WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell-based screening system

  1. Cell-based drug combination screening with a microfluidic droplet array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guan-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Zhao, Shi-Ping; Zhu, Ying; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Fang, Qun

    2013-07-16

    We performed cell-based drug combination screening using an integrated droplet-based microfluidic system based on the sequential operation droplet array (SODA) technique. In the system, a tapered capillary connected with a syringe pump was used for multistep droplet manipulations. An oil-covered two-dimensional droplet array chip fixed in an x-y-z translation stage was used as the platform for cell culture and analysis. Complex multistep operations for drug combination screening involving long-term cell culture, medium changing, schedule-dependent drug dosage and stimulation, and cell viability testing were achieved in parallel in the semiopen droplet array, using multiple droplet manipulations including liquid metering, aspirating, depositing, mixing, and transferring. Long-term cell culture as long as 11 days was performed in oil-covered 500 nL droplets by changing the culture medium in each droplet every 24 h. The present system was applied in parallel schedule-dependent drug combination screening for A549 nonsmall lung cancer cells with the cell cycle-dependent drug flavopiridol and two anticancer drugs of paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil. The highest inhibition efficiency was obtained with a schedule combination of 200 nM flavopiridol followed by 100 μM 5-fluorouracil. The drug consumption for each screening test was substantially decreased to 5 ng-5 μg, corresponding to 10-1000-fold reductions compared with traditional drug screening systems with 96-well or 384-well plates. The present work provides a novel and flexible droplet-based microfluidic approach for performing cell-based screening with complex and multistep operation procedures. PMID:23786644

  2. A cell-based screening system for anti-influenza A virus agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wan Ying; Loh, Sheng Wei; Ng, Wei Lun; Tan, Ming Cheang; Yeo, Kok Siong; Looi, Chung Yeng; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Ea, Chee-Kwee

    2015-01-01

    Emerging of drug resistant influenza A virus (IAV) has been a big challenge for anti-IAV therapy. In this study, we describe a relatively easy and safe cell-based screening system for anti-IAV replication inhibitors using a non-replicative strain of IAV. A nickel (II) complex of polyhydroxybenzaldehyde N4-thiosemicarbazone (NiPT5) was recently found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. NiPT5 impedes the signaling cascades that lead to the activation of NF-κB in response to different stimuli, such as LPS and TNFα. Using our cell-based screening system, we report that pretreating cells with NiPT5 protects cells from influenza A virus (IAV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. Furthermore, NiPT5 inhibits replication of IAV by inhibiting transcription and translation of vRNAs of IAV. Additionally, NiPT5 reduces IAV-induced type I interferon response and cytokines production. Moreover, NiPT5 prevents activation of NF-κB, and IRF3 in response to IAV infection. These results demonstrate that NiPT5 is a potent antiviral agent that inhibits the early phase of IAV replication. PMID:25728279

  3. Development of a novel cell-based assay system EPISSAY for screening epigenetic drugs and liposome formulated decitabine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the potential of improving the delivery of epigenetic drugs, the subsequent assessment of changes in their epigenetic activity is largely dependent on the availability of a suitable and rapid screening bioassay. Here, we describe a cell-based assay system for screening gene reactivation. A cell-based assay system (EPISSAY) was designed based on a silenced triple-mutated bacterial nitroreductase TMnfsB fused with Red-Fluorescent Protein (RFP) expressed in the non-malignant human breast cell line MCF10A. EPISSAY was validated using the target gene TXNIP, which has previously been shown to respond to epigenetic drugs. The potency of a epigenetic drug model, decitabine, formulated with PEGylated liposomes was also validated using this assay system. Following treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as decitabine and vorinostat, increases in RFP expression were observed, indicating expression of RFP-TMnfsB. The EPISSAY system was then used to test the potency of decitabine, before and after PEGylated liposomal encapsulation. We observed a 50% higher potency of decitabine when encapsulated in PEGylated liposomes, which is likely to be due to its protection from rapid degradation. The EPISSAY bioassay system provides a novel and rapid system to compare the efficiencies of existing and newly formulated drugs that reactivate gene expression

  4. Impedance sensor technology for cell-based assays in the framework of a high-content screening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living cultured cells react to external influences, such as pharmaceutical agents, in an intricate manner due to their complex internal signal processing. Impedance sensing of cells on microelectrodes is a favored label-free technology to indicate cellular events, usually ascribed to morphologic alteration or changes in cellular adhesion, which is usually found in stand-alone systems that do not incorporate life support or additional sensor systems. However, only in symbiosis with metabolic activity sensing and picture documentation may a complete insight into cellular vitality be provided. This complement was created within the framework of an automated high-content screening system previously developed by our group, monitoring 24 cell culture chambers in parallel. The objective of this paper is the development of miniaturized electronics for impedance measurements and its system integration as a modular unit. In addition, it is shown how sensor electrodes were optimized by impedance matching such that spectroscopy and raw data analysis become feasible for every culture well. Undesired mechanical stress on cultured cells may arise from the medium and agent support system of the autonomous screening apparatus. This paper demonstrates how this hazard is treated with the simulation of microfluidics and impedance measurements. Physiological data are subsequently derived from the exemplary tumor cell line MCF-7 both during treatment with the agent doxorubicin and through the impact of natural killer cells. This correlates the information content of complex impedance spectra with cellular respiration as well as data from microscopy

  5. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Klima, Stefanie; Sureshkumar, Perumal Srinivasan; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Waldmann, Tanja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2015-01-01

    Efficient protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to various tissues in combination with -omics technologies opened up new horizons for in vitro toxicity testing of potential drugs. To provide a solid scientific basis for such assays, it will be important to gain quantitative information on the time course of development and on the underlying regulatory mechanisms by systems biology approaches. Two assays have therefore been tuned here for these requirements. In the UKK test system, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) (or other pluripotent cells) are left to spontaneously differentiate for 14 days in embryoid bodies, to allow generation of cells of all three germ layers. This system recapitulates key steps of early human embryonic development, and it can predict human-specific early embryonic toxicity/teratogenicity, if cells are exposed to chemicals during differentiation. The UKN1 test system is based on hESC differentiating to a population of neuroectodermal progenitor (NEP) cells for 6 days. This system recapitulates early neural development and predicts early developmental neurotoxicity and epigenetic changes triggered by chemicals. Both systems, in combination with transcriptome microarray studies, are suitable for identifying toxicity biomarkers. Moreover, they may be used in combination to generate input data for systems biology analysis. These test systems have advantages over the traditional toxicological studies requiring large amounts of animals. The test systems may contribute to a reduction of the costs for drug development and chemical safety evaluation. Their combination sheds light especially on compounds that may influence neurodevelopment specifically. PMID:26132533

  6. Mammalian Cell-Based Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Franz, Briana; Bhunia, Arun K.

    Use of living cells or cellular components in biosensors is receiving increased attention and opens a whole new area of functional diagnostics. The term "mammalian cell-based biosensor" is designated to biosensors utilizing mammalian cells as the biorecognition element. Cell-based assays, such as high-throughput screening (HTS) or cytotoxicity testing, have already emerged as dependable and promising approaches to measure the functionality or toxicity of a compound (in case of HTS); or to probe the presence of pathogenic or toxigenic entities in clinical, environmental, or food samples. External stimuli or changes in cellular microenvironment sometimes perturb the "normal" physiological activities of mammalian cells, thus allowing CBBs to screen, monitor, and measure the analyte-induced changes. The advantage of CBBs is that they can report the presence or absence of active components, such as live pathogens or active toxins. In some cases, mammalian cells or plasma membranes are used as electrical capacitors and cell-cell and cell-substrate contact is measured via conductivity or electrical impedance. In addition, cytopathogenicity or cytotoxicity induced by pathogens or toxins resulting in apoptosis or necrosis could be measured via optical devices using fluorescence or luminescence. This chapter focuses mainly on the type and applications of different mammalian cell-based sensor systems.

  7. Cell-based bioassays in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itle, Laura J.; Zguris, Jeanna C.; Pishko, Michael V.

    2004-12-01

    The development of cell-based bioassays for high throughput drug screening or the sensing of biotoxins is contingent on the development of whole cell sensors for specific changes in intracellular conditions and the integration of those systems into sample delivery devices. Here we show the feasibility of using a 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1, acetoxymethyl ester, acetate, a fluorescent dye capable of responding to changes in intracellular pH, as a detection method for the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide. We used photolithography to entrap cells with this dye within poly(ethylene) glyocol diacrylate hydrogels in microfluidic channels. After 18 hours of exposure to lipopolysaccharide, we were able to see visible changes in the fluorescent pattern. This work shows the feasibility of using whole cell based biosensors within microfluidic networks to detect cellular changes in response to exogenous agents.

  8. Cell-based screens and phenomics with fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Charalampos; Bähler, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing approaches have considerably advanced our understanding of genome function and regulation. However, the knowledge of gene function and complex cellular processes remains a challenge and bottleneck in biological research. Phenomics is a rapidly emerging area, which seeks to rigorously characterize all phenotypes associated with genes or gene variants. Such high-throughput phenotyping under different conditions can be a potent approach toward gene function. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) is a proven eukaryotic model organism that is increasingly used for genomewide screens and phenomic assays. In this review, we highlight current large-scale, cell-based approaches used with S. pombe, including computational colony-growth measurements, genetic interaction screens, parallel profiling using barcodes, microscopy-based cell profiling, metabolomic methods and transposon mutagenesis. These diverse methods are starting to offer rich insights into the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes. PMID:26523839

  9. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Feng; Wu Jinhui; Wang Shuqi; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan [Department of Medicine, Demirci Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM) Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Durmus, Naside Gozde, E-mail: udemirci@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility.

  10. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility.

  11. Fuel cell based hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davat, B.; Astier, S.; Bethoux, O.; CANDUSSO,D; Coquery, G.; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; DRUART, F; Francois, M; GARCIA ARREGUI, F; Harel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different works which are currently developed in the field of fuel cell hybrid systems indifferent public laboratories in France. These works are presented in three sections corresponding to: 1. Hybrid fuel cell/battery or supercapacitor power sources; 2. Fuel cell multistack power sources; 3. Fuel cell in hybrid power systems for distributed generation. The presented works combine simulation and experimental results.

  12. A novel yeast cell-based screen identifies flavone as a tankyrase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The telomere-associated protein tankyrase 1 is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and is considered to be a promising target for cancer therapy, especially for BRCA-associated cancers. However, an efficient assay system for inhibitor screening has not been established, mainly due to the difficulty of efficient preparation of the enzyme and its substrate. Here, we report a cell-based assay system for detecting inhibitory activity against tankyrase 1. We found that overexpression of the human tankyrase 1 gene causes a growth defect in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemicals that restore the growth defect phenotype can be identified as potential tankyrase 1 inhibitors. We performed a high-throughput screen using this system, and identified flavone as a compound that restores the growth of yeast cells overexpressing tankyrase 1. Indeed, flavone inhibited poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins caused by overexpression of tankyrase 1 in yeast cells. This system allows rapid identification of inhibitory activity against tankyrase 1 and is amenable to high-throughput screening using robotics.

  13. A Cell-based High-throughput Screening Assay for Farnesoid X Recepter Agonist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a high-throughput screening assay for Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists based on mammalian one-hybrid system (a chimera receptor gene system) for the purpose of identifying new lead compounds for dyslipidaemia drug from the chemical library. Methods cDNA encoding the human FXR ligand binding domain (LBD) was amplified by RT-PCR from a human liver total mRNA and fused to the DNA binding domain (DBD) of yeast GAL4 of pBIND to construct a GAL4-FXR (LBD) chimera expression plasmid. Five copies of the GAL4 DNA binding site were synthesized and inserted into upstream of the SV40 promoter of pGL3-promoter vector to construct a reporter plasmid pG5-SV40 Luc. The assay was developed by transient co-transfection with pG5-SV40 Luc reporter plasmid and pBIND-FXR-LBD (189-472) chimera expression plasmid. Results After optimization, CDCA, a FXR natural agonist, could induce expression of the luciferase gene in a dose-dependent manner, and had a signal/noise ratio of 10 and Z'factor value of 0.65. Conclusion A stable and sensitive cell-based high-throughput screening model can be used in high-throughput screening for FXR agonists from the synthetic and natural compound library.

  14. Cell-based land use screening procedure for regional siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy facility site-screening methodology which permits the land resource planner to identify candidate siting areas was developed. Through the use of spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics, a selection of candidate areas is obtained. Specific sites then may be selected from among candidate areas for environmental impact analysis. The computerized methodology utilizes a cell-based geographic information system for specifying the suitability of candidate areas for an energy facility. The criteria to be considered may be specified by the user and weighted in terms of importance. Three primary computer programs have been developed. These programs produce thematic maps, proximity calculations, and suitability calculations. Programs are written so as to be transferrable to regional planning or regulatory agencies to assist in rational and comprehensive power plant site identification and analysis

  15. Adapting Cell-Based Assays to the High Throughput Screening Platform: Problems Encountered and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Clinton B; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, cell-based phenotypic assays have emerged as an effective and robust addition to the array of assay technologies available for drug discovery in the high throughput screening arena. Previously, biochemical target-based assays have been the technology of choice. With the emergence of stem cells as a basis for a new screening technology, it is important to keep in mind the lessons that have been learned from the adaptation of existing stable cell lines onto the high throughput ...

  16. Cell-Based Assay Design for High-Content Screening of Drug Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierode, Gregory; Kwon, Paul S; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kwon, Seok-Joon

    2016-02-01

    To reduce attrition in drug development, it is crucial to consider the development and implementation of translational phenotypic assays as well as decipher diverse molecular mechanisms of action for new molecular entities. High-throughput fluorescence and confocal microscopes with advanced analysis software have simplified the simultaneous identification and quantification of various cellular processes through what is now referred to as highcontent screening (HCS). HCS permits automated identification of modifiers of accessible and biologically relevant targets and can thus be used to detect gene interactions or identify toxic pathways of drug candidates to improve drug discovery and development processes. In this review, we summarize several HCS-compatible, biochemical, and molecular biology-driven assays, including immunohistochemistry, RNAi, reporter gene assay, CRISPR-Cas9 system, and protein-protein interactions to assess a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, morphological changes, protein expression, localization, post-translational modifications, and protein-protein interactions. These cell-based assay methods can be applied to not only 2D cell culture but also 3D cell culture systems in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26428732

  17. A multilayer microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multilayer polydimethylsiloxane microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening is described in this paper. This established microdevice was based on a modularization method and it integrated a drug/medium concentration gradient generator (CGG), pneumatic microvalves and a cell culture microchamber array. The CGG was able to generate five steps of linear concentrations with the same outlet flow rate. The medium/drug flowed through CGG and then into the pear-shaped cell culture microchambers vertically. This vertical perfusion mode was used to reduce the impact of the shear stress on the physiology of cells induced by the fluid flow in the microchambers. Pear-shaped microchambers with two arrays of miropillars at each outlet were adopted in this microdevice, which were beneficial to cell distribution. The chemotherapeutics Cisplatin (DDP)-induced Cisplatin-resistant cell line A549/DDP apoptotic experiments were performed well on this platform. The results showed that this novel microdevice could not only provide well-defined and stable conditions for cell culture, but was also useful for cell-based high-throughput drug screening with less reagents and time consumption. (paper)

  18. Cell-based phenotypic screening of mast cell degranulation unveils kinetic perturbations of agents targeting phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shenlu; Wang, Xumeng; Wu, Huanwen; Xiao, Peng; Cheng, Hongqiang; Zhang, Xue; Ke, Yuehai

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells play an essential role in initiating allergic diseases. The activation of mast cells are controlled by a complicated signal network of reversible phosphorylation, and finding the key regulators involved in this network has been the focus of the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, we used a method named Time-dependent cell responding profile (TCRP) to track the process of mast cell degranulation under various perturbations caused by agents targeting phosphorylation. To test the feasibility of this high-throughput cell-based phenotypic screening method, a variety of biological techniques were used. We further screened 145 inhibitors and clustered them based on the similarities of their TCRPs. Stat3 phosphorylation has been widely reported as a key step in mast cell degranulation. Interestingly, our TCRP results showed that a Stat3 inhibitor JSI124 did not inhibit degranulation like other Stat3 inhibitors, such as Stattic, clearly inhibited degranulation. Regular endpoint assays demonstrated that the distinctive TCRP of JSI124 potentially correlated with the ability to induce apoptosis. Consequently, different agents possibly have disparate functions, which can be conveniently detected by TCRP. From this perspective, our TCRP screening method is reliable and sensitive when it comes to discovering and selecting novel compounds for new drug developments. PMID:27502076

  19. Establishment of a cell-based assay to screen regulators for Klotho gene promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-liang XU; Hong GAO; Ke-qing OU-YANG; Shao-xi CAI; Ying-he HU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To discover compounds which can regulate Klotho promoter activity. Klotho is an aging suppressor gene. A defect in Klotho gene expression in the mouse results in the phenotype similar to human aging. Recombinant Klotho protein improves age-associated diseases in animal models. It has been proposed that up-regulation of Klotho gene expression may have anti-aging effects. METHODS: Klotho promoter was cloned into a vector containing luciferase gene, and the reporter gene vector was transfected into HEK293 cells to make a stable cell line (HEK293/KL). A model for cellular aging was established by treating HEK293/KL cells with H2O2. These cells were treated with extracts from Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). The luciferase activity was detected to identify compounds that can regulate Klotho promoter. RESULTS:The expression of luciferase in these cells was under control of Klotho promoter and down-regulated after H2O2 treatment The down-regulation of luciferase expression was H2O2 concentration-dependent with an IC50 at approximately 0.006 %. This result demonstrated that the Klotho gene promoter was regulated by oxidative stress. Using the cell-based reporter gene assay, we screened natural product extracts for regulation of Klotho gene promoter. Several extracts were identified that could rescue the H2O2effects and up-regulated Klotho promoter activity. CONCLUSION: A cell -based assay for high-throughput drug screening was established to identify compounds that regulate Klotho promoter activity, and several hits were discovered from natural products. Further characterization of these active extracts could help to investigate Klotho function and aging mechanisms.

  20. Cell-based land use screening procedure for regional siting analysis. [Utilizing spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalbert, J.S.; Dobson, J.E.

    1976-10-03

    An energy facility site-screening methodology which permits the land resource planner to identify candidate siting areas was developed. Through the use of spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics, a selection of candidate areas is obtained. Specific sites then may be selected from among candidate areas for environmental impact analysis. The computerized methodology utilizes a cell-based geographic information system for specifying the suitability of candidate areas for an energy facility. The criteria to be considered may be specified by the user and weighted in terms of importance. Three primary computer programs have been developed. These programs produce thematic maps, proximity calculations, and suitability calculations. Programs are written so as to be transferrable to regional planning or regulatory agencies to assist in rational and comprehensive power plant site identification and analysis.

  1. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Sambale; Frank Stahl; Ferdinand Rüdinger; Dror Seliktar; Cornelia Kasper; Detlef Bahnemann; Thomas Scheper

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide ...

  2. Cell-Based Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Damnacanthal as an Inhibitor of HIV-1 Vpr Induced Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Kamata, Masakazu; Wu, Raymond P.; An, Dong Sung; Saxe, Jonathan P; Damoiseaux, Robert; Phelps, Michael E.; Huang, Jing; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Viral protein R (Vpr), one of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins, contributes to multiple cytopathic effects, G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanisms of Vpr have been intensely studied because it is believed that they underlie HIV-1 pathogenesis. We here report a cell-based small molecule screen on Vpr induced cell death in the context of HIV-1 infection. From the screen of 504 bioactive compounds, we identified Damnacanthal (Dam), a component of non...

  3. Microengineering Methods for Cell Based Microarrays and High-Throughput Drug Screening Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Feng; Wu, Jinhui; Wang, Shuqi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumpti...

  4. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  5. NSC23925, identified in a high-throughput cell-based screen, reverses multidrug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major factor which contributes to the failure of cancer chemotherapy, and numerous efforts have been attempted to overcome MDR. To date, none of these attempts have yielded a tolerable and effective therapy to reverse MDR; thus, identification of new agents would be useful both clinically and scientifically. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify small molecule compounds that can reverse chemoresistance, we developed a 96-well plate high-throughput cell-based screening assay in a paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cell line. Coincubating cells with a sublethal concentration of paclitaxel in combination with each of 2,000 small molecule compounds from the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set Library, we identified a previously uncharacterized molecule, NSC23925, that inhibits Pgp1 and reverses MDR1 (Pgp1 but does not inhibit MRP or BCRP-mediated MDR. The cytotoxic activity of NSC23925 was further evaluated using a panel of cancer cell lines expressing Pgp1, MRP, and BCRP. We found that at a concentration of >10 microM NSC23925 moderately inhibits the proliferation of both sensitive and resistant cell lines with almost equal activity, but its inhibitory effect was not altered by co-incubation with the Pgp1 inhibitor, verapamil, suggesting that NSC23925 itself is not a substrate of Pgp1. Additionally, NSC23925 increases the intracellular accumulation of Pgp1 substrates: calcein AM, Rhodamine-123, paclitaxel, mitoxantrone, and doxorubicin. Interestingly, we further observed that, although NSC23925 directly inhibits the function of Pgp1 in a dose-dependent manner without altering the total expression level of Pgp1, NSC23925 actually stimulates ATPase activity of Pgp, a phenomenon seen in other Pgp inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of NSC23925 to restore sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or to prevent resistance could significantly benefit cancer patients.

  6. Development of an Online Cell-Based Bioactivity Screening Method by Coupling Liquid Chromatography to Flow Cytometry with Parallel Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Reka A; van Nierop, Pim; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Kini, R Manjunatha; Somsen, Govert W; Smit, August B; Kool, Jeroen

    2016-05-01

    This study describes a new platform for the fast and efficient functional screening for bioactive compounds in complex natural mixtures using a cell-based assay. The platform combines reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with online flow cytometry (FC) and mass spectrometry (MS). As a model (an example or proof-of-concept study) we have used a functional calcium-flux assay in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably overexpressing the α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), a potential therapeutic target for central nervous system (CNS) related diseases. We have designed the coupled LC-FC system employing the neuroblastoma cells followed by analytical and pharmacological evaluation of the hyphenated setup in agonist and mixed antagonist-agonist assay modes. Using standard receptor ligands we have validated pharmacological responses and standardized good assay quality parameters. The applicability of the screening system was evaluated by analysis of various types of natural samples, such as a tobacco plant extract (in agonist assay mode) and snake venoms (in mixed antagonist-agonist assay mode). The bioactivity responses were correlated directly to the respective accurate masses of the compounds. Using simultaneous functional agonist and antagonist responses nicotine and known neurotoxins were detected from tobacco extract and snake venoms, respectively. Thus, the developed analytical screening technique represents a new tool for rapid measurement of functional cell-based responses and parallel separation and identification of compounds in complex mixtures targeting the α7-nAChR. It is anticipated that other fast-response cell-based assays (e.g., other ion flux assays) can be incorporated in this analytical setup. PMID:27046509

  7. A novel cell-based duplex high-throughput screening assay combining fluorescent Ca(2+) measurement with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, László; Cselenyák, Attila; Varga, Ágnes; Visegrády, András

    2016-08-15

    Cell-based assays for G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation applied in high-throughput screening (HTS) monitor various readouts for second messengers or intracellular effectors. Recently, our understanding of diverging signaling pathways downstream of receptor activation and the capability of small molecules to selectively modulate signaling routes has increased substantially, underlining the importance of selecting appropriate readouts in cellular functional screens. To minimize the rate of false negatives in large-scale screening campaigns, it is crucial to maximize the chance of a ligand being detected, and generally applicable methods for detecting multiple analytes from a single well might serve this purpose. The few assays developed so far based on multiplexed GPCR readouts are limited to only certain applications and usually rely on genetic manipulations hindering screening in native or native-like cellular systems. Here we describe a more generally applicable and HTS-compatible homogeneous assay based on the combination of fluorometric detection of [Ca(2+)] with subsequent homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) cAMP readout in the same well. Besides describing development and validation of the assay, using a cell line recombinantly expressing the human PTH1 receptor screening of a small library is also presented, demonstrating the robustness and HTS compatibility of the novel paradigm. PMID:27235172

  8. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne;

    2005-01-01

    discovery is described, and proof-of-concept data from a pilot screen with a CXCR4 assay are presented. This chemokine receptor is a highly relevant drug target which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease and also has been shown to be a co-receptor for entry of HIV into cells...

  9. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay for radiation susceptibility using automated cell counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainstays in the treatment for cancer, but its success can be limited due to inherent or acquired resistance. Mechanisms underlying radioresistance in various cancers are poorly understood and available radiosensitizers have shown only modest clinical benefit. There is thus a need to identify new targets and drugs for more effective sensitization of cancer cells to irradiation. Compound and RNA interference high-throughput screening technologies allow comprehensive enterprises to identify new agents and targets for radiosensitization. However, the gold standard assay to investigate radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, the colony formation assay (CFA), is unsuitable for high-throughput screening. We developed a new high-throughput screening method for determining radiation susceptibility. Fast and uniform irradiation of batches up to 30 microplates was achieved using a Perspex container and a clinically employed linear accelerator. The readout was done by automated counting of fluorescently stained nuclei using the Acumen eX3 laser scanning cytometer. Assay performance was compared to that of the CFA and the CellTiter-Blue homogeneous uniform-well cell viability assay. The assay was validated in a whole-genome siRNA library screening setting using PC-3 prostate cancer cells. On 4 different cancer cell lines, the automated cell counting assay produced radiation dose response curves that followed a linear-quadratic equation and that exhibited a better correlation to the results of the CFA than did the cell viability assay. Moreover, the cell counting assay could be used to detect radiosensitization by silencing DNA-PKcs or by adding caffeine. In a high-throughput screening setting, using 4 Gy irradiated and control PC-3 cells, the effects of DNA-PKcs siRNA and non-targeting control siRNA could be clearly discriminated. We developed a simple assay for radiation susceptibility that can be used for high-throughput screening. This will aid

  10. Rescuing compound bioactivity in a secondary cell-based screening by using γ-cyclodextrin as a molecular carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Vega, Sonia; Grazu, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Lanas, Angel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Abian, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In vitro primary screening for identifying bioactive compounds (inhibitors, activators or pharmacological chaperones) against a protein target results in the discovery of lead compounds that must be tested in cell-based efficacy secondary screenings. Very often lead compounds do not succeed because of an apparent low potency in cell assays, despite an excellent performance in primary screening. Primary and secondary screenings differ significantly according to the conditions and challenges the compounds must overcome in order to interact with their intended target. Cellular internalization and intracellular metabolism are some of the difficulties the compounds must confront and different strategies can be envisaged for minimizing that problem. Using a novel screening procedure we have identified 15 compounds inhibiting the hepatitis C NS3 protease in an allosteric fashion. After characterizing biophysically the interaction with the target, some of the compounds were not able to inhibit viral replication in cell assays. In order to overcome this obstacle and potentially improve cellular internalization three of these compounds were complexed with γ-cyclodextrin. Two of them showed a five- and 16-fold activity increase, compared to their activity when delivered as free compounds in solution (while γ-cyclodextrin did not show antiviral activity by itself). The most remarkable result came from a third compound that showed no antiviral activity in cell assays when delivered free in solution, but its γ-cyclodextrin complex exhibited a 50% effective concentration of 5 μM. Thus, the antiviral activity of these compounds can be significantly improved, even completely rescued, using γ-cyclodextrin as carrier molecule. PMID:25834436

  11. High-throughput cell-based screening reveals a role for ZNF131 as a repressor of ERalpha signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Peige

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptor α (ERα is a transcription factor whose activity is affected by multiple regulatory cofactors. In an effort to identify the human genes involved in the regulation of ERα, we constructed a high-throughput, cell-based, functional screening platform by linking a response element (ERE with a reporter gene. This allowed the cellular activity of ERα, in cells cotransfected with the candidate gene, to be quantified in the presence or absence of its cognate ligand E2. Results From a library of 570 human cDNA clones, we identified zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131 as a repressor of ERα mediated transactivation. ZNF131 is a typical member of the BTB/POZ family of transcription factors, and shows both ubiquitous expression and a high degree of sequence conservation. The luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that ZNF131 inhibits ligand-dependent transactivation by ERα in a dose-dependent manner. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay clearly demonstrated that the interaction between ZNF131 and ERα interrupts or prevents ERα binding to the estrogen response element (ERE. In addition, ZNF131 was able to suppress the expression of pS2, an ERα target gene. Conclusion We suggest that the functional screening platform we constructed can be applied for high-throughput genomic screening candidate ERα-related genes. This in turn may provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of ERα regulation in mammalian cells.

  12. Demonstration of a visual cell-based assay for screening glucose transporter 4 translocation modulators in real time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maleppillil Vavachan Vijayakumar; Amrendra Kumar Ajay; Manoj Kumar Bhat

    2010-12-01

    Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell membrane leading to glucose uptake is the rate-limiting step in diabetes. It is also a defined target of antidiabetic drug research. Existing GLUT4 translocation assays are based on time-consuming immunoassays and are hampered by assay variability and low sensitivity. We describe a real-time, visual, cell-based qualitative GLUT4 translocation assay using CHO-HIRc-myc-GLUT4eGFP cells that stably express myc- and eGFP-tagged GLUT4 in addition to human insulin receptor (HIRc). GLUT4 translocation is visualized by live cell imaging based on GFP fluorescence by employing a cooled charge-coupled device camera attached to a fluorescent microscope. This video imaging method and further quantitative analysis of GLUT4 on the cell membrane provide rapid and foolproof visual evidence that this method is suitable for screening GLUT4 translocation modulators.

  13. Efficient screening of dioxins in food and feed using shape-selective pressurized liquid extraction and cell based bioassay analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nording, M. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umea (Sweden)]|[Umea Univ. (Sweden). Environmental Chemistry, Dept. of Chemistry; Sporring, S.; Bjoerklund, E. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Wiberg, K.; Haglund, P. [Umea Univ. (Sweden). Environmental Chemistry, Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Cell based bioassays with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) detection are potential screening methods for determination of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, such as dioxins and similar compounds, in environmental samples. With this technique, it is possible to detect dioxins at levels normally found in food and feed, i.e. pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g. Since the signal from the bioassay might be caused by compounds other than dioxins binding to the AhR, determination of the dioxin TEQ generally involve extraction with organic solvents or solvent mixtures, e.g. using a Soxhlet apparatus, followed by clean-up with sulphuric acid or sulphuric acid impregnated silica gel and carbon fractionation in order to exclude possible interferences from the extracts. Until now, sample preparation has been time consuming and labour intensive, but alternatives to traditional methods have recently been developed, with the benefits of shorter analysis times and reduced organic solvent consumption. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) may, for instance, be used with a fat retainer in the PLE cell to selectively extract PCBs from food, feed, and biota matrices. In order to further streamline the sample preparation, new assemblies have been developed to fit into a commercially available PLE-equipment. The assemblies are packed with an activated carbon/celite mixture and the sample. In the subsequent extraction, the pollutants are fractionated into three fractions according to their planarity (shape-selective extraction). In the first fraction (I) bulk lipids and PCBs are eluted, in the second fraction (II) the majority of planar (non-ortho) PCBs, and in the third fraction (III), which is back-flushed, the dioxins are recovered. In this way, a pure dioxin fraction may be isolated and analysed separately with the cell based bioassay described above. This study was conducted to meet the imperative demands for dioxin monitoring. The aim was to develop a comprehensive method for

  14. A cell-based model of α-synucleinopathy for screening compounds with therapeutic potential of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-long ZHAO; Li-bo ZOU; Lan-fang ZHOU; Ping ZHU; Hai-bo ZHU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To develop a cell-based model by stable transfection of SH-SY5Y with mu-tant A53T human α-synuclein, recapitulating neurotoxicity of α-synuclein overexpression. Methods: The overexpression of mutant α-synuclein was ana-lyzed by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Cell viability was processed when treated with different concentrations of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+) and exogenous dopamine (DA) for 24, 48, and 72 h by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis were analyzed by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide double staining, respectively. DNA was isolated and applied to agarose gel for electrophoresis; the typical DNA "ladder" repre-sented severe apoptosis. We also used this model to screen 99 compounds with therapeutic potential by MTT assay. Results: One of the stably-transfected clones overexpressed exogenous genes on both the protein level and the transcriptive level. Significant differences in cytotoxicity were found between the pcDNA3.1(+) group and the pcDNA3.1(+)-hmα-synuclein group in the presence of the same concentration of MPP+ and DA within the same incubation time. The level of either early apoptosis or late apoptosis/necrosis was remarkably increased in transfected cells compared with the control after treatment with 100 μmol/L MPP+ for 24 h. In addition, the presence of the typical DNA "ladder" was ob-served in the pcDNA3.1 (+)-hmα-synuclein group when treated with 200 μmol/L MPF+ for 48 h. After the screening experiment, 12 of the 99 compounds were found to decrease DA-induced cytotoxicity on cell viability. Conclusion: We estab-lished a cell-based model which is useful for studying the function of α-synuclein and screening compounds with therapeutic potential. In addition, it was identi-fied that cells overexpressing A53T mutant α-synuclein were significantly vulner-able against MPP+ or dopamine exposures.

  15. Immune cell-based screening assay for response to anticancer agents: applications in pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frick A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amber Frick,1 Yuri Fedoriw,2 Kristy Richards,3,4 Blossom Damania,3,5 Bethany Parks,6 Oscar Suzuki,1 Cristina S Benton,1 Emmanuel Chan,1 Russell S Thomas,7 Tim Wiltshire1,3 1Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, 3Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, 4Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 7Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: Interpatient variability in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely due to complex genetic differences and is difficult to ascertain in humans. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at examining interstrain differences in viability on normal, noncancerous immune cells following chemotherapeutic cytotoxic insult. Drug effects were investigated by comparing selective chemotherapeutic agents, such as BEZ-235 and selumetinib, against conventional cytotoxic agents targeting multiple pathways, including doxorubicin and idarubicin. Methods: Splenocytes were isolated from 36 isogenic strains of mice using standard procedures. Of note, the splenocytes were not stimulated to avoid attributing responses to pathways involved with cellular stimulation rather than toxicity. Cells were incubated with compounds on a nine-point logarithmic dosing scale ranging from 15 nM to 100 µM (37°C, 5% CO2. At 4 hours posttreatment, cells were labeled with antibodies and physiological indicator dyes and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cellular phenotypes (eg, viability were collected and analyzed using flow cytometry. Dose-response curves with response normalized to the zero dose as a function of log concentration

  16. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-11-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  17. Article Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    During the last ten years patents directed to luggage scanning apparatus began to appear in the patent art. Absent from the variety of approaches in the art is stereoscopic imaging that entails exposing two or more images of the same object, each taken from a slightly different perspective. If the perspectives are too different, that is. if there is too much separation of the X-ray exposures, the image will look flat. Yet with a slight separation, a stereo separation, interference occurs. Herein a system is provided for the production of stereo pairs. One perspective, a left or a right perspective angle, is first established. Next, the other perspective angle is computed. Using these left and right perspectives the X-ray sources can then be spaced away from each other.

  18. Research on Software-Cell-Based Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The aim of research on software architecture is to improve the quality attributes of software sys tems, such as security, reliability, maintainability, testability , reassembility , evolvability. However, a sin gle running system is hard to achieve all these goals. In this paper, software-cell is introduced as the basic u nit throughout developing process. Then it is further advanced that a robust, safe and high-quality software system is composed of a running system and four supportive systems. This paper especially discusses the structure of software-cell, the construction of the five systems, and the relations between them.

  19. A cell-based model system links chromothripsis with hyperploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardin, Balca R; Drainas, Alexandros P; Waszak, Sebastian M;

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable observation emerging from recent cancer genome analyses is the identification of chromothripsis as a one-off genomic catastrophe, resulting in massive somatic DNA structural rearrangements (SRs). Largely due to lack of suitable model systems, the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis h...... hyperploid cells. Analysis of primary medulloblastoma cancer genomes verified the link between hyperploidy and chromothripsis in vivo. CAST provides the foundation for mechanistic dissection of complex DNA rearrangement processes....

  20. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Voloshin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy. Efficiency of energy conversion in the primary processes of photosynthesis is close to 100%. Therefore, for many years photosynthesis has attracted the attention of researchers and designers looking for alternative energy systems as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly pathways of energy conversion. The latest advances in the design of optimal solar cells include the creation of converters based on thylakoid membranes, photosystems, and whole cells of cyanobacteria immobilized on nanostructured electrode (gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2. The mode of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis has a great potential as a source of renewable energy while it is sustainable and environmentally safety as well. Application of pigments such as Chl f and Chl d (unlike Chl a and Chl b, by absorbing the far red and near infrared region of the spectrum (in the range 700-750 nm, will allow to increase the efficiency of such light transforming systems. This review article presents the last achievements in the field of energy photoconverters based on photosynthetic systems.

  1. Cell Based Drug Delivery System through Resealed Erythrocyte - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are biocompatible, biodegradable, possess long circulation half lives, and can be loaded with a variety of biologically active compounds using various chemical and physical methods. Erythrocytes are potential biocompatible vectors for different bioactive substances, including drugs. These can be used successfully as biological carriers of drugs, enzymes and peptides. There are currently diverse methods that permit drug encapsulation in erythrocytes with an appropriate yield. Erythrocytes loaded with drugs and other substances allow for different release rates to be obtained. Encapsulation in erythrocytes significantly changes the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in both animals and humans, enhancing liver and spleen uptake and targeting the reticulo-endothelial system (RES. This review explains the different method of drug loading and their characterization parameters for resealed erythrocytes. This method of drug targeting is safe and effective for longer period of time and beneficial for the society.

  2. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  3. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuya Yamashita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV. We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95% and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%. Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 1 and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 2, which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs.

  4. Establishment of a cell-based assay system for hepatitis C virus serine protease and its primary applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xia Mao; Shui-Yun Lan; Yun-Wen Hu; Li Xiang; Zheng-Hong Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To establish an efficient, sensitive, cell-based assay system for NS3 serine protease in an effort to study further the property of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and develop new antiviral agents.METHOOS: We constructed pCI-neo-NS3/4A-SEAP chimeric plasmid, in which the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) was fused in-frame to the downstream of NS4A/4B cleavage site. The protease activity of NS3 was reflected by the activity of SEAP in the culture media of transient or stable expression cells. Stably expressing cell lines were obtained by G418 selection. Pefabloc SC, a potent irreversible serine protease inhibitor, was used to treat the stably expressing cell lines to assess the system for screening NS3 inhibitors. To compare the activity of serine proteases from 1b and 1a, two chimeric clones were constructed and introduced into both transient and stable expression systems.RESULTS: The SEAP activity in the culture media could be detected in both transient and stable expression systems,and was apparently decreased after Pefabloc SC treatment.In both transient and stable systems, NS3/4A-SEAP chimeric gene from HCV genotype 1b produced higher SEAP activity in the culture media than that from 1a.CONCLUSION: The cell-based system is efficient and sensitive enough for detection and comparison of NS3 protease activity, and screening of anti-NS3 inhibitors. The functional difference between NS3/4A from 1a and 1b subtypes revealed by this system provides a clue for further investigations.

  5. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin Cytotoxicity Using a Cell-Based High-Throughput Screen

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Mark S.; Michelle Lewis; Charles David Weaver

    2010-01-01

    The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, a select agent, is responsible for a severe, often fatal enterotoxemia characterized by edema in the heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. The toxin is believed to be an oligomeric pore-forming toxin. Currently, there is no effective therapy for countering the cytotoxic activity of the toxin in exposed individuals. Using a robust cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay, we screened a 151,616-compound library for the ability to inhibit e-toxin-ind...

  6. Rescuing compound bioactivity in a secondary cell-based screening by using γ-cyclodextrin as a molecular carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claveria-Gimeno R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Claveria-Gimeno,1–3 Sonia Vega,3 Valeria Grazu,4 Jesús M de la Fuente,4–6 Angel Lanas,2,8–10 Adrian Velazquez-Campoy,2,3,7 Olga Abian1–3,8 1Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 2IIS Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain; 3Institute of Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI, Joint Unit IQFR-CSIC-BIFI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 4Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 6Institute NanoBiomedicine and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 7Fundacion ARAID, Government of Aragon, Spain; 8Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd, Barcelona, Spain; 9Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain; 10Department of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain Abstract: In vitro primary screening for identifying bioactive compounds (inhibitors, activators or pharmacological chaperones against a protein target results in the discovery of lead compounds that must be tested in cell-based efficacy secondary screenings. Very often lead compounds do not succeed because of an apparent low potency in cell assays, despite an excellent performance in primary screening. Primary and secondary screenings differ significantly according to the conditions and challenges the compounds must overcome in order to interact with their intended target. Cellular internalization and intracellular metabolism are some of the difficulties the compounds must confront and different strategies can be envisaged for minimizing that problem. Using a novel screening procedure we have identified 15 compounds inhibiting the hepatitis C NS3 protease in an allosteric fashion. After characterizing biophysically the interaction

  7. Single-cell-based sensors and synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy: a hybrid system towards bacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Mandana; Veiseh, Omid; Martin, Michael C; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Zhang, Miqin

    2007-09-30

    Microarrays of single macrophage cell-based sensors were developed and demonstrated for potential real-time bacterium detection by synchrotron FTIR microscopy. The cells were patterned on gold electrodes of silicon oxide substrates by a surface engineering technique, in which the gold electrodes were immobilized with fibronectin to mediate cell adhesion and the silicon oxide background was passivated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to resist protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Cell morphology and IR spectra of single, double, and triple cells on gold electrodes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of different concentrations were compared to reveal the detection capability of this cell-based sensing platform. The single-cell-based system was found to generate the most significant and consistent IR spectrum shifts upon exposure to LPS, thus providing the highest detection sensitivity. Changes in cell morphology and IR shifts upon cell exposure to LPS were found to be dependent on the LPS concentration and exposure time, which established a method for the identification of LPS concentration and infected cell population. Possibility of using this single-cell system with conventional IR spectroscopy as well as its limitation was investigated by comparing IR spectra of single-cell arrays with gold electrode surface areas of 25, 100, and 400 microm2 using both synchrotron and conventional FTIR spectromicroscopes. This cell-based platform may potentially provide real-time, label-free, and rapid bacterial detection, and allow for high-throughput statistical analyses, and portability. PMID:17560777

  8. A Cell-Based Approach for the Biosynthesis/Screening of Cyclic Peptide Libraries against Bacterial Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Kimura, R; Woo, Y; Cantor, J; Steenblock, E

    2007-10-24

    Available methods for developing and screening small drug-like molecules able to knockout toxins or pathogenic microorganisms have some limitations. In order to be useful, these new methods must provide high-throughput analysis and identify specific binders in a short period of time. To meet this need, we are developing an approach that uses living cells to generate libraries of small biomolecules, which are then screened inside the cell for activity. Our group is using this new, combined approach to find highly specific ligands capable of disabling anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) as proof of principle. Key to our approach is the development of a method for the biosynthesis of libraries of cyclic peptides, and an efficient screening process that can be carried out inside the cell.

  9. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.``

  10. INTRODUCTION OF THE HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the system of high throughput screening (HTS). Its role in new drug study and current development is described. The relationship between research achievements of genome study and new type screening model of new drugs is emphasized. The personal opinions of current problems about HTS study in China are raised.

  11. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin Cytotoxicity Using a Cell-Based High-Throughput Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. McClain

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, a select agent, is responsible for a severe, often fatal enterotoxemia characterized by edema in the heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. The toxin is believed to be an oligomeric pore-forming toxin. Currently, there is no effective therapy for countering the cytotoxic activity of the toxin in exposed individuals. Using a robust cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS assay, we screened a 151,616-compound library for the ability to inhibit e-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Survival of MDCK cells exposed to the toxin was assessed by addition of resazurin to detect metabolic activity in surviving cells. The hit rate for this screen was 0.6%. Following a secondary screen of each hit in triplicate and assays to eliminate false positives, we focused on three structurally-distinct compounds: an N-cycloalkylbenzamide, a furo[2,3-b]quinoline, and a 6H-anthra[1,9-cd]isoxazol. None of the three compounds appeared to inhibit toxin binding to cells or the ability of the toxin to form oligomeric complexes. Additional assays demonstrated that two of the inhibitory compounds inhibited ε-toxin-induced permeabilization of MDCK cells to propidium iodide. Furthermore, the two compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on cells pre-treated with toxin. Structural analogs of one of the inhibitors identified through the high-throughput screen were analyzed and provided initial structure-activity data. These compounds should serve as the basis for further structure-activity refinement that may lead to the development of effective anti-ε-toxin therapeutics.

  12. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin Cytotoxicity Using a Cell-Based High-Throughput Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle; Weaver, Charles David; McClain, Mark S

    2010-07-01

    The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, a select agent, is responsible for a severe, often fatal enterotoxemia characterized by edema in the heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. The toxin is believed to be an oligomeric pore-forming toxin. Currently, there is no effective therapy for countering the cytotoxic activity of the toxin in exposed individuals. Using a robust cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay, we screened a 151,616-compound library for the ability to inhibit ε-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Survival of MDCK cells exposed to the toxin was assessed by addition of resazurin to detect metabolic activity in surviving cells. The hit rate for this screen was 0.6%. Following a secondary screen of each hit in triplicate and assays to eliminate false positives, we focused on three structurally-distinct compounds: an N-cycloalkylbenzamide, a furo[2,3-b]quinoline, and a 6H-anthra[1,9-cd]isoxazol. None of the three compounds appeared to inhibit toxin binding to cells or the ability of the toxin to form oligomeric complexes. Additional assays demonstrated that two of the inhibitory compounds inhibited ε-toxin-induced permeabilization of MDCK cells to propidium iodide. Furthermore, the two compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on cells pre-treated with toxin. Structural analogs of one of the inhibitors identified through the high-throughput screen were analyzed and provided initial structure-activity data. These compounds should serve as the basis for further structure-activity refinement that may lead to the development of effective anti-ε-toxin therapeutics. PMID:20721308

  13. Characterisation of a hybrid, fuel-cell-based propulsion system for small unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, D.; Lehmkuehler, K.; Gong, A.; Harvey, J. R.; Brian, G.; Palmer, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced hybrid powerplants combining a fuel cell and battery can enable significantly higher endurance for small, electrically powered unmanned aircraft systems, compared with batteries alone. However, detailed investigations of the static and dynamic performance of such systems are required to address integration challenges. This article describes a series of tests used to characterise the Horizon Energy Systems' AeroStack hybrid, fuel-cell-based powertrain. The results demonstrate that a significant difference can exist between the dynamic performance of the fuel-cell system and its static polarisation curve, confirming the need for detailed measurements. The results also confirm that the AeroStack's lithium-polymer battery plays a crucial role in its response to dynamic load changes and protects the fuel cell from membrane dehydration and fuel starvation. At low static loads, the AeroStack fuel cell recharges the battery with currents up to 1 A, which leads to further differences with the polarisation curve.

  14. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuya Yamashita; Yuusuke Fujimoto; Mayumi Tamaki; Andi Setiawan; Tomohisa Tanaka; Kaori Okuyama-Dobashi; Hirotake Kasai; Koichi Watashi; Takaji Wakita; Masaaki Toyama; Masanori Baba; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Shinya Maekawa; Nobuyuki Enomoto; Junichi Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extr...

  15. Noise screen for attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

  16. Establishment and validation of whole-cell based fluorescence assays to identify anti-mycobacterial compounds using the Acanthamoeba castellanii-Mycobacterium marinum host-pathogen system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Kicka

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is considered to be one of the world's deadliest disease with 2 million deaths each year. The need for new antitubercular drugs is further exacerbated by the emergence of drug-resistance strains. Despite multiple recent efforts, the majority of the hits discovered by traditional target-based screening showed low efficiency in vivo. Therefore, there is heightened demand for whole-cell based approaches directly using host-pathogen systems. The phenotypic host-pathogen assay described here is based on the monitoring of GFP-expressing Mycobacterium marinum during infection of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. The assay showed straight-forward medium-throughput scalability, robustness and ease of manipulation, demonstrating its qualities as an efficient compound screening system. Validation with a series of known antitubercular compounds highlighted the advantages of the assay in comparison to previously published macrophage-Mycobacterium tuberculosis-based screening systems. Combination with secondary growth assays based on either GFP-expressing D. discoideum or M. marinum allowed us to further fine-tune compound characterization by distinguishing and quantifying growth inhibition, cytotoxic properties and antibiotic activities of the compounds. The simple and relatively low cost system described here is most suitable to detect anti-infective compounds, whether they present antibiotic activities or not, in which case they might exert anti-virulence or host defense boosting activities, both of which are largely overlooked by classical screening approaches.

