WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell-based imaging assays

  1. The pivotal role of multimodality reporter sensors in drug discovery: from cell based assays to real time molecular imaging.

    Ray, Pritha

    2011-04-01

    Development and marketing of new drugs require stringent validation that are expensive and time consuming. Non-invasive multimodality molecular imaging using reporter genes holds great potential to expedite these processes at reduced cost. New generations of smarter molecular imaging strategies such as Split reporter, Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, Multimodality fusion reporter technologies will further assist to streamline and shorten the drug discovery and developmental process. This review illustrates the importance and potential of molecular imaging using multimodality reporter genes in drug development at preclinical phases.

  2. High content cell-based assay for the inflammatory pathway

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-07-01

    Cellular inflammation is a non-specific immune response to tissue injury that takes place via cytokine network orchestration to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. However chronic inflammation that lasts for a longer period, plays the key role in human diseases like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways may be effective in targeting and modulating their outcome. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that effectively combines the pro-inflammatory features with the pro-apoptotic potential. Increased levels of TNF-α observed during acute and chronic inflammatory conditions are believed to induce adverse phenotypes like glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid profile. Natural products e. g., amygdalin, cinnamic acid, jasmonic acid and aspirin have proven efficacy in minimizing the TNF-α induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Cell lysis-free quantum dot (QDot) imaging is an emerging technique to identify the cellular mediators of a signaling cascade with a single assay in one run. In comparison to organic fluorophores, the inorganic QDots are bright, resistant to photobleaching and possess tunable optical properties that make them suitable for long term and multicolor imaging of various components in a cellular crosstalk. Hence we tested some components of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during TNF-α induced inflammation and the effects of aspirin in HepG2 cells by QDot multicolor imaging technique. Results demonstrated that aspirin showed significant protective effects against TNF-α induced cellular inflammation. The developed cell based assay paves the platform for the analysis of cellular components in a smooth and reliable way.

  3. Cell based assays for anti-Plasmodium activity evaluation.

    Mokgethi-Morule, Thabang; N'Da, David D

    2016-03-10

    Malaria remains one of the most common and deadly infectious diseases worldwide. The severity of this global public health challenge is reflected by the approximately 198 million people, who were reportedly infected in 2013 and by the more than 584,000 related deaths in that same year. The rising emergence of drug resistance towards the once effective artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) has become a serious concern and warrants more robust drug development strategies, with the objective of eradicating malaria infections. The intricate biology and life cycle of Plasmodium parasites complicate the understanding of the disease in such a way that would enhance the development of more effective chemotherapies that would achieve radical clinical cure and that would prevent disease relapse. Phenotypic cell based assays have for long been a valuable approach and involve the screening and analysis of diverse compounds with regards to their activities towards whole Plasmodium parasites in vitro. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of malaria eradication by 2020, new generation drugs that are active against all parasite stages (erythrocytic (blood), exo-erythrocytic (liver stages and gametocytes)) are needed. Significant advances are being made in assay development to overcome some of the practical challenges of assessing drug efficacy, particularly in the liver and transmission stage Plasmodium models. This review discusses primary screening models and the fundamental progress being made in whole cell based efficacy screens of anti-malarial activity. Ongoing challenges and some opportunities for improvements in assay development that would assist in the discovery of effective, safe and affordable drugs for malaria treatments are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity.

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A; Bradford, William D; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S; Li, Rong

    2015-03-30

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein-based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Zhu et al.

  5. Cell-based lipid flippase assay employing fluorescent lipid derivatives

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, s...... flippase activities in the plasma membrane of cells, using yeast as an example.......P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases......, studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid...

  6. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... will continue to be valuable discovery tools, the most exciting developments in the field involve cell-based assays for GPCR function. Some cell-based discovery strategies, such as the use of beta-arrestin as a surrogate marker for GPCR function, have already been reduced to practice, and have been used...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...

  7. A Multi-Modality CMOS Sensor Array for Cell-Based Assay and Drug Screening.

    Chi, Taiyun; Park, Jong Seok; Butts, Jessica C; Hookway, Tracy A; Su, Amy; Zhu, Chengjie; Styczynski, Mark P; McDevitt, Todd C; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated multi-modality CMOS cellular sensor array with four sensing modalities to characterize different cell physiological responses, including extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance mapping, optical detection with shadow imaging and bioluminescence sensing, and thermal monitoring. The sensor array consists of nine parallel pixel groups and nine corresponding signal conditioning blocks. Each pixel group comprises one temperature sensor and 16 tri-modality sensor pixels, while each tri-modality sensor pixel can be independently configured for extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance measurement (voltage excitation/current sensing), and optical detection. This sensor array supports multi-modality cellular sensing at the pixel level, which enables holistic cell characterization and joint-modality physiological monitoring on the same cellular sample with a pixel resolution of 80 μm × 100 μm. Comprehensive biological experiments with different living cell samples demonstrate the functionality and benefit of the proposed multi-modality sensing in cell-based assay and drug screening.

  8. A cell-based fluorescent glucose transporter assay for SGLT2 inhibitor discovery

    Yi Huan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption in the kidney, and currently, SGLT2 inhibitors are considered as promising hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. By constructing CHO cell lines that stably express the human SGLT2 transmembrane protein, along with a fluorescent glucose transporter assay that uses 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG as a glucose analog, we have developed a nonradioactive, cell-based assay for the discovery and characterization of SGLT2 inhibitors.

  9. Alternative Methods for the Detection of Emerging Marine Toxins: Biosensors, Biochemical Assays and Cell-Based Assays

    Laia Reverté

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of marine toxins in water and seafood may have a considerable impact on public health. Although the tendency in Europe is to consolidate, when possible, official reference methods based on instrumental analysis, the development of alternative or complementary methods providing functional or toxicological information may provide advantages in terms of risk identification, but also low cost, simplicity, ease of use and high-throughput analysis. This article gives an overview of the immunoassays, cell-based assays, receptor-binding assays and biosensors that have been developed for the screening and quantification of emerging marine toxins: palytoxins, ciguatoxins, cyclic imines and tetrodotoxins. Their advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as their possible integration in research and monitoring programs.

  10. Alternative Methods for the Detection of Emerging Marine Toxins: Biosensors, Biochemical Assays and Cell-Based Assays

    Reverté, Laia; Soliño, Lucía; Carnicer, Olga; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of marine toxins in water and seafood may have a considerable impact on public health. Although the tendency in Europe is to consolidate, when possible, official reference methods based on instrumental analysis, the development of alternative or complementary methods providing functional or toxicological information may provide advantages in terms of risk identification, but also low cost, simplicity, ease of use and high-throughput analysis. This article gives an overview of the immunoassays, cell-based assays, receptor-binding assays and biosensors that have been developed for the screening and quantification of emerging marine toxins: palytoxins, ciguatoxins, cyclic imines and tetrodotoxins. Their advantages and limitations are discussed, as well as their possible integration in research and monitoring programs. PMID:25431968

  11. Implementation and Use of State-of-the-Art, Cell-Based In Vitro Assays.

    Langer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    The impressive advances in the generation and interpretation of functional omics data have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the (patho-)physiology of many biological systems and led to a massive increase in the number of specific targets and phenotypes to investigate in both basic and applied research. The obvious complexity revealed by these studies represents a major challenge to the research community and asks for improved target characterisation strategies with the help of reliable, high-quality assays. Thus, the use of living cells has become an integral part of many research activities because the cellular context more closely represents target-specific interrelations and activity patterns. Although still predominant, the use of traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture models has been gradually complemented by studies based on three-dimensional (3D) spheroid (Sutherland 1988) and other 3D tissue culture systems (Santos et al. 2012; Matsusaki et al. 2014) in an attempt to employ model systems more closely representing the microenvironment of cells in the body. Hence, quite a variety of state-of-the-art cell culture models are available for the generation of novel chemical probes or the identification of starting points for drug development in translational research and pharma drug discovery. In order to cope with these information-rich formats and their increasing technical complexity, cell-based assay development has become a scientific research topic in its own right and is used to ensure the provision of significant, reliable and high-quality data outlasting any discussions related to the current "irreproducibility epidemic" (Dolgin 2014; Prinz et al. 2011; Schatz 2014). At the same time the use of cells in microplate assay formats has become state of the art and greatly facilitates rigorous cell-based assay development by providing the researcher with the opportunity to address the multitude of factors affecting the actual

  12. A simple, versatile and sensitive cell-based assay for prions from various species.

    Zaira E Arellano-Anaya

    Full Text Available Detection and quantification of prion infectivity is a crucial step for various fundamental and applied aspects of prion research. Identification of cell lines highly sensitive to prion infection led to the development of cell-based titration procedures aiming at replacing animal bioassays, usually performed in mice or hamsters. However, most of these cell lines are only permissive to mouse-adapted prions strains and do not allow titration of prions from other species. In this study, we show that epithelial RK13, a cell line permissive to mouse and bank vole prion strains and to natural prion agents from sheep and cervids, enables a robust and sensitive detection of mouse and ovine-derived prions. Importantly, the cell culture work is strongly reduced as the RK13 cell assay procedure designed here does not require subcultivation of the inoculated cultures. We also show that prions effectively bind to culture plastic vessel and are quantitatively detected by the cell assay. The possibility to easily quantify a wider range of prions, including rodent experimental strains but also natural agents from sheep and cervids, should prompt the spread of cell assays for routine prion titration and lead to valuable information in fundamental and applied studies.

  13. Automation of cell-based drug absorption assays in 96-well format using permeable support systems.

    Larson, Brad; Banks, Peter; Sherman, Hilary; Rothenberg, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Cell-based drug absorption assays, such as Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1, are an essential component of lead compound ADME/Tox testing. The permeability and transport data they provide can determine whether a compound continues in the drug discovery process. Current methods typically incorporate 24-well microplates and are performed manually. Yet the need to generate absorption data earlier in the drug discovery process, on an increasing number of compounds, is driving the use of higher density plates. A simple, more efficient process that incorporates 96-well permeable supports and proper instrumentation in an automated process provides more reproducible data compared to manual methods. Here we demonstrate the ability to perform drug permeability and transport assays using Caco-2 or MDCKII-MDR1 cells. The assay procedure was automated in a 96-well format, including cell seeding, media and buffer exchanges, compound dispense, and sample removal using simple robotic instrumentation. Cell monolayer integrity was confirmed via transepithelial electrical resistance and Lucifer yellow measurements. Proper cell function was validated by analyzing apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical movement of rhodamine 123, a known P-glycoprotein substrate. Apparent permeability and efflux data demonstrate how the automated procedure provides a less variable method than manual processing, and delivers a more accurate assessment of a compound's absorption characteristics.

  14. Comparison of cell-based assays for the identification and evaluation of competitive CXCR4 inhibitors.

    Anneleen Van Hout

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is activated by its unique chemokine ligand CXCL12 and regulates many physiological and developmental processes such as hematopoietic cell trafficking. CXCR4 is also one of the main co-receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV entry. Dysfunction of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis contributes to several human pathologies, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Consequently, inhibition of CXCR4 activation is recognized as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In this regard, numerous agents modifying CXCR4 activity have been evaluated in in vitro experimental studies and pre-clinical models. Here, we evaluated a CXCL12 competition binding assay for its potential as a valuable initial screen for functional and competitive CXCR4 inhibitors. In total, 11 structurally diverse compounds were included in a side-by-side comparison of in vitro CXCR4 cell-based assays, such as CXCL12 competition binding, CXCL12-induced calcium signaling, CXCR4 internalization, CXCL12-guided cell migration and CXCR4-specific HIV-1 replication experiments. Our data indicated that agents that inhibit CXCL12 binding, i.e. the anti-CXCR4 peptide analogs T22, T140 and TC14012 and the small molecule antagonists AMD3100, AMD3465, AMD11070 and IT1t showed inhibitory activity with consistent relative potencies in all further applied CXCR4-related assays. Accordingly, agents exerting no or very weak receptor binding (i.e., CTCE-9908, WZ811, Me6TREN and gambogic acid showed no or very poor anti-CXCR4 inhibitory activity. Thus, CXCL12 competition binding studies were proven to be highly valuable as an initial screening assay and indicative for the pharmacological and functional profile of competitive CXCR4 antagonists, which will help the design of new potent CXCR4 inhibitors.

  15. Whole cell based electrical impedance sensing approach for a rapid nanotoxicity assay

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Liu Chang; Li Chenzhong, E-mail: licz@fiu.edu [Nanobioengineering/Bioelectronics Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2010-08-06

    A whole cell based biosensor for rapid real-time testing of human and environmental toxicity of nanoscale materials is reported. Recent studies measuring nanoparticle cytotoxicity in vitro provide a final measurement of toxicity to a cell culture overlooking the ongoing cytotoxic effects of the nanoparticles over the desired timeframe. An array biosensor capable of performing multiple cytotoxicity assays simultaneously was designed to address the need for a consistent method to measure real-time assessments of toxicity. The impedimetric response of human lung fibroblasts (CCL-153) and rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) when exposed to gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and cadmium oxide (CdO) was tested. Exposure to CdO particles exhibited the fastest rate of cytotoxicity and demonstrated the biosensor's ability to monitor toxicity instantaneously in real time. Advantages of the present method include shorter run times, easier usage, and multi-sample analysis leading to a method that can monitor the kinetic effects of nanoparticle toxicity continuously over a desired timeframe.

  16. Whole cell based electrical impedance sensing approach for a rapid nanotoxicity assay

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Liu, Chang; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2010-08-01

    A whole cell based biosensor for rapid real-time testing of human and environmental toxicity of nanoscale materials is reported. Recent studies measuring nanoparticle cytotoxicity in vitro provide a final measurement of toxicity to a cell culture overlooking the ongoing cytotoxic effects of the nanoparticles over the desired timeframe. An array biosensor capable of performing multiple cytotoxicity assays simultaneously was designed to address the need for a consistent method to measure real-time assessments of toxicity. The impedimetric response of human lung fibroblasts (CCL-153) and rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) when exposed to gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and cadmium oxide (CdO) was tested. Exposure to CdO particles exhibited the fastest rate of cytotoxicity and demonstrated the biosensor's ability to monitor toxicity instantaneously in real time. Advantages of the present method include shorter run times, easier usage, and multi-sample analysis leading to a method that can monitor the kinetic effects of nanoparticle toxicity continuously over a desired timeframe.

  17. Whole cell based electrical impedance sensing approach for a rapid nanotoxicity assay

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Liu Chang; Li Chenzhong

    2010-01-01

    A whole cell based biosensor for rapid real-time testing of human and environmental toxicity of nanoscale materials is reported. Recent studies measuring nanoparticle cytotoxicity in vitro provide a final measurement of toxicity to a cell culture overlooking the ongoing cytotoxic effects of the nanoparticles over the desired timeframe. An array biosensor capable of performing multiple cytotoxicity assays simultaneously was designed to address the need for a consistent method to measure real-time assessments of toxicity. The impedimetric response of human lung fibroblasts (CCL-153) and rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) when exposed to gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and cadmium oxide (CdO) was tested. Exposure to CdO particles exhibited the fastest rate of cytotoxicity and demonstrated the biosensor's ability to monitor toxicity instantaneously in real time. Advantages of the present method include shorter run times, easier usage, and multi-sample analysis leading to a method that can monitor the kinetic effects of nanoparticle toxicity continuously over a desired timeframe.

  18. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Assay Predicts Developmental Toxicity Potential of ToxCast Chemicals (ACT meeting)

    Worldwide initiatives to screen for toxicity potential among the thousands of chemicals currently in use require inexpensive and high-throughput in vitro models to meet their goals. The devTOX quickPredict platform is an in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-based assay used to as...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging and cell-based neurorestorative therapy after brain injury

    Quan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restorative cell-based therapies for experimental brain injury, such as stroke and traumatic brain injury, substantially improve functional outcome. We discuss and review state of the art magnetic resonance imaging methodologies and their applications related to cell-based treatment after brain injury. We focus on the potential of magnetic resonance imaging technique and its associated challenges to obtain useful new information related to cell migration, distribution, and quantitation, as well as vascular and neuronal remodeling in response to cell-based therapy after brain injury. The noninvasive nature of imaging might more readily help with translation of cell-based therapy from the laboratory to the clinic.

  20. Intra-laboratory validation of a human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay for testing angiogenesis modulators

    Jertta-Riina Sarkanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed standardized human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay was intra-laboratory validated to verify that the method is reliable and relevant for routine testing of modulators of angiogenesis e.g. pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. This assay is based on the earlier published method but it was improved and shown to be more sensitive and rapid than the previous assay. The performance of the assay was assessed by using 6 reference chemicals, which are widely used pharmaceuticals that inhibit angiogenesis: acetyl salicylic acid, erlotinib, 2-methoxyestradiol, levamisole, thalidomide, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. In the intra-laboratory validation, the sensitivity of the assay (upper and lower limits of detection and linearity of response in tubule formation, batch to batch variation in tubule formation between different Master cell bank batches, and precision as well as the reliability of the assay (reproducibility and repeatability were tested. The pre-set acceptance criteria for the intra-laboratory validation study were met. The relevance of the assay in man was investigated by comparing the effects of reference chemicals and their concentrations to the published human data. The comparison showed a good concordance, which indicates that this human cell based angiogenesis model predicts well the effects in man and has the potential to be used to supplement and/or replace of animal tests.

  1. Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison between tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays

    Chan Koon H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM and/or optic neuritis (ON. A significant proportion of NMOSD patients are seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies. We compared the AQP4 autoantibody detection rates of tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA and cell-based IIFA. Methods Serum of Chinese CNS IDD patients were assayed for AQP4 autoantibodies by tissue-based IIFA using monkey cerebellum and cell-based IIFA using transfected HEK293 cells which express human AQP4 on their cell membranes. Results In total, 128 CNS IDD patients were studied. We found that 78% of NMO patients were seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA versus 61% by tissue-based IFA (p = 0.250, 75% of patients having relapsing myelitis (RM with LETM were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 50% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 0.250, and 33% of relapsing ON patients were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 22% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 1.000; however the differences were not statistically significant. All patients seropositive by tissue-based IIFA were also seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA. Among 29 NMOSD patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, 20 (69% were seropositive by tissue-based IIFA. The 9 patients seropositive by cell-based IIFA while seronegative by tissue-based IIFA had NMO (3, RM with LETM (3, a single attack of LETM (1, relapsing ON (1 and a single ON attack (1. Among 23 NMO or RM patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, comparison between those seropositive (n = 17 and seronegative (n = 6 by tissue-based IIFA revealed no differences in clinical and neuroradiological characteristics between the two groups. Conclusion Cell-based IIFA is slightly more sensitive

  2. A novel cell-based assay to measure activity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 protease

    Campos-Gomez, Javier; Ahmad, Fahim; Rodriguez, Efrain; Saeed, Mohammad F., E-mail: saeed@southernresearch.org

    2016-09-15

    The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To facilitate the discovery of nsP2 inhibitors we have developed a novel assay for quantitative measurement of nsP2pro activity in a cell-based format. The assay is based on a substrate fusion protein consisting of eGFP and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) linked together by a small peptide containing a VEEV nsp2pro cleavage sequence. The expression of the substrate protein in cells along with recombinant nsP2pro results in cleavage of the substrate protein resulting in extracellular release of free Gluc. The Gluc activity in supernatants corresponds to intracellular nsP2pro-mediated substrate cleavage; thus, providing a simple and convenient way to quantify nsP2pro activity. Here, we demonstrate potential utility of the assay in identification of nsP2pro inhibitors, as well as in investigations related to molecular characterization of nsP2pro. - Highlights: • A novel cell-based assay to measure VEEV nsP2 protease activity was developed. • Assay utility was demonstrated for antiviral screening. • .The assay also proved to be useful in basic mechanistic studies of nsP2 protease.

  3. A novel cell-based assay to measure activity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 protease

    Campos-Gomez, Javier; Ahmad, Fahim; Rodriguez, Efrain; Saeed, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To facilitate the discovery of nsP2 inhibitors we have developed a novel assay for quantitative measurement of nsP2pro activity in a cell-based format. The assay is based on a substrate fusion protein consisting of eGFP and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) linked together by a small peptide containing a VEEV nsp2pro cleavage sequence. The expression of the substrate protein in cells along with recombinant nsP2pro results in cleavage of the substrate protein resulting in extracellular release of free Gluc. The Gluc activity in supernatants corresponds to intracellular nsP2pro-mediated substrate cleavage; thus, providing a simple and convenient way to quantify nsP2pro activity. Here, we demonstrate potential utility of the assay in identification of nsP2pro inhibitors, as well as in investigations related to molecular characterization of nsP2pro. - Highlights: • A novel cell-based assay to measure VEEV nsP2 protease activity was developed. • Assay utility was demonstrated for antiviral screening. • .The assay also proved to be useful in basic mechanistic studies of nsP2 protease.

  4. EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity assays for determination of neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies.

    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Brown, J Edward; Torabazar, Nahid R; Smith, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant ricin toxin A-chain 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc), developed at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases as a vaccine candidate, is under investigation in a phase 1 clinical study. To effectively evaluate the immunogenicity of this ricin vaccine and to eliminate the use of radioactive material, an EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity (TNA) assay using a CellTiter 96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay Reagent has been developed, optimized, and applied in the vaccine efficacy studies. The TNA assay measures the protective neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies in animal sera by determining the cell viability after ricin exposure in the assay system and comparing it to a purified mouse polyclonal antiricin IgG standard curve. The standard curve of the anti-ricin TNA assay closely fits a four-parameter logistic regression model. The unknown test sample concentration was expressed as microg/mL, but not the 50% effective concentration (EC50), which was determined by most TNA assays. The neutralizing endpoint titers, not the 50% effective dilution (ED50), of human specimens were measured with the TNA assay in support of the clinical study of the RVEc vaccine. The optimal amount of ricin toxin, EL4 cells, and concentration of standards used in the assay system was established to minimize false-negative and false-positive results of serum specimens from the nonclinical and clinical studies of RVEc. The testing conditions were adjusted to optimize assay performance. The colorimetric TNA assay replaced a radioactive TNA assay previously used in the ricin vaccine studies.

  5. Development of a novel cell-based assay system EPISSAY for screening epigenetic drugs and liposome formulated decitabine

    Lim, Sue Ping; Callen, David F; Kumar, Raman; Akkamsetty, Yamini; Wang, Wen; Ho, Kristen; Neilsen, Paul M; Walther, Diego J; Suetani, Rachel J; Prestidge, Clive

    2013-01-01

    Despite the potential of improving the delivery of epigenetic drugs, the subsequent assessment of changes in their epigenetic activity is largely dependent on the availability of a suitable and rapid screening bioassay. Here, we describe a cell-based assay system for screening gene reactivation. A cell-based assay system (EPISSAY) was designed based on a silenced triple-mutated bacterial nitroreductase TMnfsB fused with Red-Fluorescent Protein (RFP) expressed in the non-malignant human breast cell line MCF10A. EPISSAY was validated using the target gene TXNIP, which has previously been shown to respond to epigenetic drugs. The potency of a epigenetic drug model, decitabine, formulated with PEGylated liposomes was also validated using this assay system. Following treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as decitabine and vorinostat, increases in RFP expression were observed, indicating expression of RFP-TMnfsB. The EPISSAY system was then used to test the potency of decitabine, before and after PEGylated liposomal encapsulation. We observed a 50% higher potency of decitabine when encapsulated in PEGylated liposomes, which is likely to be due to its protection from rapid degradation. The EPISSAY bioassay system provides a novel and rapid system to compare the efficiencies of existing and newly formulated drugs that reactivate gene expression

  6. Cell-based therapies and imaging in cardiology.

    Bengel, Frank M; Schachinger, Volker; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2005-12-01

    Cell therapy for cardiac repair has emerged as one of the most exciting and promising developments in cardiovascular medicine. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies is increasing that this innovative treatment will influence clinical practice in the future. But open questions and controversies with regard to the basic mechanisms of this therapy continue to exist and emphasise the need for specific techniques to visualise the mechanisms and success of therapy in vivo. Several non-invasive imaging approaches which aim at tracking of transplanted cells in the heart have been introduced. Among these are direct labelling of cells with radionuclides or paramagnetic agents, and the use of reporter genes for imaging of cell transplantation and differentiation. Initial studies have suggested that these molecular imaging techniques have great potential. Integration of cell imaging into studies of cardiac cell therapy holds promise to facilitate further growth of the field towards a broadly clinically useful application.

  7. Cell-based therapies and imaging in cardiology

    Bengel, Frank M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Munich (Germany); Schachinger, Volker; Dimmeler, Stefanie [University of Frankfurt, Department of Molecular Cardiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Cell therapy for cardiac repair has emerged as one of the most exciting and promising developments in cardiovascular medicine. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies is increasing that this innovative treatment will influence clinical practice in the future. But open questions and controversies with regard to the basic mechanisms of this therapy continue to exist and emphasise the need for specific techniques to visualise the mechanisms and success of therapy in vivo. Several non-invasive imaging approaches which aim at tracking of transplanted cells in the heart have been introduced. Among these are direct labelling of cells with radionuclides or paramagnetic agents, and the use of reporter genes for imaging of cell transplantation and differentiation. Initial studies have suggested that these molecular imaging techniques have great potential. Integration of cell imaging into studies of cardiac cell therapy holds promise to facilitate further growth of the field towards a broadly clinically useful application. (orig.)

  8. Determination of Interference During In Vitro Pyrogen Detection: Development and Characterization of a Cell-Based Assay.

    Palma, Linda; Rossetti, Francesca; Dominici, Sabrina; Buondelmonte, Costantina; Rocchi, Marco B L; Rizzardi, Gian P; Vallanti, Giuliana; Magnani, Mauro

    Contamination of pharmaceutical products and medical devices with pyrogens such as endotoxins is the most common cause of systemic inflammation and, in worst cases, of septic shock. Thus, quantification of pyrogens is crucial. The limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays are the reference tests for in vitro endotoxin detection, in association with the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test (RPT), according to European Pharmacopoeia (EP 2.6.14), and U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP ). However, several substances interfere with LAL assay, while RPT is not accurate, not quantitative, and raises ethical limits. Biological assays, as monocyte activation tests, have been developed and included in European Pharmacopoeia (EP 7.0; 04/2010:20630) guidelines as an alternative to RPT and proved relevant to the febrile reaction in vivo. Because this reaction is carried out by endogenous mediators under the transcriptional control of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), we sought to determine whether a NF-kappaB reporter-gene assay, based on MonoMac-6 (MM6) cells, could reconcile the basic mechanism of innate immune response with the relevance of monocytoid cell lines to the organism reaction to endotoxins. This article describes both optimization and characterization of the reporter cells-based assay, which overall proved the linearity, accuracy, and precision of the test, and demonstrated the sensitivity of the assay to 0.24 EU/mL endotoxin, close to the pyrogenic threshold in humans. Moreover, the assay was experimentally compared to the LAL test in the evaluation of selected interfering samples. The good performance of the MM6 reporter test demonstrates the suitability of this assay to evaluate interfering or false-positive samples.

  9. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay for radiation susceptibility using automated cell counting

    Hodzic, Jasmina; Dingjan, Ilse; Maas, Mariëlle JP; Meulen-Muileman, Ida H van der; Menezes, Renee X de; Heukelom, Stan; Verheij, Marcel; Gerritsen, Winald R; Geldof, Albert A; Triest, Baukelien van; Beusechem, Victor W van

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainstays in the treatment for cancer, but its success can be limited due to inherent or acquired resistance. Mechanisms underlying radioresistance in various cancers are poorly understood and available radiosensitizers have shown only modest clinical benefit. There is thus a need to identify new targets and drugs for more effective sensitization of cancer cells to irradiation. Compound and RNA interference high-throughput screening technologies allow comprehensive enterprises to identify new agents and targets for radiosensitization. However, the gold standard assay to investigate radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, the colony formation assay (CFA), is unsuitable for high-throughput screening. We developed a new high-throughput screening method for determining radiation susceptibility. Fast and uniform irradiation of batches up to 30 microplates was achieved using a Perspex container and a clinically employed linear accelerator. The readout was done by automated counting of fluorescently stained nuclei using the Acumen eX3 laser scanning cytometer. Assay performance was compared to that of the CFA and the CellTiter-Blue homogeneous uniform-well cell viability assay. The assay was validated in a whole-genome siRNA library screening setting using PC-3 prostate cancer cells. On 4 different cancer cell lines, the automated cell counting assay produced radiation dose response curves that followed a linear-quadratic equation and that exhibited a better correlation to the results of the CFA than did the cell viability assay. Moreover, the cell counting assay could be used to detect radiosensitization by silencing DNA-PKcs or by adding caffeine. In a high-throughput screening setting, using 4 Gy irradiated and control PC-3 cells, the effects of DNA-PKcs siRNA and non-targeting control siRNA could be clearly discriminated. We developed a simple assay for radiation susceptibility that can be used for high-throughput screening. This will aid

  10. Utilization of the Tango beta-arrestin recruitment technology for cell-based EDG receptor assay development and interrogation.

    Wetter, Justin A; Revankar, Chetana; Hanson, Bonnie J

    2009-10-01

    Cellular assay development for the endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and related lysophospholipid (LP) receptors is complicated by endogenous receptor expression and divergent receptor signaling. Endogenously expressed LP receptors exist in most tissue culture cell lines. These LP receptors, along with other endogenously expressed GPCRs, contribute to off-target signaling that can complicate interpretation of second-messenger-based cellular assay results. These receptors also activate a diverse and divergent set of cellular signaling pathways, necessitating the use of a variety of assay formats with mismatched procedures and functional readouts. This complicates examination and comparison of these receptors across the entire family. The Tango technology uses the conserved beta-arrestin-dependent receptor deactivation process to allow interrogation of the EDG and related receptors with a single functional assay. This method also isolates the target receptor signal, allowing the use of tissue culture cell lines regardless of their endogenous receptor expression. The authors describe the use of this technique to build cell-based receptor-specific assays for all 8 members of the EDG receptor family as well as the related LPA receptors GPR23, GPR92, and GPR87. In addition, they demonstrate the value of this technology for identification and investigation of functionally selective receptor compounds as demonstrated by the immunosuppressive compound FtY720-P and its action at the EDG(1) and EDG(3) receptors.

  11. Comparison of cell-based and non-cell-based assay platforms for the detection of clinically relevant anti-drug neutralizing antibodies for immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins.

