, selected marker staining seems to correlate

  9. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  10. [A Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma with Malignant Pleural Effusion Showing Marked Response to Axitinib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuya, Yu; Okusa, Takuya; Hatano, Koji; Nakai, Yasutomo; Nakayama, Masashi; Kakimoto, Ken-Ichi; Nishimura, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    A 36-year-old woman had undergone left radical nephrectomy followed by interferon-α and sunitinib for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma with para-aortic lymph node and lung involvements (papillary renal cell carcinoma, G3, cT3aN1M1) in the previous hospital. She was referred to our hospital for further treatment and received serial molecular targeted agents (everolimus, sorafenib, sunitinib) and radiation therapy for right ischial and femoral bone metastases. Then she was found to have multiple metastatic lesions in the lungs and carcinomatous pleural effusion associated with dyspnea. After failure of pleurosclerosis with OK-432, the pleural effusion markedly reduced by axitinib administration, but the pleural effusion relapsed a few days after axitinib was discontinued. For this reason, axitinib was maintained in spite of appearance of new metastatic lesions in the brain. The pleural effusion was well-controlled for 16 months but she died of progressive disease, including metastatic lesions in the brain and in the lungs.

  11. Maxadilan prevents apoptosis in iPS cells and shows no effects on the pluripotent state or karyotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Zhao

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1. Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC. After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype.

  12. Maxadilan prevents apoptosis in iPS cells and shows no effects on the pluripotent state or karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyi; Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Jiayin; Liu, Xiaofei; Tan, Meihua; Li, Hongyang; Chen, Jiansu

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1). Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC). After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype.

  13. Common glycoproteins expressing polylactosamine-type glycans on matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cells show different glycan profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Mitsui, Yosuke; Kakoi, Naotaka; Yamada, Keita; Hayakawa, Takao; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2014-02-07

    Recently, we reported comparative analysis of glycoproteins which express cancer-specific N-glycans on various cancer cells and identified 24 glycoproteins having polylactosamine (polyLacNAc)-type N-glycans that are abundantly present in malignant cells [ Mitsui et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2012 , 70 , 718 - 726 ]. In the present study, we applied the technique to comparative studies on common glycoproteins present in the matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. Metastatic melanoma cells (WM266-4) contained a large amount of polyLacNAc-type N-glycans in comparison with primary melanoma cells (WM115). To identify the glycoproteins expressing these N-glycans, glycopeptides having polyLacNAc-type N-glycans were captured by a Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA)-immobilized agarose column. The captured glycopeptides were analyzed by LC/MS after removing N-glycans, and some glycoproteins such as basigin, lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) were identified in both WM115 and WM266-4 cells. The expression level of polyLacNAc of CSPG4 in WM266-4 cells was significantly higher than that in WM115 cells. In addition, sulfation patterns of chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains in CSPG4 showed dramatic changes between these cell lines. These data show that characteristic glycans attached to common proteins observed in different stages of cancer cells will be useful markers for determining degree of malignancies of tumor cells.

  14. Dynamics of embryonic stem cell differentiation inferred from single-cell transcriptomics show a series of transitions through discrete cell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sumin; Choubey, Sandeep; Furchtgott, Leon; Zou, Ling-Nan; Doyle, Adele; Menon, Vilas; Loew, Ethan B; Krostag, Anne-Rachel; Martinez, Refugio A; Madisen, Linda; Levi, Boaz P; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of gene regulatory networks that lead multipotent cells to acquire different cell fates makes a quantitative understanding of differentiation challenging. Using a statistical framework to analyze single-cell transcriptomics data, we infer the gene expression dynamics of early mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell differentiation, uncovering discrete transitions across nine cell states. We validate the predicted transitions across discrete states using flow cytometry. Moreover, using live-cell microscopy, we show that individual cells undergo abrupt transitions from a naïve to primed pluripotent state. Using the inferred discrete cell states to build a probabilistic model for the underlying gene regulatory network, we further predict and experimentally verify that these states have unique response to perturbations, thus defining them functionally. Our study provides a framework to infer the dynamics of differentiation from single cell transcriptomics data and to build predictive models of the gene regulatory networks that drive the sequence of cell fate decisions during development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20487.001 PMID:28296635

  15. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibit heterogeneous CD52 expression levels and show differential sensitivity to alemtuzumab mediated cytolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva P Rao

    Full Text Available Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs display the highest number while natural killer (NK cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact.

  16. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; Mathew, Mohit P; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, "Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  17. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escheri

  18. Cell wall degrading isoenzyme profiles of Trichoderma biocontrol strains show correlation with rDNA species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanz L; Hermosa M R; González F J; Monte E

    2004-01-01

    @@ Species of the fungus Trichoderma, a genus of Hyphomycetes, are ubiquitous in the environment, but especially in soil. They have been used in a wide range of commercial applications including the production of hydrolases and in the biological control of plant diseases. A fundamental part of the Trichoderma antifungal system consists of a series of genes coding for a surprising variety of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE).Characterisation and identification of strains at the species level is the first step in utilizing the full potential of fungi in specific applications. One aim when isolating Trichoderma strains is to identify those which can be used in new agricultural and industrial applications. In the past it was not uncommon that biocontrol strains were defined as T. harzianum Rifai, due to the limited classification system of the genus Trichoderma. In recent years, several PCR-based molecular techniques have been used to detect and discriminate among microorganisms. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA and gene fragments as those corresponding to tef1 gene have been helpful in the neotypification, description and characterization of species in the genus Trichoderna.Another useful method for the identification of Trichoderma strains is the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique.Isozyme polymorphisms evaluation of five putative extracellular lytic enzymes loci (β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,6-glucanase, cellulase, chitinase and protease antivities) were carried out using representative strains of defined molecular groups. CWDE groupings obtained from biocontrol strains are discussed in relation to their phylogenetic location and antifungal activities.Compiling morphological, biochemical and sequence information data into a common database would provide a useful resource that could be used to accurately name new haplotypes identified in the future and correctly place them within the genus Trichoderma.

  19. Luminal and basal-like breast cancer cells show increased migration induced by hypoxia, mediated by an autocrine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zänker Kurt S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breast cancer patients receiving anti-angiogenic treatment show increased metastases, possibly as a result of induced hypoxia. The effect of hypoxia on tumor cell migration was assessed in selected luminal, post-EMT and basal-like breast carcinoma cell lines. Methods Migration was assessed in luminal (MCF-7, post-EMT (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435S, and basal-like (MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cell lines under normal and oxygen-deprived conditions, using a collagen-based assay. Cell proliferation was determined, secreted cytokine and chemokine levels were measured using flow-cytometry and a bead-based immunoassay, and the hypoxic genes HIF-1α and CA IX were assessed using PCR. The functional effect of tumor-cell conditioned medium on the migration of neutrophil granulocytes (NG was tested. Results Hypoxia caused increased migratory activity but not proliferation in all tumor cell lines, involving the release and autocrine action of soluble mediators. Conditioned medium (CM from hypoxic cells induced migration in normoxic cells. Hypoxia changed the profile of released inflammatory mediators according to cell type. Interleukin-8 was produced only by post-EMT and basal-like cell lines, regardless of hypoxia. MCP-1 was produced by MDA-MB-435 and -468 cells, whereas IL-6 was present only in MDA-MB-231. IL-2, TNF-α, and NGF production was stimulated by hypoxia in MCF-7 cells. CM from normoxic and hypoxic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435S cells and hypoxic MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB-468, induced NG migration. Conclusions Hypoxia increases migration by the autocrine action of released signal substances in selected luminal and basal-like breast carcinoma cell lines which might explain why anti-angiogenic treatment can worsen clinical outcome in some patients.

  20. Peripheral and site-specific CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients show distinct characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, J; Johansson, S; Snir, O; Linton, L; Rieck, M; Buckner, J H; Winqvist, O; van Vollenhoven, R; Malmström, V

    2014-02-01

    Proinflammatory CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells are frequently found in the circulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but are less common in the rheumatic joint. In the present study, we sought to identify functional differences between CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from blood and synovial fluid in comparison with conventional CD28-expressing CD4(+) T cells. Forty-four patients with RA, displaying a distinct CD4(+) CD28(null) T cell population in blood, were recruited for this study; the methylation status of the IFNG locus was examined in isolated T cell subsets, and intracellular cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17) and chemokine receptor expression (CXCR3, CCR6 and CCR7) were assessed by flow cytometry on T cells from the two compartments. Circulating CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells were significantly more hypomethylated in the CNS-1 region of the IFNG locus than conventional CD4(+) CD28(+) T cells and produced higher levels of both IFN-γ and TNF after TCR cross-linking. CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from the site of inflammation expressed significantly more CXCR3 and CCR6 compared to their counterparts in blood. While IL-17A production could hardly be detected in CD4(+) CD28(null) cells from the blood, a significant production was observed in CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells from synovial fluid. CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells were not only found to differ from conventional CD4(+) CD28(+) T cells in the circulation, but we could also demonstrate that synovial CD4(+) CD28(null) T cells showed additional effector functions (IL-17 coproduction) as compared to the same subset in peripheral blood, suggesting an active role for these cells in the perpetuation of inflammation in the subset of patients having a CD28(null) population.

  1. Choriodecidual Cells from Term Human Pregnancies Show Distinctive Functional Properties Related to the Induction of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martín; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Problem Human parturition is associated with an intrauterine pro-inflammatory environment in the choriodecidua. Evidence that some mediators of this signaling cascade also elicit responses leading to labor prompted us to characterize the cellular sources of these mediators in the human choriodecidua. Method of study Leukocyte-enriched preparations from human choriodecidua (ChL) and intervillous placental blood leukocytes (PL) were maintained in culture. Secretions of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and MMP-9 were documented. Leukocyte phenotype of ChL and PL was determined by flow cytometry using specific fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies. Results and Conclusions ChL showed a distinct pro-inflammatory secretion pattern of cytokines and chemokines when compared with PL, including higher amounts of TNF-α and IL-6, and decreased secretions of IL-4 and IL-1ra. ChL also secreted more MIP-1α and MCP-1 and MMP-9 than PL. No significant differences were found in leukocytes subsets between compartments. Based on our findings, we propose that ChL isolated from fetal membranes at term are functionally different from PL and may collaborate to modulate the microenvironment linked to induction and progression of human labor. PMID:24286217

  2. Sequential treatment with ursolic acid chlorophenyl triazole followed by 5-fluorouracil shows synergistic activity in small cell lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xia Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Combination therapy has prolonged the survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC, an aggressive neoplasm characterized by a high rate of metastasis. In the present study the effect of sequential treatment of ursolic acid chlorophenyl triazole (UACT followed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU on human small cell lung cancer cells was investigated. The results revealed a synergistic effect of the sequential treatment with UACT and 5-FUcombination on cytotoxic activities, NF-kB protein activation, repression of TNF-induced NF-kB-dependent reporter gene expression, and TNF-induced COX-2, MMP-9 and Cyclin D1 activation in H209 cells. The synergism in apoptotic cell death was observed in H209, H69, 87-5,and Lu135 cells. The synergistic effect of UACT and 5-FU was observed at a concentration of 50 nM of UACT and 20 µM of 5-FU. These results indicate that UACT and 5-FU combination can be a promising chemotherapeutic regimen in the treatment of SCLC.

  3. HDAC inhibitors show differential epigenetic regulation and cell survival strategies on p53 mutant colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Mahalakshmi; P, Husayn Ahmed; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-03-06

    Besides inactivating tumour suppressor activity in cells, mutations in p53 confer significant oncogenic functions and promote metastasis and resistance to anti cancer therapy. A variety of therapies involving genetic and epigenetic signalling events regulate tumorogenesis and progression in such cases. Pharmacological interventions with HDAC inhibitors have shown promise in therapy. This work explores the changes in efficacy of the four HDAC inhibitors SAHA, MS-275, valproic acid and sodium butyrate on a panel of colon cancer cell lines - HCT116 (p53 wt), HCT116 p53-/-, HT29 and SW480 (with mutations in p53). Clonogenic assays, gene profiling and epigenetic expression done on these cells point to p53 dependent differential activity of the 4 HDAC inhibitors which also elevate methylation levels in p53 mutant cell lines. In silico modelling establishes the alterations in interactions that lead to such differential activity of valproic acid, one of the inhibitors considered for the work. Molecular Dynamic simulations carried out on the valproic acid complex ensure stability of the complex. This work establishes a p53 dependent epigenetic signalling mechanism triggered by HDAC inhibition expanding the scope of HDAC inhibitors in adjuvant therapy for p53 mutant tumours.

  4. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham A. Badr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  5. HTLV-I Tax and Cytokeratin: Tax-Expressing Cells Show Morphological Changes in Keratin-Containing Cytoskeletal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihn, D.; Jeang, K.-T.; Semmes, O.J.

    1997-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been linked to the development of an aggressive lymphoproliferative disorder (adult T cell leukemia), a chronic neurodegenerative presentation (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and numerous less well-defined inflammatory conditions. The viral regulatory protein Tax has been implicated in cellular transformation events leading to the onset of adult T cell leukemia. Details on the stepwise processes through which Tax induces morphological changes in cells are poorly understood. We show here that Tax can bind to a class of intermediate filaments, the cytokeratins (Ker). Tax interacts with the 1B helical coil of keratin 8, a domain critical for higher-order intermediate filament matrix formation. Expression of Tax in epithelial cells visibly altered the structural pattern of the Ker network. In a T lymphocyte cell line, induction of Tax expression resulted in increased cellular adherence/invasion of Matrigel filters. We propose that one aspect of Tax function is the induction of morphological changes in cellular cytoskeletal structures. This finding for Tax-expressing cells might be one factor contributing directly to the pathogenesis of HTLV-I disease(s). Copyright 1997 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-12-16

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats' cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV.

  7. Proceedings of the hydrogen and fuel cells 2003 conference and trade show : Towards a greener world. CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Canada is an important player in the fuel cell industry. The world's largest cluster of fuel cell manufacturers is located in Vancouver, British Columbia, where 87 per cent of fuel cell research and development takes place. A total of 17 companies are involved directly with the industry and several other supporting companies provide components. This conference and trade show attracted more than 1000 attendees representing 28 countries, along with 55 exhibitors. The participants were offered an opportunity to exchange ideas and information on a comprehensive range of topics designed to promote the engineering and economics of fuel cells and hydrogen technologies. There were two keynote addresses, six unique plenary sessions and poster sessions. The presentations were categorized into five major themes: (1) hydrogen infrastructure, (2) environment, economics, and education, (3) materials and innovative technologies, (4) hydrogen storage systems and applications, and (5) fuel cells. National and international trends were identified in fuel cell technology and development, as well as Canadian strengths. The challenges facing the commercialization of technologies and strategies for the future were discussed. A total of 55 presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  9. Dammarane-type saponins from heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum show fortified activity against A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Xiang-Lan; Wu, Qian; Yang, Jing; Park, Seo Young; Chen, Dao-Jin; Liu, Hui-Min

    2013-07-01

    An ethanol extract from heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum showed more potent cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells than that of raw G. pentaphyllum. Four constituents were isolated from heat-processed G. pentaphyllum using resin HP-20, silica gel and reversed ODS column chromatography. They were identified by mass and NMR spectra as damulin A and damulin B, gypenoside L and gypenoside LI, respectively. To evaluate the efficacy of these four constituents, the MTT cytotoxicity assay was performed using A549 cells. Based on the structure of these four constituents, the results indicate that the hydroxyl group in C-2 and double bond in C20(21) and C20(22) positions are of importance in inhibition of A549 cell proliferation.

  10. Immunohistochemical evidences showing the presence of thymulin containing cells located in involuted thymus and in peripheral lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Hugo; Villegas, Juana V; Leyan, Víctor; Barría, Miguel; Eller, Gisela; Esquivel, Patricio

    2010-01-01

    Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45). In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  11. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takauji, Yuki; Miki, Kensuke; Mita, Juma; Hossain, Mohammad Nazir; Yamauchi, Masatake; Kioi, Mitomu; Ayusawa, Dai; Fujii, Michihiko

    2016-12-01

    Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigated its activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin, both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells. Further, Triphala efficiently eliminated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells. Thus, the antioxidant activity of Triphala would likely play a role in its protective actions against X-radiation and bleomycin because both agents damage DNA through the generation of ROS. These observations suggested that the radioprotective activity of Triphala can be, at least partly, studied with the cells cultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of the molecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  12. Pancreatic beta cells from db/db mice show cell-specific [Ca2+]i and NADH responses to glucose but not to alpha-ketoisocaproic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Larsson-Nyrén, Gerd; Lindström, Per

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that timing and magnitude of the glucose-induced cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]i response are reproducible and specific for the individual beta cell. We now wanted to identify which step(s) of stimulus-secretion coupling determine the cell specificity of the [Ca2+]i resp...

  13. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUKI TAKAUJI; KENSUKE MIKI; JUMA MITA; MOHAMMAD NAZIR HOSSAIN; MASATAKE YAMAUCHI; MITOMU KIOI; DAI AYUSAWA; MICHIHIKO FUJII

    2016-12-01

    Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations inAyurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblicaofficinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigatedits activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin,both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells. Further, Triphala efficiently eliminated reactive oxygenspecies (ROS) in HeLa cells. Thus, the antioxidant activity of Triphala would likely play a role in its protective actionsagainst X-radiation and bleomycin because both agents damage DNA through the generation of ROS. Theseobservations suggested that the radioprotective activity of Triphala can be, at least partly, studied with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  14. Sodium alginate and gum acacia hydrogels of ZnO nanoparticles show wound healing effect on fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguvaran, R; Manuja, Balvinder K; Chopra, Meenu; Thakur, Rajesh; Anand, Taruna; Kalia, Anu; Manuja, Anju

    2017-03-01

    An ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications should possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties without any toxicity to the host cells while providing the maximum healing activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) possess antimicrobial activity and enhance wound healing, but the questions regarding their safety arise before application to the biological systems. We synthesized ZnONPs-loaded-sodium alginate-gum acacia hydrogels (SAGA-ZnONPs) by cross linking hydroxyl groups of the polymers sodium alginate and gum acacia with the aldehyde group of gluteradehyde. Here, we report the wound healing properties of sodium alginate/gum acacia/ZnONPs, circumventing the toxicity of ZnONPs simultaneously. We demonstrated the concentration-dependent zones of inhibition in treated cultures of Pseudomonas aerigunosa and Bacillus cereus and biocompatability on peripheral blood mononuclear/fibroblast cells. SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels showed a healing effect at a low concentration of ZnONPs using sheep fibroblast cells. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of ZnONPs were toxic to cells but SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels significantly reduced the toxicity and preserved the beneficial antibacterial and healing effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Topically Delivered Adipose Derived Stem Cells Show an Activated-Fibroblast Phenotype and Enhance Granulation Tissue Formation in Skin Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Jong; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P.; Mustoe, Thomas A.; Galiano, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253

  16. Dexmedetomidine and ketamine show distinct patterns of cell degeneration and apoptosis in the developing rat neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaro, Carlo; Segal, B Scott; Sikes, Robert W; Almeer, Zainab; Schumann, Roman; Azocar, Ruben J; Marchand, James E

    2016-12-01

    Early exposure to common anesthetic and sedative agents causes widespread brain cell degeneration and apoptosis in the developing rat brain, associated with persistent learning deficits in rats. This study was designed to determine whether the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, produces brain cell degeneration and apoptosis in postnatal day-7 rats in the same brain areas when compared to ketamine. Systemic saline, ketamine 20 mg/kg, or dexmedetomidine at 30 or 45 μg/kg were given six times to postnatal day 7 rats (n  =  6/group) every 90 min. Twenty-four hours after the initial injection, brain regions were processed and analyzed for cell degeneration using the silver stain and for apoptosis using activated caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. Exposure to ketamine resulted in significant cellular degeneration and apoptosis in limbic brain regions, but nonsignificant changes in primary sensory brain regions. In contrast, dexmedetomidine produced significant cellular degeneration and apoptosis in primary sensory brain regions, but nonsignificant changes in limbic regions. These data show that ketamine and dexmedetomidine result in anatomically distinct patterns of cell degeneration and apoptosis in the brains of 7-day-old rat pups. The meaning and the clinical significance of these findings remain to be established.

  17. AFM study shows prominent physical changes in elasticity and pericellular layer in human acute leukemic cells due to inadequate cell-cell communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia V.; Patel, Sapan J.; Dokukin, Maxim E.; Clarkson, Bayard; Sokolov, Igor

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical properties of single cells in vitro or ex vivo and their pericellular interfaces have recently attracted a lot of attention as a potential biophysical (and possibly prognostic) marker of various diseases and cell abnormalities. At the same time, the influence of the cell environment on the biomechanical properties of cells is not well studied. Here we use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that cell-cell communication can have a profound effect on both cell elasticity and its pericellular coat. A human pre-B p190BCR/ABL acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (ALL3) was used in this study. Assuming that cell-cell communication is inversely proportional to the distance between cells, we study ALL3 cells in vitro growing at different cell densities. ALL3 cells demonstrate a clear density dependent behavior. These cells grow very well if started at a relatively high cell density (HD, >2 × 105 cells ml-1) and are poised to grow at low cell density (LD, communication must be taken into account when studying biomechanics of cells, in particular, correlating cell phenotype and its biophysical properties.