  17. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08

    The conventional screening machines used in processing plants have had undesirable high noise and vibration levels. They also have had unsatisfactorily low screening efficiency, high energy consumption, high maintenance cost, low productivity, and poor worker safety. These conventional vibrating machines have been used in almost every processing plant. Most of the current material separation technology uses heavy and inefficient electric motors with an unbalanced rotating mass to generate the shaking. In addition to being excessively noisy, inefficient, and high-maintenance, these vibrating machines are often the bottleneck in the entire process. Furthermore, these motors, along with the vibrating machines and supporting structure, shake other machines and structures in the vicinity. The latter increases maintenance costs while reducing worker health and safety. The conventional vibrating fine screens at taconite processing plants have had the same problems as those listed above. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. The focus of this work is on the design of a high performance screening machine suitable for taconite processing plants. SmartScreens{trademark} technology uses miniaturized motors, based on smart materials, to generate the shaking. The underlying technologies are Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}. These concepts are used to direct energy flow and confine energy efficiently and effectively to the screen function. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, and maintenance cost and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic changes to the screening and physical separation industry. The final designs for key components of the SmartScreens{trademark} have been developed. The key

  18. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  19. Multilayer-based lab-on-a-chip systems for perfused cell-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach, Udo; Sonntag, Frank; Grünzner, Stefan; Busek, Mathias; Schmieder, Florian; Franke, Volker

    2014-12-01

    A novel integrated technology chain of laser-microstructured multilayer foils for fast, flexible, and low-cost manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices especially for complex cell and tissue culture applications, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-cells ratio, was developed and established. Initially the microfluidic system is constructively divided into individual layers, which are formed by separate foils or plates. Based on the functional boundary conditions and the necessary properties of each layer, their corresponding foils and plates are chosen. In the third step, the foils and plates are laser microstructured and functionalized from both sides. In the fourth and last manufacturing step, the multiple plates and foils are joined using different bonding techniques like adhesive bonding, welding, etc. This multilayer technology together with pneumatically driven micropumps and valves permits the manufacturing of fluidic structures and perfusion systems, which spread out above multiple planes. Based on the established lab-on-a-chip platform for perfused cell-based assays, a multilayer microfluidic system with two parallel connected cell culture chambers was successfully implemented.

  20. Identification of novel anti-hepatitis C virus agents by a quantitative high throughput screen in a cell-based infection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zongyi; Hu, Xin; He, Shanshan; Yim, Hyung Joon; Xiao, Jingbo; Swaroop, Manju; Tanega, Cordelle; Zhang, Ya-qin; Yi, Guanghui; Kao, C Cheng; Marugan, Juan; Ferrer, Marc; Zheng, Wei; Southall, Noel; Liang, T Jake

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) poses a major health threat to the world. The recent development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV has markedly improved the response rate of HCV and reduced the side effects in comparison to the interferon-based therapy. Despite this therapeutic advance, there is still a need to develop new inhibitors that target different stages of the HCV life cycle because of various limitations of the current regimens. In this study, we performed a quantitative high throughput screening of the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) of ∼350,000 chemicals for novel HCV inhibitors using our previously developed cell-based HCV infection assay. Following confirmation and structural clustering analysis, we narrowed down to 158 compounds from the initial ∼3000 molecules that showed inhibitory activity for further structural and functional analyses. We were able to assign the majority of these compounds to specific stage(s) in the HCV life cycle. Three of them are direct inhibitors of NS3/4A protease. Most of the compounds appear to act on novel targets in HCV life cycle. Four compounds with novel structure and excellent drug-like properties, three targeting HCV entry and one targeting HCV assembly/secretion, were advanced for further development as lead hits. These compounds represent diverse chemotypes that are potential lead compounds for further optimization and may offer promising candidates for the development of novel therapeutics against HCV infection. In addition, they represent novel molecular probes to explore the complex interactions between HCV and the cells. PMID:26515788

  1. A mammalian cell-based reverse two-hybrid system for functional analysis of 3C viral protease of human enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ching; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chang, Ten-Yuan; Tseng, Huan-Yi; Shih, Ya-Feng; Yen, Kuei-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chun; Shie, Jiun-Jie; Fang, Jim-Min; Liang, Po-Huang; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Hsu, John T-A

    2008-04-01

    Although several cell-based reporter assays have been developed for screening of viral protease inhibitors, most of these assays have a significant limitation in that numerous false positives can be generated for the compounds that are interfering with reporter gene detection due to the cellular viability. To improve, we developed a mammalian cell-based assay based on the reverse two-hybrid system to monitor the proteolytic activity of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) 3C protease and to validate the cytotoxicity of compounds at the same time. In this system, the GAL4 DNA binding domain (M3) and transactivation domain (VP16) were fused, in-frame, with 3C or 3C(mut). The 3C(mut) was an inactivated protease with mutations at the predicted catalytic triad. The reporter plasmid contains a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene under the control of GAL4 activating sequences. We demonstrated that M3-3C-VP16 failed to turn on the expression of SEAP due to the separation of M3 and the VP16 domains by self-cleavage of 3C. In contrast, SEAP expression was induced by the M3-3C(mut)-VP16 fusion protein or the M3-3C-VP16 in cells treated with AG7088, a potent inhibitor of human rhinoviruses (HRVs) 3C protease. Potentially, this protease detection system should greatly facilitate anti-EV71 drug discovery through a high-throughput screening. PMID:18190777

  2. Remote nuclear screening system for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote measurement system has been constructed for in situ gamma and beta isotopic characterization of highly radioactive nuclear material in hostile environments. A small collimated, planar CdZnTe detector is used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Spectral resolution of 2% full width at half maximum at 662 kiloelectronvolts has been obtained remotely using rise time compensation and limited pulse shape discrimination, Isotopc measurement of high-energy beta emitters was accomplished with a ruggedized, deeply depleted, surface barrier silicon dictator. The primary function of the remote nuclear screening system is to provide fast qualitative and quantitative isotopic assessment of high-level radioactive material

  3. Early Screening for Risk of Reading Disabilities: Recommendations for a Four-Step Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) models incorporate a screening process to identify students who appear to be at risk for learning disabilities (LDs). The purpose of this position article is to incorporate what is known about screening into a flexible, yet comprehensive screening system to help school psychologists and other school administrators in…

  4. New screening system for unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed a screening system to diagnose unruptured aneurysms, including the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We surveyed 115 patients who had undergone clipping procedures after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and questioned them with regard to the subjective symptoms. Sixty-eight of 92 patients who returned the questionnaire reported, prior to rupture, headache,eye pain, and neck pain most frequently, and also impairment of extraocular movements, ptosis, visual field defects, and motor and sensory disturbances. Nineteen (47.5%) of 40 patients who had complete pain relief after surgery complained of headache from 1 week to 1 month before SAH. In addition, nine patients (22.5%) complained of headache for several years, and were also pain-free after surgery. For the indication of DSA, we employed an expert system based on fuzzy set theory. Seven groups of parameters are: Group 1, a basic questionnaire concerning age, sex, and past and family histories; Group 2, 15 warning signs selected on the basis of retrospective study; and Groups 3-7, detailed questions concerning each sign. Scoring weights assigned to each condition based on the results of the retrospective study, and threshold values were determined by several neurosurgeons. The certainty factors for intermediate hypotheses were calculated from these weights and threshold values and summed up, from which the conclusion was obtained. Twelve new cases of unruptured cerebral aneurysm were diagnosed using this screening system. This system may improve the ability to diagnose cerebral aneurysms before rupture. (author)

  5. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  6. Screening method for wind energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, R. D.

    1980-03-01

    A screening method is presented for evaluating wind energy conversion systems (WECS) logically and consistently. It is a set of procedures supported by a data base for large conventional WECS. The procedures are flexible enough to accommodate concepts lacking cost and engineering detail, as is the case with many innovative wind energy conversion systems (IWECS) The method uses both value indicators and simplified cost estimating procedures. Value indicators are selected ratios of engineering parameters involving energy, mass, area, and power. Cost mass ratios and cost estimating relationships were determined from the conventional WECS data base to estimate or verify installation cost estimates for IWECS. These value indicators and cost estimating procedures are shown for conventional WECS. An application of the method to a tracked vehicle airfoil concept is presented.

  7. Stem and Progenitor Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    A variety of neurological disorders are attractive targets for stem and progenitor cell-based therapy. Yet many conditions are not, whether by virtue of an inhospitable disease environment, poorly understood pathophysiology, or poor alignment of donor cell capabilities with patient needs. Moreover......, some disorders may be medically feasible targets but are not practicable, in light of already available treatments, poor risk-benefit and cost-benefit profiles, or resource limitations. This Perspective seeks to define those neurological conditions most appropriate for cell replacement therapy...

  8. Universal Screening in Middle School: Examining the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jenna K.; Dowdy, Erin; Quirk, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Universal screening is a promising approach for identifying students at risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Due to the frequent adolescent onset of behavioral and emotional problems, middle school is an important time for early identification. This study explored the ability of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) to…

  9. Mathematical model of a telomerase transcriptional regulatory network developed by cell-based screening: analysis of inhibitor effects and telomerase expression mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E Bilsland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells depend on transcription of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT. Many transcription factors affect TERT, though regulation occurs in context of a broader network. Network effects on telomerase regulation have not been investigated, though deeper understanding of TERT transcription requires a systems view. However, control over individual interactions in complex networks is not easily achievable. Mathematical modelling provides an attractive approach for analysis of complex systems and some models may prove useful in systems pharmacology approaches to drug discovery. In this report, we used transfection screening to test interactions among 14 TERT regulatory transcription factors and their respective promoters in ovarian cancer cells. The results were used to generate a network model of TERT transcription and to implement a dynamic Boolean model whose steady states were analysed. Modelled effects of signal transduction inhibitors successfully predicted TERT repression by Src-family inhibitor SU6656 and lack of repression by ERK inhibitor FR180204, results confirmed by RT-QPCR analysis of endogenous TERT expression in treated cells. Modelled effects of GSK3 inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO predicted unstable TERT repression dependent on noise and expression of JUN, corresponding with observations from a previous study. MYC expression is critical in TERT activation in the model, consistent with its well known function in endogenous TERT regulation. Loss of MYC caused complete TERT suppression in our model, substantially rescued only by co-suppression of AR. Interestingly expression was easily rescued under modelled Ets-factor gain of function, as occurs in TERT promoter mutation. RNAi targeting AR, JUN, MXD1, SP3, or TP53, showed that AR suppression does rescue endogenous TERT expression following MYC knockdown in these cells and SP3 or TP53 siRNA also cause partial recovery. The model therefore successfully predicted several

  10. EyeScreen: A Vision-Based Gesture Interaction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shan-qing; XU Yi-hua; JIA Yun-de

    2007-01-01

    EyeScreen is a vision-based interaction system which provides a natural gesture interface for human-computer interaction (HCI) by tracking human fingers and recognizing gestures. Multi-view video images are captured by two cameras facing a computer screen, which can be used to detect clicking actions of a fingertip and improve the recognition rate. The system enables users to directly interact with rendered objects on the screen. Robustness of the system has been verified by extensive experiments with different user scenarios. EyeScreen can be used in many applications such as intelligent interaction and digital entertainment.

  11. Early screening of an infant's visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Jorge, Jorge M.

    1999-06-01

    It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear focused retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur--myopia and hyperopia can only cause important problems in the future when they are significantly large, however for the astigmatism (rather frequent in infants) and anisometropia the problems tend to be more stringent. The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is thus of critical importance. Photorefraction is a convenient technique for this kind of subjects. Essentially a light beam is delivered into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The photorefraction setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, digital image processing and fiber optics, allows a fast noninvasive evaluation of children visual status (refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, ...). Results of the visual screening of a group of risk' child descents of blinds or amblyopes will be presented.

  12. Screening of Aptamers on Microfluidic Systems for Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gwo-Bin Lee; Chao-Jyun Huang; Chen-Hsun Weng

    2012-01-01

    The use of microfluidic systems for screening of aptamers and their biomedical applications are reviewed in this paper. Aptamers with different nucleic acid sequences have been extensively studied and the results demonstrated a strong binding affinity to target molecules such that they can be used as promising candidate biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutics. Recently, the aptamer screening protocol has been conducted with microfluidic-based devices. Furthermore, aptamer affinity screening...

  13. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  14. Current status of fuel cell based combined heat and power systems for residential sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellamla, Harikishan R.; Staffell, Iain; Bujlo, Piotr; Pollet, Bruno G.; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-10-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential or simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy, usually electrical and thermal, in a single and integrated system. Implementing CHP systems in the current energy sector may solve energy shortages, climate change and energy conservation issues. This review paper is divided into six sections: the first part defines and classifies the types of fuel cell used in CHP systems; the second part discusses the current status of fuel cell CHP (FC-CHP) around the world and highlights the benefits and drawbacks of CHP systems; the third part focuses on techniques for modelling CHP systems. The fourth section gives a thorough comparison and discussion of the two main fuel cell technologies used in FC-CHP (PEMFC and SOFC), characterising their technical performance and recent developments from the major manufacturers. The fifth section describes all the main components of FC-CHP systems and explains the issues connected with their practical application. The last part summarises the above, and reflects on micro FC-CHP system technology and its future prospects.

  15. Sliding Mode Control of the Battery Bank for the Fuel Cell-based Distributed Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Jiao

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic models for the fuel cell power and the configuration of the fuel cell distributed generation system are shown in this paper. Due to nonlinear characteristics of fuel cell model, the output voltage of fuel cell varies greatly when the load changes. A novel interface is designed to provide a constant output voltage for charging of the battery bank of the fuel cell distributed generation. The thesis presents a sliding mode control design of PEMFC distributed generation system. A casc...

  16. New control system: displays on stations screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setting applications display on control stations screens uses X-WINDOWS and graphic interface MOTIF. Representation of Y=f(x) and of data tables are displayed by the utilization P-GRAPHICS package using simplified functions of GOBE library routines. (A.B.). 1 fig

  17. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, T.; Tsubota, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M.

    2016-06-01

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  18. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the high performance critical to scientific computing. Results The Multiscale Systems Immunology (MSI simulation framework is an object-oriented, modular simulation framework written in C++ and Python. The software implements a modular design that allows for flexible configuration of components and initialization of parameters, thus allowing simulations to be run that model processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales. Conclusion MSI addresses the need for a flexible and high-performing agent based model of the immune system.

  19. Nanog reporter system in mouse embryonic stem cells based on highly efficient BAC homologous recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanog is a novel transcription factor specifically expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells). It has been reported that Nanog plays an essential role in maintaining multi-potency of ES cells. The expression of Nanog is very sensitive to ES cells differentiation, making Nanog one of the best markers to indicate the status of ES cells. In this study, we developed an efficient method to construct Nanog promoter driven EGFP reporter system based on the BAC homologous recombination. We further generated a Nanog-EGFP reporter mES cell line. This reporter mES cell line exhibited features similar to those of normal mES cells, and the EGFP reporter efficiently reflected the expression of Nanog, indicating the differentiation status of mES cells. We achieved a reliable experimental reporter system to research self-renewal and differentiation of mES cells. The system could facilitate research on culture system of mES cells and researches on the expression and regulation of Nanog and other related factors in mES cells.

  20. Sliding Mode Control of the Battery Bank for the Fuel Cell-based Distributed Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Jiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic models for the fuel cell power and the configuration of the fuel cell distributed generation system are shown in this paper. Due to nonlinear characteristics of fuel cell model, the output voltage of fuel cell varies greatly when the load changes. A novel interface is designed to provide a constant output voltage for charging of the battery bank of the fuel cell distributed generation. The thesis presents a sliding mode control design of PEMFC distributed generation system. A cascaded control structure is chosen for ease of control realization and to exploit the motion separation property of power converters. The simulation results confirm the output current and voltage of the PEM fuel cell array converge rapidly to their reference values.

  1. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler Thomas B; Feng Feng; Lucas Timothy A; Mitha Faheem; Chan Cliburn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the ...

  2. Fuel cell-based cogeneration system covering data centers’ energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information and Communication Technology industry has gone in the recent years through a dramatic expansion, driven by many new online (local and remote) applications and services. Such growth has obviously triggered an equally remarkable growth in energy consumption by data centers, which require huge amounts of power not only for IT devices, but also for power distribution units and for air-conditioning systems needed to cool the IT equipment. This paper is dedicated to the economic and energy performance assessment of a cogeneration system based on a natural gas membrane steam reformer producing a pure hydrogen flow for electric power generation in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Heat is recovered from both the reforming unit and the fuel cell in order to supply the needs of an office building located near the data center. In this case, the cooling energy needs of the data center are covered by means of a vapor-compression chiller equipped with a free-cooling unit. Since the fuel cell’s output is direct current rather than alternate current, the possibility of further improving data centers’ energy efficiency adopting DC-powered data center equipment is also discussed. -- Highlights: ► Data centers' energy needs are discussed and possible savings from advanced energy management techniques are estimated. ► The thermal energy requirements of an office building close to the data center are added to the energy scenario. ► Significant energy and cost savings can be obtained by means of free-cooling, high-voltage direct current, and a cogeneration facility. ► The cogeneration system is based on a natural gas membrane reformer and a PEM fuel cell. ► Energy flows in the membrane reformer are analyzed and an optimal value of steam-to-carbon ratio is found in order to minimize the required membrane area.

  3. Development of a 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system for IAEA field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on results of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) field test of the prototype 20-ton-capacity Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS), a modified LCBWS is being configured for routine IAEA field use in verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF/sub 6/ cylinders. The modified system is being designed to meet IAEA objectives for accuracy and portability as well as to meet facility operating safety conditions. To best meet these design requirements, a comprehensive survey of commercially available weighing equipment was conducted. Detailed equipment specifications for 25 load cells from 15 manufacturers, for 5 digital crane scales from 3 manufacturers, and for 7 digital weight indicators from 5 manufacturers were compared. The recommended system configuration is a custom-designed load cell in conjunction with a production digital weight indicator. Safety certification of the system by an internationally recognized verification authority is also recommended. Comparison criteria and their effect on the LCBWS design requirements are discussed, and the status of the project is reported

  4. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  5. Automated cervical precancerous cells screening system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusman, Yessi; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Hasikin, Khairunnisa; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique can detect the abnormality of a cervical cell that occurs before the morphological change could be observed under the light microscope as employed in conventional techniques. This paper presents developed features extraction for an automated screening system for cervical precancerous cell based on the FTIR spectroscopy as a second opinion to pathologists. The automated system generally consists of the developed features extraction and classification stages. Signal processing techniques are used in the features extraction stage. Then, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis are employed to select dominant features for the classification process. The datasets of the cervical precancerous cells obtained from the feature selection process are classified using a hybrid multilayered perceptron network. The proposed system achieved 92% accuracy.

  6. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene: Pyrene acceptor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominetti, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Andrea; Longo, Luca [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Po, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.po@eni.com [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Tacca, Alessandra; Carbonera, Chiara; Salvalaggio, Mario [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Baldrighi, Michele; Meille, Stefano Valdo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “G. Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, IT-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    The replacement of widely used fullerene derivatives, e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with unfunctionalized C60 and C70 is an effective approach to reduce the costs of organic photovoltaics. However, solubility issues of these compounds have always represented an obstacle to their use. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) donor polymer, C60 or C70 acceptors and a pyrene derivative (1-pyrenebutiric acid butyl ester) are reported. Butyl 1-pyrenebutirate limits the aggregation of fullerenes and improves the active layer morphology, plausibly due to the formation of pyrene-fullerene complexes which, in the case of pyrene-C70, were also obtained in a crystalline form. Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1.54% and 2.50% have been obtained using, respectively, C60 or C70 as acceptor. Quantum mechanical modeling provides additional insight into the formation of plausible supermolecular structures via π-π interactions and on the redox behaviour of pyrene-fullerene systems. - Highlights: • Pyrene derivatives favour the dispersion of unfunctionalized fullerenes. • Polymer solar cells with pyrene: C60 adduct as acceptor have efficiencies of 1.54%. • When C60 is substituted with C70 the efficiency is increased to 2.50%. • DFT calculations support the plausibility of the formation of pyrene: fullerene adducts. • The use of unfunctionalized fullerenes may decrease the costs of polymer solar cells.

  7. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene: Pyrene acceptor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The replacement of widely used fullerene derivatives, e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with unfunctionalized C60 and C70 is an effective approach to reduce the costs of organic photovoltaics. However, solubility issues of these compounds have always represented an obstacle to their use. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) donor polymer, C60 or C70 acceptors and a pyrene derivative (1-pyrenebutiric acid butyl ester) are reported. Butyl 1-pyrenebutirate limits the aggregation of fullerenes and improves the active layer morphology, plausibly due to the formation of pyrene-fullerene complexes which, in the case of pyrene-C70, were also obtained in a crystalline form. Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1.54% and 2.50% have been obtained using, respectively, C60 or C70 as acceptor. Quantum mechanical modeling provides additional insight into the formation of plausible supermolecular structures via π-π interactions and on the redox behaviour of pyrene-fullerene systems. - Highlights: • Pyrene derivatives favour the dispersion of unfunctionalized fullerenes. • Polymer solar cells with pyrene: C60 adduct as acceptor have efficiencies of 1.54%. • When C60 is substituted with C70 the efficiency is increased to 2.50%. • DFT calculations support the plausibility of the formation of pyrene: fullerene adducts. • The use of unfunctionalized fullerenes may decrease the costs of polymer solar cells

  8. Stem cell-based microphysiological osteochondral system to model tissue response to interleukin-1β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Lozito, Thomas P; Alexander, Peter G; Gottardi, Riccardo; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the articular joint that involves both bone and cartilage degenerative changes. An engineered osteochondral tissue within physiological conditions will be of significant utility in understanding the pathogenesis of OA and testing the efficacy of potential disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs). In this study, a multichamber bioreactor was fabricated and fitted into a microfluidic base. When the osteochondral construct is inserted, two chambers are formed on either side of the construct (top, chondral; bottom, osseous) that is supplied by different medium streams. These medium conduits are critical to create tissue-specific microenvironments in which chondral and osseous tissues will develop and mature. Human bone marrow stem cell (hBMSCs)-derived constructs were fabricated in situ and cultured within the bioreactor and induced to undergo spatially defined chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation for 4 weeks in tissue-specific media. We observed tissue specific gene expression and matrix production as well as a basophilic interface suggesting a developing tidemark. Introduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to either the chondral or osseous medium stream induced stronger degradative responses locally as well as in the opposing tissue type. For example, IL-1β treatment of the osseous compartment resulted in a strong catabolic response in the chondral layer as indicated by increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity, and tissue-specific gene expression. This induction was greater than that seen with IL-1β application to the chondral component directly, indicative of active biochemical communication between the two tissue layers and supporting the osteochondral nature of OA. The microtissue culture system developed here offers novel capabilities for investigating the physiology of osteochondral tissue and pathogenic mechanisms of OA and serving as a high-throughput platform to test potential

  9. On-line experimental results of an argon gas cell-based laser ion source (KEK Isotope Separation System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Jung, H. S.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2016-06-01

    KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) has been developed at RIKEN to produce neutron rich isotopes with N = 126 to study the β -decay properties for application to astrophysics. The KISS is an element-selective mass-separation system which consists of an argon gas cell-based on laser ion source for atomic number selection and an ISOL mass-separation system. The argon gas cell of KISS is a key component to stop and collect the unstable nuclei produced in a multi-nucleon transfer reaction, where the isotopes of interest will be selectively ionized using laser resonance ionization. We have performed off- and on-line experiments to study the basic properties of the gas cell as well as of the KISS. We successfully extracted the laser-ionized stable 56Fe (direct implantation of a 56Fe beam into the gas cell) atoms and 198Pt (emitted from the 198Pt target by elastic scattering with a 136Xe beam) atoms from the KISS during the commissioning on-line experiments. We furthermore extracted laser-ionized unstable 199Pt atoms and confirmed that the measured half-life was in good agreement with the reported value.

  10. A Cell-Based Internalization and Degradation Assay with an Activatable Fluorescence-Quencher Probe as a Tool for Functional Antibody Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Peter Corbett; Shen, Yang; Snavely, Marshall D; Hiraga, Kaori

    2015-08-01

    For the development of therapeutically potent anti-cancer antibody drugs, it is often important to identify antibodies that internalize into cells efficiently, rather than just binding to antigens on the cell surface. Such antibodies can mediate receptor endocytosis, resulting in receptor downregulation on the cell surface and potentially inhibiting receptor function and tumor growth. Also, efficient antibody internalization is a prerequisite for the delivery of cytotoxic drugs into target cells and is critical for the development of antibody-drug conjugates. Here we describe a novel activatable fluorescence-quencher pair to quantify the extent of antibody internalization and degradation in the target cells. In this assay, candidate antibodies were labeled with a fluorescent dye and a quencher. Fluorescence is inhibited outside and on the surface of cells, but activated upon endocytosis and degradation of the antibody. This assay enabled the development of a process for rapid characterization of candidate antibodies potentially in a high-throughput format. By employing an activatable secondary antibody, primary antibodies in purified form or in culture supernatants can be screened for internalization and degradation. Because purification of candidate antibodies is not required, this method represents a direct functional screen to identify antibodies that internalize efficiently early in the discovery process. PMID:26024945

  11. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryoush Allaei; Angus Morison; David Tarnowski; Asim Syed Mohammed

    2005-09-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The development program is on schedule. The last semi-annual report described the process of FE model validation and correlation with experimental data in terms of dynamic performance and predicted stresses. It also detailed efforts into making the supporting structure less important to system performance. Finally, an introduction into the dry application concept was presented. Since then, the design refinement phase was completed. This has resulted in a Smart Screen design that meets performance targets both in the dry condition and with taconite slurry flow using PZT motors. Furthermore, this system was successfully demonstrated for the DOE and partner companies at the Coleraine Mineral Research Laboratory in Coleraine, Minnesota.

  12. Exergetic and exergoeconomic evaluation of a solid-oxide fuel-cell-based combined heat and power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergy-based evaluations of a SOFC-based power generation system have been made. • The exergy of fuel and the exergy of product are rigorously defined. • Cost balance and auxiliary equations are formulated for the exergoeconomic analysis. • The cost structure of the overall system has been analyzed. • Suggestions are made for improving the cost effectiveness of the entire system. - Abstract: Exergetic and exergoeconomic evaluations have been carried out for a 100 kW-class solid-oxide fuel-cell-based combined heat and power generation system, to find out the measures that would improve its efficiency, and, more importantly, its cost effectiveness. The exergoeconomic analysis is an appropriate combination of an exergetic analysis and an economic analysis; through exergoeconomics, we obtain the real cost associated with each stream and with the inefficiencies within each component in a system. For the analyses, the exergies of fuel and the exergies of product for all components have been defined. Subsequently, the exergetic efficiency of each component has been evaluated. By combining the results obtained from an economic analysis with the results of the exergetic analysis, the cost structure of the overall system has been figured out. The components, showing higher exergoeconomic factors such as SOFC stack, fuel blower, heat recovery water pump, and inverter, need reduction of investment cost, even if the associated efficiency would decreased because of this cost reduction. For the components, exhibiting lower exergoeconomic factors such as integrated reformer, fuel/water pre-heater, and air pre-heater, the main focus should be on efficiency improvements, even if higher investment expenditures would be associated with such improvements

  13. SCREEN photometric property detection system based on area CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu-cai; Ye, Wei; Xu, Yu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yu-wei

    2011-08-01

    The photometric property detection of screen display is crucial for screen display quality test. Traditional photometry detection technologies were based on photoelectric sensors such as silicon photocell, photo-electric multiplier and CdS, which can detect only some isolated points. To break the limitation of randomness, incompleteness and detection accuracy in current technologies, we designed a screen photometric detection system based on area CCD. The system consists of photometric image sensor, photometric image acquisition hardware and photometric image analyzing software. The photometric image sensor, which adopts optical lens, optical filters and area CCD, adapts its spectrum response property to fit the spectrum luminous efficiency curve V (λ) by adjusting the thickness and quantity of appropriate optical filters. photometric image acquisition hardware adopts the DSP as a core processor to drive the area CCD, to sample, acquire , process and save the image from image sensor, to transmit the image to computer. For real-time performance of transmitting, the hardware system adopts the transmission protocol of USB2.0. The uploaded image will be processed by photometric image analyzing software, and then displayed in real time with detection results. The screen photometric detection technology based on area CCD can detect specifications of the whole screen such as luminance, contrast, onoff ratio and uniformity, breaks the limitation of randomness and incompleteness in current detection technology, exactly and fully reflects the integrated display quality of the whole screen. According to the test results, the accuracy of this system has reached the accuracy level one in China.

  14. Screening system and method of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A; Gresham, Christopher A; Basiliere, Marc L; Spates, James J; Rodacy, Philip J

    2014-04-15

    An integrated apparatus and method for screening an object for a target material is provided. The integrated apparatus comprises a housing and an integrated screener. The housing is positionable adjacent the object, and has a channel therethrough. The integrated screener is positionable in the housing, and comprises a fan, at least one filter, a heater and an analyzer. The fan is for drawing air carrying particles and vapor through the channel of the housing. The filter(s) is/are positionable in the channel of the housing for passage of the air therethrough. The filter(s) comprise(s) at least one metal foam having a plurality of pores therein for collecting and adsorbing a sample from the particles and vapor passing therethrough. The heater is for applying heat to the at least one metal foam whereby the collected sample is desorbed from the metal foam. The analyzer detects the target material from the desorbed sample.

  15. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  16. Optimization of cell line development in the GS-CHO expression system using a high-throughput, single cell-based clone selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are commonly produced by high-expressing, clonal and recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Currently, CHO cells dominate as a commercial production host because of their ease of use, established regulatory track record, and safety profile. CHO-K1SV is a suspension, protein-free-adapted CHO-K1-derived cell line employing the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene expression system (GS-CHO expression system). The selection of high-producing mammalian cell lines is a crucial step in process development for the production of therapeutic antibodies. In general, cloning by the limiting dilution method is used to isolate high-producing monoclonal CHO cells. However, the limiting dilution method is time consuming and has a low probability of monoclonality. To minimize the duration and increase the probability of obtaining high-producing clones with high monoclonality, an automated single cell-based clone selector, the ClonePix FL system, is available. In this study, we applied the high-throughput ClonePix FL system for cell line development using CHO-K1SV cells and investigated efficient conditions for single cell-based clone selection. CHO-K1SV cell growth at the pre-picking stage was improved by optimizing the formulation of semi-solid medium. The efficiency of picking and cell growth at the post-picking stage was improved by optimization of the plating time without decreasing the diversity of clones. The conditions for selection, including the medium formulation, were the most important factors for the single cell-based clone selection system to construct a high-producing CHO cell line. PMID:25792187

  17. Cell-Based Sensor System Using L6 Cells for Broad Band Continuous Pollutant Monitoring in Aquatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evamaria Stütz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of drinking water sources represents a continuously emerging problem in global environmental protection. Novel techniques for real-time monitoring of water quality, capable of the detection of unanticipated toxic and bioactive substances, are urgently needed. In this study, the applicability of a cell-based sensor system using selected eukaryotic cell lines for the detection of aquatic pollutants is shown. Readout parameters of the cells were the acidification (metabolism, oxygen consumption (respiration and impedance (morphology of the cells. A variety of potential cytotoxic classes of substances (heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, neurotoxins, waste water was tested with monolayers of L6 cells (rat myoblasts. The cytotoxicity or cellular effects induced by inorganic ions (Ni2+ and Cu2+ can be detected with the metabolic parameters acidification and respiration down to 0.5 mg/L, whereas the detection limit for other substances like nicotine and acetaminophen are rather high, in the range of 0.1 mg/L and 100 mg/L. In a close to application model a real waste water sample shows detectable signals, indicating the existence of cytotoxic substances. The results support the paradigm change from single substance detection to the monitoring of overall toxicity.

  18. Cell-based sensor system using L6 cells for broad band continuous pollutant monitoring in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, Rebekka; Bohrn, Ulrich; Fleischer, Maximilian; Stütz, Evamaria

    2012-01-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources represents a continuously emerging problem in global environmental protection. Novel techniques for real-time monitoring of water quality, capable of the detection of unanticipated toxic and bioactive substances, are urgently needed. In this study, the applicability of a cell-based sensor system using selected eukaryotic cell lines for the detection of aquatic pollutants is shown. Readout parameters of the cells were the acidification (metabolism), oxygen consumption (respiration) and impedance (morphology) of the cells. A variety of potential cytotoxic classes of substances (heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, neurotoxins, waste water) was tested with monolayers of L6 cells (rat myoblasts). The cytotoxicity or cellular effects induced by inorganic ions (Ni(2+) and Cu(2+)) can be detected with the metabolic parameters acidification and respiration down to 0.5 mg/L, whereas the detection limit for other substances like nicotine and acetaminophen are rather high, in the range of 0.1 mg/L and 100 mg/L. In a close to application model a real waste water sample shows detectable signals, indicating the existence of cytotoxic substances. The results support the paradigm change from single substance detection to the monitoring of overall toxicity. PMID:22737014

  19. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  20. Visual Field Screening System by Using Overlapped Fixation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Ryota; Tamura, Toshiki; Asao, Takafumi; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Ueki, Mari; Kojima, Shota; Shibata, Maho; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    This study introduces a novel technique for estimating visual field by using overlapped fixation patterns obtained by amounts of displacement in voluntary eye movements during searching-tracking trials, as an alternative screening medical device for visual field examination. Proposed system was evaluated by glaucoma patients, in order to study whether or not the proposed system can be used as a visual field detection device for screening. As a result, the proposed system detected the visual field abnormality to a certain extent. However, there were some cases that detection of Mariotte blind spots was inaccurately performed. The experimental results revealed that there was room to reconsider our understanding regarding the effect of ptosis, overlapped with eye sight as well as calibration of the display position to the correct location to be examined. Results of the evaluation experiment indicated that this proposed system has a potential to be used as a visual field examination device for screening.

  1. Investigation of Mesh Choosing Parameters in Screen Printing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKGÜL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesh, which is made by weaving of natural silk, plastic, or metal fibers, is basic material for screen-printing. Image is created on stretched on a frame in screen-printing. Mesh should be selected correctly for a high quality printing. Therefore, substrates, types of print job and mesh parameters have importance. Need to know more about to mesh, yarn type, yarn thickness, frequency of weaving, stretching tension, the kind of weaving, etc. In this study, for a high quality screen-printing, mesh variables examined in detail and optimum conditions indicated, with the aim of increase productivity, minimize to losses time, material and labor. As a result, this information’s for obtaining a high quality printing with screen-printing system have importance as a guide. Also resolution of the image, amount of print run and viscosity of the printing ink, factors affecting the selection of mesh.

  2. USER S GUIDE FOR THE RANDOM DRUG SCREENING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeany, Karen I [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    The Random Drug Screening System (RDSS) is a desktop computing application designed to assign nongameable drug testing dates to each member in a population of employees, within a specific time line. The program includes reporting capabilities, test form generation, unique test ID number assignment, and the ability to flag high-risk employees for a higher frequency of drug testing than the general population.

  3. Seismic evaluation of piping systems using screening criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document may be used by a qualified review team to identify potential sources of seismically induced failure in a piping system. Failure refers to the inability of a piping system to perform its expected function following an earthquake, as defined in Table 1. The screens may be used alone or with the Seismic Qualification Utility Group -- Generic Implementation Procedure (SQUG-GIP), depending on the piping system's required function, listed in Table 1. Features of a piping system which do not the screening criteria are called outliers. Outliers must either be resolved through further evaluations, or be considered a potential source of seismically induced failure. Outlier evaluations, which do not necessarily require the qualification of a complete piping system by stress analysis, may be based on one or more of the following: simple calculations of pipe spans, search of the test or experience data, vendor data, industry practice, etc

  4. A new system for electroanalytical mass screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Zak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with n–channel system enabling many sampleanalysis at sort time from sensor array using electrochemicalmethods. The 8x12 sensor array is formed from 3–electrodes systemcreated on PCB (Printed Circuit Board with combination ofgalvanic deposition and screen–printing special paste on theelectrodes which can be used for heavy metal analysis and alsobiomolecular complexes and organic toxic substancesdetermination. The control unit switches each 3–electrode sensor to8–channel precise potentiostat which was designed forelectrochemical analysis with current sensitivity below 1 pA. Thepotentiostat can synchronize with control unit to depress time foranalysis to minimum. Measured data are sent to user–friendlyapplication in computer and analyzed or saved consequently.

  5. System and method for obtaining wide screen Schlieren photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for use in Schlieren photography includes (1) a viewing screen adjacently related to a large grating; (2) a small grating disposed in spaced relation with the large grating; (3) a transparent retainer for confining a transparent medium between the gratings; and (4) optics for imaging the small grating on the large grating. A light source and optically aligned lens are used to project a beam of light along axes extending through the small grating and strike the large grating, subsequent to passing through the medium. A Schlieren image of striations resulting from distortions of light rays proposed by the medium are formed on the screen. A camera is used to photograph the Schlieren image projected on the large screen.

  6. Image evaluation of a new blue emission screen film system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the image qualities of Dupont Ultra-Vision (U-V) systems. These systems were compared with Fuji HR systems. U-V screens use a high density yttrium tantalate phosphor emitting an ultraviolet ray. Basic imaging properties in both systems, such as characteristic curves, relative speeds, X-ray attenuation rates, crossover, MTFs and Wiener spectra were measured. MTFs of U-V systems were significantly higher than those of HR systems. Wiener spectra of U-V systems were inferior to those of HR systems. The visual image qualities of U-V systems were evaluated by observer performance tests using 'Paired preference test'. Visual evaluation of bone radiographs using U-V systems showed that they were superior to HR systems. These visual evaluation results agreed with basic imaging properties. (author)

  7. Image evaluation of a new blue emission screen film system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Keiko; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Yamauchi, Shuichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Nagano, Hiromi; Ueda, Katsuhiko; Otsuka, Akiyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    We studied the image qualities of Dupont Ultra-Vision (U-V) systems. These systems were compared with Fuji HR systems. U-V screens use a high density yttrium tantalate phosphor emitting an ultraviolet ray. Basic imaging properties in both systems, such as characteristic curves, relative speeds, X-ray attenuation rates, crossover, MTFs and Wiener spectra were measured. MTFs of U-V systems were significantly higher than those of HR systems. Wiener spectra of U-V systems were inferior to those of HR systems. The visual image qualities of U-V systems were evaluated by observer performance tests using `Paired preference test`. Visual evaluation of bone radiographs using U-V systems showed that they were superior to HR systems. These visual evaluation results agreed with basic imaging properties. (author).

  8. Network-based reading system for lung cancer screening CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuichi; Fujimura, Kaori; Nomura, Shin-ichiro; Kawashima, Harumi; Tsuchikawa, Megumu; Matsumoto, Toru; Nagao, Kei-ichi; Uruma, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Takizawa, Hotaka; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Nakayama, Tomio

    2006-03-01

    This research aims to support chest computed tomography (CT) medical checkups to decrease the death rate by lung cancer. We have developed a remote cooperative reading system for lung cancer screening over the Internet, a secure transmission function, and a cooperative reading environment. It is called the Network-based Reading System. A telemedicine system involves many issues, such as network costs and data security if we use it over the Internet, which is an open network. In Japan, broadband access is widespread and its cost is the lowest in the world. We developed our system considering human machine interface and security. It consists of data entry terminals, a database server, a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, and some reading terminals. It uses a secure Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) encrypting method and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) based secure DICOM image data distribution. We carried out an experimental trial over the Japan Gigabit Network (JGN), which is the testbed for the Japanese next-generation network, and conducted verification experiments of secure screening image distribution, some kinds of data addition, and remote cooperative reading. We found that network bandwidth of about 1.5 Mbps enabled distribution of screening images and cooperative reading and that the encryption and image distribution methods we proposed were applicable to the encryption and distribution of general DICOM images via the Internet.

  9. Efficacy of computer-aided detection system for screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for screening mammography (MMG). Screening mammograms of 2,231 women aged over 50 yr were examined. Medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images were obtained, and two expert observers interpreted the mammograms by consensus. First, each mammogram was interpreted without the assistance of CAD, followed immediately by a re-evaluation of areas marked by the CAD system. Data were recorded to measure the effect of CAD on the recall rate, cancer detection rate and detection rate of masses, microcalcifications and other findings. The CAD system increased the recall rate from 2.3% to 2.6%. Six recalled cases were diagnosed as breast cancer pathologically, and CAD detected all of these lesions. Seven additional cases in which CAD detected abnormal findings had no malignancy. The detection rate of CAD for microcalcifications was high (95.0%). However, the detection rate for mass lesions and other findings was low (29.2% and 25.0% respectively). The false positivity rate was 0.13/film for microcalcifications, and 0.25/film for mass lesions. The efficacy of the CAD system for detecting microcalcifications on screening mammograms was confirmed. However, the low detection rate of mass lesions and relatively high rate of false positivity need to be further improved. (author)

  10. Impact of a CAD system in a screen-film mammography screening program: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to perform a prospective assessment of the impact of a CAD system in a screen-film mammography screening program during a period of 3 years. Materials and methods: Our study was carried out on a population of 21,855 asymptomatic women (45–65 years). Mammograms were processed in a CAD system and independently interpreted by one of six radiologists. We analyzed the following parameters: sensitivity of radiologist's interpretation (without and with CAD), detection increase, recall rate and positive predictive value of biopsy, CAD's marks, radiologist's false negatives and comparative analysis of carcinomas detected and non-detected by CAD. Results: Detection rate was 4.3‰. CAD supposed an increase of 0.1‰ in detection rate and 1% in the total number of cases (p < 0.005). The impact on recall rate was not significant (0.4%) and PPV of percutaneous biopsy was unchanged by CAD (20.23%). CAD's marks were 2.7 per case and 0.7 per view. Radiologist's false negatives were 13 lesions which were initially considered as CAD's false positives. Conclusions: CAD supposed a significant increase in detection, without modifications in recall rates and PPV of biopsy. However, better results could have been achieved if radiologists had considered actionable those cases marked by CAD but initially misinterpreted.

  11. Screen's Color Management System for the graphic arts industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Takashi

    1995-04-01

    Dainippon Screen's Color Management System (SCMS) is currently under development for use with device-dependent CMYK-based equipment, and RGB- based devices. SCMS will provide color space transformation of linkage to the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space. The SCMS concept is based on Screen's CMYK image data formats. The SCMS was announced two years ago at IGAS '93 where many attendees viewed this new Screen approach to color management technology. At DRUPA '95, the SCMS concept for handling RGB-based devices and the transformation of color data between CMYK and RGB-based devices, will be revealed and explained, and this disclosure will be in conjunction with the introduction of products using this CMS technology. Before the full introduction of SCMS at DRUPA '95, this paper reveals the technical characteristics of the color management system as follows: (1) As precise as possible color data acquisition and measurement are carried out. (2) As precise as possible and as flexible as possible device modeling is carried out. (3) As precise a transformation as possible, which is as quick to calculate as possible, is carried out. (4) A different algorithm is used in the case of color matching on the colorimetric measurement, especially on display of creative work by designers.

  12. Speed and speed classes of film-screen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to carry out the DIN 6868, Part 50(1988) acceptance test within the framework of measures of quality assurance, the dose of the film-screen combination used is needed in the plane of the cassette. Recent methods for determination of sensitivity use the film-screen system instead of artificial light and decisions can be made as to the dose of the cassette plane. In order to characterize the sensitivity, it is proposed to use a given scale of numbers for the sensitivity S in increments of Δ log S = 0.05 in numerical values. It will also be useful for practical purposes to employ the ''sensitivity class'' with 2-fold increments in order to bring the planned radiological specifications into agreement with the demands of the user. (author)

  13. N-Screen Aware Multicriteria Hybrid Recommender System Using Weight Based Subspace Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Farman Ullah; Ghulam Sarwar; Sungchang Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a recommender system for N-screen services in which users have multiple devices with different capabilities. In N-screen services, a user can use various devices in different locations and time and can change a device while the service is running. N-screen aware recommendation seeks to improve the user experience with recommended content by considering the user N-screen device attributes such as screen resolution, media codec, remaining battery time, and access network and...

  14. Continuous Membrane-Based Screening System for Biocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kraume

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of membrane reactors for enzymatic and co-factor regenerating reactions offers versatile advantages such as higher conversion rates and space-time-yields and is therefore often applied in industry. However, currently available screening and kinetics characterization systems are based on batch and fed-batch operated reactors and were developed for whole cell biotransformations rather than for enzymatic catalysis. Therefore, the data obtained from such systems has only limited transferability for continuous membrane reactors. The aim of this study is to evaluate and to improve a novel screening and characterization system based on the membrane reactor concept using the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose as a model reaction. Important aspects for the applicability of the developed system such as long-term stability and reproducibility of continuous experiments were very high. The concept used for flow control and fouling suppression allowed control of the residence time with a high degree of precision (±1% accuracy in a long-term study (>100 h.

  15. Quantum Coulomb Systems: Recombination, Screening, and van der Waals Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under standard Earth conditions, and also in many astrophysical situations, the properties of matter result from the interplay between non-relativistic quantum mechanics and Coulomb interactions. In that context, the derivation of exact results for equilibrium properties of quantum Coulomb systems is of crucial importance. First, I briefly review rigorous proofs about either stability or limiting behaviours, as well as various asymptotic expansions specific to almost fully ionized situations. Then, I present the Feynman-Kac path integral representation which is the most efficient tool for dealing with both recombination and screening. Within that representation, the grand-canonical partition function for a system of quantum particles with two-body interactions is shown to be equal to its equivalent counterpart for a system of classical loops. Equilibrium quantities for the gas of loops are then represented by straightforward generalizations of standard Mayer diagrammatics. Because of the Coulomb-like long range of the two-body loop potential, every Mayer graph diverges. Such divergences are first removed via systematic chain resummations, which amount to introduce an effective potential φ, the quantum analogue of Debye potential. In a second step, the whole resumed diagrammatical series is exactly reorganized in terms of graphs where particle clusters are connected by bonds built with φ. The corresponding screened cluster representation is particularly useful for studying partially ionized gases, as illustrated by its application to hydrogen in the atomic regime. Exact asymptotic expansions for thermodynamics are derived beyond familiar Saha theory. Also, the screening of van der Waals forces between two hydrogen atoms by ionized protons and ionized electrons is shown to be only partial. (author)

  16. Engineering evaluation of porous-dike intake screening systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of many concepts currently under investigation for use in screening fish and larvae from power plant intakes, the porous-dike system presents unique challenges to the designer and constructor. A complete understanding of the hydraulic losses through such a structure is necessary to properly size and locate the intake and to ensure proper pump selection and performance. In the study described in this report, an analogy with frictional losses in conduits was employed, and empirical data on losses were determined for three sizes of filter stone typical of the types used in the construction of a porous-dike intake system. These empirical data were compared with additional information from the literature. The dependence of hydraulic losses through large-diameter media on stone shape and porosity were demonstrated although no empirical expression of this dependence was developed. A hypothetical porous-dike intake installation was developed, demonstrating the fundamental design considerations which must be made for such a structure. Finally, a cursory economic comparison of various intake screening systems demonstrated that the porous-dike intake concept was economically competitive with all others

  17. A Cell-Based Screening Model for Human PPARα Agonist Ligands Discovery and Its Applicability%基于人PPARα为靶标的药物筛选细胞模型的建立与应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶晶; 张潜; 方宁; 万卫红; 刘祖林; 章涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建一种新的、具有生物活性检测能力的人过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α(hPPARo)配体药物筛选细胞模型.方法 采用Lipofectamine 2000将含人PPARα基因质粒phPPARα-IRES2-EGFP、含人PPRE报告质粒ptk-PPRE×3-1uc及内部对照质粒pRL-CMV共转染293T细胞,并对phPPARα-IRES2-EGFP转染效率进行流式细胞仪(FCM)分析;通过双荧光素酶报告基因法(DLR)检测不同浓度、不同时间阳性药物WY14643干预共转染细胞体系的荧光素酶表达活性;实验还换用RXRα激动剂全反式维甲酸(ATRA)干预,以评价该细胞模型反应的特异性;并用贝特类降脂药苯扎贝特、环丙贝特、氯贝丁酯对建立的药物筛选细胞模型进行应用能力评价.结果 FCM检测共转染293T细胞phPPARα-IRES2-EGFP质粒转染效率为68%;DLR检测WY14643干预该hPPARα药物筛选模型获得了理想的量—效、时—效关系结果,且该模型不能通过RXRα配体激动剂ATRA激活.苯扎贝特、环丙贝特、氯贝丁酯干预模型均呈现良好的量—效反应性,且反应强度存在差异(P<0.05).结论 成功构建了基于hPPARα为靶标的药物筛选细胞模型,为筛选具有生物活性的hPPARα配体激动剂新药提供了一种可靠的新平台.%OBJECTIVE To establish a novel cell-based model for the screening of human PPARa agonist ligands. METHODS Recombinant plasmid phPPARa-IRES2-EGFP, firefly luciferase-containing report plasmid ptk-PPRE x3-luc and renilla luciferase-containing inner control plasmid pRL-CMV were co-transfected into 293T cells using lipofectamine 2000. The transfection efficiency of phPPARot-IRES2-EGFP was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). Dual-luciferase reporter assay (DLR) was used to detect the lucifer-ase activity of co-transfected 293T cells under concentration gradient at different time points of positive drug WY14643 intervention. Furthermore, WY14643 was replaced by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) , a RXRa

  18. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  19. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  20. Use of viral promoters in mammalian cell-based bioassays: How reliable?