    Hu, Jenny; Wala, Iwona; Han, Hong; Nagatani, Janice; Barger, Troy; Civoli, Francesca; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Zhuang, Yao; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-04-01

    Anti-drug neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) formed due to unwanted immunogenicity of a therapeutic protein point towards a mature immune response. NAb detection is important in interpreting the therapeutic's efficacy and safety in vivo. In vitro cell-based NAb assays provide a physiological system for NAb detection, however are complex assays. Non-cell-based competitive ligand binding (CLB) approaches are also employed for NAb detection. Instead of cells, CLB assays use soluble receptor and conjugated reagents and are easier to perform, however have reduced physiological relevance. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of CLB assays to established cell-based assays to determine the former's ability to detect clinically relevant NAbs towards therapeutics that (i) acted as an agonist or (ii) acted as antagonists by binding to a target receptor. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the performance of cell-based and CLB NAb assays for erythropoietin (EPO) and two anti-receptor monoclonal antibodies (AMG-X and AMG 317). Clinically relevant NAb-positive samples identified previously by a cell-based assay were assessed in the corresponding CLB format(s). A panel of 12 engineered fully human anti-EPO monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested in both EPO NAb assay formats. Our results showed that the CLB format was (i) capable of detecting human anti-EPO MAbs of differing neutralizing capabilities and affinities and (ii) provided similar results as the cell-based assay for detecting NAbs in patient samples. The cell-based and CLB assays also behaved comparably in detecting NAbs in clinical samples for AMG-X. In the case of anti-AMG 317 NAbs, the CLB format failed to detect NAbs in more than 50% of the tested samples. We conclude that assay sensitivity, drug tolerance and the selected assay matrix played an important role in the inability of AMG 317 CLB assays to detect clinically relevant NAbs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomarker-Based Analysis for Contaminants in Sediments/Soil: Review of Cell-Based Assays and cDNA Arrays

    Inouye, Laura

    2000-01-01

    This technical note reviews the existing technology for cell-based biomarker assays and cDNA arrays and explores their potential as rapid, sensitive, and low-cost tools for sediment/soil toxicity screening...

  13. Sensitive Cell-Based Assay for Determination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coreceptor Tropism

    Weber, Jan; Vazquez, A. C.; Winner, D.; Gibson, R. M.; Rhea, A. M.; Rose, J. D.; Wylie, D.; Henry, K.; Wright, A.; King, K.; Archer, J.; Poveda, E.; Soriano, V.; Robertson, D. L.; Olivo, P. D.; Arts, E. J.; Quinones-Mateu, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2013), s. 1517-1527 ISSN 0095-1137 Grant - others:NIH(US) P30 AI036219 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV tropism * phenotypic assay * genotypic prediction * disease progression * CCR5 antagonists * naive patients Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.232, year: 2013

  14. Imaging in cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases

    Kirik, Deniz; Breysse, Nathalie; Bjoerklund, Tomas; Besret, Laurent; Hantraye, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Fetal cell transplantation for the treatment of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases has been developed over the past two decades and is now in early clinical testing phase. Direct assessment of the graft's survival, integration into the host brain and impact on neuronal functions requires advanced in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Owing to its high sensitivity, positron emission tomography is today the most widely used tool to evaluate the viability and function of the transplanted tissue in the brain. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are opening new possibilities for imaging neurochemical events in the brain. The ultimate goal will be to use the combination of multiple imaging modalities for complete functional monitoring of the repair processes in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  15. Demonstration of a visual cell-based assay for screening glucose ...

    GLUT4 translocation is visualized by live cell imaging based on GFP fluorescence by employing a cooled charge-coupled device camera attached to a fluorescent microscope. This video imaging method and further quantitative analysis of GLUT4 on the cell membrane provide rapid and foolproof visual evidence that this ...

  16. Self-Checking Cell-Based Assays for GPCR Desensitization and Resensitization.

    Fisher, Gregory W; Fuhrman, Margaret H; Adler, Sally A; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Waggoner, Alan S; Jarvik, Jonathan W

    2014-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play stimulatory or modulatory roles in numerous physiological states and processes, including growth and development, vision, taste and olfaction, behavior and learning, emotion and mood, inflammation, and autonomic functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion. GPCRs constitute the largest protein superfamily in the human and are the largest target class for prescription drugs, yet most are poorly characterized, and of the more than 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, over 100 are orphans for which no endogenous ligand has yet been convincingly identified. We here describe new live-cell assays that use recombinant GPCRs to quantify two general features of GPCR cell biology-receptor desensitization and resensitization. The assays employ a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) reporter that reversibly complexes with either of two soluble organic molecules (fluorogens) whose fluorescence is strongly enhanced when complexed with the FAP. Both assays require no wash or cleanup steps and are readily performed in microwell plates, making them adaptable to high-throughput drug discovery applications. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Sensitive cell-based assay for determination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor tropism.

    Weber, Jan; Vazquez, Ana C; Winner, Dane; Gibson, Richard M; Rhea, Ariel M; Rose, Justine D; Wylie, Doug; Henry, Kenneth; Wright, Alison; King, Kevin; Archer, John; Poveda, Eva; Soriano, Vicente; Robertson, David L; Olivo, Paul D; Arts, Eric J; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E

    2013-05-01

    CCR5 antagonists are a powerful new class of antiretroviral drugs that require a companion assay to evaluate the presence of CXCR4-tropic (non-R5) viruses prior to use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. In this study, we have developed, characterized, verified, and prevalidated a novel phenotypic test to determine HIV-1 coreceptor tropism (VERITROP) based on a sensitive cell-to-cell fusion assay. A proprietary vector was constructed containing a near-full-length HIV-1 genome with the yeast uracil biosynthesis (URA3) gene replacing the HIV-1 env coding sequence. Patient-derived HIV-1 PCR products were introduced by homologous recombination using an innovative yeast-based cloning strategy. The env-expressing vectors were then used in a cell-to-cell fusion assay to determine the presence of R5 and/or non-R5 HIV-1 variants within the viral population. Results were compared with (i) the original version of Trofile (Monogram Biosciences, San Francisco, CA), (ii) population sequencing, and (iii) 454 pyrosequencing, with the genotypic data analyzed using several bioinformatics tools, i.e., the 11/24/25 rule, Geno2Pheno (2% to 5.75%, 3.5%, or 10% false-positive rate [FPR]), and webPSSM. VERITROP consistently detected minority non-R5 variants from clinical specimens, with an analytical sensitivity of 0.3%, with viral loads of ≥1,000 copies/ml, and from B and non-B subtypes. In a pilot study, a 73.7% (56/76) concordance was observed with the original Trofile assay, with 19 of the 20 discordant results corresponding to non-R5 variants detected using VERITROP and not by the original Trofile assay. The degree of concordance of VERITROP and Trofile with population and deep sequencing results depended on the algorithm used to determine HIV-1 coreceptor tropism. Overall, VERITROP showed better concordance with deep sequencing/Geno2Pheno at a 0.3% detection threshold (67%), whereas Trofile matched better with population sequencing (79%). However, 454

  18. Molecular Imaging: A Useful Tool for the Development of Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapies

    Prakash Gangadaran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline that allows visualization, characterization, and measurement of the biological processes in living subjects, including humans, at a cellular and molecular level. The interaction between cancer cells and natural killer (NK cells is complex and incompletely understood. Despite our limited knowledge, progress in the search for immune cell therapies against cancer could be significantly improved by dynamic and non-invasive visualization and tracking of immune cells and by visualization of the response of cancer cells to therapies in preclinical and clinical studies. Molecular imaging is an essential tool for these studies, and a multimodal molecular imaging approach can be applied to monitor immune cells in vivo, for instance, to visualize therapeutic effects. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of NK cells in cancer therapies and the preclinical and clinical usefulness of molecular imaging in NK cell-based therapies. Furthermore, we discuss different molecular imaging modalities for use with NK cell-based therapies, and their preclinical and clinical applications in animal and human subjects. Molecular imaging has contributed to the development of NK cell-based therapies against cancers in animal models and to the refinement of current cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Developing sensitive and reproducible non-invasive molecular imaging technologies for in vivo NK cell monitoring and for real-time assessment of therapeutic effects will accelerate the development of NK cell therapies.

  19. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  20. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants.

    Stavreva, Diana A; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L

    2016-08-10

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants

    Stavreva, Diana A.; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A.; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)—tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3′,5,5′-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta.

  2. Human neuronal cell based assay: A new in vitro model for toxicity evaluation of ciguatoxin.

    Coccini, Teresa; Caloni, Francesca; De Simone, Uliana

    2017-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca 2+ i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C. In SH-SY5Y, P-CTX-3C displayed a powerful cytotoxicity requiring the presence of both Veratridine and Ouabain. SH-SY5Y were very sensitive to Ouabain: 10 and 0.25nM appeared the optimal concentrations, for short- and long-term toxicity studies, respectively, to be used in co-incubation with Veratridine (25μM), simulating the physiological and pathological endogenous Ouabain levels in humans. P-CTX-3C cytotoxic effect, on human neurons co-incubated with OV (Ouabain+Veratridine) mix, was expressed starting from 100pM after short- and 25pM after long-term exposure. Notably, P-CTX-3C alone at 25nM induced cytotoxicity after 24h and prolonged exposure. This human brain-derived cell line appears a suitable cell-based-model to evaluate cytotoxicity of CTX present in marine food contaminated at low toxic levels and to characterize the toxicological profile of other/new congeners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioreactor process monitoring using an automated microfluidic platform for cell-based assays

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Kjaerulff, S.; Dufva, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We report on a novel microfluidic system designed to monitor in real-time the concentration of live and dead cells in industrial cell production. Custom-made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample-to-waste liquid management and image cytometry-based ...

  4. Estimating the wound healing ability of bioactive milk proteins using an optimized cell based assay

    Nyegaard, Steffen; Andreasen, Trine; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    Milk contains many different proteins of which the larger constituents like the caseins and major whey constituents are well characterized. We have for some time been studying the structure and function of proteins associated with the milk fat globule membrane like lactadherin, MUC1/15, xanthine...... oxidoreductase along with minor whey constituents like osteopontin, EPV20 etc. The enterocyte migration rate is a key parameter in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and intestinal repair when recovering from infection or intestinal diseases like Crohns and ulcerative colitis. We developed a novel in vitro wound...... healing assay to determine the bioactive effects of various milk proteins using human small intestine cells grown on extracellular matrix. Silicone inserts are placed in a 96-well plate and enterocytes seeded around it, creating a monolayer with a cell free area. In current ongoing experiments, various...

  5. The cell-based L-glutathione protection assays to study endocytosis and recycling of plasma membrane proteins.

    Cihil, Kristine M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka

    2013-12-13

    Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or to the plasma membrane for recycling. The cell based L-glutathione protection assays can be used to study endocytosis and recycling of protein receptors, channels, transporters, and adhesion molecules localized at the cell surface. The endocytic assay requires labeling of cell surface proteins with a cell membrane impermeable biotin containing a disulfide bond and the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester at 4 ºC - a temperature at which membrane trafficking does not occur. Endocytosis of biotinylated plasma membrane proteins is induced by incubation at 37 ºC. Next, the temperature is decreased again to 4 ºC to stop endocytic trafficking and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins that have remained at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione. At this point, only proteins that were endocytosed remain protected from L-glutathione and thus remain biotinylated. After cell lysis, biotinylated proteins are isolated with streptavidin agarose, eluted from agarose, and the biotinylated protein of interest is detected by western blotting. During the recycling assay, after biotinylation cells are incubated at 37 °C to load endocytic vesicles with biotinylated proteins and the disulfide bond in biotin covalently attached to proteins remaining at the plasma membrane is reduced with L-glutathione at 4 ºC as in the endocytic assay. Next, cells are incubated again at 37 °C to allow biotinylated proteins from endocytic vesicles to recycle to the plasma membrane. Cells are then incubated at 4 ºC, and the disulfide bond in biotin attached to proteins that recycled to the plasma membranes is reduced with L-glutathione. The biotinylated proteins protected from L-glutathione are those that did not recycle to the plasma membrane.

  6. Novel cell-based assay reveals associations of circulating serum AhR-ligands with metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Park, Wook-Ha; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Jin Taek; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Park, Hyokeun; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2013-01-01

    Serum concentrations of environmental pollutants have been positively correlated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in epidemiologic studies. In turn, abnormal mitochondrial function has been associated with the diseases. The relationships between these variables, however, have not been studied. We developed novel cell-based aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist bioassay system without solvent extraction process and analyzed whether low-dose circulating AhR ligands in human serum are associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial function. Serum AhR ligand activities were measured as serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (sTCDDeq) in pM using 10 μL human sera from 97 Korean participants (47 with glucose intolerance and 50 matched controls, average age of 46.6 ± 9.9 years, 53 male and 45 female). sTCDDeq were higher in participants with glucose intolerance than normal controls and were positively associated (P fasting glucose, but not with HDL-cholesterol. Body mass index was in a positive linear relationship with serum AhR ligands in healthy participants. When myoblast cells were incubated with human sera, ATP generating power of mitochondria became impaired in an AhR ligand concentration-dependent manner. Our results support that circulating AhR ligands may directly reduce mitochondrial function in tissues, leading to weight gain, glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome. Our rapid cell-based assay using minute volume of human serum may provide one of the best monitoring systems for circulating AhR ligands, good clinical biomarkers for the progress of disease and therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Application of cell-based assays for toxicity characterization of complex wastewater matrices: Possible applications in wastewater recycle and reuse.

    Shrivastava, Preeti; Naoghare, Pravin K; Gandhi, Deepa; Devi, S Saravana; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Bafana, Amit; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to pre-concentrated inlet or outlet STP wastewater extracts at different concentrations (0.001% to 1%) induced dose-dependent toxicity in MCF-7 cells, whereas drinking water extracts did not induce cytotoxicity in cells treated. GC-MS analysis revealed the occurrence of xenobiotic compounds (Benzene, Phthalate, etc.) in inlet/outlet wastewater extracts. Cells exposed to inlet/outlet extract showed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS: inlet: 186.58%, ploss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm: inlet, 74.91%, pcontrol. These concentrations induced DNA damage (Tail length: inlet: 34.4%, pcontrol (Tail length: 7.5%). Cell cycle analysis displayed drastic reduction in the G1 phase in treated cells (inlet, G1:45.0%; outlet, G1:58.3%) compared to the control (G1:67.3%). Treated cells showed 45.18% and 28.0% apoptosis compared to the control (1.2%). Drinking water extracts did not show any significant alterations with respect to ROS, Δψm, DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis compared to the control. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were found to be differentially expressed in cells exposed to inlet/outlet extracts. Herein, we propose cell-based toxicity assays to evaluate the efficacies of wastewater treatment and recycling processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. From in vitro to in vivo: Integration of the virtual cell based assay with physiologically based kinetic modelling.

    Paini, Alicia; Sala Benito, Jose Vicente; Bessems, Jos; Worth, Andrew P

    2017-12-01

    Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models and the virtual cell based assay can be linked to form so called physiologically based dynamic (PBD) models. This study illustrates the development and application of a PBK model for prediction of estragole-induced DNA adduct formation and hepatotoxicity in humans. To address the hepatotoxicity, HepaRG cells were used as a surrogate for liver cells, with cell viability being used as the in vitro toxicological endpoint. Information on DNA adduct formation was taken from the literature. Since estragole induced cell damage is not directly caused by the parent compound, but by a reactive metabolite, information on the metabolic pathway was incorporated into the model. In addition, a user-friendly tool was developed by implementing the PBK/D model into a KNIME workflow. This workflow can be used to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and forward as backward dosimetry in support of chemical risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress on the development of human in vitro dendritic cell based assays for assessment of the sensitizing potential of a compound

    Galvao dos Santos, G.; Reinders, J.; Ouwehand, K.; Rustemeyer, T.; Scheper, R.J.; Gibbs, S.

    2009-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the result of an adaptive immune response of the skin to direct exposure to an allergen. Since many chemicals are also allergens, European regulations require strict screening of all ingredients in consumer products. Until recently, identifying a potential allergen has completely relied on animal testing (e.g.: Local Lymph Node Assay). In addition to the ethical problems, both the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and REACH have stimulated the development of alternative tests for the assessment of potential sensitizers. This review is aimed at summarising the progress on cell based assays, in particular dendritic cell based assays, being developed as animal alternatives. Primary cells (CD34 + derived dendritic cells, monocyte derived dendritic cells) as well as dendritic cell-like cell lines (THP-1, U-937, MUTZ-3, KG-1, HL-60, and K562) are extensively described along with biomarkers such as cell surface markers, cytokines, chemokines and kinases. From this review, it can be concluded that no single cell based assay nor single marker is yet able to distinguish all sensitizers from non-sensitizers in a test panel of chemicals, nor is it possible to rank the sensitizing potential of the test chemicals. This suggests that sensitivity and specificity may be increased by a tiered assay approach. Only a limited number of genomic and proteomic studies have been completed until now. Such studies have the potential to identify novel biomarkers for inclusion in future assay development. Although progress is promising, this review suggests that it may be difficult to meet the up and coming European regulatory deadlines.

  10. Development and validation of cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays for measuring neutralizing anti-drug antibodies against interferon beta

    Hermanrud, Christina; Ryner, Malin; Luft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    a normal distribution for the majority of runs, allowing a parametric approach for cut-point calculation to be used, where NAb positive samples could be identified with 95% confidence. An analysis of means and variances indicated that a floating cut-point should be used for all assays. The assays......Neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (NAbs) against therapeutic interferon beta (IFNβ) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are measured with cell-based bioassays. The aim of this study was to redevelop and validate two luciferase reporter-gene bioassays, LUC and iLite, using a cut-point approach...... to identify NAb positive samples. Such an approach is favored by the pharmaceutical industry and governmental regulatory agencies as it has a clear statistical basis and overcomes the limitations of the current assays based on the Kawade principle. The work was conducted following the latest assay guidelines...

  11. Development and validation of cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays for measuring neutralizing anti-drug antibodies against interferon beta.

    Hermanrud, Christina; Ryner, Malin; Luft, Thomas; Jensen, Poul Erik; Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Rat, Dorothea; Deisenhammer, Florian; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Pallardy, Marc; Sikkema, Dan; Bertotti, Elisa; Kramer, Daniel; Creeke, Paul; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (NAbs) against therapeutic interferon beta (IFNβ) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are measured with cell-based bioassays. The aim of this study was to redevelop and validate two luciferase reporter-gene bioassays, LUC and iLite, using a cut-point approach to identify NAb positive samples. Such an approach is favored by the pharmaceutical industry and governmental regulatory agencies as it has a clear statistical basis and overcomes the limitations of the current assays based on the Kawade principle. The work was conducted following the latest assay guidelines. The assays were re-developed and validated as part of the "Anti-Biopharmaceutical Immunization: Prediction and analysis of clinical relevance to minimize the risk" (ABIRISK) consortium and involved a joint collaboration between four academic laboratories and two pharmaceutical companies. The LUC assay was validated at Innsbruck Medical University (LUCIMU) and at Rigshospitalet (LUCRH) Copenhagen, and the iLite assay at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm. For both assays, the optimal serum sample concentration in relation to sensitivity and recovery was 2.5% (v/v) in assay media. A Shapiro-Wilk test indicated a normal distribution for the majority of runs, allowing a parametric approach for cut-point calculation to be used, where NAb positive samples could be identified with 95% confidence. An analysis of means and variances indicated that a floating cut-point should be used for all assays. The assays demonstrated acceptable sensitivity for being cell-based assays, with a confirmed limit of detection in neat serum of 1519 ng/mL for LUCIMU, 814 ng/mL for LUCRH, and 320 ng/mL for iLite. Use of the validated cut-point assay, in comparison with the previously used Kawade method, identified 14% more NAb positive samples. In conclusion, implementation of the cut-point design resulted in increased sensitivity to detect NAbs. However, the clinical significance of these low

  12. Cell-based cytotoxicity assays for engineered nanomaterials safety screening: exposure of adipose derived stromal cells to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Xu, Yan; Hadjiargyrou, M; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana

    2017-07-11

    Increasing production of nanomaterials requires fast and proper assessment of its potential toxicity. Therefore, there is a need to develop new assays that can be performed in vitro, be cost effective, and allow faster screening of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Herein, we report that titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) can induce damage to adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) at concentrations which are rated as safe by standard assays such as measuring proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Specifically, we demonstrated that low concentrations of TiO 2 NPs, at which cellular LDH, ROS, or proliferation profiles were not affected, induced changes in the ADSCs secretory function and differentiation capability. These two functions are essential for ADSCs in wound healing, energy expenditure, and metabolism with serious health implications in vivo. We demonstrated that cytotoxicity assays based on specialized cell functions exhibit greater sensitivity and reveal damage induced by ENMs that was not otherwise detected by traditional ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays. For proper toxicological assessment of ENMs standard ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays should be combined with assays that investigate cellular functions relevant to the specific cell type.

  13. Development and characterization of a pre-treatment procedure to eliminate human monoclonal antibody therapeutic drug and matrix interference in cell-based functional neutralizing antibody assays.

    Xu, Weifeng; Jiang, Hao; Titsch, Craig; Haulenbeek, Jonathan R; Pillutla, Renuka C; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; DeSilva, Binodh S; Arnold, Mark E; Zeng, Jianing; Dodge, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Biological therapeutics can induce an undesirable immune response resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), including neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Functional (usually cell-based) NAb assays are preferred to determine NAb presence in patient serum, but are often subject to interferences from numerous serum factors, such as growth factors and disease-related cytokines. Many functional cell-based NAb assays are essentially drug concentration assays that imply the presence of NAbs by the detection of small changes in functional drug concentration. Any drug contained in the test sample will increase the total amount of drug in the assay, thus reducing the sensitivity of NAb detection. Biotin-drug Extraction with Acid Dissociation (BEAD) has been successfully applied to extract ADA, thereby removing drug and other interfering factors from human serum samples. However, to date there has been no report to estimate the residual drug level after BEAD treatment when the drug itself is a human monoclonal antibody; mainly due to the limitation of traditional ligand-binding assays. Here we describe a universal BEAD optimization procedure for human monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs by using a LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure drug (a mutant human IgG4), NAb positive control (a mouse IgG), and endogenous human IgGs as an indicator of nonspecific carry-over in the BEAD eluate. This is the first report demonstrating that residual human mAb drug level in clinical sample can be measured after BEAD pre-treatment, which is critical for further BEAD procedure optimization and downstream immunogenicity testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel high-throughput cell-based hybridoma screening methodology using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    Zhang, Haohai; Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Rice, William; Kassam, Nasim; Longhi, Maria Serena; Zhao, Haitao; Robson, Simon C; Gao, Wenda; Wu, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Hybridoma screening is a critical step for antibody discovery, which necessitates prompt identification of potential clones from hundreds to thousands of hybridoma cultures against the desired immunogen. Technical issues associated with ELISA- and flow cytometry-based screening limit accuracy and diminish high-throughput capability, increasing time and cost. Conventional ELISA screening with coated antigen is also impractical for difficult-to-express hydrophobic membrane antigens or multi-chain protein complexes. Here, we demonstrate novel high-throughput screening methodology employing the Celigo Image Cytometer, which avoids nonspecific signals by contrasting antibody binding signals directly on living cells, with and without recombinant antigen expression. The image cytometry-based high-throughput screening method was optimized by detecting the binding of hybridoma supernatants to the recombinant antigen CD39 expressed on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Next, the sensitivity of the image cytometer was demonstrated by serial dilution of purified CD39 antibody. Celigo was used to measure antibody affinities of commercial and in-house antibodies to membrane-bound CD39. This cell-based screening procedure can be completely accomplished within one day, significantly improving throughput and efficiency of hybridoma screening. Furthermore, measuring direct antibody binding to living cells eliminated both false positive and false negative hits. The image cytometry method was highly sensitive and versatile, and could detect positive antibody in supernatants at concentrations as low as ~5ng/mL, with concurrent K d binding affinity coefficient determination. We propose that this screening method will greatly facilitate antibody discovery and screening technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel cell-based assay for measuring neutralizing autoantibodies against type I interferons in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Breivik, Lars; Oftedal, Bergithe E V; Bøe Wolff, Anette S; Bratland, Eirik; Orlova, Elizaveta M; Husebye, Eystein S

    2014-07-01

    An important characteristic of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS 1) is the existence of neutralizing autoantibodies (nAbs) against the type I interferons (IFN) -α2 and -ω at frequencies close to 100%. Type 1 IFN autoantibodies are detected by antiviral neutralizing assays (AVA), binding assays with radiolabelled antigens (RLBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or by reporter-based cell assays. We here present a simple and reliable version of the latter utilizing a commercially available cell line (HEK-Blue IFN-α/β). All 67 APS 1 patients were positive for IFN-ω nAbs, while 90% were positive for IFN-α2 nAbs, a 100% and 96% correlation with RLBA, respectively. All blood donors and non-APS 1 patients were negative. The dilution titer required to reduce the effect of IFN-ω nAbs correlated with the RLBA index. This cell-based autoantibody assay (CBAA) is easy to perform, suitable for high throughput, while providing high specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recommendations for the validation of cell-based assays used for the detection of neutralizing antibody immune responses elicited against biological therapeutics.

    Gupta, Shalini; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Finco, Deborah; Gunn, George R; Kirshner, Susan; Richards, Susan; Rup, Bonita; Song, An; Subramanyam, Meena

    2011-07-15

    The administration of biological therapeutics may result in the development of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) in treated subjects. In some cases, ADA responses may result in the loss of therapeutic efficacy due to the formation of neutralizing ADAs (NAbs). An important characteristic of anti-drug NAbs is their direct inhibitory effect on the pharmacological activity of the therapeutic. Neutralizing antibody responses are of particular concern for biologic products with an endogenous homolog whose activity can be potentially dampened or completely inhibited by the NAbs leading to an autoimmune-type deficiency syndrome. Therefore, it is important that ADAs are detected and characterized appropriately using sensitive and reliable methods. The design, development and optimization of cell-based assays used for detection of NAbs have been published previously by Gupta et al. 2007 [1]. This paper provides recommendations on best practices for the validation of cell-based NAb assay and suggested validation parameters based on the experience of the authors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and optimization of a cell-based assay for the selection of synthetic compounds that potentiate bone morphogenetic protein-2 activity.

    Okada, Motohiro; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Liu, Yunshan; Yoshida, Munehito; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2009-12-01

    The requirement of large amounts of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) produces a huge translational barrier for its routine clinical use due to high cost. This leads to an urgent need to develop alternative methods to lower costs and/or increase efficacies for using BMP-2. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of a cell-based assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and reliable in identifying reagents that potentiate the effects of BMP-2 in inducing transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into the osteoblastic phenotype. The assay is based on a BMP-responsive Smad1-driven luciferase reporter gene. LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) is a novel intracellular LIM domain protein that has been shown by our group to enhance cellular responsiveness to BMP-2. Our previous report elucidated that the binding of LMP-1 with the WW2 domain in Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor-1 (Smurf1) rescues the osteogenic Smads from degradation. Here, using the optimized cell-based assay, we first evaluated the activity of the recombinantly prepared proteins, LMP-1, and its mutant (LMP-1DeltaSmurf1) that lacks the Smurf1-WW2 domain-binding motif. Both the wild type and the mutant proteins were engineered to contain an 11-amino acid HIV-TAT protein derived membrane transduction domain to aid the cellular delivery of recombinant proteins. The cell-based reporter assay confirmed that LMP-1 potentiates the BMP-induced stimulation of C2C12 cells towards the osteoblastic phenotype. The potentiating effect of LMP-1 was significantly reduced when a specific-motif known to interact with Smurf1 was mutated. We validated the results obtained in the reporter assay by also monitoring the expression of mRNA for osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which is widely accepted osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Finally, we provide further confirmation of our results by measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase in support of the accuracy and

  18. A Fluorescent Cell-Based System for Imaging Zika Virus Infection in Real-Time

    Michael J. McFadden

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a re-emerging flavivirus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito or through sexual contact with an infected partner. ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been associated with numerous fetal abnormalities, including prenatal lethality and microcephaly. However, until recent outbreaks in the Americas, ZIKV has been relatively understudied, and therefore the biology and pathogenesis of ZIKV infection remain incompletely understood. Better methods to study ZIKV infection in live cells could enhance our understanding of the biology of ZIKV and the mechanisms by which ZIKV contributes to fetal abnormalities. To this end, we developed a fluorescent cell-based reporter system allowing for live imaging of ZIKV-infected cells. This system utilizes the protease activity of the ZIKV non-structural proteins 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3 to specifically mark virus-infected cells. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this fluorescent reporter for identifying cells infected by ZIKV strains of two lineages. Further, we use this system to determine that apoptosis is induced in cells directly infected with ZIKV in a cell-autonomous manner. Ultimately, approaches that can directly track ZIKV-infected cells at the single cell-level have the potential to yield new insights into the host-pathogen interactions that regulate ZIKV infection and pathogenesis.

  19. Using magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate dendritic cell-based vaccination.

    Peter M Ferguson

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy with antigen-loaded dendritic cell-based vaccines can induce clinical responses in some patients, but further optimization is required to unlock the full potential of this strategy in the clinic. Optimization is dependent on being able to monitor the cellular events that take place once the dendritic cells have been injected in vivo, and to establish whether antigen-specific immune responses to the tumour have been induced. Here we describe the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a simple, non-invasive approach to evaluate vaccine success. By loading the dendritic cells with highly magnetic iron nanoparticles it is possible to assess whether the injected cells drain to the lymph nodes. It is also possible to establish whether an antigen-specific response is initiated by assessing migration of successive rounds of antigen-loaded dendritic cells; in the face of a successfully primed cytotoxic response, the bulk of antigen-loaded cells are eradicated on-route to the node, whereas cells without antigen can reach the node unchecked. It is also possible to verify the induction of a vaccine-induced response by simply monitoring increases in draining lymph node size as a consequence of vaccine-induced lymphocyte trapping, which is an antigen-specific response that becomes more pronounced with repeated vaccination. Overall, these MRI techniques can provide useful early feedback on vaccination strategies, and could also be used in decision making to select responders from non-responders early in therapy.

  20. 89Zr-Oxine Complex PET Cell Imaging in Monitoring Cell-based Therapies

    Wu, Haitao; Asiedu, Kingsley O.; Szajek, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Gary L.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a clinically translatable method of cell labeling with zirconium 89 (89Zr) and oxine to track cells with positron emission tomography (PET) in mouse models of cell-based therapy. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. 89Zr-oxine complex was synthesized in an aqueous solution. Cell labeling conditions were optimized by using EL4 mouse lymphoma cells, and labeling efficiency was examined by using dendritic cells (DCs) (n = 4), naïve (n = 3) and activated (n = 3) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), and natural killer (NK) (n = 4), bone marrow (n = 4), and EL4 (n = 4) cells. The effect of 89Zr labeling on cell survival, proliferation, and function were evaluated by using DCs (n = 3) and CTLs (n = 3). Labeled DCs (444–555 kBq/[5 × 106] cells, n = 5) and CTLs (185 kBq/[5 × 106] cells, n = 3) transferred to mice were tracked with microPET/CT. In a melanoma immunotherapy model, tumor targeting and cytotoxic function of labeled CTLs were evaluated with imaging (248.5 kBq/[7.7 × 106] cells, n = 4) and by measuring the tumor size (n = 6). Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare labeling conditions, the Wilcoxon test was used to assess cell survival and proliferation, and Holm-Sidak multiple tests were used to assess tumor growth and perform biodistribution analyses. Results 89Zr-oxine complex was synthesized at a mean yield of 97.3% ± 2.8 (standard deviation). It readily labeled cells at room temperature or 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (labeling efficiency range, 13.0%–43.9%) and was stably retained (83.5% ± 1.8 retention on day 5 in DCs). Labeling did not affect the viability of DCs and CTLs when compared with nonlabeled control mice (P > .05), nor did it affect functionality. 89Zr-oxine complex enabled extended cell tracking for 7 days. Labeled tumor-specific CTLs accumulated in the tumor (4.6% on day 7) and induced tumor regression (P cell tracking technique for use with PET that is

  1. (89)Zr-Oxine Complex PET Cell Imaging in Monitoring Cell-based Therapies.