  18. NIH 3T3 cells malignantly transformed by mot—2 show inactivation and cytoplasmic sequestration of the p53 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WADHWA; SYUICHITAKANO; 等

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies we have reported that a high level of expression of mot-2 protein results in malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells as analyzed by anchorage independent growth and nude mice assays [Kaul et al.,Oncogene,17,907-11,1998].Mot-2 was found to interact with tumor suppressor protein p53.The transient overexpression of mot-2 was inhibitory to transcriptional activation function of p53 [Wadhwa et al.,J.Biol.Chem.,273,2958691,1998].We demonstrate here that mot-2 transfected stable clone of NIH 3T3 that showed malignant properties indeed show inactivation of p53 function as assayed by exogenous p53 dependent reporter.The expression level of p53 in response to UV-irradiation was lower in NIH 3T3/mot-2 as compared to NIH 3T3 cells and also exhibited delay in reachingpeak.Furthermore,upon serum starvation p53 was seen to translocate to the nucleus in NIH 3T3,but not in its mot-3 derivative.The data suggests that mot-2 mediated cytoplasmic sequestration and inactivation of p53 may operate,at least in part,for malignant phenotype of NIH 3T3/mot-2 cells.

  19. Evolution of plant cell wall: Arabinogalactan-proteins from three moss genera show structural differences compared to seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Desirée; Baumann, Alexander; Maeder, Malte; Geske, Thomas; Heise, Esther Marie; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Classen, Birgit

    2017-05-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are important proteoglycans of plant cell walls. They seem to be present in most, if not all seed plants, but their occurrence and structure in bryophytes is widely unknown and actually the focus of AGP research. With regard to evolution of plant cell wall, we isolated AGPs from the three mosses Sphagnum sp., Physcomitrella patens and Polytrichastrum formosum. The moss AGPs show structural characteristics common for AGPs of seed plants, but also unique features, especially 3-O-methyl-rhamnose (trivial name acofriose) as terminal monosaccharide not found in arabinogalactan-proteins of angiosperms and 1,2,3-linked galactose as branching point never found in arabinogalactan-proteins before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgs, Laurence; Peyre, Elise; Alix, Philippe; Hanon, Kevin; Grobarczyk, Benjamin; Godin, Juliette D; Purnelle, Audrey; Krusy, Nathalie; Maquet, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe; Seutin, Vincent; Malgrange, Brigitte; Nguyen, Laurent

    2016-09-19

    Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of this mutation and its possible developmental implications, we developed an in vitro assay to model PD with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of PD patients suffering from the LRKK2 G2019S mutation. We differentiated the hiPSCs into neural stem cells (NSCs) and further into dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that NSCs bearing the mutation tend to differentiate less efficiently into dopaminergic neurons and that the latter exhibit significant branching defects as compared to their controls.

  1. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Rensberger

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals.Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  2. Whole genome expression profiling shows that BRG1 transcriptionally regulates UV inducible genes and other novel targets in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nemzow, Leah; Chen, Hua; Hu, Jennifer J; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    UV irradiation is known to cause cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), and plays a large role in the development of cancer. Tumor suppression, through DNA repair and proper cell cycle regulation, is an integral factor in maintaining healthy cells and preventing development of cancer. Transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in the various tumor suppression pathways is essential for them to be expressed when needed and to function properly. BRG1, an ATPase catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, has been identified as a tumor suppressor protein, as it has been shown to play a role in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) of CPDs, suppress apoptosis, and restore checkpoint deficiency, in response to UV exposure. Although BRG1 has been shown to regulate transcription of some genes that are instrumental in proper DNA damage repair and cell cycle maintenance in response to UV, its role in transcriptional regulation of the whole genome in response to UV has not yet been elucidated. With whole genome expression profiling in SW13 cells, we show that upon UV induction, BRG1 regulates transcriptional expression of many genes involved in cell stress response. Additionally, our results also highlight BRG1's general role as a master regulator of the genome, as it transcriptionally regulates approximately 4.8% of the human genome, including expression of genes involved in many pathways. RT-PCR and ChIP were used to validate our genome expression analysis. Importantly, our study identifies several novel transcriptional targets of BRG1, such as ATF3. Thus, BRG1 has a larger impact on human genome expression than previously thought, and our studies will provide inroads for future analysis of BRG1's role in gene regulation.

  3. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  4. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  5. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim Noor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide

  6. Holliday junction trap shows how cells use recombination and a junction-guardian role of RecQ helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Chen, Li-Tzu; Mei, Qian; Ma, Chien-Hui; Halliday, Jennifer A; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Magnan, David; Pribis, John P; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Hamilton, Holly M; Richters, Megan; Nehring, Ralf B; Shen, Xi; Li, Lei; Bates, David; Hastings, P J; Herman, Christophe; Jayaram, Makkuni; Rosenberg, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) underpins cell survival and fuels genome instability, cancer, and evolution. However, the main kinds and sources of DNA damage repaired by HR in somatic cells and the roles of important HR proteins remain elusive. We present engineered proteins that trap, map, and quantify Holliday junctions (HJs), a central DNA intermediate in HR, based on catalytically deficient mutant RuvC protein of Escherichia coli. We use RuvCDefGFP (RDG) to map genomic footprints of HR at defined DNA breaks in E. coli and demonstrate genome-scale directionality of double-strand break (DSB) repair along the chromosome. Unexpectedly, most spontaneous HR-HJ foci are instigated, not by DSBs, but rather by single-stranded DNA damage generated by replication. We show that RecQ, the E. coli ortholog of five human cancer proteins, nonredundantly promotes HR-HJ formation in single cells and, in a novel junction-guardian role, also prevents apparent non-HR-HJs promoted by RecA overproduction. We propose that one or more human RecQ orthologs may act similarly in human cancers overexpressing the RecA ortholog RAD51 and find that cancer genome expression data implicate the orthologs BLM and RECQL4 in conjunction with EME1 and GEN1 as probable HJ reducers in such cancers. Our results support RecA-overproducing E. coli as a model of the many human tumors with up-regulated RAD51 and provide the first glimpses of important, previously elusive reaction intermediates in DNA replication and repair in single living cells.

  7. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  8. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitors: large, flexible molecules of peptide origin show satisfactory permeability across Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Bolin, Sara; Artursson, Per; Rönn, Robert; Sandström, Anja

    2009-12-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption of tripeptide-based compounds intended for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The intestinal permeability of 11 HCV NS3 protease inhibitors (Mw 687-841, ClogD(pH 7.4) 1.2-7.3 and 10-13 hydrogen bond donors/acceptors) was measured using Caco-2 cells. Each compound was investigated in the apical to basolateral (a-b) and basolateral to apical (b-a) direction at pH 7.4. For compounds displaying efflux the experiment was repeated in the presence of 1 microM GF120918 to investigate possible involvement of P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1). All compounds displayed intermediate to high permeability. Seven of them showed extensive efflux, with 31-114-fold higher permeability in the b-a direction than the a-b direction. Addition of the Pgp inhibitor GF120918 reduced the b-a transport rate for the effluxed compounds. However, for inhibitors with a C-terminal carboxylic acid and the acidic bioisosteres thereof the efflux was still significant. Hence, the negative charge resulted in efflux by other ABC-transporters than Pgp. From this study it can be concluded that small changes in the overall structure can lead to a large variation in permeability and efflux as shown by the inhibitors herein, properties that also may influence the resulting inhibition potency of the compounds when performing cell-based pharmacological assays.

  9. Macrophages in T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma strongly express metal-binding proteins and show a bi-activated phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sylvia; Tousseyn, Thomas; Döring, Claudia; Flüchter, Patricia; Hackstein, Holger; Herreman, An; Ponzoni, Maurilio; de Wolf-Peeters, Chris; Facchetti, Fabio; Gascoyne, Randy D; Küppers, Ralf; Steidl, Christian; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2013-12-01

    Abundant macrophage infiltration in tumors often correlates with a poor prognosis. T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a distinct aggressive B cell lymphoma entity showing a high macrophage content. To further elucidate the role of tumor-associated macrophages in THRLBCL, we performed gene expression profiling of microdissected histiocyte subsets of THRLBCL, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), Piringer lymphadenitis, sarcoidosis, nonspecific lymphadenitis and monocytes from peripheral blood. In a supervised principal component analysis, histiocytes from THRLBCL were most closely related to epithelioid cells from NLPHL, with both types of cells expressing genes related to proinflammatory and regulatory macrophage activity. Moreover, histiocytes from THRLBCL strongly expressed metal-binding proteins like MT2A, by which histiocytes of THRLBCL can be distinguished from the other histiocyte subsets investigated. Interestingly, the validation at the protein level showed a strong expression of TXN, CXCL9, MT2A and SOD2 not only in macrophages of THRLBCL but also in the tumor cells of NLPHL and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Overall, the present findings indicate that macrophages in the microenvironment of THRLBCL have acquired a distinct gene expression pattern that is characterized by a mixed M1/M2 phenotype and a strong expression of several metal binding proteins. The microenvironments in NLPHL and THRLBCL appear to have a similar influence on the macrophage phenotype. The high expression of metal binding proteins in histiocytes of THRLBCL may be diagnostically useful, but a potential pathophysiological role remains to be identified.

  10. Neutralization of feline infectious peritonitis virus: preparation of monoclonal antibody that shows cell tropism in neutralizing activity after viral absorption into the cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, K; Hohdatsu, T; Kashimoto-Tokunaga, J; Koyama, H

    2000-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection of feline macro-phages is enhanced by mouse anti-FIPV monoclonal antibody (MAb). This anti-body-dependent enhancement (ADE) of FIPV infection is dependent on mouse MAb subclass, and MAb of IgG2a subclass has a strong ADE activity. Furthermore, MAb showing strong neutralizing activity in Felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells and Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells shows strong enhancing activity in feline macrophages, indicating that the neutralizing epitope and the enhancing epitope are closely related. In this study, we prepared MAb FK50-4 that showed a strong neutralizing activity in feline macrophages, despite the fact that the MAb belonged to the IgG2a subclass. However, MAb FK50-4 did not exhibit neutralizing activity in CrFK cells or fcwf-4 cells, thus showing a very unusual property. MAb FK50-4 recognized FIPV small integral membrane glycoprotein (M protein). Even when feline macrophages were pretreated with MAb FK50-4 prior to FIPV inoculation, this antibody prevented FIPV infection. This reaction disappeared after treatment of FK50-4 with protein A. The neutralizing activity of FK50-4 was also effective on feline macrophages after the cells were inoculated with FIPV. These findings indicated that the FIPV replication mechanism differs between feline macrophages and CrFK/fcwf-4 cells and that a neutralizing epitope that can prevent FIPV infection of feline macrophages after viral absorption is present on M protein.

  11. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm frequently shows occult central nervous system involvement at diagnosis and benefits from intrathecal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Lourdes; Almeida, Julia; Pomares, Helena; González-Barca, Eva; Bravo, Pilar; Giménez, Teresa; Heras, Cecilia; Queizán, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ceballos, Elena; Martínez, Violeta; Alonso, Natalia; Calvo, Carlota; Álvarez, Rodolfo; Caballero, María Dolores; Orfao, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive myeloid neoplasm which shows a high rate of central nervous system (CNS) recurrence and overall survival (OS) of <1 year. Despite this, screening for CNS involvement is not routinely performed at diagnosis and intrathecal (IT) prophylaxis is not regularly administered in BPDCN. Here, we prospectively evaluated 13 consecutive BPDCN patients for the presence of CNS involvement by flow cytometry. Despite none of the patients presented with neurological symptoms, occult CNS involvement was detected in 6/10 cases evaluated at diagnosis and 3/3 studied at relapse/progression. BPDCN patients evaluated at diagnosis received IT treatment -either CNS prophylaxis (n = 4) or active therapy (n = 6)- and all but one remain alive (median follow-up of 20 months). In contrast, all three patients assessed at relapse/progression died. The potential benefit of IT treatment administered early at diagnosis on OS and CNS recurrence-free survival of BPDCN was further confirmed in a retrospective cohort of another 23 BPDCN patients. Our results show that BPDCN patients studied at diagnosis frequently display occult CNS involvement; moreover, they also indicate that treatment of occult CNS disease might lead to a dramatically improved outcome of BPDCN.

  12. One novel quinoxaline derivative as a potent human cyclophilin A inhibitor shows highly inhibitory activity against mouse spleen cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Li; Wang, Feng; Gui, Chunshan; Zhang, Li; Qin, Yu; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Hong; Nan, Fajun; Shen, Jingkang; Bai, Donglu; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-08-15

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme playing critical roles in many biological processes, and its inhibitor has been reported to have potential immunosuppressive activity. In this work, we reported a novel quinoxaline derivative, 2,3-di(furan-2-yl)-6-(3-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-piperidino)carbonylamino quinoxaline (DC838, 3), which was confirmed to be a potent inhibitor against human CypA. By using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence titration techniques, the kinetic analysis of CypA/DC838 interaction was quantitatively performed. CypA peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity inhibition assay showed that DC838 demonstrated highly CypA PPIase inhibitory activity. In vivo assay results showed that DC838 could inhibit mouse spleen cell proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A). Molecular docking simulation further elucidated the specific DC838 binding to CypA at the atomic level. The current work should provide useful information in the discovery of immunosuppressor based on CypA inhibitor.

  13. Impact of MET inhibition on small-cell lung cancer cells showing aberrant activation of the hepatocyte growth factor/MET pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Yamada, Tadaaki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Arai, Sachiko; Fukuda, Koji; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Kawada, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-07-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers, and is characterized as extremely aggressive, often displaying rapid tumor growth and multiple organ metastases. In addition, the clinical outcome of SCLC patients is poor due to early relapse and acquired resistance to standard chemotherapy treatments. Hence, novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SCLC are urgently required. Accordingly, several molecular targeted therapies were evaluated in SCLC; however, they failed to improve the clinical outcome. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is a receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and aberrant activation of HGF/MET signaling is known as one of the crucial mechanisms enabling cancer progression and invasion. Here, we found that the HGF/MET signaling was aberrantly activated in chemoresistant or chemorelapsed SCLC cell lines (SBC-5, DMS273, and DMS273-G3H) by the secretion of HGF and/or MET copy number gain. A cell-based in vitro assay revealed that HGF/MET inhibition, induced either by MET inhibitors (crizotinib and golvatinib), or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of HGF or MET, constrained growth of chemoresistant SCLC cells through the inhibition of ERK and AKT signals. Furthermore, treatment with either crizotinib or golvatinib suppressed the systemic metastasis of SBC-5 cell tumors in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice, predominantly through cell cycle arrest. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of targeting the HGF/MET pathway for inhibition, to constrain tumor progression of SCLC cells showing aberrant activation of HGF/MET signaling. We suggest that it would be clinically valuable to further investigate HGF/MET-mediated signaling in SCLC cells. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. A dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitor shows antitumor activity in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and sensitizes them to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Xi, Qingsong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Jing; Peng, Ping; Xia, Shu; Yu, Shiying

    2013-10-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is critical for the growth and proliferation of various malignant tumors, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, targeting of mTOR protein is a promising strategy for therapy in this disease. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of a specific mTOR kinase inhibitor, PP242, which blocks both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) pathways, in two ESCC cell lines: Eca-109 and TE-1. We showed that PP242, but not rapamycin, attenuated the activities of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in ESCC. PP242 inhibited 4E-binding protein-1 phosphorylation and abrogated mTORC1-dependent PI3K/Akt feedback activation. Significantly, PP242 effectively suppressed ESCC cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and arrested the cell cycle. Furthermore, PP242 promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis and enhanced the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in ESCC cells, which was likely to be associated with inhibition of Akt activity. Our results show that simultaneous targeting of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways leads to effective antitumor actions in ESCC, and strongly suggest that dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors should be developed as potential agents for the treatment of ESCC.

  15. Immunofluorescent Analysis of Testicular Biopsies with Germ Cell and Sertoli Cell Markers Shows Significant MVH Negative Germ Cell Depletion with Older Age at Orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jorgen; Sun, Cong;

    2014-01-01

    Undescended testis is the most common defect in male newborns. This condition is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in the testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. We analyzed germ cell development vs age at orchiopexy...

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis during mammalian infection shows cells undergo adaptation and exist in a stringent response state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Frank

    Full Text Available As both a commensal and a major cause of healthcare-associated infections in humans, Enterococcus faecalis is a remarkably adaptable organism. We investigated how E. faecalis adapts in a mammalian host as a pathogen by characterizing changes in the transcriptome during infection in a rabbit model of subdermal abscess formation using transcriptional microarrays. The microarray experiments detected 222 and 291 differentially regulated genes in E. faecalis OG1RF at two and eight hours after subdermal chamber inoculation, respectively. The profile of significantly regulated genes at two hours post-inoculation included genes involved in stress response, metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and cell surface components, suggesting genome-wide adaptation to growth in an altered environment. At eight hours post-inoculation, 88% of the differentially expressed genes were down-regulated and matched a transcriptional profile consistent with a (pppGpp-mediated stringent response. Subsequent subdermal abscess infections with E. faecalis mutants lacking the (pppGpp synthetase/hydrolase RSH, the small synthetase RelQ, or both enzymes, suggest that intracellular (pppGpp levels, but not stringent response activation, influence persistence in the model. The ability of cells to synthesize (pppGpp was also found to be important for growth in human serum and whole blood. The data presented in this report provide the first genome-wide insights on E. faecalis in vivo gene expression and regulation measured by transcriptional profiling during infection in a mammalian host and show that (pppGpp levels affect viability of E. faecalis in multiple conditions relevant to mammalian infection. The subdermal abscess model can serve as a novel experimental system for studying the E. faecalis stringent response in the context of the mammalian immune system.

  17. PDGFR-β (+) perivascular cells from infantile hemangioma display the features of mesenchymal stem cells and show stronger adipogenic potential in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Si-Ming; Guo, Yao; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shen, Wei-Min; Chen, Hai-Ni

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma, a common benign tumor of infancy, grows quickly in the first year of life, and then regresses slowly to fibrofatty tissue in childhood. The accumulation of fibrofatty tissue in hemangioma involution indicates adipogenesis during this period. Perivascular cells (PCs) from multiple organs display multi-lineage differentiation, including adipogenesis. So we supposed that PCs in hemangioma may contribute to the adipogenesis in the involution. In this study, PDGFR-β (+) PCs was isolated from hemangioma tissue (hemangioma-derived perivascular cells, Hem-PCs) by fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In vitro, Hem-PCs showed fibroblast-like morphology. Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry showed Hem-PCs expressed MSCs markers CD105, CD90, CD29 and vimentin, pericyte markers α-SMA and PDGFR-β, stem cell marker CD133, and the adipogenic transcription factor PPAR-γ, but not hematopoietic/endothelial markers CD45, CD34, CD31, and flt-1. In vitro inductions confirmed multi-lineage differentiation of Hem-PCs, especially strong adipogenic potential. Then a murine model was established to observe in vivo differentiation of Hem-PCs by subcutaneous injection of cells/Matrigel compound into nude mice. The results showed Hem-PCs differentiated into adipocytes in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the isolation of multipotential PDGFR-β (+) PCs from hemangioma, and observing their adipogenic differentiation in vivo. PCs may be the cellular basis of adipogenesis in hemangioma involution, and may be the target cells of adipogenic induction to promote hemangioma involution. PMID:25031705

  18. Umbilical cord-derived stem cells (MODULATISTTM show strong immunomodulation capacity compared to adipose tissue-derived or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show great promise in regenerative medicine. Clinical applications of MSCs have recently increased significantly, especially for immune diseases. Autologous transplantation is considered a safe therapy. However, its main disadvantages are poor stability and quality of MSCs from patient to patient, and labor-intensive and time-consuming culture procedures. Therefore, allogeneic MSC transplantation has recently emerged as a potential replacement for autologous transplantation. and ldquo;Off the shelf and rdquo; MSC products, or so-called and ldquo;stem cell drugs and rdquo;, have rapidly developed; these products have already been approved in various countries, including Canada, Korea and Japan. This study aims to evaluate a new stem cell product or and ldquo;drug and rdquo;, termed ModulatistTM, derived from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs, which have strong immunomodulatory properties, compared to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs. Methods: ModulatistTM was produced from MSCs derived from whole umbilical cord (UC tissue (which includes Wharton's jelly and UC, according to GMP compliant procedures. Bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were isolated and proliferated in standard conditions, according to GMP compliant procedures. Immunomodulation mediated by MSCs was assessed by allogenic T cell suppression and cytokine release; role of prostaglandin E2 in the immunomodulation was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that ModulatistTM exhibited stronger immunomodulation than BMMSC and ADSC in vitro. ModulatistTM strongly suppressed allogeneic T cells proliferation and decreased cytokine production, compared to BMMSCs and ADSCs. Conclusion: ModulatistTM is a strong immunomodulator and promising MSC product. It may be useful to modulate or treat autoimmune diseases. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 687-696

  19. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  20. PAT1 (SLC36A1) shows nuclear localization and affect growth of smooth muscle cells from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    the localization and function of PAT1 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The PAT1 protein was found in smooth muscles from rat intestine and in the embryonic rat aorta cell line A7r5. Immunolocalization and cellular fractionation studies revealed that the majority of the PAT1 protein located within the cell nucleus...