    OpenAIRE

    Gill-Sharma Manjit; Choudhuri Jyoti; Betrabet Shrikant S

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Cell-based bioassays have been suggested for screening of hormones and drug bioactivities. They are a plausible alternative to animal based methods. The technique used is called receptor/reporter system. Receptor/reporter system was initially developed as a research technique to understand gene function. Often reporter constructs containing viral promoters were used because they could be expressed with very 'high' magnitude in a variety of cell types in the laboratory. On the other h...

  1. A Cell-based β2-adrenergic Receptor Agonist Functional Screening Assay for Chinese Traditional Medicines%基于细胞的β2肾上腺素能受体激动剂功能性筛选体系在中草药中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 王超; 潘鹏炜; 白钢

    2009-01-01

    为了建立基于细胞的β2肾上腺素能受体激动剂筛选体系,将大鼠β2受体基因克隆人pcDNA3.1载体.转染具有cAMP应答元件调控的绿色荧光蛋白报告基因的中国仓鼠卵巢细胞(CHO),从得到的阳性单克隆细胞中筛选得到一个稳定表达β2受体,并且在受到激动剂刺激后发出剂量依赖绿色荧光强度的细胞株.将此筛选体系用于从中药中筛选具有β2受体激动剂活性的化合物.从几种芸香科药材中得到了辛弗林(synephine),从细辛和附子中得到了去甲乌药碱(higenamine),首次从受体水平证明了它们的β2激动剂活性.此筛选体系适合从大量天然化合物中快速筛选具有β2激动剂活性的成分.%To construct a cell-based agonists screening system for β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) from chi- nese traditional medicines, β2-AR gene was amplified by PCR from rat genomic DNA. The PCR products were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and transfected into chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell, which contained a cyclic AMP response element-linked enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene. One stable cell line was generated from the single-cell-derived colonies. It expressed β2-AR and provided green fluorescence when stimulated by ligands. Expression of β2-AR was monitored by RT-PCR and western blotting anti-β2-AR. The function of re- porter gene system was studied by flow cytometry. This cell-based screening system was applied to the extracts of chinese traditional medicines (TCMs). Synephine which was obtained from Rutaceae generic plant, and hige- namine which was obtained from Herba Asari or Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata were verified to have β2-AR agonist activity at receptor level. This assay could be applied in the pharmaceutical industry for screening thou- sands or indeed millions of natural compounds of TCMs for β2-AR agonists very rapidly.

  2. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P; Burnett, James C; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D; Bavari, Sina

    2014-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons and stem cell-derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  3. Screening portal, system and method of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hunter, John A.; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2013-04-30

    A portal, system and method for screening an object for a target substance is provided. The portal includes an inflatable bladder expandable to form a test space for receiving the object and a plurality of nozzles positioned about the inflatable bladder. The nozzles are in fluid communication with a fluid source for directing air over the object whereby samples are removed from the object for examination. A collector is operatively connected to the inflatable bladder for collecting the samples removed from the object. A detector is operatively connected to the collector for examining the removed samples for the presence of the target substance. At least one preconcentrator may be operatively connected to the collector for concentrating the samples collected thereby.

  4. Simulation granularity of radiographs exposed with screen-film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation is performed by superposing the Markov random numbers and the random step function, respectively expressing the density fluctuation due to the screen mottle and the film granularity. As the results, the autocorrelation function and the Wiener spectrum of the screen mottle are expressed by the exponential and Lorentzian formulae respectively, and those of the film granularity by the triangular wave and the square sampling function respectively. The correlation lengths of rare earth screen mottles are longer than those of calcium tungstate screen mottles. (author)

  5. Optimal Enactment of a Stand-alone Hybrid Wind-Fuel Cell based Distributed Generation System through Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saad Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid distributed power generation (DG system composed of two renewable energy sources, viz. a wind turbine and a fuel cell is proposed. A fuzzy logic controller has been introduced for optimal power management to provide electric supply to a residential load on a continuous basis based on the feasibility of economic power generation. This controller directs power to a fixed voltage bus in the power conditioning unit (PCU. The fixed voltage bus supplies the load, while the excess power is directed to the energy storage bank first and then to an electrolyzer, which is used to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell. Complete system modeling and simulation has been carried out through HOMER software, and hybrid controller has been simulated in Simulink/MATLAB environment. The simulation results proved the effectiveness of the hybrid fuzzy logic controller for real-time applications of intelligent methods in sustainable power and energy systems.

  6. Preschool Screening: An Examination of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Preschool Teacher Form (BESS Preschool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Chin, Jenna K.; Quirk, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical time to identify and treat early emotional or behavioral problems. Universal screening can be used to identify emotional and behavioral risk in preschoolers and fits well within current service delivery frameworks. This criterion-related validity study examined the use of a brief teacher-rated screener, the…

  7. Optimal Enactment of a Stand-alone Hybrid Wind-Fuel Cell based Distributed Generation System through Fuzzy Logic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saad Alam

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid distributed power generation (DG) system composed of two renewable energy sources, viz. a wind turbine and a fuel cell is proposed. A fuzzy logic controller has been introduced for optimal power management to provide electric supply to a residential load on a continuous basis based on the feasibility of economic power generation. This controller directs power to a fixed voltage bus in the power conditioning unit (PCU). The fixed voltage bus supplies the load, while the ...

  8. Design and implementation of LQR/LQG strategies for oxygen stoichiometry control in PEM fuel cells based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niknezhadi, Ali; Allué Fantova, Miguel; Kunusch, Cristian; Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the oxygen stoichiometry control problem of proton exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells and introduces a solution through an optimal control methodology. Based on the study of a non-linear dynamical model of a laboratory PEM fuel cell system and its associated components (air compressor, humidifiers, line heaters, valves, etc.), a control strategy for the oxygen stoichiometry regulation in the cathode line is designed and tested. From a linearized model of the syste...

  9. Load-cell based characterization system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre's holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  10. Biosensors and Biofuel Cells based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Energy Sensing, Generation, and Storage (SGS) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes is a growing health issue in the nation. Thus in-situ glucose sensors that can monitor the glucose level in our body are in high demand. Furthermore, it will be exciting if the excessive blood sugar can be converted into usable energy, and be stored in miniature batteries for applications. This will be the basis for an integrated energy sensing, generation, and storage (SGS) system in the future. Here we report the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes arrays as the glucose sensors as well as fuel cells that can convert glucose into energy. In principle, these devices can be integrated to detect excessive blood glucose and then convert the glucose into energy. They are also inline with our efforts on miniature 3D microbatteries using CNTs [1]. All these devices will be the basis for future SGS systems. Details of these results will be discussed in the meeting. [1] Wang et al., in 206^th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, October 3-8, Honolulu, Hawaii (2004), Symposium Q1, abstract 1492. Y. K. Yap acknowledges supports from DARPA (DAAD17-03-C-0115), USDA (2007-35603-17740), and the Multi-Scale Technologies Institute (MuSTI) at MTU.

  11. New concepts for chip-supported multi-well-plates: realization of a 24-well-plate with integrated impedance-sensors for functional cellular screening applications and automated microscope aided cell-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, J; Grothe, H; Motrescu, E; Wolf, B

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experience with multiparametric bioelectronic sensor chips for the monitoring of living cells, we have combined the established multi-well-format with the advantages of microelectronic sensors. The result is a 24-well-plate where the bottom of the wells is replaced by glass-based chips with integrated IDES (interdigital electrode structure). By using IDES it is possible to detect adhesion and morphological changes of adherent growing cell cultures. Up to now these measurements were inaccessible in conjunction with multi-well-plates, especially in high throughput applications. If microscopic monitoring of the cell culture is required, the IDES can be fabricated using transparent conductor materials like ITO (indium tin oxide). Both the transparent material for the sensors and the sensor-carrier make the multi-well-plate also applicable for all kinds of fluorescence and luminescence biological tests. In addition to the impedance-sensors optical read-out sensor layers for pH and pO2 can be integrated. For this reason there are many possible fields of application in biological and biomedical areas such as drug screening, chemosensitive testing and environmental toxicology as well as in biosensing for biological and chemical warfare. Especially the possibility of using this multi-well-plate together with automated imaging-systems has the great advantage of combining optical and sensory monitoring accessible to high-throughput-applications. PMID:17272129

  12. Typetesting of physical characteristics of digital mammography systems for screening within the Flemish breast cancer screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate compliance with the acceptance criteria of the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening, a typetesting programme of the physical characteristics of digital mammography systems based on direct readout (DR) technology or computed radiography (CR) was organised and executed within the Flemish breast cancer screening programme. While in general image quality/dose characteristics of flat panel DR systems passed the acceptance criteria more easily than CR systems, the slit-scanning direct photon counting system included in present study was outstanding in combining a very low dose with a good image quality. The data obtained up to now indicate the necessity of retuning the AEC for DR systems according to constant contrast to noise ratio (CNR) over the whole range of PMMA thicknesses (20-70 mm) to improve image quality in imaging breasts of large thickness at the cost of higher doses. For the two CR systems which passed the typetesting procedure dose levels do not allow a similar improvement of CNR for thick objects for these systems. The obtained results highlight the importance of the use of high Z target/filter combinations in X-ray generating systems for imaging thick objects to meet the image quality/dose criteria. With respect to image display aspects high-quality 3-megapixel LCD monitors succeeded also in the typetesting procedure in addition to 5-megapixel monitors. However, as zooming and scrolling are necessary for 3-megapixel monitors to get the full resolution capabilities of the image capture system, 5-megapixel monitors are preferred in a busy screening environment.

  13. Demonstration and evaluation of the 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system, Eldorado Resources, Ltd. , Port Hope, Ontario, September 3-4, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, J.N.; Huxford, T.J.

    1986-10-01

    On September 3 and 4, 1986, the prototype 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system (LCBWS) developed by the US Enrichment Safeguards Program (ESP) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., was field tested at the Eldorado Resources, Ltd., (ERL) facility in Port Hope, Ontario. The 20-ton-capacity LCBWS has been designed and fabricated for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verifying the masses of large-capacity UF/sub 6/ cylinders during IAEA safeguards inspections at UF/sub 6/ handling facilities. The purpose of the Canadian field test was to demonstrate and to evaluate with IAEA inspectorates and with UF/sub 6/ bulk handling facility operators at Eldorado the principles, procedures, and hardware associated with using the 20-ton-capacity LCBWS as a portable means for verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF/sub 6/ cylinders. Session participants included representatives from the IAEA, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Eldorado Resources, Ltd., the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Appendix A presents the list of participants and their organization affiliation. The two-day field test involved a formal briefing by ESP staff, two cylinder weighing sessions, IAEA critiques of the LCBWS hardware and software, and concluding discussions on the field performance of the system. Appendix B cites the meeting agenda. Summarized in this report are (1) the technical information presented by the system developers, (2) results from the weighing sessions, and (3) observations, suggestions, and concluding statements from meeting participants.

  14. Demonstration and evaluation of the 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system, Eldorado Resources, Ltd., Port Hope, Ontario, September 3-4, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 3 and 4, 1986, the prototype 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system (LCBWS) developed by the US Enrichment Safeguards Program (ESP) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., was field tested at the Eldorado Resources, Ltd., (ERL) facility in Port Hope, Ontario. The 20-ton-capacity LCBWS has been designed and fabricated for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verifying the masses of large-capacity UF6 cylinders during IAEA safeguards inspections at UF6 handling facilities. The purpose of the Canadian field test was to demonstrate and to evaluate with IAEA inspectorates and with UF6 bulk handling facility operators at Eldorado the principles, procedures, and hardware associated with using the 20-ton-capacity LCBWS as a portable means for verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF6 cylinders. Session participants included representatives from the IAEA, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Eldorado Resources, Ltd., the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Appendix A presents the list of participants and their organization affiliation. The two-day field test involved a formal briefing by ESP staff, two cylinder weighing sessions, IAEA critiques of the LCBWS hardware and software, and concluding discussions on the field performance of the system. Appendix B cites the meeting agenda. Summarized in this report are (1) the technical information presented by the system developers, (2) results from the weighing sessions, and (3) observations, suggestions, and concluding statements from meeting participants

  15. Equivalence Principle Violation in Weakly Vainshtein-Screened Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Belikov, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    Massive gravity, galileon and braneworld models that modify gravity to explain cosmic acceleration utilize the nonlinear field interactions of the Vainshtein mechanism to screen fifth forces in high density regimes. These source-dependent interactions cause apparent equivalence principle violations. In the weakly-screened regime violations can be especially prominent since the fifth forces are at near full strength. Since they can also be calculated perturbatively, we derive analytic solutions for illustrative cases: the motion of massive objects in compensated shells and voids and infall toward halos that are spherically symmetric. Using numerical techniques we show that these solutions are valid until the characteristic scale becomes comparable to the Vainshtein radius. We find a relative acceleration of more massive objects toward the center of a void and a reduction of the infall acceleration that increases with the mass ratio of the halos which can in principle be used to test the Vainshtein screening me...

  16. Newborn screening healthcare information system based on service-oriented architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Weng, Yung-Ching; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Chen, Chi-Huang; Tu, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhenyu; Lai, Feipei

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we established a newborn screening system under the HL7/Web Services frameworks. We rebuilt the NTUH Newborn Screening Laboratory's original standalone architecture, having various heterogeneous systems operating individually, and restructured it into a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), distributed platform for further integrity and enhancements of sample collections, testing, diagnoses, evaluations, treatments or follow-up services, screening database management, as well as collaboration, communication among hospitals; decision supports and improving screening accuracy over the Taiwan neonatal systems are also addressed. In addition, the new system not only integrates the newborn screening procedures among phlebotomy clinics, referral hospitals, as well as the newborn screening center in Taiwan, but also introduces new models of screening procedures for the associated, medical practitioners. Furthermore, it reduces the burden of manual operations, especially the reporting services, those were heavily dependent upon previously. The new system can accelerate the whole procedures effectively and efficiently. It improves the accuracy and the reliability of the screening by ensuring the quality control during the processing as well. PMID:20703906

  17. Screensaver: an open source lab information management system (LIMS for high throughput screening facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nale Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared-usage high throughput screening (HTS facilities are becoming more common in academe as large-scale small molecule and genome-scale RNAi screening strategies are adopted for basic research purposes. These shared facilities require a unique informatics infrastructure that must not only provide access to and analysis of screening data, but must also manage the administrative and technical challenges associated with conducting numerous, interleaved screening efforts run by multiple independent research groups. Results We have developed Screensaver, a free, open source, web-based lab information management system (LIMS, to address the informatics needs of our small molecule and RNAi screening facility. Screensaver supports the storage and comparison of screening data sets, as well as the management of information about screens, screeners, libraries, and laboratory work requests. To our knowledge, Screensaver is one of the first applications to support the storage and analysis of data from both genome-scale RNAi screening projects and small molecule screening projects. Conclusions The informatics and administrative needs of an HTS facility may be best managed by a single, integrated, web-accessible application such as Screensaver. Screensaver has proven useful in meeting the requirements of the ICCB-Longwood/NSRB Screening Facility at Harvard Medical School, and has provided similar benefits to other HTS facilities.

  18. Screensaver: an open source lab information management system (LIMS) for high throughput screening facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Shared-usage high throughput screening (HTS) facilities are becoming more common in academe as large-scale small molecule and genome-scale RNAi screening strategies are adopted for basic research purposes. These shared facilities require a unique informatics infrastructure that must not only provide access to and analysis of screening data, but must also manage the administrative and technical challenges associated with conducting numerous, interleaved screening efforts run by multiple independent research groups. Results We have developed Screensaver, a free, open source, web-based lab information management system (LIMS), to address the informatics needs of our small molecule and RNAi screening facility. Screensaver supports the storage and comparison of screening data sets, as well as the management of information about screens, screeners, libraries, and laboratory work requests. To our knowledge, Screensaver is one of the first applications to support the storage and analysis of data from both genome-scale RNAi screening projects and small molecule screening projects. Conclusions The informatics and administrative needs of an HTS facility may be best managed by a single, integrated, web-accessible application such as Screensaver. Screensaver has proven useful in meeting the requirements of the ICCB-Longwood/NSRB Screening Facility at Harvard Medical School, and has provided similar benefits to other HTS facilities. PMID:20482787

  19. In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering—Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix P. Achatz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and scaffolds seems to be a promising approach for meniscus repair. To facilitate the search for an appropriate scaffold material a reliable and objective in vitro testing system is essential. This paper introduces a new scoring for this purpose and analyzes a hyaluronic acid (HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold in combination with MSCs for tissue engineering of meniscus. The pore quality and interconnectivity of pores of a HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold were analyzed by surface photography and Berliner-Blau-BSA-solution vacuum filling. Further the two scaffold materials were vacuum-filled with human MSCs and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry after 21 days in chondrogenic media to determine cell distribution and cell survival as well as proteoglycan production, collagen type I and II content. The polyurethane scaffold showed better results than the hyaluronic acid gelatin composite scaffold, with signs of central necrosis in the HA gelatin composite scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffold showed good porosity, excellent pore interconnectivity, good cell distribution and cell survival, as well as an extensive content of proteoglycans and collagen type II. The polyurethane scaffold seems to be a promising biomaterial for a mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering approach for meniscal repair. The new score could be applied as a new standard for in vitro scaffold testing.

  20. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  1. Screening criteria for the verification of seismic adequacy of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes practical screening criteria to be used by engineering walkdown teams, for the evaluation of seismic adequacy of piping systems. The application of the screening criteria to a nuclear facility are described and compared to the results achieved using conventional analytical techniques. 13 refs

  2. Toward the Development of a Virus-Cell-Based Assay for the Discovery of Novel Compounds against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Adelson, Martin E.; Pacchia, Annmarie L.; Kaul, Malvika; Rando, Robert F.; Ron, Yacov; Peltz, Stuart W.; Dougherty, Joseph P.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains resistant to highly active antiretroviral therapy necessitates continued drug discovery for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Most current drug discovery strategies focus upon a single aspect of HIV-1 replication. A virus-cell-based assay, which can be adapted to high-throughput screening, would allow the screening of multiple targets simultaneously. HIV-1-based vector systems mimic the HIV-1 life cycle without yielding repl...

  3. Evaluation of Lifestyle Criminality Screening from in Croatian Prison System

    OpenAIRE

    Buđanovac, Aleksandar; Jandrić, Anita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines metric characteristics and factor structure of Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form (LCSF). Also, the correlation between LCSF and Level of Service Inventory- Revised (LSI-R) is analysed. The sample consists of 399 male prisoners, placed in the Department of Diagnostics and Treatment Programming in Zagreb Prison between March 2004 and June 2005. Analysis of the metric characteristics suggested that the LCSF questionnaire requires some improvements. Reliability meas...

  4. Use of viral promoters in mammalian cell-based bioassays: How reliable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill-Sharma Manjit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell-based bioassays have been suggested for screening of hormones and drug bioactivities. They are a plausible alternative to animal based methods. The technique used is called receptor/reporter system. Receptor/reporter system was initially developed as a research technique to understand gene function. Often reporter constructs containing viral promoters were used because they could be expressed with very 'high' magnitude in a variety of cell types in the laboratory. On the other hand mammalian genes are expressed in a cell/tissue specific manner, which makes them (i.e. cells/tissues specialized for specific function in vivo. Therefore, if the receptor/reporter system is to be used as a cell-based screen for testing of hormones and drugs for human therapy then the choice of cell line as well as the promoter in the reporter module is of prime importance so as to get a realistic measure of the bioactivities of 'test' compounds. We evaluated two conventionally used viral promoters and a natural mammalian promoter, regulated by steroid hormone progesterone, in a cell-based receptor/reporter system. The promoters were spliced into vectors expressing enzyme CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase, which served as a reporter of their magnitudes and consistencies in controlling gene expressions. They were introduced into breast cell lines T47D and MCF-7, which served as a cell-based source of progesterone receptors. The yardstick of their reliability was highest magnitude as well as consistency in CAT expression on induction by sequential doses of progesterone. All the promoters responded to induction by progesterone doses ranging from 10-12 to 10-6 molar by expressing CAT enzyme, albeit with varying magnitudes and consistencies. The natural mammalian promoter showed the most coherence in magnitude as well as dose dependent expression profile in both the cell lines. Our study casts doubts on use of viral promoters in a cell-based bioassay for

  5. A Novel Gene Expression Control System and Its Use in Stable, High-Titer 293 Cell-Based Adeno-Associated Virus Packaging Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chunping; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Previous attempts to establish 293cell-based stable and high-titer adeno-associated virus (AAV) packaging cell lines were unsuccessful, primarily due to adenovirus E1-activated Rep gene expression, which exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on the host cells. Control of the two large AAV Rep proteins (Rep78/68) was insufficient to eliminate the adverse effects, because of the leaky expression of the two small Rep proteins (Rep52/40). However, it was unsuccessful to control Rep52/40 gene expression since its promoter is located within the coding sequence of Rep78/68. To tightly regulate all four Rep proteins by using their own promoters, we have developed a novel gene control paradigm termed “dual splicing switch,” which disrupts all four Rep genes by inserting into their shared coding region an intron that harbors transcription termination sequences flanked the LoxP sites. As a result, the structure and activities of the Rep gene promoters, both p5 and p19, are not affected; however, all of the Rep transcripts are prematurely terminated and the genes were inactivated. Removal of the terminator by Cre protein reactivates the transcription of all four Rep proteins derived from their own promoters. This switch system was initially tested in the lacZ gene and a 600-fold induction of β-galactosidase activity was observed. Using the dual splicing switch strategy, we have subsequently established a number of AAV packaging cell lines from 293 cells, which showed a normal growth rate, high stability, and more importantly, high yields of AAV vectors. Such a gene control paradigm is also useful for other viruses, e.g., autonomous parvoviruses. Finally, the high-titer 293-based AAV packaging cell lines should greatly reduce the risk of wild-type adenovirus contamination and provide a scalable AAV vector production method for both preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:12438627

  6. 基于马氏距离的太阳能电池可靠性筛选方法研究%Reliability screening method for solar cells based on Mahalanobis distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周求湛; 张彦创; 陈永志; 刘萍萍; 吴丹娥

    2012-01-01

    通过测量太阳能电池的内部低频噪声,可以快速、无损地实现太阳能电池的可靠性筛选分类。提出基于马氏距离的筛选方法分析噪声数据,进而得到全频段的噪声筛选判据。实验结果表明,本文方法和基于个别频率点的噪声分类方法相比,马氏距离筛选方法更加全面地反映了太阳能电池的整体低频噪声水平,不仅可以剔除1/f噪声大的太阳能电池,还可以剔除G-R(genera-tion-recombination)噪声和爆裂噪声大的太阳能电池,因此能将一批太阳能电池进行更为准确、精细的可靠性分类。%The reliability screening and sorting of the solar cells can be quickly and nondestructively realized by measuring their internal low frequency noise.In this paper the screening method based on Mahalanobis distance is proposed to analyze the noise data,so the screening criterion for the whole frequency band can be achieved.Experimental results show that this method is more efficient compared with the usual screening method based on the value of a special frequency point.The screening method based on Mahalanobis distance comprehensively reflects the low frequency noise of the solar cell;it can distinguish not only the solar cells with big 1/f noise,but also the solar cells with G-R noise and burst noise.So this method can sort solar cells more accurately and precisely according to their reliability.

  7. A screening system for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. de O. Souza Filho

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In settings with a high prevalence of smear-negative PTB, the system can be useful for screening and also to aid clinical practice in expediting complementary tests for higher risk patients.

  8. A Novel Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet most existing display systems with flat screens can handle only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that...

  9. A system for screening agonists targeting β2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Shi-you LI; Chuan-ke ZHAO; Xin ZENG

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human 132-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Imrnaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii lmmaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration re-sponse analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (ECI/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 μg/ml, respectively.Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening β2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of β2-adrenoceptor.

  10. Yeast cell-based analysis of human lactate dehydrogenase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Lulu Ahmed; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has attracted attention as a potential target for cancer therapy and contraception. In this study, we reconstituted human lactic acid fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the goal of constructing a yeast cell-based LDH assay system. pdc null mutant yeast (mutated in the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase genes) are unable to perform alcoholic fermentation; when grown in the presence of an electron transport chain inhibitor, pdc null strains exhibit a growth defect. We found that introduction of the human gene encoding LDHA complemented the pdc growth defect; this complementation depended on LDHA catalytic activity. Similarly, introduction of the human LDHC complemented the pdc growth defect, even though LDHC did not generate lactate at the levels seen with LDHA. In contrast, the human LDHB did not complement the yeast pdc null mutant, although LDHB did generate lactate in yeast cells. Expression of LDHB as a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion yielded blebs in yeast, whereas LDHA-RFP and LDHC-RFP fusion proteins exhibited cytosolic distribution. Thus, LDHB exhibits several unique features when expressed in yeast cells. Because yeast cells are amenable to genetic analysis and cell-based high-throughput screening, our pdc/LDH strains are expected to be of use for versatile analyses of human LDH. PMID:26126931

  11. The screening effects of the screened exchange hybrid functional in surface systems: A case study on the CO/Pt(111) problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Gillen, R.; Robertson, J.

    2016-06-01

    The screened exchange (sX) hybrid functional has been widely used in computational material science. Although it has widely been studied in bulk systems, less is known about its functional behavior in surface systems which are crucial to many technologies such as materials synthesis and nano-electronic devices. Assessing the screening dependent functional behaviors in the surface systems is therefore important for its application in such systems. In this work, we investigate the screening effects of the sX in CO adsorption on Pt(111) surface. The differences between the sX and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functionals, and the effects of screening parameters are studied. The screening has two effects: first, the HOMO-LUMO gap is screening dependent. This affects the site preference most significantly. In this work, atop adsorption of CO/Pt(111) is predicted by the hybrid functionals with screened exchange potential. The sX(1.44) gives the largest HOMO-LUMO gap for the isolated CO molecule. The adsorption energy difference between the atop and fcc site is also the largest by the sX(1.44) which is explained by the reduced metal d states to the CO 2π* state back-donation, with stronger effect for the fcc adsorption than for the atop adsorption; second, the adsorption energy is screening dependent. This can be seen by comparing the sX(2.38) and HSE06 which have different screening strengths. They show similar surface band structures for the CO adsorption but different adsorption energies, which is explained by the stronger CO 5σ state to the metal d states donation or the effectively screened Pauli repulsion. This work underlines the screening strength as a main difference between sX and HSE06, as well as an important hybrid functional parameter for surface calculation.

  12. Software for Applicon graphics system support of the NNWSI area-to-location screening activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive system study has been performed to screen the Nevada Research and Development Area (NRDA) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and nearby areas for relatively favorable locations of about 10 square miles for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste in a mined repository. The purpose of this screening was to use information available during the summer of 1981 to identify such locations. The results of this screening will allow more informed decisions by the Department of Energy's Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project as to where future repository exploration could be concentrated to optimize the chances that the locations chosen for characterization would qualify as a licensed repository site. The methods used for, and the results of, this study are described by S. Sinnock and J. Fernandez in their report, Summary and Conclusions of the NNWSI Area-to-Location Screening Activity (NVO-247). This report is intended to describe the computer support developed for the screening activity and, as such, should not be treated as a stand-alone document, but as a supplement to the above summary report. This report complements two other supplemental reports dealing with 16 physical data bases for screening and the objectives of the screening methodology. Together, these four reports fully describe the screening activity of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

  13. The development of a risk identification screening framework for healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Health information systems are costly, especially when they are not used or when they impede workflow. Risk assessment is used to identify and remedy problem areas so that systems are safe. While there are discussions of design project risk management, for example, see McConnell [1], there is little information about screening the fit of a system with respect to its users, the task and the healthcare organization. Such analyses could be important in improving the fit of information systems in healthcare, thereby decreasing risk of system and project failure. A risk-screening framework for health informatics is presented. PMID:19380968

  14. Isolation of proflavine as a blocker of G protein-gated inward rectifier potassium channels by a cell growth-based screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Inanobe, Atsushi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2016-10-01

    The overexpression of Kir3.2, a subunit of the G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, is implicated in some of the neurological phenotypes of Down syndrome (DS). Chemical compounds that block Kir3.2 are expected to improve the symptoms of DS. The purpose of this study is to develop a cell-based screening system to identify Kir3.2 blockers and then investigate the mode of action of the blocker. Chemical screening was carried out using a K(+) transporter-deficient yeast strain that expressed a constitutively active Kir3.2 mutant. The mode of action of an effective blocker was electrophysiologically analyzed using Kir channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Proflavine was identified to inhibit the growth of Kir3.2-transformant cells and Kir3.2 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The current inhibition was strong when membrane potentials (Vm) was above equilibrium potential of K(+) (EK). When Vm was below EK, the blockage apparently depended on the difference between Vm and [K(+)]. Furthermore, the inhibition became stronger by lowering extracellular [K(+)]. These results indicated that the yeast strain serves as a screening system to isolate Kir3.2 blockers and proflavine is a prototype of a pore blocker of Kir3.2. PMID:27236080

  15. Antisense RNA-based High-Throughput Screen System for Directed Evolution of Quorum Quenching Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Soo; Park, Won-Ji; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2015-11-20

    Quorum quenching (QQ) enzymes, which disrupt the quorum sensing signaling process, have attracted considerable attention as new antimicrobial agents. However, their low catalytic efficiency for quorum sensing molecules remains a challenge. Herein, we present an antisense RNA-based high-throughput screen system for directed evolution of a quorum quenching enzyme. The screening system was constructed by incorporating an antisense RNA (RyhB) into a synthetic module to quantitatively regulate the expression of a reporter gene fused with a sense RNA (sodB). To control the expression of a reporter gene in response to the catalytic activity of a quorum quenching enzyme, the region of interaction and mode between a pair of antisense (RyhB) and sense (sodB) RNAs was designed and optimized through the prediction of the secondary structure of the RNA pair. The screening system constructed was shown to lead to a significant reduction in the false-positive rate (average 42%) in the screening of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AiiA) with increased catalytic activity, resulting in a true-positive frequency of up to 76%. The utility and efficiency of the screening system were demonstrated by selecting an AiiA with 31-fold higher catalytic efficiency than the wild-type in three rounds of directed evolution. The present approach can be widely used for the screening of quorum quenching enzymes with the desired catalytic property, as well as for a synthetic network for a stringent regulation of the gene expression. PMID:26366664

  16. Development of FOODSEYE, a high-speed screening system for radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employed the radiation measurement technology utilized for positron emission tomography in nuclear medicine to develop FOODSEYE, a high-speed screening system for radioactivity in food. FOODSEYE enables high-speed screening designed to measure the concentration of radioactive cesium (Bq/kg) in food and determine with a certainty of at least 99% whether a given test article conforms to safety standards established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The system is comprised of BGO detectors that detect gamma rays with high sensitivity, a shielded construction to reduce noise components from outside sources of radiation (background radiation), a conveyor belt for efficient conveyance of test articles, and a touch screen panel for easy operation and display of results. This design allows the FOODSEYE system to measure trace amounts of radioactivity with high precision. The precision of the system was verified using 30-kg bags of rice tested in Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The measurements results obtained with FOODSEYE correlated with, and were within the range of measurement error of, measurement results obtained using a germanium semiconductor detector. The system was also capable of screening one test article per 5 seconds at a standard value of 100 Bq/kg. This article details the system structure, performance and results of verification tests performed using the FOODSEYE high-speed screening system. (author)

  17. Dynamic screening and electron dynamics in low-dimensional metal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkin, V.M.; Alducin, M. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Quijada, M. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Dept. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Vergniory, M.G. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Dept. de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Borisov, A.G. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Lab. des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires - UMR CNRS-Universite Paris-Sud 8625, Bat. 351, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Diez Muino, R. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Unidad de Fisica de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Juaristi, J.I.; Chulkov, E.V. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Dept. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Unidad de Fisica de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Sanchez-Portal, D. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Unidad de Fisica de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Echenique, P.M. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Dept. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]|[Unidad de Fisica de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: wapetlap@sq.ehu.es

    2007-05-15

    Recent advances in the theoretical description of dynamic screening and electron dynamics in metallic media are reviewed. The time-dependent building-up of screening in different situations is addressed. Perturbative and non-perturbative theories are used to study electron dynamics in low-dimensional systems, such as metal clusters, image states, surface states and quantum wells. Modification of the electronic lifetimes due to confinement effects is analyzed as well.

  18. Design of a Visual Query Language for Geographic Information System on a Touch Screen

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Siju; Otmane, Samir; Moreau, Guillaume; Servieres, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two spatial query methods for a Geographic Information System (GIS) that runs on a touch screen. On conventional GIS interfaces SQL is used to construct spatial queries. However keyboard typing proves to be inefficient on touch screens. Furthermore, SQL is not an easy-learning language, especially for novices to GIS. To simplify query construction, firstly we have designed a map interaction based query method (MIBQM). This method allows users to make simple queries by sele...

  19. A newborn screening system based on service-oriented architecture embedded support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kai-Ping; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Weng, Yung-Ching; Wu, Jang-Hung; Lai, Feipei

    2010-10-01

    The clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders are rarely apparent during the neonatal period, and if they are not treated earlier, irreversible damages, such as mental retardation or even death, may occur. Therefore, the practice of newborn screening is essential to prevent permanent disabilities in newborns. In the paper, we design, implement a newborn screening system using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifications. By evaluating metabolic substances data collected from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), we can interpret and determine whether a newborn has a metabolic disorder. In addition, National Taiwan University Hospital Information System (NTUHIS) has been developed and implemented to integrate heterogeneous platforms, protocols, databases as well as applications. To expedite adapting the diversities, we deploy Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts to the newborn screening system based on web services. The system can be embedded seamlessly into NTUHIS. PMID:20703618

  20. Research on target information optics communications transmission characteristic and performance in multi-screens testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanshan

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the stability and reliability of multi-screens testing system, this paper studies multi-screens target optical information transmission link properties and performance in long-distance, sets up the discrete multi-tone modulation transmission model based on geometric model of laser multi-screens testing system and visible light information communication principle; analyzes the electro-optic and photoelectric conversion function of sender and receiver in target optical information communication system; researches target information transmission performance and transfer function of the generalized visible-light communication channel; found optical information communication transmission link light intensity space distribution model and distribution function; derives the SNR model of information transmission communication system. Through the calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that the transmission error rate increases with the increment of transmission rate in a certain channel modulation depth; when selecting the appropriate transmission rate, the bit error rate reach 0.01.

  1. Design for a coherent-scatter imaging system compatible with screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Katie; Peerzada, Lubna; Hassan, Laila; MacDonald, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    A system using a wide-slot beam and simple antiscatter grids or slots has been designed to provide a localized map of tissue type that could be overlaid on the simultaneous conventional transmission image to provide an inexpensive, low dose adjunct to conventional screening mammography. Depth information is obtainable from the stereoscopic viewing angles. The system was demonstrated to produce observable contrast between adipose tissue and a phantom chosen to mimic carcinoma at an exposure comparable with screening mammography. Imaging data was collected over a range of system parameters to optimize contrast and to allow verification of simulation modeling. PMID:27610395

  2. Discussion on large screen display system%谈大屏幕显示系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚杰

    2012-01-01

    从功能、组成部分、系统分类以及各自的技术特点等方面入手,简要介绍了对大屏幕显示系统的初步认识,为大屏幕显示系统的推广应用打下了坚实的基础。%This paper briefly introduced the preliminary understanding of large screen display system from function,component,system classification and their technical characteristics and other aspects,laid solid foundation for the application of large screen display system.

  3. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in diffusion-driven systems with pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovkov, V. N.; Kotomin, E. A.; de la Cruz, M. Olvera

    2011-07-01

    The effects of non-equilibrium charge screening in mixtures of oppositely charged interacting molecules on surfaces are analyzed in a closed system. The dynamics of charge screening and the strong deviation from the standard Debye-Hückel theory are demonstrated via a new formalism based on computing radial distribution functions suited for analyzing both short-range and long-range spacial ordering effects. At long distances the inhomogeneous molecular distribution is limited by diffusion, whereas at short distances (of the order of several coordination spheres) by a balance of short-range (Lennard-Jones) and long-range (Coulomb) interactions. The non-equilibrium charge screening effects in transient pattern formation are further quantified. It is demonstrated that the use of screened potentials, in the spirit of the Debye-Hückel theory, leads to qualitatively incorrect results.

  4. Prototype of Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection has received the attention of a large number of research groups in the last decade. In this paper, the imaging system currently being developed at the Technical university of Denmark is presented. This includes a description of the antenna system, the...

  5. [Sensitometry of Mammographic Screen-film System Using Bootstrap Aluminum Step-Wedge.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shinji; Imada, Ryou; Terauchi, Takashi; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Monma, Masahiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Mochizuki, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a few types of step-wedges for bootstrap sensitometry with a mammographic screen-film system have been proposed. In this study, the bootstrap sensitometry with the mammographic screen-film system was studied for two types of aluminum step-wedges. Characteristic X-ray energy curves were determined using mammographic and general radiographic aluminum step-wedges devised to prevent scattered X-rays generated from one step penetrating into the region of another one, and dependence of the characteristic curves on the wedges was also discussed. No difference was found in the characteristic curves due to the difference in the step-wedges for mammography and general radiography although there was a slight difference in shape at the shoulder portion for the two types of step-wedges. Therefore, it was concluded that aluminum step-wedges for mammography and general radiography could be employed in bootstrap sensitometry with the mammographic screen-film system. PMID:16479054

  6. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchy Jain; Orawan Monthakantirat; Parkpoom Tengamnuay; Wanchai De-Eknamkul

    2014-01-01

    Avicennia marina (AM) exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R) [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) causing androgenic alopecia (AGA). An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs), the main regulator of ha...

  7. A Novel Gene Expression Control System and Its Use in Stable, High-Titer 293 Cell-Based Adeno-Associated Virus Packaging Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Chunping; Bing WANG; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Previous attempts to establish 293cell-based stable and high-titer adeno-associated virus (AAV) packaging cell lines were unsuccessful, primarily due to adenovirus E1-activated Rep gene expression, which exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on the host cells. Control of the two large AAV Rep proteins (Rep78/68) was insufficient to eliminate the adverse effects, because of the leaky expression of the two small Rep proteins (Rep52/40). However, it was unsuccessful to control Rep52/40 gene ex...

  8. Perinatal Obstetric Office Depression Screening and Treatment: Implementation in a Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tracy; Avalos, Lyndsay A

    2016-05-01

    Perinatal depression affects between 12% and 20% of pregnant and postpartum women and is underdiagnosed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended universal perinatal depression screening. We discuss challenges to instituting universal screening, describe the development and implementation between 2007 and 2014 of Kaiser Permanente Northern California's successful program, and highlight key measures of success. A quality improvement system approach with four steps guided development: 1) identify and use best practices, 2) identify champions and educate clinicians, 3) use data that drive performance, and 4) streamline office workflow. Clinical success was determined by at least 50% improvement in depression care metrics from diagnosis to 120 days afterward. Depression diagnoses, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores, medication dispensation, and treatment for all births in 2014 (N=37,660) were extracted from electronic health records. Ninety-six percent of pregnant and postpartum women were screened at least once. Fourteen percent screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of 10 or greater). Approximately 6% of pregnant and postpartum women had severe depression with a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 of 15 or greater and a depression diagnosis, and 80% of these women received treatment. Forty percent of women with a depression diagnosis demonstrated improved symptoms. Kaiser Permanente Northern California's universal perinatal depression screening program can serve as a model for the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of universal depression screening in obstetric care. PMID:27054937

  9. Cell-based biosensors: Towards the development of cellular monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs), a research hotspot of biosensors, which treat living cells as sensing elements, can detect the functional information of biologically active analytes. They characterize with high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and rapid response, and have been applied in many fields, such as biomedicine, environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical screening. Recently cell-cultured technology, silicon microfabrication technology and genetic technology have promoted exploration of CBBs dramatically. To elucidate the novel research findings and applications of cell- based biosensors, this paper summarizes various research approaches, presents some challenges and proposes the research trends.

  10. Micromachined nanocalorimetric sensor for ultra-low-volume cell-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Erik A; Weaver, John M R; Bourova, Lenka; Svoboda, Petr; Cobbold, Peter H; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2002-05-01

    Current strategies for cell-based screening generally focus on the development of highly specific assays, which require an understanding of the nature of the signaling molecules and cellular pathways involved. In contrast, changes in temperature of cells provides a measure of altered cellular metabolism that is not stimulus specific and hence could have widespread applications in cell-based screening of receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as in the assessment of toxicity of new lead compounds. Consequently, we have developed a micromachined nanocalorimetric biological sensor using a small number of isolated living cells integrated within a subnanoliter format, which is capable of detecting 13 nW of generated power from the cells, upon exposure to a chemical or pharmaceutical stimulus. The sensor comprises a 10-junction gold and nickel thermopile, integrated on a silicon chip which was back-etched to span a 800-nm-thick membrane of silicon nitride. The thin-film membrane, which supported the sensing junctions of the thermoelectric transducer, gave the system a temperature resolution of 0.125 mK, a low heat capacity of 1.2 nJ mK(-1), and a rapid (unfiltered) response time of 12 ms. The application of the system in ultra-low-volume cell-based assays could provide a rapid endogenous screen. It offers important additional advantages over existing methods in that it is generic in nature, it does not require the use of recombinant cell lines or of detailed assay development, and finally, it can enable the use of primary cell lines or tissue biopsies. PMID:12033326

  11. Realization of Intelligent Measurement and Control System for Limb Rehabilitation Based on PLC and Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    According to the treatment needs of patients with limb movement disorder, on the basis of the limb rehabilitative training prototype, function of measure and control system are analyzed, design of system hardware and software is completed. The touch screen which is adopt as host computer and man-machine interaction window is responsible for sending commands and training information display; The PLC which is adopt as slave computer is responsible for receiving control command from touch screen, collecting the sensor data, regulating torque and speed of motor by analog output according to the different training mode, realizing ultimately active and passive training for limb rehabilitation therapy.

  12. Online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems using screen currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Nanayakkara, O.M.K.K; Rajapakse, Athula;

    This paper studies online travelling wave methods for fault location on a crossbonded cable system using screen currents. During the construction of the electrical connection to the 400 MW off shore wind farm Anholt, it was possible to perform measurements on a 38.4 km crossbonded cable system. At...... coils if the screen currents contain the necessary information for accurate fault location. In this paper, this is examined by analysis of field measurements and through a study of simulations. The wavelet transform and visual inspection methods are used and the accuracy is compared. Field measurements...

  13. A clinical trial of a rare earth screen/film system in a periapical cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a clinical trial, a slow rare earth screen/film system (Siemens Titan 2D/Kodak XG) was used to obtain intraoral radiographs at conventional monitoring stages in endodontic treatment. The screen film image proved to be an effective substitute for the direct-exposure Ultraspeed periapical film. The intraoral cassettes, designed and fabricated for the study, were an adaptation of the flexible, vacuum-sealed cassettes used in mammography. It is believed that when a practicable periapical cassette is manufactured, many additional indications for the system are probable. Major reductions in patient exposure of at least 85% to 90% per periapical film would be effected

  14. Automated solvent system screening for the preparative countercurrent chromatography of pharmaceutical discovery compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradow, James; Riley, Frank; Philippe, Laurence; Yan, Qi; Schuff, Brandon; Harris, Guy H

    2015-12-01

    A fully automated countercurrent chromatography system has been constructed to rapidly screen the commonly used heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system series and translate the results to preparative scale separations. The system utilizes "on-demand" preparation of the heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system upper and lower phases. Elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography was combined with non-dynamic equilibrium injection reducing the screening time for each heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water system to 17 min. The result enabled solvent system development to be reduced to under 2 h. The countercurrent chromatography system was interfaced with a mass spectrometer to allow selective detection of target components in crude medicinal chemistry reaction mixtures. Mass-directed preparative countercurrent chromatography purification was demonstrated for the first time using a synthetic tetrazole epoxide derived from a routine medicinal chemistry support workflow. PMID:26428946

  15. Screening for Pharmacological Chaperones in Fabry Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sang-Hoon; Murray, Gary J.; Kluepfel-Stahl, Stefanie; Cooney, Adele M.; Quirk, Jane M.; Schiffmann, Raphael; Brady, Roscoe O.; Kaneski, Christine R.

    2007-01-01

    As a prerequisite for full clinical trials of pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT) for Fabry disease we developed a rapid screening assay for enhancement of endogenous α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) in patient-derived cells. We used a T-cell based system to screen 11 mutations causing Fabry disease for enhanceability using 1- deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ). When patient derived T-cells were grown in the presence of DGJ α-Gal A activity increased to more than 50% of normal in several mutations ...

  16. Application of Cell-Based Assay Systems for the Early Screening of Human Drug Hepatotoxicity in the Discovery Phase of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Pourahmad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available While drug toxicity (especially hepatotoxicity is the most frequent reason cited for withdrawal of an approved drug, no simple solution exists to adequately predict such adverse events. Simple cytotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells are relatively insensitive to human hepatotoxic drugs in a retrospective analysis of marketed pharmaceuticals. In comparison, a panel of pre-lethal mechanistic cellular assays hold the promise to deliver a more sensitiveapproach to detect endpoint-specific drug toxicities. The panel of assays covered by this review includes steatosis, cholestasis, phospholipidosis, reactive intermediates, mitochondria membrane function, oxidative stress, and drug interactions. In addition, the use of metabolically competent cells or the introduction of major human hepatocytes in these in-vitro studies allow a more complete picture of potential drug side effect. Since inter-individual therapeutic index (TI may differ from patient to patient, the rational use of one or more of these cellular assay and targeted in-vivo exposure data may allow pharmaceutical scientists to select drugcandidates with a higher TI potential in the drug discovery phase.

  17. Screening the National Plant Germplasm System's Garlic Collection for Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) collects, maintains, and distributes garlic (Allium sativum) accessions as part of the National Plant Germplasm System. In the regeneration process, accessions are grown under field conditions at the WRPIS farm in Pullman, Washington....

  18. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made

  19. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required. PMID:23679334

  20. Application of an improved operational strategy for a high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A proposed residential energy system based on the PBI (Polybenzimidazole) fuel cell technology is analyzed in terms of operational performance. Conventional operational strategies, such as heat-led and electricity-led, are applied to the simulated system to investigate their performance...... characteristics. Based on these findings, an improved operational strategy is formulated and applied in an attempt to minimize the shortcomings of conventional strategies. System parameters, such as electrical and thermal efficiencies, heat dumping, and import/export of electricity, are analyzed. The applied load...... be justified as compared to other micro-CHP system technologies. The most important findings of this research study indicate that in comparison to non-fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems, such as Stirling Engine-based systems, the proposed system has significantly higher efficiencies. Moreover, the lower heat...

  1. Development and applicability of a ready-to-use PCR system for GMO screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sabrina F; Gatto, Francesco; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Petrillo, Mauro; Kreysa, Joachim; Querci, Maddalena

    2016-06-15

    With the growing number of GMOs introduced to the market, testing laboratories have seen their workload increase significantly. Ready-to-use multi-target PCR-based detection systems, such as pre-spotted plates (PSP), reduce analysis time while increasing capacity. This paper describes the development and applicability to GMO testing of a screening strategy involving a PSP and its associated web-based Decision Support System. The screening PSP was developed to detect all GMOs authorized in the EU in one single PCR experiment, through the combination of 16 validated assays. The screening strategy was successfully challenged in a wide inter-laboratory study on real-life food/feed samples. The positive outcome of this study could result in the adoption of a PSP screening strategy across the EU; a step that would increase harmonization and quality of GMO testing in the EU. Furthermore, this system could represent a model for other official control areas where high-throughput DNA-based detection systems are needed. PMID:26868555

  2. Fast contingency screening for online transient stability monitoring and assessment of the KEPCO system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Kwon, S.H.; Lee, J. [Korea Univ. (Korea). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Nam, H.K. [Chonnam Univ. (Korea). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Choo, J.B.; Jeon, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    A fast contingency screening algorithm using SIME for the transient stability monitoring of the KEPCO system is implemented. This method evaluates the first-swing stability of a large number of contingencies in a short time with reliable accuracy. The salient features of the proposed screening algorithm are as follows. First, a critical cluster of generators is identified by a new index in the early stage of the time domain simulation. Thus, the computational time required for finding the equivalent one machine infinite bus system can be reduced significantly. Second, clustering critical machines can perform even in very stable cases. This allows us to avoid the extra calculation of the time trajectory that is needed in the SIME for classifying the stable cases. Third, the screening capability is improved using the power-angle trajectory and subdividing the contingency classification. The test results on the KEPCO system show that the proposed method can be adopted as a contingency screening function and the transient stability assessment for the transient stability monitoring of the KEPCO system. (author)

  3. Age-Related Disparities in Cancer Screening: Analysis of 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jerant, Anthony F.; Franks, Peter; Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Doescher, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE Although few studies have explored age-related health care disparities, some researchers have asserted such disparities uniformly disfavor the elderly and are largely attributable to ageism in the health care system. We compared age-related patterns of screening for colorectal cancer with those for breast and prostate cancer in persons aged 50 years and older.

  4. Improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay using the MultiScreen (R) Assay System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MJ; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    In this article, an improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay is described, which allows substantial reduction in assay time, The filtration in this method was performed by using the MultiScreen(R) Assay System. The latter consists of a 96-well plate with glass fibre filters sealed at the bottom,

  5. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after...... tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts...