    Sato, Noriko; Wu, Haitao; Asiedu, Kingsley O; Szajek, Lawrence P; Griffiths, Gary L; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    To develop a clinically translatable method of cell labeling with zirconium 89 ((89)Zr) and oxine to track cells with positron emission tomography (PET) in mouse models of cell-based therapy. This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. (89)Zr-oxine complex was synthesized in an aqueous solution. Cell labeling conditions were optimized by using EL4 mouse lymphoma cells, and labeling efficiency was examined by using dendritic cells (DCs) (n = 4), naïve (n = 3) and activated (n = 3) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), and natural killer (NK) (n = 4), bone marrow (n = 4), and EL4 (n = 4) cells. The effect of (89)Zr labeling on cell survival, proliferation, and function were evaluated by using DCs (n = 3) and CTLs (n = 3). Labeled DCs (444-555 kBq/[5 × 10(6)] cells, n = 5) and CTLs (185 kBq/[5 × 10(6)] cells, n = 3) transferred to mice were tracked with microPET/CT. In a melanoma immunotherapy model, tumor targeting and cytotoxic function of labeled CTLs were evaluated with imaging (248.5 kBq/[7.7 × 10(6)] cells, n = 4) and by measuring the tumor size (n = 6). Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare labeling conditions, the Wilcoxon test was used to assess cell survival and proliferation, and Holm-Sidak multiple tests were used to assess tumor growth and perform biodistribution analyses. (89)Zr-oxine complex was synthesized at a mean yield of 97.3% ± 2.8 (standard deviation). It readily labeled cells at room temperature or 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (labeling efficiency range, 13.0%-43.9%) and was stably retained (83.5% ± 1.8 retention on day 5 in DCs). Labeling did not affect the viability of DCs and CTLs when compared with nonlabeled control mice (P > .05), nor did it affect functionality. (89)Zr-oxine complex enabled extended cell tracking for 7 days. Labeled tumor-specific CTLs accumulated in the tumor (4.6% on day 7) and induced tumor regression (P cell tracking technique for use with PET that is applicable to a broad range of

  2. A new cell-based assay to evaluate myogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells

    Kodaka, Manami [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yang, Zeyu [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Ultrasound, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Nakagawa, Kentaro; Maruyama, Junichi [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Xu, Xiaoyin [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China); Sarkar, Aradhan; Ichimura, Ayana [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nasu, Yusuke [Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China); Ozawa, Takeaki [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasa, Hiroaki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari [Chemical Biology Screening Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Shigeru [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [Chemical Biology Screening Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2015-08-15

    The development of the efficient screening system of detecting compounds that promote myogenesis and prevent muscle atrophy is important. Mouse C2C12 cells are widely used to evaluate myogenesis but the procedures of the assay are not simple and the quantification is not easy. We established C2C12 cells expressing the N-terminal green fluorescence protein (GFP) and the C-terminal GFP (GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells). GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells do not exhibit GFP signals until they are fused. The signal intensity correlates with the expression of myogenic markers and myofusion. Myogenesis-promoting reagents, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and β-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), enhance the signals, whereas the poly-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, suppresses it. GFP signals are observed when myotubes formed by GFP1–10 cells are fused with single nuclear GFP11 cells, and enhanced by IGF1, GPA, and IBS008738, a recently-reported myogenesis-promoting reagent. Fusion between myotubes formed by GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells is associated with the appearance of GFP signals. IGF1 and GPA augment these signals, whereas NSC23766, Rac inhibitor, decreases them. The conditioned medium of cancer cells suppresses GFP signals during myogenesis and reduces the width of GFP-positive myotubes after differentiation. Thus the novel split GFP-based assay will provide the useful method for the study of myogenesis, myofusion, and atrophy. - Highlights: • C2C12 cells expressing split GFP proteins show GFP signals when mix-cultured. • The GFP signals correlate with myogenesis and myofusion. • The GFP signals attenuate under the condition that muscle atrophy is induced.

  3. A new cell-based assay to evaluate myogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells

    Kodaka, Manami; Yang, Zeyu; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Maruyama, Junichi; Xu, Xiaoyin; Sarkar, Aradhan; Ichimura, Ayana; Nasu, Yusuke; Ozawa, Takeaki; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Ito, Shigeru; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The development of the efficient screening system of detecting compounds that promote myogenesis and prevent muscle atrophy is important. Mouse C2C12 cells are widely used to evaluate myogenesis but the procedures of the assay are not simple and the quantification is not easy. We established C2C12 cells expressing the N-terminal green fluorescence protein (GFP) and the C-terminal GFP (GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells). GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells do not exhibit GFP signals until they are fused. The signal intensity correlates with the expression of myogenic markers and myofusion. Myogenesis-promoting reagents, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and β-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), enhance the signals, whereas the poly-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, suppresses it. GFP signals are observed when myotubes formed by GFP1–10 cells are fused with single nuclear GFP11 cells, and enhanced by IGF1, GPA, and IBS008738, a recently-reported myogenesis-promoting reagent. Fusion between myotubes formed by GFP1–10 and GFP11 cells is associated with the appearance of GFP signals. IGF1 and GPA augment these signals, whereas NSC23766, Rac inhibitor, decreases them. The conditioned medium of cancer cells suppresses GFP signals during myogenesis and reduces the width of GFP-positive myotubes after differentiation. Thus the novel split GFP-based assay will provide the useful method for the study of myogenesis, myofusion, and atrophy. - Highlights: • C2C12 cells expressing split GFP proteins show GFP signals when mix-cultured. • The GFP signals correlate with myogenesis and myofusion. • The GFP signals attenuate under the condition that muscle atrophy is induced

  4. High-throughput screening using pseudotyped lentiviral particles: a strategy for the identification of HIV-1 inhibitors in a cell-based assay.

    Garcia, Jean-Michel; Gao, Anhui; He, Pei-Lan; Choi, Joyce; Tang, Wei; Bruzzone, Roberto; Schwartz, Olivier; Naya, Hugo; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia; Altmeyer, Ralf; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2009-03-01

    Two decades after its discovery the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still spreading worldwide and killing millions. There are 25 drugs formally approved for HIV currently on the market, but side effects as well as the emergence of HIV strains showing single or multiple resistances to current drug-therapy are causes for concern. Furthermore, these drugs target only 4 steps of the viral cycle, hence the urgent need for new drugs and also new targets. In order to tackle this problem, we have devised a cell-based assay using lentiviral particles to look for post-entry inhibitors of HIV-1. We report here the assay development, validation as well as confirmation of the hits using both wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 viruses. The screening was performed on an original library, rich in natural compounds and pure molecules from Traditional Chinese Medicine pharmacopoeia, which had never been screened for anti-HIV activity. The identified hits belong to four chemical sub-families that appear to be all non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Secondary tests with live viruses showed that there was good agreement with pseudotyped particles, confirming the validity of this approach for high-throughput drug screens. This assay will be a useful tool that can be easily adapted to screen for inhibitors of viral entry.

  5. Development and validation of a HPLC method for the assay of dapivirine in cell-based and tissue permeability experiments.

    das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amiji, Mansoor; Bahia, Maria Fernanda

    2012-12-12

    Dapivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is being currently used for the development of potential anti-HIV microbicide formulations and delivery systems. A new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed for the assay of this drug in different biological matrices, namely cell lysates, receptor media from permeability experiments and homogenates of mucosal tissues. The method used a reversed-phase C18 column with a mobile phase composed of trifluoroacetic acid solution (0.1%, v/v) and acetonitrile in a gradient mode. Injection volume was 50μL and the flow rate 1mL/min. The total run time was 12min and UV detection was performed at 290nm for dapivirine and the internal standard (IS) diphenylamine. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study different experimental variables of the method, namely the ratio of the mobile phase components and the gradient time, and their influence in responses such as the retention factor, tailing factor, and theoretical plates for dapivirine and the IS, as well as the peak resolution between both compounds. The optimized method was further validated and its usefulness assessed for in vitro and ex vivo experiments using dapivirine or dapivirine-loaded nanoparticles. The method showed to be selective, linear, accurate and precise in the range of 0.02-1.5μg/mL. Other chromatographic parameters, namely carry-over, lower limit of quantification (0.02μg/mL), limit of detection (0.006μg/mL), recovery (equal or higher than 90.7%), and sample stability at different storage conditions, were also determined and found adequate for the intended purposes. The method was successfully used for cell uptake assays and permeability studies across cell monolayers and pig genital mucosal tissues. Overall, the proposed method provides a simple, versatile and reliable way for studying the behavior of dapivirine in different biological matrices and assessing its potential as an anti

  6. Two novel real time cell-based assays quantify beta-blocker and NSAID specific effects in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Bernhard, Kevin; Stahl, Cordula; Martens, Regina; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita; Scheurer, Marco; Frey, Manfred

    2017-05-15

    Pharmaceuticals, such as beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as their metabolites are introduced into the water cycle via municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in all industrialized countries. As the amino acid sequences of the biological target molecules of these pharmaceuticals - the beta-1 adrenergic receptor for beta-blockers and the cyclooxygenase for NSAIDs - are phylogenetically conserved among vertebrates it is reasonable that wildlife vertebrates including fish physiologically respond in a similar way to them as documented in humans. Consequently, beta-blockers and NSAIDs both exhibit their effects according to their mode of action on one hand, but on the other hand that may lead to unwanted side effects in non-target species. To determine whether residuals of beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists and cyclooxygenase inhibitors may pose a risk to aquatic organisms, one has to know the extent to which such organisms respond to the total of active compounds, their metabolites and transformation products with the same modes of action. To cope with this demand, two cell-based assays were developed, by which the total beta-blocker and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity can be assessed in a given wastewater or surface water extract in real time. The measured activity is quantified as metoprolol equivalents (MetEQ) of the lead substance metoprolol in the beta-blocker assay, and diclofenac equivalents (DicEQ) in the NSAID assay. Even though MetEQs and DicEQs were found to surpass the concentration of the respective lead substances (metoprolol, diclofenac), as determined by chemical analysis by a factor of two to three, this difference was shown to be reasonably explained by the presence and action of additional active compounds with the same mode of action in the test samples. Thus, both in vitro assays were proven to integrate effectively over beta-blocker and NSAID activities in WWTP effluents in a very sensitive

  7. Cell-based Assay System for Predicting Bone Regeneration in Patient Affected by Aseptic Nonunion and Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin.

    Perut, Francesca; Dallari, Dante; Rani, Nicola; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    Regenerative strategies based on the use of platelet concentrates as an autologous source of growth factors (GF) has been proposed to promote the healing of long bone nonunions. However, the relatively high failure rate stimulates interest in growing knowledge and developing solutions to obtain the best results from the regenerative approach. In this study we evaluated whether a cell-based assay system could be able to recognize patients who will benefit or not from the use of autologous platelet preparations. The autologous serum was used in culture medium to promote the osteogenic differentiation of normal bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Blood samples were collected from 16 patients affected by aseptic long bone nonunion who were candidates to the treatment with autologous platelet-rich fibrin. The osteoinductive effect was detected by measuring the BMSC proliferation, the mineralization activity, and the expression of bone-related genes. Serum level of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was considered as a representative marker of the delivery of osteogenic GFs from platelets. Laboratory results were related to the characteristics of the disease before the treatment and to the outcome at 12 months. Serum samples from "good responders" showed significantly higher levels of bFGF and were able to induce a significantly higher proliferation of BMSC, while no significant differences were observed in terms of osteoblast differentiation. BMSC-based assay could be a useful tool to recognize patients who have a low probability to benefit from the use of autologous platelet concentrate to promote the healing of long bone nonunion.

  8. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    Ruchy Jain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina (AM exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT causing androgenic alopecia (AGA. An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs, the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1 inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C.

  9. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  10. Infrared microspectroscopy of live cells in microfluidic devices (MD-IRMS): toward a powerful label-free cell-based assay.

    Vaccari, L; Birarda, G; Businaro, L; Pacor, S; Grenci, G

    2012-06-05

    Until nowadays most infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) experiments on biological specimens (i.e., tissues or cells) have been routinely carried out on fixed or dried samples in order to circumvent water absorption problems. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to widen the range of in-vitro IRMS experiments to vibrational analysis of live cellular samples, thanks to the development of novel biocompatible IR-visible transparent microfluidic devices (MD). In order to highlight the biological relevance of IRMS in MD (MD-IRMS), we performed a systematic exploration of the biochemical alterations induced by different fixation protocols, ethanol 70% and formaldehyde solution 4%, as well as air-drying on U937 leukemic monocytes by comparing their IR vibrational features with the live U937 counterpart. Both fixation and air-drying procedures affected lipid composition and order as well as protein structure at a different extent while they both induced structural alterations in nucleic acids. Therefore, only IRMS of live cells can provide reliable information on both DNA and RNA structure and on their cellular dynamic. In summary, we show that MD-IRMS of live cells is feasible, reliable, and biologically relevant to be recognized as a label-free cell-based assay.

  11. Computationally assisted screening and design of cell-interactive peptides by a cell-based assay using peptide arrays and a fuzzy neural network algorithm.

    Kaga, Chiaki; Okochi, Mina; Tomita, Yasuyuki; Kato, Ryuji; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    We developed a method of effective peptide screening that combines experiments and computational analysis. The method is based on the concept that screening efficiency can be enhanced from even limited data by use of a model derived from computational analysis that serves as a guide to screening and combining the model with subsequent repeated experiments. Here we focus on cell-adhesion peptides as a model application of this peptide-screening strategy. Cell-adhesion peptides were screened by use of a cell-based assay of a peptide array. Starting with the screening data obtained from a limited, random 5-mer library (643 sequences), a rule regarding structural characteristics of cell-adhesion peptides was extracted by fuzzy neural network (FNN) analysis. According to this rule, peptides with unfavored residues in certain positions that led to inefficient binding were eliminated from the random sequences. In the restricted, second random library (273 sequences), the yield of cell-adhesion peptides having an adhesion rate more than 1.5-fold to that of the basal array support was significantly high (31%) compared with the unrestricted random library (20%). In the restricted third library (50 sequences), the yield of cell-adhesion peptides increased to 84%. We conclude that a repeated cycle of experiments screening limited numbers of peptides can be assisted by the rule-extracting feature of FNN.

  12. Assays for noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression

    Gambhir, S.S.; Barrio, J.R.; Herschman, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Repeated, noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression is emerging as a valuable tool for monitoring the expression of genes in animals and humans. Monitoring of organ/cell transplantation in living animals and humans, and the assessment of environmental, behavioral, and pharmacologic modulation of gene expression in transgenic animals should soon be possible. The earliest clinical application is likely to be monitoring human gene therapy in tumors transduced with the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) suicide gene. Several candidate assays for imaging reporter gene expression have been studied, utilizing cytosine deaminase (CD), HSV1-tk, and dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) as reporter genes. For the HSV1-tk reporter gene, both uracil nucleoside derivatives (e.g., 5-iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil [FIAU] labeled with 124 I, 131 I ) and acycloguanosine derivatives {e.g., 8-[ 18 F]fluoro-9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]guanine (8-[ 18 F]-fluoroganciclovir) ([ 18 F]FGCV), 9-[(3-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([ 18 F]FHPG)} have been investigated as reporter probes. For the D2R reporter gene, a derivative of spiperone {3-(2'-[ 18 F]-Fluoroethyl)spiperone ([ 18 F]FESP)} has been used with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. In this review, the principles and specific assays for imaging reporter gene expression are presented and discussed. Specific examples utilizing adenoviral-mediated delivery of a reporter gene as well as tumors expressing reporter genes are discussed

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of dicentric chromosome assay using electronically transmitted images

    Garcia, O.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M. B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M. R.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Lamadrid, A. I.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Pantelias, G.; Terzoudi, G.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Oliveros, N.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomaso, M. V.; Mendez-Acuna, L.; Puig, R.; Roy, L.; Barquinero, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The bottleneck in data acquisition during biological dosimetry based on a dicentric assay is the need to score dicentrics in a large number of lymphocytes. One way to increase the capacity of a given laboratory is to use the ability of skilled operators from other laboratories. This can be done using image analysis systems and distributing images all around the world. Two exercises were conducted to test the efficiency of such an approach involving 10 laboratories. During the first exercise (E1), the participant laboratories analysed the same images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 and 3 Gy; 100 images were sent to all participants for both doses. Whatever the dose, only about half of the cells were complete with well-spread metaphases suitable for analysis. A coefficient of variation (CV) on the standard deviation of 15 % was obtained for both doses. The trueness was better for 3 Gy (0.6 %) than for 0.5 Gy (37.8 %). The number of estimated doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 3 at 0.5 Gy and 8 at 3 Gy for 10 dose estimations. In the second exercise, an emergency situation was tested, each laboratory was required to score a different set of 50 images in 2 d extracted from 500 downloaded images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 Gy. Then the remaining 450 images had to be scored within a week. Using 50 different images, the CV on the estimated doses (79.2 %) was not as good as in E1, probably associated to a lower number of cells analysed (50 vs. 100) or from the fact that laboratories analysed a different set of images. The trueness for the dose was better after scoring 500 cells (22.5 %) than after 50 cells (26.8 %). For the 10 dose estimations, the number of doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 9, for both 50 and 500 cells. Overall, the results obtained support the feasibility of networking using electronically transmitted images. However, before its implementation some issues should be elucidated, such as the

  14. Molecular imaging in stem cell-based therapies of cardiac diseases.

    Li, Xiang; Hacker, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    In the past 15years, despite that regenerative medicine has shown great potential for cardiovascular diseases, the outcome and safety of stem cell transplantation has shown controversial results in the published literature. Medical imaging might be useful for monitoring and quantifying transplanted cells within the heart and to serially characterize the effects of stem cell therapy of the myocardium. From the multiple available noninvasive imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging by positron (PET) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) are the most used clinical approaches to follow the fate of transplanted stem cells in vivo. In this article, we provide a review on the role of different noninvasive imaging modalities and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We focus on the different in-vivo labeling and reporter gene imaging strategies for stem cell tracking as well as the concept and reliability to use imaging parameters as noninvasive surrogate endpoints for the evaluation of the post-therapeutic outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of Quantum Dot Wavelengths for Biomedical Assays and Imaging

    Yong Taik Lim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs] are hypothesized to be excellent contrast agents for biomedical assays and imaging. A unique property of QDs is that their absorbance increases with increasing separation between excitation and emission wavelengths. Much of the enthusiasm for using QDs in vivo stems from this property, since photon yield should be proportional to the integral of the broadband absorption. In this study, we demonstrate that tissue scatter and absorbance can sometimes offset increasing QD absorption at bluer wavelengths, and counteract this potential advantage. By using a previously validated mathematical model, we explored the effects of tissue absorbance, tissue scatter, wavelength dependence of the scatter, water-to- hemoglobin ratio, and tissue thickness on QD performance. We conclude that when embedded in biological fluids and tissues, QD excitation wavelengths will often be quite constrained, and that excitation and emission wavelengths should be selected carefully based on the particular application. Based on our results, we produced near-infrared QDs optimized for imaging surface vasculature with white light excitation and a silicon CCD camera, and used them to image the coronary vasculature in vivo. Taken together, our data should prove useful in designing fluorescent QD contrast agents optimized for specific biomedical applications.

  16. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Atsuya Yamashita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV. We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95% and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%. Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 1 and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 2, which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs.

  17. Development of fluorescence imaging-based assay for screening cardioprotective compounds from medicinal plants.

    Wang, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gao, Xiumei; Nie, Xiaojing; Yang, Yingxin; Fan, Xiaohui

    2011-09-19

    Medicinal plants have been widely recognized as a renewable resource for the discovery of novel leads and drug. In this study, an approach for screening and identification compounds with cardioprotective activity from medicinal plant extracts by cellular-fluorescence imaging technique was developed. It is a cell-based assay for measuring mitochondrial membrane potential changes in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells exposed to H(2)O(2) by using a fluorescence automatic microscopy screening platform. Rhodamine 123 was used as the fluorescent dye to indicate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential. The sensitivity and linear range of the proposed approach were evaluated and validated using vitamin C, an antioxidative compound. The method was applied to screen active components with potent cardioprotective effects from a traditional Chinese formula. The potential cardioprotective components were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Moreover, the utility of the proposed approach was further validated by three compounds (salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, and tanshinone II A) identified from the formula which showed cardioprotective effects in a dose-dependent manner. These applications suggested that the proposed rapid and sensitive screening approach offers an efficient way to discover active components or compounds from medicinal plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental models of brain ischemia: a review of techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and investigational cell-based therapies

    Alessandra eCanazza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke continues to be a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the past decades in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, enormous challenges remain in the way of translating new therapeutic approaches from bench to bedside. Thrombolysis, while routinely used for ischemic stroke, is only a viable option within a narrow time window. Recently, progress in stem cell biology has opened up avenues to therapeutic strategies aimed at supporting and replacing neural cells in infarcted areas. Realistic experimental animal models are crucial to understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival following ischemic brain injury and to develop therapeutic interventions. Current studies on experimental stroke therapies evaluate the efficiency of neuroprotective agents and cell-based approaches using primarily rodent models of permanent or transient focal cerebral ischemia. In parallel, advancements in imaging techniques permit better mapping of the spatial-temporal evolution of the lesioned cortex and its functional responses. This review provides a condensed conceptual review of the state of the art of this field, from models and magnetic resonance imaging techniques through to stem cell therapies.

  19. Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects

    Rossi François

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing use of nanomaterials, the need for methods and assays to examine their immunosafety is becoming urgent, in particular for nanomaterials that are deliberately administered to human subjects (as in the case of nanomedicines. To obtain reliable results, standardised in vitro immunotoxicological tests should be used to determine the effects of engineered nanoparticles on human immune responses. However, before assays can be standardised, it is important that suitable methods are established and validated. Results In a collaborative work between European laboratories, existing immunological and toxicological in vitro assays were tested and compared for their suitability to test effects of nanoparticles on immune responses. The prototypical nanoparticles used were metal (oxide particles, either custom-generated by wet synthesis or commercially available as powders. Several problems and challenges were encountered during assay validation, ranging from particle agglomeration in biological media and optical interference with assay systems, to chemical immunotoxicity of solvents and contamination with endotoxin. Conclusion The problems that were encountered in the immunological assay systems used in this study, such as chemical or endotoxin contamination and optical interference caused by the dense material, significantly affected the data obtained. These problems have to be solved to enable the development of reliable assays for the assessment of nano-immunosafety.

  20. Near-infrared emitting fluorescent nanocrystals-labeled natural killer cells as a platform technology for the optical imaging of immunotherapeutic cells-based cancer therapy

    Lim, Yong Taik; Cho, Mi Young; Noh, Young-Woock; Chung, Bong Hyun; Chung, Jin Woong

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the development of near-infrared optical imaging technology for the monitoring of immunotherapeutic cell-based cancer therapy using natural killer (NK) cells labeled with fluorescent nanocrystals. Although NK cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies have drawn interest as potent preclinical or clinical methods of cancer therapy, there are few reports documenting the molecular imaging of NK cell-based cancer therapy, primarily due to the difficulty of labeling of NK cells with imaging probes. Human natural killer cells (NK92MI) were labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated quantum dots (QD705) for fluorescence imaging. FACS analysis showed that the NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 have no effect on the cell viability. The effect of anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 labeling on the NK92MI cell function was investigated by measuring interferon gamma (IFN- γ) production and cytolytic activity. Finally, the NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 showed a therapeutic effect similar to that of unlabeled NK92MI cells. Images of intratumorally injected NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated could be acquired using near-infrared optical imaging both in vivo and in vitro. This result demonstrates that the immunotherapeutic cells labeled with fluorescent nanocrystals can be a versatile platform for the effective tracking of injected therapeutic cells using optical imaging technology, which is very important in cell-based cancer therapies.

  1. Additive mixture effects of estrogenic chemicals in human cell-based assays can be influenced by inclusion of chemicals with differing effect profiles.

    Richard Mark Evans

    Full Text Available A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX and cell proliferation (ESCREEN endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1 a 'balanced' design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC(10 and 2 a 'non-balanced' design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential

  2. Detection of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies with a commercial cell-based assay in patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels.

    Yeo, T; Chen, Z; Chai, J Y H; Tan, K

    2017-07-15

    The presence of VGKC-complex antibodies, without LGI1/CASPR2 antibodies, as a standalone marker for neurological autoimmunity remains controversial. Additionally, the lack of an unequivocal VGKC-complex antibody cut-off level defining neurological autoimmunity makes it important to test for monospecific antibodies. We aim to determine the performance characteristics of a commercial assay (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) for LGI1/CASPR2 antibody detection in patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels and report their clinico-serological associations. We identified 8 patients in our cohort with the highest VGKC-complex antibody levels (median 2663.5pM, range 933-6730pM) with VGKC-complex antibody related syndromes (Group A). Two other groups were identified; 1 group with suspected neuronal surface antibody syndromes and negative for VGKC-complex antibodies (Group B, n=8), and another group with cerebellar ataxia and negative for onconeuronal antibodies (Group C, n=8). Seven out of 8 patients (87.5%) in Group A had LGI1 and/or CASPR2 antibodies. One Group B patient had LGI1 antibodies but was negative on re-testing with a live cell assay. No Group C patients had monospecific antibodies. Inter-rater reliability was high; combining Groups A and B patients, the kappa statistic was 0.87 and 1.0 for LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies respectively. We demonstrated that a high proportion of patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels and relevant clinical syndromes have LGI1 and/or CASPR2 antibodies detected by the commercial assay. Our findings lend support to the use of the assay for rapid and reliable detection of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Additive mixture effects of estrogenic chemicals in human cell-based assays can be influenced by inclusion of chemicals with differing effect profiles.

    Evans, Richard Mark; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA) concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX) and cell proliferation (ESCREEN) endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1) a 'balanced' design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC(10)) and 2) a 'non-balanced' design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity) to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate) the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential modulators

  4. Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays.

    Colle, Frederik; Vercruysse, Dries; Peeters, Sara; Liu, Chengxun; Stakenborg, Tim; Lagae, Liesbet; Del-Favero, Jurgen

    2013-11-07

    We present a novel opto-magnetic system for the fast and sensitive detection of nucleic acids. The system is based on a lens-free imaging approach resulting in a compact and cheap optical readout of surface hybridized DNA fragments. In our system magnetic particles are attracted towards the detection surface thereby completing the labeling step in less than 1 min. An optimized surface functionalization combined with magnetic manipulation was used to remove all nonspecifically bound magnetic particles from the detection surface. A lens-free image of the specifically bound magnetic particles on the detection surface was recorded by a CMOS imager. This recorded interference pattern was reconstructed in software, to represent the particle image at the focal distance, using little computational power. As a result we were able to detect DNA concentrations down to 10 pM with single particle sensitivity. The possibility of integrated sample preparation by manipulation of magnetic particles, combined with the cheap and highly compact lens-free detection makes our system an ideal candidate for point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  5. A cell-based MHC stabilization assay for the detection of peptide binding to the canine classical class I molecule, DLA-88.

    Ross, Peter; Holmes, Jennifer C; Gojanovich, Gregory S; Hess, Paul R

    2012-12-15

    Identifying immunodominant CTL epitopes is essential for studying CD8+ T-cell responses in populations, but remains difficult, as peptides within antigens typically are too numerous for all to be synthesized and screened. Instead, to facilitate discovery, in silico scanning of proteins for sequences that match the motif, or binding preferences, of the restricting MHC class I allele - the largest determinant of immunodominance - can be used to predict likely candidates. The high false positive rate with this analysis ideally requires binding confirmation, which is obtained routinely by an assay using cell lines such as RMA-S that have defective transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) machinery, and consequently, few surface class I molecules. The stabilization and resultant increased life-span of peptide-MHC complexes on the cell surface by the addition of true binders validates their identity. To determine whether a similar assay could be developed for dogs, we transfected a prevalent class I allele, DLA-88*50801, into RMA-S. In the BARC3 clone, the recombinant heavy chain was associated with murine β2-microglobulin, and importantly, could differentiate motif-matched and -mismatched peptides by surface MHC stabilization. This work demonstrates the potential to use RMA-S cells transfected with canine alleles as a tool for CTL epitope discovery in this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel dendritic cell-based direct ex vivo assay for detection and enumeration of circulating antigen-specific human T cells.

    Carrio, Roberto; Zhang, Ge; Drake, Donald R; Schanen, Brian C

    2018-05-07

    Although a variety of assays have been used to examine T cell responses in vitro, standardized ex vivo detection of antigen-specific CD4 + T cells from human circulatory PBMCs remains constrained by low-dimensional characterization outputs and the need for polyclonal, mitogen-induced expansion methods to generate detectable response signals. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel methodology utilizing antigen-pulsed autologous human dendritic target cells in a rapid and sensitive assay to accurately enumerate antigen-specific CD4 + T cell precursor frequency by multiparametric flow cytometry. With this approach, we demonstrate the ability to reproducibly quantitate poly-functional T cell responses following both primary and recall antigenic stimulation. Furthermore, this approach enables more comprehensive phenotypic profiling of circulating antigen-specific CD4 + T cells, providing valuable insights into the pre-existing polarization of antigen-specific T cells in humans. Combined, this approach permits sensitive and detailed ex vivo detection of antigen-specific CD4 + T cells delivering an important tool for advancing vaccine, immune-oncology and other therapeutic studies.

  7. Development of a functional cell-based assay that probes the specific interaction between influenza A virus NP and its packaging signal sequence RNA.

    Woo, Jiwon; Yu, Kyung Lee; Lee, Sun Hee; You, Ji Chang

    2015-02-06

    Although cis-acting packaging signal RNA sequences for the influenza virus NP encoding vRNA have been identified recently though genetic studies, little is known about the interaction between NP and the vRNA packaging signals either in vivo or in vitro. Here, we provide evidence that NP is able to interact specifically with the vRNA packaging sequence RNA within living cells and that the specific RNA binding activity of NP in vivo requires both the N-terminal and central region of the protein. This assay established would be a valuable tool for further detailed studies of the NP-packaging signal RNA interaction in living cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    Gyori, Benjamin M.; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Thiagarajan, P.S.; Hsu, David; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires ...