  1. VHL missense mutations in the p53 binding domain show different effects on p53 signaling and HIFα degradation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafinjatovo, Caroline Fanja; Stiehl, Daniel; Deininger, Eva; Rechsteiner, Markus; Moch, Holger; Schraml, Peter

    2017-02-07

    Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) formation is connected to functional loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Recent data identified its gene product, pVHL, as a multifunctional adaptor protein which interacts with HIFα subunits but also with the tumor suppressor p53. p53 is hardly expressed and rarely mutated in most ccRCC. We showed that low and absent p53 expression correlated with the severity of VHL mutations in 262 analyzed ccRCC tissues. In contrast to nonsense and frameshift mutations which abrogate virtually all pVHL functions, missense mutations may rather influence one or few functions. Therefore, we focused on four VHL missense mutations, which affect the overlapping pVHL binding sites of p53 and Elongin C, by investigating their impact on HIFα degradation, p53 expression and signaling, as well as on cellular behavior using ccRCC cell lines and tissues. TP53 mRNA and its effector targets p21, Bax and Noxa, were altered both in engineered cell lines and in tumor tissues which carried the same missense mutations. Two of these mutations were not able to degrade HIFα whereas the remaining two mutations led to HIFα downregulation, suggesting the latter are p53 binding site-specific. The selected VHL missense mutations further enhanced tumor cell survival, but had no effects on cell proliferation. Whereas Sunitinib was able to efficiently reduce cell proliferation, Camptothecin was additionally able to increase apoptotic activity of the tumor cells. It is concluded that systematic characterization of the VHL mutation status may help optimizing targeted therapy for patients with metastatic ccRCC.

  2. The multifunctional FUS, EWS and TAF15 proto-oncoproteins show cell type-specific expression patterns and involvement in cell spreading and stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Göran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FUS, EWS and TAF15 are structurally similar multifunctional proteins that were first discovered upon characterization of fusion oncogenes in human sarcomas and leukemias. The proteins belong to the FET (previously TET family of RNA-binding proteins and are implicated in central cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression, maintenance of genomic integrity and mRNA/microRNA processing. In the present study, we investigated the expression and cellular localization of FET proteins in multiple human tissues and cell types. Results FUS, EWS and TAF15 were expressed in both distinct and overlapping patterns in human tissues. The three proteins showed almost ubiquitous nuclear expression and FUS and TAF15 were in addition present in the cytoplasm of most cell types. Cytoplasmic EWS was more rarely detected and seen mainly in secretory cell types. Furthermore, FET expression was downregulated in differentiating human embryonic stem cells, during induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and absent in terminally differentiated melanocytes and cardiac muscle cells. The FET proteins were targeted to stress granules induced by heat shock and oxidative stress and FUS required its RNA-binding domain for this translocation. Furthermore, FUS and TAF15 were detected in spreading initiation centers of adhering cells. Conclusion Our results point to cell-specific expression patterns and functions of the FET proteins rather than the housekeeping roles inferred from earlier studies. The localization of FET proteins to stress granules suggests activities in translational regulation during stress conditions. Roles in central processes such as stress response, translational control and adhesion may explain the FET proteins frequent involvement in human cancer.

  3. The adult pituitary shows stem/progenitor cell activation in response to injury and is capable of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuli; Gremeaux, Lies; Luque, Raul M; Liekens, Daisy; Chen, Jianghai; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Kineman, Rhonda; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The pituitary gland constitutes, together with the hypothalamus, the regulatory core of the endocrine system. Whether the gland is capable of cell regeneration after injury, in particular when suffered at adult age, is unknown. To investigate the adult pituitary's regenerative capacity and the response of its stem/progenitor cell compartment to damage, we constructed a transgenic mouse model to conditionally destroy pituitary cells. GHCre/iDTR mice express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor after transcriptional activation by Cre recombinase, which is driven by the GH promoter. Treatment with DT for 3 d leads to gradual GH(+) (somatotrope) cell obliteration with a final ablation grade of 80-90% 1 wk later. The stem/progenitor cell-clustering side population promptly expands after injury, concordant with the immediate increase in Sox2(+) stem/progenitor cells. In addition, folliculo-stellate cells, previously designated as pituitary stem/progenitor cells and significantly overlapping with Sox2(+) cells, also increase in abundance. In situ examination reveals expansion of the Sox2(+) marginal-zone niche and appearance of remarkable Sox2(+) cells that contain GH. When mice are left after the DT-provoked lesion, GH(+) cells considerably regenerate during the following months. Double Sox2(+)/GH(+) cells are observed throughout the regenerative period, suggesting recovery of somatotropes from stem/progenitor cells, as further supported by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) pulse-chase lineage tracing. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the adult pituitary gland holds regenerative competence and that tissue repair follows prompt activation and plausible involvement of the stem/progenitor cells.

  4. Bone Marrow CD34(+) Progenitor Cells from HIV-Infected Patients Show an Impaired T Cell Differentiation Potential Related to Proinflammatory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Veronica; Bibas, Michele; Viola, Domenico; Sacchi, Alessandra; Cimini, Eleonora; Tumino, Nicola; Casetti, Rita; Amendola, Alessandra; Ammassari, Adriana; Agrati, Chiara; Martini, Federico

    2017-06-01

    The impact of HIV infection on the frequency and differentiation capability of CD34(+) bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (BM-HPCs) is still debated, having a possible primary role in antiretroviral-induced immunoreconstitution. We investigated the influence of HIV replication or proinflammatory cytokines on lymphopoietic capability of BM-HPCs from seven viremic (VR) and five nonviremic (NVR) HIV-infected patients. We found that BM-HPCs from VR patients were unable to differentiate in vitro toward T cells, and produced proinflammatory cytokines in the absence of viral replication. In contrast, the lymphoid differentiation potential of BM-HPCs was partially restored in successfully antiretroviral therapy-treated patients. We also showed that TLR8 triggering induced BM-HPCs from healthy donors to release proinflammatory cytokines affecting T cell differentiation. These data suggest that in HIV-infected patients, the lymphopoiesis capability of BM-HPCs may be modulated by a virus-driven autocrine mechanism involving proinflammatory cytokines.

  5. Dendritic cell subtypes from lymph nodes and blood show contrasted gene expression programs upon Bluetongue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscanu, Suzana; Jouneau, Luc; Urien, Céline; Bourge, Mickael; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Moroldo, Marco; Loup, Benoit; Dalod, Marc; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Hope, Jayne; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stéphan; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    Human and animal hemorrhagic viruses initially target dendritic cells (DCs). It has been proposed, but not documented, that both plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs) may participate in the cytokine storm encountered in these infections. In order to evaluate the contribution of DCs in hemorrhagic virus pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis during infection by Bluetongue virus (BTV), a double-stranded RNA virus that induces hemorrhagic fever in sheep and initially infects cDCs. Both pDCs and cDCs accumulated in regional lymph nodes and spleen during BTV infection. The gene response profiles were performed at the onset of the disease and markedly differed with the DC subtypes and their lymphoid organ location. An integrative knowledge-based analysis revealed that blood pDCs displayed a gene signature related to activation of systemic inflammation and permeability of vasculature. In contrast, the gene profile of pDCs and cDCs in lymph nodes was oriented to inhibition of inflammation, whereas spleen cDCs did not show a clear functional orientation. These analyses indicate that tissue location and DC subtype affect the functional gene expression program induced by BTV and suggest the involvement of blood pDCs in the inflammation and plasma leakage/hemorrhage during BTV infection in the real natural host of the virus. These findings open the avenue to target DCs for therapeutic interventions in viral hemorrhagic diseases.

  6. Phosphoinositide 5- and 3-phosphatase activities of a voltage-sensing phosphatase in living cells show identical voltage dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Dongil; Kruse, Martin; Kim, Dong-Il; Hille, Bertil; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2016-06-28

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) are homologs of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] 3-phosphatase. However, VSPs have a wider range of substrates, cleaving 3-phosphate from PI(3,4)P2 and probably PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as 5-phosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3 in response to membrane depolarization. Recent proposals say these reactions have differing voltage dependence. Using Förster resonance energy transfer probes specific for different PIs in living cells with zebrafish VSP, we quantitate both voltage-dependent 5- and 3-phosphatase subreactions against endogenous substrates. These activities become apparent with different voltage thresholds, voltage sensitivities, and catalytic rates. As an analytical tool, we refine a kinetic model that includes the endogenous pools of phosphoinositides, endogenous phosphatase and kinase reactions connecting them, and four exogenous voltage-dependent 5- and 3-phosphatase subreactions of VSP. We show that apparent voltage threshold differences for seeing effects of the 5- and 3-phosphatase activities in cells are not due to different intrinsic voltage dependence of these reactions. Rather, the reactions have a common voltage dependence, and apparent differences arise only because each VSP subreaction has a different absolute catalytic rate that begins to surpass the respective endogenous enzyme activities at different voltages. For zebrafish VSP, our modeling revealed that 3-phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5)P3 is 55-fold slower than 5-phosphatase activity against PI(4,5)P2; thus, PI(4,5)P2 generated more slowly from dephosphorylating PI(3,4,5)P3 might never accumulate. When 5-phosphatase activity was counteracted by coexpression of a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase, there was accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 in parallel to PI(3,4,5)P3 dephosphorylation

  7. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in a flavonoid pathway in response to exogenous phenylalanine in Boesenbergia rotunda cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md-Mustafa, Noor Diyana; Khalid, Norzulaani; Gao, Huan; Peng, Zhiyu; Alimin, Mohd Firdaus; Bujang, Noraini; Ming, Wong Sher; Mohd-Yusuf, Yusmin; Harikrishna, Jennifer A; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2014-11-18

    Panduratin A extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda is a flavonoid reported to possess a range of medicinal indications which include anti-dengue, anti-HIV, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Boesenbergia rotunda is a plant from the Zingiberaceae family commonly used as a food ingredient and traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and China. Reports on the health benefits of secondary metabolites extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda over the last few years has resulted in rising demands for panduratin A. However large scale extraction has been hindered by the naturally low abundance of the compound and limited knowledge of its biosynthetic pathway. Transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of native and phenylalanine treated Boesenbergia rotunda cell suspension cultures were carried out to elucidate the key genes differentially expressed in the panduratin A biosynthetic pathway. Based on experiments that show increase in panduratin A production after 14 days post treatment with exogenous phenylalanine, an aromatic amino acid derived from the shikimic acid pathway, total RNA of untreated and 14 days post-phenylalanine treated cell suspension cultures were extracted and sequenced using next generation sequencing technology employing an Illumina-Solexa platform. The transcriptome data generated 101, 043 unigenes with 50, 932 (50.41%) successfully annotated in the public protein databases; including 49.93% (50, 447) in the non-redundant (NR) database, 34.63% (34, 989) in Swiss-Prot, 24,07% (24, 316) in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and 16.26% (16, 426) in Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). Through DGE analysis, we found that 14, 644 unigenes were up-regulated and 14, 379 unigenes down-regulated in response to exogenous phenylalanine treatment. In the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the proposed panduratin A production, 2 up-regulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 3 up-regulated 4-coumaroyl

  8. Zoledronic acid inhibits proliferation of human fibrosarcoma cells with induction of apoptosis, and shows combined effects with other anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koto, Kazutaka; Murata, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shinya; Horie, Naoyuki; Matsui, Takaaki; Nishigaki, Yasunori; Ryu, Kazuteru; Sakabe, Tomoya; Itoi, Megumi; Ashihara, Eishi; Maekawa, Taira; Fushiki, Shinji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-07-01

    Third-generation bisphosphonates are known to inhibit bone resorption and also appear to exhibit direct anti-tumour activity. We previously reported that third-generation bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) have a direct antitumour effect, and synergistically augment the effects of antitumor agents in osteosarcoma cells. There has been no report on the antitumor effect of ZOL against soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effect of this drug on a human fibrosarcoma cell line, in terms of proliferation and apoptosis, and, moreover, to evaluate the combined effects of ZOL with other antitumor drugs against the human fibrosarcoma cell line. HT1080 cells were treated with ZOL at various concentrations up to 10 microM, and then cell proliferation, cell cycle, nuclear morphology, and Western blot analyses were performed to study the antitumor effects of ZOL alone, and, moreover, HT1080 cells were treated with ZOL and other anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, cisplatin, or methotrexate to investigate the combined effects using proliferation and cell cycle analyses. We found that ZOL strongly inhibited in vitro proliferation, arrested the cell cycle between S and G2/M phases, and induced the apoptosis of human fibrosarcoma cells. Moreover, ZOL augmented the effect of antitumor agents when administered concurrently with paclitaxel, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, and cisplatin in human fibrosarcoma cells. The treatment of fibrosarcoma with ordinary antitumor drugs is not fully effective. These findings suggest that ZOL directly affects the proliferation and survival of fibrosarcoma cells, and that the combined administration of ZOL with other antitumor agents may improve the efficacy of fibrosarcoma treatment. These results support the possibility that their combined use could be beneficial in the treatment of patients not only with

  9. Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells Showed Renotropic and Pericyte-Like Properties in Acute Renal Failure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Michele A.; Martins, João Flávio Panattoni; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Wenceslau, Crisitiane Valverde; De Souza, Dener Madeiro; Kerkis, Alexandre; Câmara, Niels Olsen S.; Balieiro, Julio Cesar C.; Kerkis, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common renal disease that can lead to high mortality. Recovery from ARF occurs with the replacement of necrotic tubular cells by functional tubular epithelial cells and the normalization of microvascular endothelial cell function in the peritubular capillaries. Conventional therapeutic techniques are often ineffective against ARF. Hence, stem cell therapies, which act through multiple trophic and regenerative mechanisms, are encouraging. We investigated the homing of human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSCs) after endovenous (EV) or intraperitoneal (IP) injection, in immunocompetent Wistar rats with ARF induced by intramuscular injection of glycerol, without the use of immunosuppression. The cells, which had been cryopreserved for 6 years, were CD105+, CD73+, CD44+, and partly, STRO-1+ and CD146+, and presented unaltered mesoderm differentiation potential. The presence of these cells in the tubular region of the kidney and in the peritubular capillaries was demonstrated. These cells accelerate tubular epithelial cell regeneration through significant increase of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells in damaged kidney. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that IDPSCs home to the kidneys (EV 34.10% and IP 33.25%); a lower percentage of cells was found in the liver (EV 19.05% and IP 9.10%), in the muscles (EV 6.30% and IP 1.35%), and in the lungs (EV 2.0% and IP 1.85%). After infusion into rat, these cells express pericyte markers, such as CD146+, STRO-1+, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF+). We found that IDPSCs demonstrate renotropic and pericyte-like properties and contributed to restore renal tubule structure in an experimental rat ARF model. PMID:26858898

  10. Proceedings of hydrogen and fuel cells 2007 international conference and trade show : international partnerships for global energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference discussed all aspects of hydrogen and fuel cells, with particular focus on environmental issues; policy and economics; hydrogen investment; trading pollution credits; international partnerships; and, climate change. The session on hydrogen fuels addressed hydrogen production from wind, solar, clean coal, nuclear and biomass through electrolysis and reforming thermochemical processes. Hydrogen distribution and transportation was also discussed with reference to pipelines, ships, trains and portable micro power. Storage of liquid hydrogen, carbon, compressed gas and hydrides was reviewed along with integrated systems, codes, standards and computerized simulation. Innovative technologies that have emerged from recent fuel cell research and development activities were also highlighted with particular reference to fuel cell components, fuel cell stacks, fuel cell systems, fuel cell materials, fuel cell design and fuel cell manufacturing. The current use of monitoring and sensor technologies was also reviewed. The conference highlighted fuel cell applications in residential and commercial installations, portable applications, transportation applications, distributed power generation and combined heat and power. All 54 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Automated electrorotation shows electrokinetic separation of pancreatic cancer cells is robust to acquired chemotherapy resistance, serum starvation, and EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, Timothy; Su, Wey-Wey; Gruber, Conor; Cardle, Ian; Huang, Chao; Thege, Fredrik; Kirby, Brian

    2016-11-01

    We used automated electrorotation to measure the cytoplasmic permittivity, cytoplasmic conductivity, and specific membrane capacitance of pancreatic cancer cells under environmental perturbation to evaluate the effects of serum starvation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and evolution of chemotherapy resistance which may be associated with the development and dissemination of cancer. First, we compared gemcitabine-resistant BxPC3 subclones with gemcitabine-naive parental cells. Second, we serum-starved BxPC3 and PANC-1 cells and compared them to untreated counterparts. Third, we induced the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in PANC-1 cells and compared them to untreated PANC-1 cells. We also measured the electrorotation spectra of white blood cells isolated from a healthy donor. The properties from fit electrorotation spectra were used to compute dielectrophoresis (DEP) spectra and crossover frequencies. For all three experiments, the median crossover frequency for both treated and untreated pancreatic cancer cells remained significantly lower than the median crossover frequency for white blood cells. The robustness of the crossover frequency to these treatments indicates that DEP is a promising technique for enhancing capture of circulating cancer cells.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis during mammalian infection shows cells undergo adaptation and exist in a stringent response state

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frank, Kristi L; Colomer-Winter, Cristina; Grindle, Suzanne M; Lemos, José A; Schlievert, Patrick M; Dunny, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    .... The profile of significantly regulated genes at two hours post-inoculation included genes involved in stress response, metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and cell surface components, suggesting genome...

  13. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L; Black, Katherine; Jones, Lynnette M; McCormick, Sally P A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5'-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors.

  14. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schütz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549 were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6. In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  15. A fish antimicrobial peptide, tilapia hepcidin TH2-3, shows potent antitumor activity against human fibrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Yih; Lin, Wei-Ju; Lin, Tai-Lang

    2009-09-01

    As part of a continuing search for potential anticancer drug candidates from antimicrobial peptides of marine organisms, tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) hepcidin TH2-3 was evaluated in several tumor cell lines. The results indicated that TH2-3, a synthetic 20-mer antimicrobial peptide, specifically inhibited human fibrosarcoma cell (HT1080 cell line) proliferation and migration. The way in which TH2-3 inhibited HT1080 cell growth was then studied. TH2-3 inhibited HT1080 cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner according to an MTT analysis, which was confirmed by a soft-agar assay and AO/EtBr staining. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that TH2-3 caused lethal membrane disruption in HT1080 cancer cells, and a wound healing assay supported that TH2-3 decreased the migration of HT1080 cells. In addition, c-Jun mRNA expression was downregulated after treatment with TH2-3 for 48-96 h compared to the untreated group. These findings suggest a mechanism of cytotoxic action of TH2-3 and indicate that TH2-3 may be a promising chemotherapeutic agent against human fibrosarcoma cells.

  16. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, I.J.; Spiekstra, S.W.; de Gruijl, T.D.; Gibbs, S.

    2015-01-01

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a phys

  17. Colitic scid mice fed Lactobacillus spp. show an ameliorated gut histopathology and an altered cytokine profile by local T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter Lange; Pærregaard, Anders; Gad, Monika;

    2005-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp.......Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp....

  18. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy shows significant differences between spectra of undifferentiated and polynucleated FLG 29.1 dried cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Salvatore; Benvenuti, Susanna; Conti, Antonio; Benedetti, Enzo; Bramanti, Emilia; Rossi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Edoardo

    1994-02-01

    In a recent study made on cultures of human leukaemic cells (FLG 29.1 cell line) we were able to detect, by IR microspectroscopy, some significant IR spectroscopic variations following differentiation of cells towards osteoclastic-like behavior. The present study was undertaken on the same cell line in order to monitor biochemical structure variations following fusion induced by polyetilenglycole (PEG), using FTIR microspectroscopy. The finger-print region of all the spectra was retained and normalized according to a new regression procedure. Eleven bands were selected and total band power and mean power per unit frequency were compared with the corresponding reference session bands by a Dunnett's T test. Significant differences were found in both the tested variables only between treated and untreated cells, in 6 bands.

  19. Islets of Langerhans from prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice show α-cell hyperplasia and tumorigenesis with elevated α-cell neogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw B; Reens, Jaimini; Brocklehurst, Simon R; Betts, Catherine J; Bickerton, Sue; Bigley, Alison L; Jenkins, Richard P; Whalley, Nicky M; Morgan, Derrick; Smith, David M

    2014-02-01

    Antagonism of the effects of glucagon as an adjunct therapy with other glucose-lowering drugs in the chronic treatment of diabetes has been suggested to aggressively control blood glucose levels. Antagonism of glucagon effects, by targeting glucagon secretion or disabling the glucagon receptor, is associated with α-cell hyperplasia. We evaluated the influence of total glucagon withdrawal on islets of Langerhans using prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice (PC2-ko), in which α-cell hyperplasia is present from a young age and persists throughout life, in order to understand whether or not sustained glucagon deficit would lead to islet tumorigenesis. PC2-ko and wild-type (WT) mice were maintained drug-free, and cohorts of these groups sampled at 3, 12 and 18 months for plasma biochemical and morphological (histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical and image analytical) assessments. WT mice showed no islet tumours up to termination of the study, but PC2-ko animals displayed marked changes in islet morphology from α-cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia/atypical hyperplasia, to adenomas and carcinomas, these latter being first encountered at 6-8 months. Islet hyperplasias and tumours primarily consisted of α-cells associated to varying degrees with other islet endocrine cell types. In addition to substantial increases in islet neoplasia, increased α-cell neogenesis associated primarily with pancreatic duct(ule)s was present. We conclude that absolute blockade of the glucagon signal results in tumorigenesis and that the PC2-ko mouse represents a valuable model for investigation of islet tumours and pancreatic ductal neogenesis.