  6. Human Vascular Microphysiological System for in vitro Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C E; Yen, R W; Perez, S M; Bedell, H W; Povsic, T J; Reichert, W M; Truskey, G A

    2016-01-01

    In vitro human tissue engineered human blood vessels (TEBV) that exhibit vasoactivity can be used to test human toxicity of pharmaceutical drug candidates prior to pre-clinical animal studies. TEBVs with 400-800 μM diameters were made by embedding human neonatal dermal fibroblasts or human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dense collagen gel. TEBVs were mechanically strong enough to allow endothelialization and perfusion at physiological shear stresses within 3 hours after fabrication. After 1 week of perfusion, TEBVs exhibited endothelial release of nitric oxide, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, all of which were maintained up to 5 weeks in culture. Vasodilation was blocked with the addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). TEBVs elicited reversible activation to acute inflammatory stimulation by TNF-α which had a transient effect upon acetylcholine-induced relaxation, and exhibited dose-dependent vasodilation in response to caffeine and theophylline. Treatment of TEBVs with 1 μM lovastatin for three days prior to addition of Tumor necrosis factor - α (TNF-α) blocked the injury response and maintained vasodilation. These results indicate the potential to develop a rapidly-producible, endothelialized TEBV for microphysiological systems capable of producing physiological responses to both pharmaceutical and immunological stimuli. PMID:26888719

  7. Use of field screening test kits to delineate hydrocarbon contamination of an abandoned fuel distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field screening test kits were recently used to delineate hydrocarbon contamination in soils 3,000-ft-long abandoned fuel line and distribution system. The purpose of using the kits was to minimize characterization expenses while providing reliable and cost-effective information. More than 200 tests were run on soils at depths from surface to 10 ft below the land surface. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) test used immunoassay technology to detect TPH values below 10 ppm. Fixed-base laboratory analyses were performed on 36% of the samples collected for field screening. A review of the screening results and the fixed-based laboratory results show that the field tests were replicated by a problem that was encountered as a result of heat-damage to the test kits, but the end results showed that the information obtained from the immunoassay results could still be used to drive the investigation and help determine the conclusion of the field effort. As a result of this screening effort, future site characterization efforts will be able to focus on specific areas of soil contamination. The test kit selected and used was PETRO RIS reg-sign Soil Test, manufactured by EnSys Environmental Products, Inc. Using this technology eliminated the delay in waiting for laboratory results and the higher costs associated with gas chromatography. Immunoassay kits are an important tool in field screening efforts and save time and monies

  8. Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS. The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

  9. An Efficient Genome-Wide Fusion Partner Screening System for Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Hoon Bae; Bong Hyun Sung; Hyun-Jin Kim; Soon-Ho Park; Kwang-Mook Lim; Mi-Jin Kim; Cho-Ryong Lee; Jung-Hoon Sohn

    2015-01-01

    To produce rarely secreted recombinant proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a novel genome-wide optimal translational fusion partner (TFP) screening system that involves recruitment of an optimal secretion signal and fusion partner. A TFP library was constructed from a genomic and truncated cDNA library by using the invertase-based signal sequence trap technique. The efficiency of the system was demonstrated using two rarely secreted proteins, human interleukin (hIL)-2...

  10. Development of in vitro screening system for food habit related risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mandy Bruch; Elmar Mohr

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the health risk that associated with the consumption of unknown feed or food ingredients, there is a strong need of developing an in vitro screening system. The test system should be fast, reliable, inexpensive and without the necessity of performing animal tests. Furthermore, it should also provide important clues to the potential danger of unknown substances. The present study examines the extent to which cell and tissue cultures can be used for such studies. ...

  11. Expert Systems for Environmental Screening. An Application in the Lower Mekong Basin

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fedra; Winkelbauer, L.; Pantulu, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    This research report describes MEXSES, a rule-based expert system for environmental impact assessment at a screening level, implemented for the analysis of water resources development projects in the Lower Mekong Basin. The report makes a brief review of environmental impact assessment methods and tools. It discusses expert systems technology, with emphasis on environmental applications. The Lower Mekong Basin and its specific environmental problems, as well as the Mekong Secretariat's e...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. 862.1055 Section 862.1055 Food and... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  13. A microliter-scale high-throughput screening system with quantum-dot nanoprobes for amyloid-β aggregation inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Ishigaki

    Full Text Available The aggregation of amyloid β protein (Aβ is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and therefore inhibitory substances for Aβ aggregation may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential for AD. Here we report a novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system for Aβ aggregation inhibitors based on fluorescence microscopy-imaging technology with quantum-dot Nanoprobes. This screening system could be analyzed with a 5-µl sample volume when a 1536-well plate was used, and the inhibitory activity could be estimated as half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50. We attempted to comprehensively screen Aβ aggregation inhibitors from 52 spices using this system to assess whether this novel screening system is actually useful for screening inhibitors. Screening results indicate that approximately 90% of the ethanolic extracts from the spices showed inhibitory activity for Aβ aggregation. Interestingly, spices belonging to the Lamiaceae, the mint family, showed significantly higher activity than the average of tested spices. Furthermore, we tried to isolate the main inhibitory compound from Saturejahortensis, summer savory, a member of the Lamiaceae, using this system, and revealed that the main active compound was rosmarinic acid. These results demonstrate that this novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system could be applied to the actual screening of Aβ aggregation inhibitors. Since this system can analyze at a microscopic scale, it is likely that further minimization of the system would easily be possible such as protein microarray technology.

  14. Test and evaluation of the 2.4-micron photorefractor ocular screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An improved 2.4-m photorefractor ocular screening system was tested and evaluated. The photorefractor system works on the principal of obtaining a colored photograph of both human eyes; and, by analysis of the retinal reflex images, certain ocular defects can be detected such a refractive error, strabismus, and lens obstructions. The 2.4-m photorefractory system uses a 35-mm camera with a telephoto lens and an electronic flash attachment. Retinal reflex images obtained from the new 2.4-m system are significantly improved over earlier systems in image quality. Other features were also improved, notably portability and reduction in mass. A total of 706 school age children were photorefracted, 211 learning disabled and 495 middle school students. The total students having abnormal retinal reflexes were 156 or 22 percent, and 133 or 85 percent of the abnormal had refractive error indicated. Ophthalmological examination was performed on 60 of these students and refractive error was verified in 57 or 95 percent of those examined. The new 2.4-m system has a NASA patent pending and is authorized by the FDA. It provides a reliable means of rapidly screening the eyes of children and young adults for vision problems. It is especially useful for infants and other non-communicative children who cannot be screened by the more conventional methods such as the familiar E chart.

  15. In vivo hepatotoxicity study of rats in comparison with in vitro hepatotoxicity screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Rie; Fujikawa, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Hamada, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Hiroshi; Horii, Ikuo

    2006-02-01

    For the establishment of a high throughput screening system using primary cell cultures, investigation of elucidated toxicities to assess the correlation between in vitro and in vivo hepatotoxicity is necessary in the safety evaluation of the compound. In the previous study, we reported the usability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes for establishment of high throughput screening system. To confirm the reliability of rat primary hepatocytes culture screening system, we conducted a single-dose in vivo study with relatively high dose of hepatotoxicant in rats using 4 reference compounds (acetaminophen, amiodarone, tetracycline, carbon tetrachloride), and investigated histopathological changes and expression of oxidative stress-related proteins by immunohistochemistry. We also carried out a proteomics analysis for estimating the reliable and sensitive biomarkers. Histopathologically, compound-specific hepatotoxicity was detected at 24 hr after administration in all compounds except amiodarone, which is known to induce phospholipidosis. Immunohistochemically, oxidative stress-related proteins were increased within 6 hr after administration in all treated groups. Proteomics analysis revealed several protein biomarkers related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism-regulation, which had been previously detected by proteomics analysis in in vitro screening system. Oxidative stress-related proteins were considered as useful biomarkers of hepatotoxicity; since they were detected by immunohistochemistry and proteomics analysis prior to appearance of compound-specific histopathological changes detected by light microscopy. Considering the relevance of in vitro system to in vivo system from the aspect of new biomarkers related to the toxicogenomics/toxicoproteomics, in vitro primary cell culture system would be sufficient to detect hepatotoxicity in the early stage of drug discovery. PMID:16538041

  16. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchy Jain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina (AM exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT causing androgenic alopecia (AGA. An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs, the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1 inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C.

  17. Avicequinone C isolated from Avicennia marina exhibits 5α-reductase-type 1 inhibitory activity using an androgenic alopecia relevant cell-based assay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ruchy; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Tengamnuay, Parkpoom; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Avicennia marina (AM) exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R) [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) causing androgenic alopecia (AGA). An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs), the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1) inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C. PMID:24858268

  18. Automated Triplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT Assay Systems for Blood Screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This review is confined to triplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays to be used on fully automated platform. Around the world, these assays are being used at various transfusion medicine centres or blood banks to screen blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV. These assay systems can screen up to 1000 blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV simultaneously in a day. This area has been dominated by mainly two manufacturers: M/s Gen-Probe-Novartis and M/s Roche Molecular Systems. The triplex NAT assay systems of both manufacturers are licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. There is not much awareness about the technology and procedures used in these assays. The main objective of this review is to create awareness about the technology and procedure of these assays. PMID:27042485

  19. Screening key parameters related to passive system performance based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An improved AHP method is presented for screening key parameters used in passive system reliability analysis. • We take the special bottom parameters as criterion for calculation and the abrupt change of the results are verified. • Combination weights are also affected by uncertainty of input parameters. - Abstract: Passive safety system is widely used in the new generation nuclear power plant (NPP) designs such as AP1000 to improve the reactor safety benefitting from its simple construction and less request for human intervene. However, the functional failure induced by uncertainty in the system thermal–hydraulic (T–H) performance becomes one of the main contributors to system operational failure since the system operates based on natural circulation, which should be considered in the system reliability evaluation. In order to improve the calculation efficiency the key parameters which significantly affect the system T–H characteristics can be screened and then be analyzed in detail. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the efficient methods to analyze the influence of the parameters on a passive system based on the experts’ experience. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is one of the typical passive safety systems, nevertheless too many parameters need to be analyzed and the T–H model itself is more complicated, so the traditional AHP method should be mended to use for screening key parameters efficiently. In this paper, we adapt the improved method in hierarchy construction and experts’ opinions integration, some parameters at the bottom justly in the traditional hierarchy are studied as criterion layer in improved AHP, the rationality of the method and the effect of abrupt change with the data are verified. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is evaluated as an example, and four key parameters are selected from 49 inputs

  20. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Nancy R.; Eberth, Jan M.; Samson, Marsha E.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Schootman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. Methods This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association bet...

  1. Identification of human dopamine D1-like receptor agonist using a cell-based functional assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan JIANG; Ke-qing OU-YANG; Shao-xi CAI; Ying-he HU; Zhi-liang XU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To establish a cell-based assay to screen human dopamine D1 and D5 receptor agonists against compounds from a natural product compound library.Methods: Synthetic responsive elements 6×cAMP response elements (CRE) and a mini promoter containing a TATA box were inserted into the pGL3 basic vector to generate the reporter gene construct pCRE/TA/Luci. CHO cells were co-transfected with the reporter gene construct and human D1 or D5 receptor cDNA in mammalian expression vectors. Stable cell lines were established for agonist screening. A natural product compound library from over 300 herbs has been established. The extracts from these herbs were used for human D1 and D5 receptor agonist screenings. Results: A number of extracts were identified that activated both D1 and D5 receptors. One of the herb extracts, SBG492, demonstrated distinct pharmacological characteristics with human D1 and D5 receptors.The EC50 values of SBG492 were 342.7 μg/mL for the D1 receptor and 31.7 μg/mL for the D5 receptor. Conclusion: We have established a cell-based assay for high-throughput drug screening to identify D 1-like receptor agonists from natural products. Several extracts that can active D1-like receptors were discovered.These compounds could be useful tools for studies on the functions of these receptors in the brain and could potentially be developed into therapeutic drugs for the treatment of central nervous system diseases.

  2. Calculations of properties of screened He-like systems using correlated wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S T; Solovyova, A; Winkler, P

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, the techniques of correlated wave functions for two-electron systems have been extended to obtain results for P and D states in a screening environment, and in particular for Debye screening. In these calculations, the satisfaction of both the quantum virial theorem and a related sum rule has been enforced and found to provide a high degree of stability of the solutions. Second, in order to facilitate the general use of correlated wave functions in combination with sum rule stability criteria, a rather systematic computational approach to this notoriously cumbersome method has been developed and thoroughly discussed here. Accurate calculations for few-electron systems are of interest to plasma diagnostics; in particular, when inaccuracies in binding energies are drastically magnified as they occur in exponents of Boltzmann factors. PMID:11461411

  3. Cell-Based Biosensors: Electrical Sensing in Microfluidic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Noemi Rozlosnik; Katrine Kiilerich-Pedersen

    2012-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors provide new horizons for medical diagnostics by adopting complex recognition elements such as mammalian cells in microfluidic devices that are simple, cost efficient and disposable. This combination renders possible a new range of applications in the fields of diagnostics and personalized medicine. The review looks at the most recent developments in cell-based biosensing microfluidic systems with electrical and electrochemical transduction, and relevance to medical diagn...

  4. The compliance of doctors with viral hepatitis B screening and antiviral prophylaxis in cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy using a hospital-based screening reminder system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Sun

    Full Text Available Screenings for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and antiviral prophylaxis are recommended for HBsAg-positive patients before the start of cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, compliance with these recommendations varies among doctors. We investigated the compliance of doctors with these recommendations using a reminder system and assessed the outcomes of HBsAg-positive patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy.Using a computer-assisted reminder system, doctors were alerted of both HBsAg screening and antiviral prophylaxis prior to prescribing chemotherapy. The compliance between different doctors and outcomes of patients were investigated during the period of execution of this system. The rates of compliance with both recommendations were compared among various cancer types.A total of 1053 patients were enrolled, of which only 88 had previous data pertaining to HBsAg status. Using this reminder system, an overall screening rate of 85.5% (825/965 was achieved and did not significantly differ according to cancer type. However, the overall antiviral prophylactic rate was only 45.5% (61/134. The rates of antiviral prophylaxis were lower for doctors treating lung, breast and colorectal cancers than for those treating hematological malignancies (all p<0.05. Consequently, the rate of HBV reactivation was lower in patients who received antiviral prophylaxis than in those who did not (1.6% vs. 15.1%; p<0.01. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender and antiviral prophylaxis were both related to reactivation of hepatitis B (p<0.05.By using this reminder system, the overall screening rate for HBsAg was satisfactory, whereas the antiviral prophylaxis was inadequate in patients with solid tumors due to the varying compliance of the attending doctors. Further strategies to improve both screening and prophylaxis are needed to minimize HBV-related events during cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  5. Proof of concept for a novel functional screening system for plant sucrose effluxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchan Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters play pivotal roles in facilitating sucrose transport in plants and their activities have been shown to impact plant growth rates and crop yield.  In contrast to the well-defined mechanism of sucrose influx across plasma membranes, less is known about sucrose efflux mechanisms and the membrane proteins supporting this function.  A major impediment blocking progress in this key area of plant science is the absence of a functional screening system for genes encoding sucrose effluxers.  Here we report a novel yeast system for screening sucrose effluxers based on sucrose release from yeast cells genetically modified to synthesize, but not to metabolize, sucrose.  Inhibiting sucrose metabolism was achieved using yeast strains, SEY 6210 and YSL4-6, carrying mutations in genes encoding invertase and maltase, respectively.  Genes encoding essential components of sucrose biosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP, were used to transform the two yeast hosts to make strains SuPy (from SEY6210 and Ysu (from YSL4-6.  Cultures of SuPy15 cells were found to be capable of synthesizing sucrose when supplied with various compounds as the sole carbon source, including non-fermentable sugars and non-sugar substrates.  A proof of concept of the screening system was demonstrated by transforming SuPy15 with sucrose transporter genes known to encode plasma membrane proteins that mediate sucrose efflux.  The robustness of the yeast SuPy15 system as a novel platform to screen putative plant sucrose effluxers is discussed.

  6. Comparison Of Methods Used To Measure The Characteristic Curve Of Radiographic Screen/Film Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Louis K.; Haus, Arthur G.; Barnes, Gary T.; Bencomo, Jose A.; Amtey, Sharad R.

    1980-08-01

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the accuracy and precision attained by four methods for determining the characteristic curve of radiographic screen/film systems. The four methods include: inverse square sensitometry, KVP adjusted bootstrap sensitometry step-wedge bootstrap sensitometry, and step wedge attenuation sensitometry. The inverse square method was used as the reference standard for accuracy. The extent of and the sources of the inaccurcies involved when using the alternative methods is discussed.

  7. Screening for Hypertension Using Diagnostic Triaging: An Interactive Policy Analysis System

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenberger, Kurt

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a system for screening and group-specific diagnostic management of patients with hypertension. Based on a single-period long-term model, the system is of potential value for administrative health care planning focusing on an effective allocation of a limited budget. Since the overall goal is insight not numbers the system is to be used in a “what...if” mode. The user specifies the problem he wants to consider choosing the decision criterion, the evaluati...

  8. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamamoto-Hino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results.

  9. A time-scale sensitometric method for evaluating screen - film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray sensitometer is used to measure the characteristic curve of radiographic films exposed with fluorescent intensifying screens. The series of relative exposures, necessary to cover the full density range of the film, can be obtained by either time-scale or intensity-scale sensitometric methods. We have developed a convenient method of exposing film-screen systems for time-scale sensitometry. In this method, during exposure the x-ray kilovoltage, tube current and x-ray intensity remain constant and a geometric series of exposures of the film is modulated by varying the exposure time. This time variation can be obtained when a lead disc with different sector openings is rotated in front of the film system by a stepping motor. The conditions normally used are 70 kVp x-rays, 3.5 mm Al total filtration at the tube, and 2.4 m focal spot-film distance. This exposure latitude gives a complete characteristic curve of film-screen systems. (author)

  10. A time-scale sensitometric method for evaluating screen - film systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G.; Pela, C.A.; Ghilardi, N.T. [CIDRA - Centro de Instrumentacao, Dosimetria e Radioprotecao, DFM - FFCLRP - USP, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900-14040 901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    An x-ray sensitometer is used to measure the characteristic curve of radiographic films exposed with fluorescent intensifying screens. The series of relative exposures, necessary to cover the full density range of the film, can be obtained by either time-scale or intensity-scale sensitometric methods. We have developed a convenient method of exposing film-screen systems for time-scale sensitometry. In this method, during exposure the x-ray kilovoltage, tube current and x-ray intensity remain constant and a geometric series of exposures of the film is modulated by varying the exposure time. This time variation can be obtained when a lead disc with different sector openings is rotated in front of the film system by a stepping motor. The conditions normally used are 70 kVp x-rays, 3.5 mm Al total filtration at the tube, and 2.4 m focal spot-film distance. This exposure latitude gives a complete characteristic curve of film-screen systems. (author)

  11. A time-scale sensitometric method for evaluating screen - film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, E. G.; Pelá, C. A.; Ghilardi, Netto T.

    1997-10-01

    An x-ray sensitometer is used to measure the characteristic curve of radiographic films exposed with fluorescent intensifying screens. The series of relative exposures, necessary to cover the full density range of the film, can be obtained by either time-scale or intensity-scale sensitometric methods. We have developed a convenient method of exposing film - screen systems for time-scale sensitometry. In this method, during exposure the x-ray kilovoltage, tube current and x-ray intensity remain constant and a geometric series of exposures of the film is modulated by varying the exposure time. This time variation can be obtained when a lead disc with different sector openings is rotated in front of the film system by a stepping motor. The conditions normally used are 70 kVp x-rays, 3.5 mm Al total filtration at the tube, and 2.4 m focal spot - film distance. This exposure latitude gives a complete characteristic curve of film - screen systems.

  12. High-speed screen beam-profile-monitor system for high-energy beam-transport line at the HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screen monitor system was developed for beam profile monitors at the new High-Energy Beam-Transport (HEBT) section out the HIMAC. This monitor consists of the very thin fluorescent screen and the high-speed CCD camera. In addition to perform high-speed and high-resolution, this monitor does not almost destroy the beam. (author)

  13. Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Martin J., E-mail: martin.yaffe@sri.utoronto.ca; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Hunter, David M.; Mawdsley, Gordon E. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Departments of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Chiarelli, Anna M. [Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Muradali, Derek [Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare physical measures pertaining to image quality among digital mammography systems utilized in a large breast screening program. To examine qualitatively differences in these measures and differences in clinical cancer detection rates between CR and DR among sites within that program. Methods: As part of the routine quality assurance program for screening, field measurements are made of several variables considered to correlate with the diagnostic quality of medical images including: modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, d′ (an index of lesion detectability) and air kerma to allow estimation of mean glandular dose. In addition, images of the mammography accreditation phantom are evaluated. Results: It was found that overall there were marked differences between the performance measures of DR and CR mammography systems. In particular, the modulation transfer functions obtained with the DR systems were found to be higher, even for larger detector element sizes. Similarly, the noise equivalent quanta, d′, and the phantom scores were higher, while the failure rates associated with low signal-to-noise ratio and high dose were lower with DR. These results were consistent with previous findings in the authors’ program that the breast cancer detection rates at sites employing CR technology were, on average, 30.6% lower than those that used DR mammography. Conclusions: While the clinical study was not large enough to allow a statistically powered system-by-system assessment of cancer detection accuracy, the physical measures expressing spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio are consistent with the published finding that sites employing CR systems had lower cancer detection rates than those using DR systems for screening mammography.

  14. Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare physical measures pertaining to image quality among digital mammography systems utilized in a large breast screening program. To examine qualitatively differences in these measures and differences in clinical cancer detection rates between CR and DR among sites within that program. Methods: As part of the routine quality assurance program for screening, field measurements are made of several variables considered to correlate with the diagnostic quality of medical images including: modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, d′ (an index of lesion detectability) and air kerma to allow estimation of mean glandular dose. In addition, images of the mammography accreditation phantom are evaluated. Results: It was found that overall there were marked differences between the performance measures of DR and CR mammography systems. In particular, the modulation transfer functions obtained with the DR systems were found to be higher, even for larger detector element sizes. Similarly, the noise equivalent quanta, d′, and the phantom scores were higher, while the failure rates associated with low signal-to-noise ratio and high dose were lower with DR. These results were consistent with previous findings in the authors’ program that the breast cancer detection rates at sites employing CR technology were, on average, 30.6% lower than those that used DR mammography. Conclusions: While the clinical study was not large enough to allow a statistically powered system-by-system assessment of cancer detection accuracy, the physical measures expressing spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio are consistent with the published finding that sites employing CR systems had lower cancer detection rates than those using DR systems for screening mammography

  15. Correlation analysis for screening key parameters for passive system reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A method for screening key parameters used in passive system reliability analysis. • T–H model is a relationship between output and each input. • Correlation coefficient between output and input is influenced by T–H performance. • Correlation coefficient is also affected by uncertainty of input. - Abstract: Passive systems are widely used in new generation nuclear power plants to enhance their safety. Reliability of passive system operating based on natural circulation must be assessed in terms of functional failure. The functional failure probability evaluation requires repeatedly running the thermal–hydraulic (T–H) code which simulates the system responses under different values of the input parameters. In practice, repeated running of the code is quite costly in terms of running time and artificial neural network (ANN) has been proposed to replace the T–H model. However, the number of input parameters can be too large to satisfy the requirement of the ANN. In this paper we illustrate a systematic methodology to screen the key parameters for passive system operation based on correlation analysis for reducing the number of inputs. Correlation analysis is a well-known statistical method to assess the relationships among parameters. In the case of interest for passive system reliability, we consider the T–H model as a relationship between model inputs and outputs, which can be used in correlation analysis. With this method, key parameters can be screened with limited numbers of samples. The passive containment cooling system in AP1000 is analyzed and 4 parameters are identified as important ones from 47 inputs

  16. Design of a System for Vision Screening and Follow-up Eye Care for Children in Milwaukee Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Kathleen; Wu, Min; Steber, Dale; Cisler, Ron A.

    2005-01-01

    Vision problems affect many school age children, while only few of children are adequately screened for vision problems. The design of an information system supporting vision screening and follow-up eye care for Milwaukee Public Schools is discussed in this paper, which includes wireless data collection and web-based data management. The implementation of the system is ongoing. The information system will provide service to approximately 5,000 students annually in 30 urban e...

  17. Study on the Holdup and Mass Transfer Performances for Gas-Liquid-Liquid System in a Screen Plate Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gas and dispersed phase holdups and mass transfer coefficients of liquid-iquid were determined for gas-liquid-liquid three phase system in a screen plate column. The flow pattern of gas-liquid-liquid three phase system was studied under different gas velocities. The shape factors showed the geometric properties of screen plates and the corrected drop characteristic velocities were introduced. The phase holdup in two phases was correlated. The research results indicated that mass transfer coefficient for liquid-liquid system in a column with screen plates and gas agitation was found to increase apparently.

  18. Development of in vitro screening system for food habit related risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Bruch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the health risk that associated with the consumption of unknown feed or food ingredients, there is a strong need of developing an in vitro screening system. The test system should be fast, reliable, inexpensive and without the necessity of performing animal tests. Furthermore, it should also provide important clues to the potential danger of unknown substances. The present study examines the extent to which cell and tissue cultures can be used for such studies. It should be ascertained whether the cell cultures can replace the native intestinal epithelium in terms of their sensitivity and provide accurate results as a quick “screening system”. As a model for intestinal operations ex vivo tissue cultures from the native intestinal epithelium of the pig and the permanent cell line IPEC-J2 were used. The cell culture was characterized in terms of their morphological and functional properties (TEER, tight-junction proteins.Various studies (short-circuit measurements, translocation of [3H]-mannitol were performed to IPEC-J2 cells and the native intestinal epithelium in order to compare the functional properties of both systems. Finally, the response of the addition of "unknown” test substances (papain and wheat extract were investigated to determine whether the functional parameters of both systems are affected by these test substances or not. The IPEC-J2 cells show a more significant influence in their functionality by “unknown” substances than the control variant. Results of study revealed that the in vitro system reacts rapidly in response of unknown test substances and it is more sensitive. Therefore, it is possible to operate a “risk assessment” for “unknown” substances with the help of this developed screening system.

  19. Sensitometric analyses of screen-film systems for mammography exams in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, L. A. G.; Drexler, G. G.; de Almeida, C. E.; Medeiros, L. L.; Ferreira, N. M. P. D.; Estrada, J. J. S.

    2015-12-01

    A determination of the sensitometric parameters of screen-film systems to evaluate their qualities was performed. The quality control of the automatic film processor was carried out to ensure a high level of efficiency. Based on ISO 9236-3, the following potentials were applied on the X-ray tubes: 25 kV, 28 kV, 30 kV and 35 kV. Four different mammography films from different manufacturers with and without screens were tested for curve shape, speed and average gradient. The results indicated that film 1 exhibited better contrast, film 3 demonstrated the highest energy dependence, and film 4 presented the largest base+fog density. None of the four mammographic films tested achieved satisfactory results in all parameters analyzed. Improvements in the manufacturing process for these films must be completed to avoid losses in the image quality.

  20. Determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a screen-film system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of image quality of a system depends on the task for which the system is intended Modulation transfer function (MTF) is used to describe relevant concepts often used in the analysis of the physical aspects of radiographic image quality. MTF particularly is used as one qf the parameters to determine the sharpness and has been used successfully to characterize the resolution properties of conventional analogue and digital X-ray imaging systems. It is also a basic medical imaging characteristic of the General Radiography X-ray system. This paper presents in brief the determination of MTF of a screen film system, which is most frequently used as an imaging component in diagnostic radiology. To measure MTF of a film screen system, the square wave response function method is used in this method, the square bar pattern with 15 groups of line-pair made of 0.05 mm lead, is used. The square bar pattern image will be changed to digitized data by using digitizer. Then it is analysed in order to get the characteristic curve and calibration curve. Data that are obtained from the graphs are interpolated to determine the MTF values. (Author)

  1. Discrete element analysis for the assessment of the accuracy of load cell-based dynamic weighing systems in grape harvesters under different ground conditions

    OpenAIRE

    González Montellano, Carlos; Baguena Isiegas, Eva; Ramírez Gómez, Álvaro; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic weighing systems based on load cells are commonly used to estimate crop yields in the field. There is lack of data, however, regarding the accuracy of such weighing systems mounted on harvesting machinery, especially on that used to collect high value crops such as fruits and vegetables. Certainly, dynamic weighing systems mounted on the bins of grape harvesters are affected by the displacement of the load inside the bin when moving over terrain of changing topography. In this work, t...

  2. Quality assurance of screen-film systems: measurements and possible standardisation of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters of screen-film systems relevant for medical practice (fog, system-characteristics, sensitivity, gradation, MTF, noise) are discussed. For each of these parameters both the current tolerance values and those which would be required for a higher diagnostic quality of the examinations are given. The consequences for radiation protection are also mentioned. In the second part, proposals for standardised measurements of the parameters discussed, especially for MTF and Wiener spectrum, and the possibilities for a resulting complex assessment of image quality, are given. (author)

  3. Pediatric high KV/filtered airway radiographs: comparison of CR and film-screen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging of pediatric airways presents a challenge because of the superimposition of the airway over the bone of the spine on the AP view. In recent years, some radiology departments have replaced conventional X-ray films by computed radiography (CR). The effect of the various changes upon image quality and radiation doses has not been clearly demonstrated. The goal of this paper was to investigate and identify potential improvements and/or degradations to pediatric airways imaging from the application of new technology, in particular to high KV/filtered radiographs; a new filter was designed. Two modern film-screen combinations and a CR system were evaluated for a range of tube potentials from 60 to 140 kVp. The spatial resolutions were measured for different geometrical magnifications. Relative radiation doses were also determined. Clinical airway images of children taken with the different imaging methods were subjectively compared. Our study confirmed that the visualization of the pediatric airways is enhanced by using high X-ray tube potentials with proper X-ray beam filtration. For CR systems, the selection of the cassette size, cassette type, focal spot, and geometrical magnification impact upon the image quality. Despite the increased dynamic range and image processing advantage with CR systems, CR techniques need to be improved to be more comparable with high kVp filtered magnification radiographs using film screens and small X-ray tube focal spots. With appropriate X-ray beam filtration and high kVp's, CR image receptors can provide adequate image quality for pediatric airway imaging. However, the transition to digital radiography involves certain caveats. In general, radiation doses with CR systems are greater than typical doses with film-screen systems. (orig.)

  4. Ion channel screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, John; Bowlby, Mark; Peri, Ravikumar; Tawa, Gregory; LaRocque, James; Soloveva, Veronica; Morin, John

    2008-08-01

    Ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery with recent estimates indicating that voltage and ligand-gated channels account for the third and fourth largest gene families represented in company portfolios after the G protein coupled and nuclear hormone receptor families. A historical limitation on ion channel targeted drug discovery in the form of the extremely low throughput nature of the gold standard assay for assessing functional activity, patch clamp electrophysiology in mammalian cells, has been overcome by the implementation of multi-well plate format cell-based screening strategies for ion channels. These have taken advantage of various approaches to monitor ion flux or membrane potential using radioactive, non-radioactive, spectroscopic and fluorescence measurements and have significantly impacted both high-throughput screening and lead optimization efforts. In addition, major advances have been made in the development of automated electrophysiological platforms to increase capacity for cell-based screening using formats aimed at recapitulating the gold standard assay. This review addresses the options available for cell-based screening of ion channels with examples of their utility and presents case studies on the successful implementation of high-throughput screening campaigns for a ligand-gated ion channel using a fluorescent calcium indicator, and a voltage-gated ion channel using a fluorescent membrane potential sensitive dye. PMID:18694388

  5. Automated screening system for retinal health using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition and integrated index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Koh, Joel E W; Tan, Jen Hong; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Rao, A Krishna; Fujita, Hamido; Hagiwara, Yuki; Chua, Chua Kuang; Laude, Augustinus

    2016-08-01

    Posterior Segment Eye Diseases (PSED) namely Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), glaucoma and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are the prime causes of vision loss globally. Vision loss can be prevented, if these diseases are detected at an early stage. Structural abnormalities such as changes in cup-to-disc ratio, Hard Exudates (HE), drusen, Microaneurysms (MA), Cotton Wool Spots (CWS), Haemorrhages (HA), Geographic Atrophy (GA) and Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) in PSED can be identified by manual examination of fundus images by clinicians. However, manual screening is labour-intensive, tiresome and time consuming. Hence, there is a need to automate the eye screening. In this work Bi-dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) technique is used to decompose fundus images into 2D Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) to capture variations in the pixels due to morphological changes. Further, various entropy namely Renyi, Fuzzy, Shannon, Vajda, Kapur and Yager and energy features are extracted from IMFs. These extracted features are ranked using Chernoff Bound and Bhattacharyya Distance (CBBD), Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD), Fuzzy-minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (FmRMR), Wilcoxon, Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC) and t-test methods. Further, these ranked features are fed to Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to classify normal and abnormal (DR, AMD and glaucoma) classes. The performance of the proposed eye screening system is evaluated using 800 (Normal=400 and Abnormal=400) digital fundus images and 10-fold cross validation method. Our proposed system automatically identifies normal and abnormal classes with an average accuracy of 88.63%, sensitivity of 86.25% and specificity of 91% using 17 optimal features ranked using CBBD and SVM-Radial Basis Function (RBF) classifier. Moreover, a novel Retinal Risk Index (RRI) is developed using two significant features to distinguish two classes using single number. Such a system helps to reduce eye

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): a screening study to measure class II skeletal pattern, TMJ PDS and use of systemic corticosteroids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandall, Nicky A

    2010-03-01

    To screen patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to determine (i) the severity of their class II skeletal pattern; (ii) temporomandibular joint signs and symptoms and (iii) use of systemic corticosteroids.

  7. Screening for Antifibrotic Compounds Using High Throughput System Based on Fluorescence Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Stefanovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibroproliferative diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. They are characterized by reactive fibrosis caused by uncontrolled synthesis of type I collagen. There is no cure for fibrosis and development of therapeutics that can inhibit collagen synthesis is urgently needed. Collagen α1(I mRNA and α2(I mRNA encode for type I collagen and they have a unique 5' stem-loop structure in their 5' untranslated regions (5'SL. Collagen 5'SL binds protein LARP6 with high affinity and specificity. The interaction between LARP6 and the 5'SL is critical for biosynthesis of type I collagen and development of fibrosis in vivo. Therefore, this interaction represents is an ideal target to develop antifibrotic drugs. A high throughput system to screen for chemical compounds that can dissociate LARP6 from 5'SL has been developed. It is based on fluorescence polarization and can be adapted to screen for inhibitors of other protein-RNA interactions. Screening of 50,000 chemical compounds yielded a lead compound that can inhibit type I collagen synthesis at nanomolar concentrations. The development, characteristics, and critical appraisal of this assay are presented.

  8. Homecell: design and development of a 2 kW fuel cell based electric energy generating system, for the domestic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Even though fuel cell technology has been known in industry for decades now, it has come to the fore in recent years hand in hand with renewable energy sources and the hydrogen vector, as a clean, reliable and efficient electric energy source. Within the stationary applications of fuel cells, the production of high output electric energy has always stood out and this could range from several hundreds of watts to megawatts to supply large plants. The objective of this project is to develop, construct and experimentally validate an electric energy generating system for domestic applications of up to 2 kW. This is due to the fact that multiple domestic applications currently exist for which an electric output of 2 kW is sufficient. On the other hand, an electricity supply might not exist, or might be deficient; and this system will enable electricity supply even under these circumstances. Moreover, the existing system is very versatile and could be complemented with other hydrogen production ones (using photovoltaic energy for example), or else two systems could be used in parallel if outputs up to 4 kW were required, and other applications in other markets, such as telecommunications or tele-metering systems, could be undertaken. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a new combined cooling, heat and power system driven by solid oxide fuel cell based on ammonia-water mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaolin; Wang, Jiangfeng; Yan, Zhequan; Dai, Yiping; Lu, Bingheng

    2011-10-01

    Although a solid oxide fuel cell combined with a gas turbine (SOFC-GT) has good performance, the temperature of exhaust from gas turbine is still relatively high. In order to recover the waste heat of exhaust from the SOFC-GT to enhance energy conversion efficiency as well as to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants, in this study a new combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) system driven by the SOFC is proposed to perform the trigeneration by using ammonia-water mixture to recover the waste heat of exhaust from the SOFC-GT. The CCHP system, whose main fuel is methane, can generate electricity, cooling effect and heat effect simultaneously. The overall system performance has been evaluated by mathematical models and thermodynamic laws. A parametric analysis is also conducted to examine the effects of some key thermodynamic parameters on the system performance. Results indicate that the overall energy conversion efficiency exceeds 80% under the given conditions, and it is also found that the increasing the fuel flow rate can improve overall energy conversion efficiency, even though both the SOFC efficiency and electricity efficiency decrease. Moreover, with an increased compressor pressure ratio, the SOFC efficiency, electricity efficiency and overall energy conversion efficiency all increase. Ammonia concentration and pressure entering ammonia-water turbine can also affect the CCHP system performance.

  10. Value of breast imaging reporting and data system in Chinese breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the value of breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) in Chinese breast cancer screening. Methods: A total number of 3483 women participated in breast cancer screening with mammography in Hexi district in Tianjin from August to December 2009, which was organized by ministry of public health. BI-RADS assessment categories and recommendations were compared with histological findings. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results: Among 3483 screening mammography cases, 267 were almost entirely fat breast, 1245 were scattered fibroglandular, 1890 were dense and 81 extremely dense. There were 1011 patients (29.0%) with category 1, 1741 (50.0%) with category 2, 383 (11.0%) with category 3, 59 patients (1.7%) with category 4 and 16 (0.5%) with category 5 according to BI-RADS assessment categories. Totally, 71 women with 77 lesions were confirmed by histological examinations. There were 29 malignant and 48 benign lesions. The diagnostic precision, sensitivity, specificity of' BI-RADS were 63.6% (49/77), 93.1% (27/29) and 45.8% (22/48). The general PPV of BI-RADS was 50.9% (27/53). The PPV of categories 0.4, 5 were 25.0% (1/4), 36.4% (12/33) and 87.5% (14/16). The NPV of categories 2 and 3 were 90.9% (10/11), 100.0% (12/12). Conclusions: BI-RADS is of much value in assessing the breast malignancy. It is applicable in Chinese breast cancer screening. (authors)

  11. Development of droplets‐based microfluidic systems for single­‐cell high‐throughput screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Godina, Alexei;

    2014-01-01

    investment, and a logarithmic increase to screen large combinatorial libraries over the decades also makes it gradually out of depth. Here, we are trying to develop a feasible high‐throughput system that uses microfluidics to compartmentalize a single cell for propagation and analysis in monodisperse...... picoliter aqueous droplets surround by an immiscible fluorinated oil phase. Our aim is to use this system to facilitate the screening process for both the biotechnology and food industry....

  12. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  13. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  14. A multi-step system for screening and localization of hard exudates in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Bhola, Vishal; Raghavendra, B. S.; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2012-03-01

    The number of people being affected by Diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate. Monitoring of the diabetic condition and its effects on the human body are therefore of great importance. Of particular interest is diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a result of prolonged, unchecked diabetes and affects the visual system. DR is a leading cause of blindness throughout the world. At any point of time 25 - 44% of people with diabetes are afflicted by DR. Automation of the screening and monitoring process for DR is therefore essential for efficient utilization of healthcare resources and optimizing treatment of the affected individuals. Such automation would use retinal images and detect the presence of specific artifacts such as hard exudates, hemorrhages and soft exudates (that may appear in the image) to gauge the severity of DR. In this paper, we focus on the detection of hard exudates. We propose a two step system that consists of a screening step that classifies retinal images as normal or abnormal based on the presence of hard exudates and a detection stage that localizes these artifacts in an abnormal retinal image. The proposed screening step automatically detects the presence of hard exudates with a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV ). The detection/localization step uses a k-means based clustering approach to localize hard exudates in the retinal image. Suitable feature vectors are chosen based on their ability to isolate hard exudates while minimizing false detections. The algorithm was tested on a benchmark dataset (DIARETDB1) and was seen to provide a superior performance compared to existing methods. The two-step process described in this paper can be embedded in a tele-ophthalmology system to aid with speedy detection and diagnosis of the severity of DR.

  15. VISUALISASI DAN NAVIGASI MEDIA PENYIMPANAN DISK DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SPLIT SCREEN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia yulia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk is a very useful device to a computer to save data file. For that, is much needed to have a program that has a capability to represent, navigate, and operate that files. There are many computer programs that used to present, navigate, and operate disk files in text form with a lot of facilities, but only a few programs that can represent files in a graphic form and have special feature, like capability to find the biggest files that use disk space. This capability is very useful in disk file management. This software use split screen system method and tree map algorithm. Split screen system is used to navigate, where the monitor screen divided into two parts to visualize files in a disk, the small part (map navigator visualize the whole content of a drive or directory and the big part visualize the detail of a part according to focus box in the map navigator. A mouse can move focus box in the map navigator and the box size is the comparison between map navigator sizes with map view size. Tree map algorithm is used to calculate the size of box picture of the represented file. This algorithm needs a complete tree structure from a drive or directory that will be painted. The software to make this windows based program is Borland Delphi 5.0. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Disk merupakan alat yang sangat bermanfaat bagi sebuah sistem komputer untuk menyimpan data berupa file. Untuk itu sangat dibutuhkan program yang dapat merepresentasikan, menavigasi dan mengoperasikan file-file tersebut. Banyak program komputer yang digunakan untuk merepresentasikan, menavigasi dan mengoperasikan file-file pada media penyimpanan disk dalam bentuk teks dengan berbagai macam fasilitas, tetapi sangat sedikit program yang merepresentasikan file-file dalam bentuk grafik atau secara visual serta mampu memberikan kelebihan-kelebihan tersendiri, seperti kemampuan untuk merepresentasikan file-file yang paling banyak menggunakan ruang media penyimpanan disk. Kemampuan

  16. An examination of errors in characteristic curve measurements of radiographic screen/film systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, L K; Barnes, G T; Bencomo, J A; Haus, A G

    1983-01-01

    The precision and accuracy achieved in the measurement of characteristic curves for radiographic screen/film systems is quantitatively investigated for three techniques: inverse square, kVp bootstrap, and step-wedge bootstrap. Precision of all techniques is generally better than +/- 1.5% while the agreement among all intensity-scale techniques is better than 2% over the useful exposure latitude. However, the accuracy of the sensitometry will depend on several factors, including linearity and energy dependence of the calibration instrument, that may introduce larger errors. Comparisons of time-scale and intensity-scale methods are made and a means of measuring reciprocity law failure is demonstrated. PMID:6877185

  17. Screening of Aspergillus nidulans metabolites from habitat mimicking media using LC-DAD-TOFMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Andreas; Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    Fungi are a valuable source of metabolites and other bioactive compounds. These compounds are essential for human society, and it is estimated that around 49% of the drugs used to treat cancer are natural products or derived therefrom. Six different wild types of Aspergillus nidulans have been...... cultured on a range of different habitat mimicking media. Extracts from the fungi were analyzed using a LC-DAD-TOFMS system, and by screening the extracts using an in-house database of known fungal metabolites. Using this database we were able to easily select unknown compounds, and dereplicate these using...

  18. Simultaneous determination of maltose and glucose using a screen-printed electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, F; Zhang, X E; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, X M

    1998-03-01

    A screen-printed sensor system consisting of a glucose oxidase (GOD) electrode and an amyloglucosidase/glucose oxidase (A/G) electrode was constructed to determine maltose and glucose simultaneously in a mixture. Sensor construction was optimised so that it contained 20 units of GOD/40 units of amyloglucosidase and 0.2 mM 1,1'-ferrocenedimethanol. These components were deposited onto a screen-printed carbon electrode and an outer membrane was printed from 3.5% hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) solution. The optimum pH was 4.8. The linear range of the system was up to 40 mM glucose or 20 mmol/L maltose with coefficients of variation (CVs) ranging from 3.5% to 5.29%. The results obtained by using the enzyme electrode system agreed well with those obtained by the Fehling titration method. When stored dry, especially at 4 degrees C, the enzyme electrodes showed good stability over four months. PMID:9642769

  19. Quality control: comparison of images quality with screen film system and digital mammography CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mammography screen film system should be used as part of processing chemicals, revelation process, equipment and this system has have a progressive replacing by the digital technology Full Field Digital Mammography FFDM, Computed Radiography (CR) Mammography and hardcopy. This new acquisition process of medical images has improved radiology section; however it is necessary efficient means for evaluating of the quality parameters. It should be considered taking into account the adaptation of the existent equipment and that procedures adopted for the exam, as well the adaptation of the new mammography films, the radiologist view box constitutes a part of the quality control program. This program aims at obtaining radiography with good quality that allows obtaining more information for the diagnosis and decreases the patient dose. For evaluation the quality image, this article is focused on presenting the differences regarding the acquired images through simulator mammography radiographic PMMA (Poly methyl methacrylate) in CR Mammography system and screen film system. The tests were accomplished at the same equipment of Mammography with the Automatic Exposure Control using a tension of 28 kV for both systems. The quality tests evaluated the spatial resolution, the own structures of the phantom, artifacts, optical density and contrast with conventional and laser films by mammography system. The installation for the accomplishment of the test has a quality control program. The evaluation was based on the pattern developed by the competent organ of the State of Minas Gerais. In this study, it was verified that the suitable Phantom Mama used by the Brazilian School of Radiology for conventional mammography did not obtain satisfactory result for Spatial Resolution in the digital mammography system CR. The final aim of this work is to obtain parameters to characterize the reference phantom quality image in an objective way. These parameters will be used to compare

  20. Performance of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for online monitoring in an integrated system combining microbial fuel cell and upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui; Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid system integrating a microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was investigated for real-time online monitoring of the internal operation of the UASB reactor. The features concerned were its rapidity and steadiness with a constant operation condition. In addition, the signal feedback mechanism was examined by the relationship between voltage and time point of changed COD concentration. The sensitivity of different concentrations was explored by comparing the signal feedback time point between the voltage and pH. Results showed that the electrical signal feedback was more sensitive than pH and the thresholds of sensitivity were S=3×10(-5)V/(mg/L) and S=8×10(-5)V/(mg/L) in different concentration ranges, respectively. Although only 0.94% of the influent COD was translated into electricity and applied for biosensing, this integrated system indicated great potential without additional COD consumption for real-time monitoring. PMID:27372008

  1. Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration: sample queries and terminal instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-16

    This document contains the input and output for the Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration. This demonstration is stored on a portable disk at the Environmental Impacts Division. Sample queries presented here include: (1) how to use PASS; (2) estimated 1995 energy consumption from Mid-Range Energy-Forecasting System (MEFS) data base; (3) pollution projections from Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) data base; (4) diesel auto regulations; (5) diesel auto health effects; (6) oil shale health and safety measures; (7) water pollution effects of SRC; (8) acid rainfall from Energy Environmental Statistics (EES) data base; 1990 EIA electric generation by fuel type; sulfate concentrations by Federal region; forecast of 1995 SO/sub 2/ emissions in Region III; and estimated electrical generating capacity in California to 1990. The file name for each query is included.