  9. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    Benjamin M. Gyori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  10. A new gaseous imaging detector for the assay of lymphocyte cultures

    Bateman, J.E.; Joyce, A.; Knight, S.C.; Bedford, P.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium-labelled cell cultures used in studies of lymphocyte proliferation at the Clinical Research Centre are blotted in arrays of 10x6 spots spaced at 6 mm. An imaging detector based on the differential induction signals produced at a central amplifying electrode has been developed for the imaging and assay of these blots. A spatial resolution ≅ 2.5 mm FWHM attained over the aperture of 60 mmx36mm enables the individual spots to be reliably counted. Data is captured in a PC/AT at rates which permit an assay to be completed in typically 30-60 min. The simplicity of both the detector and the readout electronics leads to a low cost system. Images and assay results are presented. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of In Vitro Assays in Selecting Radiotracers for In Vivo P-Glycoprotein PET Imaging

    Renske M. Raaphorst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET imaging of P-glycoprotein (P-gp in the blood-brain barrier can be important in neurological diseases where P-gp is affected, such as Alzheimer´s disease. Radiotracers used in the imaging studies are present at very small, nanomolar, concentration, whereas in vitro assays where these tracers are characterized, are usually performed at micromolar concentration, causing often discrepant in vivo and in vitro data. We had in vivo rodent PET data of [11C]verapamil, (R-N-[18F]fluoroethylverapamil, (R-O-[18F]fluoroethyl-norverapamil, [18F]MC225 and [18F]MC224 and we included also two new molecules [18F]MC198 and [18F]KE64 in this study. To improve the predictive value of in vitro assays, we labeled all the tracers with tritium and performed bidirectional substrate transport assay in MDCKII-MDR1 cells at three different concentrations (0.01, 1 and 50 µM and also inhibition assay with P-gp inhibitors. As a comparison, we used non-radioactive molecules in transport assay in Caco-2 cells at a concentration of 10 µM and in calcein-AM inhibition assay in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. All the P-gp substrates were transported dose-dependently. At the highest concentration (50 µM, P-gp was saturated in a similar way as after treatment with P-gp inhibitors. Best in vivo correlation was obtained with the bidirectional transport assay at a concentration of 0.01 µM. One micromolar concentration in a transport assay or calcein-AM assay alone is not sufficient for correct in vivo prediction of substrate P-gp PET ligands.

  12. Repurposing High-Throughput Image Assays Enables Biological Activity Prediction for Drug Discovery.

    Simm, Jaak; Klambauer, Günter; Arany, Adam; Steijaert, Marvin; Wegner, Jörg Kurt; Gustin, Emmanuel; Chupakhin, Vladimir; Chong, Yolanda T; Vialard, Jorge; Buijnsters, Peter; Velter, Ingrid; Vapirev, Alexander; Singh, Shantanu; Carpenter, Anne E; Wuyts, Roel; Hochreiter, Sepp; Moreau, Yves; Ceulemans, Hugo

    2018-05-17

    In both academia and the pharmaceutical industry, large-scale assays for drug discovery are expensive and often impractical, particularly for the increasingly important physiologically relevant model systems that require primary cells, organoids, whole organisms, or expensive or rare reagents. We hypothesized that data from a single high-throughput imaging assay can be repurposed to predict the biological activity of compounds in other assays, even those targeting alternate pathways or biological processes. Indeed, quantitative information extracted from a three-channel microscopy-based screen for glucocorticoid receptor translocation was able to predict assay-specific biological activity in two ongoing drug discovery projects. In these projects, repurposing increased hit rates by 50- to 250-fold over that of the initial project assays while increasing the chemical structure diversity of the hits. Our results suggest that data from high-content screens are a rich source of information that can be used to predict and replace customized biological assays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reasonable threshold value used to segment the individual comet from the comet assay image

    Yan Xuekun; Chen Ying; Du Jie; Zhang Xueqing; Luo Yisheng

    2009-01-01

    Reasonable segmentation of the individual comet contour from the Comet Assay (CA) images is the precondition for all of parameters analysis during the automatic analyzing for the CA. The Otsu method and several arithmetic operators for image segmentation, such as Sobel, Prewitt, Roberts and Canny were used to segment the comet contour, and characters of the CA images were analyzed firstly. And then the segmentation methods which had been adopted in the software for CA automatic analysis, such as the CASP, the TriTek CometScore TM , were put for-ward and compared. At last, a two-step procedure for threshold calculation based on image-content analysis is adopted to segment the individual comet from the CA images, and several principles for the segmentation are put forward too.(authors)

  14. Towards the standardisation of the neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay for ciguatoxin-like toxicity detection in fish: application to fish caught in the Canary Islands.

    Caillaud, A; Eixarch, H; de la Iglesia, P; Rodriguez, M; Dominguez, L; Andree, K B; Diogène, J

    2012-01-01

    The ouabain/veratridine-dependent neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay (CBA) was applied for the determination of the presence of ciguatoxin (CTX)-like compounds in ciguatera-suspected fish samples caught in the Canary Islands. In order to avoid matrix interferences the maximal concentration of wet weight fish tissue exposed to the neuro-2a cells was set at 20 mg tissue equivalent (TE) ml(-1) according to the sample preparation procedure applied. In the present study, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of CTX1B equivalents in fish extract was set at the limit of detection (LOD), being defined as the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 20% cell viability (IC(20)). The LOQ was estimated as 0.0096 ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1) with 23-31% variability between experiments. These values were deemed sufficient even though quantification given at the IC(50) (the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 50% cell viability) is more accurate with a variability of 17-19% between experiments. Among the 13 fish samples tested, four fish samples were toxic to the neuro-2a cells with estimations of the content in CTX1B g(-1) of TE ranging from 0.058 (± 0.012) to 6.23 (± 0.713) ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1). The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay for CTX1B confirmed its suitability as a screening tool of CTX-like compounds in fish extracts at levels that may cause ciguatera fish poisoning. Species identification of fish samples by DNA sequence analysis was conducted in order to confirm tentatively the identity of ciguatera risk species and it revealed some evidence of inadvertent misidentification. Results presented in this study are a contribution to the standardisation of the neuro-2a CBA and to the risk analysis for ciguatera in the Canary Islands.

  15. Computer-assisted image analysis assay of human neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro

    Jensen, P; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a computer-based image analysis system to measure in-filter migration of human neutrophils in the Boyden chamber. This method is compared with the conventional manual counting techniques. Neutrophils from healthy individuals and from patients with reduced chemotactic activity were....... Another advantage of the assay is that it can be used to show the migration pattern of different populations of neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients....

  16. Building predictive in vitro pulmonary toxicity assays using high-throughput imaging and artificial intelligence.

    Lee, Jia-Ying Joey; Miller, James Alastair; Basu, Sreetama; Kee, Ting-Zhen Vanessa; Loo, Lit-Hsin

    2018-06-01

    Human lungs are susceptible to the toxicity induced by soluble xenobiotics. However, the direct cellular effects of many pulmonotoxic chemicals are not always clear, and thus, a general in vitro assay for testing pulmonotoxicity applicable to a wide variety of chemicals is not currently available. Here, we report a study that uses high-throughput imaging and artificial intelligence to build an in vitro pulmonotoxicity assay by automatically comparing and selecting human lung-cell lines and their associated quantitative phenotypic features most predictive of in vivo pulmonotoxicity. This approach is called "High-throughput In vitro Phenotypic Profiling for Toxicity Prediction" (HIPPTox). We found that the resulting assay based on two phenotypic features of a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, can accurately classify 33 reference chemicals with human pulmonotoxicity information (88.8% balance accuracy, 84.6% sensitivity, and 93.0% specificity). In comparison, the predictivity of a standard cell-viability assay on the same set of chemicals is much lower (77.1% balanced accuracy, 84.6% sensitivity, and 69.5% specificity). We also used the assay to evaluate 17 additional test chemicals with unknown/unclear human pulmonotoxicity, and experimentally confirmed that many of the pulmonotoxic reference and predicted-positive test chemicals induce DNA strand breaks and/or activation of the DNA-damage response (DDR) pathway. Therefore, HIPPTox helps us to uncover these common modes-of-action of pulmonotoxic chemicals. HIPPTox may also be applied to other cell types or models, and accelerate the development of predictive in vitro assays for other cell-type- or organ-specific toxicities.

  17. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  18. Bremsstrahlung-Based Imaging and Assays of Radioactive, Mixed and Hazardous Waste

    Kwofie, J.; Wells, D. P.; Selim, F. A.; Harmon, F.; Duttagupta, S. P.; Jones, J. L.; White, T.; Roney, T.

    2003-08-01

    A new nondestructive accelerator based x-ray fluorescence (AXRF) approach has been developed to identify heavy metals in large-volume samples. Such samples are an important part of the process and waste streams of U.S Department of Energy sites, as well as other industries such as mining and milling. Distributions of heavy metal impurities in these process and waste samples can range from homogeneous to highly inhomogeneous, and non-destructive assays and imaging that can address both are urgently needed. Our approach is based on using high-energy, pulsed bremsstrahlung beams (3-6.5 MeV) from small electron accelerators to produce K-shell atomic fluorescence x-rays. In addition we exploit pair-production, Compton scattering and x-ray transmission measurements from these beams to probe locations of high density and high atomic number. The excellent penetrability of these beams allows assays and images for soil-like samples at least 15 g/cm2 thick, with elemental impurities of atomic number greater than approximately 50. Fluorescence yield of a variety of targets was measured as a function of impurity atomic number, impurity homogeneity, and sample thickness. We report on actual and potential detection limits of heavy metal impurities in a soil matrix for a variety of samples, and on the potential for imaging, using AXRF and these related probes.

  19. Gamma-ray imaging and holdup assays of 235-F PuFF cells 1 & 2

    Aucott, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Nuclear Measurements (L4120) was tasked with performing enhanced characterization of the holdup in the PuFF shielded cells. Assays were performed in accordance with L16.1-ADS-2460 using two high-resolution gamma-ray detectors. The first detector, an In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS)-characterized detector, was used in conjunction with the ISOCS Geometry Composer software to quantify grams of holdup. The second detector, a Germanium Gamma-ray Imager (GeGI), was used to visualize the location and relative intensity of the holdup in the cells. Carts and collimators were specially designed to perform optimum assays of the cells. Thick, pencil-beam tungsten collimators were fabricated to allow for extremely precise targeting of items of interest inside the cells. Carts were designed with a wide range of motion to position and align the detectors. A total of 24 measurements were made, each typically 24 hours or longer to provide sufficient statistical precision. This report presents the results of the enhanced characterization for cells 1 and 2. The measured gram values agree very well with results from the 2014 study. In addition, images were created using both the 2014 data and the new GeGI data. The GeGI images of the cells walls reveal significant Pu-238 holdup on the surface of the walls in cells 1 and 2. Additionally, holdup is visible in the two pass-throughs from cell 1 to the wing cabinets. This report documents the final element (exterior measurements coupled with gamma-ray imaging and modeling) of the enhanced characterization of cells 1-5 (East Cell Line).

  20. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  1. Quantum dot-based molecular imaging of cancer cell growth using a clone formation assay.

    Geng, Xia-Fei; Fang, Min; Liu, Shao-Ping; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    This aim of the present study was to investigate clonal growth behavior and analyze the proliferation characteristics of cancer cells. The MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, SW480 human colon cancer cell line and SGC7901 human gastric cancer cell line were selected to investigate the morphology of cell clones. Quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques (which stained pan‑cytokeratin in the cytoplasm green and Ki67 in the cell nucleus yellow or red) were used to investigate the clone formation rate, cell morphology, discrete tendency, and Ki67 expression and distribution in clones. From the cell clone formation assay, the MCF‑7, SW480 and SGC7901 cells were observed to form clones on days 6, 8 and 12 of cell culture, respectively. These three types of cells had heterogeneous morphology, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios, and conspicuous pathological mitotic features. The cells at the clone periphery formed multiple pseudopodium. In certain clones, cancer cells at the borderline were separated from the central cell clusters or presented a discrete tendency. With quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques, cells with strong Ki67 expression were predominantly shown to be distributed at the clone periphery, or concentrated on one side of the clones. In conclusion, cancer cell clones showed asymmetric growth behavior, and Ki67 was widely expressed in clones of these three cell lines, with strong expression around the clones, or aggregated at one side. Cell clone formation assay based on quantum dots molecular imaging offered a novel method to study the proliferative features of cancer cells, thus providing a further insight into tumor biology.

  2. Hessian-based quantitative image analysis of host-pathogen confrontation assays.

    Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Kraibooj, Kaswara; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-03-01

    Host-fungus interactions have gained a lot of interest in the past few decades, mainly due to an increasing number of fungal infections that are often associated with a high mortality rate in the absence of effective therapies. These interactions can be studied at the genetic level or at the functional level via imaging. Here, we introduce a new image processing method that quantifies the interaction between host cells and fungal invaders, for example, alveolar macrophages and the conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus. The new technique relies on the information content of transmitted light bright field microscopy images, utilizing the Hessian matrix eigenvalues to distinguish between unstained macrophages and the background, as well as between macrophages and fungal conidia. The performance of the new algorithm was measured by comparing the results of our method with that of an alternative approach that was based on fluorescence images from the same dataset. The comparison shows that the new algorithm performs very similarly to the fluorescence-based version. Consequently, the new algorithm is able to segment and characterize unlabeled cells, thus reducing the time and expense that would be spent on the fluorescent labeling in preparation for phagocytosis assays. By extending the proposed method to the label-free segmentation of fungal conidia, we will be able to reduce the need for fluorescence-based imaging even further. Our approach should thus help to minimize the possible side effects of fluorescence labeling on biological functions. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. The effect of different methods and image analyzers on the results of the in vivo comet assay.

    Kyoya, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Rika; Shimanura, Yuko; Terada, Megumi; Masuda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    The in vivo comet assay is a widely used genotoxicity test that can detect DNA damage in a range of organs. It is included in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. However, various protocols are still used for this assay, and several different image analyzers are used routinely to evaluate the results. Here, we verified a protocol that largely contributes to the equivalence of results, and we assessed the effect on the results when slides made from the same sample were analyzed using two different image analyzers (Comet Assay IV vs Comet Analyzer). Standardizing the agarose concentrations and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times had a large impact on the equivalence of the results between the different methods used for the in vivo comet assay. In addition, there was some variation in the sensitivity of the two different image analyzers tested; however this variation was considered to be minor and became negligible when the test conditions were standardized between the two different methods. By standardizing the concentrations of low melting agarose and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times between both methods used in the current study, the sensitivity to detect the genotoxicity of a positive control substance in the in vivo comet assay became generally comparable, independently of the image analyzer used. However, there may still be the possibility that other conditions, except for the three described here, could affect the reproducibility of the in vivo comet assay.

  4. A PC-based discrete tomography imaging software system for assaying radioactive waste containers

    Palacios, J.C.; Longoria, L.C.; Santos, J.; Perry, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    A PC-based discrete tomography imaging software system for assaying radioactive waste containers for use in facilities in Mexico has been developed. The software system consists of three modules: (i) for reconstruction transmission tomography, (ii) for reconstruction emission tomography, and (iii) for simulation tomography. The Simulation Module is an interactive computer program that is used to create simulated databases for input to the Reconstruction Modules. These databases may be used in the absence of physical measurements to insure that the tomographic theoretical models are valid and that the coding accurately describes these models. Simulation may also be used to determine the detection limits of the reconstruction methodology. A description of the system, the theory, and a demonstration of the systems capabilities is provided in the paper. The hardware for this system is currently under development

  5. Effects of Metalloporphyrins on Heme Oxygenase-1 Transcription: Correlative Cell Culture Assays Guide in Vivo Imaging

    Monica Hajdena-Dawson

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO is the rate-limiting step in the heme degradation pathway and is a potential target for the control, or prevention, of pathologic jaundice in neonates. Metalloporphyrins (Mps, a diverse set of synthetic derivatives of heme, can competitively inhibit the HO enzymes. However, certain Mps are phototoxic and some increase transcription of HO-1, the inducible HO isozyme. Therefore, effective development of this class of compounds as therapeutics for treating pathologic jaundice will require rapid and integrated biological screens to identify the most efficacious and safe Mps. To study the safety of these compounds, we assessed their cytotoxic effects and measured luciferase activity by bioluminescent imaging (BLI as an index of HO-1 transcription, first in live cell cultures and then in living transgenic reporter mice. A total of 12 Mps were first evaluated in the correlative cell culture assay. Based on results from this study, 2 Mps, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP and zinc bis glycol porphyrin (ZnBG, were selected for further studies in the live animal model. In vitro BLI showed ZnPP to be a strong inducer of HO-1 transcription in comparison to ZnBG, which showed minimal induction. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that ZnPP was phototoxic, whereas ZnBG had no effect on cell viability. In vivo BLI showed that both ZnPP and ZnBG had minimal effects on the levels of HO-1 transcription in the animals. Furthermore, serum enzyme assays indicated that neither caused detectable liver toxicity. These findings, and especially those with ZnBG, support the use of selected Mps as therapies for pathologic jaundice. Coupling the high throughput advantage of cell culture with the capability of imaging for whole-body temporal analyses could accelerate and refine the preclinical phases of drug development. Thus, this study serves as a model for understanding the effects of specific compounds in relation to defined targets using an integrated approach.

  6. CometQ: An automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage using comet assay image analysis.

    Ganapathy, Sreelatha; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri; Chand, Parkash; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage analysis plays an important role in determining the approaches for treatment and prevention of various diseases like cancer, schizophrenia and other heritable diseases. Comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for DNA damage analysis. The main objective of this work is to implement a fully automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage by analysing comet assay images. The comet assay image analysis consists of four stages: (1) classifier (2) comet segmentation (3) comet partitioning and (4) comet quantification. Main features of the proposed software are the design and development of four comet segmentation methods, and the automatic routing of the input comet assay image to the most suitable one among these methods depending on the type of the image (silver stained or fluorescent stained) as well as the level of DNA damage (heavily damaged or lightly/moderately damaged). A classifier stage, based on support vector machine (SVM) is designed and implemented at the front end, to categorise the input image into one of the above four groups to ensure proper routing. Comet segmentation is followed by comet partitioning which is implemented using a novel technique coined as modified fuzzy clustering. Comet parameters are calculated in the comet quantification stage and are saved in an excel file. Our dataset consists of 600 silver stained images obtained from 40 Schizophrenia patients with different levels of severity, admitted to a tertiary hospital in South India and 56 fluorescent stained images obtained from different internet sources. The performance of "CometQ", the proposed standalone application for automated analysis of comet assay images, is evaluated by a clinical expert and is also compared with that of a most recent and related software-OpenComet. CometQ gave 90.26% positive predictive value (PPV) and 93.34% sensitivity which are much higher than those of OpenComet, especially in the case of silver stained images. The

  7. Multiplexed imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor assay for the detection of Fusarium toxins in wheat

    Certain Fusarium species (F. graminearum and F. verticilloides in particular) infest grains and can produce a wide range of fungal (myco)-toxins, causing huge economic losses worldwide. A reproducible and sensitive imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) assay was developed and validated for three ...

  8. Image-based ELISA on an activated polypropylene microtest plate--a spectrophotometer-free low cost assay technique.

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2013-10-15

    In this communication, we report ELISA technique on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPµTP) as an illustrative example of a low cost diagnostic assay. Activated test zone in APPµTP binds a capture biomolecule through covalent linkage thereby, eliminating non-specific binding often prevalent in absorption based techniques. Efficacy of APPµTP is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody in patient's sera. Detection is done by taking the image of the assay solution by a desktop scanner and analyzing the color of the image. Human IgE quantification by color saturation in the image-based assay shows excellent correlation with absorbance-based assay (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.992). Significance of the relationship is seen from its p value which is 4.087e-11. Performance of APPµTP is also checked with respect to microtiter plate and paper-based ELISA. APPµTP can quantify an analyte as precisely as in microtiter plate with insignificant non-specific binding, a necessary prerequisite for ELISA assay. In contrast, paper-ELISA shows high non-specific binding in control sera (false positive). Finally, we have carried out ELISA steps on APPµTP by ultrasound waves on a sonicator bath and the results show that even in 8 min, it can convincingly differentiate a test sample from a control sample. In short, spectrophotometer-free image-based miniaturized ELISA on APPµTP is precise, reliable, rapid, and sensitive and could be a good substitute for conventional immunoassay procedures widely used in clinical and research laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A theoretical-experimental methodology for assessing the sensitivity of biomedical spectral imaging platforms, assays, and analysis methods.

    Leavesley, Silas J; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter; Rich, Thomas C

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging technologies have been used for many years by the remote sensing community. More recently, these approaches have been applied to biomedical problems, where they have shown great promise. However, biomedical spectral imaging has been complicated by the high variance of biological data and the reduced ability to construct test scenarios with fixed ground truths. Hence, it has been difficult to objectively assess and compare biomedical spectral imaging assays and technologies. Here, we present a standardized methodology that allows assessment of the performance of biomedical spectral imaging equipment, assays, and analysis algorithms. This methodology incorporates real experimental data and a theoretical sensitivity analysis, preserving the variability present in biomedical image data. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied in several ways: to compare the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms, to compare the response of different imaging platforms, and to assess the level of target signature required to achieve a desired performance. Results indicate that it is possible to compare even very different hardware platforms using this methodology. Future applications could include a range of optimization tasks, such as maximizing detection sensitivity or acquisition speed, providing high utility for investigators ranging from design engineers to biomedical scientists. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Automated image-based assay for evaluation of HIV neutralization and cell-to-cell fusion inhibition.

    Sheik-Khalil, Enas; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Özkaya Şahin, Gülsen; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Carpenter, Anne E; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2014-08-30

    Standardized techniques to detect HIV-neutralizing antibody responses are of great importance in the search for an HIV vaccine. Here, we present a high-throughput, high-content automated plaque reduction (APR) assay based on automated microscopy and image analysis that allows evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay. Neutralization of virus particles is measured as a reduction in the number of fluorescent plaques, and inhibition of cell-cell fusion as a reduction in plaque area. We found neutralization strength to be a significant factor in the ability of virus to form syncytia. Further, we introduce the inhibitory concentration of plaque area reduction (ICpar) as an additional measure of antiviral activity, i.e. fusion inhibition. We present an automated image based high-throughput, high-content HIV plaque reduction assay. This allows, for the first time, simultaneous evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay, by quantifying the reduction in number of plaques and mean plaque area, respectively. Inhibition of cell-to-cell fusion requires higher quantities of inhibitory reagent than inhibition of virus neutralization.

  11. A simple viability analysis for unicellular cyanobacteria using a new autofluorescence assay, automated microscopy, and ImageJ

    Schulze Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently established methods to identify viable and non-viable cells of cyanobacteria are either time-consuming (eg. plating or preparation-intensive (eg. fluorescent staining. In this paper we present a new and fast viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria, which uses red chlorophyll fluorescence and an unspecific green autofluorescence for the differentiation of viable and non-viable cells without the need of sample preparation. Results The viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria using red and green autofluorescence was established and validated for the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Both autofluorescence signals could be observed simultaneously allowing a direct classification of viable and non-viable cells. The results were confirmed by plating/colony count, absorption spectra and chlorophyll measurements. The use of an automated fluorescence microscope and a novel ImageJ based image analysis plugin allow a semi-automated analysis. Conclusions The new method simplifies the process of viability analysis and allows a quick and accurate analysis. Furthermore results indicate that a combination of the new assay with absorption spectra or chlorophyll concentration measurements allows the estimation of the vitality of cells.

  12. Cell Painting, a high-content image-based assay for morphological profiling using multiplexed fluorescent dyes

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Singh, Shantanu; Han, Han; Davis, Chadwick T.; Borgeson, Blake; Hartland, Cathy; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M.; Gibson, Christopher C.; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    In morphological profiling, quantitative data are extracted from microscopy images of cells to identify biologically relevant similarities and differences among samples based on these profiles. This protocol describes the design and execution of experiments using Cell Painting, a morphological profiling assay multiplexing six fluorescent dyes imaged in five channels, to reveal eight broadly relevant cellular components or organelles. Cells are plated in multi-well plates, perturbed with the treatments to be tested, stained, fixed, and imaged on a high-throughput microscope. Then, automated image analysis software identifies individual cells and measures ~1,500 morphological features (various measures of size, shape, texture, intensity, etc.) to produce a rich profile suitable for detecting subtle phenotypes. Profiles of cell populations treated with different experimental perturbations can be compared to suit many goals, such as identifying the phenotypic impact of chemical or genetic perturbations, grouping compounds and/or genes into functional pathways, and identifying signatures of disease. Cell culture and image acquisition takes two weeks; feature extraction and data analysis take an additional 1-2 weeks. PMID:27560178

  13. Objective scoring of transformed foci in BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay by statistical image descriptors.

    Urani, C; Corvi, R; Callegaro, G; Stefanini, F M

    2013-09-01

    In vitro cell transformation assays (CTAs) have been shown to model important stages of in vivo carcinogenesis and have the potential to predict carcinogenicity in humans. Advantages of CTAs are their ability of revealing both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens while reducing both experimental costs and the number of animals used. The endpoint of the CTA is foci formation, and requires classification under light microscopy based on morphology. Thus current limitations for the wide adoption of the assay partially depend on a fair degree of subjectivity in foci scoring. An objective evaluation may be obtained after separating foci from background monolayer in the digital image, and quantifying values of statistical descriptors which are selected to capture eye-scored morphological features. The aim of this study was to develop statistical descriptors to be applied to transformed foci of BALB/c 3T3, which cover foci size, multilayering and invasive cell growth into the background monolayer. Proposed descriptors were applied to a database of 407 foci images to explore the numerical features, and to illustrate open problems and potential solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC. The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1 risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient’s clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2 cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3 determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  15. Dual Functional Nanocarrier for Cellular Imaging and Drug Delivery in Cancer Cells Based on π-Conjugated Core and Biodegradable Polymer Arms.

    Kulkarni, Bhagyashree; Surnar, Bapurao; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2016-03-14

    Multipurpose polymer nanoscaffolds for cellular imaging and delivery of anticancer drug are urgently required for the cancer therapy. The present investigation reports a new polymer drug delivery concept based on biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and highly luminescent π-conjugated fluorophore as dual functional nanocarrier for cellular imaging and delivery vehicles for anticancer drug to cancer cells. To accomplish this goal, a new substituted caprolactone monomer was designed, and it was subjected to ring opening polymerization using a blue luminescent bishydroxyloligo-phenylenevinylene (OPV) fluorophore as an initiator. A series of A-B-A triblock copolymer building blocks with a fixed OPV π-core and variable chain biodegradable PCL arm length were tailor-made. These triblocks self-assembled in organic solvents to produce well-defined helical nanofibers, whereas in water they produced spherical nanoparticles (size ∼150 nm) with blue luminescence. The hydrophobic pocket of the polymer nanoparticle was found to be an efficient host for loading water insoluble anticancer drug such as doxorubicin (DOX). The photophysical studies revealed that there was no cross-talking between the OPV and DOX chromophores, and their optical purity was retained in the nanoparticle assembly for cellular imaging. In vitro studies revealed that the biodegradable PCL arm was susceptible to enzymatic cleavage at the intracellular lysosomal esterase under physiological conditions to release the loaded drugs. The nascent nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic to cancer cells, whereas the DOX-loaded nanoparticles accomplished more than 80% killing in HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic analysis confirmed the cell penetrating ability of the blue luminescent polymer nanoparticles and their accumulation preferably in the cytoplasm. The DOX loaded red luminescent polymer nanoparticles were also taken up by the cells, and the drug was found to be accumulated at the perinuclear environment

  16. Live-Cell Imaging of Protease Activity: Assays to Screen Therapeutic Approaches.

    Chalasani, Anita; Ji, Kyungmin; Sameni, Mansoureh; Mazumder, Samia H; Xu, Yong; Moin, Kamiar; Sloane, Bonnie F

    2017-01-01

    Methodologies to image and quantify the activity of proteolytic enzymes have been developed in an effort to identify protease-related druggable pathways that are involved in malignant progression of cancer. Our laboratory has pioneered techniques for functional live-cell imaging of protease activity in pathomimetic avatars for breast cancer. We analyze proteolysis in the context of proliferation and formation of structures by tumor cells in 3-D cultures over time (4D). In order to recapitulate the cellular composition and architecture of tumors in the pathomimetic avatars, we include other tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, microvascular endothelial cells). We also model noncellular aspects of the tumor microenvironment such as acidic pericellular pH. Use of pathomimetic avatars in concert with various types of imaging probes has allowed us to image, quantify, and follow the dynamics of proteolysis in the tumor microenvironment and to test interventions that impact directly or indirectly on proteolytic pathways. To facilitate use of the pathomimetic avatars for screening of therapeutic modalities, we have designed and fabricated custom 3D culture chambers with multiple wells that are either individual or connected by a channel to allow cells to migrate between wells. Optical glass microscope slides underneath an acrylic plate allow the cultures to be imaged with an inverted microscope. Fluid ports in the acrylic plate are at a level above the 3D cultures to allow introduction of culture media and test agents such as drugs into the wells and the harvesting of media conditioned by the cultures for immunochemical and biochemical analyses. We are using the pathomimetic avatars to identify druggable pathways, screen drug and natural product libraries and accelerate entry of validated drugs or natural products into clinical trials.

  17. An effective assay for high cellular resolution time-lapse imaging of sensory placode formation and morphogenesis

    Das Raman M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate peripheral nervous system contains sensory neurons that arise from ectodermal placodes. Placodal cells ingress to move inside the head to form sensory neurons of the cranial ganglia. To date, however, the process of placodal cell ingression and underlying cellular behavior are poorly understood as studies have relied upon static analyses on fixed tissues. Visualizing placodal cell behavior requires an ability to distinguish the surface ectoderm from the underlying mesenchyme. This necessitates high resolution imaging along the z-plane which is difficult to accomplish in whole embryos. To address this issue, we have developed an imaging system using cranial slices that allows direct visualization of placode formation. Results We demonstrate an effective imaging assay for capturing placode development at single cell resolution using chick embryonic tissue ex vivo. This provides the first time-lapse imaging of mitoses in the trigeminal placodal ectoderm, ingression, and intercellular contacts of placodal cells. Cell divisions with varied orientations were found in the placodal ectoderm all along the apical-basal axis. Placodal cells initially have short cytoplasmic processes during ingression as young neurons and mature over time to elaborate long axonal processes in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the time-lapse imaging data reveal that these delaminating placodal neurons begin ingression early on from within the ectoderm, where they start to move and continue on to exit as individual or strings of neurons through common openings on the basal side of the epithelium. Furthermore, dynamic intercellular contacts are abundant among the delaminating placodal neurons, between these and the already delaminated cells, as well as among cells in the forming ganglion. Conclusions This new imaging assay provides a powerful method to analyze directly development of placode-derived sensory neurons and subsequent ganglia

  18. Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine Injections with a Cell Imaging-Based Multiparametric Assay Revealed a Critical Involvement of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatotoxicity

    Meng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of herbal medicine products has been a widespread concern due to their complex chemical nature and lack of proper evaluation methods. We have adapted a sensitive and reproducible multiparametric cell-based high-content analysis assay to evaluate the hepatic-safety of four Chinese medicine injections and validated it with classical animal-based toxicity assays. Our results suggested that the reported hepatotoxicity by one of the drugs, Fufangkushen injection, could be attributed at least in part to the interference of mitochondrial function in human HepG2 cells by some of its constituents. This method should be useful for both preclinical screen in a drug discovery program and postclinical evaluation of herbal medicine preparations.

  19. Photoluminescence light-up detection of zinc ion and imaging in living cells based on the aggregation induced emission enhancement of glutathione-capped copper nanoclusters.