  20. BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cell lines are resistant to MEK inhibitors and show distinct sensitivities to 6-thioguanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuexi; Helenius, Mikko; Väänänen, Kristiina; Bulanova, Daria; Saarela, Jani; Sokolenko, Anna; Martens, John; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Sergey

    2016-06-17

    Germ-line or somatic inactivation of BRCA1 is a defining feature for a portion of human breast cancers. Here we evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of 198 FDA-approved and experimental drugs against four BRCA1-mutant (HCC1937, MDA-MB-436, SUM1315MO2, and SUM149PT) and four BRCA1-wild-type (MDA-MB-231, SUM229PE, MCF10A, and MCF7) breast cancer cell lines. We found that all BRCA1-mutant cell lines were insensitive to inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) Selumetinib and Pimasertib in contrast to BRCA1-wildtype control cell lines. However, unexpectedly, only two BRCA1-mutant cell lines, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-436, were hypersensitive to a nucleotide analogue 6-thioguanine (6-TG). SUM149PT cells readily formed radiation-induced RAD51-positive nuclear foci indicating a functional homologous recombination, which may explain their resistance to 6-TG. However, the reason underlying 6-TG resistance of SUM1315MO2 cells remains unclear. Our data reveal a remarkable heterogeneity among BRCA1-mutant cell lines and provide a reference for future studies.

  1. Human Glioma–Initiating Cells Show a Distinct Immature Phenotype Resembling but Not Identical to NG2 Glia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Kim, Ella; Bielanska, Joanna; Giese, Alf; Mortensen, Lena Sünke; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Stadelmann, Christine; Brück, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Glioma-initiating cells (GICs) represent a potential important therapeutic target because they are likely to account for the frequent recurrence of malignant gliomas; however, their identity remains unsolved. Here, we characterized the cellular lineage fingerprint of GICs through a combination of electrophysiology, lineage marker expression, and differentiation assays of 5 human patient-derived primary GIC lines. Most GICs coexpressed nestin, NG2 proteoglycan, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Glioma-initiating cells could be partially differentiated into astrocytic but not oligodendroglial or neural lineages. We also demonstrate that GICs have a characteristic electrophysiologic profile distinct from that of well-characterized tumor bulk cells. Together, our results suggest that GICs represent a unique type of cells reminiscent of an immature phenotype that closely resembles but is not identical to NG2 glia with respect to marker expression and functional membrane properties. PMID:23481707

  2. Action of glycosyl transferases upon "Bombay" (Oh) erythrocytes. Conversion to cells showing blood-group H and A specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel-Brunner, H; Prohaska, R; Tuppy, H

    1975-08-15

    Individuals of the rare "Bombay" (Oh) blood-group phenotype lacking, due to a genetic defect, the alpha(1-2)fucosyl transferase, which is responsible for converting blood-group H precursor substances to H-specific structures. Treatment with GDP-fucose and alpha(1-2)fucosyl transferase prepared from gastric mucosa of O individuals to transform native or ficin-treated "Bombay" erythrocytes into cells phenotypically resembling O cells. The transformation was achieved, however, after prior incubation of the "Bombay" erythrocytes with neuraminidase, indicating that blood-group H precursor molecules on the surface of these cells are masked by sialyl residues. Blood-group A specificity was conferred upon neuraminidase-treated "Bombay" cells by enzymatic transfer of alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues, in addition to alpha-fucose residues.

  3. Cultured corneas show dendritic spread and restrict herpes simplex virus infection that is not observed with cultured corneal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Neel; Jaishankar, Dinesh; Agelidis, Alex; Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Mangano, Kyle; Patel, Shrey; Tekin, Sati Zeynep; Shukla, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) causes life-long morbidities in humans. While fever blisters are more common, occasionally the cornea is infected resulting in vision loss. A very intriguing aspect of HSV-1 corneal infection is that the virus spread is normally restricted to only a small fraction of cells on the corneal surface that connect with each other in a dendritic fashion. Here, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the susceptibility of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells to HSV-1 infection, we infected HCE cells at three different dosages of HSV-1 and measured the outcomes in terms of viral entry, gene and protein expression, viral replication and cytokine induction. In cultured cells, infectivity and cytokine induction were observed even at the minimum viral dosage tested, while a more pronounced dose-restricted infectivity was seen in ex vivo cultures of porcine corneas. Use of fluorescent HSV-1 virions demonstrated a pattern of viral spread ex vivo that mimics clinical findings. We conclude that HCE cell cultures are highly susceptible to infection whereas the cultured corneas demonstrate a higher ability to restrict the infection even in the absence of systemic immune system. The restriction is helped in part by local interferon response and the unique cellular architecture of the cornea. PMID:28198435

  4. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. METHODS: Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. RESULTS: Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  5. Prion infection in cells is abolished by a mutated manganese transporter but shows no relation to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Rachel; Frudd, Karen; Barnett, James P; Blindauer, Claudia A; Brown, David R

    2015-09-01

    The cellular prion protein has been identified as a metalloprotein that binds copper. There have been some suggestions that prion protein also influences zinc and manganese homeostasis. In this study we used a series of cell lines to study the levels of zinc and manganese under different conditions. We overexpressed either the prion protein or known transporters for zinc and manganese to determine relations between the prion protein and both manganese and zinc homeostasis. Our observations supported neither a link between the prion protein and zinc metabolism nor any effect of altered zinc levels on prion protein expression or cellular infection with prions. In contrast we found that a gain of function mutant of a manganese transporter caused reduction of manganese levels in prion infected cells, loss of observable PrP(Sc) in cells and resistance to prion infection. These studies strengthen the link between manganese and prion disease.

  6. Arabidopsis AAL-toxin-resistant mutant atr1 shows enhanced tolerance to programmed cell death induced by reactive oxygen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S.; Ferwerda, MargFiet A.; Mehterov, Nikolay; Laloi, Christophe; Qureshi, Muhammad K.; Hille, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The fungal AAL-toxin triggers programmed cell death (PCD) through perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism in AAL-toxin-sensitive plants. While Arabidopsis is relatively insensitive to the toxin, the loh2 mutant exhibits increased Susceptibility to AAL-toxin due to the knockout of a gene involved in

  7. Topically Delivered Adipose Derived Stem Cells Show an Activated-Fibroblast Phenotype and Enhance Granulation Tissue Formation in Skin Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Euthasol followed by a bilateral thoracotomy to assure the death of rabbits. Wounds were immersed in 10% zinc - formalin for fixation. Histological and...healing of diabetic wounds by topical administration of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells overexpressing stromal-derived factor-1: biodistribution

  8. Cell-penetrating peptide TP10 shows broad-spectrum activity against both Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Romanico B G; Ebikeme, Charles; Jiang, Yang; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Barrett, Michael P; Langel, Ulo; Faye, Ingrid

    2008-09-01

    Malaria and trypanosomiasis are diseases which afflict millions and for which novel therapies are urgently required. We have tested two well-characterized cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for antiparasitic activity. One CPP, designated TP10, has broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, both blood and mosquito stages, and against blood-stage Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

  9. An inducible transgenic mouse model for immune mediated hepatitis showing clearance of antigen expressing hepatocytes by CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cebula

    Full Text Available The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreER(T2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred K(b/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance.

  10. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  11. A CD44high/EGFRlow subpopulation within head and neck cancer cell lines shows an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and resistance to treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea La Fleur

    Full Text Available Mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is high due to emergence of therapy resistance which results in local and regional recurrences that may have their origin in resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs or cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of using the cell surface expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, both of which have been used as stem cell markers, to identify subpopulations within HNSCC cell lines that differ with respect to phenotype and treatment sensitivity. Three subpopulations, consisting of CD44(high/EGFR(low, CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low cells, respectively, were collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population showed a spindle-shaped EMT-like morphology, while the CD44(low population was dominated by cobblestone-shaped cells. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population was enriched with cells in G0/G1 and showed a relatively low proliferation rate and a high plating efficiency. Using a real time PCR array, 27 genes, of which 14 were related to an EMT phenotype and two with stemness, were found to be differentially expressed in CD44(high/EGFR(low cells in comparison to CD44(low cells. Moreover, CD44(high/EGFR(low cells showed a low sensitivity to radiation, cisplatin, cetuximab and gefitinib, and a high sensitivity to dasatinib relative to its CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low counterparts. In conclusion, our results show that the combination of CD44 (high and EGFR (low cell surface expression can be used to identify a treatment resistant subpopulation with an EMT phenotype in HNSCC cell lines.

  12. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W. [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gruijl, Tanja D. de [Department of Dermatology Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gibbs, Susan, E-mail: s.gibbs@acta.nl [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Center for Dentistry (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  13. A case of adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing successfully regenerated osseous tissue of the skull after chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Izutsu, Koji; Kako, Shinichi; Ohta, Satoshi; Hangaishi, Akira; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of Langerhans cells and extremely rare in adults. Adult LCH is often associated with osteolytic bone lesions, but large bone-defective lesions have been rarely reported. We report an adult case of LCH accompanied by large osteolytic lesions in the skull that successfully responded to chemotherapy. A 47-year-old woman with LCH who had multiple, large osteolytic areas of more than 3 cm in diameter in the skull was admitted to our hospital. She was treated with systemic chemotherapy consisting of prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine. Twelve months later, when she completed the treatment, osteolytic areas were covered with hard osseous tissue, and X-ray examination confirmed regeneration of the bone. This case indicates that chemotherapy can be effective even for the treatment of large osteolytic lesions in adult LCH patients.

  14. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Ilona J; Spiekstra, Sander W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a(+) MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a(-)/CD14(+)/CD68(+) which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets.

  15. Texture analyses show synergetic effects of biomechanical and biochemical stimulation on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into early phase osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hee; Shin, Ji Won; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Hyun, Jin-Sook; Oh, Min Jae; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the structural complexity and texture of the cytoskeleton and nucleus in human mesenchymal stem cells during early phase differentiation into osteoblasts according to the differentiation-induction method: mechanical and/or chemical stimuli. For this, fractal dimension and a number of parameters utilizing the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were calculated based on single-cell images after confirmation of differentiation by immunofluorescence staining. The F-actin and nuclear fractal dimensions were greater in both stimulus groups compared with the control group. The GLCM values for energy and homogeneity were lower in fibers of the F-actin cytoskeleton, indicating a dispersed F-actin arrangement during differentiation. In the nuclei of both stimulus groups, higher values for energy and homogeneity were calculated, indicating that the chromatin arrangement was chaotic during the early phase of differentiation. It was shown and confirmed that combined stimulation with mechanical and chemical factors accelerated differentiation, even in the early phase. Fractal dimension analysis and GLCM methods have the potential to provide a framework for further investigation of stem cell differentiation.

  16. The oral commensal Streptococcus mitis shows a mixed memory Th cell signature that is similar to and cross-reactive with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian André Engen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carriage of and infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is known to predominantly induce T helper 17 (Th17 responses in humans, but the types of Th cells showing reactivity towards commensal streptococci with low pathogenic potential, such as the oral commensals S. mitis and S. salivarius, remain uncharacterized. METHODS: Memory CD4(+ T helper (Th cell subsets were isolated from healthy human blood donors according to differential expression of chemokine receptors, expanded in vitro using polyclonal stimuli and characterized for reactivity against different streptococcal strains. RESULTS: Th cells responding to S. mitis, S. salivarius and S. pneumoniae were predominantly in a CCR6(+CXCR3(+ subset and produced IFN-γ, and in a CCR6(+CCR4(+ subset and produced IL-17 and IL-22. Frequencies of S. pneumoniae-reactive Th cells were higher than frequencies of S. mitis- and S. salivarius-specific Th cells. S. mitis and S. pneumoniae isogenic capsule knock-out mutants and a S. mitis mutant expressing the serotype 4 capsule of S. pneumoniae showed no different Th cell responses as compared to wild type strains. S. mitis-specific Th17 cells showed cross-reactivity with S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: As Th17 cells partly control clearance of S. pneumoniae, cross-reactive Th17 cells that may be induced by commensal bacterial species may influence the immune response, independent of capsule expression.

  17. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated.

  18. Cell type-specific genes show striking and distinct patterns of spatial expression in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Younhee; Ament, Seth A; Eddy, James A; Caballero, Juan; Earls, John C; Hood, Leroy; Price, Nathan D

    2013-02-19

    To characterize gene expression patterns in the regional subdivisions of the mammalian brain, we integrated spatial gene expression patterns from the Allen Brain Atlas for the adult mouse with panels of cell type-specific genes for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from previously published transcriptome profiling experiments. We found that the combined spatial expression patterns of 170 neuron-specific transcripts revealed strikingly clear and symmetrical signatures for most of the brain's major subdivisions. Moreover, the brain expression spatial signatures correspond to anatomical structures and may even reflect developmental ontogeny. Spatial expression profiles of astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes also revealed regional differences; these defined fewer regions and were less distinct but still symmetrical in the coronal plane. Follow-up analysis suggested that region-based clustering of neuron-specific genes was related to (i) a combination of individual genes with restricted expression patterns, (ii) region-specific differences in the relative expression of functional groups of genes, and (iii) regional differences in neuronal density. Products from some of these neuron-specific genes are present in peripheral blood, raising the possibility that they could reflect the activities of disease- or injury-perturbed networks and collectively function as biomarkers for clinical disease diagnostics.

  19. Cytokine-induced killer cells showing multidrug resistance and remaining cytotoxic activity to tumor cells after transfected with mdr1 cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠芳; 杨永红; 石永进; 王逸群; 朱平

    2004-01-01

    Background Routine treatment of cancer such as surgery, radiation or chemotherapy is sometimes unable to erdiacate metastatic malignant cells. So we tried a new method and increased the adoptive immunotherapy of Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in tumor patients and the multidrug resistance (mdr1) cDNA was transfected into CIK cells. Methods CIK cells were obtained from peripheral blood and induced by IFN-γ, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, IL-2 and IL-1. CIK cells were transfected with plasmid PHaMDR containing human mdr1 cDNA by electroporation. RT-PCR was used to detect mdr1 mRNA in transfected CIK cells. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressed on surface of CIK cells was assayed by FITC-conjugated anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody and flow cytometry. Multidrug resistance to doxorubicin and colchicine and cytotoxic activity to human breast cancer cell line MCF7 were performed using MTT method.Results mdr1 mRNA was detected in transfected CIK cells. P-gp was expressed on the surface of the transfected CIK cells, and the P-gp positive cells reached 21%-37% of the total CIK cells after transfection. The IC50 to doxorubicin increased to 22.3-45.8 times, and that to colchicines to 6.7-11.35 times, as compared to those of untransfected CIK cells. However, the cytotoxic activity to MCF7 cell line remained unaltered.Conclusions CIK cells were successfully transfected with mdr1 cDNA by using electroporation. The transfected CIK cells had the characteristics of multidrug resistance without change in their cytotoxic activity to tumor cells.

  20. 子宫内膜癌细胞中干细胞样细胞对醋酸甲羟孕酮的抵抗作用及其机制%Study of mechanism of medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate on the cancer stem cell-like properties of human endometrial cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰洁; 李小平; 赵丽君; 王建六; 魏丽惠

    2013-01-01

    者间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 MPA对Ishikawa、Ishikawa-SP、Ishikawa-non-SP细胞的生长均有抑制作用,但Ishikawa-SP细胞的生长抑制率及凋亡率均明显低于Ishikawa和Ishikawa-non-SP细胞,显示Ishikawa-SP细胞具有孕激素抵抗的特性,其抵抗机制可能与肿瘤干细胞的耐药性和细胞凋亡有关.%Objective To explore the mechanism resistance of medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate (MPA) on the endometrial cancer side-population (SP) cells.Methods (1) Ishikawa-SP cells from endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa were be separated by Hoechst 33342 dyeing method and flow cytometry analysis.The clone formation efficiency between Ishikawa-SP cells and Ishikawa-non-SP cells were performed by clone formation assay.Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was examined by immunocytochemistry method.(2)Ishikawa,Ishikawa-SP,Ishikawa-non-SP cells were treated with various concentrations of MPA at 5,10,15,20 μmoL/L.After cultured for 24,48,and 72 hours,cells growth were measured by methanethiosulfomate(MTS) assay.(3) The groups of Ishikawa,Ishikawa-SP,Ishikawa-non-SP cells incubated with MPA at the half maximal inhibitory concentration(IC50) were selected for cell apoptosis assay by using flow cytometry.After MPA treatment,the expression of caspase-3 was examined by immunocytochemistry method.Results (1)There were few proportion of Ishikawa-SP cells in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma,which were 2.7%.There were stronger clone formation efficiency for Ishikawa-SP cells than that for Ishikawa-non-SP cells in Ishikawa [(6.02 ± 1.17)% vs.(0.53 ±0.20)%,P =0.001].And there were higher level expression of BCRP (P =0.001)and also more resistant Taxol and radiation between Ishikawa-SP cells and Ishikawa-non-SP cells.(2)The inhibitory effect of MPA was concentrationdependent and time-dependent.(3)After MPA treatment,the apoptosis rates of Ishikawa-SP,Ishikawa-nonSP,Ishikawa were (4.01 ± 0.43) %,(9.30 ± 0.67) %,and (4

  1. Isolation of a T-cell clone showing HLA-DRB1*0405-restricted cytotoxicity for hematopoietic cells in a patient with aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, S; Takami, A; Takamatsu, H; Zeng, W; Sugimori, N; Yamazaki, H; Miura, Y; Ueda, M; Shiobara, S; Yoshioka, T; Kaneshige, T; Yasukawa, M; Matsuda, T

    1997-05-15

    The existence of T cells capable of inhibiting in vitro hematopoiesis has been shown in aplastic anemia (AA), although whether such inhibition is mediated by a specific immune reaction involving an HLA allele remained unknown. We isolated a CD4+ Vbeta21+ T-cell clone that was most dominant among Vbeta21+ T cells in the bone marrow (BM) of an AA patient whose HLA-DRB1 alleles included 1501 and 0405. The T-cell clone named NT4.2 lysed an autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes (PHA-blasts) as well as allogeneic LCLs sharing HLA-DRB1*0405. Cytotoxicity against LCL cells and PHA-blasts by NT4.2 was blocked by anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody (MoAb) or anti-CD3 MoAb. NT4.2 also lysed autologous BM mononuclear cells enriched with CD34+ cells that had been cultured for one week in the presence of colony-stimulating factors as well as allogeneic CD34+ cells of a normal individual carrying HLA-DRB1*0405, cultured in the same way. Moreover, NT4.2 strongly inhibited colony formation by hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from cultured CD34+ cells sharing HLA-DRB1*0405. These results indicate that the AA patient has T cells capable of killing hematopoietic cells in an HLA-DRB1*0405-restricted manner and that such cytotoxic T cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of AA.

  2. Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma show alterations of genes encoding the NADPH oxidase complex and impaired reactive oxygen species synthesis capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giefing, Maciej; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Sosna, Justyna; Döring, Claudia; Klapper, Wolfram; Küppers, Ralf; Böttcher, Sebastian; Adam, Dieter; Siebert, Reiner; Schütze, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The membrane bound NADPH oxidase involved in the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a multi-protein enzyme encoded by CYBA, CYBB, NCF1, NCF2 and NCF4 genes. Growing evidence suggests a role of ROS in the modulation of signaling pathways of non-phagocytic cells, including differentiation and proliferation of B-cell progenitors. Transcriptional downregulation of the CYBB gene has been previously reported in cell lines of the B-cell derived classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Thus, we explored functional consequences of CYBB downregulation on the NADPH complex. Using flow cytometry to detect and quantify superoxide anion synthesis in cHL cell lines we identified recurrent loss of superoxide anion production in all stimulated cHL cell lines in contrast to stimulated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. As CYBB loss proved to exert a deleterious effect on the NADPH oxidase complex in cHL cell lines, we analyzed the CYBB locus in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of primary cHL biopsies by in situ hybridisation and identified recurrent deletions of the gene in 8/18 cases. Immunohistochemical analysis to 14 of these cases revealed a complete lack of detectable CYBB protein expression in all HRS cells in all cases studied. Moreover, by microarray profiling of cHL cell lines we identified additional alterations of NADPH oxidase genes including CYBA copy number loss in 3/7 cell lines and a significant downregulation of the NCF1 transcription (p=0.006) compared to normal B-cell subsets. Besides, NCF1 protein was significantly downregulated (p<0.005) in cHL compared to other lymphoma cell lines. Together this findings show recurrent alterations of the NADPH oxidase encoding genes that result in functional inactivation of the enzyme and reduced production of superoxide anion in cHL.

  3. A novel cell line derived from pleomorphic adenoma expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and shows numeric chromosomal anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Semblano Carreira Falcão

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1 derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1. Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG. Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology.

  4. A novel cell line derived from pleomorphic adenoma expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and shows numeric chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Aline Semblano Carreira; Kataoka, Maria Sueli da Silva; Ribeiro, Nélson Antonio Bailão; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Alves, Sérgio Melo; Ribeiro, André L Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Adriane Sousa; da Silva, Artur Luiz; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Freitas, Vanessa M; Jaeger, Ruy G; Pinheiro, João J V

    2014-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1) derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1). Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG). Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology.