  2. An objective method for screening and selecting personal cooling systems based on cooling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, John; Eckels, Steve

    2015-05-01

    A method is proposed for evaluation and selection of a personal cooling system (PCS) incorporating PCS, subject, and equipment weights; PCS run time; user task time; PCS cooling power; and average metabolic rate. The cooling effectiveness method presented is derived from first principles and allows those who select PCSs for specific applications to compare systems based on their projected use. This can lower testing costs by screening for the most applicable system. Methods to predict cooling power of PCSs are presented and are compared to data taken through standard manikin testing. The cooling effectiveness ranking is presented and validated against human subject test data. The proposed method provides significant insight into the application of PCS on humans. However, the interaction a humans with a PCS is complex, especially considering the range of clothing ensembles, physiological issues, and end use scenarios, and requires additional analysis. PMID:25683529

  3. Cell-Based Biosensors Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Written by recognized experts the field, this leading-edge resource is the first book to systematically introduce the concept, technology, and development of cell-based biosensors. You find details on the latest cell-based biosensor models and novel micro-structure biosensor techniques. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this unique volume presents the latest innovative applications of cell-based biosensors in a variety of biomedical fields. The book also explores future trends of cell-based biosensors, including integrated chips, nanotechnology and microfluidics. Over 140 illustrations hel

  4. NOD/scid IL-2Rgnull mice: a preclinical model system to evaluate human dendritic cell-based vaccine strategies in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spranger Stefani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date very few systems have been described for preclinical investigations of human cellular therapeutics in vivo. However, the ability to carry out comparisons of new cellular vaccines in vivo would be of substantial interest for design of clinical studies. Here we describe a humanized mouse model to assess the efficacy of various human dendritic cell (DC preparations. Two reconstitution regimes of NOD/scid IL2Rgnull (NSG mice with adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were evaluated for engraftment using 4-week and 9-week schedules. This led to selection of a simple and rapid protocol for engraftment and vaccine evaluation that encompassed 4 weeks. Methods NSG recipients of human PBMC were engrafted over 14 days and then vaccinated twice with autologous DC via intravenous injection. Three DC vaccine formulations were compared that varied generation time in vitro (3 days versus 7 days and signals for maturation (with or without Toll-like receptor (TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists using MART-1 as a surrogate antigen, by electroporating mature DC with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding full length protein. After two weekly vaccinations, the splenocyte populations containing human lymphocytes were recovered 7 days later and assessed for MART-1-specific immune responses using MHC-multimer-binding assays and functional assessment of specific killing of melanoma tumor cell lines. Results Human monocyte-derived DC generated in vitro in 3 days induced better MART-1-specific immune responses in the autologous donor T cells present in the humanized NSG mice. Moreover, consistent with our in vitro observations, vaccination using mature DC activated with TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists resulted in enhanced immune responses in vivo. These findings led to a ranking of the DC vaccine effects in vivo that reflected the hierarchy previously found for these mature DC variations in vitro. Conclusions This humanized mouse model system enables

  5. Impurity of stem cell graft by murine embryonic fibroblasts – implications for cell-based therapy of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek eMolcanyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have been demonstrated to possess a therapeutic potential in experimental models of various central nervous system disorders, including stroke. The types of implanted cells appear to play a crucial role. Previously, groups of the stem cell network NRW implemented a feeder-based cell line within the scope of their projects, examining the implantation of stem cells after ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Retrospective evaluation indicated the presence of spindle-shaped cells in several grafts implanted in injured animals, which indicated potential contamination by co-cultured feeder cells (murine embryonic fibroblasts – MEFs. Because feeder-based cell lines have been previously exposed to a justified criticism with regard to contamination by animal glycans, we aimed to evaluate the effects of stem cell/MEF co-transplantation. MEFs accounted for 5.33% ± 2.81 of all cells in the primary FACS-evaluated co-culture. Depending on the culture conditions and subsequent purification procedure, the MEF-fraction ranged from 0.9 to 9.9% of the cell suspensions in vitro. MEF survival and related formation of extracellular substances in vivo were observed after implantation into the uninjured rat brain. Impurity of the stem cell graft by MEFs interferes with translational strategies, which represents a threat to the potential recipient and may affect the graft microenvironment. The implications of these findings are critically discussed.

  6. A fast and specific method to screen for intracellular amyloid inhibitors using bacterial model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Susanna; Carija, Anita; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego; Ventura, Salvador

    2016-10-01

    The aggregation of a large variety of amyloidogenic proteins is linked to the onset of devastating human disorders. Therefore, there is an urgent need for effective molecules able to modulate the aggregative properties of these polypeptides in their natural environment, in order to prevent, delay or halt the progression of such diseases. On the one hand, the complexity and cost of animal models make them inefficient at early stages of drug discovery, where large chemical libraries are usually screened. On the other hand, in vitro aggregation assays in aqueous solutions hardly reproduce (patho)physiological conditions. In this context, because the formation of insoluble aggregates in bacteria shares mechanistic and functional properties with amyloid self-assembly in higher organisms, they have emerged as a promising system to model aggregation in the cell. Here we show that bacteria provide a powerful and cost-effective system to screen for amyloid inhibitors using fluorescence spectroscopy and flow cytometry, thanks to the ability of the novel red fluorescent ProteoStat dye to detect specifically intracellular amyloid-like aggregates. We validated the approach using the Alzheimer's linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides and tacrine- and huprine-based aggregation inhibitors. Overall, the present method bears the potential to replace classical in vitro anti-aggregation assays. PMID:26608003

  7. A new in vitro hemagglutinin inhibitor screening system based on a single-vesicle fusion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanki; Jin, Wook; Jeong, Byeong-Chul; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) from the influenza virus plays a pivotal role in the infection of host mammalian cells and is, therefore, a druggable target, similar to neuraminidase. However, research involving the influenza virus must be conducted in facilities certified at or above Biosafety Level 2 because of the potential threat of the contagiousness of this virus. To develop a new HA inhibitor screening system without intact influenza virus, we conceived a single-vesicle fusion assay using full-length recombinant HA. In this study, we first showed that full-length recombinant HA can mediate membrane fusion in ensemble and single-vesicle fusion assays. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) frequency pattern of single-vesicle complexes completely differed when the inhibitors targeted the HA1 or HA2 domain of HA. This result indicates that analysing the FRET patterns in this assay can provide information regarding the domains of HA inhibited by compounds and compounds' inhibitory activities. Therefore, our results suggest that the assay developed here is a promising tool for the discovery of anti-influenza virus drug candidates as a new in vitro inhibitor screening system against HA from the influenza virus. PMID:27469068

  8. On the Development of a Web-Based M-Learning System for Dual Screen Handheld Game Consoles

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khalifa, Hend S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our experience on the design and development of an M-Learning web-based system for the Nintendo DSi game console. The paper starts by addressing the difficulties that emerged from the lack of resources on design guidelines for dual screen devices also the absence of adequate techniques and methods to support the design decisions. Then it explains how we overcame these challenges by adopting a design decision suitable for the screen requirements of the Nintendo DSi console....

  9. Pebble Bed Reactor Plant screening evaluation. Volume 1. Overall plant and reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW/sub t/ Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. Volume 1 reports the overall plant and reactor system. Core scoping studies were performed which evaluated the effects of annular and cyclindrical core configurations, radial blanket zones, burnup, and ball heavy metal loadings. The reactor system, including the PCRV, was investigated for both the annular and cylindrical core configurations

  10. A Screening-Level Hydroeconomic Model of South Florida Water Resources System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Flaxman, M.; Wiesmann, D.

    2014-12-01

    South Florida's water resources management is characterized by system-wide tradeoffs associated with maintaining the ecological integrity of natural environments such as the Everglades while meeting the water demands of the agricultural sector and growing urban areas. As these tradeoffs become more pronounced due to pressures from climate change, sea level rise, and population growth, it will be increasingly challenging for policy makers and stakeholders to reach consensus on water resources management objectives and planning horizons. A hydroeconomic optimization model of south Florida's water resources system is developed to incorporate the value of water for preserving ecosystem services alongside water supplies to the Everglades Agricultural Area and urban areas. Results of this screening-level network flow model facilitate quantitative analysis and provide insights for long-term adaptive management strategies for the region's water resources.

  11. Hybrid systems for virtual screening: interest of fuzzy clustering applied to olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, F; Audouze, K; Pintore, M; Chrétien, J R

    2000-01-01

    Kohonen neural networks, also known as Self Organizing Map (SOM), offer a useful 2D representation of the compound distribution inside a large chemical database. This distribution results from the compound organization in a molecular diversity hyperspace derived from a large set of molecular descriptors. Fuzzy techniques based on the "concept of partial truth" reveal to be also a valuable tool for the direct exploitation of chemical databases or SOM. In such cases a fuzzy clustering algorithm is used. In this paper, a complete hybrid system, combining SOM and fuzzy clustering, is applied. As example, a series of olfactory compounds was selected. The complexity of such information is that a same compound may exhibit different odors. It is shown how fuzzy logic helps to have a better understanding of the organization of the compounds. These hybrid systems, using simultaneously SOM and fuzzy clustering, are foreseen as powerful tools for "virtual pre-screening". PMID:10969876

  12. QA of film/screen general radiographic X ray systems: Mobile units and fixed installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction. Optimization of patient dose and image quality is of primary concern in the field of diagnostic imaging. It is recognized that comprehensive quality assurance (QA) programmes are a vital component in the optimization process. Commissioning and routine QA testing of diagnostic X ray imaging equipment is a requirement of European and Irish legislation. Detailed in-house QA protocols have been developed for the acceptance and routine testing of general X ray systems. Protocols are based on recommendations and guidelines published by International, European bodies. The Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, St. James's Hospital is responsible for the QA testing of approximately 100 film/screen general radiographic X ray systems, including mobile units and fixed systems. Although traditional film/screen is currently being replaced by computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR), QA testing of systems that utilize film/screen combinations is still an important aspect of QA programmes. The study presents a survey of general X ray diagnostic imaging equipment performance. It also highlights the importance of QA programmes in ensuring that diagnostic imaging equipment achieves optimal image quality with minimal radiation dose to the patient. Methodology. The following parameters common to both mobile and fixed systems were tested: tube and generator performance, radiation output, half value layer, beam alignment, focal spot size and dose-area-product meter accuracy. For fixed systems, the performance of the Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) system was also assessed. At commissioning, electrical safety measurements were also performed. In addition, equipment condition and mechanical safety were assessed. Results and discussion. For general mobile X ray units the output per mAs at one meter focus-chamber-distance varied significantly, and was measured in the range of 30.5-60.5μGy/mAs. While this lies within the recommended tolerance

  13. Screensaver: an open source lab information management system (LIMS) for high throughput screening facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nale Jennifer; Rudnicki Stewart; Rudnicki Katrina; Chiang Su L; Wrobel David; Erickson Sean D; Sullivan John P; Tolopko Andrew N; Selfors Laura M; Greenhouse Dara; Muhlich Jeremy L; Shamu Caroline E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Shared-usage high throughput screening (HTS) facilities are becoming more common in academe as large-scale small molecule and genome-scale RNAi screening strategies are adopted for basic research purposes. These shared facilities require a unique informatics infrastructure that must not only provide access to and analysis of screening data, but must also manage the administrative and technical challenges associated with conducting numerous, interleaved screening efforts ru...

  14. A Novel High-Throughput 3D Screening System for EMT Inhibitors: A Pilot Screening Discovered the EMT Inhibitory Activity of CDK2 Inhibitor SU9516.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kazuya; Eguchi, Takanori; Rahman, M Mamunur; Sakamoto, Ruriko; Masuda, Norio; Nakatsura, Tetsuya; Calderwood, Stuart K; Kozaki, Ken-Ichi; Itoh, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial pathological event in cancer, particularly in tumor cell budding and metastasis. Therefore, control of EMT can represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer. Here, we introduce an innovative three-dimensional (3D) high-throughput screening (HTS) system that leads to an identification of EMT inhibitors. For the establishment of the novel 3D-HTS system, we chose NanoCulture Plates (NCP) that provided a gel-free micro-patterned scaffold for cells and were independent of other spheroid formation systems using soft-agar. In the NCP-based 3D cell culture system, A549 lung cancer cells migrated, gathered, and then formed multiple spheroids within 7 days. Live cell imaging experiments showed that an established EMT-inducer TGF-β promoted peripheral cells around the core of spheroids to acquire mesenchymal spindle shapes, loss of intercellular adhesion, and migration from the spheroids. Along with such morphological change, EMT-related gene expression signatures were altered, particularly alteration of mRNA levels of ECAD/CDH1, NCAD/CDH2, VIM and ZEB1/TCF8. These EMT-related phenotypic changes were blocked by SB431542, a TGF-βreceptor I (TGFβR1) inhibitor. Inside of the spheroids were highly hypoxic; in contrast, spheroid-derived peripheral migrating cells were normoxic, revealed by visualization and quantification using Hypoxia Probe. Thus, TGF-β-triggered EMT caused spheroid hypoplasia and loss of hypoxia. Spheroid EMT inhibitory (SEMTIN) activity of SB431542 was calculated from fluorescence intensities of the Hypoxia Probe, and then was utilized in a drug screening of EMT-inhibitory small molecule compounds. In a pilot screening, 9 of 1,330 compounds were above the thresholds of the SEMTIN activity and cell viability. Finally, two compounds SB-525334 and SU9516 showed SEMTIN activities in a dose dependent manner. SB-525334 was a known TGFβR1 inhibitor. SU9516 was a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor

  15. Experiences with a new film-screen system in pediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the X-ray images made by the Kodak InSight Pediatric Imaging System (InSight P) with conventional film-screen systems in pediatric chest radiography. Material and methods: The comparison involved chest radiographs made using Quanta-Fast-Detail/Cronex 4 (DuPont), Trimax 16/XDA (3 M) and DuPont UVR/UVL systems. The image quality of critical structures and the physical parameters of quantum interference, contrast and resolution were assessed. The energy path of the system was assessed by preparing density curves. Test conditions were in accordance with the latest guidelines of the Bundesaerztekammer (German Physicians' Association). Results: The mediastinal area, retrocardiac and paravertebral spaces and the peripheral vessels of the lung were all displayed more distinctly using InSight P. The reason for this seems to be a lower degree of quantum interference associated with this system. With tube voltages between 60 and 80 kV, InSight P displayed a relatively low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: InSight P can be used to produce predominantly high quality chest radiographs on infants between one and five years of age. However, this system has limited sensitivity in the tube voltage range recommended by the German Physicians' Association. (orig.)

  16. Novel protein kinase signaling systems regulating lifespan identified by small molecule library screening using Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Spindler

    Full Text Available Protein kinase signaling cascades control most aspects of cellular function. The ATP binding domains of signaling protein kinases are the targets of most available inhibitors. These domains are highly conserved from mammals to flies. Herein we describe screening of a library of small molecule inhibitors of protein kinases for their ability to increase Drosophila lifespan. We developed an assay system which allowed screening using the small amounts of materials normally present in commercial chemical libraries. The studies identified 17 inhibitors, the majority of which targeted tyrosine kinases associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptors, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR, Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT, the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGFI receptors. Comparison of the protein kinase signaling effects of the inhibitors in vitro defined a consensus intracellular signaling profile which included decreased signaling by p38MAPK (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and protein kinase C (PKC. If confirmed, many of these kinases will be novel additions to the signaling cascades known to regulate metazoan longevity.

  17. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmerón-Castro Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionaling CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCSP performance through managerial strategies and quality assurance activities are described. The focus is on the following activities: 1 improving coverage; 2 implementing smear-taking quality control; 3 improving quality in interpretation of Pap test; 4 guaranteeing treatment for women for whom abnormalities are detected; 5 improving follow-up; 6 development of quality control measures and 7 development of monitoring and epidemiological surveillance information systems. Changes within the screening on cervical cancer may be advocated as new technologies present themselves and shortcomings in the existing program appear. It is crucial that these changes should be measured through careful evaluation in order to tally up potential benefits.

  18. Evaluating an SH wave EMAT system for pipeline screening and extending into quantitative defect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Matthew; Dixon, Steve; Fleming, Matthew; Stone, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Guided waves are now commonly used in industrial NDT for locating corrosion in pipelines in the form of wall thinning. Shear Horizontal waves generated by EMATs are used in a screening arrangement in this work to locate and size corrosion in terms of axial extent and circumferential positioning. This is facilitated by propagating SH waves circumferentially around the pipeline whilst moving a scanning rig axially, keeping transducer separation constant. This arrangement is preferential in that it can operate through thin(up to 1mm) coatings and does not require full access to the pipe's circumference and is useful for detecting corrosion in difficult to access regions, such as below pipe supports and in subsea applications. The performance of the system in terms of screening capability and the possibilities of extension into more quantitative measures are assessed. The behaviour of different wave modes as they interact with defects is investigated via experimental measurements on artificially induced corrosion patches and measurements on samples with in service corrosion. Measurement of the axial extent of corrosion patches, circumferential positioning and a range of possible remaining thickness is assessed. Finite element modelling of SH mode interaction with defects is used to understand what happens to different wave modes when they interact with defects in terms of reflection, diffraction and mode conversion.

  19. Clinical evaluation of mammography using a screen-film system. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a clinical image quality test, the parameter image quality is analysed using the ROC method and on the basis of mammograms already classified by means of histological findings into ''benign'' and ''malignant'' cases. The results of this analysis confirmed those of the first two studies: The screen-film system, due to its almost equally good image quality, achieves a diagnostic accuracy as good as the Definix test film without screen. In addition, the following two parameters have been investigated in this clinical test: Different knowledge and experience of the evaluating experts in the field of mammography, and the learning progress in the course of expert training. The difference in knowledge and experience of the various evaluators becomes apparent in ROC analysis only with an evaluator having much more experience than the others in the field of mammography. The parameter learning progress - as shown by repeating the evaluation after three months of intensive training - does not come forth clear enough in the ROC curves. An analysis of the frequency distribution of the five decision thresholds reveals the approach of the individual evaluator. (orig.)

  20. Screening of BRD7 interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Ying(余鹰); ZHU; Shiguo(朱诗国); ZHANG; Bicheng(张必成); ZHOU; Ming(周鸣); LI; Xiaoling(李小玲); LI; Guiyuan(李桂源)

    2002-01-01

    BRD7 gene is low or undetectably expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue (NPC) and can obviously suppress the growth of NPC cell line HNE1. In this study, the proteins that interacted with BRD7 coding protein were screened by yeast two-hybrid system. The complete reading frame of BRD7 gene was subcloned into pAS2 vector (BRD7-BD). Then the human embryo brain cDNA library was screened by BRD7-BD bait. Eleven positive clones were obtained from 4.8×106 transformed clones. By sequencing directly, 6 interacting proteins of BRD7 coding protein were isolated (Bromodomain-containing 3 protein (BRD3), Bromodomain-containing 2 protein (BRD2), IκB kinase-beta, KIAA1375 protein, interleukin 7 and adaptor-related protein complex 3δ-1 subunit). These results suggest BRD7 protein might form heterogenous dimer or triplex polymer with BRD2 and/or BRD3 to participate in transcriptional regulation.

  1. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nancy R.; Samson, Marsha E.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Schootman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. Methods This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer screening predictors with being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening according to criteria of the US Preventive Services Task Force for adults aged 50 or older. State prevalence rates of up-to-date colorectal cancer screening were also calculated and mapped. Results The prevalence of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening for all respondents aged 50 or older was 65.6%; for respondents with diabetes, the rate was 69.2%. Respondents with diabetes were 22% more likely to be up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, having a routine checkup within the previous year significantly increased the odds of being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.90). Other factors such as age, income, education, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and history of cancer were also associated with up-to-date status. Conclusion Regardless of diabetes status, people who had a routine checkup within the past year were more likely to be up-to-date than people who had not. Among people with diabetes, the duration between routine checkups may be of greater importance than the frequency of diabetes-related doctor visits. Continued efforts should be made to ensure that routine care visits occur regularly to address the preventive health needs of patients with and patients without diabetes. PMID:26851338

  2. 热处理对不同溶剂制备的共混体系太阳电池性能影响%Annealing treatment effects on the performances of solar cells based on different solvent blend systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於黄忠; 周晓明; 邓俊裕

    2011-01-01

    The solar cells based on different solvent blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6 ]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as acceptors are fabricated. Annealing treatment effects on the performances of solar cells based on different solvent blend systems are analyzed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results show that high boiling point solvent leads to an enhanced P3HT ordering in the P3HT:PCBM blend system, and causes an increased incident light absorption and PL spectrum, which contributes to the enhancement of device performance. After 130 ~C thermal annealing, The UV-Vis absorption, PL spectrum and the performance of the device are further enhanced. The performance of the device prepared with low boiling point chloroform solvent increases obviously after thermal annealing. The solar cell prepared with chlorobenzene solvent after 130 ~C thermal annealing achieves an open circuit voltage(Voo) of O. 57 V, short circuit current density (Iso) of 8.74 mA/cm2 , fill factor (FF) of 59.2% and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.95% under 100 mW/cm2 air-mass 1.5 solar simulator illumination.%本文以poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT)为电子给体材料,[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester(PCBM)为电子受体材料,制备出不同溶剂形成的共混体系太阳电池.从薄膜的紫外一可见吸收光谱(uV—vis)、光致发光谱(PL)、原子力表面图形(AFM)等方面,分析了热处理对不同溶剂制备的共混体系太阳电池性能的影响.结果表明较高沸点的溶剂有利于P3HT:PCBM共混体系中P3HT的有序化排列,薄膜的紫外一可见吸收和光致发光增强,太阳电池的能量转

  3. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Stigter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  4. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  5. A screening life cycle metric to benchmark the environmental sustainability of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott M; Krishnan, Nikhil; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) can lead to significant environmental burdens. The implementation of effective waste management practices, however, requires the ability to benchmark alternative systems from an environmental sustainability perspective. Existing metrics--such as recycling and generation rates, or the emissions of individual pollutants--often are not goal-oriented, are not readily comparable, and may not provide insight into the most effective options for improvement. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective approach to quantify and compare systems, but full LCA comparisons typically involve significant expenditure of resources and time. In this work we develop a metric called the Resource Conservation Efficiency (RCE) that is based on a screening-LCA approach, and that can be used to rapidly and effectively benchmark (on a screening level) the ecological sustainability of waste management practices across multiple locations. We first demonstrate that this measure is an effective proxy by comparing RCE results with existing LCA inventory and impact assessment methods. We then demonstrate the use of the RCE metric by benchmarking the sustainability of waste management practices in two U.S. cities: San Francisco and Honolulu. The results show that while San Francisco does an excellent job recovering recyclable materials, adding a waste to energy (WTE) facility to their infrastructure would most beneficially impact the environmental performance of their waste management system. Honolulu would achieve the greatest gains by increasing the capture of easily recycled materials not currently being recovered. Overall results also highlight how the RCE metric may be used to provide insight into effective actions cities can take to boost the environmental performance of their waste management practices. PMID:20666561

  6. Construction of the Application Systems for Universal Education in Architectural Heritage – Multimedia Touch Screen Desk System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Reika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of popular education in architectural heritage is well known. It is an effective method for public education to develop applications that utilize digital copy of architectural heritage. We provide a case study focusing on the historical buildings of Toji Temple in Kyoto, Japan. We digitize the historical buildings in both overall construction and detailed structures. We build a demonstration and operating system using multimedia technologies such as multimedia touch screen desk system. The system will produce 3D digital models of architectural heritage with high resolution and use advanced technology to develop a variety of demonstration applications that can enhance your presentation and ease operation. The users can also have more opportunities and ways to improve their interests in learning and understanding about the architectural heritage knowledge, hence finding new ways to further improve the methodology of architectural heritage education with the application of multimedia interactive technologies and digital copy of historical buildings.

  7. Lung Cancer Screening With Low-Dose CT: Implementation Amid Changing Public Policy at One Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnaud, Abbie; Hall, Thomas; Allen, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Screening for lung cancer with low-dose CT has evolved rapidly in recent years since the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) results. Subsequent professional and governmental organization guidelines have shaped policy and reimbursement for the service. Increasingly available guidance describes eligible patients and components necessary for a high-quality lung cancer screening program; however, practical instruction and implementation experience is not widely reported. We launched a lung cancer screening program in the face of reimbursement and guideline uncertainties at a large academic health center. We report our experience with implementation, including challenges and proposed solutions. Initially, we saw less referrals than expected for screening, and many patients referred for screening did not clearly meet eligibility guidelines. We educated primary care providers and implemented system tools to encourage referral of eligible patients. Moreover, in response to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) final coverage determination, we report our programmatic adaptation to meet these requirements. In addition to the components common to all quality programs, individual health delivery systems will face unique barriers related to patient population, available resources, and referral patterns. PMID:27249755

  8. Reconstructing 3-D skin surface motion for the DIET breast cancer screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, Tom; Lotz, Thomas; Kashif, Amer; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    Digital image-based elasto-tomography (DIET) is a prototype system for breast cancer screening. A breast is imaged while being vibrated, and the observed surface motion is used to infer the internal stiffness of the breast, hence identifying tumors. This paper describes a computer vision system for accurately measuring 3-D surface motion. A model-based segmentation is used to identify the profile of the breast in each image, and the 3-D surface is reconstructed by fitting a model to the profiles. The surface motion is measured using a modern optical flow implementation customized to the application, then trajectories of points on the 3-D surface are given by fusing the optical flow with the reconstructed surfaces. On data from human trials, the system is shown to exceed the performance of an earlier marker-based system at tracking skin surface motion. We demonstrate that the system can detect a 10 mm tumor in a silicone phantom breast. PMID:24770915

  9. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  10. Barium enema carried out by digital luminescent radiography (DLR) and conventional screen-film system combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    120 double-contrast barium enemas were obtained by both digital luminescent radiography (DLR) and conventional screen-film systems, the digital exposure dose being 50% of the conventional one. In DLR two differently post processed images were obtained from one X-ray exposure: a display with low spatial frequency enhancement was processed to look like a conventional radiograph and was complemented by a display with high spatial frequency enhancement. Analysing the results statistically DLR proved to be diagnostically equivalent to conventional radiography despite the reduction in exposure dose and a slightly diminished image quality. High spatial frequency enhancement did not provide further diagnostic information and is therefore superfluous in barium enemas. (orig.)

  11. The relationship of over density to overexposure each film/screen systems in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to calculate the exposed radiation dose using Bit method, NDD calculation method and monogram method without dosimeter. In addition,we can calculate the radiation dose from x-ray film density as a film badge. The authors examined the entrance skin dose from 2 ∼ 3 intercostal chest x-ray film density. We also studied the relationship between film density and equivalent dose in the each screen film system under the different radiation quality and the poor geometry condition of grid ratio. As results, we established the deductive method to define the entrance skin dose from chest x-ray film density. The error range was found in the range -13 percent ∼ +17 percent for between deductive entrance skin dose and the 2 ∼ 3 inter coastal chest x-ray film density to actual detective radiation dose with dosimeter. (author)

  12. An in vivo C. elegans model system for screening EGFR-inhibiting anti-cancer drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ki Bae

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a well-established target for cancer treatment. EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK inhibitors, such as gefinitib and erlotinib, have been developed as anti-cancer drugs. Although non-small cell lung carcinoma with an activating EGFR mutation, L858R, responds well to gefinitib and erlotinib, tumors with a doubly mutated EGFR, T790M-L858R, acquire resistance to these drugs. The C. elegans EGFR homolog LET-23 and its downstream signaling pathway have been studied extensively to provide insight into regulatory mechanisms conserved from C. elegans to humans. To develop an in vivo screening system for potential cancer drugs targeting specific EGFR mutants, we expressed three LET-23 chimeras in which the TK domain was replaced with either the human wild-type TK domain (LET-23::hEGFR-TK, a TK domain with the L858R mutation (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R], or a TK domain with the T790M-L858R mutations (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R] in C. elegans vulval cells using the let-23 promoter. The wild-type hEGFR-TK chimeric protein rescued the let-23 mutant phenotype, and the activating mutant hEGFR-TK chimeras induced a multivulva (Muv phenotype in a wild-type C. elegans background. The anti-cancer drugs gefitinib and erlotinib suppressed the Muv phenotype in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]-expressing transgenic animals, but not in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R] transgenic animals. As a pilot screen, 8,960 small chemicals were tested for Muv suppression, and AG1478 (an EGFR-TK inhibitor and U0126 (a MEK inhibitor were identified as potential inhibitors of EGFR-mediated biological function. In conclusion, transgenic C. elegans expressing chimeric LET-23::hEGFR-TK proteins are a model system that can be used in mutation-specific screens for new anti-cancer drugs.

  13. Development of a novel antimicrobial screening system targeting the pyoverdine-mediated iron acquisition system and xenobiotic efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuki; Ushioda, Kenichi; Akiba, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoshimi; Maseda, Hideaki; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Nakae, Taiji; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The iron acquisition systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are inducible in response to low-iron conditions and important for growth of this organism under iron limitation. OprM is the essential outer membrane subunit of the MexAB-OprM xenobiotic efflux pump. We designed and constructed a new model antimicrobial screening system targeting both the iron-uptake system and xenobiotic efflux pumps. The oprM gene was placed immediately downstream of the ferri-pyoverdine receptor gene, fpvA, in the host lacking chromosomal oprM and the expression of oprM was monitored by an antibiotic susceptibility test under iron depleted and replete conditions. The recombinant cells showed wild-type susceptibility to pump substrate antibiotics, e.g., aztreonam, under iron limitation and became supersusceptible to them under iron repletion, suggesting that expression of oprM is under control of the iron acquisition system. Upon screening of a chemical library comprising 2952 compounds using this strain, a compound-ethyl 2-(1-acetylpiperidine-4-carboxamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate-was found to enhance the efficacy of aztreonam under iron limitation, suggesting that the compound inhibits either the iron acquisition system or the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. This compound was subsequently found to inhibit the growth of wild-type cells in the presence of sublethal amounts of aztreonam, regardless of the presence or absence of dipyridyl, an iron-chelator. The compound was eventually identified to block the function of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump, showing the validity of this new method. PMID:25939068

  14. Development of a Novel Antimicrobial Screening System Targeting the Pyoverdine-Mediated Iron Acquisition System and Xenobiotic Efflux Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The iron acquisition systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are inducible in response to low-iron conditions and important for growth of this organism under iron limitation. OprM is the essential outer membrane subunit of the MexAB-OprM xenobiotic efflux pump. We designed and constructed a new model antimicrobial screening system targeting both the iron-uptake system and xenobiotic efflux pumps. The oprM gene was placed immediately downstream of the ferri-pyoverdine receptor gene, fpvA, in the host lacking chromosomal oprM and the expression of oprM was monitored by an antibiotic susceptibility test under iron depleted and replete conditions. The recombinant cells showed wild-type susceptibility to pump substrate antibiotics, e.g., aztreonam, under iron limitation and became supersusceptible to them under iron repletion, suggesting that expression of oprM is under control of the iron acquisition system. Upon screening of a chemical library comprising 2952 compounds using this strain, a compound—ethyl 2-(1-acetylpiperidine-4-carboxamido-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate—was found to enhance the efficacy of aztreonam under iron limitation, suggesting that the compound inhibits either the iron acquisition system or the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. This compound was subsequently found to inhibit the growth of wild-type cells in the presence of sublethal amounts of aztreonam, regardless of the presence or absence of dipyridyl, an iron-chelator. The compound was eventually identified to block the function of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump, showing the validity of this new method.

  15. Auxiliary pattern for cell-based OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Park, Chul-Hong

    2006-10-01

    The runtime of model-based optical proximity correction (OPC) tools has grown unacceptably with each successive technology generation, and has emerged as one of the major bottlenecks for turnaround time (TAT) of IC data preparation and manufacturing. The cell-based OPC approach improves runtime by performing OPC once per cell definition as opposed to once per cell instantiation in the layout. However, cell-based OPC does not comprehend inter-cell optical interactions that affect feature printability in a layout context. In this work, we propose auxiliary pattern-enabled cell-based OPC which can minimize the CD differences between cell-based OPC and model-based OPC. To enable effective insertion of auxiliary pattern (AP) in the design, we also propose a post-placement optimization of a standard cell block with respect to detailed placement. By dynamic programming-based placement perturbation, we achieve 100% AP applicability in designs with placement utilizations of cell-based OPC with AP can match gate edge placement error (EPE) count of model-based OPC within 4%. This is an improvement of 90%, on average, over cell-based OPC without APs. The AP-based OPC approach can reduce OPC runtimes versus model-based OPC by up to 40X in our benchmark designs. We can also achieve reduction of GDSII file size and ORC runtimes due to hierarchy maintenance of cell-based OPC.

  16. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, the analysis of these samples is not only expensive, but can take weeks or months when sent to an off-site laboratory. In contrast, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) screening capability could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real-time measurements provided by a MVM system would enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies, enhance worker safety, and provide the added flexibility of being able to ''steer'' the drill bit in or out hazardous zones. During measurement-while-drilling, down-hole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a rapid data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling proceeds, data are collected on the nature and extent of the subsurface contamination in real-time. The down-hole sensor is a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT) gamma radiation detector. In addition to the GMT signal, the MWD system monitors these required down-hole voltages and two temperatures associated with the detector assembly. The Gamma Ray Detection System (GRDS) and electronics package are discussed in as well as the results of the field test. Finally, our conclusions and discussion of future work are presented

  17. Comparison of low contrast detectability of computed tomography and screen/film mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare low contrast detectability of computed radiography (CR) and screen/film (SF) mammography systems. The Nijimegen contrast detail test object (CDMAM type 3.4) was imaged at 28 kV, in automatic exposure control mode separately. Six medical imaging physicists read each CDMAM phantom image. Contrast detail curves were plotted to compare low contrast detectability of CR (soft copy and hard copy) and SF mammography systems. Effect of varying exposure parameters, namely kV, object position inside the breast phantom, and entrance surface exposure (ESE) on the contrast detail curve were also investigated using soft copy CR. The significant of the difference of contrast between CR and SF, and for each exposure parameter was tested using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. We found that the low contrast detectability of CR (soft copy and hard copy) system is not significantly different to that of SF system (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). For CR soft copy, no significant relationship (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) was seen for variation of kV, object position inside the breast phantom and ESE. This indicates that CR is comparable with SF for useful detection and visualization of low contrast objects such as small low contrast areas corresponding to breast pathology

  18. Comparison of low-contrast detectability of computed radiography and screen/ film mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to compare low-contrast detectability of computed radiography (CR) and screen/ film (SF) mammography systems. The Nijimegen contrast detail test object (CDMAM type 3.4) was imaged at 28 kV, in automatic exposure control mode separately. Six medical imaging physicists read each CDMAM phantom image. Contrast detail curves were plotted to compare low-contrast detectability of CR (soft copy and hard copy) and SF mammography systems. Effect of varying exposure parameters, namely kV, object position inside the breast phantom, and entrance surface exposure (ESE) on the contrast detail curve were also investigated using soft copy CR. The significance of the difference in contrast between CR and SF, and for each exposure parameter, was tested using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The low-contrast detectability of the CR (soft copy and hard copy) system was found to be not significantly different to that of the SF system (p> 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test).For CR soft copy, no significant relationship (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) was seen for variation of kV, object position inside the breast phantom and ESE. This indicates that CR is comparable with SF for useful detection and visualization of low-contrast objects such as small low-contrast areas corresponding to breast pathology. (Author)

  19. Mapping Out Point-of-Care Review Screens for Omaha System Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonah

    2016-02-01

    Omaha System data are text data that consist of standardized terminology and customized descriptions. The customized descriptions related to patient care reveal changes in a client's status over time. These data help public health nurses to understand the patient's progress and to plan future care. However, most electronic health records do not provide clinicians with efficient displays of stored text data. The purpose of this study is to develop point-of-care review screens for Omaha System data on an individual patient level and examine nurse perceptions of the usefulness of the displayed data in improving patient care. Individual patients' data were organized on a Web-based overview page to present all of the health problems that a client had and on detailed pages to present all records of Omaha System data regarding each health problem. Nurse survey results indicated the usefulness of at-a-glance displays of text data on patient care and nurses' decision making. The meaningful review of patient data using a health information system supports patient-data-driven, evidence-based practice and decision making. PMID:26765656

  20. Designing Capital-Intensive Systems with Architectural and Operational Flexibility Using a Screening Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jijun; de Weck, Olivier; de Neufville, Richard; Robinson, Bob; MacGowan, David

    Development of capital intensive systems, such as offshore oil platforms or other industrial infrastructure, generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under various resource, technical, and market uncertainties. It is a very challenging task for development co-owners or joint ventures because important decisions, such as system architectures, have to be made while uncertainty remains high. This paper develops a screening model and a simulation framework to quickly explore the design space for complex engineering systems under uncertainty allowing promising strategies or architectures to be identified. Flexibility in systems’ design and operation is proposed as a proactive means to enable systems to adapt to future uncertainty. Architectural and operational flexibility can improve systems’ lifecycle value by mitigating downside risks and capturing upside opportunities. In order to effectively explore different flexible strategies addressing a view of uncertainty which changes with time, a computational framework based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed in this paper. This framework is applied to study flexible development strategies for a representative offshore petroleum project. The complexity of this problem comes from multi-domain uncertainties, large architectural design space, and structure of flexibility decision rules. The results demonstrate that architectural and operational flexibility can significantly improve projects’ Expected Net Present Value (ENPV), reduce downside risks, and improve upside gains, compared to adopting an inflexible strategy appropriate to the view of uncertainty at the start of the project. In this particular case study, the most flexible strategy improves ENPV by 85% over an inflexible base case.

  1. High-throughput operando Raman-quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system to screen catalytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casado, Manuel; Prieto, José; Vico-Ruiz, Emilio; Lozano-Diz, Enrique; Goberna-Selma, Consuelo; Bañares, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and setup of a high-throughput Raman system for an array of eight parallel catalytic reactors during reaction conditions. The "operando" methodology combines in situ spectroscopy during catalytic reaction with a simultaneous activity measurement. The high-throughput operando Raman system, multi-operando, is a device that automates this operando methodology for several catalyst samples at the same time, all samples being in the same reaction conditions. We describe how the system is made, how Raman system positions and acquires spectra, and how each reactor outlet gas is selected and analyzed. PMID:24405956

  2. On the Development of a Web-Based M-Learning System for Dual Screen Handheld Game Consoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend S. Al-Khalifa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our experience on the design and development of an M-Learning web-based system for the Nintendo DSi game console. The paper starts by addressing the difficulties that emerged from the lack of resources on design guidelines for dual screen devices also the absence of adequate techniques and methods to support the design decisions. Then it explains how we overcame these challenges by adopting a design decision suitable for the screen requirements of the Nintendo DSi console. Finally, we present the components of our M-Learning system and the results of a preliminary usability evaluation.

  3. A Microliter-Scale High-throughput Screening System with Quantum-Dot Nanoprobes for Amyloid-β Aggregation Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Yukako Ishigaki; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Hiroaki Akama; Toshiki Ogara; Koji Uwai; Kiyotaka Tokuraku

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid β protein (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and therefore inhibitory substances for Aβ aggregation may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential for AD. Here we report a novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system for Aβ aggregation inhibitors based on fluorescence microscopy-imaging technology with quantum-dot Nanoprobes. This screening system could be analyzed with a 5-µl sample volume when a 1536-well plate was use...

  4. Use of a radiometric system to screen for antineoplastic agents: correlation with a human tumor cloning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid, semiautomated radiometric system is described for screening for new antineoplastic agents. This radiometric system utilizes inhibition of conversion of [14C]glucose to 14CO2 as an index of cytotoxicity. In this study the radiometric system (BACTEC 460) was first optimized using a variety of human and animal tumor cell lines. Overall, there was a clear linear relationship between the number of cells seeded and the production of 14CO2 from [14C]glucose. The BACTEC System easily detected antitumor activity of compounds from all four classes of antineoplastic agents (doxorubicin, vinblastine, cis-platinum, and methotrexate.) Human tumor cell lines were used to compare the antitumor activity of the same four agents measured by the BACTEC System versus the antitumor activity of the same agents measured by a conventional cloning system. For all cell lines tested there was good agreement in comparison of percentage of survival measured by the BACTEC System versus the standard cloning system. This agreement was better for a continuous exposure to drug in both systems (r = 87, P = less than 0.001) than for a 1-h exposure to the drug (r = 0.35, P = 0.036). In addition to determining the effect of drugs on tumor cells, the BACTEC System was successfully utilized to determine the cytotoxic effect on normal bone marrow buffy coat cells. By utilizing a comparison of suppression of 14CO2 production by normal versus tumor cells, a measurement of differential cytotoxicity could be made. Based on these findings, the radiometric BACTEC System represents a simple and rapid method to detect cytostatic or cytocidal activity of new compounds. It is ideal for use as a prescreen for testing a large number of new chemical entities against a large number of human tumor cell lines

  5. Deployment and validation of a smart system for screening of language disorders in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Duboy, Miguel Ángel Valero; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2013-01-01

    Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child's quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child's optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at primary-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart system that enhances the screening of language disorders in primary care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the system proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested system redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases. PMID:23752564

  6. Deployment and Validation of a Smart System for Screening of Language Disorders in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Pau de la Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child’s quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child’s optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at primary-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart system that enhances the screening of language disorders in primary care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the system proposal in 18 cases (86% and suggested system redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases.

  7. Experimental holographic movie IV: the projection-type display system using a retro-directive screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazuhito; Ishii, Ken'ichiro; Ishikawa, Jun; Hiyama, Shigeo

    1995-04-01

    Holographic movies can be seen as a tool to estimate the picture quality of moving holographic images as a step towards holographic television. The authors have previously developed three versions of an experimental holographic movie system, and this paper is a report on an improved version 4 of the system. The new version features a newly-developed projection-type display with a retro-directive beaded-screen, and an automatic film driver unit which moves perforated 35 mm holographic film intermittently with a shutter. A twin diamond-shaped hologram format, which was developed in the earlier version 2, is adopted for the films. The films comprise a series of reconstructed moving holographic images with minimal blurring. The optical arrangement and structure of the version 4 system enable the viewers to watch the film images in an open space, which in turn relieves them of the psychological pressure they felt with the previous three versions, when they had to squint into a narrow window built into a wall on the side of the device.

  8. Development of an advanced digital detection system for multidrug resistant tuberculosis screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkulet, Michelle D.; Beckstead, Jeffrey A.; Gilman, Brian C.; Bardarov, Savco; Castracane, James; Jacobs, William R., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death in the world from a single infectious disease and the threat is becoming more critical with the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Existing methods for detection of various strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis are complex, time consuming and expensive, and therefore, not suitable for use in developing countries where the spread of the disease is most rampant. Currently, a digital detection system based on advanced digital imaging technology, including CMOS and image intensification technology, is being developed by InterScience, Inc. for use with the luciferase reporter mycobacteriophages technique as developed at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. This compact, low cost and high sensitivity system for rapid diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing for TB will have an immediate impact for both research and clinical applications. It is envisioned that the instrument will be suitable for use as a portable tool for rapid screening of MDR-TB in both developed and developing countries. The development of the system, recent results and a comparison to competing technologies will be presented.

  9. Modelling of hysteresis in thin superconducting screens for mixed-mu suspension systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed-mu levitation is the principle whereby iron is levitated in a magnetic field and stabilized by the proximity of diamagnetic superconducting screens. In a dynamic environment, the screens are subject to changing magnetic fields thus causing hysteresis losses in the superconducting material. This paper is concerned with the modeling of such hysteresis. A finite difference approximation to the current and field distributions is employed, the current distribution being made consistent with critical current values by iteration. Square and disc shaped screen samples are studied and hysteresis curves computed. It is shown that the method represents a fair approximation to the hysteresis behavior of thin superconducting screens. 8 refs

  10. Environmental measurement while drilling system for real-time field screening of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide-thallium activated crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The output of the PMT goes to a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The MCA data is transmitted to the surface via a signal conditioning and transmitter board similar to that used with the GMT. The EMWD system is described and the results of the GRS field tests and field demonstration are presented

  11. A high throughput screening assay system for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of gsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisan Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available Mis-sense mutations in the α-subunit of the G-protein, Gsα, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gsα and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gsα protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT or mutant Gsα proteins (R201C and R201H. Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gsα protein expression that had relatively lower (WT or higher (R201C and R201H cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses.

  12. Training set optimization and classifier performance in a top-down diabetic retinopathy screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigdahl, J.; Agurto, C.; Murray, V.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects more than 4.4 million Americans age 40 and over. Automatic screening for DR has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective way to lower the burden on the healthcare system, by triaging diabetic patients and ensuring timely care for those presenting with DR. Several supervised algorithms have been developed to detect pathologies related to DR, but little work has been done in determining the size of the training set that optimizes an algorithm's performance. In this paper we analyze the effect of the training sample size on the performance of a top-down DR screening algorithm for different types of statistical classifiers. Results are based on partial least squares (PLS), support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Our dataset consisted of digital retinal images collected from a total of 745 cases (595 controls, 150 with DR). We varied the number of normal controls in the training set, while keeping the number of DR samples constant, and repeated the procedure 10 times using randomized training sets to avoid bias. Results show increasing performance in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) when the number of DR subjects in the training set increased, with similar trends for each of the classifiers. Of these, PLS and k-NN had the highest average AUC. Lower standard deviation and a flattening of the AUC curve gives evidence that there is a limit to the learning ability of the classifiers and an optimal number of cases to train on.

  13. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  14. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health Stories Screening Newborns for Critical ... Quality Assurance Program Newborn Screening Translation Research Initiative Newborn ... Stay Connected Twitter Facebook ...

  15. Biotoxin Detection Using Cell-Based Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pratik Banerjee; Spyridon Kintzios; Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs) by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results ob...

  16. Relativistic spectroscopy of plasma-embedded Li-like systems with screening effects in two-body Debye potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectroscopic properties of Li atoms and Li-like Ca and Ti ions in the plasma environment are investigated using a relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) method. Assuming that the plasma is of low density and very hot, we consider the Debye model with two approximations to account for the screening effects: (i) in the nuclear potential alone and (ii) in both the nuclear and the electron–electron interaction potentials. Also, calculations for the energies and the lifetimes of the atomic states are carried out for plasma-free systems to check their accuracy, after which they are investigated in the plasma environment. It is observed that screenings in the electron–electron interaction potentials stabilize the systems more than when the screenings are present only in the nuclear potential. Similarly, the blue and red shifts in the Δn=0 and Δn≠0 transition lines (with the principal quantum number n) of the Li-like ions observed in the (i) approximation are altered in the (ii) approximation. The level crossings among the energy levels are observed for large screening effects and are found to be prominent in the states of higher orbital angular momentum. The lifetimes of many low-lying states of the allowed transitions are estimated by considering different plasma screening strengths. (paper)

  17. Colometer: A real-time quality feedback system for screening colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobromir Filip; Xuexin Gao; Leticia Angulo-Rodríguez; Martin P Mintchev; Shane M Devlin; Alaa Rostom; Wayne Rosen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the performance of a new software-based colonoscopy quality assessment system.METHODS:The software-based system employs a novel image processing algorithm which detects the levels of image clarity,withdrawal velocity,and level of the bowel preparation in a real-time fashion from live video signal.Threshold levels of image blurriness and the withdrawal velocity below which the visualization could be considered adequate have initially been determined arbitrarily by review of sample colonoscopy videos by two experienced endoscopists.Subsequently,an overall colonoscopy quality rating was computed based on the percentage of the withdrawal time with adequate visualization (scored 1-5; 1,when the percentage was 1%-20%; 2,when the percentage was 21%-40%,etc.).In order to test the proposed velocity and blurriness thresholds,screening colonoscopy withdrawal videos from a specialized ambulatory colon cancer screening center were collected,automatically processed and rated.Quality ratings on the withdrawal were compared to the insertion in the same patients.Then,3 experienced endoscopists reviewed the collected videos in a blinded fashion and rated the overall quality of each withdrawal (scored 1-5; 1,poor; 3,average; 5,excellent) based on 3 major aspects:image quality,colon preparation,and withdrawal velocity.The automated quality ratings were compared to the averaged endoscopist quality ratings using Spearman correlation coefficient.RESULTS:Fourteen screening colonoscopies were assessed.Adenomatous polyps were detected in 4/14(29%) of the collected colonoscopy video samples.As a proof of concept,the Colometer software rated colonoscope withdrawal as having better visualization than the insertion in the 10 videos which did not have any polyps (average percent time with adequate visualization:79% ± 5% for withdrawal and 50% ± 14% for insertion,P < 0.01).Withdrawal times during which no polyps were removed ranged from 4-12 min.The median

  18. Screening of Potential HIV-1 Inhibitors/Replication Blockers Using Secure Lentiviral in Vitro System

    OpenAIRE

    Prokofjeva, M.; Spirin, P.; Yanvarev, D.; Ivanov, A.; M Novikov; Stepanov, O.; Gottikh, M.; Kochetkov, S.; Fehse, B; Stocking, C; Prassolov, V

    2011-01-01

    The development and usage of safe cell systems for testing agents which possess anti-HIV activity is a very important factor in the design of new drugs. We have described in detail a system we designed that is based on lentiviral vectors (Prokofjeva et. al., Antiviral Therapy, in print) for swift and completely safe screening of potential HIV-1 replication inhibitors. The system enables one to test the efficiency of the inhibitory activity of compounds whose action is directed towards either ...

  19. Quality assurance for screening mammography data collection systems in 22 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klabunde, C.N.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Thoresen, S.; Rodrigues, V.J.; Ballard-Barbash, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To document the mammography data that are gathered by the organized screening programs participating in the International Breast Cancer Screening Network (IBSN), the nature of their procedures for data quality assurance, and the measures used to assess program performance and impact. MET

  20. Control system design of the CERN/CMS tracker thermal screen

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E

    2003-01-01

    The Tracker is one of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid experiment) subdetectors to be installed at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) accelerator, scheduled to start data taking in 2007 at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). The tracker will be operated at a temperature of -10 degree C in order to reduce the radiation damage on the silicon detectors; hence, an insulated environment has to be provided by means of a screen that introduces a thermal separation between the Tracker and the neighboring detection systems. The control system design includes a formal description of the process by means of a thermodynamic model; then, the electrical equivalence is derived. The transfer function is inferred by the ratio of the voltage on the outer skin and the voltage input, i.e. the ratio of the temperature outside the tracker and the heat generated (which is the controlled variable). A PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller has been designed using MatLab. The results achieved so far prove that thi...