    Lin, Liyun; Hu, Yuefang; Zhang, Liangliang; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we prepared glutathione (GSH)-capped copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) with red emission by simply adjusting the pH of GSH/Cu 2+ mixture at room temperature. A photoluminescence light-up method for detecting Zn 2+ was then developed based on the aggregation induced emission enhancement of GSH-capped Cu NCs. Zn 2+ could trigger the aggregation of Cu NCs, inducing the enhancement of luminescence and the increase of absolute quantum yield from 1.3% to 6.2%. GSH-capped Cu NCs and the formed aggregates were characterized, and the possible mechanism was also discussed. The prepared GSH-capped Cu NCs exhibited a fast response towards Zn 2+ and a wider detection range from 4.68 to 2240μM. The detection limit (1.17μM) is much lower than that of the World Health Organization permitted in drinking water. Furthermore, taking advantages of the low cytotoxicity, large Stokes shift, red emission and light-up detection mode, we explored the use of the prepared GSH-capped Cu NCs in the imaging of Zn 2+ in living cells. The developed luminescence light-up nanoprobe may hold the potentials for Zn 2+ -related drinking water safety and biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2013-02-05

    A dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources includes a detector arrangement consists of three detectors downstream from the object under observation. The latter detector, which operates as a beam monitor, is an integrating detector that monitors the total beam power arriving at its surface. The first detector and the middle detector each include an integrating detector surrounding a foil. The foils of these two detectors are made of the same atomic material, but each foil is a different isotope, e.g., the first foil may comprise U235 and second foil may comprise U238. The integrating detectors surrounding these pieces of foil measure the total power scattered from the foil and can be similar in composition to the final beam monitor. Non-resonant photons will, after calibration, scatter equally from both foils.

  1. Far-Red Fluorescent Probe for Imaging of Vicinal Dithiol-Containing Proteins in Living Cells Based on a pKa Shift Mechanism.

    Zhang, Shengrui; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qin; Zhong, Yaogang; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Zheng; Li, Hua

    2018-02-20

    Vicinal dithiol-containing proteins (VDPs) play fundamental roles in intracellular redox homeostasis and are responsible for many diseases. In this work, we report a far-red fluorescence turn-on probe MCAs for VDPs exploiting the pK a shift of the imine functionality of the probe. MCAs is composed of a merocyanine Schiff base as the fluorescent reporter and a cyclic 1,3,2-dithiarsenolane as the specific ligand for VDPs. The imine pK a of MCAs is 4.8, and it exists predominantly in the Schiff base (SB) form at physiological pH. Due to the absence of a resonating positive charge, it absorbs at a relatively short wavelength and is essentially nonfluorescent. Upon selective binding to reduced bovine serum albumin (rBSA, selected as the model protein), MCAs was brought from aqueous media to the binding pockets of the protein, causing a large increase in pK a value of MCAs (pK a = 7.1). As a result, an increase in the protonated Schiff base (PSB) form of MCAs was observed at the physiological pH conditions, which in turn leads to a bathochromically shifted chromophore (λ abs = 634 nm) and a significant increase in fluorescence intensity (λ em = 657 nm) simultaneously. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the salt bridges formed between the iminium in MCAs and the residues D72 and D517 in rBSA resist the dissociation of proton from the probe, thus inducing an increase of the pK a value. The proposed probe shows excellent sensitivity and specificity toward VDPs over other proteins and biologically relevant species and has been successfully applied for imaging of VDPs in living cells. We believe that the present pK a shift switching strategy may facilitate the development of new fluorescent probes that are useful for a wide range of applications.

  2. Relationship between increasing concentrations of two carcinogens and statistical image descriptors of foci morphology in the cell transformation assay.

    Callegaro, Giulia; Corvi, Raffaella; Salovaara, Susan; Urani, Chiara; Stefanini, Federico M

    2017-06-01

    Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) have long been proposed for the identification of chemical carcinogenicity potential. The endpoint of these in vitro assays is represented by the phenotypic alterations in cultured cells, which are characterized by the change from the non-transformed to the transformed phenotype. Despite the wide fields of application and the numerous advantages of CTAs, their use in regulatory toxicology has been limited in part due to concerns about the subjective nature of visual scoring, i.e. the step in which transformed colonies or foci are evaluated through morphological features. An objective evaluation of morphological features has been previously obtained through automated digital processing of foci images to extract the value of three statistical image descriptors. In this study a further potential of the CTA using BALB/c 3T3 cells is addressed by analysing the effect of increasing concentrations of two known carcinogens, benzo[a]pyrene and NiCl 2 , with different modes of action on foci morphology. The main result of our quantitative evaluation shows that the concentration of the considered carcinogens has an effect on foci morphology that is statistically significant for the mean of two among the three selected descriptors. Statistical significance also corresponds to visual relevance. The statistical analysis of variations in foci morphology due to concentration allowed to quantify morphological changes that can be visually appreciated but not precisely determined. Therefore, it has the potential of providing new quantitative parameters in CTAs, and of exploiting all the information encoded in foci. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Imaging flow cytometry assays for quantifying pigment grade titanium dioxide particle internalization and interactions with immune cells in whole blood.

    Hewitt, Rachel E; Vis, Bradley; Pele, Laetitia C; Faria, Nuno; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-10-01

    Pigment grade titanium dioxide is composed of sub-micron sized particles, including a nanofraction, and is widely utilized in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. Oral exposure to pigment grade titanium dioxide results in at least some material entering the circulation in humans, although subsequent interactions with blood immune cells are unknown. Pigment grade titanium dioxide is employed for its strong light scattering properties, and this work exploited that attribute to determine whether single cell-particle associations could be determined in immune cells of human whole blood at "real life" concentrations. In vitro assays, initially using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, identified titanium dioxide associated with the surface of, and within, immune cells by darkfield reflectance in imaging flow cytometry. This was confirmed at the population level by side scatter measurements using conventional flow cytometry. Next, it was demonstrated that imaging flow cytometry could quantify titanium dioxide particle-bearing cells, within the immune cell populations of fresh whole blood, down to titanium dioxide levels of 10 parts per billion, which is in the range anticipated for human blood following titanium dioxide ingestion. Moreover, surface association and internal localization of titanium dioxide particles could be discriminated in the assays. Overall, results showed that in addition to the anticipated activity of blood monocytes internalizing titanium dioxide particles, neutrophil internalization and cell membrane adhesion also occurred, the latter for both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cell types. What happens in vivo and whether this contributes to activation of one or more of these different cells types in blood merits further attention. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Evaluation of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging.

    Musa, Marahaini; Nasir, Nurul Fatihah Mohamad; Thirumulu, Kannan Ponnuraj

    2014-01-01

    Royal jelly is a nutritious substance produced by the young nurse bees and contains significant amounts of proteins which are important for cell growth and proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging. MRC-5 cells were treated with various concentrations of royal jelly extract in MTT assay. The control groups were comprised of Alpha-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM) alone and α-MEM with 10% FBS. Subsequently, the cell proliferation was studied for 10 days using Alamar Blue assay and live cell imaging from 48 to 72 h. The population doubling time (PDT) was determined using trypan blue assay after live cell imaging. In MTT assay, 0.156 and 0.078 mg/ml of royal jelly produced higher cell viability compared to positive control group but were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In the Alamar Blue assay, 0.156 and 0.078 mg/ml of royal jelly produced greater percentage of reduction at day 3 even though no significant difference was found (P > 0.05). Based on live cell imaging, the PDT for positive, negative, 0.156 and 0.078 mg/ml of royal jelly groups were 29.09, 62.50, 41.67 and 41.67 h respectively. No significant difference was found in the PDT between all the groups (P > 0.05). Royal jelly does not exhibit similar ability like FBS to facilitate cell growth under the present test conditions.

  5. Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay

    Waters, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert

    2016-01-01

    ) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). METHODS: Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4...

  6. The effect of an optimized imaging flow cytometry analysis template on sample throughput in the reduced culture cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay

    Rodrigues, M.A.; Beaton-Green, L.A.; Wilkins, R.C.; Probst, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    In cases of overexposure to ionizing radiation, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay can be performed in order to estimate the dose of radiation to an exposed individual. However, in the event of a large-scale radiation accident with many potentially exposed casualties, the assay must be able to generate accurate dose estimates to within ±0.5 Gy as quickly as possible. The assay has been adapted to, validated and optimized on the ImageStream"X imaging flow cyto-meter. The ease of running this automated version of the CBMN assay allowed investigation into the accuracy of dose estimates after reducing the volume of whole blood cultured to 200 μl and reducing the culture time to 48 h. The data analysis template used to identify binucleated lymphocyte cells (BNCs) and micronuclei (MN) has since been optimized to improve the sensitivity and specificity of BNC and MN detection. This paper presents a re-analysis of existing data using this optimized analysis template to demonstrate that dose estimations from blinded samples can be obtained to the same level of accuracy in a shorter data collection time. Here, we show that dose estimates from blinded samples were obtained to within ±0.5 Gy of the delivered dose when data collection time was reduced by 30 min at standard culture conditions and by 15 min at reduced culture conditions. Reducing data collection time while retaining the same level of accuracy in our imaging flow cytometry-based version of the CBMN assay results in higher throughput and further increases the relevancy of the CBMN assay as a radiation bio-dosimeter. (authors)

  7. H2O2-responsive liposomal nanoprobe for photoacoustic inflammation imaging and tumor theranostics via in vivo chromogenic assay.

    Chen, Qian; Liang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Zhijuan; Zhao, He; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-05-23

    Abnormal H 2 O 2 levels are closely related to many diseases, including inflammation and cancers. Herein, we simultaneously load HRP and its substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), into liposomal nanoparticles, obtaining a Lipo@HRP&ABTS optical nanoprobe for in vivo H 2 O 2 -responsive chromogenic assay with great specificity and sensitivity. In the presence of H 2 O 2 , colorless ABTS would be converted by HRP into the oxidized form with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, enabling photoacoustic detection of H 2 O 2 down to submicromolar concentrations. Using Lipo@HRP&ABTS as an H 2 O 2 -responsive nanoprobe, we could accurately detect the inflammation processes induced by LPS or bacterial infection in which H 2 O 2 is generated. Meanwhile, upon systemic administration of this nanoprobe we realize in vivo photoacoustic imaging of small s.c. tumors (∼2 mm in size) as well as orthotopic brain gliomas, by detecting H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells. Interestingly, local injection of Lipo@HRP&ABTS further enables differentiation of metastatic lymph nodes from those nonmetastatic ones, based on their difference in H 2 O 2 contents. Moreover, using the H 2 O 2 -dependent strong NIR absorbance of Lipo@HRP&ABTS, tumor-specific photothermal therapy is also achieved. This work thus develops a sensitive H 2 O 2 -responsive optical nanoprobe useful not only for in vivo detection of inflammation but also for tumor-specific theranostic applications.

  8. [Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies. Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis].

    Griemberg, Gloria; Ferrarotti, Nidia F; Svibel, Graciela; Ravelli, Maria R; Taranto, Nestor J; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Pizzimenti, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular image due to a kinetoplast containing double stranded DNA. Other structures such as membrane, flagellum and basal corpuscle can be stained as well, showing what is called atypical fluorescent images. As C. luciliae belongs to the Trypanosomatidae family, which include the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., it was considered that these atypical images could be caused by cross-reactions. Serological studies for Chagas' disease were performed in 105 serum samples displaying atypical images. Sixty four percent of the samples from non endemic and 78.3% from endemic areas for Chagas' disease showed fluorescence in both, membrane and flagellum (joint image). Fifty samples from normal blood donors and 57 samples from patients with conective tissue diseases were tested with C. luciliae. None of them presented the joint image except for two patients with lupus who were also chagasic. In addition, 54 samples from chagasic patients were studied and all of them presented the joint image. We also studied 46 samples from patients with leishmaniasis from whom 28 were coinfected with T. cruzi. The joint image was observed in 88.0% of the samples with leishmaniasis and in 89.3% of the co-infected samples. The results suggest that C. luciliae could be used as an economical, and of low risk, alternative substrate for the serological diagnosis of Chagas' disease, even though it does not discriminate for Leishmania spp. infection. This study also suggests that whenever atypical images are observed in C. luciliae during the search for anti-DNA antibodies, it would be convenient to submit the patient to clinical and serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniosis and Chagas' disease.

  9. An RNA replication-center assay for high content image-based quantifications of human rhinovirus and coxsackievirus infections

    Lötzerich Mark

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Picornaviruses are common human and animal pathogens, including polio and rhinoviruses of the enterovirus family, and hepatits A or food-and-mouth disease viruses. There are no effective countermeasures against the vast majority of picornaviruses, with the exception of polio and hepatitis A vaccines. Human rhinoviruses (HRV are the most prevalent picornaviruses comprising more than one hundred serotypes. The existing and also emerging HRVs pose severe health risks for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we developed a serotype-independent infection assay using a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody (mabJ2 detecting double-strand RNA. Results Immunocytochemical staining for RNA replication centers using mabJ2 identified cells that were infected with either HRV1A, 2, 14, 16, 37 or coxsackievirus (CV B3, B4 or A21. MabJ2 labeled-cells were immunocytochemically positive for newly synthesized viral capsid proteins from HRV1A, 14, 16, 37 or CVB3, 4. We optimized the procedure for detection of virus replication in settings for high content screening with automated fluorescence microscopy and single cell analysis. Our data show that the infection signal was dependent on multiplicity, time and temperature of infection, and the mabJ2-positive cell numbers correlated with viral titres determined in single step growth curves. The mabJ2 infection assay was adapted to determine the efficacy of anti-viral compounds and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs blocking enterovirus infections. Conclusions We report a broadly applicable, rapid protocol to measure infection of cultured cells with enteroviruses at single cell resolution. This assay can be applied to a wide range of plus-sense RNA viruses, and hence allows comparative studies of viral infection biology without dedicated reagents or procedures. This protocol also allows to directly compare results from small compound or siRNA infection screens

  10. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R Inhibits Osteosarcoma Angiogenesis in the In Vivo Gelfoam® Assay Visualized by Color-coded Imaging.

    Kiyuna, Tasuku; Tome, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Murakami, Takashi; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    We previously developed a color-coded imaging model that can quantify the length of nascent blood vessels using Gelfoam® implanted in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) nude mice. In this model, nascent blood vessels selectively express GFP. We also previously showed that osteosarcoma cells promote angiogenesis in this assay. We have also previously demonstrated the tumor-targeting bacteria Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) can inhibit or regress all tested tumor types in mouse models. The aim of the present study was to determine if S. typhimurium A1-R could inhibit osteosarcoma angiogenesis in the in vivo Gelfoam® color-coded imaging assay. Gelfoam® was implanted subcutaneously in ND-GFP nude mice. Skin flaps were made 7 days after implantation and 143B-RFP human osteosarcoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected into the implanted Gelfoam. After establishment of tumors in the Gelfoam®, control-group mice were treated with phosphate buffered saline via tail-vein injection (iv) and the experimental group was treated with S. typhimurium A1-R iv Skin flaps were made at day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after implantation of the Gelfoam® to allow imaging of vascularization in the Gelfoam® using a variable-magnification small-animal imaging system and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Nascent blood vessels expressing ND-GFP extended into the Gelfoam® over time in both groups. However, the extent of nascent blood-vessel growth was significantly inhibited by S. typhimurium A1-R treatment by day 28. The present results indicate S. typhimurium A1-R has potential for anti-angiogenic targeted therapy of osteosarcoma. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Random, double- and single-strand DNA breaks can be differentiated in the method of Comet assay by the shape of the comet image.

    Georgieva, Milena; Zagorchev, Plamen; Miloshev, George

    2015-10-01

    Comet assay is an invaluable tool in DNA research. It is widely used to detect DNA damage as an indicator of exposure to genotoxic stress. A canonical set of parameters and specialized software programs exist for Comet assay data quantification and analysis. None of them so far has proven its potential to employ a computer-based algorithm for assessment of the shape of the comet as an indicator of the exact mechanism by which the studied genotoxins cut in the molecule of DNA. Here, we present 14 unique measurements of the comet image based on the comet morphology. Their mathematical derivation and statistical analysis allowed precise description of the shape of the comet image which in turn discriminated the cause of genotoxic stress. This algorithm led to the development of the "CometShape" software which allowed easy discrimination among different genotoxins depending on the type of DNA damage they induce. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. [A cell-based detection of ciguatoxin using sodium fluorescence probe].

    Yuan, Jian-hui; Yang, Hui; Tang, Huan-wen; Huang, Wei; Xu, Xin-yun; Liu, Jian-jun; Ke, Yue-bin; Cheng, Jin-quan; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2011-04-01

    To establish a cell-based detection method of ciguatoxin using fluorescence assay. Mouse neuroblastoma N-2A cells were exposed to ouabain and veratridine and different concentrations of standard ciguatoxin samples (P-CTX-1) to establish the curvilinear relationship between the toxin dosage and fluorescence intensity using the sodium fluorescence probe CoroNaTM Green. The toxicity curvilinear relationship was also generated between the toxin dosage and cell survival using CCK-8 method. Based on these standard curves, the presence of ciguatoxin was detected in 33 samples of deep-sea coral fish. A correlation was found between the detection results of cell-based fluorescence assay and cytotoxicity assay, whose detection limit reached 103 g/ml and 1012 g/ml, respectively. The cell-based fluorescent assay sensitivity showed a higher sensitivity than cytotoxicity assay with a 2-4 h reduction of the detection time. The cell-based fluorescent assay can quickly and sensitively detect ciguatoxin and may serve as a good option for preliminary screening of the toxin.

  13. Novel migrating mouse neural crest cell assay system utilizing P0-Cre/EGFP fluorescent time-lapse imaging

    Kawakami Minoru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural crest cells (NCCs are embryonic, multipotent stem cells. Their long-range and precision-guided migration is one of their most striking characteristics. We previously reported that P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-lacZ double-transgenic mice showed significant lacZ expression in tissues derived from NCCs. Results In this study, by embedding a P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryo at E9.5 in collagen gel inside a culture glass slide, we were able to keep the embryo developing ex vivo for more than 24 hours; this development was with enough NCC fluorescent signal intensity to enable single-cell resolution analysis, with the accompanying NCC migration potential intact and with the appropriate NCC response to the extracellular signal maintained. By implantation of beads with absorbed platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA, we demonstrated that PDGF-AA acts as an NCC-attractant in embryos. We also performed assays with NCCs isolated from P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryos on culture plates. The neuromediator 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT has been known to regulate NCC migration. We newly demonstrated that dopamine, in addition to 5-HT, stimulated NCC migration in vitro. Two NCC populations, with different axial levels of origins, showed unique distribution patterns regarding migration velocity and different dose-response patterns to both 5-HT and dopamine. Conclusions Although avian species predominated over the other species in the NCC study, our novel system should enable us to use mice to assay many different aspects of NCCs in embryos or on culture plates, such as migration, division, differentiation, and apoptosis.

  14. A novel CMOS image sensor system for quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect food-borne pathogens.

    Wang, Tiantian; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeong Ho

    2017-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is considered as one of the alternatives to the conventional PCR and it is an inexpensive portable diagnostic system with minimal power consumption. The present work describes the application of LAMP in real-time photon detection and quantitative analysis of nucleic acids integrated with a disposable complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This novel system works as an amplification-coupled detection platform, relying on a CMOS image sensor, with the aid of a computerized circuitry controller for the temperature and light sources. The CMOS image sensor captures the light which is passing through the sensor surface and converts into digital units using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This new system monitors the real-time photon variation, caused by the color changes during amplification. Escherichia coli O157 was used as a proof-of-concept target for quantitative analysis, and compared with the results for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica to confirm the efficiency of the system. The system detected various DNA concentrations of E. coli O157 in a short time (45min), with a detection limit of 10fg/μL. The low-cost, simple, and compact design, with low power consumption, represents a significant advance in the development of a portable, sensitive, user-friendly, real-time, and quantitative analytic tools for point-of-care diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences.

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W

    2016-07-01

    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Assaying the character and stenosis of the pyeloureteric segment in nephrolithiasis through pharmacologic modification of the imaging methods

    Yudin, L.; Reznichenko, A.; Budkevich, Yu.; Shejretova, E.

    1994-01-01

    The study is performed with 17 patients presenting nephrolithiasis and 6 - hydronephrosis with stenosis of the pyeloureteric segment, confirmed intraoperatively. The character of stenosis (reversible or irreversible) is determined by ultrasonography with furosemide, dynamic scintigraphy with furosemide and progesterone, and excretory urography with progesterone. As shown by the obtained results, the pharmacologic modifications of imaging methods prove more informative in hydronephrosis, and to a lesser extent in nephrolithiasis patients. Dynamic scintigraphy with furosemide and excretory urography with progesterone yields less information, in comparison to ultrasonography with forosemid and excretory urography with progesterone. However, the comparatively limited number of patients investigated should be borne in mind. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  17. Diagnosis and screening of small hepatocellular carcinomas. Comparison of radionuclide imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, hepatic angiography, and alpha 1-fetoprotein assay

    Takashima, T.; Matsui, O.; Suzuki, M.; Ida, M.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-nine small (less than 5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas in 18 patients were examined by radionuclide imaging (RN), ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), hepatic angiography, and serum alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) assay. Sensitivity was 39% with RN, 50% with US, 56% with CT, and 94% with angiography, including infusion hepatic angiography (IHA). Lesions larger than 3 cm could be detected by all of these methods; those between 2 and 3 cm were generally shown by US and CT but not RN. IHA was essential for diagnosis of lesions less than 2 cm, which were otherwise difficult or impossible to detect except with angiography. As a screening method, AFP was best, followed by US and CT. The authors recommend using AFP and US to minimize expense and radiation exposure. In questionable cases, IHA should be performed

  18. Development of a cell-based bioassay for phospholipase A2-triggered liposomal drug release

    Arouri, Ahmad; Trojnar, Jakub; Schmidt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    models, the pattern of sPLA2-assisted drug release is unknown due to the lack of a suitable bio-relevant model. We report here on the development of a novel bioluminescence living-cell-based luciferase assay for the monitoring of sPLA2-triggered release of luciferin from liposomes. To this end, we...

  19. Hormone assay

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  20. Assay system

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  1. Effective delivery of hydrophobic drugs to breast (MCF-7) and Liver (HepG2) cancer cells: A detailed investigation using Cytotoxicity assays, fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry.

    Manatunga, Danushika C; de Silva, Rohini M; Nalin de Silva, K M; Neelika Malavige, Gathsaurie; Wijeratne, Dulharie T; Williams, Gareth R; Jayasinghe, Chanika D; Udagama, Preethi V

    2018-04-03

    This study aimed to develop a drug carrier system consisting of a polymer containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) shell and a magnetic core of iron oxide nanoparticles. Doxorubicin and/or curcumin were loaded into the carrier via a simple diffusion deposition approach, with encapsulation efficiencies (EE) for curcumin and doxorubicin of 93.03 ± 0.3% and 97.37 ± 0.12% respectively. The co-loading of curcumin and doxorubicin led to a total EE of 76.02 ± 0.48%. Release studies were carried out at pH 7.4 and 5.3, and revealed higher release was at pH 5.3 expressing the potential application in tumor microenvironments. Cytotoxicity assays, fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry showed the formulations could effectively inhibit the growth of MCF-7 and HEpG2 cancer cells, being more potent than the free drug molecules both in dose and time dependent manner. Additionally, hemolysis tests and cytotoxicity evaluations determined the drug-loaded carriers to be non-toxic towards non-cancerous cells. These formulations thus have great potential in the development of new cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Cell-Based Microarrays for In Vitro Toxicology

    Wegener, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    DNA/RNA and protein microarrays have proven their outstanding bioanalytical performance throughout the past decades, given the unprecedented level of parallelization by which molecular recognition assays can be performed and analyzed. Cell microarrays (CMAs) make use of similar construction principles. They are applied to profile a given cell population with respect to the expression of specific molecular markers and also to measure functional cell responses to drugs and chemicals. This review focuses on the use of cell-based microarrays for assessing the cytotoxicity of drugs, toxins, or chemicals in general. It also summarizes CMA construction principles with respect to the cell types that are used for such microarrays, the readout parameters to assess toxicity, and the various formats that have been established and applied. The review ends with a critical comparison of CMAs and well-established microtiter plate (MTP) approaches.

  3. Assay of Calcium Transients and Synapses in Rat Hippocampal Neurons by Kinetic Image Cytometry and High-Content Analysis: An In Vitro Model System for Postchemotherapy Cognitive Impairment.

    McDonough, Patrick M; Prigozhina, Natalie L; Basa, Ranor C B; Price, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Postchemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) is commonly exhibited by cancer patients treated with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, including the endocrine disruptor tamoxifen (TAM). The etiology of PCCI is poorly understood. Our goal was to develop high-throughput assay methods to test the effects of chemicals on neuronal function applicable to PCCI. Rat hippocampal neurons (RHNs) were plated in 96- or 384-well dishes and exposed to test compounds (forskolin [FSK], 17β-estradiol [ES]), TAM or fulvestrant [FUL], aka ICI 182,780) for 6-14 days. Kinetic Image Cytometry™ (KIC™) methods were developed to quantify spontaneously occurring intracellular calcium transients representing the activity of the neurons, and high-content analysis (HCA) methods were developed to quantify the expression, colocalization, and puncta formed by synaptic proteins (postsynaptic density protein-95 [PSD-95] and presynaptic protein Synapsin-1 [Syn-1]). As quantified by KIC, FSK increased the occurrence and synchronization of the calcium transients indicating stimulatory effects on RHN activity, whereas TAM had inhibitory effects. As quantified by HCA, FSK also increased PSD-95 puncta and PSD-95:Syn-1 colocalization, whereas ES increased the puncta of both PSD-95 and Syn-1 with little effect on colocalization. The estrogen receptor antagonist FUL also increased PSD-95 puncta. In contrast, TAM reduced Syn-1 and PSD-95:Syn-1 colocalization, consistent with its inhibitory effects on the calcium transients. Thus TAM reduced activity and synapse formation by the RHNs, which may relate to the ability of this agent to cause PCCI. The results illustrate that KIC and HCA can be used to quantify neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects of chemicals in RHNs to investigate mechanisms and potential therapeutics for PCCI.

  4. Water simulation for cell based sandbox games

    Lundell, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work presents a new algorithm for simulating fluid based on the Navier-Stokes equations. The algorithm is designed for cell based sandbox games where interactivity and performance are the main priorities. The algorithm enforces mass conservation conservatively instead of enforcing a divergence free velocity field. A global scale pressure model that simulates hydrostatic pressure is used where the pressure propagates between neighboring cells. A prefix sum algorithm is used to only...

  5. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  6. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications

    Xu Feng; Wu Jinhui; Wang Shuqi; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan; Durmus, Naside Gozde

    2011-01-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility.

  7. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications

    Xu Feng; Wu Jinhui; Wang Shuqi; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan [Department of Medicine, Demirci Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM) Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Durmus, Naside Gozde, E-mail: udemirci@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility.

  8. Discovery of a Novel Inhibitor of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway through Cell-based Compound Discovery and Target Prediction.

    Kremer, Lea; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Baumann, Matthias; Habenberger, Peter; Choidas, Axel; Klebl, Bert; Kordes, Susanne; Schöler, Hans R; Sterneckert, Jared; Ziegler, Slava; Schneider, Gisbert; Waldmann, Herbert

    2017-10-09

    Cell-based assays enable monitoring of small-molecule bioactivity in a target-agnostic manner and help uncover new biological mechanisms. Subsequent identification and validation of the small-molecule targets, typically employing proteomics techniques, is very challenging and limited, in particular if the targets are membrane proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that the combination of cell-based bioactive-compound discovery with cheminformatic target prediction may provide an efficient approach to accelerate the process and render target identification and validation more efficient. Using a cell-based assay, we identified the pyrazolo-imidazole smoothib as a new inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) signaling and an antagonist of the protein smoothened (SMO) with a novel chemotype. Smoothib targets the heptahelical bundle of SMO, prevents its ciliary localization, reduces the expression of Hh target genes, and suppresses the growth of Ptch +/- medulloblastoma cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    30 s) using the two differently sized beads for the two detection methods. In both cases a sample volume of only 10 μl is required. The demonstrated automation, low sample-to-answer time and portability of both detection instruments as well as integration of the assay on a low-cost disc are important...

  10. Cell-based fluorescence assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease activity

    Lindsten, K.; Kondrová, Taťána; Konvalinka, Jan; Masucci, M. G.; Dantuma, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2001), s. 2616-2622 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/98/1559 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 75195-540801; ECTM(XE) ERBFMRXCT960026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : HIV-1 * protease activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.562, year: 2001

  11. Simple, mammalian cell-based assay for identification of inhibitors of the Erk MAP kinase pathway

    Krejčí, Pavel; Pejchalová, K.; Wilcox, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2007), s. 391-395 ISSN 0167-6997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Erk * inhibitor * FGFR3 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2007

  12. A Sensitive Cell-Based Assay to Measure the Doxycycline Concentration in Biological Samples

    Kleibeuker, Wendy; Zhou, Xue; Centlivre, Mireille; Legrand, Nicolas; Page, Mark; Almond, Neil; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2009-01-01

    Doxycycline (DOX) is widely used as a pharmacological agent and as an effector molecule in inducible gene expression systems. For most applications, it is important to determine whether the DOX concentration reaches the level required for optimal efficacy. We developed a sensitive bioassay for

  13. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Polyglutamine Diseases.

    Mendonça, Liliana S; Onofre, Isabel; Miranda, Catarina Oliveira; Perfeito, Rita; Nóbrega, Clévio; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a family of neurodegenerative disorders with very heterogeneous clinical presentations, although with common features such as progressive neuronal death. Thus, at the time of diagnosis patients might present an extensive and irreversible neuronal death demanding cell replacement or support provided by cell-based therapies. For this purpose stem cells, which include diverse populations ranging from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), to fetal stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have remarkable potential to promote extensive brain regeneration and recovery in neurodegenerative disorders. This regenerative potential has been demonstrated in exciting pre and clinical assays. However, despite these promising results, several drawbacks are hampering their successful clinical implementation. Problems related to ethical issues, quality control of the cells used and the lack of reliable models for the efficacy assessment of human stem cells. In this chapter the main advantages and disadvantages of the available sources of stem cells as well as their efficacy and potential to improve disease outcomes are discussed.

  14. Stem cell-based approaches in dentistry

    TA Mitsiadis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Repair of dental pulp and periodontal lesions remains a major clinical challenge. Classical dental treatments require the use of specialised tissue-adapted materials with still questionable efficacy and durability. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches could offer an attractive alternative in dentistry since they can promise physiologically improved structural and functional outcomes. These therapies necessitate a sufficient number of specific stem cell populations for implantation. Dental mesenchymal stem cells can be easily isolated and are amenable to in vitro expansion while retaining their stemness. In vivo studies realised in small and large animals have evidenced the potential of dental mesenchymal stem cells to promote pulp and periodontal regeneration, but have also underlined new important challenges. The homogeneity of stem cell populations and their quality control, the delivery method, the quality of the regenerated dental tissues and their integration to the host tissue are some of the key challenges. The use of bioactive scaffolds that can elicit effective tissue repair response, through activation and mobilisation of endogenous stem cell populations, constitutes another emerging therapeutic strategy. Finally, the use of stem cells and induced pluripotent cells for the regeneration of entire teeth represents a novel promising alternative to dental implant treatment after tooth loss. In this mini-review, we present the currently applied techniques in restorative dentistry and the various attempts that are made to bridge gaps in knowledge regarding treatment strategies by translating basic stem cell research into the dental practice.