  5. Single-cell analysis shows that paracrine signaling by first responder cells shapes the interferon-β response to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sonali; Fribourg, Miguel; Ge, Yongchao; Batish, Mona; Tyagi, Sanjay; Hayot, Fernand; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2015-02-10

    Immune responses to viral infection are stochastic processes, which initiate in a limited number of cells that then propagate the response. A key component of the response to viral infection entails the synthesis and secretion of type I interferons (IFNs), including the early induction of the gene encoding IFN-β (Ifnb1). With single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling, we investigated the mechanisms underlying how increases in the amount of Ifnb1 mRNA per cell and in the numbers of cells expressing Ifnb1 calibrate the response to viral infection. We used single-cell, single-molecule assays to quantify the early induction of Ifnb1 expression (the Ifnb1 response) in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells infected with Newcastle disease virus, thus retaining the physiological stoichiometry of transcriptional regulators to both alleles of the Ifnb1 gene. We applied computational methods to extract the stochastic features that underlie the cell-to-cell variations in gene expression over time. Integration of simulations and experiments identified the role of paracrine signaling in increasing the number of cells that express Ifnb1 over time and in calibrating the immune response to viral infection. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Two Chitotriose-Specific Lectins Show Anti-Angiogenesis, Induces Caspase-9-Mediated Apoptosis and Early Arrest of Pancreatic Tumor Cell Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Singh

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative activity of two chito-specific agglutinins purified from Benincasa hispida (BhL and Datura innoxia (DiL9 of different plant family origin was investigated on various cancer cell lines. Both lectins showed chitotriose specificity, by inhibiting lectin hemagglutinating activity. On further studies, it was revealed that these agglutinins caused remarkable concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on human pancreatic cancerous cells but not on the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells even at higher doses determined using MTT assay. The GI50 values were approximately 8.4 μg ml(-1 (0.247 μM and 142 μg ml(-1 (14.8 μM for BhL and DiL9, respectively, against PANC-1 cells. The growth inhibitory effect of these lectins on pancreatic cancer cells were shown to be a consequence of lectin cell surface binding and triggering G0/G1 arrest, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, sustained increase of the intracellular calcium release and the apoptotic signal is amplified by activation of caspases executing cell death. Interestingly, these lectins also showed anti-angiogenic activity by disrupting the endothelial tubulogenesis. Therefore, we report for the first time two chito-specific lectins specifically binding to tumor glycans; they can be considered to be a class of molecules with antitumor activity against pancreatic cancer cells mediated through caspase dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  7. Gene expression profiling in circulating endothelial cells from systemic sclerosis patients shows an altered control of apoptosis and angiogenesis that is modified by iloprost infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Circulating endothelial cells are increased in patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc) and their number strongly correlates with vascular damage. The effects of iloprost in systemic sclerosis are only partially known. We aimed at studying the gene expression profile of circulating endothelial cells and the effects of iloprost infusion and gene expression in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods We enrolled 50 patients affected by systemic sclerosis, 37 patients without and 13 patients with digital ulcers. Blood samples were collected from all patients before and 72 hours after either a single day or five days eight hours iloprost infusion. Blood samples were also collected from 50 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitors cells were detected in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis by flow cytometry with a four-colour panel of antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 16 statistical package.Circulating endothelial cells were then isolated from peripheral blood by immunomagnetic CD45 negative selection for the gene array study. Results The number of both circulating endothelial cells and progenitors was significantly higher in patients affected by systemic sclerosis than in controls and among patients in those with digital ulcers than in patients without them. Circulating endothelial cells and progenitors number increased after iloprost infusion. Gene array analysis of endothelial cells showed a different transcriptional profile in patients compared to controls. Indeed, patients displayed an altered expression of genes involved in the control of apoptosis and angiogenesis. Iloprost infusion had a profound impact on endothelial cells gene expression since the treatment was able to modulate a very high number of transcripts. Conclusions We report here that circulating endothelial cells in patients with systemic sclerosis show an altered expression of

  8. Pinus Monophylla (Single Needled Pinyon Pine) show morphological changes in needle cell size and stomata over the past 100 years of rising CO2 in Western Arid Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Water, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The size, frequency, and morphology of leaf surface stomata is used to reconstruct past levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time. This technique relies on measuring cell and cell-clusters to correlate with changes of known carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, not all plants are suitable because the occurrence and placement of stomatal cell-complexes differ significantly between plant families. Monocot and dicot angiosperms exhibit different types of stomata and stomatal complexes that lack order and thus are unsuitable. But, in gymnosperms, the number and distribution of stomata and pavement cells is formalized and can be used to reconstruct past atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. However, characteristic of each plant species must still be considered. For example, conifers are useful but are divided into two-needle to five-needle pines, or have irregular surface morphology (Pseudotsuga sp. and Tsuga sp. needles). This study uses Pinus monophylla an undivided needle morphology, that being a cylinder has no interior surface cells. Pinus monophylla (single needle pinyon) needles were collected along Geiger Grade (Nevada State Highway 341, Reno) in 2005 and 2013 from 1500m to 2195m. Herbarium samples were also collected from 13 historic collections made between 1911 and 1994. The study determined changes with elevation and/or over time using in these populations. Using Pinus monophylla, insured needles represented a single surface with stomata, stomatal complex cells, and co-occurring pavement cell types. Results show decreased stomatal densities (stomata/area), stomatal index (stomata/stomata + epidermal cells) and stable stomata per row (stomata/row) . Epidermal cell density (Epidermal Cells /Area), and Pavement cell density (Pavement cell/area) track stomatal density similarly. Data comparison, using elevation in the 2005 and 2013 collections showed no-significant trends. Individual stomatal complexes show no differences in the size

  9. Cell therapy using retinal progenitor cells shows therapeutic effect in a chemically-induced rotenone mouse model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Fiona C; Chadderton, Naomi; Kenna, Paul F; Gobbo, Oliviero L; Farrar, G Jane

    2014-11-01

    Primary mitochondrial disorders occur at a prevalence of one in 10 000; ∼50% of these demonstrate ocular pathology. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial disorder. LHON results from retinal ganglion cell pathology, which leads to optic nerve degeneration and blindness. Over 95% of cases result from one of the three common mutations in mitochondrial genes MTND1, MTND4 and MTND6, which encode elements of the complex I respiratory chain. Various therapies for LHON are in development, for example, intravitreal injection of adeno-associated virus carrying either the yeast NDI1 gene or a specific subunit of mammalian Complex I have shown visual improvement in animal models. Given the course of LHON, it is likely that in many cases prompt administration may be necessary before widespread cell death. An alternative approach for therapy may be the use of stem cells to protect visual function; this has been evaluated by us in a rotenone-induced model of LHON. Freshly dissected embryonic retinal cells do not integrate into the ganglion cell layer (GCL), unlike similarly obtained photoreceptor precursors. However, cultured retinal progenitor cells can integrate in close proximity to the GCL, and act to preserve retinal function as assessed by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, optokinetic responses and ganglion cell counts. Cell therapies for LHON therefore represent a promising therapeutic approach, and may be of particular utility in treating more advanced disease.

  10. Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum extracts show their antitumor activity through induction of p53-mediated apoptosis on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgun, Onur; Akca, Hakan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Aykurt, Candan; Deniz, Gökhan

    2012-11-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. It has been reported that several members of the Convolvulaceae, Iridaceae, and Liliaceae families have antitumor activity against some tumor cell lines. Here we first report that Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum species have cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells. Plant samples were collected and identified, and their cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 cell line were examined at different concentrations of methanol extracts. We found that all three plants have cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells but that C. galaticus has the strongest cytotoxic effect even in the lowest extract concentration tested (0.32 μg/mL). Our results indicate that these plant extracts have cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 cells and that this cytotoxic effect comes from p53-mediated stimulation of apoptosis.

  11. Characterization of Acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms in pancreatic beta cells: Gene silencing shows participation of ACSL3 and ACSL4 in insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Israr-Ul H; Longacre, Melissa J; Stoker, Scott W; Kendrick, Mindy A; O'Neill, Lucas M; Zitur, Laura J; Fernandez, Luis A; Ntambi, James M; MacDonald, Michael J

    2017-03-15

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) convert fatty acids to fatty acyl-CoAs to regulate various physiologic processes. We characterized the ACSL isoforms in a cell line of homogeneous rat beta cells (INS-1 832/13 cells) and human pancreatic islets. ACSL4 and ACSL3 proteins were present in the beta cells and human and rat pancreatic islets and concentrated in insulin secretory granules and less in mitochondria and negligible in other intracellular organelles. ACSL1 and ACSL6 proteins were not seen in INS-1 832/13 cells or pancreatic islets. ACSL5 protein was seen only in INS-1 832/13 cells. With shRNA-mediated gene silencing we developed stable ACSL knockdown cell lines from INS-1 832/13 cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin release was inhibited ∼50% with ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown and unaffected in cell lines with knockdown of ACSL5, ACLS6 and ACSL1. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated gene silencing of ACSL4 and ACSL3 in human pancreatic islets inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin release. ACSL4 and ACSL3 knockdown cells showed inhibition of ACSL enzyme activity more with arachidonate than with palmitate as a substrate, consistent with their preference for unsaturated fatty acids as substrates. ACSL4 knockdown changed the patterns of fatty acids in phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylethanolamines. The results show the involvement of ACLS4 and ACLS3 in insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 shows anti-cancer effects in primary metastatic cells and the SW13 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzani, Raffaele; Rubin, Beatrice; Bertazza, Loris; Redaelli, Marco; Barollo, Susi; Monticelli, Halenya; Baldini, Enke; Mian, Caterina; Mucignat, Carla; Scaroni, Carla; Mantero, Franco; Ulisse, Salvatore; Iacobone, Maurizio; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-10-01

    New therapeutic targets are needed to fight cancer. Aurora kinases (AK) were recently identified as vital key regulators of cell mitosis and have consequently been investigated as therapeutic targets in preclinical and clinical studies. Aurora kinase inhibitors (AKI) have been studied in many cancer types, but their potential capacity to limit or delay metastases has rarely been considered, and never in adrenal tissue. Given the lack of an effective pharmacological therapy for adrenal metastasis and adrenocortical carcinoma, we assessed AKI (VX-680, SNS314, ZM447439) in 2 cell lines (H295R and SW13 cells), 3 cell cultures of primary adrenocortical metastases (from lung cancer), and 4 primary adrenocortical tumor cell cultures. We also tested reversan, which is a P-gp inhibitor (a fundamental efflux pump that can extrude drugs), and we measured AK expression levels in 66 adrenocortical tumor tissue samples. Biomolecular and cellular tests were performed (such as MTT, thymidine assay, Wright's staining, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, Western blot, qRT-PCR, and mutation analysis). Our results are the first to document AK overexpression in adrenocortical carcinoma as well as in H295R and SW13 cell lines, thus proving the efficacy of AKI against adrenal metastases and in the SW13 cancer cell model. We also demonstrated that reversan and AKI Vx-680 are useless in the H295R cell model, and therefore should not be considered as potential treatments for ACC. Serine/threonine AK inhibition, essentially with VX-680, could be a promising, specific therapeutic tool for eradicating metastases in adrenocortical tissue.

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  14. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  15. High Density Sphere Culture of Adult Cardiac Cells Increases the Levels of Cardiac and Progenitor Markers and Shows Signs of Vasculogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Vukusic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D environment and high cell density play an important role in restoring and supporting the phenotypes of cells represented in cardiac tissues. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the suitability of high density sphere (HDS cultures for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology. Primary adult cardiac cells from nine human biopsies were cultured using different media for up to 9 weeks. The possibilities to favor a certain cell phenotype and induce production of extra cellular matrix (ECM were studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Defined media gave significant increase in both cardiac- and progenitor-specific markers and also an intraluminal position of endothelial cells over time. Cardiac media showed indication of differentiation and maturity of HDS considering the ECM production and activities within NOTCH regulation but no additional cardiac differentiation. Endothelial media gave no positive effects on endothelial phenotype but increased proliferation without fibroblast overgrowth. In addition, indications for early vasculogenesis were found. It was also possible to affect the Wnt signaling in HDS by addition of a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings show the suitability of HDS as in vitro model for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology.

  16. A distinct group of CpG islands shows differential DNA methylation between replicas of the same cell line in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sergio; Scala, Giovanni; Miele, Gennaro; Castaldo, Imma; Monticelli, Antonella

    2013-10-10

    CpG dinucleotide-rich genomic DNA regions, known as CpG islands (CGIs), can be methylated at their cytosine residues as an epigenetic mark that is stably inherited during cell mitosis. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are genomic regions showing different degrees of DNA methylation in multiple samples. In this study, we focused our attention on CGIs showing different DNA methylation between two culture replicas of the same cell line. We used methylation data of 35 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium to identify CpG islands that were differentially methylated between replicas of the same cell line and denoted them Inter Replicas Differentially Methylated CpG islands (IRDM-CGIs). We identified a group of IRDM-CGIs that was consistently shared by different cell lines, and denoted it common IRDM-CGIs. X chromosome CGIs were overrepresented among common IRDM-CGIs. Autosomal IRDM-CGIs were preferentially located in gene bodies and intergenic regions had a lower G + C content, a smaller mean length, and a reduced CpG percentage. Functional analysis of the genes associated with autosomal IRDM-CGIs showed that many of them are involved in DNA binding and development. Our results show that several specific functional and structural features characterize common IRDM-CGIs. They may represent a specific subset of CGIs that are more prone to being differentially methylated for their intrinsic characteristics.

  17. Afatinib, an Irreversible EGFR Family Inhibitor, Shows Activity Toward Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Alone and in Combination with Radiotherapy, Independent of KRAS Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Florence; Fernet, Marie; Giocanti, Nicole; Favaudon, Vincent; Larsen, Annette K

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by a high frequency of KRAS mutations and frequent deregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and other EGFR family members such as HER2/ErbB2. The EGFR inhibitor erlotinib is approved for treatment of pancreatic cancer, but has shown modest activity in most patients. Here we investigated the activity of afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-EGFR family kinase inhibitor, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation, toward pancreatic cancer cells. The influence of afatinib on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, clonogenic survival, nuclear fragmentation, ploidy, and centrosome amplification following irradiation was determined. Expression and phosphorylation of HER receptors, Akt, DNA-PKcs, and ERK1/2 was characterized by Western blot analysis. Afatinib was growth-inhibitory for all three cell lines but cytotoxic only toward BxPC3 (KRAS (wt)) and Capan-2 (KRAS (mut)) cells, both of which express high levels of EGFR, HER2, and HER3 receptors. Afatinib increased the radiosensitivity of BxPC3 and Capan-2 cells, prevented the radio-induced phosphorylation of Akt, and induced mitotic catastrophe following irradiation. In comparison, Panc-1 cells (KRAS (mut)) expressing low levels of EGFR family receptors were resistant to afatinib-induced radiosensitization. These results must be confirmed in vivo. Afatinib showed cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects toward a subset of pancreatic cancer cells which was closely correlated with expression of EGFR, HER2, and HER3 receptors, but not with KRAS status.

  18. Novel Tools to Analyze the Function of Salmonella Effectors Show That SvpB Ectopic Expression Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Camacho, Eva María; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize its role in pathogenesis and to establish whether its overproduction can lead to eukaryotic tumor cell death, Salmonella strains able to express its virulence factor SpvB (an ADP-ribosyl transferase enzyme) in a salicylate-inducible way have been constructed and analyzed in different eukaryotic tumor cell lines. To do so, the bacterial strains bearing the expression system have been constructed in a ∆purD background, which allows control of bacterial proliferation inside the eukaryotic cell. In the absence of bacterial proliferation, salicylate-induced SpvB production resulted in activation of caspases 3 and 7 and apoptotic cell death. The results clearly indicated that controlled SpvB production leads to F-actin depolimerization and either G1/S or G2/M phase arrest in all cell lines tested, thus shedding light on the function of SpvB in Salmonella pathogenesis. In the first place, the combined control of protein production by salicylate regulated vectors and bacterial growth by adenine concentration offers the possibility to study the role of Salmonella effectors during eukaryotic cells infection. In the second place, the salicylate-controlled expression of SpvB by the bacterium provides a way to evaluate the potential of other homologous or heterologous proteins as antitumor agents, and, eventually to construct novel potential tools for cancer therapy, given that Salmonella preferentially proliferates in tumors. PMID:24205236

  19. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell t...

  20. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell t...

  1. Leprosy Reactions Show Increased Th17 Cell Activity and Reduced FOXP3+ Tregs with Concomitant Decrease in TGF-β and Increase in IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Chaman; Siddiqui, Anisuddin; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Nath, Indira

    2016-04-01

    50% of leprosy patients suffer from episodes of Type 1/ reversal reactions (RR) and Type 2/ Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) reactions which lead to morbidity and nerve damage. CD4+ subsets of Th17 cells and CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to play a major role in disease associated immunopathology and in stable leprosy as reported by us and others. The aim of our study was to analyze their role in leprosy reactions. Quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qPCR), flowcytometry and ELISA were used to respectively investigate gene expression, cell phenotypes and supernatant levels of cytokines in antigen stimulated PBMC cultures in patients with stable disease and those undergoing leprosy reactions. Both types of reactions are associated with significant increase of Th17 cells and associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and chemokines CCL20, CCL22 as compared to matching stable forms of leprosy. Concurrently patients in reactions show reduction in FOXP3+ Treg cells as well as reduction in TGF-β and increase in IL-6. Moreover, expression of many T cell markers, cytokines, chemokines and signaling factors were observed to be increased in RR as compared to ENL reaction patients. Patients with leprosy reactions show an imbalance in Th17 and Treg populations. The reduction in Treg suppressor activity is associated withhigherTh17cell activity. The combined effect of reduced TGF-β and enhanced IL-6, IL-21 cytokines influence the balance between Th17 or Treg cells in leprosy reactions as reported in the murine models and autoimmune diseases. The increase in Th17 cell associated cytokines may contribute to lesional inflammation.

  2. Leprosy Reactions Show Increased Th17 Cell Activity and Reduced FOXP3+ Tregs with Concomitant Decrease in TGF-β and Increase in IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Saini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 50% of leprosy patients suffer from episodes of Type 1/ reversal reactions (RR and Type 2/ Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL reactions which lead to morbidity and nerve damage. CD4+ subsets of Th17 cells and CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs have been shown to play a major role in disease associated immunopathology and in stable leprosy as reported by us and others. The aim of our study was to analyze their role in leprosy reactions.Quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qPCR, flowcytometry and ELISA were used to respectively investigate gene expression, cell phenotypes and supernatant levels of cytokines in antigen stimulated PBMC cultures in patients with stable disease and those undergoing leprosy reactions. Both types of reactions are associated with significant increase of Th17 cells and associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and chemokines CCL20, CCL22 as compared to matching stable forms of leprosy. Concurrently patients in reactions show reduction in FOXP3+ Treg cells as well as reduction in TGF-β and increase in IL-6. Moreover, expression of many T cell markers, cytokines, chemokines and signaling factors were observed to be increased in RR as compared to ENL reaction patients.Patients with leprosy reactions show an imbalance in Th17 and Treg populations. The reduction in Treg suppressor activity is associated withhigherTh17cell activity. The combined effect of reduced TGF-β and enhanced IL-6, IL-21 cytokines influence the balance between Th17 or Treg cells in leprosy reactions as reported in the murine models and autoimmune diseases. The increase in Th17 cell associated cytokines may contribute to lesional inflammation.

  3. Leprosy Reactions Show Increased Th17 Cell Activity and Reduced FOXP3+ Tregs with Concomitant Decrease in TGF-β and Increase in IL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Chaman; Siddiqui, Anisuddin; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Nath, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Background 50% of leprosy patients suffer from episodes of Type 1/ reversal reactions (RR) and Type 2/ Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) reactions which lead to morbidity and nerve damage. CD4+ subsets of Th17 cells and CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to play a major role in disease associated immunopathology and in stable leprosy as reported by us and others. The aim of our study was to analyze their role in leprosy reactions. Methodology and Principle Findings Quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qPCR), flowcytometry and ELISA were used to respectively investigate gene expression, cell phenotypes and supernatant levels of cytokines in antigen stimulated PBMC cultures in patients with stable disease and those undergoing leprosy reactions. Both types of reactions are associated with significant increase of Th17 cells and associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and chemokines CCL20, CCL22 as compared to matching stable forms of leprosy. Concurrently patients in reactions show reduction in FOXP3+ Treg cells as well as reduction in TGF-β and increase in IL-6. Moreover, expression of many T cell markers, cytokines, chemokines and signaling factors were observed to be increased in RR as compared to ENL reaction patients. Conclusions Patients with leprosy reactions show an imbalance in Th17 and Treg populations. The reduction in Treg suppressor activity is associated withhigherTh17cell activity. The combined effect of reduced TGF-β and enhanced IL-6, IL-21 cytokines influence the balance between Th17 or Treg cells in leprosy reactions as reported in the murine models and autoimmune diseases. The increase in Th17 cell associated cytokines may contribute to lesional inflammation. PMID:27035913

  4. Immunohistological profile of the Ras homologous B protein (RhoB) in human testes showing normal spermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrest and Sertoli cell only syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2010-09-01

    Ras homologous B protein (RhoB) belongs to the Ras homologous subfamily which consists of low molecular weight (21 kDa) GTP-binding proteins. Rho proteins are regulatory molecules associated with various kinases and as such they mediate changes in cell shape, contractility, motility and gene expression. To date, no data are available about the expression pattern of RhoB protein in the human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. The present study addresses these issues. Human testicular biopsy specimens were obtained from patients suffering from post-testicular infertility (testis showing normal spermatogenesis, 10 cases) and testicular infertility (testis showing Sertoli cell only syndrome and spermatogenic arrest, 10 patients each). The expression of RhoB was examined using in situ immunofluorescent staining methods. In testes showing normal spermatogenesis, RhoB had a strong expression in the seminiferous epithelium (cytoplasm of Sertoli-cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes) and in the interstitium (Leydig cells). RhoB expression was weak in the myofibroblasts and absent in the spermatids and sperms. In the testes showing abnormal spermatogenesis, RhoB expression was moderate in the seminiferous epithelium (cytoplasm of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes) and was completely absent in the Leydig cells, myofibroblasts, spermatids and sperms. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first morphological indication that RhoB protein is expressed in human testis and its expression undergoes testicular infertility associated changes. These findings suggest the involvement of RhoB in the process of spermatogenesis in human and their possible therapeutic ramifications in testicular infertility are open for further investigations.