  1. MOLA: a bootable, self-configuring system for virtual screening using AutoDock4/Vina on computer clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Rui MV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual screening of small molecules using molecular docking has become an important tool in drug discovery. However, large scale virtual screening is time demanding and usually requires dedicated computer clusters. There are a number of software tools that perform virtual screening using AutoDock4 but they require access to dedicated Linux computer clusters. Also no software is available for performing virtual screening with Vina using computer clusters. In this paper we present MOLA, an easy-to-use graphical user interface tool that automates parallel virtual screening using AutoDock4 and/or Vina in bootable non-dedicated computer clusters. Implementation MOLA automates several tasks including: ligand preparation, parallel AutoDock4/Vina jobs distribution and result analysis. When the virtual screening project finishes, an open-office spreadsheet file opens with the ligands ranked by binding energy and distance to the active site. All results files can automatically be recorded on an USB-flash drive or on the hard-disk drive using VirtualBox. MOLA works inside a customized Live CD GNU/Linux operating system, developed by us, that bypass the original operating system installed on the computers used in the cluster. This operating system boots from a CD on the master node and then clusters other computers as slave nodes via ethernet connections. Conclusion MOLA is an ideal virtual screening tool for non-experienced users, with a limited number of multi-platform heterogeneous computers available and no access to dedicated Linux computer clusters. When a virtual screening project finishes, the computers can just be restarted to their original operating system. The originality of MOLA lies on the fact that, any platform-independent computer available can he added to the cluster, without ever using the computer hard-disk drive and without interfering with the installed operating system. With a cluster of 10 processors, and a

  2. Cell-Based Genotoxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Georg; Buchinger, Sebastian

    Genotoxicity test systems that are based on bacteria display an important role in the detection and assessment of DNA damaging chemicals. They belong to the basic line of test systems due to their easy realization, rapidness, broad applicability, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Since the development of the Salmonella microsomal mutagenicity assay by Ames and coworkers in the early 1970s, significant development in bacterial genotoxicity assays was achieved and is still a subject matter of research. The basic principle of the mutagenicity assay is a reversion of a growth inhibited bacterial strain, e.g., due to auxotrophy, back to a fast growing phenotype (regain of prototrophy). Deeper knowledge of the ­mutation events allows a mechanistic understanding of the induced DNA-damage by the utilization of base specific tester strains. Collections of such specific tester strains were extended by genetic engineering. Beside the reversion assays, test systems utilizing the bacterial SOS-response were invented. These methods are based on the fusion of various SOS-responsive promoters with a broad variety of reporter genes facilitating numerous methods of signal detection. A very important aspect of genotoxicity testing is the bioactivation of ­xenobiotics to DNA-damaging compounds. Most widely used is the extracellular metabolic activation by making use of rodent liver homogenates. Again, genetic engineering allows the construction of highly sophisticated bacterial tester strains with significantly enhanced sensitivity due to overexpression of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. This provides mechanistic insights into the toxification and detoxification pathways of xenobiotics and helps explaining the chemical nature of hazardous substances in unknown mixtures. In summary, beginning with "natural" tester strains the rational design of bacteria led to highly specific and sensitive tools for a rapid, reliable and cost effective

  3. An hourly based performance comparison of an integrated micro-structural perforated shading screen with standard shading systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; McNeil, Andrew; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This article evaluates the performance of an integrated micro structural perforated shading screen (MSPSS). Such a system maintains a visual connection with the outdoors while imitating the shading functionality of a venetian blind. Building energy consumption is strongly influenced by the solar...

  4. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sakthivel Ramasamy,1 Devasier Bennet,1 Sanghyo Kim1,2 1Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea Abstract: This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered. Keywords: screening of bioactive agents, impedance-based cell

  5. Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

    2001-10-19

    Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

  6. Studies with anti fouling coating on seawater intake system screens of MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofouling has been a concern for cooling water systems of coastal power plants and the same is being experienced in Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Macro fouling organisms cause major problems for smooth operation and maintenance of the cooling water system. The cooling water intake structures particularly the screens, which act as the barrier for marine organisms to enter into the cooling water system, gets fouled severely in a short period of time. Though chlorination is being done to control biofouling, it is ineffective due to the inward flow of seawater. Severely fouled gates necessitate frequent cleaning and maintenance which involves lifting of heavy structures, laborious manual cleaning and maintenance. In order to find remedial measures for the said concern, studies have been taken up for identification of simple but effective methods in controlling bio fouling. Accordingly studies with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) applications have been identified and field studies were carried out to review its effectiveness in meeting the given requirement. One of the gates was coated with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) and exposed to sea water and the bio fouling tendency was regularly monitored. It was noted that the AFC coated gate was observed to have less bio fouling compared to the in-practice coal tar epoxy coatings. The small quantity of fouling deposits was generally observed to be on the side opposite to the sea water current. The area exposed to sea water currents had relatively less biogrowth. The dislodgement or removal of bio growth could be achieved by gentle pressure or scrapping thus demonstrating its effectiveness in controlling the bio fouling. Studies are also in progress to with Foul release coatings (FRC) to study its effectiveness. (author)

  7. Use of electronic personal health record systems to encourage HIV screening: an exploratory study of patient and provider perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes D Keith

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When detected, HIV can be effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless in the U.S. approximately 25% of those who are HIV-infected do not know it. Much remains unknown about how to increase HIV testing rates. New Internet outreach methods have the potential to increase disease awareness and screening among patients, especially as electronic personal health records (PHRs become more widely available. In the US Department of Veterans' Affairs medical care system, 900,000 veterans have indicated an interest in receiving electronic health-related communications through the PHR. Therefore we sought to evaluate the optimal circumstances and conditions for outreach about HIV screening. In an exploratory, qualitative research study we examined patient and provider perceptions of Internet-based outreach to increase HIV screening among veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA health care system. Findings We conducted two rounds of focus groups with veterans and healthcare providers at VHA medical centers. The study's first phase elicited general perceptions of an electronic outreach program to increase screening for HIV, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Using phase 1 results, outreach message texts were drafted and then presented to participants in the second phase. Analysis followed modified grounded theory. Patients and providers indicated that electronic outreach through a PHR would provide useful information and would motivate patients to be screened for HIV. Patients believed that electronic information would be more convenient and understandable than information provided verbally. Patients saw little difference between messages about HIV versus about diabetes and cholesterol. Providers, however, felt patients would disapprove of HIV-related messages due to stigma. Providers expected increased workload from the electronic outreach, and thus suggested adding primary care resources and devising

  8. Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

  9. Characteristics of Screen Mesh Wick Heat Pipe with Nanofluid as Passive Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.N. Septiadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The heat pipe is one of the cooling media which is potential to be developed for the passive cooling system for nuclear reactors. To enhance the performance of the heat pipe, nanofluids have been used as the working fluid for the heat pipe. This paper studies the characteristics of nanofluids as the working fluid of heat pipe with screen mesh wick, which was the mixture of nano-sized particles (Al2O3 and TiO2 with water as the base fluid. The nanoparticles have average diameter of 20 nm, made with 1% to 5% volume fraction. The heat pipe thermal performance was tested using heater with different heat load. The experimental result shows the use of 5% Al2O3-water improve the thermal performance by reducing the temperature at evaporator side as much as 23.7% and the use of TiO2-water reduce the temperature at evaporator side as much as 20.2% compared to the use of water. The use of nanofluid also decreases the thermal resistance of heat pipe. As the use of nanofluid improves thermal performance of heat pipe, it has a potential for applications along with heat pipes at nuclear reactors

  10. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. PMID:26472478

  11. The glycinergic system in human startle disease: a genetic screening approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I Rees

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human startle disease, also known as hyperekplexia (OMIM 149400, is a paroxysmal neurological disorder caused by defects in glycinergic neurotransmission. Hyperekplexia is characterised by an exaggerated startle reflex in response to tactile or acoustic stimuli which first presents as neonatal hypertonia, followed in some with episodes of life-threatening infantile apnoea. Genetic screening studies have demonstrated that hyperekplexia is genetically heterogeneous with several missense and nonsense mutations in the postsynaptic glycine receptor (GlyR a1 subunit gene (GLRA1 as the primary cause. More recently, missense, nonsense and frameshift mutations have also been identified in the glycine transporter GlyT2 gene, SLC6A5, demonstrating a presynaptic component to this disease. Further mutations, albeit rare, have been identified in the genes encoding the GlyR b subunit (GLRB, collybistin (ARHGEF9 and gephyrin (GPHN – all of which are postsynaptic proteins involved in orchestrating glycinergic neurotransmission. In this review, we describe the clinical ascertainment aspects, phenotypic considerations and the downstream molecular genetic tools utilised to analyse both presynaptic and postsynaptic components of this heterogeneous human neurological disorder. Moreover, we will describe how the ancient startle response is the preserve of glycinergic neurotransmission and how animal models and human hyperekplexia patients have provided synergistic evidence that implicates this inhibitory system in the control of startle reflexes.

  12. A system for optical high resolution screening of electrical excitable cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Oliver; Tian, Qinghai; Zantl, Roman; Kahl, Valentin; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2010-03-01

    The application of primary excitable cells for high content screening (HCS) requires a multitude of novel developments including cell culture and multi-well plates. Here we introduce a novel system combining optimised culture conditions of primary adult cardiomyocytes with the particular needs of excitable cells for arbitrary field stimulation of individual wells. The major advancements of our design were tested in calcium imaging experiments and comprise (i) each well of the plate can be subjected to individual pulse protocols, (ii) the software driving electrical stimulation can run as a stand-alone application but also as a plug-in in HCS software packages, (iii) the optical properties of the plastic substrate (foil) resemble those of glass coverslips fostering high resolution immersion-based microscopy, (iv) the bottom of the foil is coated with an oleophobic layer that prevents immersion oil from sticking, (v) the top of the foil is coated with an elastic film. The latter enables cardiomyocytes to display loaded contractions by mimicking the physiologically occurring local elastic network (e.g. extracellular matrix) and results in significantly increased contractions (with identical calcium transients) when compared to non-elastic substrates. Thus, our novel design and culture conditions represent an essential further step towards the application of primary cultured adult cardiomyocytes for HCS applications. PMID:20036001

  13. Environmental Measurement While Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of subsurface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. Real-time information on environmental conditions, drill bit location and temperature during drilling is valuable in many environmental restoration operations. This type of information can be used to provide field screening data and improved efficiency of site characterization activities. The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) System represents an innovative blending of new and existing technology in order to obtain real-time data during drilling. The system consists of two subsystems. The down-hole subsystem (at the drill bit) consists of sensors, a power supply, a signal conditioning and transmitter board, and a radio-frequency (RF) coaxial cable. The up-hole subsystem consists of a battery pack/coil, pickup coil, receiver, and personal computer. The system is compatible with fluid miser drill pipe, a directional drilling technique that uses minimal drilling fluids and generates little to no secondary waste. In EMWD, downhole sensors are located behind the drill bit and linked by a high-speed data transmission system to a computer at the surface. Sandia-developed Windowstrademark-based software is used for data display and storage. As drilling is conducted, data is collected on the nature and extent of contamination, enabling on-the-spot decisions regarding drilling and sampling strategies. Initially, the downhole sensor consisted of a simple gamma radiation detector, a Geiger-Mueller tube (GMT). The design includes data assurance techniques to increase safety by reducing the probability of giving a safe indication when an unsafe condition exists. The EMWD system has been improved by the integration of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) in place of the GMT. The GRS consists of a sodium iodide

  14. Screening reservoir systems by considering the efficient trade-offs-informing infrastructure investment decisions on the Blue Nile

    OpenAIRE

    Geressu, R. T.; J. J. Harou

    2015-01-01

    Multi-reservoir system planners should consider how new dams impact downstream reservoirs and the potential contribution of each component to coordinated management. We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration. ...

  15. An ensemble-based system for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Antal, Balint; Hajdu, Andras

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an ensemble-based method for the screening of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is proposed. This approach is based on features extracted from the output of several retinal image processing algorithms, such as image-level (quality assessment, pre-screening, AM/FM), lesion-specific (microaneurysms, exudates) and anatomical (macula, optic disc) components. The actual decision about the presence of the disease is then made by an ensemble of machine learning classifiers. We have tested our...

  16. Cell-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bernardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, accumulating experimental evidence supports the notion that diabetic patients may greatly benefit from cell-based therapies, which include the use of adult stem and/or progenitor cells. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and the circulating pool of endothelial progenitor cells have so far been the most studied populations of cells proposed for the treatment of vascular complications affecting diabetic patients. We review the evidence supporting their use in this setting, the therapeutic benefits that these cells have shown so far as well as the challenges that cell-based therapies in diabetic complications put out.

  17. A stem cell-based approach to cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristen; Zhu, Shoutian; Tremblay, Matthew S; Payette, Joshua N; Wang, Jianing; Bouchez, Laure C; Meeusen, Shelly; Althage, Alana; Cho, Charles Y; Wu, Xu; Schultz, Peter G

    2012-05-11

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that involves the destruction of articular cartilage and eventually leads to disability. Molecules that promote the selective differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chondrocytes may stimulate the repair of damaged cartilage. Using an image-based high-throughput screen, we identified the small molecule kartogenin, which promotes chondrocyte differentiation (median effective concentration = 100 nM), shows chondroprotective effects in vitro, and is efficacious in two OA animal models. Kartogenin binds filamin A, disrupts its interaction with the transcription factor core-binding factor β subunit (CBFβ), and induces chondrogenesis by regulating the CBFβ-RUNX1 transcriptional program. This work provides new insights into the control of chondrogenesis that may ultimately lead to a stem cell-based therapy for osteoarthritis. PMID:22491093

  18. Study on adsorption equipment with auto-cleaning screen for extraction of gold in resin-in-pulp system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption equipment with auto-cleaning screen for extraction of gold in resin-in-pulp (RIP) system was developed. The experimental results on the adsorption equipment and the result of its industrial production application in a gold plant are described. Two key technical difficult problems in mechanical stirring equipment for RIP system, that is, the uniform resin distribution and the RIP interstage effective separation, have been solved. The industrial application proves that the equipment has good hydrodynamic and kinetic characteristics, the flow rate of pulp through the interstage separating screen achieved to 50-80 m3/(m2·h) without any force from outside system, the content of gold in the adsorption tail solution was less than 0.02 mg/L, and the adsorption efficiency was greater than 99.52%. (authors)

  19. Phosphorus Uptake and Utilisation Efficiencies of Different Wheat Cultivars Based on a Sand-Culture Screening System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A sand-based culture system using rock phosphate (P) was developed to simulate the situation in alkalinesoils, with respect to the dominant P form, and five wheat cultivars (Excalibur, Brookton, Krichauff, Westoniaand Sunco) were tested in this screening system to compare their P uptake and utilisation efficiencies. Resultsshowed that these cultivars differed significantly in their ability to acquire P from the sparingly available form(rock phosphate in this case). The accumulation of P by Brookton was three times that by Krichauff. Pconcentrations in plant tissues did not differ significantly, indicating that all cultivars were similar in Putilisation efficiency. A further experiment showed that the greater ability of a cultivar to take up P fromsparingly available form was related to the ability of a cultivar to acidify the rhizosphere. Seed P content wasa confounding factor in this system, and the use of relatively uniform seed with similar P content, preferablylow, was conducive to a successful outcome of the screening process.

  20. Dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Saito, Keisuke; Takami, Shinichiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although systemic therapy is the standard care for patients with recurrent or metastatic CRC, the prognosis is extremely poor. The optimal sequence of therapy remains unknown. Therefore, alternative strategies, such as immunotherapy, are needed for patients with advanced CRC. This review summarizes evidence from dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies that are curr...

  1. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  2. Antibody-Array-Based Proteomic Screening of Serum Markers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Discovery Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianfu; Ding, Huihua; Han, Jie; Arriens, Cristina; Wei, Chungwen; Han, Weilu; Pedroza, Claudia; Jiang, Shan; Anolik, Jennifer; Petri, Michelle; Sanz, Ignacio; Saxena, Ramesh; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-07-01

    A discovery study was carried out where serum samples from 22 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and matched healthy controls were hybridized to antibody-coated glass slide arrays that interrogated the level of 274 human proteins. On the basis of these screens, 48 proteins were selected for ELISA-based validation in an independent cohort of 28 SLE patients. Whereas AXL, ferritin, and sTNFRII were significantly elevated in patients with active lupus nephritis (LN) relative to SLE patients who were quiescent, other molecules such as OPN, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, FAS, and MMP10 exhibited the capacity to distinguish SLE from healthy controls with ROC AUC exceeding 90%, all with p serum markers were next tested in a cohort of 45 LN patients, where serum was obtained at the time of renal biopsy. In these patients, sTNFRII exhibited the strongest correlation with eGFR (r = -0.50, p = 0.0014) and serum creatinine (r = 0.57, p = 0.0001), although AXL, FAS, and IGFBP2 also correlated with these clinical measures of renal function. When concurrent renal biopsies from these patients were examined, serum FAS, IGFBP2, and TNFRII showed significant positive correlations with renal pathology activity index, while sTNFRII displayed the highest correlation with concurrently scored renal pathology chronicity index (r = 0.57, p = 0.001). Finally, in a longitudinal cohort of seven SLE patients examined at ∼3 month intervals, AXL, ICAM-1, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, sTNFRII, and VCAM-1 demonstrated the ability to track with concurrent disease flare, with significant subject to subject variation. In summary, serum proteins have the capacity to identify patients with active nephritis, flares, and renal pathology activity or chronicity changes, although larger longitudinal cohort studies are warranted. PMID:27211902

  3. Physical and Clinical Comparison between a Screen-Film System and a Dual-Side Reading Mammography-Dedicated Computed Radiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Digital mammography systems, thanks to a physical performance better than conventional screen-film units, have the potential of reducing the dose to patients, without decreasing the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose: To achieve a physical and clinical comparison between two systems: a screen-film plate and a dual-side computed radiography system (CRM; FUJIFILM FCR 5000 MA). Material and Methods: A unique feature of the FCR 5000 MA system is that it has a clear support medium, allowing light emitted during the scanning process to be detected on the 'back' of the storage phosphor plate, considerably improving the system's efficiency. The system's physical performance was tested by means of a quantitative analysis, with calculation of the modulation transfer function, detective quantum efficiency, and contrast-detail analysis; subsequently, the results were compared with those achieved using a screen-film system (SFM; Eastmann Kodak MinR-MinR 2000). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then performed on 120 paired clinical images obtained in a craniocaudal projection with the conventional SFM system under standard exposure conditions and also with the CRM system working with a dose reduced by 35% (average breast thickness: 4.3 cm; mean glandular dose: 1.45 mGy). CRM clinical images were interpreted both in hard copy and in soft copy. Results: The ROC analysis revealed that the performances of the two systems (SFM and CRM with reduced dose) were similar (P>0.05): the diagnostic accuracy of the two systems, when valued in terms of the area underneath the ROC curve, was found to be 0.74 for the SFM, 0.78 for the CRM (hard copy), and 0.79 for the CRM (soft copy). Conclusion: The outcome obtained from our experiments shows that the use of the dual-side CRM system is a very good alternative to the screen-film system

  4. Development of fluorescence-based high-throughput screening assays: choice of appropriate instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David J.; Alder, Elisabeth; Fan, Yi-Hong; McKeegan, Evelyn; Warrior, Usha; Beutel, Bruce

    1998-04-01

    Fluorescence-based assays have become increasingly popular in high throughput screening for a variety of reasons (e.g. sensitivity). However, new screening technologies are pushing the limits of conventional fluorescence plate readers. For example, instruments that have optical sensitivities beyond most of the commercially available plate readers are required to reproducibly measure the fluorescence generated by the green fluorescent protein (GFP)--a novel reporter gene. Also, miniaturization of screening formats (with densities higher than the conventional 96-well plate) requires high resolution instrumentation to measure fluorescence. Several assays based on optical fluorescence measurements have been developed and screened in our Biological Screening group. These assays include various fluorescence-based protease assays (standard end-point and kinetic modes) and a functional cell-based screen using the green fluorescent protein as a reporter gene. The choice of instrumentation was the critical factor in the performance and success of each of these arrays. Data will be presented for the cell- based reporter assay including the type of instrumentation (fluorescence plate readers; fluorescence imaging systems) used for detection of GFP fluorescence.

  5. Evaluating a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Language Disorders Screening in a Nursery School

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Valero Duboy, Miguel Angel; Torcal Loriente, Carmen; Pau de la Cruz, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early and effective identification of developmental disorders during childhood remains a critical task for the international community. The second highest prevalence of common developmental disorders in children are language delays, which are frequently the first symptoms of a possible disorder. Objective: This paper evaluates a Web-based Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) whose aim is to enhance the screening of language disorders at a nursery school. The common lack of earl...

  6. Engaging Health Systems to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening: Community–Clinical Outreach in Underserved Areas of Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    LoConte, Noelle K.; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren; Conlon, Amy; Scott, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Wisconsin. Incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer vary by age, race/ethnicity, geography, and socioeconomic status. From 2010 through 2012, the Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Control Program awarded grants to 5 regional health systems for the purpose of planning and implementing events to increase colorectal cancer screening rates in underserved commun...

  7. Modified inverse square sensitometry for the determination of the characteristic curve of radiographic screen/film systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Akira; Hiraki, Yoshio; Ohkawa, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hashimoto, Keiji; Aono,Kaname

    1986-01-01

    To determine the characteristic curve of the radiographic screen/film systems in a short focal spot-film distance, the inverse square sensitometric method was modified by changing the radiation intensity with two kinds of filters. The characteristic curves obtained in the two exposure series with these two kinds of filters were overlapped to obtain a complete one. The characteristic curve thus obtained was almost the same as the one obtained by the original inverse square sensitometric method...

  8. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  9. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  10. Evaluation of clinical features scoring system as screening tool for influenza A (H1N1 in epidemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza A (H1N1 hit the headlines in recent times and created mass hysteria and general panic. The high cost and non-availability of diagnostic laboratory tests for swine flu, especially in the developing countries underlines the need of having a cheaper, easily available, yet reasonably accurate screening test. Aims: This study was carried out to develop a clinical feature-based scoring system (CFSS for influenza A (H1N1 and to evaluate its suitability as a screening tool when large numbers of influenza-like illness cases are suspect. Settings and Design: Clinical-record based study, carried out retrospectively in post-pandemic period on subject′s case-sheets who had been quarantined at IG International Airport′s quarantine center at Delhi. Materials and Methods: Clinical scoring of each suspected case was done by studying their case record sheet and compared with the results of RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis (Gold Standard. Statistical Analysis: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical feature-based scoring system (the proposed new screening tool at different cut-off values. The most discriminant cut-off value was determined by plotting the ROC curve. Results: Of the 638 suspected cases, 127 (20% were confirmed to have H1N1 by RT-PCR examination. On the basis of ROC, the most discriminant clinical feature score for diagnosing Influenza A was found to be 7, which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 86%, 88%, 64%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical features scoring system (CFSS can be used as a valid and cost-effective tool for screening swine flu (influenza A (H1N1 cases from large number of influenza-like illness suspects.

  11. Development and evaluation of the Screening Trajectory Ozone Prediction System (STOPS, version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Czader

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid Lagrangian–Eulerian modeling tool has been developed using the Eulerian framework of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model. It is a moving nest that utilizes saved original CMAQ simulation results to provide boundary conditions, initial conditions, as well as emissions and meteorological parameters necessary for a simulation. Given that these file are available, this tool can run independently from the CMAQ whole domain simulation and it is designed to simulate source – receptor relationship upon changes in emissions. In this tool, the original CMAQ's horizontal domain is reduced to a small sub-domain that follows a trajectory defined by the mean mixed-layer wind. It has the same vertical structure and physical and chemical interactions as CMAQ except advection calculation. The advantage of this tool compared to other Lagrangian models is its capability of utilizing realistic boundary conditions that change with space and time as well as detailed chemistry treatment. The correctness of the algorithms and the overall performance was evaluated against CMAQ simulation results. Its performance depends on the atmospheric conditions occurring during the simulation period with the comparisons being most similar to CMAQ results under uniform wind conditions. The mean bias varies between −0.03 and −0.78 and the slope is between 0.99 and 1.01 for different analyzed cases. For complicated meteorological condition, such as wind circulation, the simulated mixing ratios deviate from CMAQ values as a result of Lagrangian approach of using mean wind for its movement, but are still close, with the mean varying between 0.07 and −4.29 and slope varying between 0.95 and 1.063 for different analyzed cases. For historical reasons this hybrid Lagrangian – Eulerian tool is named the Screening Trajectory Ozone Prediction System (STOPS but its use is not limited to ozone prediction as similarly to CMAQ it can simulate concentrations of

  12. Disposable amperometric biosensors based on xanthine oxidase immobilized in the Prussian blue modified screen-printed three-electrode system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The screen-printed three-electrode system was applied to fabricate a new type of disposable amperometric xanthine oxidase biosensor.Carbon-working,carbon-counter and Ag/AgCl reference electrodes were all manually printed on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate forming the screen-printed three-electrode system by the conventional screen-printing process.As a mediator,Prussian blue could not only catalyze the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide produced from the enzyme reaction,but also keep the favorable potential around 0 V.The optimum operational conditions,including pH,potential and temperature,were investigated.The sensitivities of xanthine and hypoxanthine detections were 13.83 mA/M and 25.56 mA/M,respectively.A linear relationship was obtained in the concentration range between 0.10μM and 4.98μM for xanthine and between 0.50μM and 3.98μM for hypoxanthine.The small Michaelis-menten constant value of the xanthine oxidase biosensor was calculated to be 3.90 μM.The results indicate that the fabricated xanthine oxidase biosensor is effective and sensitive for the detection of xanthine and hypoxanthine.

  13. Experimental study on desulfurization efficiency and gas-liquid mass transfer in a new liquid-screen desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new liquid-screen gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern with discarded carbide slag as the liquid sorbent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. On the basis of experimental data, the correlations of the desulfurization efficiency with flue gas flow rate, slurry flow rate, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio were investigated. A non-dimensional empirical model was developed which correlates the mass transfer coefficient with the liquid Reynolds number, gas Reynolds number and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) based on the available experimental data. The kinetic reaction between the SO2 and the carbide slag depends on the pressure distribution in this desulfurizing tower, gas liquid flow field, flue gas component, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio mainly. The transient gas-liquid mass transfer involving with chemical reaction was quantified by measuring the inlet and outlet SO2 concentrations of flue gas as well as the characteristics of the liquid-screen two-phase flow. The mass transfer model provides a necessary quantitative understanding of the hydration kinetics of sulfur dioxide in the liquid-screen flue gas desulfurization system using discarded carbide slag which is essential for the practical application. (author)

  14. Screening of proteins that interact with human thrombopoietin receptor c-Mpl using yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Thrombopoietin(TPO) is the major cytokine involved in platelet production and exerts its effects via the receptor c-Mpl.The yeast two-hybrid system has been used to screen the proteins interacting with c-Mpl.First,the cDNA fragment of c-Mpl intracellular domain was cloned into two-hybrid vector pAS2,and the resulting plasmid is designated as pASMM.Then a human placenta cDNA library was screened using the pASMM as a target plasmid.Seven positive clones were isolated from 150 000 independent transformants.Sequence analysis of one of the positive clones demonstrates that a part of coding sequence of vimentin from 611 bp to 3'end and flanking non-translation region was obtained.Therefore,there is an interaction between vimentin and TPO receptor.The results suggest that cytoskeletal protein may play an important role in TPO signal transduction pathway.

  15. Screening of proteins that interact with human thrombopoietin receptor c-Mpl using yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新燕[1; 冯丽冰[2; 周伟国[3; 戴卫列[4; 李昌本[5; 赵寿元[6

    2000-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major cytokine involved in platelet production and exerts its effects via the receptor c-Mpl. The yeast two-hybrid system has been used to screen the proteins interacting with c-Mpl. First, the cDNA fragment of c-Mpl intracellular domain was cloned into two-hybrid vector pAS2, and the resulting plasmid is designated as pASMM. Then a human placenta cDNA library was screened using the pASMM as a target plasmid. Seven positive clones were isolated from 150 000 independent transformants. Sequence analysis of one of the positive clones demonstrates that a part of coding sequence of vimentin from 611 bp to 3’ end and flanking non-translation region was obtained. Therefore, there is an interaction between vimentin and TPO receptor. The results suggest that cytoskeletal protein may play an important role in TPO signal transduction pathway.

  16. Stem cell-based bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Yurong; Xu, Ren-He; Hurley, Marja M.

    2012-01-01

    To accelerate bone repair, one strategy is to deliver the cells that make bone. The current review focuses on stem cell-based bone repair. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can self-renew unlimitedly and differentiate into the bone forming cells – osteoblasts. Scientists have been actively investigating culture conditions to stably and efficiently induce differentiation of these stem cells into osteoblasts. However, ESCs have the issues of ethnics, immune ...

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  18. Engineering task plan for the development of a high pressure water drill system for BY-105 saltwell screen installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering task plan identifies the activities required for developing an ultra high pressure water drill system for installation of a saltwell screen in Tank BY-105. A water drill system is needed to bore through the hard waste material in this tank because of the addition of Portland cement in the 1960s and/or 1970s. The activities identified in this plan include the design, procurement, and qualification testing of the water drill along with readiness preparations including developing operating procedures, training Operations personnel, and conducting an assessment of readiness

  19. A multipurpose vector system for the screening of libraries in bacteria, insect and mammalian cells and expression in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Laitinen, Olli H.; Airenne, Kari J; Hytönen, Vesa P; Peltomaa, Erik; Mähönen, Anssi J.; Wirth, Thomas; Lind, Miia M.; Mäkelä, Kari A.; Toivanen, Pyry I.; Schenkwein, Diana; Heikura, Tommi; Nordlund, Henri R.; Kulomaa, Markku S.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    We have constructed a novel tetra-promoter vector (pBVboostFG) system that enables screening of gene/cDNA libraries for functional genomic studies. The vector enables an all-in-one strategy for gene expression in mammalian, bacterial and insect cells and is also suitable for direct use in vivo. Virus preparation is based on an improved mini Tn7 transpositional system allowing easy and fast production of recombinant baculoviruses with high diversity and negligible background. Cloning of the de...

  20. Neurodevelopmental Disorders of Children Screened by The Infantile Health Promotion System

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Woo; Han, Zee-A; Jeon, Ha Ra; Choi, Ja Young; Chung, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Key; Yoon, Yeo Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Objective To perform an in depth evaluation of children, and thus provide a systematic method of managing children, who after infantile health screening, were categorized as suspected developmental delay. Method 78 children referred to the Developmental Delay Clinic of Ilsan Hospital after suspected development delay on infantile health examinations were enrolled. A team comprised of a physiatrist, pediatrician and pediatric psychiatrist examined the patients. Neurological examination, speech...

  1. Using a 3-d model system to screen for drugs effective on solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Fayad, Walid

    2011-01-01

    There is a large medical need for the development of effective anticancer agents with minimal side effects. The present thesis represents an attempt to identify potent drugs for treatment of solid tumors. We used a strategy where 3-D multicellular tumor spheroids (cancer cells grown in three dimensional culture) were utilized as in vitro models for solid tumors. Drug libraries were screened using spheroids as targets and using apoptosis induction and loss of cell viability as endpoints. The h...

  2. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Salmerón-Castro; Eduardo César Lazcano Ponce; Ricardo Pérez Cuevas; Iliana del Río Gómez; Irene Torres Torija; Mauricio Hernández Avila

    1998-01-01

    The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP) is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionaling CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCS...

  3. Polymer microarrays for cell based applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne Klara Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    The development and identification of new biomaterials that can replace specific tissues and organs is desirable. In the presented PhD thesis polymer microarrays were applied for the screening of polyacrylates and polyurethanes and evaluation for material discovery for applications in the life sciences. In the first part of the thesis, the largest polymer microarray ever made with more than 7000 features was fabricated and subsequently used for the screening of polyacrylates...

  4. Formalize clinical processes into electronic health information systems: Modelling a screening service for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguzkiza, Aitor; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Andonegui, José

    2015-08-01

    Most healthcare services use information and communication technologies to reduce and redistribute the workload associated with follow-up of chronic conditions. However, the lack of normalization of the information handled in and exchanged between such services hinders the scalability and extendibility. The use of medical standards for modelling and exchanging information, especially dual-model based approaches, can enhance the features of screening services. Hence, the approach of this paper is twofold. First, this article presents a generic methodology to model patient-centered clinical processes. Second, a proof of concept of the proposed methodology was conducted within the diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening service of the Health Service of Navarre (Spain) in compliance with a specific dual-model norm (openEHR). As a result, a set of elements required for deploying a model-driven DR screening service has been established, namely: clinical concepts, archetypes, termsets, templates, guideline definition rules, and user interface definitions. This model fosters reusability, because those elements are available to be downloaded and integrated in any healthcare service, and interoperability, since from then on such services can share information seamlessly. PMID:26049092

  5. New film-cassette system to obtain wider field of craniocaudal view compared with conventional technique in screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of a newly designed cassette and film system used to obtain a craniocaudal (CC) image during mammographic examination. We designed a film-cassette system for use in obtaining a CC image. The merit of this system is that the contact plane between the film and film cassette and the thoracic wall of the examinee changed from linear to concave, thus including more tissue on the image. Twenty women examined by screening mammography underwent conventional and new CC plane examinations. The distance from the nipple to the posterior margin of the included breast tissue, as seen on CC mammograms, was measured using the two techniques, and the difference between the respective results was analyzed by paired t-test. The distance from the nipple to the posterior margin was 12.9±1.7cm and 14.5±1.4cm at the lateral portion of the conventional and new CC image, respectively. This distance was thus significantly greater on the new than on the conventional image (p<0.001), but there was no significant difference between their medial portions. The newly designed cassette and film system used to obtain a craniocaudal image during mammography includes more breast tissue than the conventional system and may be helpful for the mammographic screening and diagnosis of peripheral breast lesions

  6. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE

  7. Characterization of film-converter screens systems for neutron radiography; Caracterizacao de sistemas filme-conversor para radiografia com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2002-07-01

    In general a good quality radiography is that one able to furnish high contrast and sharp edge images. Technically 'high contrast' means high capability to discern material thickness and 'sharp edges', high resolution power. In the present work the optimal conditions to obtain neutron radiography images by using the following film-converter screen systems, Kodak-AA/Gd vaporated; Kodak-AA/Gd metallic; Kodak-AA/LiF; Min-R/GdS{sub 2}O{sub 4}, have been determined. The irradiations were performed in a radiographic facility which was designed and constructed by the neutron radiography working group and is installed at the beamhole 08 of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. In order to determine such conditions, the start point was to evaluate the neutron exposure interval for which the optical contrast is maximal and so quantify the sensitivity or capability to discern material thickness, as well as the spatial resolution achieved in the radiographic image, for these systems. The best results have been obtained for the Kodak-AA/Gd vaporated system which is able to discern, for example, 0,024 cm of lucite, with a maximal resolution of 22{mu}m. The radiography images presently obtained in IPEN-CNEN/SP have similar quality when compared to the ones from several other research centers, around the world, whose making use of the same film-converter screens systems. (author)

  8. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  9. Microbioassay system for antiallergic drug screening using suspension cells retaining in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Takahito; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Kiichi; Abo, Mitsuru; Okubo, Akira

    2005-05-15

    This article describes an antiallergic drug-screening system by the detection of histamine released from mast cells (suspension cells) on a multilayer microchip. In this study, the elastmeric material, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), was employed to fabricate microchannels and microchambers. The microchip consists of two sections: a histamine-releasing one, which has a cell chamber, and a histamine-derivatizing one. Both were laminated to one microchip. Rat peritoneal mast cells were retained in the cell chamber (1.2 microL) with a filtering system using a cellulose nitrate membrane. This filtering system could easily retain suspension cells without cell damage. Mast cells were viable for a sufficient time to conduct the assay on the cell chamber. The cells were stimulated with a chemical release compound 48/80 (C48/80), and then histamine flowed into the lower layer, where it was derivatized to the fluorescent molecules with o-phthalaldehyde and its fluorescence was detected on the microchip. This flow system could detect the time course of the histamine release, and this microchip system required only 20 min for the assay. By this integrated system, 51 pmol of histamine released from 500 cells was detected, and the number of cells required for the assay was reduced to 1% compared with conventional bulk systems. By comparing the released histamine levels with and without drugs, their effect could be evaluated. The inhibition ratio of C48/80 induced-histamine release using an antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglicate (DSCG), was related to the concentration of DSCG. This flow system was applicable for antiallergy drug screening by rapid measurement of the inhibition of histamine release from a very small amount of mast cells. PMID:15889923

  10. Dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy for colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Saito, Keisuke; Takami, Shinichiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although systemic therapy is the standard care for patients with recurrent or metastatic CRC, the prognosis is extremely poor. The optimal sequence of therapy remains unknown. Therefore, alternative strategies, such as immunotherapy, are needed for patients with advanced CRC. This review summarizes evidence from dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies that are currently in clinical trials. In addition, we discuss the possibility of antitumor immune responses through immunoinhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade in CRC patients. PMID:27158196

  11. A Survey on Physical Factors and Compressed Breast Thickness in Voluntary Mammography Screening Using FFDM System in Malaysia: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at presenting preliminary results of a survey on physical factors, namely tube potential (kV), tube current exposure time product (mAs) and compressed breast thickness (CBT) during voluntary mammography screening using Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) System in Malaysia. Retrospective data were collected from 1128 FFDM images of 282 women from three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) who underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia from January to March 2008. Results from the present study were then compared with results from the previous study on Screen-Film Mammography System (SFM) according to the ethnic group for both Cranio-caudal (CC) and Mediol-Lateral (MLO) views. We found that the mean kV for CC view for the three ethnic groups are Malay (28), Chinese (28) and Indian (28), and for MLO view are Malay (29), Chinese (28) and Indian (29). These values are higher than the kV for SFM which were Malay (26), Chinese (27) and Indian (26) for CC and Malay (26), Chinese (27) and Indian (26) for CC and MLO views respectively. The mean mAs for CC and MLO views for FFDM were lower compared to SFM systems. These values were Malay (104), Chinese (108) and Indian (91) for CC views and Malay (106), Chinese (105), and Indian (94) for MLO views for the FFDM system. The values for SFM system are for CC and MLO views were Malay (120), Chinese (106) and Indian (126), and Malay (166), Chinese (132), Indian (183) respectively. The median CBT for CC and MLO views increased by 27 % and 7 % respectively on the FFDM compared to the SFM system. In conclusion, the FFDM operates with higher kV, lower mAs, and higher CBT when compared with SFM system. Median CBT on CC and MLO view with FFDM system are 27 % and 7 % higher respectively compared to the SFM. We are currently collecting data on mean glandular dose with FFDM systems to assess how the change in local mammography practice influences this

  12. Dynamical screening in correlated electron systems-from lattice models to realistic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Philipp; Casula, Michele

    2016-09-28

    Recent progress in treating the dynamical nature of the screened Coulomb interaction in strongly correlated lattice models and materials is reviewed with a focus on computational schemes based on the dynamical mean field approximation. We discuss approximate and exact methods for the solution of impurity models with retarded interactions, and explain how these models appear as auxiliary problems in various extensions of the dynamical mean field formalism. The current state of the field is illustrated with results from recent applications of these schemes to U-V Hubbard models and correlated materials. PMID:27440180

  13. Cell-Based Therapy for Silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Bandeira, Elga; Morales, Marcelo M

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is the most common pneumoconiosis globally, with higher prevalence and incidence in developing countries. To date, there is no effective treatment to halt or reverse the disease progression caused by silica-induced lung injury. Significant advances have to be made in order to reduce morbidity and mortality related to silicosis. In this review, we have highlighted the main mechanisms of action that cause lung damage by silica particles and summarized the data concerning the therapeutic promise of cell-based therapy for silicosis. PMID:27066079

  14. Cell-Based Therapy for Silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicosis is the most common pneumoconiosis globally, with higher prevalence and incidence in developing countries. To date, there is no effective treatment to halt or reverse the disease progression caused by silica-induced lung injury. Significant advances have to be made in order to reduce morbidity and mortality related to silicosis. In this review, we have highlighted the main mechanisms of action that cause lung damage by silica particles and summarized the data concerning the therapeutic promise of cell-based therapy for silicosis.

  15. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  16. Development of a siRNA and shRNA screening system based on a kinase fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Pieraets, S.; Cox, L.; Gielen, O.; Cools, J.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports the development of a novel screening system for the selection of functional shRNAs/siRNAs. This method is based on targeting a fusion gene that comprises an open reading frame of the gene of interest fused to a mutant PDGFR kinase, which constitutively promotes cell proliferation and survival of the leukemia cell line Ba/F3. This cell line depends on the expression of PDGFRα for survival; thus, cell proliferation is used as a read-out of the efficiency of the tested si...

  17. Modified inverse square sensitometry for the determination of the characteristic curve of radiographic screen/film systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A; Hiraki, Y; Ohkawa, Y; Yamada, T; Hashimoto, K; Aono, K

    1986-02-01

    To determine the characteristic curve of the radiographic screen/film systems in a short focal spot-film distance, the inverse square sensitometric method was modified by changing the radiation intensity with two kinds of filters. The characteristic curves obtained in the two exposure series with these two kinds of filters were overlapped to obtain a complete one. The characteristic curve thus obtained was almost the same as the one obtained by the original inverse square sensitometric method. The accuracy of the characteristic curves obtained by the modified method was well-reflected in the clinical radiographs. PMID:3962729

  18. Modified inverse square sensitometry for the determination of the characteristic curve of radiographic screen/film systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida,Akira

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristic curve of the radiographic screen/film systems in a short focal spot-film distance, the inverse square sensitometric method was modified by changing the radiation intensity with two kinds of filters. The characteristic curves obtained in the two exposure series with these two kinds of filters were overlapped to obtain a complete one. The characteristic curve thus obtained was almost the same as the one obtained by the original inverse square sensitometric method. The accuracy of the characteristic curves obtained by the modified method was well-reflected in the clinical radiographs.

  19. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  20. A novel screening system based on VanX-mediated autolysis-Application to Gaussia luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Kamioka, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    We report a novel bacterial screening protocol based on co-expressing the target protein with VanX, an enzyme which mediates Escherichia coli's autolysis and the release of the target protein into the culture medium, thereby facilitating activity measurement and screening from crude medium. This protocol as assessed with 19 Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) expressing colonies, was able to detect bioluminescence wavelength shift as small as 1.5 nm. We demonstrate the performance and versatility of this protocol by applying it to a semi-rational search for GLuc variants with red-shifted bioluminescence. Six GLuc's sites, F113, I114, W143, L144, A149, and F151, were randomly mutated, and for each site, 50 colonies were cultivated in 3 mL samples, from which bioluminescence was measured without purification. We identified two GLuc single mutation red-shifted variants: W143V and L144A. Their red shifted bioluminescence and biophysical/biochemical properties were confirmed using HPLC purified variants. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1413-1420. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26694096

  1. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1297-1314, 2016. PMID:26864677

  2. Biotoxin detection using cell-based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Kintzios, Spyridon; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar

    2013-12-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs) by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results obtained from CBBs are based on the toxin-cell interactions, and therefore, reveal functional information (such as mode of action, toxic potency, bioavailability, target tissue or organ, etc.) about the toxin. CBBs incorporate both prokaryotic (bacteria) and eukaryotic (yeast, invertebrate and vertebrate) cells. To create CBB devices, living cells are directly integrated onto the biosensor platform. The sensors report the cellular responses upon exposures to toxins and the resulting cellular signals are transduced by secondary transducers generating optical or electrical signals outputs followed by appropriate read-outs. Examples of the layout and operation of cellular biosensors for detection of selected biotoxins are summarized. PMID:24335754

  3. Biotoxin Detection Using Cell-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Banerjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based biosensors (CBBs utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results obtained from CBBs are based on the toxin-cell interactions, and therefore, reveal functional information (such as mode of action, toxic potency, bioavailability, target tissue or organ, etc. about the toxin. CBBs incorporate both prokaryotic (bacteria and eukaryotic (yeast, invertebrate and vertebrate cells. To create CBB devices, living cells are directly integrated onto the biosensor platform. The sensors report the cellular responses upon exposures to toxins and the resulting cellular signals are transduced by secondary transducers generating optical or electrical signals outputs followed by appropriate read-outs. Examples of the layout and operation of cellular biosensors for detection of selected biotoxins are summarized.

  4. Establishment of health clinics as mass screening and referral systems for chronic non-communicable diseases in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to establish a comprehensive screening and referral system for chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD in the routine primary health care, and to determine the prevalence of diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia in adult population invited by public announcement to the Health clinics in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This survey was conducted from March 2010, and the current paper presents data obtained until November 2011. To provide health services for prevention and control of CNCDs, with priority of type2 diabetes mellitus, Health clinics were established in different parts of Isfahan city with a population of approximately 2,100,000 in Iran. The general populations aged 30 years and above were invited to the Health clinics by public announcement. Results: A total of 198972 participants were screened. The mean age of participants was 47.8 years (48.5 men, 47.3 women, with a range of 1 to 95 years old and standard deviation of 12.3 years (12.7 men, 12.1 women. Overall, 22% of participants had impaired fasting glucose, 25% had hypercholesterolemia, 31% had hypertriglyceridemia, and 20% had metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The high prevalence of dysglycemia and diabetes in our survey may serve as confirmatory evidence about the importance of mass screening and early diagnosis of CNCDs′ risk factors. Our model of establishing Health clinics, as a comprehensive referral system in the routine primary health care can be adopted by Middle Eastern countries, where CNCDs notably diabetes are an emerging health problem.

  5. Sensitometric analyses of screen-film systems for mammography exams in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality control of the automatic film processor was carried out to ensure high level of efficiency. Based on ISO 9236-3, the following potential were applied on the X-rays tube 25 kV, 28 kV, 30 kV and 35kV. Four different mammography films from different manufactures with and without screens were tested for curve shape, speed and average gradient. The results showed that the film 1 has better contrast; the film 3 has the highest energy dependence; the largest base+fog density was presented by film 4. None of the four mammographic films tested achieved satisfactory results in all parameters analyzed. (author)

  6. Sensitometric analyses of screen-film systems for mammography exams in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, L.L.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; Drexler, G.G.; Almeida, C.E de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas; Ferreira, N.M.P.D.; Estrada, J.J.S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The quality control of the automatic film processor was carried out to ensure high level of efficiency. Based on ISO 9236-3, the following potential were applied on the X-rays tube 25 kV, 28 kV, 30 kV and 35kV. Four different mammography films from different manufactures with and without screens were tested for curve shape, speed and average gradient. The results showed that the film 1 has better contrast; the film 3 has the highest energy dependence; the largest base+fog density was presented by film 4. None of the four mammographic films tested achieved satisfactory results in all parameters analyzed. (author)

  7. Landau damping in finite regularity for unconfined systems with screened interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bedrossian, Jacob; Mouhot, Clement

    2016-01-01

    We prove Landau damping for the collisionless Vlasov equation with a class of $L^1$ interaction potentials (including the physical case of screened Coulomb interactions) on $\\mathbb R^3_x \\times \\mathbb R^3_v$ for localized disturbances of an infinite, homogeneous background. Unlike the confined case $\\mathbb T^3_x \\times \\mathbb R_v^3$, results are obtained for initial data in Sobolev spaces (as well as Gevrey and analytic classes). For spatial frequencies bounded away from zero, the Landau damping of the density is similar to the confined case. The finite regularity is possible due to an additional dispersive mechanism available on $\\mathbb R_x^3$ which reduces the strength of the plasma echo resonance.

  8. Configuration of automatic exposure control on mammography units for computed radiography to match patient dose of screen film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Ying Joseph; Huang, Weidong

    2009-02-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is considered a drop-in addition or replacement for traditional screen-film (SF) systems in digital mammography. Unlike other technologies, CR has the advantage of being compatible with existing mammography units. One of the challenges, however, is to properly configure the automatic exposure control (AEC) on existing mammography units for CR use. Unlike analogue systems, the capture and display of digital CR images is decoupled. The function of AEC is changed from ensuring proper and consistent optical density of the captured image on film to balancing image quality with patient dose needed for CR. One of the preferences when acquiring CR images under AEC is to use the same patient dose as SF systems. The challenge is whether the existing AEC design and calibration process-most of them proprietary from the X-ray systems manufacturers and tailored specifically for SF response properties-can be adapted for CR cassettes, in order to compensate for their response and attenuation differences. This paper describes the methods for configuring the AEC of three different mammography units models to match the patient dose used for CR with those that are used for a KODAK MIN-R 2000 SF System. Based on phantom test results, these methods provide the dose level under AEC for the CR systems to match with the dose of SF systems. These methods can be used in clinical environments that require the acquisition of CR images under AEC at the same dose levels as those used for SF systems.

  9. Screening for somatic mutations of the neurofibromatosis genes in nervous system and other solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaratnam, S.; Narod, S.; Ruttledge, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF1) and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are autosomal dominant inherited disorders which predispose carriers to various benign and malignant tumors. Both genes are thought to act as tumor suppressors with inactivation of both alleles resulting in abnormal cell growth. By inference from other hereditary cancer syndromes, it has been hypothesized that somatic mutation at the NF1 and NF2 loci is involved in the development of sporadic tumors of the types found with increased prevalence in these disorders. In addition to other malignancies, individuals with NF1 are at increased risk to develop astrocytomas and rhabdomyosarcomas. We have therefore screened 40 astrocytomas for LOH using three NF1-derived cDNA probes, and have found no abnormalities. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons of the NF1 GAP-related domain has also failed to show any variants in a total of 70 astrocytomas and 14 rhabdomyosarcomas (7 each of embryonal and alveolar types). LOH of chromosome 22 markers is known to occur in meningioma, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and ependymoma. SSCP of all 17 exons of the NF2 gene in 27 melanoma cell lines, 42 breast cancers, and 27 pendymomas revealed no alterations. In a screen of 151 menigiomas, 26 new variants have been found, bringing our total to 50 variants in this sample. These represent inactivating mutations (frameshift, splice-site, and nonsense), determined by direct sequencing. Since the majority of these changes occur in tumors previously shown to have LOH at chromosome 22 markers flanking NF2, our results support a tumor sequence role for this gene in meningiomas. In addition, given that 40% of our tumors do not show LOH over this region, we propose that other genes are involved in the development of this latter subset of meningiomas.