  15. Evolution of BRET biosensors from live cell to tissue-scale in vivo imaging

    ABHIJIT eDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer [BRET] based genetic sensors for sensing biological functions such as protein-protein interactions [PPIs] in vivo has a special value in measuring such dynamic events at their native environment. Since its inception in the late nineties, BRET related research has gained significant momentum in terms of adding versatility to the assay format and wider applicability where it has been suitably used. Beyond the scope of quantitative measurement of PPIs and protein dimerization, molecular imaging applications based on BRET assays have broadened its scope for screening pharmacologically important compounds by in vivo imaging as well. In this mini-review we focus on an in-depth analysis of engineered BRET systems developed and their successful application to cell-based assays as well as in vivo noninvasive imaging in live subjects.

  16. Development of assay platforms for in vitro screening of Treg modulating potential of pharmacological compounds

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Holmstrøm, Kim; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    that investigates Treg modulation by current drugs. For such research as well as for novel cell based therapies based on Treg infusions, rapid in vitro assays as well as functional assays based on inhibitory capacity of Tregs are required. Here, we report on such assays using highly pure fluorescence-activated cell...... and TNF-α. In conclusion, these assays have the potential for use in pharmacological screening and discovery in relation to drug development in immunology....

  17. Lab-on-a-disc agglutination assay for protein detection by optomagnetic readout and optical imaging using nano- and micro-sized magnetic beads

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    of manual steps involved. The detection of the target protein was achieved in two ways: (1) optomagnetic readout using magnetic nanobeads (MNBs); (2) optical imaging using magnetic microbeads (MMBs). The optomagnetic readout of agglutination is based on optical measurement of the dynamics of MNB aggregates...... whereas the imaging method is based on direct visualization and quantification of the average size of MMB aggregates. By enhancing magnetic particle agglutination via application of strong magnetic field pulses, we obtained identical limits of detection of 25 pM with the same sample-to-answer time (15 min...

  18. Non-destructive assay employing 2D and 3D digital radiographic imaging acquired with thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Almeida, Gevaldo Lisboa de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The inner structure of some objects can only be visualized by using suitable techniques, when safety reasons or expensive costs preclude the application of invasive procedures. The kind of agent rendering an object partially transparent, unveiling thus its features, depends upon the object size and composition. As a rough rule of thumb, light materials are transparent to gamma and X-rays while the heavy ones are transparent to neutrons. When, after traversing an object, they hit a proper 2-D detector, a radiograph is produced representing a convoluted cross section, called projection, of that object. Taking a large number of such projections for different object attitudes, it is possible to obtain a 3-D tomography of the object as a map of attenuation coefficients. This procedure however, besides a time-consuming task, requires specially tailored equipment and software, not always available or affordable. Yet, in some circumstances it is feasible to replace the 3-D tomography by a stereoscopy, allowing one to visualize the spatial configuration of the object under analysis. In this work, 2-D and 3-D radiographic images have been acquired using thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes and proper imaging plates as detectors. The stereographic vision has been achieved by taking two radiographs of the same object at different angles, from the detector point of view. After a treatment to render them red-white and green-white they were properly merged to yield a single image capable to be watched with red-green glasses. All the image treatment and rendering has been performed with the software ImageJ. (author)

  19. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  20. Progenitor cell-based treatment of glial disease

    Goldman, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    -based neurodegenerative conditions may now be compelling targets for cell-based therapy. As such, glial cell-based therapies may offer potential benefit to a broader range of diseases than ever before contemplated, including disorders such as Huntington's disease and the motor neuron degeneration of amyotrophic lateral...

  1. Cell-based in vitro models in environmental toxicology: a review

    Poteser Michael

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of biological effects induced by environmental toxins and exposure-related evaluation of potential risks for health and environment represent central tasks in classical biomonitoring. While epidemiological data and population surveys are clearly the methodological frontline of this scientific field, cellbased in vitro assays provide information on toxin-affected cellular pathways and mechanisms, and are important sources for the identification of relevant biomarkers. This review provides an overview on currently available in vitro methods based on cultured cells, as well as some limitations and considerations that are of specific interest in the context of environmental toxicology. Today, a large number of different endpoints can be determined to pinpoint basal and specific toxicological cellular effects. Technological progress and increasingly refined protocols are extending the possibilities of cell-based in vitro assays in environmental toxicology and promoting their increasingly important role in biomonitoring.

  2. An image-based, dual fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of shRNA for gene silencing at the single-cell level [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2tt

    Shin-ichiro Kojima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is widely used to suppress gene expression in a specific manner. The efficacy of RNAi is mainly dependent on the sequence of small interfering RNA (siRNA in relation to the target mRNA. Although several algorithms have been developed for the design of siRNA, it is still difficult to choose a really effective siRNA from among multiple candidates. In this article, we report the development of an image-based, quantitative, ratiometric fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of RNAi at the single-cell level. Two fluorescence reporter constructs are used. One expresses the candidate small hairpin RNA (shRNA together with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP; the other expresses a 19-nt target sequence inserted into a cassette expressing a red fluorescent protein (either DsRed or mCherry. Effectiveness of the candidate shRNA is evaluated as the extent to which it knocks down expression of the red fluorescent protein. Thus, the red-to-green fluorescence intensity ratio (appropriately normalized to controls is used as the read-out for quantifying the siRNA efficacy at the individual cell level. We tested this dual fluorescence assay and compared predictions to actual endogenous knockdown levels for three different genes (vimentin, lamin A/C and Arp3 and twenty different shRNAs. For each of the genes, our assay successfully predicted the target sequences for effective RNAi. To further facilitate testing of RNAi efficacy, we developed a negative selection marker (ccdB method for construction of shRNA and red fluorescent reporter plasmids that allowed us to purify these plasmids directly from transformed bacteria without the need for colony selection and DNA sequencing verification.

  3. An image-based, dual fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of shRNA for gene silencing at the single-cell level [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/39j

    Shin-ichiro Kojima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is widely used to suppress gene expression in a specific manner. The efficacy of RNAi is mainly dependent on the sequence of small interfering RNA (siRNA in relation to the target mRNA. Although several algorithms have been developed for the design of siRNA, it is still difficult to choose a really effective siRNA from among multiple candidates. In this article, we report the development of an image-based, quantitative, ratiometric fluorescence reporter assay to evaluate the efficacy of RNAi at the single-cell level. Two fluorescence reporter constructs are used. One expresses the candidate small hairpin RNA (shRNA together with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP; the other expresses a 19-nt target sequence inserted into a cassette expressing a red fluorescent protein (either DsRed or mCherry. Effectiveness of the candidate shRNA is evaluated as the extent to which it knocks down expression of the red fluorescent protein. Thus, the red-to-green fluorescence intensity ratio (appropriately normalized to controls is used as the read-out for quantifying the siRNA efficacy at the individual cell level. We tested this dual fluorescence assay and compared predictions to actual endogenous knockdown levels for three different genes (vimentin, lamin A/C and Arp3 and twenty different shRNAs. For each of the genes, our assay successfully predicted the target sequences for effective RNAi. To further facilitate testing of RNAi efficacy, we developed a negative selection marker (ccdB method for construction of shRNA and red fluorescent reporter plasmids that allowed us to purify these plasmids directly from transformed bacteria without the need for colony selection and DNA sequencing verification.

  4. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  5. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests. PMID:21824406

  6. Microbead agglutination based assays

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  7. Two-Phase Microfluidic Systems for High Throughput Quantification of Agglutination Assays

    Castro, David

    2018-01-01

    assay, with a minimum detection limit of 50 ng/mL using optical image analysis. We compare optical image analysis and light scattering as quantification methods, and demonstrate the first light scattering quantification of agglutination assays in a two

  8. a new analytical modeling method for photovoltaic solar cells based

    Zieba Falama R, Dadjé A, Djongyang N and Doka S.Y

    CELLS BASED ON DERIVATIVE POWER FUNCTION ... Received: 25 Jaunary 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published online: 01 May 2016 ..... For the simulation, two electric PV modules for different technologies were used; these.

  9. Cell Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath

    2017-07-01

    to subsequently guide tissue regeneration , for example, by seeded tissue progenitor cells . To achieve this objective, the first step is to develop...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0104 TITLE: Cell -Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cell -Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0104 5c. PROGRAM

  10. A quantitative comet infection assay for influenza virus

    Lindsay, Stephen M.; Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary The virus comet assay is a cell-based virulence assay used to evaluate an antiviral drug or antibody against a target virus. The comet assay differs from the plaque assay in allowing spontaneous flows in 6-well plates to spread virus. When implemented quantitatively the comet assay has been shown to have an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to antivirals than the plaque assay. In this study, a quantitative comet assay for influenza virus is demonstrated, and is shown to have a 13-fold increase in sensitivity to ribavirin. AX4 cells (MDCK cells with increased surface concentration of α2–6 sialic acid, the influenza virus receptor) have reduced the comet size variability relative to MDCK cells, making them a better host cell for use in this assay. Because of enhanced antiviral sensitivity in flow-based assays, less drug is required, which could lead to lower reagent costs, reduced cytotoxicity, and fewer false-negative drug screen results. The comet assay also serves as a readout of flow conditions in the well. Observations from comets formed at varying humidity levels indicate a role for evaporation in the mechanism of spontaneous fluid flow in wells. PMID:22155578

  11. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  14. A Simple and Sensitive High-Content Assay for the Characterization of Antiproliferative Therapeutic Antibodies.

    Stengl, Andreas; Hörl, David; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Helma, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a central class of therapeutic agents in particular as antiproliferative compounds. Their often complex modes of action require sensitive assays during early, functional characterization. Current cell-based proliferation assays often detect metabolites that are indicative of metabolic activity but do not directly account for cell proliferation. Measuring DNA replication by incorporation of base analogues such as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) fills this analytical gap but was previously restricted to bulk effect characterization in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay formats. Here, we describe a cell-based assay format for the characterization of antiproliferative mAbs regarding potency and mode of action in a single experiment. The assay makes use of single cell-based high-content-analysis (HCA) for the reliable quantification of replicating cells and DNA content via 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), respectively, as sensitive measures of antiproliferative mAb activity. We used trastuzumab, an antiproliferative therapeutic antibody interfering with HER2 cell surface receptor-mediated growth signal transduction, and HER2-overexpressing cell lines BT474 and SKBR3 to demonstrate up to 10-fold signal-to-background (S/B) ratios for treated versus untreated cells and a shift in cell cycle profiles indicating antibody-induced cell cycle arrest. The assay is simple, cost-effective, and sensitive, providing a cell-based format for preclinical characterization of therapeutic mAbs.

  15. Solid phase assays

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  16. Factor IX assay

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Factor VIII assay

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. Factor II assay

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Factor VII assay

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  20. Microbead agglutination based assays

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  1. A portable cell-based optical detection device for rapid detection of Listeria and Bacillus toxins

    Banerjee, Pratik; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Rickus, Jenna L.; Morgan, Mark T.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-11-01

    A mammalian cell-based optical biosensor was built to detect pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species. This sensor measures the ability of the pathogens to infect and induce cytotoxicity on hybrid lymphocyte cell line (Ped-2E9) resulting in the release of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that can be detected optically using a portable spectrophotometer. The Ped-2E9 cells were encapsulated in collagen gel matrices and grown in 48-well plates or in specially designed filtration tube units. Toxin preparations or bacterial cells were introduced and ALP release was assayed after 3-5 h. Pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains or the listeriolysin toxins preparation showed cytotoxicity ranging from 55% - 92%. Toxin preparations (~20 μg/ml) from B. cereus strains showed 24 - 98% cytotoxicity. In contrast, a non-pathogenic L. innocua (F4247) and a B. substilis induced only 2% and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. This cell-based detection device demonstrates its ability to detect the presence of pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species and can potentially be used onsite for food safety or in biosecurity application.

  2. An early developmental vertebrate model for nanomaterial safety: bridging cell-based and mammalian toxicity assessment.

    Webster, Carl A; Di Silvio, Desire; Devarajan, Aarthi; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Giudice, Chiara; Salmona, Mario; Wheeler, Grant N; Sherwood, Victoria; Bombelli, Francesca Baldelli

    2016-03-01

    With the rise in production of nanoparticles (NPs) for an ever-increasing number of applications, there is an urgent need to efficiently assess their potential toxicity. We propose a NP hazard assessment protocol that combines mammalian cytotoxicity data with embryonic vertebrate abnormality scoring to determine an overall toxicity index. We observed that, after exposure to a range of NPs, Xenopus phenotypic scoring showed a strong correlation with cell based in vitro assays. Magnetite-cored NPs, negative for toxicity in vitro and Xenopus, were further confirmed as nontoxic in mice. The results highlight the potential of Xenopus embryo analysis as a fast screening approach for toxicity assessment of NPs, which could be introduced for the routine testing of nanomaterials.

  3. [Mechanism research on the lupeol treatment on MCF-7 breast cancer cells based on cell metabonomics].

    Shi, Dongdong; Kuang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guiming; Peng, Zhangxiao; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chao

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the suppressive effects of lupeol on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and explore its mechanism on inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells based on cell metabonomics and cell cycle. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in the cell metabonomics assay to identify metabolites of MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 cells treated with lupeol. Then, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to process the metabolic data and model parameters of OPLS-DA were as follows: R2Ycum = 0.988, Q2Ycum = 0.964, which indicated that these two groups could be distinguished clearly. The metabolites (VIP (variable importance in the projection) > 1) were analyzed by t-test, and finally, metabolites (t metabonomics.

  4. Cell-based therapies for chronic kidney disease

    van Koppen, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may lead to end-stage renal failure, requiring renal replacement strategies. Development of new therapies to reduce progression of CKD is therefore a major global public health target. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether cell-based therapies have the

  5. Global Distribution of Businesses Marketing Stem Cell-Based Interventions.

    Berger, Israel; Ahmad, Amina; Bansal, Akhil; Kapoor, Tanvir; Sipp, Douglas; Rasko, John E J

    2016-08-04

    A structured search reveals that online marketing of stem-cell-based interventions is skewed toward developed economies including the United States, Ireland, Australia, and Germany. Websites made broad, imprecise therapeutic claims and frequently failed to detail procedures. Widespread marketing poses challenges to regulators, bioethicists, and those seeking realistic hope from therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parallel imaging microfluidic cytometer.

    Ehrlich, Daniel J; McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V; Sherr, David H; Cheung, Man Ching

    2011-01-01

    By adding an additional degree of freedom from multichannel flow, the parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) combines some of the best features of fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FCM) and microscope-based high-content screening (HCS). The PMC (i) lends itself to fast processing of large numbers of samples, (ii) adds a 1D imaging capability for intracellular localization assays (HCS), (iii) has a high rare-cell sensitivity, and (iv) has an unusual capability for time-synchronized sampling. An inability to practically handle large sample numbers has restricted applications of conventional flow cytometers and microscopes in combinatorial cell assays, network biology, and drug discovery. The PMC promises to relieve a bottleneck in these previously constrained applications. The PMC may also be a powerful tool for finding rare primary cells in the clinic. The multichannel architecture of current PMC prototypes allows 384 unique samples for a cell-based screen to be read out in ∼6-10 min, about 30 times the speed of most current FCM systems. In 1D intracellular imaging, the PMC can obtain protein localization using HCS marker strategies at many times for the sample throughput of charge-coupled device (CCD)-based microscopes or CCD-based single-channel flow cytometers. The PMC also permits the signal integration time to be varied over a larger range than is practical in conventional flow cytometers. The signal-to-noise advantages are useful, for example, in counting rare positive cells in the most difficult early stages of genome-wide screening. We review the status of parallel microfluidic cytometry and discuss some of the directions the new technology may take. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assay method and compositions

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  8. Imaging

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  9. Microscopy-based Assays for High-throughput Screening of Host Factors Involved in Brucella Infection of Hela Cells.

    Casanova, Alain; Low, Shyan H; Emmenlauer, Mario; Conde-Alvarez, Raquel; Salcedo, Suzana P; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

    2016-08-05

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular pathogens that infect animals as their natural hosts. Transmission to humans is most commonly caused by direct contact with infected animals or by ingestion of contaminated food and can lead to severe chronic infections. Brucella can invade professional and non-professional phagocytic cells and replicates within endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuoles. The host factors required for Brucella entry into host cells, avoidance of lysosomal degradation, and replication in the ER-like compartment remain largely unknown. Here we describe two assays to identify host factors involved in Brucella entry and replication in HeLa cells. The protocols describe the use of RNA interference, while alternative screening methods could be applied. The assays are based on the detection of fluorescently labeled bacteria in fluorescently labeled host cells using automated wide-field microscopy. The fluorescent images are analyzed using a standardized image analysis pipeline in CellProfiler which allows single cell-based infection scoring. In the endpoint assay, intracellular replication is measured two days after infection. This allows bacteria to traffic to their replicative niche where proliferation is initiated around 12 hr after bacterial entry. Brucella which have successfully established an intracellular niche will thus have strongly proliferated inside host cells. Since intracellular bacteria will greatly outnumber individual extracellular or intracellular non-replicative bacteria, a strain constitutively expressing GFP can be used. The strong GFP signal is then used to identify infected cells. In contrast, for the entry assay it is essential to differentiate between intracellular and extracellular bacteria. Here, a strain encoding for a tetracycline-inducible GFP is used. Induction of GFP with simultaneous inactivation of extracellular bacteria by gentamicin enables the differentiation between intracellular and extracellular

  10. Rover waste assay system

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Rover waste assay system

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  13. Study on activity measurement of Nostoc flagelliforme cells based on color identification

    Wang, Yizhong; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Tiegen; Kong, Fanzhi; Jia, Shiru

    2008-12-01

    In order to measure the activities of Nostoc flagelliforme cells, a new method based on color identification was proposed in this paper. N. flagelliforme cells were colored with fluoreseein diaeetate. Then, an image of colored N. flagelliforme cells was taken, and changed from RGB model to HIS model. Its histogram of hue H was calculated, which was used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of measured activity of N. flagelliforme cells. After training, the activity of N. flagelliforme cells was identified by the BP network according to the histogram of H of their colored image. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of activity measurement of N. flagelliforme cells based on color identification.

  14. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  15. Scintillation proximity assay

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  16. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  17. Endothelial cell-based methods for the detection of cyanobacterial anti-inflammatory and wound-healing promoting metabolites.

    Wiesner, Christoph; Kopecky, Jiri; Pflueger, Maren; Hundsberger, Harald; Entler, Barbara; Kleber, Christoph; Atzler, Josef; Hrouzek, Pavel; Stys, Dalibor; Lukesova, Alena; Schuett, Wolfgang; Lucas, Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    Acute lung injury is accompanied by an increased endothelial chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression, which may result in an extensive neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, a destruction of the alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium may result in permeability edema. As such, the search for novel anti-inflammatory substances, able to downregulate these parameters as well as the tissue damage holds therapeutic promise. We therefore describe here the use of human endothelial cell-based in vitro assays for the detection of anti-inflammatory and wound-healing metabolites from cyanobacteria.

  18. Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke

    Lei Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, stem cell-based approaches have attracted more attention from scientists and clinicians due to their possible therapeutical effect on stroke. Animal studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, neural stem cells (NSCs, and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs might be due to cell replacement, neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and modulation on inflammation and immune response. Although several clinical studies have shown the high efficiency and safety of stem cell in stroke management, mainly MSCs, some issues regarding to cell homing, survival, tracking, safety, and optimal cell transplantation protocol, such as cell dose and time window, should be addressed. Undoubtably, stem cell-based gene therapy represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy for stroke in future.

  19. Lateral flow assays

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  20. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  1. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  2. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  3. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  4. Global Regulatory Differences for Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies

    Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2017-01-01

    Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between...... jurisdictions, complicating the global regulatory landscape. We provide a comparative overview of regulatory requirements for GCT approval in five jurisdictions and hypothesize on the consequences of the observed global differences on patient access and therapeutic innovation....

  5. Recent Advances in Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics for Stroke

    Napoli, Eleonora; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine for central nervous system disorders, including stroke, has challenged the non-regenerative capacity of the brain. Among the many treatment strategies tailored towards repairing the injured brain, stem cell-based therapeutics have been demonstrated as safe and effective in animal models of stroke, and are being tested in limited clinical trials. We address here key lab-to-clinic translational research that relate to efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action underlying st...

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    2015-11-01

    Montero-Menei, C.; Menei, P. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Cellular Vehicles for Delivery of Nanoparticles to Brain Tumors. Biomaterials 2010, 31, 8393... Stem Cells : Considerations for Regenerative Medicine Approaches. Tissue Eng. Part B. Rev. 2010, 16, 159–168. 55. Ellem, S. J.; Taylor, R. a.; Furic, L...Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0304 TITLE: Mesenchymal Stem Cell -Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Isaacs CONTRACTING

  7. Cell-based therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis

    Scolding, Neil J; Pasquini, Marcelo; Reingold, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities......, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Each approach has potential advantages but also safety concerns and unresolved...

  8. A cell-based biosensor for nanomaterials cytotoxicity assessment in three dimensional cell culture

    Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Winckler, Thomas; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in consumer and medicinal products. The high prevalence of nanoparticles in the environment raises concerns regarding their effects on human health, but there is limited knowledge about how NPs interact with cells or tissues. Because the European Union has called for a substantial reduction of animal experiments for scientific purposes (Directive 2010/63), increased efforts are required to develop in vitro models to evaluate potentially hazardous agents. Here, we describe a new cell-based biosensor for the evaluation of NPs cytotoxicity. The new biosensor is based on transgenic human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) that express a secreted form of alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as a reporter protein whose expression is induced upon activation of a stress response pathway controlled by the transcription regulator nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The NF-κB-HepG2 sensor cells were cultured in a Matrigel-based three dimensional environment to simulate the in vivo situation. The new biosensor cells offer the advantage of generating fast and reproducible readout at lower concentrations and shorter incubation time than conventional viability assays, avoid possible interaction between nanomaterials and assay compounds, therefore, minimize generation of false positive or negative results and indicate mechanism of toxicity through NF-κB signaling.

  9. A novel yeast cell-based screen identifies flavone as a tankyrase inhibitor

    Yashiroda, Yoko; Okamoto, Reika; Hatsugai, Kaori; Takemoto, Yasushi; Goshima, Naoki; Saito, Tamio; Hamamoto, Makiko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Seimiya, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    The telomere-associated protein tankyrase 1 is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and is considered to be a promising target for cancer therapy, especially for BRCA-associated cancers. However, an efficient assay system for inhibitor screening has not been established, mainly due to the difficulty of efficient preparation of the enzyme and its substrate. Here, we report a cell-based assay system for detecting inhibitory activity against tankyrase 1. We found that overexpression of the human tankyrase 1 gene causes a growth defect in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemicals that restore the growth defect phenotype can be identified as potential tankyrase 1 inhibitors. We performed a high-throughput screen using this system, and identified flavone as a compound that restores the growth of yeast cells overexpressing tankyrase 1. Indeed, flavone inhibited poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins caused by overexpression of tankyrase 1 in yeast cells. This system allows rapid identification of inhibitory activity against tankyrase 1 and is amenable to high-throughput screening using robotics.

  10. Screening of potential lactobacilli antigenotoxicity by microbial and mammalian cell-based tests.

    Caldini, G; Trotta, F; Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Pasquini, R; Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Cenci, G

    2005-06-25

    Antigenotoxicity is considered an important property for probiotic lactobacilli. The ability of non probiotic lactobacilli from dairy products and starters to inhibit two reference genotoxins: 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was evaluated. The study was carried out using short-term assays with different targets, such as procaryotic cells (SOS-Chromotest for genotoxicity in Escherichia coli and Ames test for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium) and eucaryotic cells (Comet assay for genotoxicity in Caco-2 enterocytes). A high proportion of strains inhibiting 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide activity was found in Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Inhibition of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine activity occurred in only one L. acidophilus strain. All the strains with antigenotoxic properties also demonstrated antimutagenic activity and produced modifications in genotoxin spectroscopic profiles. Strain viability during and after genotoxin exposure was confirmed. Concordance of the results obtained with microbial and mammalian cell-based tests is underlined.

  11. Cell-based therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis.

    Scolding, Neil J; Pasquini, Marcelo; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2017-11-01

    The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Each approach has potential advantages but also safety concerns and unresolved questions. Moreover, clinical trials of cell-based therapies present several unique methodological and ethical issues. We summarize here the status of cell-based therapies to treat multiple sclerosis and make consensus recommendations for future research and clinical trials. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  12. Two-tiered keratinocyte assay: IL-18 production by NCTC2544 cells to determine the skin sensitizing capacity and an epidermal equivalent assay to determine sensitizer potency

    Teunis, Marc; Corsini, Emanuela; Smits, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    the use of animals. The aim of the EU FP6 Integrated Project Sens-it-iv was to develop and optimize an integrated testing strategy consisting of in vitro, human cell based assays which will closely mimic sensitization mechanisms in vivo. These assays should be an alternative approach to the LLNA. The NCTC...... method to the LLNA. Both assays are based on the use of human keratinocytes, which have been shown, over the last two decades, to play a key role in all phases of skin sensitization. First, 4 known chemicals were tested during a transferability study in which 6 laboratories participated. Three...

  13. Assay to detect lipid peroxidation upon exposure to nanoparticles.

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for the analysis of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HEP G2) for lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), following treatment with nanoparticle formulations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a likely mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity, and cell-based in vitro systems for evaluation of nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress are widely considered to be an important component of biocompatibility screens. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides, and aldehydes, such as MDA, can be measured via a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In this assay, which can be performed in cell culture or in cell lysate, MDA combines with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a fluorescent adduct that can be detected at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and an emission wavelength of 550 nm. The results are then expressed as MDA equivalents, normalized to total cellular protein (determined by Bradford assay).

  14. A cell-based fluorescent assay to detect the activity of AB toxins that inhibit protein synthesis

    AB-type protein toxins, produced by numerous bacterial pathogens and some plants, elicit a cytotoxic effect involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. To develop an improved method to detect the inhibition of protein synthesis by AB-type toxins, the present study characterized a Vero cell line t...

  15. Impedance sensor technology for cell-based assays in the framework of a high-content screening system

    Schwarzenberger, T; Wolf, P; Brischwein, M; Kleinhans, R; Demmel, F; Becker, B; Wolf, B; Lechner, A

    2011-01-01

    Living cultured cells react to external influences, such as pharmaceutical agents, in an intricate manner due to their complex internal signal processing. Impedance sensing of cells on microelectrodes is a favored label-free technology to indicate cellular events, usually ascribed to morphologic alteration or changes in cellular adhesion, which is usually found in stand-alone systems that do not incorporate life support or additional sensor systems. However, only in symbiosis with metabolic activity sensing and picture documentation may a complete insight into cellular vitality be provided. This complement was created within the framework of an automated high-content screening system previously developed by our group, monitoring 24 cell culture chambers in parallel. The objective of this paper is the development of miniaturized electronics for impedance measurements and its system integration as a modular unit. In addition, it is shown how sensor electrodes were optimized by impedance matching such that spectroscopy and raw data analysis become feasible for every culture well. Undesired mechanical stress on cultured cells may arise from the medium and agent support system of the autonomous screening apparatus. This paper demonstrates how this hazard is treated with the simulation of microfluidics and impedance measurements. Physiological data are subsequently derived from the exemplary tumor cell line MCF-7 both during treatment with the agent doxorubicin and through the impact of natural killer cells. This correlates the information content of complex impedance spectra with cellular respiration as well as data from microscopy

  16. Donor-specific cell-based assays in studying sensitivity to low-dose radiation: a population-based perspective

    Dora eIl'yasova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a linear no-threshold model is used to estimate health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation, a prevalent exposure in the general population, because the direct estimation from epidemiological studies suffers from uncertainty. This model has been criticized based on unique biology of low-dose radiation. Whether the departure from linearity is toward increased or decreased risk is intensely debated. We present an approach based on individual radiosensitivity testing and discuss how individual radiosensitivity can be assessed with the goal to develop a quantifiable measure of cellular response that can be conducted via high-throughput population testing.

  17. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  18. Dual isotope assays

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  19. A multiparametric assay for quantitative nerve regeneration evaluation

    Weyn, Barbara; Van Remoortere, M; Nuydens, R; Meert, Theo; Van de Wouwer, G

    2005-01-01

    We introduce an assay for the semi-automated quantification of nerve regeneration by image analysis. Digital images of histological sections of regenerated nerves are recorded using an automated inverted microscope and merged into high-resolution mosaic images representing the entire nerve. These are analysed by a dedicated image-processing package that computes nerve-specific features (e.g. nerve area, fibre count, myelinated area) and fibre-specific features (area, perimeter, myelin sheet t...

  20. Defining new criteria for selection of cell-based intestinal models using publicly available databases

    Christensen Jon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criteria for choosing relevant cell lines among a vast panel of available intestinal-derived lines exhibiting a wide range of functional properties are still ill-defined. The objective of this study was, therefore, to establish objective criteria for choosing relevant cell lines to assess their appropriateness as tumor models as well as for drug absorption studies. Results We made use of publicly available expression signatures and cell based functional assays to delineate differences between various intestinal colon carcinoma cell lines and normal intestinal epithelium. We have compared a panel of intestinal cell lines with patient-derived normal and tumor epithelium and classified them according to traits relating to oncogenic pathway activity, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and stemness, migratory properties, proliferative activity, transporter expression profiles and chemosensitivity. For example, SW480 represent an EMT-high, migratory phenotype and scored highest in terms of signatures associated to worse overall survival and higher risk of recurrence based on patient derived databases. On the other hand, differentiated HT29 and T84 cells showed gene expression patterns closest to tumor bulk derived cells. Regarding drug absorption, we confirmed that differentiated Caco-2 cells are the model of choice for active uptake studies in the small intestine. Regarding chemosensitivity we were unable to confirm a recently proposed association of chemo-resistance with EMT traits. However, a novel signature was identified through mining of NCI60 GI50 values that allowed to rank the panel of intestinal cell lines according to their drug responsiveness to commonly used chemotherapeutics. Conclusions This study presents a straightforward strategy to exploit publicly available gene expression data to guide the choice of cell-based models. While this approach does not overcome the major limitations of such models

  1. Non-genetic engineering of cells for drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

    Wang, Qun; Cheng, Hao; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Hao; Li, Peter Y; Langer, Robert

    2015-08-30

    Cell-based therapy is a promising modality to address many unmet medical needs. In addition to genetic engineering, material-based, biochemical, and physical science-based approaches have emerged as novel approaches to modify cells. Non-genetic engineering of cells has been applied in delivering therapeutics to tissues, homing of cells to the bone marrow or inflammatory tissues, cancer imaging, immunotherapy, and remotely controlling cellular functions. This new strategy has unique advantages in disease therapy and is complementary to existing gene-based cell engineering approaches. A better understanding of cellular systems and different engineering methods will allow us to better exploit engineered cells in biomedicine. Here, we review non-genetic cell engineering techniques and applications of engineered cells, discuss the pros and cons of different methods, and provide our perspectives on future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of radiation-induced apoptosis using the comet assay

    Wada, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Khoa, Tran Van; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The electrophoresis pattern of apoptotic cells detected by the comet assay has a characteristic small head and spread tail. This image has been referred to as an apoptotic comet, but it has not been previously proven to be apoptotic cells by any direct method. In order to identify this image obtained by the comet assay as corresponding to an apoptotic cell, the frequency of appearance of apoptosis was examined using CHO-K1 and L5178Y cells which were exposed to gamma irradiation. As a method for detecting apoptosis, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used. When the frequency of appearance of apoptotic cells following gamma irradiation was observed over a period of time, there was a significant increase in appearance of apoptosis when using the TUNEL assay. However, there was only a slight increase when using the comet assay. In order to verify the low frequency of appearance of apoptosis when using the comet assay, we attempted to use the TUNEL assay to satin the apoptotic comets detected in the comet assay. The apoptotic comets were TUNEL positive and the normal comets were TUNEL negative. This indicates that the apoptotic comets were formed from DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxy ends that are generated as cells undergo apoptosis. Therefore, it was understood that the characteristic pattern of apoptotic comets detected by the comet assay corresponds to cells undergoing apoptosis. (author)

  3. Radiorespirometic assay device

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  4. Radon assay for SNO+

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  5. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Niu, Wei; Guo, Weimin; Han, Shufeng; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:27274735

  6. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  7. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  8. Competitive protein binding assay

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  9. An acoustic prion assay

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  10. Assay of oestrogen

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  11. High frequency electromechanical memory cells based on telescoping carbon nanotubes.