  5. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Weinreb, Ilan; Hyrcza, Martin; Simpson, Roderick H W; Laco, Jan; Agaimy, Abbas; Vazmitel, Marina; Majewska, Hanna; Vanecek, Tomas; Talarčik, Peter; Manajlovic, Spomenka; Losito, Simona N; Šteiner, Petr; Klimkova, Adela; Michal, Michal

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients

  6. Tricho- and atrichoblast cell files show distinct PIN2 auxin efflux carrier exploitations and are jointly required for defined auxin-dependent root organ growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfke, Christian; Scheuring, David; Dünser, Kai; Schöller, Maria; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a vital growth regulator in plants. In the root epidermis auxin steers root organ growth. However, the mechanisms that allow adjacent tissues to integrate growth are largely unknown. Here, the focus is on neighbouring epidermal root tissues to assess the integration of auxin-related growth responses. The pharmacologic, genetic, and live-cell imaging approaches reveal that PIN2 auxin efflux carriers are differentially controlled in tricho- and atrichoblast cells. PIN2 proteins show lower abundance at the plasma membrane of trichoblast cells, despite showing higher rates of intracellular trafficking in these cells. The data suggest that PIN2 proteins display distinct cell-type-dependent trafficking rates to the lytic vacuole for degradation. Based on this insight, it is hypothesized that auxin-dependent processes are distinct in tricho- and atrichoblast cells. Moreover, genetic interference with epidermal patterning supports this assumption and suggests that tricho- and atrichoblasts have distinct importance for auxin-sensitive root growth and gravitropic responses.

  7. The canine prostate cancer cell line CHP-1 shows over-expression of the co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azakami, D; Nakahira, R; Kato, Y; Michishita, M; Kobayashi, M; Onozawa, E; Bonkobara, M; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, M; Ishioka, K; Sako, T; Ochiai, K; Omi, T

    2017-06-01

    Although androgen therapy resistance and poor clinical outcomes are seen in most canine prostate cancer cases, there are only a few tools for analysing canine prostate cancer by using a cell biological approach. Therefore, to evaluate androgen-independent neoplastic cell growth, a new canine prostate cancer cell line (CHP-1) was established in this study. CHP-1 over-expressed the co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA), which is over-expressed in human androgen-independent prostate cancer. The CHP-1 xenograft also showed SGTA over-expression. Although CHP-1 shows poor androgen receptor (AR) signalling upon dihydrotestosterone stimulation, forced expression of AR enabled evaluation of AR signalling. Taken together, these results suggest that CHP-1 will be a useful model for investigating the pathogenesis of androgen-dependent and androgen-independent canine prostate cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Human neural precursor cells express low levels of telomerase in vitro and show diminishing cell proliferation with extensive axonal outgrowth following transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostenfeld, T; Caldwell, MA; Prowse, KR; Linskens, MH; Jauniaux, E; Svendsen, CN; Prowse, Karen R.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    Worldwide attention. is presently focused on proliferating populations of neural precursor cells as an in vitro source of tissue for neural transplantation and brain repair. However, successful neuroreconstruction is contingent upon their capacity to integrate within the host CNS and the absence of

  9. C-terminal truncated cannabinoid receptor 1 coexpressed with G protein trimer in Sf9 cells exists in a precoupled state and shows constitutive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillakuri, Chandramouli Reddy; Reinhart, Christoph; Michel, Hartmut

    2007-12-01

    We have investigated the existence of a precoupled form of the distal C-terminal truncated cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1-417) and heterotrimeric G proteins in a heterologous insect cell expression system. CB1-417 showed higher production levels than the full-length receptor. The production levels obtained in our expression system were double the values reported in the literature. We also observed that at least the distal C-terminus of the receptor was not involved in receptor dimerization, as was predicted in the literature. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that CB1-417 and Galpha(i1)beta(1)gamma(2) proteins were colocalized in the cells. GTPgammaS binding assays with the Sf9 cell membranes containing CB1-417 and the G protein trimer showed that the receptor could constitutively activate the Galpha(i1) protein in the absence of agonists. A CB1-specific antagonist (SR 141716A) inhibited this constitutive activity of the truncated receptor. We found that the CB1-417/Galpha(i1)beta(1)gamma(2) complex could be solubilized from Sf9 cell membranes and coimmunoprecipitated. In this study, we have proven that the receptor and G proteins can be coexpressed in higher yields using Sf9 cells, and that the protein complex is stable in detergent solution. Thus, our system can be used to produce sufficient quantities of the protein complex to start structural studies.

  10. Splenic CD4+ T Cells in Progressive Visceral Leishmaniasis Show a Mixed Effector-Regulatory Phenotype and Impair Macrophage Effector Function through Inhibitory Receptor Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Elvia Y.; Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Travi, Bruno L.; Kong, Fanping; Spratt, Heidi; Soong, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by infection with the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani, is a chronic progressive disease with a relentlessly increasing parasite burden in the spleen, liver and bone marrow. The disease is characterized by fever, splenomegaly, cachexia, and pancytopenia, and progresses to death if not treated. Control of Leishmania infection is mediated by Th1 (IFNγ-producing) CD4+ T cells, which activate macrophages to produce nitric oxide and kill intracellular parasites. However, despite expansion of CD4+ T cells and increased IFNγ expression in the spleen, humans with active VL do not control the infection. We used an experimental model of chronic progressive VL in hamsters, which mimics clinical and pathological features seen in humans, to better understand the mechanisms that lead to progressive disease. Transcriptional profiling of the spleen during chronic infection revealed expression of markers of both T cell activation and inhibition. CD4+ T cells isolated from the spleen during chronic progressive VL showed mixed expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and chemokines, and were marginally effective in controlling infection in an ex vivo T cell-macrophage co-culture system. Splenic CD4+ T cells and macrophages from hamsters with VL showed increased expression of inhibitory receptors and their ligands, respectively. Blockade of the inhibitory receptor PD-L2 led to a significant decrease in parasite burden, revealing a pathogenic role for the PD-1 pathway in chronic VL. PD-L2 blockade was associated with a dramatic reduction in expression of host arginase 1, but no change in IFNγ and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Thus, the expression of counter-regulatory molecules on splenic CD4+ T cells and macrophages promotes a more permissive macrophage phenotype and attenuates intracellular parasite control in chronic progressive VL. Host-directed adjunctive therapy targeting the PD-1 regulatory pathway may be efficacious for VL. PMID

  11. The 5'-flanking region of the RP58 coding sequence shows prominent promoter activity in multipolar cells in the subventricular zone during corticogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaka-Maruyama, C; Hirai, S; Miwa, A; Takahashi, A; Okado, H

    2012-01-10

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex are produced from progenitor cells located in the neocortical ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) during embryogenesis. RP58 is a transcriptional repressor that is strongly expressed in the developing brain and plays an essential role in corticogenesis. The expression of RP58 is strictly regulated in a time-dependent and spatially restricted manner. It is maximally expressed in E15-16 embryonic cerebral cortex, localized specifically to the cortical plate and SVZ of the neocortex, hippocampus, and parts of amygdala during brain development, and found in glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons. Identification of the promoter activity underlying specific expression patterns provides important clues to their mechanisms of action. Here, we show that the RP58 gene promoter is activated prominently in multipolar migrating cells, the first in vivo analysis of RP58 promoter activity in the brain. The 5.3 kb 5'-flanking genomic DNA of the RP58 coding region demonstrates promoter activity in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. This promoter is highly responsive to the transcription factor neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which is a direct upstream activator of RP58 expression. Using in utero electroporation, we demonstrate that RP58 gene promoter activity is first detected in a subpopulation of pin-like VZ cells, then prominently activated in migrating multipolar cells in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ) located just above the VZ. In dissociated primary cultured cortical neurons, RP58 promoter activity mimics in vivo expression patterns from a molecular standpoint that RP58 is expressed in a fraction of Sox2-positive progenitor cells, Ngn2-positive neuronal committed cells, and Tuj1-positive young neurons, but not in Dlx2-positive GABAergic neurons. Finally, we show that Cre recombinase expression under the control of the RP58 gene promoter is a feasible tool for conditional gene switching in post-mitotic multipolar migrating

  12. Difference of the Nuclear Green Light Intensity between Papillary Carcinoma Cells Showing Clear Nuclei and Non-neoplastic Follicular Epithelia in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyekyung; Baek, Tae Hwa; Park, Meeja; Lee, Seung Yun; Son, Hyun Jin; Kang, Dong Wook; Kim, Joo Heon; Kim, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background There is subjective disagreement regarding nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, using digital instruments, we were able to quantify many ambiguous pathologic features and use numeric data to express our findings. Methods We examined 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas. For each case, we selected representative cancer cells showing clear nuclei and surrounding non-neoplastic follicular epithelial cells and evaluated objective values of green light intensity (GLI) for quantitative analysis of nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results From 16,274 GLI values from 600 cancer cell nuclei and 13,752 GLI values from 596 non-neoplastic follicular epithelial nuclei, we found a high correlation of 94.9% between GLI and clear nuclei. GLI between the cancer group showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia was statistically significant. The overall average level of GLI in the cancer group was over two times higher than the non-neoplastic group despite a wide range of GLI. On a polygonal line graph, there was a fluctuating unique difference between both the cancer and non-neoplastic groups in each patient, which was comparable to the microscopic findings. Conclusions Nuclear GLI could be a useful factor for discriminating between carcinoma cells showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia in papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27550048

  13. Camptothecin analog (CPT-11)-sensitive human pancreatic tumor cell line QGP-1N shows resistance to SN-38, an active metabolite of CPT-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, S; Shimazoe, T; Kuga, H; Sato, K; Kono, A

    1992-10-15

    In the course of our study to determine the cross-sensitivity between CPT-11 and its active metabolite, SN-38, we found a SN-38-resistant human pancreatic tumor cell line, QGP-1N, which shows sensitivity to CPT-11. The IC50 of SN-38 was 152 times greater for QGP-1N than for SUIT-2, also a human pancreatic tumor cell line, whose IC50 of CPT-11 was similar to that for QGP-1N. The uptakes of CPT-11 and SN-38 and the intracellular conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 could not explain the difference in sensitivity. DNA synthesis of QGP-1N cells was inhibited by CPT-11 which did not affect that of SUIT-2, while SN-38 inhibited the DNA synthesis of SUIT-2 at lower concentrations than that of QGP-1N. The inhibition test of topoisomerase I catalytic activity by CPT-11 or SN-38 revealed no difference in the biochemical properties of the topoisomerase I enzymes to the compounds between these two cell lines. These results indicate that CPT-11 should have its own inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis through a yet unknown mechanism in QGP-1N cells, although SN-38 plays an essential role in the antitumor activity of CPT-11 in SUIT-2 cells. In some cases, the antitumor effect of CPT-11 might be consequent not only on SN-38 but also on CPT-11 itself.

  14. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Kiyono, Tohru; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2016-09-09

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant.

  15. Single-Cell Dynamic Analysis of Mitosis in Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells Shows the Prolonged Metaphase and Its Association with Self-diploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent establishment of mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs provides new possibilities for genetic screening and for understanding genome evolution and function. However, the dynamics of mitosis in haploid ESCs is still unclear. Here, we report that the duration of mitosis in haploid ESCs, especially the metaphase, is significantly longer than that in diploid ESCs. Delaying mitosis by chemicals increased self-diploidization of haploid ESCs, while shortening mitosis stabilized haploid ESCs. Taken together, our study suggests that the delayed mitosis of haploid ESCs is associated with self-diploidization.

  16. Multidrug resistance modulators PSC 833 and CsA show differential capacity to induce apoptosis in lymphoid leukemia cell lines independently of their MDR phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Eloisi C; Garcia, Mariana; Benavides, Fernando; Shen, Jianjun; Conti, Claudio J; Alvarez, Elida; Hajos, Silvia E

    2003-05-01

    Among the mechanisms that induce multidrug resistance (MDR), one of those most frequent is over-expression of a phosphoglycoprotein (Pgp) encoded in the mouse by the mdr-1 and mdr-3 genes. We have demonstrated that cyclosporin-A (CsA) as well as its analogue PSC 833 were able to revert the MDR phenotype in murine cell lines resistant to vincristine (LBR-V160) or doxorubicin (LBR-D160). The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of PSC 833 and CsA to modulate mdr-1, mdr-3 and mrp-1 genes as well as to induce apoptosis analyzing the mechanism involved in the above tumor cell lines. By semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that mdr-3 was over-expressed in both resistant lines while mdr-1 was over-expressed only in LBR-V160; in contrast, mrp-1 expression was not evidenced in any of the cell lines. After treatment with 0.1 microg ml(-1) of either PSC 833 or CsA, LBR-V160 showed no changes in mdr-1 but decreased mdr-3 expression, while LBR-D160 failed to display any modification in the expression of these genes. Apoptosis was evidenced by fluorescence microscopy, S minuscule accumulation and agarose gel electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CsA (1 microg ml(-1)) was able to induce apoptosis in all cell lines: 18.31% (+/-4.46) for LBR-, 25.96% (+/-5.24) for LBR-V160 and 27.36% (+/-4.12) for LBR-D160, while PSC 833 (1 microg ml(-1)) only induced apoptosis 21.51% (+/-5.73) in LBR-V160 cell line. The expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x(L)) was analyzed by flow cytometry showing high expression of the three proteins which was not significantly modified after treatment with either PSC 833 or CsA on the sensitive as well as on the resistant cell lines. Single stranded conformation polymorphisms analysis of p53 (Trp53) gene in the cell lines showed no mutation in exons 5-8 of the tumor suppressor gene. We conclude that depending on the concentration used, PSC 833 and CsA may act either by modulating the mdr-3 gene (0.1 microg ml(-1)) or

  17. ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Norton

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1 to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1, on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1. We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV, rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3 focus forming units (ffu/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a

  18. Erucin, a new promising cancer chemopreventive agent from rocket salads, shows anti-proliferative activity on human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

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    Melchini, A; Costa, C; Traka, M; Miceli, N; Mithen, R; De Pasquale, R; Trovato, A

    2009-07-01

    Erucin (ER) is a dietary isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, such as rocket salads (Erucasativa Mill., Diplotaxis sp.), that has been recently considered a promising cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. Biological activity of ER was investigated on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, analyzing its effects on molecular pathways involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, such as PARP-1 cleavage, p53 and p21 protein expression. Our results show that ER affects the A549 cell proliferation, enhancing significantly p53 and p21 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner (pinduction of p53, p21 and PARP-1 cleavage may participate in the anti-proliferative activity of ER in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Comparison of data with those obtained with the isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), structurally related to ER, underlines the strong relationship between structural analogy of ITCs and their biological activity. The ability of dietary compounds to modulate molecular mechanisms that affect cancer cell proliferation is certainly a key point of the cancer prevention potential by functional foods.

  19. Undifferentiated (Anaplastic Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells Showing Various Degree of Pancreas Duct Involvement. A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Vlad Maksymov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells is exceedingly rare. The prognosis of undifferentiated carcinoma is worse than that of poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas; however, undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells might have a more favorable prognosis. Case report We report the case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells, showing an intraductal growth pattern with various degree of pancreas duct involvement in the different areas. As a result, we were able to demonstrate the entire spectrum of changes, ranging from the early, minimal intraluminal growth to the partial or complete occlusion of the branches of the main pancreatic duct, and finally invasion and formation of the large necrotic/degenerated cysts. Conclusions Our findings support the epithelial origin of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells. In early stages, the affected pancreatic duct epithelium was intermingled with nonepithelial component and had an immunoprofile distinctive from the epithelial lining of the uninvolved (normal pancreatic ducts. Distinctive immunoprofile (CK 5/6, p63 and p53 positive of the epithelial component and p63 and p53 positivity of the nonepithelial component should be explained and further investigated in the similar cases. Our findings support prior assertions that undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells may develop from carcinoma in situ within the main pancreatic duct or its branches

  20. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand); Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru, E-mail: tkiyono@ncc.go.jp [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Ekalaksananan, Tipaya, E-mail: tipeka@kku.ac.th [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand)

    2016-09-09

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. - Highlights: • E6D25E HPV16 specifically modulates protein profile of human keratinocytes. • E6D25E HPV16 modulates protein profile which involves in TLR signalling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells. • E6D25E oncoprotein may correlate to impair of immune response against viral infection and cells transformation.

  1. The human TPR protein TTC4 is a putative Hsp90 co-chaperone which interacts with CDC6 and shows alterations in transformed cells.

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    Gilles Crevel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human TTC4 protein is a TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat motif-containing protein. The gene was originally identified as being localized in a genomic region linked to breast cancer and subsequent studies on melanoma cell lines revealed point mutations in the TTC4 protein that may be associated with the progression of malignant melanoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we show that TTC4 is a nucleoplasmic protein which interacts with HSP90 and HSP70, and also with the replication protein CDC6. It has significant structural and functional similarities with a previously characterised Drosophila protein Dpit47. We show that TTC4 protein levels are raised in malignant melanoma cell lines compared to melanocytes. We also see increased TTC4 expression in a variety of tumour lines derived from other tissues. In addition we show that TTC4 proteins bearing some of the mutations previously identified from patient samples lose their interaction with the CDC6 protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results and our previous work with the Drosophila Dpit47 protein we suggest that TTC4 is an HSP90 co-chaperone protein which forms a link between HSP90 chaperone activity and DNA replication. We further suggest that the loss of the interaction with CDC6 or with additional client proteins could provide one route through which TTC4 could influence malignant development of cells.

  2. Human papillomavirus viral load in predicting high-grade CIN in women with cervical smears showing only atypical squamous cells or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

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    André Luis Ferreira Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Human papillomavirus (HPV viral load may have an important role in predicting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in women with cervical smears showing atypical squamous cells or LSIL. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the assessment of the viral load of high-risk HPV DNA is useful in predicting the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 and 3 in women referred because of cervical smears showing only atypical squamous cells or LSIL. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional SETTING: Colposcopy Clinic in a University hospital. METHODS: A series of 119 women referred because of atypical squamous cells or LSIL between August 2000 and April 2001 were included. All women were subjected to a new cervical smear, HPV testing for the high-risk types using hybrid capture II (HCII, viral load measurement in relative light units (RLU and colposcopy, with cervical biopsies (n = 97. Cervical lesions were graded using the CIN classification. RESULTS: Cervical biopsies revealed CIN2 or CIN3 in 11% of the cases, equally among women referred because of atypical squamous cells or LSIL. The HCII test was positive in 16% of women with atypical squamous cells and 52% of those with LSIL (OR = 5.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 26.7. There was strong correlation between CIN2 or CIN3 and positivity for HPV DNA when this group was compared with women with only CIN1 or normal cervix (OR = 7.8; 95% CI 1.5 to 53.4. In ROC analysis for HCII in diagnosing CIN2 and CIN3, the area under the ROC curve was 0.784, and the viral load cutoff point of 10.0 RLU/cutoff presented 77% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Second cytology showing at least atypical squamous cells did not accurately detect CIN2 or CIN3 (OR = 6.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 50.9. The sensitivities of the second cervical smear and HCII were similar, although the specificity of HCII was significantly higher than the second cervical smear. CONCLUSIONS: The viral load of high-risk HPV types was significantly

  3. Short-chain fatty acid level and field cancerization show opposing associations with enteroendocrine cell number and neuropilin expression in patients with colorectal adenoma

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    Staton Carolyn A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested that the VEGF receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 is expressed in a singly dispersed subpopulation of cells in the normal colonic epithelium, but that expression becomes dysregulated during colorectal carcinogenesis, with higher levels in tumour suggestive of a poor prognosis. We noted that the spatial distribution and morphology if NRP-1 expressing cells resembles that of enteroendocrine cells (EEC which are altered in response to disease state including cancer and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. We have shown that NRP-1 is down-regulated by butyrate in colon cancer cell lines in vitro and we hypothesized that butyrate produced in the lumen would have an analogous effect on the colon mucosa in vivo. Therefore we sought to investigate whether NRP-1 is expressed in EEC and how NRP-1 and EEC respond to butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA - principally acetate and propionate. Additionally we sought to assess whether there is a field effect around adenomas. Methodology Biopsies were collected at the mid-sigmoid, at the adenoma and at the contralateral wall (field of 28 subjects during endoscopy. Samples were fixed for IHC and stained for either NRP-1 or for chromogranin A (CgA, a marker of EEC. Stool sampling was undertaken to assess individuals' butyrate, acetate and propionate levels. Result NRP-1 expression was inversely related to SCFA concentration at the colon landmark (mid-sigmoid, but expression was lower and not related to SCFA concentration at the field. Likewise CgA+ cell number was also inversely related to SCFA at the landmark, but was lower and unresponsive at the field. Crypt cellularity was unaltered by field effect. A colocalisation analysis showed only a small subset of NRP-1 localised with CgA. Adenomas showed extensive, weaker staining for NRP-1 which contrastingly correlated positively with butyrate level. Field effects cause this relationship to be lost. Adenoma tissue

  4. CRISPR-mediated genomic deletion of Sox2 in the axolotl shows a requirement in spinal cord neural stem cell amplification during tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Ji-Feng; Schuez, Maritta; Tazaki, Akira; Taniguchi, Yuka; Roensch, Kathleen; Tanaka, Elly M

    2014-09-09

    The salamander is the only tetrapod that functionally regenerates all cell types of the limb and spinal cord (SC) and thus represents an important regeneration model, but the lack of gene-knockout technology has limited molecular analysis. We compared transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in the knockout of three loci in the axolotl and find that CRISPRs show highly penetrant knockout with less toxic effects compared to TALENs. Deletion of Sox2 in up to 100% of cells yielded viable F0 larvae with normal SC organization and ependymoglial cell marker expression such as GFAP and ZO-1. However, upon tail amputation, neural stem cell proliferation was inhibited, resulting in spinal-cord-specific regeneration failure. In contrast, the mesodermal blastema formed normally. Sox3 expression during development, but not regeneration, most likely allowed embryonic survival and the regeneration-specific phenotype. This analysis represents the first tissue-specific regeneration phenotype from the genomic deletion of a gene in the axolotl.