  10. Evaluation of a 3D system based on a high-quality flat screen and polarized glasses for use by surgical assistants during robotic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kazushi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Ishimura, Takeshi; Muramaki, Mototsugu; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main benefits of robotic surgery is the surgeon's three-dimensional (3D) vision system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 3D vision using a flat screen and polarized glasses for surgical skills during robotic surgeries. Materials and Methods: In an experimental model, six surgeons performed three surgical tasks with laparoscopic devices using a standard 2D and a flat-screen 3D model with polarized glasses. Performance times were compared between...

  11. Digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants. Risk-screening of environmental stressors and a comparison of hardware unavailability with an existing analog system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present a screening study to identify environmental stressors for digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can be potentially risk-significant, and compare the hardware unavailability of such a system with that of its existing analog counterpart. The stressors evaluated are temperature, humidity, vibration, radiation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and smoke. The results of risk-screening for an example plant, subject to some bounding assumptions and based on relative changes in plant risk (core damage frequency impacts of the stressors), indicate that humidity, EMI from lightning, and smoke can be potentially risk-significant. Risk from other sources of EMI could not be evaluated for a lack of data. Risk from temperature appears to be insignificant as that from the assumed levels of vibrations. A comparison of the hardware unavailability of the existing analog Safety Injection Actuation System (SIAS) in the example plant with that of an assumed digital upgrade of the system indicates that system unavailability may be more sensitive to the level of redundancy in elements of the digital system than to the environmental and operational variations involved. The findings of this study can be used to focus activities relating to the regulatory basis for digital I&C upgrades in NPPs, including identification of dominant stressors, data-gathering, equipment qualification, and requirements to limit the effects of environmental stressors. 30 refs., 8 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants. Risk-screening of environmental stressors and a comparison of hardware unavailability with an existing analog system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we present a screening study to identify environmental stressors for digital instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can be potentially risk-significant, and compare the hardware unavailability of such a system with that of its existing analog counterpart. The stressors evaluated are temperature, humidity, vibration, radiation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and smoke. The results of risk-screening for an example plant, subject to some bounding assumptions and based on relative changes in plant risk (core damage frequency impacts of the stressors), indicate that humidity, EMI from lightning, and smoke can be potentially risk-significant. Risk from other sources of EMI could not be evaluated for a lack of data. Risk from temperature appears to be insignificant as that from the assumed levels of vibrations. A comparison of the hardware unavailability of the existing analog Safety Injection Actuation System (SIAS) in the example plant with that of an assumed digital upgrade of the system indicates that system unavailability may be more sensitive to the level of redundancy in elements of the digital system than to the environmental and operational variations involved. The findings of this study can be used to focus activities relating to the regulatory basis for digital I ampersand C upgrades in NPPs, including identification of dominant stressors, data-gathering, equipment qualification, and requirements to limit the effects of environmental stressors. 30 refs., 8 figs., 26 tabs

  13. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Fiscal Year 2011 Report Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-11-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and avian and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. During FY 2011, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists adapted and applied the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), first developed to examine the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy devices on aquatic environments, to offshore wind development. PNNL scientists conducted a risk screening analysis on two initial OSW cases: a wind project in Lake Erie and a wind project off the Atlantic coast of the United States near Atlantic City, New Jersey. The screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in the two OSW cases were the dynamic effects of the device (e.g., strike), accidents/disasters, and effects of the static physical presence of the device, such as alterations in bottom habitats. Receptor interactions with these stressors at the highest tiers of risk were dominated by threatened and endangered animals. Risk to the physical environment from changes in flow regime also ranked high. Peer review of this process and results will be conducted during FY 2012. The ERES screening analysis provides an assessment of the vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with OSW installations; a probability analysis is needed to determine specific risk levels to receptors. As more data become available that document effects of offshore wind farms on specific receptors in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters, probability analyses will be performed.

  14. Inventions on GUI for Touch Sensitive Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    A touch sensitive screen displays the information on the screen and also receives the input by sensing a user's touch on the same screen. This mechanism facilitates system interaction directly through the screen without needing a mouse or keyboard. This method has the advantage to make the system compact by removing keyboard, mouse and similar interactive device. However there are certain difficulties to implement a touch screen interface. The display screens of portable devices are becoming ...

  15. A bacterial two-hybrid system that utilizes Gateway cloning for rapid screening of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Zogaj, Xhavit; Barker, Jeffrey R; Seshu, Janakiram; Dove, Simon L; Klose, Karl E

    2010-11-01

    Comprehensive clone sets representing the entire genome now exist for a large number of organisms. The Gateway entry clone sets are a particularly useful means to study gene function, given the ease of introduction into any Gateway-suitable destination vector. We have adapted a bacterial two-hybrid system for use with Gateway entry clone sets, such that potential interactions between proteins encoded within these clone sets can be determined by new destination vectors. We show that utilizing the Gateway clone sets for Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae, known interactions between F. tularensis IglA and IglB and V. cholerae VipA and VipB could be confirmed with these destination vectors. Moreover, the introduction of unique tags into each vector allowed for visualization of the expressed hybrid proteins via Western immunoblot. This Gateway-suitable bacterial two-hybrid system provides a new tool for rapid screening of protein-protein interactions. PMID:21091448

  16. Comparison of simulated light sensitometer and x-ray sensitometer for screen-film system in medical radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuyama, Yasuko (Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Co. Osaka Clinic (Japan)); Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    1983-11-01

    Sensitometric techniques are used for determining the characteristic curve in medical imaging. In this study intensity-scale (inverse square law, simulated light) methods are used in the determination of radiographic screen-film system characteristic curve. Films which were exposed to simulated light and x-ray were processed in the same automatic processor simultaneously. These curves were overlapped at net density of 1.0 to compare the curve shapes. The results show there is a good correlation between the density of x-ray sensitometry and that of simulated light sensitometry. The differences of density are within +- 0.12 (+- 10 % log exposure). This applies to both blue sensitive and green sensitive systems.

  17. Study of high quality 3D data acquisition in heavy ion CT using intensifying screen-EMCCD camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the possibility of a heavy ion computed tomography (IonCT) system using an X-ray intensifying screen and an electron multiplying charged coupled device (EMCCD) camera with Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In 2010, a parallel-plate ionization chamber was installed in the upstream of the object, in which the time variation of beam intensity from HIMAC was monitored and recorded during CT data acquisition to apply gain correction of charge-coupled devices (CCD) images. We demonstrate that the electron density phantom that consists of some rods with a diameter of 1 cm was successfully reconstructed with 14 minutes for 256 projections by the proposed system. (author)

  18. Comparison of simulated light sensitometer and x-ray sensitometer for screen-film system in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitometric techniques are used for determining the characteristic curve in medical imaging. In this study intensity-scale (inverse square law, simulated light) methods are used in the determination of radiographic screen-film system characteristic curve. Films which were exposed to simulated light and x-ray were processed in the same automatic processor simultaneously. These curves were overlapped at Net density of 1.0 to compare the curve shapes. The results show there is a good correlation between the density of x-ray sensitometry and that of simulated light sensitometry. The differences of density are within +- 0.12 (+- 10 % log exposure). This applies to both blue sensitive and green sensitive systems. (author)

  19. The some problems solution by construction of multi-screen projection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Sobota

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the some problems by construction of CAVE projection system. This system is a part of the virtual reality system PROLAND developed on the Department of Computers and Informatics FEI TU Košice. In first part are described some possibilities of multi-projection systems (including CAVE system. The main part indicates some construction problems of cave system: size and projectors number. Afterwards is described a problem of mirror’s adjustment. These mirrors are used by this cave and they are used to decrease of projectors number.

  20. Some potential material supply constraints in the deployment of photovoltaic solar electric systems. (A preliminary screening to identify critical materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bloomster, C.H.; Smith, S.A.; Nelson, T.A.; Pawlewicz, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) identify potential material supply constraints which could seriously impede the large scale installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems; (2) provide a functional description of materials used in the construction of selected photovoltaic systems in computerized format suitable for interactive updating in workshops or for future reviews; (3) provide a data base of statistics and production processes in machine accessible format for making this assessment and supporting future PV assessments; and (4) show the sensitivity of potential shortages to the size of the PV implementation scenario. The scope of the study includes the screening of 13 photovoltaic cells in a total of 15 system designs. Some cells are also included in concentrating systems at 500 suns and 30 suns. The systems all are based on the substitutions of various cells and concentrator devices into designs based on the Meade, Nebraska 25 kW installation. The system designs all include energy storage but the effect of deleting energy storage is also examined. The study methodology, results, and recommendations are presented in detail. (WHK)

  1. The mini-screen: an innovative device for computer assisted surgery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoux, Benoit; Nigay, Laurence; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2005-01-01

    International audience In this paper we focus on the design of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) systems and more generally Augmented Reality (AR) systems that assist a user in performing a task on a physical object. Digital information or new actions are defined by the AR system to facilitate or to enrich the natural way the user would interact with the real environment. We focus on the outputs of such systems, so that additional digital information is smoothly integrated with the real envi...

  2. Application of screening tools to detect risk of hospital readmission in elderly patients in Valencian Healthcare System (VHS) (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doñate-Martínez, Ascensión; Garcés Ferrer, Jorge; Ródenas Rigla, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The Sustainable Social and Healthcare Model (SSHM) is aimed to establish new care pathways in primary care systems contributing to the decrease of health services use and costs and improve the integration and efficiency of social and health care for elderly people with long-term care (LTC) needs. One of these strategies is the segmentation of population in risk groups through standardized tools. This paper is a retrospective study aimed to determine the viability of the implementation of the screening tools Probability of Repeated Admission - Pra - and The Community Assessment Risk Screen - CARS - to detect patients at risk of hospital readmission in a sample of 500 elderly people (65+) from the VHS in Spain. Patients were recruited from three Health Departments. Data from selected tools and predictive variables were collected through the healthcare database from the VHS. The most important results indicate that both instruments predict with high efficacy the proportion of patients not readmitted (negative predictive value between 91% and 92%). Moreover, the tools performed with a moderate efficiency being the Pra less sensitive (54%) and more specific (81%) than CARS (with a sensitivity and specificity of 64%). Results from this study suggest that the application of instruments as Pra and CARS are of interest to the Valencian Health Administration as they can be a good strategy to improve the management of elderly patients at risk with comorbidities and guiding clinical decision. PMID:25022713

  3. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Approach for the Automatic Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy in Fundus Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most significant factors contributing to blindness and so early diagnosis and timely treatment is particularly important to prevent visual loss. Approach: An integrated approach for extraction of blood vessels and exudates detection was proposed to screen diabetic retinopathy. An automated classifier was developed based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS to differentiate between normal and nonproliferative eyes from the quantitative assessment of monocular fundus images. Feature extraction was performed on the preprocessed fundus images. Structure of Blood vessels was extracted using Multiscale analysis. Hard Exudates were detected using CIE Color channel transformation, Entropy Thresholding and Improved Connected Component Analysis from the fundus images. Features like Wall to Lumen ratio in blood vessels, Texture, Homogeneity properties and area occupied by Hard Exudates, were given as input to ANFIS.ANFIS was trained with Back propagation in combination with the least squares method. Proposed method was evaluated on 200 real time images comprising 70 normal and 130 retinopathic eyes. Results and Conclusion: All of the results were validated with ground truths obtained from expert ophthalmologists. Quantitative performance of the method, detected exudates with an accuracy of 99.5%. Receiver operating characteristic curve evaluated for real time images produced better results compared to the other state of the art methods. ANFIS provides best classification and can be used as a screening tool in the analysis and diagnosis of retinal images.

  4. Screening of hepatocyte proteins binding to NS5ABP37 protein by yeast-two hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Qing-yong Ma; Xian-kui Meng; Kang Li; Jun Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological function of NS5ABP37 and to look for proteins interacting with NS5ABP37 protein in hepatocytes. Methods We constructed bait plasmid expressing NS5ABP37 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by cloning the gene of NS5ABP37 protein into pGBKT7, then the recombinant plasmid DNA was transformed into yeast AH109 (α type). The transformed yeast AH109 was mated with yeast Y187 (α type) containing liver cDNA library plasmid in 2×YPDA medium. Diploid yeast was plated on synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Trp-Leu-His-Ade) containing X-α-gal for selection and screening. After extracting and sequencing of plasmids from positive (blue) colonies, we made a sequence analysis by bioinformatics. Results We screened twenty-five proteins binding to NS5ABP37, including Homo sapiens cyclin Ⅰ (CCNI) gene, Homo sapiens matrix metallopeptidase 25 (MMP25) and Homo sapiens talin 1. Conclusion The yeast-two hybrid system is an effective method for identifying hepatocyte proteins interacting with NS5ABP37 of HCV. And the biological function of NS5ABP37 may be associated with glycometabolism, lipid metabolism and apoptosis.

  5. Implementation of Line Stability Index for Contingency Analysis and Screening in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Estimating the margin in the loadability of the power system is essential in the real time voltage stability assessment. Voltage stability is currently one of the most important research areas in the field of electrical power system. In power system operation unpredictable events is termed as contingency and may be caused by line outage in the system which could lead to entire system instability. Voltage stability analysis and contingency analysis are would be performed in a power system by evaluating the derived voltage stability index. Approach: Voltage Stability Index Lmn can be useful for estimating the distance from the current operating point to voltage collapse point. The index can either reveal the critical bus of a power system or the stability of each line connected between two buses in an interconnected network or evaluate the voltage stability margins of a system. Results: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS devices have been proposed as an effective solution for controlling power flow and regulating bus voltage in electrical power systems, resulting in an increased transfer capability, low system losses and improved stability. However to what extent the performance of FACTS devices can be brought out highly depends upon the location and the parameters of these devices. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is the most promising FACTS device for power flow control. Conclusion/Recommendations: The performance of this index is presented and the effectiveness of the analyzed methods is demonstrated through simulation studies in IEEE 14 bus reliability test systems.

  6. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  7. Investigation of a portable performance measurement system for neurologic screening in clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V; Mulukutla, Rahul; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the need for clinical screening for early detection of neurologic disease, a prototype portable instrument dubbed the human performance multimeter (HPMM) was developed. The HPMM is based on a set of lab-based performance capacity tests developed and evaluated over the last two decades. We attempted to integrate selected functionality of a set of modular lab-based instruments into a single, small package. In the present study, a 4th generation prototype was developed and evaluated for usability, measurement repeatability, and preliminary measurement validity. Five performance capacity tests (upper extremity coordination, isometric grip strength, simple response speed, rapid alternating movement, and steadiness/tremor) were administered to twenty healthy adult volunteers. Short-term reliability was investigated using a test-retest protocol. Most measures were found to possess good test-retest reliability (r>0.75). Preliminary validity was investigated by comparing results to those obtained with non-portable devices that served as models for the HPMM. Results were in good agreement with those instruments. It is concluded that measures of good fidelity can be obtained with this type of instrument. PMID:17946212

  8. Tissue matrix arrays for high-throughput screening and systems analysis of cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachley, Vince Z; Wolf, Matthew T; Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Manda, Srikanth S; Jacobs, Heather; Blatchley, Michael R; Bader, Joel S; Pandey, Akhilesh; Pardoll, Drew; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2015-12-01

    Cell and protein arrays have demonstrated remarkable utility in the high-throughput evaluation of biological responses; however, they lack the complexity of native tissue and organs. Here we spotted tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) particles as two-dimensional (2D) arrays or incorporated them with cells to generate three-dimensional (3D) cell-matrix microtissue arrays. We then investigated the responses of human stem, cancer and immune cells to tissue ECM arrays originating from 11 different tissues. We validated the 2D and 3D arrays as representative of the in vivo microenvironment by means of quantitative analysis of tissue-specific cellular responses, including matrix production, adhesion and proliferation, and morphological changes after culture. The biological outputs correlated with tissue proteomics, and network analysis identified several proteins linked to cell function. Our methodology enables broad screening of ECMs to connect tissue-specific composition with biological activity, providing a new resource for biomaterials research and further understanding of regeneration and disease mechanisms. PMID:26480475

  9. Stem cell-based therapies for HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, Olivier; Yadav, Swati Seth; An, Dong Sung

    2016-08-01

    One of the current focuses in HIV/AIDS research is to develop a novel therapeutic strategy that can provide a life-long remission of HIV/AIDS without daily drug treatment and, ultimately, a cure for HIV/AIDS. Hematopoietic stem cell-based anti-HIV gene therapy aims to reconstitute the patient immune system by transplantation of genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells with anti-HIV genes. Hematopoietic stem cells can self-renew, proliferate and differentiate into mature immune cells. In theory, anti-HIV gene-modified hematopoietic stem cells can continuously provide HIV-resistant immune cells throughout the life of a patient. Therefore, hematopoietic stem cell-based anti-HIV gene therapy has a great potential to provide a life-long remission of HIV/AIDS by a single treatment. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent progress of developing anti-HIV genes, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells, engraftment and reconstitution of anti-HIV gene-modified immune cells, HIV inhibition in in vitro and in vivo animal models, and in human clinical trials. PMID:27151309

  10. General purpose, field-portable cell-based biosensor platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, K H; Barker, V N; Fletcher, L E; DeBusschere, B D; Ghanouni, P; Giovangrandi, L; Kovacs, G T

    2001-09-01

    There are several groups of researchers developing cell-based biosensors for chemical and biological warfare agents based on electrophysiologic monitoring of cells. In order to transition such sensors from the laboratory to the field, a general-purpose hardware and software platform is required. This paper describes the design, implementation, and field-testing of such a system, consisting of cell-transport and data acquisition instruments. The cell-transport module is a self-contained, battery-powered instrument that allows various types of cell-based modules to be maintained at a preset temperature and ambient CO(2) level while in transit or in the field. The data acquisition module provides 32 channels of action potential amplification, filtering, and real-time data streaming to a laptop computer. At present, detailed analysis of the data acquired is carried out off-line, but sufficient computing power is available in the data acquisition module to enable the most useful algorithms to eventually be run real-time in the field. Both modules have sufficient internal power to permit realistic field-testing, such as the example presented in this paper. PMID:11544049

  11. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  12. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  13. Design of linear anti-scatter grid geometry with optimum performance for screen-film and digital mammography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodajou-Chokami, H.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2015-08-01

    A detailed 3D Monte Carlo simulation of the grid geometrical parameters in screen-film mammography (SFM) and digital mammography (DM) systems has been performed. A combination of IEC 60627:2013 international standard conditions and other more clinically relevant parameters were used for this simulation. Accuracy of our results has been benchmarked with previously published data and good agreement has been obtained. Calculations in a wide range of linear anti-scatter grid geometries have been carried out. The evaluated parameters for the SFM system were the Bucky factor (BF) and contrast improvement factor (CIF) and for the DM system it was signal difference-to-noise ratio improvement factor (SIF). The CIF parameter was chosen to be nearly the same as the commercial grade, the BF and SIF were significantly improved compared to commercial grids in use today. Our optimized grid parameters for the SFM system were lead strip thickness d=12  µm, grid ratio r= 5 and strip density N=65 lines/cm. And for the DM system these parameters were d= 5  µm, r = 3 and N=100 lines/cm. Both optimized grid sets have thinner d and higher N compared to the commercial grids.

  14. The ParaDNA® Screening System - a case study in bringing forensic R&D to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    The creation of new technologies and their application to forensic science is key to the field's development. Rapid DNA profiling is one such area of research which has grown in response to a desire from enforcement authorities for in-house forensic DNA processing and rapid access to forensic genetic intelligence. However, introducing novel technologies into the forensics market must be carefully monitored and controlled as the success or failure of any technology ultimately has long standing implications for victims, suspects, and also to Police and forensic practitioners. This article outlines the research, development, validation and implementation of the ParaDNA® Screening System as a case study in taking forensic research and development to market. PMID:25498937

  15. Design, construction and commissioning of the Thermal Screen Control System for the CMS Tracker detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E; Tsirou, A

    The CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) laboratory is currently building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Four international collaborations have designed (and are now constructing) detectors able to exploit the physics potential of this collider. Among them is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), a general purpose detector optimized for the search of Higgs boson and for physics beyond the Standard Model of fundamental interactions between elementary particles. This thesis presents, in particular, the design, construction, commissioning and test of the control system for a screen that provides a thermal separation between the Tracker and ECAL (Electromagnetic CALorimeter) detector of CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid experiment). Chapter 1 introduces the new challenges posed by these installations and deals, more in detail, with the Tracker detector of CMS. The size of current experiments for high energy physics is comparable to that of a small industrial plant: therefore, the techniques used for controls a...

  16. Phantom experiments with a microwave imaging system for breast-cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a promising technique for breast-cancer detection. In this paper, the microwave imaging system currently being developed at the Technical University of Denmark is introduced. This system consists of 32 antennas positioned in a cylindrical setup, each equipped with...

  17. Identification of active Plasmodium falciparum calpain to establish screening system for Pf-calpain-based drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Byoung

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing resistance of malaria parasites to available drugs, there is an urgent demand to develop new anti-malarial drugs. Calpain inhibitor, ALLN, is proposed to inhibit parasite proliferation by suppressing haemoglobin degradation. This provides Plasmodium calpain as a potential target for drug development. Pf-calpain, a cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum, belongs to calpain-7 family, which is an atypical calpain not harboring Ca2+-binding regulatory motifs. In this present study, in order to establish the screening system for Pf-calpain specific inhibitors, the active form of Pf-calpain was first identified. Methods Recombinant Pf-calpain including catalytic subdomain IIa (rPfcal-IIa was heterologously expressed and purified. Enzymatic activity was determined by both fluorogenic substrate assay and gelatin zymography. Molecular homology modeling was carried out to address the activation mode of Pf-calpain in the aspect of structural moiety. Results Based on the measurement of enzymatic activity and protease inhibitor assay, it was found that the active form of Pf-calpain only contains the catalytic subdomain IIa, suggesting that Pf-calpain may function as a monomeric form. The sequence prediction indicates that the catalytic subdomain IIa contains all amino acid residues necessary for catalytic triad (Cys-His-Asn formation. Molecular modeling suggests that the Pf-calpain subdomain IIa makes an active site, holding the catalytic triad residues in their appropriate orientation for catalysis. The mutation analysis further supports that those amino acid residues are functional and have enzymatic activity. Conclusion The identified active form of Pf-calpain could be utilized to establish high-throughput screening system for Pf-calpain inhibitors. Due to its unique monomeric structural property, Pf-calpain could be served as a novel anti-malarial drug target, which has a high specificity for malaria parasite

  18. Evaluation of image quality and radiation dose in mammography: a comparison among digital radiography, computed radiography and film-screen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy on film-screen, digital radiography (DR) and computed radiography (CR) mammography. Methods: Three different kinds of mammography machines (film-screen, DR and CR) were tested to make sure they were qualified and comparable. Radiographs were taken on Mammo-152 phantom and ACR phantom using film- screen, DR and CR systems with the same radiation dose. Next, radiographs were taken on two phantoms using DR and CR systems with classic mode or AEC and the radiation dose was recorded. The images were numbered and scored by eight independent experienced radiologists under the same reading condition according to ACR method. Statistics was performed with the randomized complete-block design variance analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of three kinds of mammography methods were compared with Kappa test in clinical cases who had pathologic results. Results: The spatial resolution of film-screen system was the highest (7.0-8.0 Lp/mm) and that of CR was the lowest (2.5 Lp/mm). When the radiation dose was increased (27.0%-30.0%), the resolution was improved with DR (+11.0%) but almost no change with CR (+1.5%). The radiation dose of DR was the lowest on ACR phantom. The delineation of mass was better on film-screen than on CR, but the delineation of fibers and speck was better on CR. When the radiation dose of CR was increased (25.0%), the delineation of fibers and speck on CR was similar to that on DR and the delineation of mass was similar to that on film-screen. There was a good correlation between the mammography diagnosis and pathological results (film-screen is 50/56, DR is 83/90 and CR is 61/69, P0.75). The diagnostic accuracy of three mammography systems had no statistical difference [film-screen 89.3% (50/56), DR 92.2% (83/90) and CR 88.4% (61/69 ), Pearson χ2=0.722, P=0.697]. Conclusion: Film/screen system has the highest space resolution and DR has the lowest radiation dose. Three

  19. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A.; Kurki, T.; Wrang, T. [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  20. CKD screening and management in the Veterans Health Administration: the impact of system organization and an innovative electronic record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Thakor G; Pogach, Leonard M; Barth, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    At the beginning of this decade, Healthy People 2010 issued a series of objectives to "reduce the incidence, morbidity, mortality and health care costs of chronic kidney disease." A necessary feature of any program to reduce the burden of kidney disease in the US population must include mechanisms to screen populations at risk and institute early the aspects of management, such as control of blood pressure, management of diabetes, and, in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), preparation for dialysis therapy and proper vascular access management, that can retard CKD progression and improve long-term outcome. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Veterans Health Administration is a broad-based national health care system that is almost uniquely situated to address these issues and has developed a number of effective approaches using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, performance measures, innovative use of a robust electronic medical record system, and system oversight during the past decade. In this report, we describe the application of this systems approach to the prevention of CKD in veterans through the treatment of risk factors, identification of CKD in veterans, and oversight of predialysis and dialysis care. The lessons learned and applicability to the private sector are discussed. PMID:19231765

  1. The development of a pseudo-3D imaging system (tomosynthesis) for security screening of passenger baggage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a study investigating the potential of tomosynthesis as a post check-in baggage scanning system. A laboratory system has been constructed consisting of a moveable source and detector, arranged around a mini 90o bend conveyor system, from which multiple projection images can be collected. Simulation code has been developed to allow the optimum source and detector positions to be determined. Reconstruction methods are being developed to modify the Shift-And-Add (SAA) algorithm to accommodate the non-typical imaging geometry.

  2. Context-oriented scientific workflow system and its application in virtual screening

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiaoliang; Brézillon, Patrick; Zhang, Ruisheng; Li, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Scientific workflow (SWF) system is gradually liberating the computational scientists from burden of data-centric operations to concentration on their decision making. However, contemporary SWF systems fail to address the variables when scientists urge to deliver new outcomes through reproduction of workflow, including not only workflow representation, but also its "context" of use. Thus, current failure is mainly due to lack of representing and managing the "context". We propose a context-or...

  3. Screening reservoir systems by considering the efficient trade-offs—informing infrastructure investment decisions on the Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel T.; Harou, Julien J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-reservoir system planners should consider how new dams impact downstream reservoirs and the potential contribution of each component to coordinated management. We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. This proof-of concept study shows that recommended Blue Nile system designs would depend on whether monthly firm energy or annual energy is prioritized. 39 TWh/yr of energy potential is available from the proposed Blue Nile reservoirs. The results show that depending on the amount of energy deemed sufficient, the current maximum capacities of the planned reservoirs could be larger than they need to be. The method can also be used to inform which of the proposed reservoir type and their storage sizes would allow for the highest downstream benefits to Sudan in different objectives of upstream operating objectives (i.e., operated to maximize either average annual energy or firm energy). The proposed approach identifies the most promising system designs, reveals how they imply different trade-offs between metrics of system performance, and helps system planners asses the sensitivity of overall performance to the design parameters of component reservoirs.

  4. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: its role as an assessment and stratification tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the suitability of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) as a quality assessment tool in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The data of 93,793 screened women in the Amsterdam screening region (November 2005-July 2006) were reviewed. BI-RADS categories, work-up, age, final diagnosis and final TNM classification were available from the screening registry. Interval cancers were obtained through linkage with the cancer registry. BI-RADS was introduced as a pilot in the Amsterdam region before the nationwide introduction of digital mammography (2009-2010). A total of 1,559 women were referred to hospital (referral rate 1.7 %). Breast cancer was diagnosed in 485 women (detection rate 0.52 %); 253 interval cancers were reported, yielding a programme sensitivity of 66 % and specificity of 99 %. BI-RADS 0 had a lower positive predictive value (PPV, 14.1 %) than BI-RADS 4 (39.1 %) and BI-RADS 5 (92.9 %; P < 0.0001). The number of invasive procedures and tumour size also differed significantly between BI-RADS categories (P < 0.0001). The significant differences in PPV, invasive procedures and tumour size match with stratification into BI-RADS categories. It revealed inter-observer variability between screening radiologists and can thus be used as a quality assessment tool in screening and as a stratification tool in diagnostic work-up. (orig.)

  5. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Individual, Provider, and System Risk Factors for Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Underserved Black, Latina, and Arab Women

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, LeeAnne; Meghea, Cristian; Ford, Sabrina; Penner, Louis; Hamade, Hiam; Estes, Tamika; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening persist. An exploratory study was conducted to better understand co-occurring risk factors in underserved groups that could inform interventions to improve screening adherence. The objective of this study was to examine associations between breast and cervical cancer screening adherence and co-occurring risk factors in three racial/ethnic groups of underserved women.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  8. System for rapid biohydrogen phenotypic screening of microorganisms using a chemochromic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Michael; Benson, David K.; Flynn, Timothy Michael

    2002-01-01

    Provided is a system for identifying a hydrogen gas producing organism. The system includes a sensor film having a first layer comprising a transition metal oxide or oxysalt and a second layer comprising a hydrogen-dissociative catalyst metal, the first and second layers having an inner and an outer surface wherein the inner surface of the second layer is deposited on the outer surface of the first layer, and a substrate adjacent to the outer surface of the second layer, the organism isolated on the substrate.

  9. Audio-Visual Attractors for Capturing Attention to the Screens When Walking in CAVE Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Grani, Francesco; Argelaguet Sanz, Ferran; Gouranton, Valérie; Badawi, Marwan; Gaugne, Ronan; Serafin, Stefania; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2014-01-01

    International audience In four-sided CAVE-like VR systems, the absence of the rear wall has been shown to decrease the level of immersion and can introduce breaks in presence. In this paper it is investigated to which extent user's attention can be driven by visual and auditory stimuli in a four-sided CAVE-like system. An experiment was conducted in order to analyze how user attention is diverted while physically walking in a virtual environment, when audio and/or visual attractors are pre...

  10. Basic study of the effect of the extended-cycle process on mammographic screen/film systems. Granularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With single-emulsion films like those used in screen/film mammography, if the developing temperature is higher and/or the processing time is longer than recommended (i.e., extended-cycle process), film speed and/or film contrast are effectively increased. However, it can also be expected that radiographic noise will be increased by the extended-cycle process. Therefore, film graininess and radiographic mottle were investigated with standard- and extended-cycle processes in four single-screen/single-emulsion film systems for mammography, the Konica M-150/New CM, Fuji UM MAMMO Fine/UM-MA HC, Kodak Min-R 2000/Min-R 2000, and Kodak Min-R Medium/Min-R M. Investigation was carried out by measurement of the Wiener spectrum (WS). Results showed that the WS of film graininess increased in all films. The increase was greatest in Min-R M, and the rate of increase at 2.0 cycles/mm was 1.67 or more. The film showing the smallest increase was UM-MA HC, for which the rate of increase was 1.03-1.21. There were cases in which the spatial frequency at a 50 percent contribution rate of film graininess to radiographic mottle changed to a low spatial frequency. When only the increase in WS of radiographic mottle was examined, the increase was greatest in Min-R Medium/Min-R M, and the rate of increase at 2.0 cycles/mm was 1.65 or more. Min-R 2000/Min-R 2000 showed the least increase, and the rate of increase was 1.12-1.24. Increases in WS values were larger at 0.1-0.5 cycle/mm than at 2.0 cycles/mm when investigating the influence of trend using film graininess, and roller marks and so on could not be specified as a cause. (author)

  11. Adaptable Holders for Arc-Jet Screening Candidate Thermal Protection System Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Joe; Milhoan, Jim D.

    2010-01-01

    Reusable holders have been devised for evaluating high-temperature, plasma-resistant re-entry materials, especially fabrics. Typical material samples tested support thermal-protection-system damage repair requiring evaluation prior to re-entry into terrestrial atmosphere. These tests allow evaluation of each material to withstand the most severe predicted re-entry conditions.

  12. Screening of Toll-like receptors expression in multiple system atrophy brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Agander, Tina Klitmøller;

    2013-01-01

    their deregulation may play a role in neurodegeneration. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) together with Parkinson's disease belongs to a diverse group of neurodegenerative conditions termed α-synucleinopathies. MSA is a fatal late onset disease characterized by the presence of α-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic...

  13. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  14. An in vitro ES cell-based clock recapitulation assay model identifies CK2α as an endogenous clock regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Junko; Wada, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Minami, Yoichi; Watanabe, Hitomi; Kondoh, Gen; Takeda, Junji; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Horie, Kyoji; Yagita, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported emergence and disappearance of circadian molecular oscillations during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and reprogramming of differentiated cells, respectively. Here we present a robust and stringent in vitro circadian clock formation assay that recapitulates in vivo circadian phenotypes. This assay system first confirmed that a mutant ES cell line lacking Casein Kinase I delta (CKIδ) induced ∼3 hours longer period-length of circadian rhythm than the wild type, which was compatible with recently reported results using CKIδ null mice. In addition, this assay system also revealed that a Casein Kinase 2 alpha subunit (CK2α) homozygous mutant ES cell line developed significantly longer (about 2.5 hours) periods of circadian clock oscillations after in vitro or in vivo differentiation. Moreover, revertant ES cell lines in which mutagenic vector sequences were deleted showed nearly wild type periods after differentiation, indicating that the abnormal circadian period of the mutant ES cell line originated from the mutation in the CK2α gene. Since CK2α deficient mice are embryonic lethal, this in vitro assay system represents the genetic evidence showing an essential role of CK2α in the mammalian circadian clock. This assay was successfully applied for the phenotype analysis of homozygous mutant ES cells, demonstrating that an ES cell-based in vitro assay is available for circadian genetic screening. PMID:23840637

  15. Computational Validation of a 3-D Microwave Imaging System for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    signals improves its performance when compared to the more commonly used complex phasor formulation. This improvement is illustrated by imaging a simulated hemispherical breast model using both formulations. In addition to this, the importance of using the correct position and orientation of the antennas...... in the measurement system is shown by imaging the same breast model using a measurement setup in which the antennas are vertically oriented....

  16. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: I. System design and method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    The biotech industry is under increasing pressure to decrease both time to market and development costs. Simultaneously, regulators are expecting increased process understanding. High throughput process development (HTPD) employs small volumes, parallel processing, and high throughput analytics to reduce development costs and speed the development of novel therapeutics. As such, HTPD is increasingly viewed as integral to improving developmental productivity and deepening process understanding. Particle conditioning steps such as precipitation and flocculation may be used to aid the recovery and purification of biological products. In this first part of two articles, we describe an ultra scale-down system (USD) for high throughput particle conditioning (HTPC) composed of off-the-shelf components. The apparatus is comprised of a temperature-controlled microplate with magnetically driven stirrers and integrated with a Tecan liquid handling robot. With this system, 96 individual reaction conditions can be evaluated in parallel, including downstream centrifugal clarification. A comprehensive suite of high throughput analytics enables measurement of product titer, product quality, impurity clearance, clarification efficiency, and particle characterization. HTPC at the 1 mL scale was evaluated with fermentation broth containing a vaccine polysaccharide. The response profile was compared with the Pilot-scale performance of a non-geometrically similar, 3 L reactor. An engineering characterization of the reactors and scale-up context examines theoretical considerations for comparing this USD system with larger scale stirred reactors. In the second paper, we will explore application of this system to industrially relevant vaccines and test different scale-up heuristics. PMID:25728932

  17. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Whetstone, Zachary D.; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M.

    2015-01-01

    Because 222Rn is a progeny of 238U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existi...

  18. Exotic systems under screened Coulomb interactions: a study on Borromean windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive calculation of Borromean windows (BWs) for 22 different configurations of three-body exotic systems have been done using an explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set. From the variation of BWs with mass relation parameter (q) as observed from our calculations, a physical argument is being placed to interpret the existence of a BW for only q  <  1 configurations. (paper)

  19. Comparison of digital selenium radiography with an analog screen-film system in the diagnostic process of pneumoconiosis according to ILO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of digital selenium radiography in patients with pneumoconiosis. For this purpose chest X-rays by digital selenium radiography and analog screen-film system were compared according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Method: After approval of the study by the local ethic commission and the Federal German Office for Radiation Protection 50 patients were subjected to X-rays by digital selenium radiography (Thoravision; Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg, Germany) and analog screen-film system of the same day within the scope of an industrial medicine preventive checkup. Four investigators rated the chest X-rays according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Results: The findings demonstrated by chest X-rays according to ILO classification were rated similar by digital selenium radiography and analog screen film systems. Image quality of the digital pictures was rated significantly better. Conclusion: The use of digital selenium radiography in evaluating chest X-rays according to the ILO classification does not result in over- or underestimation of pulmonary pathologies. Hence, in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, digital selenium radiography can replace the tested analog screen-film system. (orig.)

  20. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  1. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  2. Photon attenuation by intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)

  3. Fluorogenic Cell-Based Biosensors for Monitoring Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa; Salazar, Noe; Tabb, Joel; Chase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Fluorogenic cell-based sensor systems for detecting microbes (especially pathogenic ones) and some toxins and allergens are undergoing development. These systems harness the natural signaltransduction and amplification cascades that occur in mast cells upon activation with antigens. These systems include (1) fluidic biochips for automated containment of samples, reagents, and wastes and (2) sensitive, compact fluorometers for monitoring the fluorescent responses of mast cells engineered to contain fluorescent dyes. It should be possible to observe responses within minutes of adding immune complexes. The systems have been shown to work when utilizing either immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or traditionally generated rat antibodies - a promising result in that it indicates that the systems could be developed to detect many target microbes. Chimeric IgE antibodies and rat immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies could be genetically engineered for recognizing biological and chemical warfare agents and airborne and food-borne allergens. Genetic engineering efforts thus far have yielded (1) CD14 chimeric antibodies that recognize both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and bind to the surfaces of mast cells, eliciting a degranulation response and (2) rat IgG2a antibodies that act similarly in response to low levels of canine parvovirus.

  4. Screening of hepatocyte proteins binding to F protein of hepatitis C virus by yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ping Huang; Xue-Song Gao; Dong Ji; Shu-Mei Lin; Qing Shao; Jun Cheng; Shu-Lin Zhang; Lin Wang; Jiang Guo; Yan Liu; Yuan Yang; Li-Ying Zhang; Gui-Qin Bai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological function of F protein by yeast two-hybrid system.METHODS: We constructed F protein bait plasmid by cloning the gene of F protein into pGBKT7, then recombinant plasmid DNA was transformed into yeast AH109 (a type). The transformed yeast AH109 was mated with yeast Y187 (α type) containing liver cDNA library plasmid in 2×YPDA medium. Diploid yeast was plated on synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Trp-Leu-HisAde) containing X-α-gal for selection and screening.After extracting and sequencing plasmids from positive (blue) colonies, we underwent sequence analysis by bioinformatics.RESULTS: Thirty-six colonies were selected and sequenced.Among them, 11 colonies were zymogen granule protein,5 colonies were zinc finger protein, 4 colonies were zinc-α-2-glycoprotein, 1 colony was sialyltransferase, 1 colony was complement control protein factor Ⅰ, 1 colony was vitronectin, and 2 colonies were new genes with unknown function.CONCLUSION: The yeast two-hybrid system is an effective method for identifying hepatocyte proteins interacting with F protein of hepatitis C virus. F protein may bind to different proteins.

  5. A Pilot Study on the Development of Remote Quality Control of Digital Mammography Systems in the NHS Breast Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, P; Halling-Brown, M D; Oduko, J M; Young, K C

    2015-10-01

    In the UK, physicists and radiographers perform routine quality control (QC) of digital mammography equipment at daily, weekly and monthly intervals. The tests performed and tolerances are specified by standard protocols. The manual nature of many of the tests introduces variability due to the positioning of regions of interest (ROIs) and can be time consuming. The tools on workstations provided by manufacturers limit the range of analysis that radiographers can perform and do not allow for a standard set of tools and analysis because they are specific to a given manufacturer. Automated software provides a means of reducing the variability in the analysis and also provides the possibility of additional, more complex analysis than is currently performed on the daily, weekly and monthly checks by radiographers. To this end, a set of tools has been developed to analyse the routine images taken by radiographers. As well as automatically reproducing the usual measurements by radiographers more complex analysis is provided. A QC image collection system has been developed which automatically routes QC data from a clinical site to a centralised server for analysis. A Web-based interface has been created that allows the users to view the performance of the mammographic equipment. The pilot system obtained over 3000 QC images from seven X-ray units at a single screening centre over 2 years. The results show that these tools and methods of analysis can highlight changes in a detector over time that may otherwise go unnoticed with the conventional analysis. PMID:25582530

  6. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  7. M2 priority screening system for near-term activities: Project documentation. Final report December 11, 1992--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-12

    From May through August, 1993, the M-2 Group within M Division at LANL conducted with the support of the LANL Integration and Coordination Office (ICO) and Applied Decision Analysis, Inc. (ADA), whose purpose was to develop a system for setting priorities among activities. This phase of the project concentrated on prioritizing near-tenn activities (i.e., activities that must be conducted in the next six months) necessary for setting up this new group. Potential future project phases will concentrate on developing a tool for setting priorities and developing annual budgets for the group`s operations. The priority screening system designed to address the near-term problem was developed, applied in a series of meeting with the group managers, and used as an aid in the assignment of tasks to group members. The model was intended and used as a practical tool for documenting and explaining decisions about near-term priorities, and not as a substitute for M-2 management judgment and decision-making processes.

  8. Screening and enzymatic study of a composite microbial system FH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Min Zhang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Five strains of fungi and 18 strains of bacteria were isolated from the soil and horse manure with cellulose as the sole carbon source. Among them, two fungal, F9 and F13, and two bacterial, B16 and B21, showed the highest filter paper activities, which were 7.79 U g-1, 9.84 U g-1, 7.34 U g-1 and 9.68 U g-1, respectively. Four microbial systems, designed as FH1 (F13+B21, FH2 (F13+B16+B21, FH3 (F9+B16+B21 and FH4 (F13+F9+B16+B21 were developed. The fermentation studies showed that the filter paper activity of the composite microbial system FH3 was higher than the others, which was 21.34 U g-1. The medium with bran and filter paper as the carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source was optimal and the maximum cellulase activity was reached at 30~35ºC and pH 6.0~6.5 when FH3 was incubated for 48 h. The enzymatic reaction conditions were estimated at 45~55 ºC, pH 4.5~5.5 and the thermal stability temperature was up to 60 ºC.

  9. Rapid, computer vision-enabled murine screening system identifies neuropharmacological potential of two new mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Roberds

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictive in vitro models for behavioral phenotypes impedes rapid advancement in neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. In vivo behavioral assays are more predictive of activity in human disorders, but such assays are often highly resource-intensive. Here we describe the successful application of a computer vision-enabled system to identify potential neuropharmacological activity of two new mechanisms. The analytical system was trained using multiple drugs that are used clinically to treat depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and other psychiatric or behavioral disorders. During blinded testing the PDE10 inhibitor TP-10 produced a signature of activity suggesting potential antipsychotic activity. This finding is consistent with TP-10’s activity in multiple rodent models that is similar to that of clinically used antipsychotic drugs. The CK1ε inhibitor PF-670462 produced a signature consistent with anxiolytic activity and, at the highest dose tested, behavioral effects similar to that of opiate analgesics. Neither TP-10 nor PF-670462 was included in the training set. Thus, computer vision-based behavioral analysis can facilitate drug discovery by identifying neuropharmacological effects of compounds acting through new mechanisms.

  10. Carbon dioxide removal system for closed loop atmosphere revitalization, candidate sorbents screening and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, E. M.; Knox, J. C.; Bardot, D. M.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the difficulty and expense it costs to resupply manned-spacecraft habitats, a goal is to create a closed loop atmosphere revitalization system, in which precious commodities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water are continuously recycled. Our aim is to test other sorbents for their capacity for future spacecraft missions, such as on the Orion spacecraft, or possibly lunar or Mars mission habitats to see if they would be better than the zeolite sorbents on the 4-bed molecular sieve. Some of the materials being tested are currently used for other industry applications. Studying these sorbents for their specific spacecraft application is different from that for applications on earth because in space, there are certain power, mass, and volume limitations that are not as critical on Earth. In manned-spaceflight missions, the sorbents are exposed to a much lower volume fraction of CO2 (0.6% volume CO2) than on Earth. LiLSX was tested for its CO2 capacity in an atmosphere like that of the ISS. Breakthrough tests were run to establish the capacities of these materials at a partial pressure of CO2 that is seen on the ISS. This paper discusses experimental results from benchmark materials, such as results previously obtained from tests on Grade 522, and the forementioned candidate materials for the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) system.

  11. Detection of Symptoms of Prevalent Mental Health Disorders of Childhood with the Parent Form of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Abdou, Annmary S.; Twyford, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the criterion-related validity of score inferences from the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Parent Form" (BESS Parent) for the detection of symptoms of prevalent mental health disorders of childhood. The BESS Parent was administered to 99 parents of first- through fifth-grade students, along with the "Child Behavior…

  12. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design's capability for plutonium disposition

  13. System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2014-12-02

    A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.

  14. System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-04-21

    A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.

  15. Screening Samples with a Position-Sensitive Detection System Providing Isotope-Specific Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of individual radioactive particles present in a sample, such as a swipe, are more interesting than bulk properties of the sample. The present work focuses on instrumentation that provides position-sensitive spectral information non-destructively from the sample. The experimental part of the work was realized using a device called PANDA (Particles And Non-Destructive Analysis). The detector setup used in the study contains a broad-energy HPGe gamma-ray detector and a position-sensitive alpha detector. Both detectors are connected to a time-stamping event-mode data acquisition system. The method is shown to locate particles with sub-millimetre accuracy and distinguish the interesting particles from non-interesting ones. (author)

  16. Screening study for evaluation of the potential for system 80+ to consume excess plutonium - Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the U.S. effort to evaluate technologies offering solutions for the safe disposal or utilization of surplus nuclear materials, the fiscal year 1993 Energy and Water Appropriations legislation provided the Department of Energy (DOE) the necessary funds to conduct multi-phased studies to determine the technical feasibility of using reactor technologies for the triple mission of burning weapons grade plutonium, producing tritium for the existing smaller weapons stockpile, and generating commercial electricity. DOE limited the studies to five advanced reactor designs. Among the technologies selected is the ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) System 80+. The DOE study, currently in Phase ID, is proceeding with a more detailed evaluation of the design's capability for plutonium disposition

  17. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for Botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P.; James C. Burnett; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D.; Bavari, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons, and stem-cell d...

  18. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  19. 20 CFR 654.408 - Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Screening. 654.408 Section 654.408 Employees... EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.408 Screening. (a) All outside openings shall be protected with screening of not less than 16 mesh. (b) All screen doors shall...

  20. Microsystems for cell-based electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobas, Levent

    2013-08-01

    Among the electrophysiology techniques, the voltage clamp and its subsequent scaling to smaller mammalian cells, the so-called patch clamp, led to fundamental discoveries in the last century, revealing the ionic mechanisms and the role of single-ion channels in the generation and propagation of action potentials through excitable membranes (e.g. nerves and muscles). Since then, these techniques have gained a reputation as the gold standard of studying cellular ion channels owing to their high accuracy and rich information content via direct measurements under a controlled membrane potential. However, their delicate and skill-laden procedure has put a serious constrain on the throughput and their immediate utilization in the discovery of new cures targeting ion channels until researchers discovered ‘lab-on-a-chip’ as a viable platform for the automation of these techniques into a reliable high-throughput screening functional assay on ion channels. This review examines the innovative ‘lab-on-a-chip’ microtechnologies demonstrated towards this target over a period of slightly more than a decade. The technologies are categorically reviewed according to their considerations for design, fabrication, as well as microfluidic integration from a performance perspective with reference to their ability to secure G Ω seals (gigaseals) on cells, the norm broadly accepted among electrophysiologists for quality recordings that reflect ion-channel activity with high fidelity.