    Popov, A M; Lozovik, Y E; Kulish, A S; Bichoutskaia, E

    2010-07-01

    A new method to increase the operational frequency of electromechanical memory cells based on the telescoping motion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes through the selection of the form of the switching voltage pulse is proposed. The relative motion of the walls of carbon nanotubes can be controlled through the shape of the interwall interaction energy surface. This allows the use of the memory cells in nonvolatile or volatile regime, depending on the structure of carbon nanotube. Simulations based on ab initio and semi-empirical calculations of the interwall interaction energies are used to estimate the switching voltage and the operational frequency of volatile cells with the electrodes made of carbon nanotubes. The lifetime of nonvolatile memory cells is also predicted.

  12. Methods and practices to diversify cell-based products.

    Vertès, Alain A

    2017-12-15

    Medicinal signaling cell (MSC)-based products represent emerging treatments in various therapeutic areas including cardiometabolic, inflammation, autoimmunity, orthopedics, wound healing and oncology. Exploring innovation beyond minimally manipulated plastic-adherent ex vivo expanded allogeneic MSCs enables product delineation. Product delineation is on the critical path to maximize clinical benefits and market access. An innovation framework is presented here along various innovation dimensions comprising composition-of-matter by means of positive cell surface markers, formulation varying for example the cell dose or the preservation mode and medium, manufacturing to adapt the secretome of MSCs to the condition of interest, the mode of delivery and corresponding delivery devices, as well as molecular engineering and biomarkers. The rationale of the innovation space thus described applies generally to all cell-based therapies.

  13. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease....... and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent...

  14. Characterisation of a fuel cell based uninteruptable power supply

    Aklil, D.; Gazey, R.; McGrath, D.

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the findings of tests carried out to determine if a fuel cell (FC) could be used instead of external batteries in UPS systems. Details are given of the configuration of the 1kW fuel cell based test UPS system (FC-UPS), fuel cell suitability for UPS, the start-up conditions, the on-load dynamic response, comparative weight/space savings of FC-UPS, lifetime costs compared to battery installations, and market readiness of FC systems for UPS deployment. The importance of the collaboration between the FC manufacturers and system integrator for the implementation of the project and of the testing and characterisation of FC products is stressed.

  15. [Proangiogenic cell-based therapy for treatment of ischemic diseases].

    Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-11-01

    The application of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) cell-based therapy for regenerative medicine constitutes a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Based on experimental studies demonstrating that bone marrow-, blood- or tissue-derived stem/progenitor cells improve the functional recovery after ischemia, clinical trials were initiated to address this new therapeutic concept. Although autolougous cell therapy was shown to improve perfusion and function of ischemic tissues, a number of issues remain to be adressed. The nature of the mobilizing, migratory and homing signals, and the mechanisms of action need to be identified and further defined. In addition, strategies to enhance homing, survival and therapeutic potential of EPC need to be developped to improve therapeutic effect and counteract EPC dysfunction in aged patients with cardiovascular risk factors. The present review article will discuss the mechanisms of action of different types of adult stem cells and several approaches to improve their therapeutic efficiency.

  16. Printing technologies for biomolecule and cell-based applications.

    Ihalainen, Petri; Määttänen, Anni; Sandler, Niklas

    2015-10-30

    Biomolecules, such as enzymes, proteins and other biomacromolecules (polynucleotides, polypeptides, polysaccharides and DNA) that are immobilized on solid surfaces are relevant to many areas of science and technology. These functionalized surfaces have applications in biosensors, chromatography, diagnostic immunoassays, cell culturing, DNA microarrays and other analytical techniques. Printing technologies offer opportunities in this context. The main interests in printing biomolecules are in immobilizing them on surfaces for sensors and catalysts or for controlled delivery of protein-based drugs. Recently, there have been significant developments in the use of inkjet printing for dispensing of proteins, biomacromolecules and cells. This review discusses the use of roll-to-roll and inkjet printing technologies in manufacturing of biomolecule and cell-based applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Superthin Solar Cells Based on AIIIBV/Ge Heterostructures

    Pakhanov, N. A.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Vladimirov, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    A comparative analysis of the prospects of creating superthin, light-weight, and highly efficient solar cells based on AIIIBV/InGaAs and AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures is performed. Technological problems and prospects of each variant are discussed. A method of thinning of AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures with the use of an effective temporary carrier is proposed. The method allows the process to be performed almost with no risk of heterostructure fracture, thinning of the Ge junction down to several tens of micrometers (or even several micrometers), significant enhancement of the yield of good structures, and also convenient and reliable transfer of thinned solar cells to an arbitrary light and flexible substrate. Such a technology offers a possibility of creating high-efficiency thin and light solar cells for space vehicles on the basis of mass-produced AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures.

  18. Microencapsulating and Banking Living Cells for Cell-Based Medicine

    Wujie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge to the eventual success of the emerging cell-based medicine such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cell transplantation is the limited availability of the desired cell sources. This challenge can be addressed by cell microencapsulation to overcome the undesired immune response (i.e., to achieve immunoisolation so that non-autologous cells can be used to treat human diseases, and by cell/tissue preservation to bank living cells for wide distribution to end users so that they are readily available when needed in the future. This review summarizes the status quo of research in both cell microencapsulation and banking the microencapsulated cells. It is concluded with a brief outlook of future research directions in this important field.

  19. Synthetic biology in cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Chakravarti, Deboki; Wong, Wilson W

    2015-08-01

    The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells with cancer-targeting receptors has shown tremendous promise for eradicating tumors in clinical trials. This form of cellular immunotherapy presents a unique opportunity to incorporate advanced systems and synthetic biology approaches to create cancer therapeutics with novel functions. We first review the development of synthetic receptors, switches, and circuits to control the location, duration, and strength of T cell activity against tumors. In addition, we discuss the cellular engineering and genome editing of host cells (or the chassis) to improve the efficacy of cell-based cancer therapeutics, and to reduce the time and cost of manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of novel, 384-well high-throughput assay panels for human drug transporters: drug interaction and safety assessment in support of discovery research.

    Tang, Huaping; Shen, Ding Ren; Han, Yong-Hae; Kong, Yan; Balimane, Praveen; Marino, Anthony; Gao, Mian; Wu, Sophie; Xie, Dianlin; Soars, Matthew G; O'Connell, Jonathan C; Rodrigues, A David; Zhang, Litao; Cvijic, Mary Ellen

    2013-10-01

    Transporter proteins are known to play a critical role in affecting the overall absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics of drug candidates. In addition to efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, etc.) that limit absorption, there has been a renewed interest in influx transporters at the renal (OATs, OCTs) and hepatic (OATPs, BSEP, NTCP, etc.) organ level that can cause significant clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Several of these transporters are also critical for hepatobiliary disposition of bilirubin and bile acid/salts, and their inhibition is directly implicated in hepatic toxicities. Regulatory agencies took action to address transporter-mediated DDI with the goal of ensuring drug safety in the clinic and on the market. To meet regulatory requirements, advanced bioassay technology and automation solutions were implemented for high-throughput transporter screening to provide structure-activity relationship within lead optimization. To enhance capacity, several functional assay formats were miniaturized to 384-well throughput including novel fluorescence-based uptake and efflux inhibition assays using high-content image analysis as well as cell-based radioactive uptake and vesicle-based efflux inhibition assays. This high-throughput capability enabled a paradigm shift from studying transporter-related issues in the development space to identifying and dialing out these concerns early on in discovery for enhanced mechanism-based efficacy while circumventing DDIs and transporter toxicities.

  1. GenomeRNAi: a database for cell-based RNAi phenotypes.

    Horn, Thomas; Arziman, Zeynep; Berger, Juerg; Boutros, Michael

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to generate loss-of-function phenotypes in a variety of organisms. Combined with the sequence information of almost completely annotated genomes, RNAi technologies have opened new avenues to conduct systematic genetic screens for every annotated gene in the genome. As increasing large datasets of RNAi-induced phenotypes become available, an important challenge remains the systematic integration and annotation of functional information. Genome-wide RNAi screens have been performed both in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila for a variety of phenotypes and several RNAi libraries have become available to assess phenotypes for almost every gene in the genome. These screens were performed using different types of assays from visible phenotypes to focused transcriptional readouts and provide a rich data source for functional annotation across different species. The GenomeRNAi database provides access to published RNAi phenotypes obtained from cell-based screens and maps them to their genomic locus, including possible non-specific regions. The database also gives access to sequence information of RNAi probes used in various screens. It can be searched by phenotype, by gene, by RNAi probe or by sequence and is accessible at http://rnai.dkfz.de.

  2. T cell-based tracking of multidrug resistant tuberculosis infection after brief exposure.

    Richeldi, Luca; Ewer, Katie; Losi, Monica; Bergamini, Barbara M; Roversi, Pietro; Deeks, Jonathan; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Lalvani, Ajit

    2004-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology indicates significant transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after casual contact with infectious tuberculosis cases. We investigated M. tuberculosis transmission after brief exposure using a T cell-based assay, the enzyme-linked-immunospot (ELISPOT) for IFN-gamma. After childbirth, a mother was diagnosed with sputum smear-positive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Forty-one neonates and 47 adults were present during her admission on the maternity unit; 11 weeks later, all underwent tuberculin skin testing (TST) and ELISPOT. We correlated test results with markers of exposure to the index case. The participants, who were asymptomatic and predominantly had no prior tuberculosis exposure, had 6.05 hours mean exposure (range: 0-65 hours) to the index case. Seventeen individuals, including two newborns, were ELISPOT-positive, and ELISPOT results correlated significantly with three of four predefined measures of tuberculosis exposure. For each hour sharing room air with the index case, the odds of a positive ELISPOT result increased by 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09, p = 0.003). Only four adults were TST-positive and TST results did not correlate with exposure. Thus, ELISPOT, but not TST, suggested quite extensive nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis after brief exposure. These results help to explain the apparent importance of casual contact for tuberculosis transmission, and may have implications for prevention.

  3. CELLISA: reporter cell-based immunization and screening of hybridomas specific for cell surface antigens.

    Chen, Peter; Mesci, Aruz; Carlyle, James R

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for cell surface antigens are an invaluable tool to study immune receptor expression and function. Here, we outline a generalized reporter cell-based approach to the generation and high-throughput screening of mAbs specific for cell surface antigens. Termed CELLISA, this technology hinges upon the capture of hybridoma supernatants in mAb arrays that facilitate ligation of an antigen of interest displayed on BWZ reporter cells in the form of a CD3ζ-fusion chimeric antigen receptor (zCAR); in turn, specific mAb-mediated cross-linking of zCAR on BWZ cells results in the production of β-galactosidase enzyme (β-gal), which can be assayed colorimetrically. Importantly, the BWZ reporter cells bearing the zCAR of interest may be used for immunization as well as screening. In addition, serial immunizations employing additional zCAR- or native antigen-bearing cell lines can be used to increase the frequency of the desired antigen-specific hybridomas. Finally, the use of a cohort of epitope-tagged zCAR (e.g., zCAR(FLAG)) variants allows visualization of the cell surface antigen prior to immunization, and coimmunization using these variants can be used to enhance the immunogenicity of the target antigen. Employing the CELLISA strategy, we herein describe the generation of mAb directed against an uncharacterized natural killer cell receptor protein.

  4. In Situ Gelation-Induced Death of Cancer Cells Based on Proteinosomes.

    Zhou, Yuting; Song, Jianmin; Wang, Lei; Xue, Xuting; Liu, Xiaoman; Xie, Hui; Huang, Xin

    2017-08-14

    Hydrogels are an excellent type of material that can be utilized as a platform for cell culture. However, when a bulky hydrogel forms on the inside of cancer cells, the result would be different. In this study, we demonstrate a method for in situ gelation inside cancer cells that can efficiently induce cell death. Glutathione-responsive proteinosomes with good biocompatibility were prepared as carriers for sodium alginate to be endocytosed by cancer cells, where the chelation between sodium alginate and free calcium ions in the culture medium occurs during the diffusion process. The uptake of the hydrogel-loaded proteinosomes into the cancer cells, and then the triggered release of hydrogel with concomitant aggregation, was well-confirmed by monitoring the change of the Young's modulus of the cells based on AFM force measurements. Accordingly, when a large amount of hydrogel formed in cells, the cell viability would be inhibited by ∼90% by MTT assay at a concentration of 5.0 μM of hydrogel-loaded proteinosomes after 48 h incubation, which clearly proves the feasibility of the demonstrated method for killing cancer cells. Although more details regarding the mechanism of cell death should be conducted in the near future, such a demonstrated method of in situ gelation inside cells provides another choice for killing cancer cells.

  5. Fuel cell-based instrumentation for ethanol determination in alcoholic beverages, fermentations, and biofluids

    Parry, K W

    1988-01-01

    The main aim of this project was to devise an alternative method for ethanol assay, employing an electrochemical fuel cell sensor. Thus, the early part of this thesis describes the work carried out in the development of a new analytical technique for this purpose. This work resulted in the production of a successful prototype unit which has led to the development of a commercial instrument, vis., the Lion Drinks Alcolmeter (DA-1) available from Lion Laboratories Ltd. The problem of determining the ethanol content of a fermenting liquor at any point during a fermentation process was also broached and a novel technique combining a flow dilution system, dynamic headspace analysis and a fuel cell sensor was developed. This procedure, suitably automated, will enable the ethanolic content of a fermenting beverage to be determined at any stage during a fermentation, the results obtained in this manner being in excellent agreement with those obtained gas chromatographically. Methods of extending the linear working range of a fuel cell-based sampling system are reported in the hope that the encouraging results obtained may initiate further progress in this field. Finally, the sensing system used in this work has also been utilized with an alternative sampling procedure for the determination of ethanol in biological fluids, mainly for clinical and forensic applications. This work has also led to the production of a commercial instrument, viz. the Lion AE-D3 Alcolmeter.

  6. The controversial origin of pericytes during angiogenesis - Implications for cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis and cell-based therapies.

    Blocki, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Jung, Friedrich; Raghunath, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Pericytes reside within the basement membrane of small vessels and are often in direct cellular contact with endothelial cells, fulfilling important functions during blood vessel formation and homeostasis. Recently, these pericytes have been also identified as mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells, and especially their specialized subpopulation of pericytes, represent promising candidates for therapeutic angiogenesis applications, and have already been widely applied in pre-clinical and clinical trials. However, cell-based therapies of ischemic diseases (especially of myocardial infarction) have not resulted in significant long-term improvement. Interestingly, pericytes from a hematopoietic origin were observed in embryonic skin and a pericyte sub-population expressing leukocyte and monocyte markers was described during adult angiogenesis in vivo. Since mesenchymal stem cells do not express hematopoietic markers, the latter cell type might represent an alternative pericyte population relevant to angiogenesis. Therefore, we sourced blood-derived angiogenic cells (BDACs) from monocytes that closely resembled hematopoietic pericytes, which had only been observed in vivo thus far. BDACs displayed many pericytic features and exhibited enhanced revascularization and functional tissue regeneration in a pre-clinical model of critical limb ischemia. Comparison between BDACs and mesenchymal pericytes indicated that BDACs (while resembling hematopoietic pericytes) enhanced early stages of angiogenesis, such as endothelial cell sprouting. In contrast, mesenchymal pericytes were responsible for blood vessel maturation and homeostasis, while reducing endothelial sprouting.Since the formation of new blood vessels is crucial during therapeutic angiogenesis or during integration of implants into the host tissue, hematopoietic pericytes (and therefore BDACs) might offer an advantageous addition or even an alternative for cell-based therapies.

  7. Stem Cell-Based Neuroprotective and Neurorestorative Strategies

    Chia-Wei Hung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells, a special subset of cells derived from embryo or adult tissues, are known to present the characteristics of self-renewal, multiple lineages of differentiation, high plastic capability, and long-term maintenance. Recent reports have further suggested that neural stem cells (NSCs derived from the adult hippocampal and subventricular regions possess the utilizing potential to develop the transplantation strategies and to screen the candidate agents for neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and neuroplasticity in neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we review the roles of NSCs and other stem cells in neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies for neurological and psychiatric diseases. We show the evidences that NSCs play the key roles involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including depression, stroke and Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the potential and possible utilities of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS, reprogramming from adult fibroblasts with ectopic expression of four embryonic genes, are also reviewed and further discussed. An understanding of the biophysiology of stem cells could help us elucidate the pathogenicity and develop new treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to cell transplantation therapies, the application of stem cells can further provide a platform for drug discovery and small molecular testing, including Chinese herbal medicines. In addition, the high-throughput stem cell-based systems can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of neuroprotective candidates in translation medical research for neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Stem cell-based therapies for acute radiation syndrome

    Guha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in the event of accidental or intentional incident such as nuclear/radiological terrorism can lead to debilitating injuries to multiple organs resulting in death within days depending on the amount of radiation dose and the quality of radiation. Unfortunately, there is not a single FDA-licensed drug approved against acute radiation injury. The RadStem Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (RadStem CMGR) program at Einstein is developing stem cell-based therapies to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS). We have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived and adipose-derived stromal cells, consisting of a mixture of mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid progenitors can mitigate mice exposed to whole body irradiation of 12 Gy or whole abdominal irradiation of up to 20 Gy. We identified a variety of growth and differentiation factors that individually is unable to improve survival of animals exposed to lethal irradiation, but when administered sequentially mitigates radiation injury and improves survival. We termed this phenomenon as synthetic survival and describe a new paradigm whereby the 'synthetic survival' of irradiated tissues can be promoted by systemic administration of growth factors to amplify residual stem cell clonogens post-radiation exposure, followed by a differentiation factor that favors tissue stem cell differentiation. Synthetic survival can be applied to mitigate lethal radiation injury in multiple organs following radiation-induced hematopoeitic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary syndromes. (author)

  9. Potential of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Ischemic Stroke

    Hany E. Marei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is one of the major health problems worldwide. The only FDA approved anti-thrombotic drug for acute ischemic stroke is the tissue plasminogen activator. Several studies have been devoted to assessing the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs, mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NSCs as treatments for ischemic stroke. The results of these studies are intriguing but many of them have presented conflicting results. Additionally, the mechanism(s by which engrafted stem/progenitor cells exert their actions are to a large extent unknown. In this review, we will provide a synopsis of different preclinical and clinical studies related to the use of stem cell-based stroke therapy, and explore possible beneficial/detrimental outcomes associated with the use of different types of stem cells. Due to limited/short time window implemented in most of the recorded clinical trials about the use of stem cells as potential therapeutic intervention for stroke, further clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the intervention in a longer time window after cellular engraftments are still needed.

  10. Fluorogenic Cell-Based Biosensors for Monitoring Microbes

    Curtis, Theresa; Salazar, Noe; Tabb, Joel; Chase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Fluorogenic cell-based sensor systems for detecting microbes (especially pathogenic ones) and some toxins and allergens are undergoing development. These systems harness the natural signaltransduction and amplification cascades that occur in mast cells upon activation with antigens. These systems include (1) fluidic biochips for automated containment of samples, reagents, and wastes and (2) sensitive, compact fluorometers for monitoring the fluorescent responses of mast cells engineered to contain fluorescent dyes. It should be possible to observe responses within minutes of adding immune complexes. The systems have been shown to work when utilizing either immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or traditionally generated rat antibodies - a promising result in that it indicates that the systems could be developed to detect many target microbes. Chimeric IgE antibodies and rat immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies could be genetically engineered for recognizing biological and chemical warfare agents and airborne and food-borne allergens. Genetic engineering efforts thus far have yielded (1) CD14 chimeric antibodies that recognize both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and bind to the surfaces of mast cells, eliciting a degranulation response and (2) rat IgG2a antibodies that act similarly in response to low levels of canine parvovirus.

  11. Microfluidic systems for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Mirshekari, Hamed; Basri, Seyed Masoud Moosavi; Nik, Amirala Bakhshian; Aref, Amir R; Akbari, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-07-05

    Neural tissue engineering aims at developing novel approaches for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, by providing a permissive environment for the growth and differentiation of neural cells. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a closer biomimetic environment, and promote better cell differentiation and improved cell function, than could be achieved by conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. With the recent advances in the discovery and introduction of different types of stem cells for tissue engineering, microfluidic platforms have provided an improved microenvironment for the 3D-culture of stem cells. Microfluidic systems can provide more precise control over the spatiotemporal distribution of chemical and physical cues at the cellular level compared to traditional systems. Various microsystems have been designed and fabricated for the purpose of neural tissue engineering. Enhanced neural migration and differentiation, and monitoring of these processes, as well as understanding the behavior of stem cells and their microenvironment have been obtained through application of different microfluidic-based stem cell culture and tissue engineering techniques. As the technology advances it may be possible to construct a "brain-on-a-chip". In this review, we describe the basics of stem cells and tissue engineering as well as microfluidics-based tissue engineering approaches. We review recent testing of various microfluidic approaches for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

  12. Cryopreservation of GABAergic Neuronal Precursors for Cell-Based Therapy.

    Daniel Rodríguez-Martínez

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation protocols are essential for stem cells storage in order to apply them in the clinic. Here we describe a new standardized cryopreservation protocol for GABAergic neural precursors derived from the medial glanglionic eminence (MGE, a promising source of GABAergic neuronal progenitors for cell therapy against interneuron-related pathologies. We used 10% Me2SO as cryoprotectant and assessed the effects of cell culture amplification and cellular organization, as in toto explants, neurospheres, or individualized cells, on post-thaw cell viability and retrieval. We confirmed that in toto cryopreservation of MGE explants is an optimal preservation system to keep intact the interneuron precursor properties for cell transplantation, together with a high cell viability (>80% and yield (>70%. Post-thaw proliferation and self-renewal of the cryopreserved precursors were tested in vitro. In addition, their migration capacity, acquisition of mature neuronal morphology, and potency to differentiate into multiple interneuron subtypes were also confirmed in vivo after transplantation. The results show that the cryopreserved precursor features remained intact and were similar to those immediately transplanted after their dissection from the MGE. We hope this protocol will facilitate the generation of biobanks to obtain a permanent and reliable source of GABAergic precursors for clinical application in cell-based therapies against interneuronopathies.

  13. Microbial fuel cell based on electroactive sulfate-reducing biofilm

    Angelov, Anatoliy; Bratkova, Svetlana; Loukanov, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation and management of electricity generation by variation of residence time. ► Design of microbial fuel cell based on electroactive biofilm on zeolite. ► Engineering solution for removing of the obtained elemental sulfur. - abstract: A two chambered laboratory scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed, based on natural sulfate-reducing bacterium consortium in electroactive biofilm on zeolite. The MFC utilizes potassium ferricyanide in the cathode chamber as an electron acceptor that derives electrons from the obtained in anode chamber H 2 S. The molecular oxygen is finally used as a terminal electron acceptor at cathode compartment. The generated power density was 0.68 W m −2 with current density of 3.2 A m −2 at 150 Ω electrode resistivity. The hydrogen sulfide itself is produced by microbial dissimilative sulfate reduction process by utilizing various organic substrates. Finally, elemental sulfur was identified as the predominant final oxidation product in the anode chamber. It was removed from MFC through medium circulation and gathering in an external tank. This report reveals dependence relationship between the progress of general electrochemical parameters and bacterial sulfate-reduction rate. The presented MFC design can be used for simultaneous sulfate purification of mining drainage wastewater and generation of renewable electricity

  14. [Safety monitoring of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs)].

    Funk, Markus B; Frech, Marion; Spranger, Robert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-11-01

    Cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs), a category of advanced-therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), are authorised for the European market by the European Commission by means of the centralized marketing authorisation. By conforming to the German Medicinal Products Act (Sec. 4b AMG), national authorisation can be granted by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut in Germany exclusively for ATMPs not based on a routine manufacturing procedure. In both procedures, quality, efficacy, and safety are evaluated and the risk-benefit balance is assessed. For the centralised procedure, mainly controlled clinical trial data must be submitted, whereas the requirements for national procedures could be modified corresponding to the stage of development of the ATMP. After marketing authorization, the marketing authorization/license holder is obligated to report all serious adverse reactions to the competent authority and to provide periodic safety update reports. If necessary, post-authorization safety studies could be imposed. On the basis of these regulatory measures, the safety of advanced therapies can be monitored and improved.

  15. Fifty Years of Research in ARDS. Cell-based Therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Biology and Potential Therapeutic Value.

    Laffey, John G; Matthay, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of several preclinical studies, cell-based therapy has emerged as a potential new therapeutic for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Of the various cell-based therapy options, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord have the most experimental data to support their potential efficacy for lung injury from both infectious and noninfectious causes. Mechanistically, MSCs exert their beneficial effects by release of paracrine factors, microvesicles, and transfer of mitochondria, all of which have antiinflammatory and pro-resolving effects on injured lung endothelium and alveolar epithelium, including enhancing the resolution of pulmonary edema by up-regulating sodium-dependent alveolar fluid clearance. MSCs also have antimicrobial effects mediated by release of antimicrobial factors and by up-regulating monocyte/macrophage phagocytosis. Phase 2a clinical trials to establish safety in ARDS are in progress, and two phase 1 trials did not report any serious adverse events. Several issues need further study, including: determining the optimal methods for large-scale production, reconstitution of cryopreserved cells for clinical use, defining cell potency assays, and determining the therapeutic potential of conditioned media derived from MSCs. Because ARDS is a heterogeneous syndrome, targeting MSCs to patients with ARDS with a more hyperinflammatory endotype may further enhance their potential for efficacy.

  16. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  17. 20180312 - Profiling the ToxCast library with a pluripotent human (H9) embryonic stem cell assay (SOT)

    The Stemina devTOX quickPredict platform (STM) is a human pluripotent H9 stem cell-based assay that predicts developmental toxicants. Using the STM model, we screened 1065 ToxCast chemicals and entered the data into the ToxCast data analysis pipeline. Model performance was 83.3% ...

  18. Ethical and Safety Issues of Stem Cell-Based Therapy.

    Volarevic, Vladislav; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Gazdic, Marina; Volarevic, Ana; Jovicic, Nemanja; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Armstrong, Lyle; Djonov, Valentin; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2018-01-01

    Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. We describe ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, emphasizing that ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is a major factor that may have limited the development of hESC-based clinical therapies. With previous derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) this problem has been overcome, however current perspectives regarding clinical translation of iPSCs still remain. Unlimited differentiation potential of iPSCs which can be used in human reproductive cloning, as a risk for generation of genetically engineered human embryos and human-animal chimeras, is major ethical issue, while undesired differentiation and malignant transformation are major safety issues. Although clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has shown beneficial effects in the therapy of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, the ability to promote tumor growth and metastasis and overestimated therapeutic potential of MSCs still provide concerns for the field of regenerative medicine. This review offers stem cell scientists, clinicians and patient's useful information and could be used as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical application of stem cells.

  19. NSC23925, identified in a high-throughput cell-based screen, reverses multidrug resistance.

    Zhenfeng Duan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major factor which contributes to the failure of cancer chemotherapy, and numerous efforts have been attempted to overcome MDR. To date, none of these attempts have yielded a tolerable and effective therapy to reverse MDR; thus, identification of new agents would be useful both clinically and scientifically.To identify small molecule compounds that can reverse chemoresistance, we developed a 96-well plate high-throughput cell-based screening assay in a paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cell line. Coincubating cells with a sublethal concentration of paclitaxel in combination with each of 2,000 small molecule compounds from the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set Library, we identified a previously uncharacterized molecule, NSC23925, that inhibits Pgp1 and reverses MDR1 (Pgp1 but does not inhibit MRP or BCRP-mediated MDR. The cytotoxic activity of NSC23925 was further evaluated using a panel of cancer cell lines expressing Pgp1, MRP, and BCRP. We found that at a concentration of >10 microM NSC23925 moderately inhibits the proliferation of both sensitive and resistant cell lines with almost equal activity, but its inhibitory effect was not altered by co-incubation with the Pgp1 inhibitor, verapamil, suggesting that NSC23925 itself is not a substrate of Pgp1. Additionally, NSC23925 increases the intracellular accumulation of Pgp1 substrates: calcein AM, Rhodamine-123, paclitaxel, mitoxantrone, and doxorubicin. Interestingly, we further observed that, although NSC23925 directly inhibits the function of Pgp1 in a dose-dependent manner without altering the total expression level of Pgp1, NSC23925 actually stimulates ATPase activity of Pgp, a phenomenon seen in other Pgp inhibitors.The ability of NSC23925 to restore sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or to prevent resistance could significantly benefit cancer patients.

  20. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  1. Prion strain discrimination based on rapid in vivo amplification and analysis by the cell panel assay.

    Yervand Eduard Karapetyan

    Full Text Available Prion strain identification has been hitherto achieved using time-consuming incubation time determinations in one or more mouse lines and elaborate neuropathological assessment. In the present work, we make a detailed study of the properties of PrP-overproducing Tga20 mice. We show that in these mice the four prion strains examined are rapidly and faithfully amplified and can subsequently be discriminated by a cell-based procedure, the Cell Panel Assay.