  5. CRISPR-Mediated Genomic Deletion of Sox2 in the Axolotl Shows a Requirement in Spinal Cord Neural Stem Cell Amplification during Tail Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Fei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The salamander is the only tetrapod that functionally regenerates all cell types of the limb and spinal cord (SC and thus represents an important regeneration model, but the lack of gene-knockout technology has limited molecular analysis. We compared transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs in the knockout of three loci in the axolotl and find that CRISPRs show highly penetrant knockout with less toxic effects compared to TALENs. Deletion of Sox2 in up to 100% of cells yielded viable F0 larvae with normal SC organization and ependymoglial cell marker expression such as GFAP and ZO-1. However, upon tail amputation, neural stem cell proliferation was inhibited, resulting in spinal-cord-specific regeneration failure. In contrast, the mesodermal blastema formed normally. Sox3 expression during development, but not regeneration, most likely allowed embryonic survival and the regeneration-specific phenotype. This analysis represents the first tissue-specific regeneration phenotype from the genomic deletion of a gene in the axolotl.

  6. Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor blockade agent, shows additional or synergistic effects on the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taira,Naruto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Human esophageal cancers have been shown to express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and a relationship between high EGFR expression and local advance, the number of lymph node metastases, life expectancy, and sensitivity to chemo-radiotherapy has been demonstrated. We examined the use of gefitinib, an orally active EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a new strategy for treatment of esophageal carcinoma. The effects of gefitinib were evaluated in monotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy in human esophageal carcinoma cell lines. Gefitinib produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation in all of the 8 esophageal carcinoma cell lines examined, with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 microM to 36.9 microM. In combination, gefitinib and radiotherapy showed a synergistic effect in 2 human esophageal carcinoma cell lines and an additive effect in 5 cell lines. Western blotting demonstrated that gefitinib blocked activation of the EGFR-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk pathway and the EGFR-phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K-Akt pathway after irradiation. These results suggest that further evaluation of EGFR blockade as a treatment for esophageal cancer should be performed, and that radiotherapy combined with EGFR blockade may enhance the response of esophageal carcinoma to therapy.

  7. Gene expression profiles of mouse aorta and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells differ widely, yet show common responses to dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Alvaro; Sartor, Maureen A; Huang, Ming-Ya; Kerzee, J Kevin; Wei, Yu-Dan; Tomlinson, Craig R; Baxter, C Stuart; Medvedovic, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants may play a role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. Many environmental agents, such as dioxin, are risk factors for atherosclerosis because they may exacerbate an underlying disease by altering gene expression patterns. Expression profiling of vascular tissues allows the simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes and may provide predictive information particularly useful in early disease stages. Often, however, in vivo experiments are unfeasible for material or ethical reasons, and data from cultured cells must be used instead, even though it may not be known whether cultured cells and live tissues share common global responses to the same toxicant. In a search for genes responsive to dioxin exposure, we used oligonucleotide microarrays with DNA sequences from 13,433 genes to compare global gene expression profiles of C57BL/6 mice aortas with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) of the same mice. Aorta segments and vSMCs differed in the expression of more than 4500 genes, many showing expression differences greater than 1000-fold. Integration of microarray data into Gene Ontology Project annotations showed that many of the genes differentially expressed belonged to the same biological process or metabolic pathway. Notwithstanding these results, a subset of 35 genes responded in the same fashion to dioxin exposure in both systems. Genes in this subset encoded phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, signal transduction kinases and phosphatases, and proteins involved in DNA repair and the cell cycle. We conclude that vSMCS may be useful aorta surrogates to study early gene expression responses to dioxin exposure, provided that analyses focus on this subset of genes.

  8. Invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast showing partial reversed cell polarity are associated with lymphatic tumor spread and may represent part of a spectrum of invasive micropapillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acs, Geza; Esposito, Nicole N; Rakosy, Zsuzsa; Laronga, Christine; Zhang, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPC) of the breast are aggressive tumors frequently associated with lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis even when micropapillary (MP) differentiation is very focal within the tumors. We have noticed that some breast carcinomas showing lymphatic spread but lacking histologic features of IMPC have occasional tumor cell clusters reminiscent of those of IMPC without the characteristic prominent retraction artifact. To study the clinicopathologic significance of such features, we prospectively selected 1323 invasive ductal carcinomas and determined the presence and extent of MP differentiation and retraction artifact in the tumors. One representative tumor block per case was used for immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Partial reverse cell polarity (PRCP) was defined as prominent linear EMA reactivity on at least part of the periphery of tumor cell clusters usually associated with decreased cytoplasmic staining. The clinicopathologic features of carcinomas with PRCP were compared with IMPC and invasive ductal (no special type) carcinomas without this feature. Of the 1323 cases, 96 (7.3%) and 92 (7.0%) showed MP features and the presence of PRCP, respectively. We found that the presence of both PRCP and MP features were strongly associated with decreased cytoplasmic EMA immunoreactivity and the presence of lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis, even if such features were present only very focally. Our results suggest that breast carcinomas with PRCP may have the same implication as MP differentiation and these tumors may represent part of a spectrum of IMPC. Complete or partial reversal of cell polarity may play a significant role in lymphatic tumor spread.

  9. Let-7d miRNA Shows Both Antioncogenic and Oncogenic Functions in Osteosarcoma-Derived 3AB-OS Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Riccardo; Drago-Ferrante, Rosa; Pentimalli, Francesca; Di Marzo, Domenico; Forte, Iris Maria; Carlisi, Daniela; De Blasio, Anna; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Giordano, Antonio; Vento, Renza

    2016-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), an aggressive highly invasive and metastatic bone-malignancy, shows therapy resistance and recurrence, two features that likely depend on cancer stem cells (CSCs), which hold both self-renewing and malignant potential. So, effective anticancer therapies against OS should specifically target and destroy CSCs. We previously found that the let-7d microRNA was downregulated in the 3AB-OS-CSCs, derived from the human OS-MG63 cells. Here, we aimed to assess whether let-7d modulation affected tumorigenic and stemness properties of these OS-CSCs. We found that let-7d-overexpression reduced cell proliferation by decreasing CCND2 and E2F2 cell-cycle-activators and increasing p21 and p27 CDK-inhibitors. Let-7d also decreased sarcosphere-and-colony forming ability, two features associated with self-renewing, and it reduced the expression of stemness genes, including Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28B, and HMGA2. Moreover, let-7d induced mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition, as shown by both N-Cadherin-E-cadherin-switch and decrease in vimentin. Surprisingly, such switch was accompanied by enhanced migratory/invasive capacities, with a strong increase in MMP9, CXCR4 and VersicanV1. Let-7d- overexpression also reduced cell sensitivity to apoptosis induced by both serum-starvation and various chemotherapy drugs, concomitant with decrease in caspase-3 and increase in BCL2 expression. Our data suggest that let-7d in 3AB-OS-CSCs could induce plastic-transitions from CSCs-to-non-CSCs and vice-versa. To our knowledge this is the first study to comprehensively examine the expression and functions of let-7d in OS-CSCs. By showing that let-7d has both tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions in this context, our findings suggest that, before prospecting new therapeutic strategies based on let-7d modulation, it is urgent to better define its multiple functions. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1832-1841, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chicken granulosa cells show differential expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor messenger RNA and differential responsiveness to EGF and LH dependent upon location of granulosa cells to the germinal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H H; Bahr, J M

    2001-06-01

    Granulosa cells in the chicken follicle exhibit different phenotypes according to their location relative to the germinal disc (GD). Granulosa cells proximal to the GD (referred to as proximal granulosa cells) are more proliferative, whereas granulosa cells distal to the GD (referred to as distal granulosa cells) are more differentiated. We have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) derived from the GD stimulated proliferation of granulosa cells proximal to the GD, whereas extraovarian LH promoted differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that phenotypic differences of granulosa cells are the result of differential responsiveness of granulosa cells to EGF and LH. We found that both granulosa and theca layers of chicken preovulatory follicles expressed mRNA for EGF receptor (EGFr) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. However, only the granulosa layer showed differential expression of EGFr and LH receptor (LHr) mRNA. Competitive reverse transcription-PCR revealed that proximal granulosa cells expressed more EGFr mRNA but less LHr mRNA than distal granulosa cells. In addition, proximal granulosa cells proliferated more in response to EGF than their distal counterparts. We further demonstrated that EGF decreased LHr mRNA expression by granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas EGF and LH had no effect on EGFr mRNA expression except at one dose of LH (15 ng/ml) that stimulated EGFr mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that EGF derived from the GD influences the phenotypes of granulosa cells. Granulosa cells proximal to the GD exhibit a proliferative phenotype possibly because they are exposed to and are more responsive to GD-derived EGF. Furthermore, GD-derived EGF decreases LHr mRNA expression by proximal granulosa cells and therefore results in less differentiated granulosa cell phenotype. In contrast, granulosa cells distal to the GD are not under the influence of EGF and exhibit a more differentiated phenotype.

  11. Trabectedin and its C subunit modified analogue PM01183 attenuate nucleotide excision repair and show activity toward platinum-resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniele G; Machado, Miriana S; Rocca, Céline J; Poindessous, Virginie; Ouaret, Djamila; Sarasin, Alain; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Escargueil, Alexandre E; Larsen, Annette K

    2011-08-01

    PM01183 is a novel marine-derived covalent DNA binder in clinical development. PM01183 is structurally similar to trabectedin (yondelis, ecteinascidin-743) except for the C subunit, and this modification is accompanied by different pharmacokinetics in cancer patients. We here characterize the interaction of PM01183 with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in comparison with trabectedin. Our results show for the first time that although neither PM01183 nor trabectedin is repaired by NER, both compounds are able to interfere with the NER machinery thereby attenuating the repair of specific NER substrates. We further show that the NER activity is increased in 3 of 4 cellular models with acquired resistance to cisplatin or oxaliplatin, confirming the involvement of NER in the resistance to platinum derivatives. Importantly, both PM01183 and trabectedin show unchanged or even enhanced activity toward all 4 cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines. We finally show that combinations of PM01183 and cisplatin were mostly synergistic toward both parental and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells as indicated by Chou and Talalay analysis. These data show that the C subunit of trabectedin can be subjected to at least some structural modifications without loss of activity or NER interaction. While PM01183 and trabectedin appear functionally similar in cellular models, it is likely that the differences in pharmacokinetics may allow different dosing and scheduling of PM01183 in the clinic that could lead to novel and/or increased antitumor activity. Taken together, our results provide a mechanistic basis to support clinical trials of PM01183 alone or in combination with cisplatin.

  12. Gene Knockout Shows That PML (TRIM19) Does Not Restrict the Early Stages of HIV-1 Infection in Human Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroori, Nasser; Cherry, Pearl; Merindol, Natacha; Li, Jia-Xin; Dufour, Caroline; Poulain, Lina; Plourde, Mélodie B; Berthoux, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    The PML (promyelocytic leukemia) protein is a member of the TRIM family, a large group of proteins that show high diversity in functions but possess a common tripartite motif giving the family its name. We and others recently reported that both murine PML (mPML) and human PML (hPML) strongly restrict the early stages of infection by HIV-1 and other lentiviruses when expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This restriction activity was found to contribute to the type I interferon (IFN-I)-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 in MEFs. Additionally, PML caused transcriptional repression of the HIV-1 promoter in MEFs. In contrast, the modulation of the early stages of HIV-1 infection of human cells by PML has been investigated by RNA interference, with unclear results. In order to conclusively determine whether PML restricts HIV-1 or not in human cells, we used the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat with Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system to knock out its gene in epithelial, lymphoid, and monocytic human cell lines. Infection challenges showed that PML knockout had no effect on the permissiveness of these cells to HIV-1 infection. IFN-I treatments inhibited HIV-1 equally whether PML was expressed or not. Overexpression of individual hPML isoforms, or of mPML, in a human T cell line did not restrict HIV-1. The presence of PML was not required for the restriction of nonhuman retroviruses by TRIM5α (another human TRIM protein), and TRIM5α was inhibited by arsenic trioxide through a PML-independent mechanism. We conclude that PML is not a restriction factor for HIV-1 in human cell lines representing diverse lineages. IMPORTANCE PML is involved in innate immune mechanisms against both DNA and RNA viruses. Although the mechanism by which PML inhibits highly divergent viruses is unclear, it was recently found that it can increase the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, whether human PML inhibits HIV-1 has been debated. Here we provide

  13. Immature dendritic cells generated from cryopreserved human monocytes show impaired ability to respond to LPS and to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Silveira

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a key role in the immune system, in the sensing of foreign antigens and triggering of an adaptive immune response. Cryopreservation of human monocytes was investigated to understand its effect on differentiation into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (imdDCs, the response to inflammatory stimuli and the ability to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. Cryopreserved (crp-monocytes were able to differentiate into imdDCs, albeit to a lesser extent than freshly (frh-obtained monocytes. Furthermore, crp-imdDCs had lower rates of maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in response to LPS than frh-imdDCs. Lower expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (at 24 and 48 h and higher susceptibility to apoptosis in crp-imdDCs than in fresh cells would account for the impaired maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion observed. A mixed leukocyte reaction showed that lymphocyte proliferation was lower with crp-imdDCs than with frh-imdDCs. These findings suggested that the source of monocytes used to generate human imdDCs could influence the accuracy of results observed in studies of the immune response to pathogens, lymphocyte activation, vaccination and antigen sensing. It is not always possible to work with freshly isolated monocytes but the possible effects of freezing/thawing on the biology and responsiveness of imdDCs should be taken into account.

  14. Septins are important for cell polarity, septation and asexual spore formation in Neurospora crassa and show different patterns of localisation at germ tube tips.

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    Adokiye Berepiki

    Full Text Available Septins are GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins that contribute to cell polarity, vesicle trafficking, cytokinesis and cell morphogenesis. Here we have characterised the six septins encoded by the genome of the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Analysis of septin null mutants demonstrated that septins limit the sites of emergence of germ tubes and are important for septation and conidiation in N. crassa. Septins constituted a range of different higher-order structures in N. crassa - rings, loops, fibres, bands, and caps - which can co-exist within the same cell. They showed different patterns of localisation at germ tube tips, with GFP-CDC-10 and CDC-11-GFP forming a subapical collar with lower signal intensity at the tip apex, CDC-3-GFP and CDC-12-GFP organized as a cap at the tip apex and GFP-ASP-1 forming an extended subapical collar. Purification of the septin complex and mass spectrometry of isolated proteins revealed that the septin complex consists predominantly of CDC-3, CDC-10, CDC-11 and CDC-12. Immunoprecipitation of the putative septin ASP-1 revealed that this protein interacts with the core septin complex.

  15. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  16. Membrane Vesicles Released by a hypervesiculating Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 tolR Mutant Are Highly Heterogeneous and Show Reduced Capacity for Epithelial Cell Interaction and Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Carla; Cañas, María-Alexandra; Giménez, Rosa; Badia, Josefa; Mercade, Elena; Aguilera, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are being explored for novel clinical applications due to their ability to deliver active molecules to distant host cells, where they can exert immunomodulatory properties. MVs released by the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are good candidates for testing such applications. However, a drawback for such studies is the low level of MV isolation from in vitro culture supernatants, which may be overcome by the use of mutants in cell envelope proteins that yield a hypervesiculation phenotype. Here, we confirm that a tolR mutation in EcN increases MV production, as determined by protein, LPS and fluorescent lipid measurements. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of negatively stained MVs did not reveal significant differences with wild type EcN MVs. Conversely, TEM observation after high-pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution of bacterial samples, together with cryo-TEM observation of plunge-frozen hydrated isolated MVs showed considerable structural heterogeneity in the EcN tolR samples. In addition to common one-bilayer vesicles (OMVs) and the recently described double-bilayer vesicles (O-IMVs), other types of MVs were observed. Time-course experiments of MV uptake in Caco-2 cells using rhodamine- and DiO-labelled MVs evidenced that EcN tolR MVs displayed reduced internalization levels compared to the wild-type MVs. The low number of intracellular MVs was due to a lower cell binding capacity of the tolR-derived MVs, rather than a different entry pathway or mechanism. These findings indicate that heterogeneity of MVs from tolR mutants may have a major impact on vesicle functionality, and point to the need for conducting a detailed structural analysis when MVs from hypervesiculating mutants are to be used for biotechnological applications. PMID:28036403

  17. Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells engineered to secrete Epstein-Barr virus interleukin-10 show enhanced immunosuppressive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Paola; Focosi, Daniele; Di Iesu, Marilena; Cursi, Chiara; Zucca, Alessandra; Curcio, Michele; Lapi, Simone; Boldrini, Linda; Stampacchia, Giulia; Paolicchi, Aldo; Scatena, Fabrizio; Freer, Giulia; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) modulate the immune response and represent a potential treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that this feature could be potentiated by co-administering anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this article, we asked whether engineering of Wharton Jelly-derived human MSCs (WJ-hMSCs) to express an anti-inflammatory cytokine increases cell immunomodulatory properties without altering their native features. We used Epstein-Barr virus-derived interleukin-10 (vIL-10), which shares some immunosuppressive properties with human IL-10 but lacks immunostimulatory activity. Engineering was accomplished by transducing WJ-hMSCs with a self-inactivating feline immunodeficiency virus-derived vector co-expressing vIL-10 and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (TK). TK was added to allow future tracking of WJ-hMSC in vivo by positron electron tomography (PET). The results show that (i) expression of TK and/or vIL-10 does not change WJ-hMSC phenotypic and functional properties; (ii) vIL-10 is secreted, biologically active and enhances the immunosuppressing functions of WJ-hMSCs; (iii) v-IL10 and TK can be produced simultaneously by the same cells and do not interfere with each other. WJ-hMSCs engineered to secrete vIL-10 could be a powerful tool for adoptive cell therapy of immune-mediated diseases, and therefore, additional studies are warranted to confirm their efficacy in suitable animal disease models. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mice Homozygous for a Deletion in the Glaucoma Susceptibility Locus INK4 Show Increased Vulnerability of Retinal Ganglion Cells to Elevated Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2016-04-01

    A genomic region located on chromosome 9p21 is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma in genome-wide association studies. The genomic region contains the gene for a long noncoding RNA called CDKN2B-AS, two genes that code for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A and 2B (CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) and CDKN2B/p15(INK4B)) and an additional protein (p14(ARF)). We used a transgenic mouse model in which 70 kb of murine chromosome 4, syntenic to human chromosome 9p21, are deleted to study whether this deletion leads to a discernible phenotype in ocular structures implicated in glaucoma. Homozygous mice of this strain were previously reported to show persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography confirmed that finding but showed no abnormalities for heterozygous mice. Optokinetic response, eletroretinogram, and histology indicated that the heterozygous and mutant retinas were normal functionally and morphologically, whereas glial cells were activated in the retina and optic nerve head of mutant eyes. In quantitative PCR, CDKN2B expression was reduced by approximately 50% in the heterozygous mice and by 90% in the homozygous mice, which suggested that the CDKN2B knock down had no deleterious consequences for the retina under normal conditions. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous animals, the homozygous mice are more vulnerable to retinal ganglion cell loss in response to elevated intraocular pressure.