  1. Microsystems for cell-based electrophysiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the electrophysiology techniques, the voltage clamp and its subsequent scaling to smaller mammalian cells, the so-called patch clamp, led to fundamental discoveries in the last century, revealing the ionic mechanisms and the role of single-ion channels in the generation and propagation of action potentials through excitable membranes (e.g. nerves and muscles). Since then, these techniques have gained a reputation as the gold standard of studying cellular ion channels owing to their high accuracy and rich information content via direct measurements under a controlled membrane potential. However, their delicate and skill-laden procedure has put a serious constrain on the throughput and their immediate utilization in the discovery of new cures targeting ion channels until researchers discovered ‘lab-on-a-chip’ as a viable platform for the automation of these techniques into a reliable high-throughput screening functional assay on ion channels. This review examines the innovative ‘lab-on-a-chip’ microtechnologies demonstrated towards this target over a period of slightly more than a decade. The technologies are categorically reviewed according to their considerations for design, fabrication, as well as microfluidic integration from a performance perspective with reference to their ability to secure G Ω seals (gigaseals) on cells, the norm broadly accepted among electrophysiologists for quality recordings that reflect ion-channel activity with high fidelity. (topical review)

  2. A screen-printed microband glucose biosensor system for real-time monitoring of toxicity in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Xu, J; Pittson, R; Drago, G A; Griffiths, J; Jackson, S K; Hart, J P

    2011-01-15

    Microband biosensors, screen-printed from a water-based carbon ink containing cobalt phthalocyanine redox mediator and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme, were used to monitor glucose levels continuously in buffer and culture medium. Five biosensors were operated amperometrically (E(app) of +0.4V), in a 12-well tissue culture plate system at 37°C, using a multipotentiostat. After 24 h, a linear calibration plot was obtained from steady-state current responses for glucose concentrations up to 10 mM (dynamic range 30 mM). Within the linear region, a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.981 was obtained between biosensor and spectrophotometric assays. Over 24 h, an estimated 0.15% (89 nmol) of the starting glucose concentration (24 mM) was consumed by the microbiosensor. The sensitivity of the biosensor response in full culture medium was stable between pHs 7.3 and 8.4. Amperometric responses for HepG2 monolayer cultures decreased with time in inverse proportionality to cell number (for 0 to 10(6) cell/ml), as glucose was being metabolised. HepG2 3D cultures (spheroids) were also shown to metabolise glucose, at a rate which was independent of spheroid age (between 6 and 15 days). Spheroids were used to assay the effect of a typical hepatotoxin, paracetamol. At 1 mM paracetamol, glucose uptake was inhibited by 95% after 6 h in culture; at 500 μM, around 15% inhibition was observed after 16 h. This microband biosensor culture system could form the basis for an in vitro toxicity testing system. PMID:21081270

  3. Assessment of full ceramic solid oxide fuel cells based on modified strontium titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter; Ramos, Tania; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy;

    2014-01-01

    Todays’ solid oxide fuels cells based on composite Ni-cermet anodes have been developed up to reasonable levels of performance and durability. However, especially for small combined heat and power supply systems, known failure mechanisms e.g. re-oxidation, sulfur tolerance and coking have...

  4. Density-Functional Theory with Screened van der Waals Interactions for the Modeling of Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Victor G.; Liu, Wei; Zojer, Egbert; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    The electronic properties and the function of hybrid inorganic/organic systems (HIOS) are intimately linked to their geometry, with van der Waals (vdW) interactions playing an essential role for the latter. Here we show that the inclusion of the many--body collective response of the substrate electrons inside the inorganic bulk enables us to reliably predict the HIOS geometries and energies. Specifically, dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (the DFT+vdW approach) [PRL 102, 073005 (2009)], is combined with the Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn theory [PRB 13, 2270 (1976)] for the non--local Coulomb screening within the bulk. Our method (DFT+vdW^surf ) includes both image-plane and interface polarization effects. We show that DFT+vdW^surf yields geometries in remarkable agreement ( 0.1 å) with normal incidence x-ray standing wave measurements for the 3,4,9,10--perylene--tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (C24H8O6, PTCDA) molecule on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111). Similarly accurate results are obtained for xenon and benzene adsorbed on metal surfaces.

  5. Density-Functional Theory with Screened van der Waals Interactions for the Modeling of Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Victor G.; Liu, Wei; Zojer, Egbert; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    The electronic properties and the function of hybrid inorganic-organic systems (HIOS) are intimately linked to their interface geometry. Here we show that the inclusion of the many-body collective response of the substrate electrons inside the inorganic bulk enables us to reliably predict the HIOS geometries and energies. This is achieved by the combination of dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (the DFT+ van der Waals approach) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073005 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.073005], with the Lifshitz-Zaremba-Kohn theory for the nonlocal Coulomb screening within the bulk. Our method yields geometries in remarkable agreement (≈0.1Å) with normal incidence x-ray standing wave measurements for the 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (C24O6H8, PTCDA) molecule on Cu(111), Ag(111), and Au(111) surfaces. Similarly accurate results are obtained for xenon and benzene adsorbed on metal surfaces.

  6. Interplay between dynamic screened f-f interaction and sk·sf interaction in Ce systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two complementary analyses for the electronic structure of Ce systems are given. The first is performed from the renormalized density of states (DOS) deduced from the interacting Green close-quote s functions. These Green close-quote s functions are obtained from a self-energy calculated from a multiband Hubbard Hamiltonian and using the random phase approximation to account for the dynamical f-f screened interactions. The resulting DOS presents agreements and discrepancies with the spectral data yielded by direct and inverse photoemission. The theoretical and experimental f widths next to the Fermi level imply f-electron masses that are in strong contradiction with those obtained from the heavy-fermion specific heat. We have carried out a second analysis that complements the first one, since it considers the spin-exchange between extended states and a spin-field that is completely excluded from the first calculation. By the marriage of the results obtained in the first calculation with those of the second analysis, we can relate the photoemission spectra and de Haas endash van Alphen masses with the measurements of the contribution of the low-energy quasiparticles to the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Photon reflectivity distributions from the LHC beam screen and their implications on the arc beam vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahne, N.; Baglin, V.; Collins, I. R.; Giglia, A.; Pasquali, L.; Pedio, M.; Nannarone, S.; Cimino, R.

    2004-07-01

    In particle accelerators with intense positively charged bunched beams, an electron cloud may induce beam instabilities and the related beam induced electron multipacting (BIEM) can result in an undesired pressure rise. In a cryogenic machine such as the large hadron collider (LHC), the BIEM will introduce additional heat load. When present, synchrotron radiation (SR) may generate a significant number of photoelectrons, that may play a role in determining the onset and the detailed properties of the electron cloud related instability. Since electrons are constrained to move along field lines, those created on the accelerator equator in a strong vertical (dipole) field cannot participate in the e-cloud build-up. Therefore, for the LHC there has been a continuous effort to find solutions to absorb the photons on the equator. The solution adopted for the LHC dipole beam screens is a saw-tooth structure on the illuminated equator. SR from a bending magnet beamline at ELETTRA, Italy (BEAR) has been used to measure the reflectivities (forward, back-scattered and diffuse), for a flat and a saw-tooth structured Cu co-laminated surface using both white light SR, similar to the one emitted by LHC, and monochromatic light. Our data show that the saw-tooth structure does reduce the total reflectivity and modifies the photon energy distribution of the reflected photons. The implications of these results on the LHC arc vacuum system are discussed.

  8. The application of the Escherichia coli giant spheroplast for drug screening with automated planar patch clamp system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Kikuchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kv2.1, the voltage-gated ion channel, is ubiquitously expressed in variety of tissues and dysfunction of this ion channel is responsible for multiple diseases. Electrophysiological properties of ion channels are so far characterized with eukaryotic cells using the manual patch clamp which requires skilful operators and expensive equipments. In this research, we created a simple and sensitive drug screen method using bacterial giant spheroplasts and the automated patch clamp which does not require special skills. We expressed a eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channel Kv2.1 in Escherichia coli using prokaryotic codon, and prepared giant spheroplasts large enough for the patch clamp. Human Kv2.1 currents were successfully recorded from giant spheroplasts with the automated system, and Kv2.1-expressed E. coli spheroplasts could steadily reacted to the dose–response assay with TEA and 4-AP. Collectively, our results indicate for the first time that the bacterial giant spheroplast can be applied for practical pharmaceutical assay using the automated patch clamp.

  9. Evaluation of Complexation Ability Using a Sensor Electrode Chip Equipped with a Wireless Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Isoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated an electrode chip with a structure coated by an insulation layer that contains dispersed SiO2 adsorbent particles modified by an amino-group on a source-drain electrode. Voltage changes caused by chelate molecule adsorption onto electrode surfaces and by specific cation interactions were investigated. The detection of specific cations without the presence of chelate molecules on the free electrode was also examined. By comparing both sets of results the complexation ability of the studied chelate molecules onto the electrode was evaluated. Five pairs of source-drain electrodes (×8 arrays were fabricated on a glass substrate of 20 × 30 mm in size. The individual Au/Cr (1.0/0.1 μm thickness electrodes had widths of 50 μm and an inter-electrode interval of 100 μm. The fabricated source-drain electrodes were further coated with an insulation layer comprising a porous SiO2 particle modified amino-group to adsorb the chelate molecules. The electrode chip was equipped with a handy-type sensor signal analyzer that was mounted on an amplifier circuit using a MinishipTM or a system in a packaged LSI device. For electrode surfaces containing different adsorbed chelate molecules an increase in the sensor voltage depended on a combination of host-guest reactions and generally decreased in the following order: 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl-21H,23H-porphine, tetrakis(p-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP as a Cu2+ chelator and Cu2+ > 2-nitroso-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropylamino]phenol (nitroso-PSAP as an Fe2+ chelator and Fe2+ > 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BPDSA as an Fe2+ chelator and Fe2+ > 3-[3-(2,4-dimethylphenylcarbamoyl-2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-yl-azo]-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt (XB-1 as a Mg2+ chelator

  10. REIMBURSEMENT OF CELL-BASED REGENERATIVE THERAPY IN THE UK AND FRANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalatchimy, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based regenerative therapies are presented as being able to cure the diseases of the twenty-first century, especially those coming from the degeneration of the aging human body. But their specific nature based on biological materials raises particular challenging issues on how regulation should frame biomedical innovation for society's benefit regarding public health. The European Union (EU) supports the development of cell-based regenerative therapies that are medicinal products with a specific regulation providing their wide access to the European market for European patients. However, once these medicinal products have obtained a European marketing authorisation, they are still far away from being fully accessible to European patients in all EU Member States. Whereas there is much written on the EU regulatory system for new biotechnologies, there is no systematic legal study comparing the insurance provisions in two EU countries. Focussing on the situation in the UK and France that are based on two different healthcare systems, this paper is based on a comparative methodological approach. It raises the question of regulatory reimbursement mechanisms that determine access to innovative treatments and their consequences for social protection systems in the general context of public health. After having compared the French and English regulations of cell-based regenerative therapy regarding pricing and reimbursement, this papers analyses how England and France are addressing two main challenges of cell-based regenerative therapy, to take into account their long-term benefit through their potential curative nature and their high upfront cost, towards their adoption within the English and French healthcare systems. It concludes that England and France have different general legal frameworks that are not specific to the reimbursement of cell-based regenerative therapy, although their two current and respective trends would bring more convergence between the two

  11. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  12. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  13. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  14. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  15. Design an easy-to-use infection screening system for non-contact monitoring of vital-signs to prevent the spread of pandemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guanghao; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Miyata, Keisuke; Chen, Chris; Ueda, Akiko; Kim, Seokjin; Hakozaki, Yukiya; Abe, Shigeto; Takei, Osamu; Matsui, Takemi

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of infectious diseases such as influenza, dengue fever, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are threatening the global health. Especially, developing countries in the South-East Asia region have been at serious risk. Rapid and highly reliable screening of infection is urgently needed during the epidemic season at mass gathering places, such as airport quarantine facilities, public health centers, and hospital outpatients units, etc. To meet this need, our research group is currently developing a multiple vital-signs based infection screening system that can perform human medical inspections within 15 seconds. This system remotely monitors facial temperature, heart and respiration rates using a thermopile array and a 24-GHz microwave radar, respectively. In this work, we redesigned our previous system to make a higher performance with a user-friendly interface. Moreover, the system newly included a multivariable logistic regression model (MLRM) to determine the possibility of infection. We tested the system on 34 seasonal influenza patients and 35 normal control subjects at the Japan Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening system using the MLRM were 85.3% and 88.6%, respectively. PMID:25571068

  16. Identification of compounds that modulate retinol signaling using a cell-based qHTS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Reese, David H; Xia, Menghang

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, the retinol (vitamin A) signaling pathway (RSP) controls the biosynthesis and catabolism of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), which regulates transcription of genes essential for embryonic development. Chemicals that interfere with the RSP to cause abnormal intracellular levels of atRA are potential developmental toxicants. To assess chemicals for the ability to interfere with retinol signaling, we have developed a cell-based RARE (Retinoic Acid Response Element) reporter gene assay to identify RSP disruptors. To validate this assay in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform, we screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) in both agonist and antagonist modes. The screens detected known RSP agonists, demonstrating assay reliability, and also identified novel RSP agonists including kenpaullone, niclosamide, PD98059 and SU4312, and RSP antagonists including Bay 11-7085, LY294002, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene, and topoisomerase inhibitors (camptothecin, topotecan, amsacrine hydrochloride, and idarubicin). When evaluated in the P19 pluripotent cell, these compounds were found to affect the expression of the Hoxa1 gene that is essential for embryo body patterning. These results show that the RARE assay is an effective qHTS approach for screening large compound libraries to identify chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect embryonic development through interference with retinol signaling. PMID:26820057

  17. Genome-wide screen for salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1(r mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1-5, prophages (Gifsy-1 and -2 and remnant, and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that

  18. Screening of hepatocyte proteins binding to complete S protein of hepatitis B virus by yeast-two hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Qin Bai; Jun Cheng; Shu-Lin Zhang; Yan-Ping Huang; Lin Wang; Yan Liu; Shu-Mei Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological function of complete S protein and to look for proteins interacting with complete S protein in hepatocytes.METHODS: We constructed bait plasmid expressing complete S protein of HBV by cloning the gene of complete S protein into pGBKT7, then the recombinant plasmid DNA was transformed into yeast AH109 (a type). The transformed yeast AH109 was mated with yeast Y187 (α type) containing liver cDNA library plasmid in 2xYPDA medium. Diploid yeast was plated on synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/Trp-Leu-His-Ade) containing X-α-gal for selection and screening. After extracting and sequencing of plasmids from positive (blue) colonies, we underwent sequence analysis by bioinformatics.RESULTS: Nineteen colonies were selected and sequenced.Among them, five colonies were Homo sapiens solute carrier family 25, member 23 (SLC25A23), one was Homo sapiens calreticulin, one was human serum albumin (ALB)gene, one was Homo sapiens metallothionein 2A, two were Homo sapiens betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase,three were Homo sapiensNa+ and H+ coupled amino acid transport system N, one was Homo sapiens CD81 antigen (target of anti-proliferative antibody 1) (CD81), three were Homo sapiens diazepam binding inhibitor, two colonies were new genes with unknown function.CONCLUSION: The yeast-two hybrid system is an effective method for identifying hepatocyte proteins interacting with complete S protein of HBV. The complete S protein may bind to different proteins i.e., its multiple functions in vivo.

  19. Analysis on Interface of Screen Gate and Signaling System on Nanjing Metro Line 1%与信号系统接口探析南京地铁1号线屏蔽门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎恒义

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the functional requirement on the interface between screen gate and signaling system on Nanjing metro line 1, the screen gate control principles and realization of interface functions, safe applications of screen gate, as well as operation modes of screen door system.%简要阐述南京地铁1号线屏蔽门与信号系统之间的接口功能要求,屏蔽门控制原理及接口功能的实现,屏蔽门的安全应用,以及屏蔽门系统的操作模式。

  20. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  1. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  2. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening. PMID:25953131

  3. A geographic information system screening tool to tackle diffuse pollution through the use of sustainable drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Zorica; Breton, Neil P

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) offer many benefits that traditional solutions do not. Traditional approaches are unable to offer a solution to problems of flood management and water quality. Holistic consideration of the wide range of benefits from SUDS can result in advantages such as improved flood resilience and water quality enhancement through consideration of diffuse pollution sources. Using a geographical information system (GIS) approach, diffuse pollutant sources and opportunities for SUDS are easily identified. Consideration of potential SUDS locations results in source, site and regional controls, leading to improved water quality (to meet Water Framework Directive targets). The paper will discuss two different applications of the tool, the first of which is where the pollutant of interest is known. In this case the outputs of the tool highlight and isolate the areas contributing the pollutants and suggest the adequate SUDS measures to meet the required criteria. The second application is where the tool identifies likely pollutants at a receiving location, and SUDS measures are proposed to reduce pollution with assessed efficiencies. PMID:24845322

  4. Development of a high-throughput cell-based reporter assay for screening JAK3 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chang-Hong; Bach, Erika A.; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2011-01-01

    JAK3 has become an ideal target for the therapeutic treatment of immune-related diseases, as well as for the prevention of organ allograft rejection. A number of JAK3 inhibitors have been identified by in vitro biochemical enzymatic assays, but the majority display significant off-target effects on JAK2. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new experimental approaches to identify compounds that specifically inhibit JAK3. Here, we showed that in 32D/IL-2Rβ cells, STAT5 becomes phospho...

  5. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay for radiation susceptibility using automated cell counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodzic, J.; Dingjan, I.; Maas, M.J.M.; Meulen-Muileman, I.H. van der; Menezes, R.X. de; Heukelom, S.; Verheij, M.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Geldof, A.A.; Triest, B. van; Beusechem, V.W. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is one of the mainstays in the treatment for cancer, but its success can be limited due to inherent or acquired resistance. Mechanisms underlying radioresistance in various cancers are poorly understood and available radiosensitizers have shown only modest clinical benefit.

  6. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  7. 菲涅耳聚光系统下砷化镓电池输出特性研究%Investigation of the Output Characteristics of GaAs Solar Cell Based on Fresnel Concentrating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文博; 李明; 季旭; 魏生贤; 王六玲; 杨玉文; 范介清; 龙星

    2012-01-01

    The output characteristics on a GaAs solar cell and the components which are composed of six pieces of GaAs solar cells in concentration ratio 676 based on Fresnel concentrating system is analyzed. Single-index model of GaAs solar cell is established and compared with experiments. There is a good agreement of theory and experiments with the error less than 7.6%. The experimental results indicate that, with the same concentration ratio, a GaAs solar cell is in concentration ratio 390, and the six pieces of GaAs solar cells is in concentration ratio 281. The short-circuit current of the monolithic cell is enlarged 322 times, and the max electric power is enlarged 316 times in concentration which of the six pieces of GaAs solar cells system is enlarged 275 times and 272 times. The maximum power output of the solar cell is achieved when the energy-flux density is 0.321 MW/tn2. The GaAs solar cell works well with a temperature lower than 323 K. The efficiency of the system increases 0.227% as the transmittance of the system improve 0.01. The monolithic GaAs solar cell can generate electric energy 0.015 kW?hand the the cell set of six pieces can generate electric energy 0.076 kW-h for a clear day with daily direct irradiation of 17. 212 MJ/m2.%对理论聚光比为676的菲涅耳聚光系统下单片砷化镓太阳电池及由六片砷化镓电池的串联组件的输出特性进行分析.建立三结砷化镓电池输出特性的单指数数学模型,并与实验进行了对比.理论计算与实验吻合较好,误差在7.6%以内.实验结果表明,在相同理论聚光比下,单片电池系统能流聚光比为390,六片电池组件系统能流聚光比为281;聚光后单片电池的短路电流与峰值功率分别放大322倍与316倍,六片电池组件系统的短路电流与峰值功率分别放大275倍与272倍;电池表面能流密度为0.321 MW/m2时电池的输出功率达到最大,电池表面温度高于323 K将影响其工作稳定性;聚

  8. Differences of X-ray exposure between X-ray diagnostics with a conventional X-ray screen-system and with an image-intensifier-television-unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During X-ray diagnostics of patients in the II. Medizinische Poliklinik the X-ray exposure was determined. It corresponded to the data described in literature. Two groups were compared: 518 patients examined with a conventional X-ray screen-system and 642 patients examined with an image-intensifier-television-system. The results demonstrated that with exception of thoracical X-ray examination the replacing of the old system by the television system brought a remarkable increase of the X-ray exposure. The doses depended of the patients constitution to a high degree. (orig.)

  9. Screening for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgau, M M; Narayan, K M; Herman, W H

    2000-10-01

    Definitive studies of the effectiveness of screening for type 2 diabetes are currently not available. RCTs would be the best means to assess effectiveness, but several barriers prevent these studies from being conducted. Prospective observational studies may characterize some of the benefits of screening by creating screened and unscreened groups for comparison. The availability of better data systems and health services research techniques will facilitate such comparisons. Unfortunately, the interpretation of the results of such studies is extremely problematic. Several screening tests have been evaluated. Risk assessment questionnaires have generally performed poorly as stand-alone tests. Screening with biochemical tests performs better. Venous and capillary glucose measurements may perform more favorably than urinary glucose or HbA(1c) measurements, and measuring postprandial glucose levels may have advantages over measuring fasting levels. However, performance of all screening tests is dependent on the cutoff point selected. Unfortunately, there are no well-defined and validated cutoff points to define positive tests. A two-stage screening test strategy may assist with a more efficient use of resources, although such approaches have not been rigorously tested. The optimal interval for screening is unknown. Even though periodic, targeted, and opportunistic screening within the existing health care system seems to offer the greatest yield and likelihood of appropriate follow-up and treatment, much of the reported experience with screening appears to be episodic poorly targeted community screening outside of the existing health care system. Statistical models have helped to answer some of the key questions concerning areas in which there is lack of empirical data. Current models need to be refined with new clinical and epidemiological information, such as the UKPDS results (200). In addition, future models need to include better information on the natural history

  10. Use of the radiometric method at creation cell test-systems for pre-screening of anticancer preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Development of cancer chemotherapy is tightly bound with investigation of biological activity of different compounds on in vitro test systems. Our research has been directed on definition of sensitivity of the cell line KML removed by us from passed of mice melanoma B-16. We had been investigated action of 18 clinical antineoplastic preparations of different classes: alkylating - sarcolysinum, thiophosphamide, dopan, fhthordopan; antimetabolites - cytararibinum, methotrexatum, 6-mercaptopurinum, 5-fhthorouracilum, fhthorafur; antineoplastic antibiotics- adriamycinum, neomycinum, rubomycinum, bruneomycinum, carminomycinum, olivomycinum; plant substances - vinblastinum, colchaminum (component of ointment which used at treatment of skin cancer) and other - carboplatin. Cytotoxic effect of preparations estimated two methods - radiometric on inclusion of 3H - timidine in cells and spectrophotometric by definition of total amount nucleic acids and protein. For this purpose KML cells passed in quantity of 120 thousand in 3 ml of nutrient medium RPMI 1640, 10 % calf embryo serum in bottles and after 24 hours entered substances in dozes from 0,01 up to 100 μg/ml. Contact of substances to cells was 24 hours, then 10 μ Ci 3H - timidine was injected on bottles at 1 hour. Cells transferred on GFC-filters, washed from not connected label. Filters transferred in scintillation liquid and a level of a radio-activity determined on β-counter. All tested clinical preparations appeared active within the criteria of activity, thus the radiometric method was more sensitive, than spectrophotometric. Thus, testing results of model have shown that stable cell line KML was sensitive to action of 18 clinical preparations with various mechanisms of action by different estimations of damaging action. This model can be used for biological activity of new potential cancerolytics pre-screening. This work was supported by the Center of Science and Technology of the Republic of

  11. Care-bolus tracking systems in multislice-helical computed tomography - a new method in the screening of cardiovascular failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Recently bolus tracking systems were developed to improve the timing of intravenous contrast media application in helical computed tomography. We investigated the benefit of this new method as a parameter of the cardiac function.Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 64 patients which incidentally underwent bolus triggered contrast enhanced helical CT and invasive investigation of the heart within one week. All examinations were performed on the CT scanner Somatom Plus 4 Volume Zoom (Siemens Corp., Forchheim, Germany) using the C.A.R.E. trademark Bolus software. This performs repetitive low- dose test scans (e.g. for the abdomen: 140 kV, 20 mA, TI 0,5 s) and measures the Hounsfield attenuation (increase over the baseline) in a preselected region of interest. The displayed increase of vascular density over the time after peripheral contrast media injection (75 ml Iopromid (300 mg/ml), 2 ml/s) was categorised to three types: (a) rapid increase, (b) deceleration before a 100 HE threshold was reached and (c) one or more peaks. The findings of the invasive investigation of the heart were correlated to the findings of the bolus-tracking measurements.Results. The examinations were categorized as follows: 19 type A, 34 type B, 11 type C. We found a high significant correlation between the type of the Hounsfield attenuation and systolic pressure in the left ventricle. There was no correlation between the type of the Hounsfield attenuation and the diastolic pressure in the left ventricle, the pressures related to the right ventricle or the ejection fraction. The bolus- tacking system showed a sensitivity of 53, a specificity of 82, an accuracy of 70%, a positive predictive value of 70% and a negative predictive value of 70% in detection of left heart failure.Conclusion. The bolus tracking system C.A.R.E.-bolus copyright often shows atypical Hounsfield attenuation in cases of cardiac failure but is not suitable as a screening method of the cardiopulmonary

  12. Some potential material supply constraints in solar systems for heating and cooling of buildings and process heat. (A preliminary screening to identify critical materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Smith, S.A.

    1979-06-01

    Nine Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB) designs and three Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat (AIPH) designs have been studied to identify potential future material constraints to their large scale installation and use. The nine SHACOB and three AIPH systems were screened and found to be free of serious future material constraints. The screening was carried out for each individual system design assuming 500 million m/sup 2/ of collector area installed by the year 2000. Also, two mixed design scenarios, containing equal portions of each system design, were screened. To keep these scenarios in perspective, note that a billion m/sup 2/ containing a mixture of the nine SHACOB designs will yield an annual solar contribution of about 1.3 Quads or will displace about 4.2 Quads of fossil fuel used to generate electricity. For AIPH a billion square meters of the mixed designs will yield about 2.8 Quads/year. Three materials were identified that could possibly restrain the deployment of solar systems in the specific scenarios investigated. They are iron and steel, soda lime glass and polyvinyl fluoride. All three of these materials are bulk materials. No raw material supply constraints were found.

  13. Results of the AFRSI rewaterproofing systems screening test in the NASA/Ames Research Center (ARC) 2 x 2-foot transonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, J.; Kingsland, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 2x2-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate two AFRSI rewaterproofing systems and to investigate films as a means of reducing blanket joint distortion. The wind tunnel wall slot configuration influenced on the flow field over the test panel was investigated; primarily using oil flow data, and resulted in a closed slot configuration to provide a satisfactory screening environment flow field for the test. Sixteen AFRSI test panels, configured to represent the test system or film, were subjected to this screening environment (a flow field of separated and reattached flow at a freestream Mach numnber of 0.65 and q = 650 or 900 psf). Each condition was held until damage to the test article was observed or 55 minutes if no damage was incurred. All objectives related to AFRSI rewaterproofing and to the use of films to stiffen the blanket fibers were achieved.

  14. Assessing the use of digital radiography and a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system for large population lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale and objectives: To assess the use of chest digital radiograph (DR) assisted with a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system in large population lung cancer screening. Materials and methods: 346 DR/CR patient studies with corresponding CT images were selected from 12,500 patients screened for lung cancer from year 2007 to 2009. Two expert chest radiologists established CT-confirmed Gold Standard of nodules on DR/CR images with consensus. These cases were read by eight other chest radiologists (participating radiologists) first without using a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system and then re-read using the system. Performances of participating radiologists and the computer system were analyzed. Results: The computer system achieved similar performance on DR and CR images, with a detection rate of 76% and an average FPs of 2.0 per image. Before and after using the computer-aided detection system, the nodule detection sensitivities of the participating radiologists were 62.3% and 77.3% respectively, and the Az values increased from 0.794 to 0.831. Statistical analysis demonstrated statically significant improvement for the participating radiologists after using the computer analysis system with a P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The computer system could help radiologists identify more lesions, especially small ones that are more likely to be overlooked on chest DR/CR images, and could help reduce inter-observer diagnostic variations, while its FPs were easy to recognize and dismiss. It is suggested that DR/CR assisted by the real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system may be an effective means to screen large populations for lung cancer.

  15. Experimental investigations of image quality in X-ray mammography with a conventional screen film system (SFS) and a new full-field digital mammography unit (DR) with a-Se-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Determination of image quality of a new digital mammography system with an a-Se-detector. Material and Method: Radiograms of the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Modell 152 A (Radiation Measurements Inc., Wisconsin) were acquired using a conventional film screen and a digital system. Results: With the conventional film screen system there were detected 191/a 38.2 and with the digital mammography 219/a 43.8 of 225 possible details. Conclusion: Based on these results there is the possibility to replace the conventional film screen system by the digital mammography with a-Se-detector - this has to be confirmed in further clinical trials. (orig.)

  16. A novel multi-functional cell-based microphysiometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; XU Gaixia; LIU Qingjun; CAI Hua; LI Yan; LI Rong; WANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multi-functional microphysiometer for simultaneous measurements of several extracellular ion concentrations and action potential measurement in living cells based on MLAPS (multi-light addressable potentiometric sensor). In the microphysiometer, sorts of sensitive membranes are illuminated in parallel with n light sources at working frequencies, and the response amplitudes of each frequency component can be measured on-line by parallel processing algorithm. In the experiments, the relations of the extracellular environmental H+, Na +, K +, Ca2 + under the effects of western medicines (dilantin, phenobarbital sodium) and Chinese drugs (scutellaria, medlar, hemlock parsley) were analyzed, and the effects of several drugs were evaluated. Moreover, the action potential signals of different cell types (cardiac myocytes and neurons) could be measured and analyzed by LAPS. By detecting these parameters, the system can monitor the real-time process of the cell metabolism and action potential, observe the functional responses of different kinds of membrane-bound receptors, and evaluate the activities of drugs.

  17. Stem cell-based therapies for acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in the event of accidental or intentional incident such as nuclear/radiological terrorism can lead to debilitating injuries to multiple organs resulting in death within days depending on the amount of radiation dose and the quality of radiation. Unfortunately, there is not a single FDA-licensed drug approved against acute radiation injury. The RadStem Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (RadStem CMGR) program at Einstein is developing stem cell-based therapies to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS). We have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived and adipose-derived stromal cells, consisting of a mixture of mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid progenitors can mitigate mice exposed to whole body irradiation of 12 Gy or whole abdominal irradiation of up to 20 Gy. We identified a variety of growth and differentiation factors that individually is unable to improve survival of animals exposed to lethal irradiation, but when administered sequentially mitigates radiation injury and improves survival. We termed this phenomenon as synthetic survival and describe a new paradigm whereby the 'synthetic survival' of irradiated tissues can be promoted by systemic administration of growth factors to amplify residual stem cell clonogens post-radiation exposure, followed by a differentiation factor that favors tissue stem cell differentiation. Synthetic survival can be applied to mitigate lethal radiation injury in multiple organs following radiation-induced hematopoeitic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary syndromes. (author)

  18. Increased Screening for Child Physical Abuse in Emergency Departments in a Regional Trauma System: Response to a Sentinel Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ginger G; Ball, Jane; Mann, N Clay; Nadkarni, Milan; Meredith, J Wayne

    2016-01-01

    A pediatric patient was assaulted while being treated at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center, prompting a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services site visit. The process of screening for physical abuse and protection of patients was reevaluated and revised, and a new guideline was implemented and shared with referral hospitals. During this same time period, 13 referral hospitals participated in an unrelated federally funded study determining the impact of recognition and care of injured children in states with and without a pediatric emergency care facility recognition program. A pre-post study analysis revealed that screening for abuse doubled during this time period. PMID:26953535

  19. Level of mental impairment in the Jamaican elderly and the issues of screening levels, caregiving, support systems, carepersons, and female burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldemire, D

    1996-01-01

    Jamaica, although a developing country, has an aging population and is facing the many issues confronting aging. A community-based study using the Folstein minimental screening tool identified 2.3% of the over-60 population as severely impaired and 11.8% as questionable. The family was identified as the main source of support, and female relatives the main carepersons. Mentally impaired persons were less likely than physically impaired persons not to have a support system or careperson needed. PMID:8871949

  20. Characterization of the alfalfa mosaic virus as expression, presentation, delivery and screening system for potential epitopes derived from the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Munz, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Plant viruses have gained sustainable interest as presentation and production systems for immunogenic peptides within the last decade and consequently their use as vaccines has become an increasingly viable proposition. In this study it was investigated if Alfalfa mosaic virus could be used to present (i) an RSV-F-derived peptide library, (ii) phage-selected mimics and (iii) anti-viral peptide fusion inhibitors. The library was then used to screen for B- and T-cell epitopes. The data obtained...

  1. Screening for Latent Tuberculosis in the Patient With Moderate to Severe Psoriasis Who Is a Candidate for Systemic and/or Biologic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, A; Rodriguez-Granger, J; Ruiz-Villaverde, R

    2016-04-01

    Screening to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is essential before patients with moderate to severe psoriasis start treatment with biologics and vigilance will continue to be needed during and after such treatment. The most recently analyzed statistics from the BIOBADADERM registry show a 20.5% prevalence of LTBI in psoriasis patients treated with biologics in Spain. Various screening protocols are in effect in different countries according to their levels of endemic TB and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, and there is no consensus on a gold-standard approach to the diagnosis of LTBI. Tuberculin skin testing (TST) continues to be the diagnostic method of choice in spite of its limited sensitivity, mainly in immunocompromised patients. Additional problems include the TST's well-established lack of specificity, errors in application, subjectivity in the interpretation of results (which must be read during a second visit), and lack of privacy; the main advantages of this test are its low cost and ease of application. Most cost-benefit studies are therefore inclined to favor using interferon-γ release assays to detect LTBI because they minimize false positives (especially in BCG-vaccinated individuals), thereby eliminating the extra costs and side effects of unnecessary chemoprophylaxis. We review the methods used for LTBI screening in psoriasis patients who are candidates for biologic therapy. Additionally, given the fact that most guidelines do not currently consider it necessary to screen patients about to start conventional systemic therapy, we discuss the reasons underlying the need for such screening. PMID:26651325

  2. Storage phosphor digital radiography in portable chest imaging: comparison of image quality with conventional film-screen system with variation of mAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare image quality of storage phosphor digital radiography (DR) with film-screen radiography in portable chest imaging, and to assess the minimum X-ray dose that can be applied to DR in adults without image degradation, and also to compare image qualities of low dose and standard dose DR. A geometrical phantom similar to the human thorax was imaged by a portable radiographic unit with fixed kVp and variable mAs in both film-screen and DR systems. Three radiologists scored the images by four grades in four categories of 1) contrast between mediastinum and lung, 2) definition of the nodule in the lung, 3) definition of another nodule through the mediastinal shadow, and 4) grainess (noise: assessed only in DR). Additionally, portable chest images were obtained in 10 patients in a intensive care unit by film-screen, standard dose and half dose DR in consecutive days. The same readers scored the images by four grades in six categories of 1) the lungs and hila, 2)the mediastinum, 3) subphrenic area. 4) musculoskeletal shadow, 5) tubes and lines, and 6) grainess (only in DR). The images with superior quality were assessed by paired t-test. In phantom study, the minimum dose of digital images scored 3 or more by all readers was 39% of the standard dose. In patient study, DR was superior to film-screen radiography in all categories except tube and line. Low dose DR was not inferior to standard dose DR in five categories other than grainess to two readers or more. In portable chest imaging, storage phosphor DR image was superior to conventional film-screen radiography and half dose DR was comparable to standard dose DR despite of more noise

  3. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-05-14

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients. PMID:27182156

  4. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin, Roman A.; Kreslavski, Vladimir D.; Zharmukhamedov, Sergey K.; Vladimir S. Bedbenov; Seeram Ramakrishna; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f) or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy...

  5. Economic Aspects of Fuel Cell-Based Stationary Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sevencan, Suat

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that human activity has an important impact on climate. Constantly increasing energy demand is one of the biggest causes of climate change. The fifth assessment report of the Inter-governmental panel on climate change states that decarbonisation of electricity generation is a key component of climate change mitigation. Increased awareness of this fact and escalating concerns around energy security has brought public attention to the energy industry, especially sustainable power ...

  6. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  7. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  8. New quantitative total protein S-assay system for diagnosing protein S type II deficiency: clinical application of the screening system for protein S type II deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Tomohide; Jin, Xiuri; Tsuda, Hiroko; Ieko, Masahiro; Morishita, Eriko; Adachi, Tomoko; Hamasaki, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence is rising rapidly in Japan with lifestyle westernization and aging. Deficiency of protein S, an important blood coagulation regulator, is a risk factor for VTE. Protein S deficiency prevalence in Asians is approximately 10 times that in Caucasians and that of protein S type II deficiency, associated with the protein S Tokushima mutation (K155E), is quite high in Japan. However, currently available methods for measuring protein S are not precise enough for detection of this deficiency. We developed a novel assay system for precise simultaneous determinations of total protein S activity and total protein S antigen level, using a general-purpose automated analyzer, allowing protein S-specific activity (ratio of total protein S activity to total protein S antigen level) to be calculated. Mean specific activity was 0.99 for samples from healthy individuals but 0.69 or less (mean-3SD) in protein S type II-deficient and warfarin-treated samples, but was 1.0 in an estrogen-treated sample with significantly decreased protein S antigen. Protein S gene analyses in healthy individuals with specific activity 0.69 or less revealed the K155E mutation in all three. These results show our new assay system to be an effective screening tool for protein S type II deficiency. This system can also be used in an automated analyzer, facilitating numerous sample measurements, and is, thus, applicable to regular medical checkups and diagnosing VTE. Such applications would potentially contribute to early detection of protein S type II deficiency, and, thereby, to thrombosis prevention. PMID:22157257

  9. System-level and patient-level explanations for non-attendance at diabetic retinopathy screening in Sutton and Merton (London, UK): a qualitative analysis of a service evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutton, R; Du Chemin, A; Stratton, I M; Forster, A S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-attendance at diabetic retinopathy screening has financial implications for screening programmes and potential clinical costs to patients. We sought to identify explanations for why patients had never attended a screening appointment (never attendance) in one programme. Design Qualitative analysis of a service evaluation. Setting One South London (UK) diabetic eye screening programme. Participants and procedure Patients who had been registered with one screening programme for at least 18 months and who had never attended screening within the programme were contacted by telephone to ascertain why this was the case. Patients’ general practices were also contacted for information about why each patient may not have attended. Framework analysis was used to interpret responses. Results Of the 296 patients, 38 were not eligible for screening and of the 258 eligible patients, 159 were not contactable (31 of these had phone numbers that were not in use). We obtained reasons from patients/general practices/clinical notes for non-attendance for 146 (57%) patients. A number of patient-level and system-level factors were given to explain non-attendance. Patient-level factors included having other commitments, being anxious about screening, not engaging with any diabetes care and being misinformed about screening. System-level factors included miscommunication about where the patient lives, their clinical situation and practical problems that could have been overcome had their existence been shared between programmes. Conclusions This service evaluation provides unique insight into the patient-level and system-level reasons for never attendance at diabetic retinopathy screening. Improved sharing of relevant information between providers has the potential to facilitate increased uptake of screening. Greater awareness of patient-level barriers may help providers offer a more accessible service. PMID:27194319

  10. Evidence-based development and first usability testing of a social serious game based multi-modal system for early screening for atypical socio-cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyori, Miklos; Borsos, Zsófia; Stefanik, Krisztina

    2015-01-01

    At current, screening for, and diagnosis of, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are based on purely behavioral data; established screening tools rely on human observation and ratings of relevant behaviors. The research and development project in the focus of this paper is aimed at designing, creating and evaluating a social serious game based multi-modal, interactive software system for screening for high functioning cases of ASD at kindergarten age. The aims of this paper are (1) to summarize the evidence-based design process and (2) to present results from the first usability test of the system. Game topic, candidate responses, and candidate game contents were identified via an iterative literature review. On this basis, the 1st partial prototype of the fully playable game has been created, with complete data recording functionality but without the decision making component. A first usability test was carried out on this prototype (n=13). Overall results were unambiguously promising. Although sporadic difficulties in, and slightly negative attitudes towards, using the game occasionally arose, these were confined to non-target-group children only. The next steps of development include (1) completing the game design; (2) carrying out first large-n field test; (3) creating the first prototype of the decision making component. PMID:26294452

  11. Screening neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Reig del Moral, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo revisan el screening neonatal, desde la descripción por Wilson y Jungner en 1968 de los criterios que hansido aplicados en la detección precoz de enfermedades enel recién nacido, hasta los avances actuales en la medicina genómica que han modificado sustancialmente estas bases. Se comentan los métodos diagnósticos prenatales más utilizados como los analíticos y ultrasonografia prenatal. Se describen los procedimientos que se aplican en la actualidad y se describen ...

  12. Protocol for population testing of an Internet-based Personalised Decision Support system for colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Carlene J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has a comparatively high incidence of colorectal (bowel cancer; however, population screening uptake using faecal occult blood test (FOBT remains low. This study will determine the impact on screening participation of a novel, Internet-based Personalised Decision Support (PDS package. The PDS is designed to measure attitudes and cognitive concerns and provide people with individually tailored information, in real time, that will assist them with making a decision to screen. The hypothesis is that exposure to (tailored PDS will result in greater participation in screening than participation following exposure to non-tailored PDS or resulting from the current non-tailored, paper-based approach. Methods/design A randomised parallel trial comprising three arms will be conducted. Men and women aged 50-74 years (N = 3240 will be recruited. They must have access to the Internet; have not had an FOBT within the previous 12 months, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within the previous 5 years; have had no clinical diagnosis of bowel cancer. Groups 1 and 2 (PDS arms will access a website and complete a baseline survey measuring decision-to-screen stage, attitudes and cognitive concerns and will receive immediate feedback; Group 1 will receive information 'tailored' to their responses in the baseline survey and group 2 will received 'non-tailored' bowel cancer information. Respondents in both groups will subsequently receive an FOBT kit. Group 3 (usual practice arm will complete a paper-based version of the baseline survey and respondents will subsequently receive 'non-tailored' paper-based bowel cancer information with accompanying FOBT kit. Following despatch of FOBTs, all respondents will be requested to complete an endpoint survey. Main outcome measures are (1 completion of FOBT and (2 change in decision-to-screen stage. Secondary outcomes include satisfaction with decision and change in attitudinal scores from baseline to

  13. A rapid screening method to monitor expression of various recombinant proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jebanathirajah, J.A.; Andersen, S.; Blagoev, B.;

    2002-01-01

    Rapid methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to monitor recombinant protein expression from various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture systems were devised. Intracellular as well as secreted proteins from both induced and constitutive...... expression systems were measured and monitored from whole cells and growth media, thus providing an alternative to time-consuming traditional methods for screening and monitoring of protein expression. The methods described here involve minimal processing of samples and are therefore relevant to high...

  14. Overview of Production of Protein Using Cell-free Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Fei Philip

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important steps in protein research is production of the target protein. Cell based systems are mature tools that have long been used to express recombinant proteins by manipulation of the expression organisms. However, it is often challenging to find suitable cell systems that allow for rapid screening of conditions and constructs to produce properly folded, functional proteins in a cost effective manner. As a result, cell-free protein production emerged as an attractive alte...

  15. Standard Cell-Based Implementation of a Digital Optoelectronic Neural-Network Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Klaus D.; Beckstein, Clemens; Blickhan, Reinhard; Erhard, Werner

    2001-03-01

    A standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network architecture is presented. The overall structure of the multilayer perceptron network that was used, the optoelectronic interconnection system between the layers, and all components required in each layer are defined. The design process from VHDL-based modeling from synthesis and partly automatic placing and routing to the final editing of one layer of the circuit of the multilayer perceptrons are described. A suitable approach for the standard cell-based design of optoelectronic systems is presented, and shortcomings of the design tool that was used are pointed out. The layout for the microelectronic circuit of one layer in a multilayer perceptron neural network with a performance potential 1 magnitude higher than neural networks that are purely electronic based has been successfully designed.

  16. A multi-agent cell-based model for wound contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, W M; Koppenol, D C; Vermolen, F J

    2016-05-24

    A mathematical model for wound contraction is presented. The model is based on a cell-based formalism where fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and the immune reaction are taken into account. The model is used to simulate contraction of a wound using point forces on the cell boundary and it also determines the orientation of collagen after restoration of the damage. The paper presents the mathematical model in terms of the equations and assumptions, as well as some implications of the modelling. The present model predicts that the amount of final contraction is larger if the migration velocity of the leukocytes is larger and hence it is important that the immune system functions well to prevent contractures. Further, the present model is the first cell-based model that combines the immune system to final contractions. PMID:26805459

  17. Evaluation of the effects of amyloid β aggregation from seaweed extracts by a microliter-scale high-throughput screening system with a quantum dot nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, Toshiki; Takahashi, Tomohito; Yasui, Hajime; Uwai, Koji; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka

    2015-07-01

    Inhibitors of amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation have the potential to serve as lead compounds for anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) agents because Aβ aggregation is a key step in AD pathogenesis. Recently, we developed a novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening (MSHTS) system for Aβ aggregation inhibitors that applied fluorescence microscopic analysis with quantum dot nanoprobes, and attempted to comprehensively screen the inhibitors from spices using this system (Ishigaki et al., PLoS One, 8, e72992, 2013). In this study, we tried to evaluate the inhibitory activities of 11 seaweed extracts on Aβ aggregation using the MSHTS system. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the ethanolic extracts from all seaweeds exceeded 4.9 mg/ml, indicating that the extracts inhibit Aβ aggregation although this activity was significantly lower than that displayed by members of the Lamiaceae, a family of herbal spices that showed highest activity among 52 spices tested in our 2013 study. On the other hand, the EC50 of boiling water extracts was 0.013-0.42 mg/ml which was comparable with the EC50 of the extracts from the Lamiaceae family. These results suggest that the extraction efficiency of the inhibitors by boiling water extraction was higher than that by ethanolic extraction. Moreover, analysis of fluorescence micrographs, which were obtained from the MSHTS system, revealed that the morphology of the Aβ aggregates coincubated with boiling water extracts differed from control aggregates, suggesting that the MSHTS system is also useful for screening substances that affect the morphology of aggregates. PMID:25534595

  18. Microfluidic Cell Deformability Assay for Rapid and Efficient Kinase Screening with the CRISPR-Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin; Liu, Zongbin; Zhao, Li; Wang, Feng; Yu, Yang; Yang, Jianhua; Chen, Rui; Qin, Lidong

    2016-07-18

    Herein we report a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated loss-of-function kinase screen for cancer cell deformability and invasive potential in a high-throughput microfluidic chip. In this microfluidic cell separation platform, flexible cells with high deformability and metastatic propensity flowed out, while stiff cells remained trapped. Through deep sequencing, we found that loss of certain kinases resulted in cells becoming more deformable and invasive. High-ranking candidates identified included well-reported tumor suppressor kinases, such as chk2, IKK-α, p38 MAPKs, and DAPK2. A high-ranking candidate STK4 was chosen for functional validation and identified to play an important role in the regulation of cell deformability and tumor suppression. Collectively, we have demonstrated that CRISPR-based on-chip mechanical screening is a potentially powerful strategy to facilitate systematic genetic analyses. PMID:27258939

  19. Design of non-contact touch screen system%非接触式触摸屏系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向斌宾; 蒋向东; 王继岷; 李建国

    2011-01-01

    针对目前触摸屏必须接触式控制的缺陷,提出了一种基于图像处理技术的新型触摸屏系统.该系统以微软VX-6000USB2.0摄像头为图像传感器,由PC机采集图像序列,识别和跟踪定位激光光斑,并对用户的指点控制信息做出相应反应.阐述了该系统结构及定位原理,使用基于OpenCV(open source computer vision library)的图像处理算法辅助开发其软件系统.提出一种基于边界修复的图像二次校正法,通过对训练样本的测量发现,系统拥有很好的指点精度.实验结果表明,所设计触摸屏系统能够初步实现非接触式指点的要求,为大屏幕挂壁式非接触式触摸屏系统的研究提供了有效的思路.%When the current touch screen must be contacted control,it proposes a new touch screen system based on the image processing technology.The system introduces Microsoft VX-6000 USB2.0 camera as its image sensor, gathers image sequences, identifies and positions the laser spot,and responds with users' pointing information.lt describes the architecture of the system, a software for positioning,and uses image processing algorithm based on OpenCV(open source computer vision library) to help developing its software system.lt proposes an image secondary correction method based on edge-restoration.By training samples, it finds that the system has excellent accuracy.The experimental results indicate that the system can realize the non-contact requirement and provide an effective thought for the study of non-contact large screen wall touch screen system.

  20. Amperometric screen-printed algal biosensor with flow injection analysis system for detection of environmental toxic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shitanda, Isao [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: shitanda@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Masayuki [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2009-08-30

    A screen-printed algal biosensor was fabricated for evaluation of toxicity of chemicals. An algal ink was prepared by mixing unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris cells, carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate solution. The algal ink was immobilized directly on a screen-printed carbon electrode surface using screen-printing technique. Photosynthetically generated oxygen of the immobilized algae was monitored amperometically. Responses of the algal biosensor to four toxic compounds, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-diethylurea (DCMU) were evaluated as inhibition ratios of the reduction current. The concentrations that gave 50% inhibition of the oxygen reduction current (IC{sup '}{sub 50}) for atrazine and DCMU were 12 and 1 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}, respectively. In comparison with the conventional algal biosensors, in which the algal cells were entrapped in an alginate gel and immobilized on the surface of a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the present sensor is much smaller and less expensive, with the shorter assay time.