  19. Phenolics from grapefruit peels inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and angiotensin-I converting enzyme and show antioxidative properties in endothelial EA.Hy 926 cells

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    Ayokunle O. Ademosun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the possible mechanisms for the use of phenolic extracts from grapefruit peels in the management/prevention of cardiovascular complications. The effects of the phenolic extracts on key enzymes relevant to cardiovascular diseases [3-hydroxy-methyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE], cellular antioxidant activity in human endothelial cells (EA.Hy 926 and radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS] scavenging abilities were investigated. The phenolic contents of the extracts were investigated using HPLC–DAD. There was no significant (P > 0.05 difference in the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory ability of the two extracts, while the bound phenolic extracts had a stronger ACE inhibitory ability than the soluble free phenolics. The extracts also showed intracellular antioxidant activity in human endothelial (EA.Hy 926 cells. Furthermore, the bound phenolics had significantly higher radicals (DPPH* and ABTS* scavenging abilities than the free phenolics. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol, phenolics acids (resveratrol, gallic acid, ellagic acid and caffeic acid and tannin (catechin. The cellular antioxidative properties and inhibition of enzymes relevant to the management of cardiovascular complications showed that grapefruit peels could be used as nutraceuticals for the management of such conditions.

  20. Primary microcephaly gene MCPH1 shows signatures of tumor suppressors and is regulated by miR-27a in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Thejaswini Venkatesh

    Full Text Available Mutations in the MCPH1 (microcephalin 1 gene, located at chromosome 8p23.1, result in two autosomal recessive disorders: primary microcephaly and premature chromosome condensation syndrome. MCPH1 has also been shown to be downregulated in breast, prostate and ovarian cancers, and mutated in 1/10 breast and 5/41 endometrial tumors, suggesting that it could also function as a tumor suppressor (TS gene. To test the possibility of MCPH1 as a TS gene, we first performed LOH study in a panel of 81 matched normal oral tissues and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC samples, and observed that 14/71 (19.72% informative samples showed LOH, a hallmark of TS genes. Three protein truncating mutations were identified in 1/15 OSCC samples and 2/5 cancer cell lines. MCPH1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein levels in 21/41 (51.22% and 19/25 (76% OSCC samples respectively. A low level of MCPH1 promoter methylation was also observed in 4/40 (10% tumor samples. We further observed that overexpression of MCPH1 decreased cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, cell invasion and tumor size in nude mice, indicating its tumor suppressive function. Using bioinformatic approaches and luciferase assay, we showed that the 3'-UTR of MCPH1 harbors two non-overlapping functional seed regions for miR-27a which negatively regulated its level. The expression level of miR-27a negatively correlated with the MCPH1 protein level in OSCC. Our study indicates for the first time that, in addition to its role in brain development, MCPH1 also functions as a tumor suppressor gene and is regulated by miR-27a.

  1. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

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    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  2. Comparative Characterization of Cells from the Various Compartments of the Human Umbilical Cord Shows that the Wharton's Jelly Compartment Provides the Best Source of Clinically Utilizable Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

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    Arjunan Subramanian

    Full Text Available The human umbilical cord (UC is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with unique advantages over other MSC sources. They have been isolated from different compartments of the UC but there has been no rigorous comparison to identify the compartment with the best clinical utility. We compared the histology, fresh and cultured cell numbers, morphology, proliferation, viability, stemness characteristics and differentiation potential of cells from the amnion (AM, subamnion (SA, perivascular (PV, Wharton's jelly (WJ and mixed cord (MC of five UCs. The WJ occupied the largest area in the UC from which 4.61 ± 0.57 x 106 /cm fresh cells could be isolated without culture compared to AM, SA, PV and MC that required culture. The WJ and PV had significantly lesser CD40+ non-stem cell contaminants (26-27% compared to SA, AM and MC (51-70%. Cells from all compartments were proliferative, expressed the typical MSC-CD, HLA, and ESC markers, telomerase, had normal karyotypes and differentiated into adipocyte, chondrocyte and osteocyte lineages. The cells from WJ showed significantly greater CD24+ and CD108+ numbers and fluorescence intensities that discriminate between MSCs and non-stem cell mesenchymal cells, were negative for the fibroblast-specific and activating-proteins (FSP, FAP and showed greater osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential compared to AM, SA, PV and MC. Cells from the WJ offer the best clinical utility as (i they have less non-stem cell contaminants (ii can be generated in large numbers with minimal culture avoiding changes in phenotype, (iii their derivation is quick and easy to standardize, (iv they are rich in stemness characteristics and (v have high differentiation potential. Our results show that when isolating MSCs from the UC, the WJ should be the preferred compartment, and a standardized method of derivation must be used so as to make meaningful comparisons of data between research groups.

  3. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

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    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  4. 12-Chloracetyl-PPD, a novel dammarane derivative, shows anti-cancer activity via delay the progression of cell cycle G2/M phase and reactive oxygen species-mediate cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu De; Sun, Yuan Yuan; Zhao, Chen; Qu, Fan Zhi; Zhao, Yu Qing

    2017-03-05

    (20R)-Dammarane-3β, 12β, 20, 25-tetrol (25-OH-PPD) is a ginsenoside isolated from Panax ginseng (C. A. Meyer). This compound exhibits anti-cancer activities on many human cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated anti-cancer mechanisms of 12β-O-(L-Chloracetyl)-dammar-20(22)-ene-3β,25-diol(12-Chloracetyl-PPD), a modified 25-OH-PPD. We found that compound 12-Chloracetyl-PPD resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of viability in prostate, breast, and gastric cancer cells, without affecting the viability of normal cell (human gastric epithelial cell line-GES-1, hair follicle dermal papilla cell line-HHDPC and rat myocardial cell line-H9C2). In MDA-MB-435 and C4-2B cancer cells, 12-Chloracetyl-PPD induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, down-regulated mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) expression, up-regulated p53 expression, triggered apoptosis, and stimulated reactive oxygen species production. Apoptosis can be attenuated by the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Our results suggested that compound 12-Chloracetyl-PPD showed obvious anti-cancer activity based on delaying cell cycle arrest and inducing cell apoptosis by reactive oxygen species production, which supported development of 12-Chloracetyl-PPD as a potential agent for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Giant Cell Tumor with Secondary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Shows Heterogeneous Metabolic Pattern on (18)F-FDG PET/CT: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2016-12-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. (18)F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

  6. Giant cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst shows heterogeneous metabolic pattern on {sup 18}F-FDG PET.CT: A case reort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Yoon, Yeon Hong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  7. Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Meihong; Merling, Randall; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2006-08-01

    Potent activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is mediated by the virus-encoded transactivator protein Tax and three imperfect 21-bp repeats in the viral long terminal repeats. Each 21-bp repeat contains a cAMP-responsive-element core flanked by 5' G-rich and 3' C-rich sequences. Tax alone does not bind DNA. Rather, it interacts with basic domain-leucine zipper transcription factors CREB and ATF-1 to form ternary complexes with the 21-bp repeats. In the context of the ternary complexes, Tax contacts the G/C-rich sequences and recruits transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 to effect potent transcriptional activation. Using an easily transduced and chromosomally integrated reporter system derived from a self-inactivating lentivirus vector, we showed in a BRG1- and BRM1-deficient adrenal carcinoma cell line, SW-13, that Tax- and 21-bp repeat-mediated transactivation does not require BRG1 or BRM1 and is not enhanced by BRG1. With a similar reporter system, we further demonstrated that Tax- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation occurs readily in SW-13 cells in the absence of BRG1 and BRM1. These results suggest that the assembly of stable multiprotein complexes containing Tax, CREB/ATF-1, and CBP/p300 on the 21-bp repeats is the principal mechanism employed by Tax to preclude nucleosome formation at the HTLV-1 enhancer/promoter. This most likely bypasses the need for BRG1-containing chromatin-remodeling complexes. Likewise, recruitment of CBP/p300 by NF-kappaB may be sufficient to disrupt histone-DNA interaction for the initiation of transcription.

  8. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol isolated from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-03-16

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis.

  9. Citrate-capped silver nanoparticles showing good bactericidal effect against both planktonic and sessile bacteria and a low cytotoxicity to osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Constanza Y; Miñán, Alejandro G; Grillo, Claudia A; Salvarezza, Roberto C; Vericat, Carolina; Schilardi, Patricia L

    2013-04-24

    A common problem with implants is that bacteria can form biofilms on their surfaces, which can lead to infection and, eventually, to implant rejection. An interesting strategy to inhibit bacterial colonization is the immobilization of silver (Ag) species on the surface of the devices. The aim of this paper is to investigate the action of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on clinically relevant Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria in two different situations: (i) dispersed AgNPs (to assess the effect of AgNPs against planktonic bacteria) and (ii) adsorbed AgNPs on titanium (Ti) substrates, a material widely used for implants (to test their effect against sessile bacteria). In both cases, the number of surviving cells was quantified. The small amount of Ag on the surface of Ti has an antimicrobial effect similar to that of pure Ag surfaces. We have also investigated the capability of AgNPs to kill planktonic bacteria and their cytotoxic effect on UMR-106 osteoblastic cells. The minimum bactericidal concentration found for both strains is much lower than the AgNP concentration that leads to cytotoxicity to osteoblasts. Planktonic P. aeruginosa show a higher susceptibility to Ag than S. aureus, which can be caused by the different wall structures, while for sessile bacteria, similar results are obtained for both strains. This can be explained by the presence of extracellular polymeric substances in the early stages of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Our findings can be important to improving the performance of Ti-based implants because a good bactericidal action is obtained with very small quantities of Ag, which are not detrimental to the cells involved in the osseointegration process.

  10. Bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate target resting and CD40L-stimulated primary marginal zone lymphoma and show promise in indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Rachel E; Kussaibati, Racha; Cronin, Laura M; Pratt, Guy; Roberts, Claudia; Drayson, Mark T; Bunce, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) are the most common adult hematological cancers and many remain incurable. Development of chemotherapy regimens is confounded by the prevalence of B-NHL in older, frailer patients and the chemo-protective tumor microenvironment. Although biological therapies such as rituximab have significantly improved outcomes and selective kinase inhibitors are showing promise, the rate of new drug discovery remains disappointing, the treatments expensive and long-term benefits uncertain. An alternative strategy is redeployment of available, inexpensive and non-toxic drugs. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative and mitochondrial superoxide (MSO) driven pro-apoptotic activities of bezafibrate (BEZ) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) against B-NHL cells, with a bias toward MZL, in the presence and absence of the microenvironmental signal CD40L. Our study is the first to confirm the presence of CD40L within the lymph node of B-NHL and its capacity to drive B-NHL proliferation. These findings implicate BEZ + MPA as a potential therapeutic strategy in B-NHL.

  11. Cell wall polysaccharides of near-isogenic lines of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and their inbred parentals which show differential flesh firmness or physiological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, Noelia; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Fernandez-Trujillo, J Pablo

    2011-07-27

    We characterized differences in cell wall material and polysaccharide structures, due to the quantitative trait loci associated with higher flesh firmness in a nonclimacteric near-isogenic line (NIL) SC7-2, and with the climacteric behavior of the NIL SC3-5-1, using their nonclimacteric inbred parentals, "Piel de Sapo" (PS) and PI 161375 (SC). PS was firmer and had a higher ripening index and greater hemicellulosic content than SC, with its lower wall material yield, and uronic acid, neutral sugar, cellulose and free sugar content and higher pectic content. SC3-5-1 showed lower uronic acid values, a higher soluble solid content, and similar flesh firmness to PS. SC3-5-1 yielded mainly high molecular weight polysaccharides in the imidazole-soluble fraction than PS. SC7-2 showed greater flesh firmness, a higher neutral sugar (especially galactose and mannose) and uronic acid content, together with a larger cellulose and α-cellulose residue than PS. SC7-2 also contained more polysaccharides of low molecular weight in the first pectic fraction and shifted toward higher molecular weights in the main peak of the 4 M potassium-soluble fraction compared with PS.

  12. Edwardsiella tarda OmpA Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles Shows Superior Protection over Inactivated Whole Cell Vaccine in Orally Vaccinated Fringed-Lipped Peninsula Carp (Labeo fimbriatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dubey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral vaccines. In this study the recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA of Edwardsiella tarda was encapsulated in chitosan NPs (NP-rOmpA and used for oral vaccination of Labeo fimbriatus. The rOmpA purity was 85%, nanodiameter <500 nm, encapsulation efficiency 60.6%, zeta potential +19.05 mV, and there was an in vitro release of 49% of encapsulated antigen within 48 h post incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Empty NPs and a non-formulated, inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET vaccine were used as controls. Post-vaccination antibody levels were significantly (p = 0.0458 higher in the NP-rOmpA vaccinated fish (Mean OD450 = 2.430 than in fish vaccinated with inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET vaccine (Mean OD450 = 1.735, which corresponded with post-challenge survival proportions (PCSP of 73.3% and 48.28% for the NP-rOmpA and IWC-ET groups, respectively. Serum samples from NP-rOmpA-vaccinated fish had a higher inhibition rate for E. tarda growth on tryptic soy agar (TSA than the IWC-ET group. There was no significant difference (p = 0.989 in PCSPs between fish vaccinated with empty NPs and the unvaccinated control fish, while serum from both groups showed no detectable antibodies against E. tarda. Overall, these data show that the NP-rOmpA vaccine produced higher antibody levels and had superior protection over the IWC-ET vaccine, showing that encapsulating OmpA in chitosan NPs confer improved protection against E. tarda mortality in L. fimbriatus. There is a need to elucidate the possible adjuvant effects of chitosan NPs and the immunological mechanisms of protective immunity induced by OMPs administered orally to fish.

  13. Edwardsiella tarda OmpA Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles Shows Superior Protection over Inactivated Whole Cell Vaccine in Orally Vaccinated Fringed-Lipped Peninsula Carp (Labeo fimbriatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2016-11-07

    The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral vaccines. In this study the recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda was encapsulated in chitosan NPs (NP-rOmpA) and used for oral vaccination of Labeo fimbriatus. The rOmpA purity was 85%, nanodiameter fish (Mean OD450 = 2.430) than in fish vaccinated with inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine (Mean OD450 = 1.735), which corresponded with post-challenge survival proportions (PCSP) of 73.3% and 48.28% for the NP-rOmpA and IWC-ET groups, respectively. Serum samples from NP-rOmpA-vaccinated fish had a higher inhibition rate for E. tarda growth on tryptic soy agar (TSA) than the IWC-ET group. There was no significant difference (p = 0.989) in PCSPs between fish vaccinated with empty NPs and the unvaccinated control fish, while serum from both groups showed no detectable antibodies against E. tarda. Overall, these data show that the NP-rOmpA vaccine produced higher antibody levels and had superior protection over the IWC-ET vaccine, showing that encapsulating OmpA in chitosan NPs confer improved protection against E. tarda mortality in L. fimbriatus. There is a need to elucidate the possible adjuvant effects of chitosan NPs and the immunological mechanisms of protective immunity induced by OMPs administered orally to fish.

  14. Serotonin of mast cell origin contributes to hippocampal function

    OpenAIRE

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Dailey, Christopher A.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Rodriquez, Elizabeth; Son, Nguyen Hong; Jonathan V. Sweedler; Silver, Rae

    2012-01-01

    In the CNS, serotonin, an important neurotransmitter and trophic factor, is synthesized by both mast cells and neurons. Mast cells, like other immune cells, are born in the bone marrow and migrate to many tissues. We show that they are resident in the mouse brain throughout development and adulthood. Measurements based on capillary electrophoresis with native fluorescence detection indicate that a significant contribution of serotonin to the hippocampal milieu is associated with mast cell act...

  15. Osteoclast nuclei of myeloma patients show chromosome translocations specific for the myeloma cell clone: a new type of cancer-host partnership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Andersen, Thomas; Boissy, Patrice; Sondergaard, T E;

    2007-01-01

    A major clinical manifestation of bone cancers is bone destruction. It is widely accepted that this destruction is not caused by the malignant cells themselves, but by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells of monocytic origin that are considered to be the only cells able to degrade bone. The present ...

  16. Human second trimester amniotic fluid cells are able to create embryoid body-like structures in vitro and to show typical expression profiles of embryonic and primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Ivana; Di Pietro, Roberta; Alfonsi, Melissa; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Centurione, Lucia; Sancilio, Silvia; Pelagatti, Francesca; D'Amico, Maria Angela; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Piattelli, Adriano; Tetè, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) represent a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells sharing characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells. However, both the origin of these cells and their actual properties in terms of pluripotent differentiation potential are still debated. In order to verify the presence of features of pluripotency in human second trimester AFSCs, we have investigated the ability of these cells to form in vitro three-dimensional aggregates, known as embryoid bodies (EBs), and to express specific genes of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). EBs were obtained after 5 days of AFSC culture in suspension and showed positivity for alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and for specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2). Moreover, EB-derived cells showed the expression of specific transcripts of the three germ layers. RT-PCR analysis, carried out at different culture times (second, third, fourth, fifth, and eighth passages), revealed the presence of specific markers of ESCs (such as FGF4 and DAPPA4), as well as of markers typical of PGCs and, in particular, genes involved in early stages of germ cell development (Fragilis, Stella, Vasa, c-Kit, Rnf17). Finally, the expression of genes related to the control of DNA methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3b1, DNMT1, DNMT3L, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MDB4, MeCP2), as well as the lack of inactivation of the X-chromosome in female samples, was also demonstrated. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for the presence of common features among human AFSCs, PGCs, and ESCs.

  17. Non-invasive in-cell determination of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios using hyperpolarized glucose show large variations in metabolic phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Karlsson, Magnus; Winther, Jakob R.;

    2014-01-01

    a magnetic enhancement technique (hyperpolarization) with cellular glycolytic activity. The bioprobe reports free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios based on dynamically measured in-cell [pyruvate]/ [lactate] ratios. We demonstrate its utility in breast and prostate cancer cells. The free cytosolic [NAD......+]/[NADH] ratio determined in prostate cancer cells was 4 times higher than in breast cancer cells. This higher ratio reflects a distinct metabolic phenotype of prostate cancer cells consistent with previously reported alterations in the energy metabolism of these cells. As a reporter on free cytosolic [NAD...... death and oxidative stress. It has been suggested that changes in the ratio of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] reflects metabolic alterations leading to, or correlating with, pathological states. We have designed an isotopically labelled metabolic bioprobe of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] by combining...

  18. Genome-wide analysis of primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cell transcriptomes shows evidence for a network of enriched pathways associated with HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV preferentially infects CD4+ T cells, and the functional impairment and numerical decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells characterize HIV disease. The numerical decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells affects the optimal ratio between the two cell types necessary for immune regulation. Therefore, this work aimed to define the genomic basis of HIV interactions with the cellular transcriptome of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Results Genome-wide transcriptomes of primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HIV+ patients were analyzed at different stages of HIV disease using Illumina microarray. For each cell subset, pairwise comparisons were performed and differentially expressed (DE genes were identified (fold change >2 and B-statistic >0 followed by quantitative PCR validation. Gene ontology (GO analysis of DE genes revealed enriched categories of complement activation, actin filament, proteasome core and proton-transporting ATPase complex. By gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, a network of enriched pathways functionally connected by mitochondria was identified in both T cell subsets as a transcriptional signature of HIV disease progression. These pathways ranged from metabolism and energy production (TCA cycle and OXPHOS to mitochondria meditated cell apoptosis and cell cycle dysregulation. The most unique and significant feature of our work was that the non-progressing status in HIV+ long-term non-progressors was associated with MAPK, WNT, and AKT pathways contributing to cell survival and anti-viral responses. Conclusions These data offer new comparative insights into HIV disease progression from the aspect of HIV-host interactions at the transcriptomic level, which will facilitate the understanding of the genetic basis of transcriptomic interaction of HIV in vivo and how HIV subverts the human gene machinery at the individual cell type level.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis during Mammalian Infection Shows Cells Undergo Adaptation and Exist in a Stringent Response State: e115839

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristi L Frank; Cristina Colomer-Winter; Suzanne M Grindle; José A Lemos; Patrick M Schlievert; Gary M Dunny

    2014-01-01

    .... The profile of significantly regulated genes at two hours post-inoculation included genes involved in stress response, metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and cell surface components, suggesting genome...

  20. A haploid HSV-1 genome platform for vector development: testing of the tetracycline-responsive switch shows interference by infected cell protein 0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalique, Hena; López Marco, Jorge; Lim, Filip

    2016-10-01

    Although herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has outstanding properties for gene delivery vectors and its genome is available in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for mutagenesis studies, one impediment is the presence of approximately 15.4 kb of DNA sequences that are duplicated in the HSV-1 genome, complicating vector construction and stability. As a useful platform for building HSV-1 vectors, we have constructed a fully haploid HSV-1 genome BAC by deletion of one of these repeats, confirming that viral propagation in culture is not impaired. We used this ΔIR mutant to subsequently investigate whether the insertion of tetracycline-responsive tetO elements into the ICP34.5-ICP0 gene region can be used to control HSV-1 lytic replication. The results of the present study show that ΔIR mutants deleted for ICP34.5 are viable for replication but not when the ICP0 promoter is also disrupted, thus indicating that regulation of infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) levels in the absence of ICP34.5 could be a viable means for controlling growth of HSV-1 vectors. Surprisingly, however, the tetO elements inserted into the ICP0 promoter did not confer ligand responsiveness to growth or ICP0 expression. Further analysis by transfection experiments revealed that ICP0 itself interferes with the tetracycline switch and reduces the the inducibility of this system. Our new haploid HSV-1 BAC is a useful platform for building multiply deleted HSV-1 vectors. Deletion of the gene for ICP34.5 in this backbone renders viral growth dependent on ICP0, although ICP0 expression could not be regulated by tet-responsive transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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