  2. Efficient organic tandem solar cells based on small molecules

    Riede, Moritz; Widmer, Johannes; Timmreck, Ronny; Wynands, David; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, George-Baehr-Str. 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Uhrich, Christian; Schwartz, Gregor; Gnehr, Wolf-Michael; Hildebrandt, Dirk; Weiss, Andre; Pfeiffer, Martin [Heliatek GmbH, Treidlerstr. 3, 01139 Dresden (Germany); Hwang, Jaehyung; Sundarraj, Sudhakar; Erk, Peter [BASF SE, GVC/E-J542, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2011-08-23

    In this paper, two vacuum processed single heterojunction organic solar cells with complementary absorption are described and the construction and optimization of tandem solar cells based on the combination of these heterojunctions demonstrated. The red-absorbing heterojunction consists of C{sub 60} and a fluorinated zinc phthalocyanine derivative (F4-ZnPc) that leads to a 0.1-0.15 V higher open circuit voltage V{sub oc} than the commonly used ZnPc. The second heterojunction incorporates C{sub 60} and a dicyanovinyl-capped sexithiophene derivative (DCV6T) that mainly absorbs in the green. The combination of both heterojunctions into one tandem solar cell leads to an absorption over the whole visible range of the sun spectrum. Thickness variations of the transparent p-doped optical spacer between both subcells in the tandem solar cell is shown to lead to a significant change in short circuit current density j{sub sc} due to optical interference effects, whereas V{sub oc} and fill factor are hardly affected. The maximum efficiency {eta} of about 5.6% is found for a spacer thickness of 150-165 nm. Based on the optimized 165nm thick spacer, effects of intensity and angle of illumination, and temperature on a tandem device are investigated. Variations in illumination intensity lead to a linear change in j{sub sc} over three orders of magnitude and a nearly constant {eta} in the range of 30 to 310 mW cm{sup -2}. Despite the stacked heterojunctions, the performance of the tandem device is robust against different illumination angles: j{sub sc} and {eta} closely follow a cosine behavior between 0 and 70 . Investigations of the temperature behavior of the tandem device show an increase in {eta} of 0.016 percentage points per Kelvin between -20 C and 25 C followed by a plateau up to 50 C. Finally, further optimization of the tandem stack results in a certified {eta} of (6.07 {+-} 0.24)% on (1.9893 {+-} 0.0060)cm{sup 2} (Fraunhofer ISE), i.e., areas large enough to be of

  3. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  4. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  5. Radioligand assay in reproductive biology

    Korenman, S.G.; Sherman, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioligand assays have been developed for the principal reproductive steroids and peptide hormones. Specific binding reagents have included antibodies, plasma binders, and intracellular receptors. In each assay, problems of specificity, sensitivity, and nonspecific inhibitors were encountered. Many features of the endocrine physiology in childhood, during puberty, and in adulthood have been characterized. Hormonal evaluations of endocrine disorders of reproduction are characterized on the basis of their characteristic pathophysiologic alterations. (U.S.)

  6. High-throughput cell-based screening reveals a role for ZNF131 as a repressor of ERalpha signaling

    Du Peige

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptor α (ERα is a transcription factor whose activity is affected by multiple regulatory cofactors. In an effort to identify the human genes involved in the regulation of ERα, we constructed a high-throughput, cell-based, functional screening platform by linking a response element (ERE with a reporter gene. This allowed the cellular activity of ERα, in cells cotransfected with the candidate gene, to be quantified in the presence or absence of its cognate ligand E2. Results From a library of 570 human cDNA clones, we identified zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131 as a repressor of ERα mediated transactivation. ZNF131 is a typical member of the BTB/POZ family of transcription factors, and shows both ubiquitous expression and a high degree of sequence conservation. The luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that ZNF131 inhibits ligand-dependent transactivation by ERα in a dose-dependent manner. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay clearly demonstrated that the interaction between ZNF131 and ERα interrupts or prevents ERα binding to the estrogen response element (ERE. In addition, ZNF131 was able to suppress the expression of pS2, an ERα target gene. Conclusion We suggest that the functional screening platform we constructed can be applied for high-throughput genomic screening candidate ERα-related genes. This in turn may provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of ERα regulation in mammalian cells.

  7. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  8. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    Hall, Bonnie H; Ianosi-Irimie, Monica; Javidian, Parisa; Chen, Wenjin; Ganesan, Shridar; Foran, David J

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+) cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known positive controls a computer-assisted diagnostic algorithm was

  9. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    Ianosi-Irimie Monica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Methods Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+ cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis. Results A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. Conclusion It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known

  10. In Vivo Nanotoxicity Testing using the Zebrafish Embryo Assay.

    Rizzo, Larissa Y; Golombek, Susanne K; Mertens, Marianne E; Pan, Yu; Laaf, Dominic; Broda, Janine; Jayapaul, Jabadurai; Möckel, Diana; Subr, Vladimir; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Simon, Ulrich; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2013-06-10

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used for biomedical purposes. Many different diagnostic and therapeutic applications are envisioned for nanoparticles, but there are often also serious concerns regarding their safety. Given the fact that numerous new nanomaterials are being developed every day, and that not much is known about the long-term toxicological impact of exposure to nanoparticles, there is an urgent need to establish efficient methods for nanotoxicity testing. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo assay has recently emerged as an interesting 'intermediate' method for in vivo nanotoxicity screening, enabling (semi-) high-throughput analyses in a system significantly more complex than cultured cells, but at the same time also less 'invasive' and less expensive than large-scale biocompatibility studies in mice or rats. The zebrafish embryo assay is relatively well-established in the environmental sciences, but it has not yet gained wide notice in the nanomedicine field. Using prototypic polymeric drug carriers, gold-based nanodiagnostics and nanotherapeutics, and iron oxide-based nanodiagnostics, we here show that toxicity testing using zebrafish embryos is easy, efficient and informative, and faithfully reflects, yet significantly extends, cell-based toxicity testing. We therefore expect that the zebrafish embryo assay will become a popular future tool for in vivo nanotoxicity screening.

  11. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  12. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  13. Validation of In Vitro Cell-Based Human Blood-Brain Barrier Model Using Clinical Positron Emission Tomography Radioligands To Predict In Vivo Human Brain Penetration

    Mabondzo, A.; Guyot, A.C.; Bottlaender, M.; Deverre, J.R.; Tsaouin, K.; Balimane, P.V.

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated a novel in vitro cell-based human blood-brain barrier (BBB) model that could predict in vivo human brain penetration for compounds with different BBB permeabilities using the clinical positron emission tomography (PET) data. Comparison studies were also performed to demonstrate that the in vitro cell-based human BBB model resulted in better predictivity over the traditional permeability model in discovery organizations, Caco-2 cells. We evaluated the in vivo BBB permeability of [ 18 F] and [ 11 C]-compounds in humans by PET imaging. The in vivo plasma-brain exchange parameters used for comparison were determined in humans by PET using a kinetic analysis of the radiotracer binding. For each radiotracer, the parameters were determined by fitting the brain kinetics of the radiotracer using a two-tissue compartment model of the ligand-receptor interaction. Bidirectional transport studies with the same compounds as in in vivo studies were carried out using the in vitro cell-based human BBB model as well as Caco-2 cells. The in vitro cell-based human BBB model has important features of the BBB in vivo and is suitable for discriminating between CNS and non-CNS marketed drugs. A very good correlation (r 2 =0.90; P≤0.001) was demonstrated between in vitro BBB permeability and in vivo permeability coefficient. In contrast, a poor correlation (r 2 = 0.17) was obtained between Caco-2 data and in vivo human brain penetration. This study highlights the potential of this in vitro cell-based human BBB model in drug discovery and shows that it can be an extremely effective screening tool for CNS programs. (authors)

  14. Image, Image, Image

    Howell, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    With all the talk today about accountability, budget cuts, and the closing of programs in public education, teachers cannot overlook the importance of image in the field of industrial technology. It is very easy for administrators to cut ITE (industrial technology education) programs to save school money--money they might shift to teaching the…

  15. Low Sensitivity of T-Cell Based Detection of Tuberculosis among ...

    Low Sensitivity of T-Cell Based Detection of Tuberculosis among HIV Co-Infected Tanzanian In-Patients. ... with and without HIV infection. Design: Cross-sectional study. ... like Tanzania. Larger studies in resource-poor settings are required.

  16. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  17. Cell Based GIS as Cellular Automata for Disaster Spreading Predictions and Required Data Systems

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction and simulation based on the Cell Based Geographic Information System(GIS as Cellular Automata (CA is proposed together with required data systems, in particular metasearch engine usage in an unified way. It is confirmed that the proposed cell based GIS as CA has flexible usage of the attribute information that is attached to the cell in concert with location information and does work for disaster spreading simulation and prediction.

  18. Cell-based multi-parametric model of cleft progression during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Shayoni Ray

    Full Text Available Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft

  19. Towards a high throughput droplet-based agglutination assay

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the detection method for a high throughput droplet based agglutination assay system. Using simple hydrodynamic forces to mix and aggregate functionalized microbeads we avoid the need to use magnetic assistance or mixing structures. The concentration of our target molecules was estimated by agglutination strength, obtained through optical image analysis. Agglutination in droplets was performed with flow rates of 150 µl/min and occurred in under a minute, with potential to perform high-throughput measurements. The lowest target concentration detected in droplet microfluidics was 0.17 nM, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than a conventional card based agglutination assay.

  20. Towards a high throughput droplet-based agglutination assay

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-22

    This work demonstrates the detection method for a high throughput droplet based agglutination assay system. Using simple hydrodynamic forces to mix and aggregate functionalized microbeads we avoid the need to use magnetic assistance or mixing structures. The concentration of our target molecules was estimated by agglutination strength, obtained through optical image analysis. Agglutination in droplets was performed with flow rates of 150 µl/min and occurred in under a minute, with potential to perform high-throughput measurements. The lowest target concentration detected in droplet microfluidics was 0.17 nM, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than a conventional card based agglutination assay.

  1. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  2. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is ∼ as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous

  3. Radiobiological and PK assays at advance Centre for Training Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC)

    Sastri, Goda Jayant; Gota, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Radiobiological, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies are of paramount importance for drug development and more so in the development of newer radiation modulators. Radiobiological studies have now graduated from simple cell survival and viability assays to more complex molecular and imaging studies to study radiation modulation both in in-vitro and in-vivo models. Tata Memorial Centre and its research centre (ACTREC) is a premiere cancer centre in India dedicated to cancer research. The Department of Radiation Oncology treats approximately 7000 new patients in a year and is uniquely placed to do both translational radiation and clinical research in the field of drug development. The Clinical Biology Lab of the Department of Radiation Oncology at ACTREC in collaboration with other labs at ACTREC has standardized cell survival assays, DNA damage assays such as Gamma H2AX assay (by flow as well as confocal microscopy), Micronuclei assay and COMET assays using CASP software for quantification. We have also done apoptotic assays. These assays have been conducted for development newer drug formulations (for e.g liposomal radiosensitizers). We also have a strong imaging division having sophisticated microscopes (confocal and single molecule super resolution microscopes) for in-vitro optical imaging and a dedicated preclinical PET/CT/SPECT for in-vivo imaging. The clinical 3T MRI and PET/CT is being used to study the effect of hypoxia in various cancers

  4. Reporter gene assay for the quantification of the activity and neutralizing antibody response to TNFα antagonists

    Lallemand, Christophe; Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Steenholdt, Casper

    2011-01-01

    A cell-based assay has been developed for the quantification of the activity of TNFα antagonists based on human erythroleukemic K562 cells transfected with a NFκB regulated firefly luciferase reporter-gene construct. Both drug activity and anti-drug neutralizing antibodies can be quantified...... with a high degree of precision within 2h, and without interference from cytokines and other factors known to activate NFκB. The assay cells also contain the Renilla luciferase reporter gene under the control of a constitutive promoter that allows TNFα-induced firefly luciferase activity to be normalized...... relative to Renilla luciferase expression. Thus, results are independent of cell number or differences in cell viability, resulting in intra and inter assay coefficients of variation of 10% or less. Normalization of results relative to the expression of an internal standard also provides a means...

  5. A multiparametric assay for quantitative nerve regeneration evaluation.

    Weyn, B; van Remoortere, M; Nuydens, R; Meert, T; van de Wouwer, G

    2005-08-01

    We introduce an assay for the semi-automated quantification of nerve regeneration by image analysis. Digital images of histological sections of regenerated nerves are recorded using an automated inverted microscope and merged into high-resolution mosaic images representing the entire nerve. These are analysed by a dedicated image-processing package that computes nerve-specific features (e.g. nerve area, fibre count, myelinated area) and fibre-specific features (area, perimeter, myelin sheet thickness). The assay's performance and correlation of the automatically computed data with visually obtained data are determined on a set of 140 semithin sections from the distal part of a rat tibial nerve from four different experimental treatment groups (control, sham, sutured, cut) taken at seven different time points after surgery. Results show a high correlation between the manually and automatically derived data, and a high discriminative power towards treatment. Extra value is added by the large feature set. In conclusion, the assay is fast and offers data that currently can be obtained only by a combination of laborious and time-consuming tests.

  6. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  7. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  8. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedin A

    Takano, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Measurement method of somatomedian A by radioreceptor assay using the human placenta membrane was described and discussed. Binding rate of /sup 125/I-somatomedin A to its receptors was studied under various conditions of time and temperature of the incubation, and pH of the system. The influence of somatomedin A, porcine insulin, and porcine calcitonin, on /sup 125/I-somatomedin A bound receptors was studied, and these hormones showed the competitive binding to somatomedin A receptors in some level. The specificity, recovery rate, and clinical applications of somatomedin A were also discussed. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedine A provided easier, faster, and more accurate measurements than conventional bioassay. This technique would be very useful to study somatomedin A receptor and functions of insulin.

  9. Assay of vitamin B12

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  10. Development of an androgen reporter gene assay (AR-LUX) utilizing a human cell line with an endogenously regulated androgen receptor

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Groene, E.M. de; Meeteren-Kreikamp, A.P. van; Witkamp, R.F.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this report is to develop and characterize a cell-based androgen reporter assay. For this purpose, the androgen receptor (AR) expressing human breast cancer cell line T47D was stably transfected with a luciferase gene under transcriptional control of the PB-ARE-2

  11. Assay of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase

    Pike, C.; Berry, J.

    1987-01-01

    Assays of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) can be used to illustrate many properties of photosynthetic systems. Many different leaves have been assayed with this standard procedure. The tissue is ground with a mortar and pestle in extraction buffer. The supernatant after centrifugation is used as the source of enzyme. Buffer, RuBP, [ 14 C]-NaHCO 3 , and enzyme are combined in a scintillation vial; the reaction is run for 1 min at 30 0 . The acid-stable products are counted. Reproducibility in student experiments has been excellent. The assay data can be combined with analyses of leaf properties such as fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein content, etc. Students have done projects such as the response of enzyme to temperature and to various inhibitors. They also report on the use of a transition state analog, carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate, to titrate the molar concentration of rubisco molecules (active sites) in an enzyme sample. Thus, using crude extracts the catalytic activity of a sample can be compared to the absolute quantity of enzyme or to the turnover number

  12. Single-cell nanotoxicity assays of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F

    2012-01-01

    Properly evaluating the nanotoxicity of nanoparticles involves much more than bulk-cell assays of cell death by necrosis. Cells exposed to nanoparticles may undergo repairable oxidative stress and DNA damage or be induced into apoptosis. Exposure to nanoparticles may cause the cells to alter their proliferation or differentiation or their cell-cell signaling with neighboring cells in a tissue. Nanoparticles are usually more toxic to some cell subpopulations than others, and toxicity often varies with cell cycle. All of these facts dictate that any nanotoxicity assay must be at the single-cell level and must try whenever feasible and reasonable to include many of these other factors. Focusing on one type of quantitative measure of nanotoxicity, we describe flow and scanning image cytometry approaches to measuring nanotoxicity at the single-cell level by using a commonly used assay for distinguishing between necrotic and apoptotic causes of cell death by one type of nanoparticle. Flow cytometry is fast and quantitative, provided that the cells can be prepared into a single-cell suspension for analysis. But when cells cannot be put into suspension without altering nanotoxicity results, or if morphology, attachment, and stain location are important, a scanning image cytometry approach must be used. Both methods are described with application to a particular type of nanoparticle, a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION), as an example of how these assays may be applied to the more general problem of determining the effects of nanomaterial exposure to living cells.

  13. A Fully Automated High-Throughput Zebrafish Behavioral Ototoxicity Assay.

    Todd, Douglas W; Philip, Rohit C; Niihori, Maki; Ringle, Ryan A; Coyle, Kelsey R; Zehri, Sobia F; Zabala, Leanne; Mudery, Jordan A; Francis, Ross H; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Jacob, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Zebrafish animal models lend themselves to behavioral assays that can facilitate rapid screening of ototoxic, otoprotective, and otoregenerative drugs. Structurally similar to human inner ear hair cells, the mechanosensory hair cells on their lateral line allow the zebrafish to sense water flow and orient head-to-current in a behavior called rheotaxis. This rheotaxis behavior deteriorates in a dose-dependent manner with increased exposure to the ototoxin cisplatin, thereby establishing itself as an excellent biomarker for anatomic damage to lateral line hair cells. Building on work by our group and others, we have built a new, fully automated high-throughput behavioral assay system that uses automated image analysis techniques to quantify rheotaxis behavior. This novel system consists of a custom-designed swimming apparatus and imaging system consisting of network-controlled Raspberry Pi microcomputers capturing infrared video. Automated analysis techniques detect individual zebrafish, compute their orientation, and quantify the rheotaxis behavior of a zebrafish test population, producing a powerful, high-throughput behavioral assay. Using our fully automated biological assay to test a standardized ototoxic dose of cisplatin against varying doses of compounds that protect or regenerate hair cells may facilitate rapid translation of candidate drugs into preclinical mammalian models of hearing loss.

  14. Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system

    Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft 3 boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites

  15. A Functional High-Throughput Assay of Myelination in Vitro

    2014-07-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells, hydrogels, 3D culture, electrophysiology, high-throughput assay 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...image the 3D rat dorsal root ganglion ( DRG ) cultures with sufficiently low background as to detect electrically-evoked depolarization events, as...of voltage-sensitive dyes. 8    We have made substantial progress in Task 4.1. We have fabricated neural fiber tracts from DRG explants and

  16. Detection of Replication Competent Lentivirus Using a qPCR Assay for VSV-G

    Lindsey M. Skrdlant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors are a common tool used to introduce new and corrected genes into cell therapy products for treatment of human diseases. Although lentiviral vectors are ideal for delivery and stable integration of genes of interest into the host cell genome, they potentially pose risks to human health, such as integration-mediated transformation and generation of a replication competent lentivirus (RCL capable of infecting non-target cells. In consideration of the latter risk, all cell-based products modified by lentiviral vectors and intended for patient use must be tested for RCL prior to treatment of the patient. Current Food and Drug Administration (FDA guidelines recommend use of cell-based assays to this end, which can take up to 6 weeks for results. However, qPCR-based assays are a quick alternative for rapid assessment of RCL in products intended for fresh infusion. We describe here the development and qualification of a qPCR assay based on detection of envelope gene sequences (vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein [VSV-G] for RCL in accordance with Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity, linearity, specificity, and reproducibility of detection of VSV-G sequences, with a low false-positive rate. These procedures are currently being used in our phase 1 clinical investigations.

  17. Radiosotopic assay and binder therefor

    Caston, J.D.; Kamen, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid and less costly radioisotopic assay for measuring the concentration of folate in blood serum is described. This procedure utilizes 3 H-pteroylmonoglutamate, unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and a partially purified folate binder, such as for example a folate binder extracted from hog kidney. The procedure involves radioisotopically relating the bound amounts of a labeled folate and a known folate at various concentrations of the known folate in a system containing a predetermined amount of the labeled folate, a predetermined amount of the binder factor for the folates, and a predetermined amount of defolated test serum. 16 claims, 8 drawing figures

  18. SiMa Cells for a Serotype Specific and Sensitive Cell-Based Neutralization Test for Botulinum Toxin A and E.

    Bak, Nicola; Rajagopal, Shalini; Stickings, Paul; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2017-07-20

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs), of which there are seven serotypes, are among the most potent neurotoxins, with serotypes A, B and E causing human botulism. Antitoxins form the first line of treatment for botulism, and functional, highly sensitive in vitro methods for toxin neutralization are needed to replace the current in vivo methods used for determination of antitoxin potency. In this preliminary proof of concept study, we report the development of a neutralization test using the neuroblastoma SiMa cell line. The assay is serotype specific for either BoNT/A or BoNT/E, which both cleave unique sequences on SNAP-25 within SiMa cells. The end point is simple immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 from cell lysates with antibodies detecting only the newly exposed sequence on SNAP-25. Neutralizing antibodies prevent the toxin-induced cleavage of SNAP-25. The toxin neutralization assay, with an EC50 of ~2 mIU/mL determined with a standardized reference antiserum, is more sensitive than the mouse bioassays. Relevance was demonstrated with commercial and experimental antitoxins targeting different functional domains, and of known in vivo neutralizing activities. This is the first report describing a simple, specific, in vitro cell-based assay for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against BoNT/A and BoNT/E with a sensitivity exceeding that of the mouse bioassay.

  19. Systematic random sampling of the comet assay.

    McArt, Darragh G; Wasson, Gillian R; McKerr, George; Saetzler, Kurt; Reed, Matt; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2009-07-01

    The comet assay is a technique used to quantify DNA damage and repair at a cellular level. In the assay, cells are embedded in agarose and the cellular content is stripped away leaving only the DNA trapped in an agarose cavity which can then be electrophoresed. The damaged DNA can enter the agarose and migrate while the undamaged DNA cannot and is retained. DNA damage is measured as the proportion of the migratory 'tail' DNA compared to the total DNA in the cell. The fundamental basis of these arbitrary values is obtained in the comet acquisition phase using fluorescence microscopy with a stoichiometric stain in tandem with image analysis software. Current methods deployed in such an acquisition are expected to be both objectively and randomly obtained. In this paper we examine the 'randomness' of the acquisition phase and suggest an alternative method that offers both objective and unbiased comet selection. In order to achieve this, we have adopted a survey sampling approach widely used in stereology, which offers a method of systematic random sampling (SRS). This is desirable as it offers an impartial and reproducible method of comet analysis that can be used both manually or automated. By making use of an unbiased sampling frame and using microscope verniers, we are able to increase the precision of estimates of DNA damage. Results obtained from a multiple-user pooled variation experiment showed that the SRS technique attained a lower variability than that of the traditional approach. The analysis of a single user with repetition experiment showed greater individual variances while not being detrimental to overall averages. This would suggest that the SRS method offers a better reflection of DNA damage for a given slide and also offers better user reproducibility.

  20. Localized irradiations, evaluation through 'Comet Assay'

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Taja, Maria R.; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources of Cobalt 60, Cesium 137 or Iridium 192 at work placed for industrial gammagraphy and other radiation sources. Severe skin reaction may developed at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models 'Contaminated Poisson' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give response in localized irradiations. Biological dosimetry is a necessary complement to physical and clinical dosimetries. Thus, there is increasing interest in the assessment of biological markers that permit the detection of radiation induced damage in the localized irradiations. The 'Comet Assay' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, rapid and relatively inexpensive method for measuring DNA damage in individual cells. Single cells are embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed to remove the majority of the proteins, electrophoresed, then stained with ethidium bromide in order to visualize the DNA. When visualized using a fluorescent microscope, DNA of undamaged cells appears as a spherical mass occupying the cavity formed by the lysed cell. Following radiation damage, the smaller the fragment size and the grater the number of fragments of DNA, the grater the percentage of DNA that it is able to migrate in an electric field, forming a comet image. The assay can be performed under alkaline conditions to examine DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), or in non denaturing (neutral) conditions to measure double strand breaks (DSBs) in individual

  1. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  2. Rotor assembly and assay method

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  3. ICCS/ESCCA consensus guidelines to detect GPI-deficient cells in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and related disorders part 4 - assay validation and quality assurance.

    Oldaker, Teri; Whitby, Liam; Saber, Maryam; Holden, Jeannine; Wallace, Paul K; Litwin, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Over the past six years, a diverse group of stakeholders have put forth recommendations regarding the analytical validation of flow cytometric methods and described in detail the differences between cell-based and traditional soluble analyte assay validations. This manuscript is based on these general recommendations as well as the published experience of experts in the area of PNH testing. The goal is to provide practical assay-specific guidelines for the validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometric PNH assays. Examples of the reports and validation data described herein are provided in Supporting Information. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  4. Development of LC/MS/MS, high-throughput enzymatic and cellular assays for the characterization of compounds that inhibit kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO).

    Winkler, Dirk; Beconi, Maria; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia M; Prime, Michael; Ebneth, Andreas; Dominguez, Celia; Muñoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Modulation of KMO activity has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease. Our goal is to develop potent and selective small-molecule KMO inhibitors with suitable pharmacokinetic characteristics for in vivo proof-of-concept studies and subsequent clinical development. We developed a comprehensive panel of biochemical and cell-based assays that use liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to quantify unlabeled kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. We describe assays to measure KMO inhibition in cell and tissue extracts, as well as cellular assays including heterologous cell lines and primary rat microglia and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  5. Cell-patterned glass spray for direct drug assay using mass spectrometry

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Shiqi; Chen, Qiushui; Jiang, Hao; Liang, Shuping; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the establishment of a glass spray mass spectrometry (GS-MS) platform for direct cell-based drug assay was described. Cell co-culture, drug-induced cell apoptosis, proliferation analysis and intracellular drug absorption measurement were performed simultaneously on this specifically designed platform. Two groups of co-cultured cells (NIH-3T3/HepG2 and HepG2/MCF-7) were cultivated and they showed high viability within 3 days. The biocompatibility of the platform facilitated the subsequent bioassays, in which, cyclophosphamide (CPA) and genistein were used as the model drugs. The distinctions of cell apoptosis and proliferation between the mono-cultured and co-cultured cells were clearly observed and well explained by in situ GS-MS measurements. A satisfactory linearity of the calibration curve between the relative MS intensity and CPA concentrations was obtained using stable isotope labeling method (y = 0.16545 + 0.0985x, R"2 = 0.9937). The variations in the quantity of absorbed drug were detected and the results were consistent with the concentration-dependence of cell apoptosis. All the results demonstrated that direct cell-based drug assay could be performed on the stable isotope labeling assisted GS-MS platform in a facile and quantitative manner. - Highlights: • A versatile glass spray mass spectrometry (GS-MS) platform for direct cell-based drug assay was developed in this paper. • It has characteristics of the atmospheric pressure ionization method. • It is multifunctional for cell co-culture, bioassays, qualitative and quantitative intracellular drug absorption measurement. • GS-MS has the potential to increase the use of mass spectrometry in biological analysis.

  6. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  7. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  8. Human neuron-astrocyte 3D co-culture-based assay for evaluation of neuroprotective compounds.

    Terrasso, Ana Paula; Silva, Ana Carina; Filipe, Augusto; Pedroso, Pedro; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Alves, Paula Marques; Brito, Catarina

    Central nervous system drug development has registered high attrition rates, mainly due to the lack of efficacy of drug candidates, highlighting the low reliability of the models used in early-stage drug development and the need for new in vitro human cell-based models and assays to accurately identify and validate drug candidates. 3D human cell models can include different tissue cell types and represent the spatiotemporal context of the original tissue (co-cultures), allowing the establishment of biologically-relevant cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Nevertheless, exploitation of these 3D models for neuroprotection assessment has been limited due to the lack of data to validate such 3D co-culture approaches. In this work we combined a 3D human neuron-astrocyte co-culture with a cell viability endpoint for the implementation of a novel in vitro neuroprotection assay, over an oxidative insult. Neuroprotection assay robustness and specificity, and the applicability of Presto Blue, MTT and CytoTox-Glo viability assays to the 3D co-culture were evaluated. Presto Blue was the adequate endpoint as it is non-destructive and is a simpler and reliable assay. Semi-automation of the cell viability endpoint was performed, indicating that the assay setup is amenable to be transferred to automated screening platforms. Finally, the neuroprotection assay setup was applied to a series of 36 test compounds and several candidates with higher neuroprotective effect than the positive control, Idebenone, were identified. The robustness and simplicity of the implemented neuroprotection assay with the cell viability endpoint enables the use of more complex and reliable 3D in vitro cell models to identify and validate drug candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphological observation and analysis using automated image cytometry for the comparison of trypan blue and fluorescence-based viability detection method.

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Kuksin, Dmitry; Laverty, Daniel J; Saldi, Stephanie; Qiu, Jean

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately determine cell viability is essential to performing a well-controlled biological experiment. Typical experiments range from standard cell culturing to advanced cell-based assays that may require cell viability measurement for downstream experiments. The traditional cell viability measurement method has been the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay. However, since the introduction of fluorescence-based dyes for cell viability measurement using flow or image-based cytometry systems, there have been numerous publications comparing the two detection methods. Although previous studies have shown discrepancies between TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability measurements, image-based morphological analysis was not performed in order to examine the viability discrepancies. In this work, we compared TB exclusion and fluorescence-based viability detection methods using image cytometry to observe morphological changes due to the effect of TB on dead cells. Imaging results showed that as the viability of a naturally-dying Jurkat cell sample decreased below 70 %, many TB-stained cells began to exhibit non-uniform morphological characteristics. Dead cells with these characteristics may be difficult to count under light microscopy, thus generating an artificially higher viability measurement compared to fluorescence-based method. These morphological observations can potentially explain the differences in viability measurement between the two methods.

  10. Biocompatible nanocomposite for PET/MRI hybrid imaging

    Locatelli E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Erica Locatelli,1 Larraitz Gil,2 Liron Limor Israel,3 Lorena Passoni,4,5 Maria Naddaka,1 Andrea Pucci,1 Torsten Reese,6 Vanessa Gomez-Vallejo,2 Paolo Milani,5,7 Michela Matteoli,4,8 Jordi Llop,2 Jean Paul Lellouche,3 Mauro Comes Franchini11Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”. University of Bologna, Italy; 2Radiochemistry Department, Molecular Imaging Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Spain; 3Department of Chemistry, Nanomaterials Research Centre, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; 4Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milano, Italy; 5Fondazione Filarete, Milano, Italy; 6Imaging Department, Molecular Imaging Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Spain; 7CIMAINA and Department of Physics, University of Milano, Italy; 8Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, ItalyAbstract: A novel nanocarrier system was designed and developed with key components uniquely structured at the nanoscale for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In order to perform magnetic resonance imaging, hydrophilic superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized and coated with a lipophilic organic ligand. Next, they were entrapped into polymeric NPs made of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid linked to polyethylene glycol. In addition, resulting NPs have been conjugated on their surface with a 2,2'-(7-(4-((2-aminoethylamino-1-carboxy-4-oxobutyl-1,4,7-triazonane-1,4-diyldiacetic acid ligand for subsequent 68Ga incorporation. A cell-based cytotoxicity assay has been employed to verify the in vitro cell viability of human pancreatic cancer cells exposed to this nanosystem. Finally, in vivo positron emission tomography-computerized tomography biodistribution studies in healthy animals were performed.Keywords: maghemite nanoparticles, organic coating, polymeric nanoparticles, magnetic resonance imaging

  11. Tools for the identification of bioactives impacting the metabolic syndrome: Screening of a botanical extract library using subcutaneous and visceral human adipose-derived stem cell based assays

    Buehrer, Benjamin M.; Duffin, David J.; Lea-Currie, Y. Renee; Ribnicky, David; Raskin, Ilya; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Cefalu, William T.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Plant extracts continue to represent an untapped source of renewable therapeutic compounds for the treatment and prevention of illnesses including chronic metabolic disorders. With the increase in worldwide obesity and its related morbidities, the need for identifying safe and effective treatments is also rising. As such, use of primary human adipose-derived stem cells represents a physiologically relevant cell system to screen for bioactive agents in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related complications. By using these cells in a primary screen, the risk and cost of identifying artifacts due to interspecies variation and immortalized cell lines is eliminated. We demonstrate that these cells can be formatted into 384-well high throughput screens to rapidly identify botanical extracts that affect lipogenesis and lipolysis. Additionally, counterscreening with human primary stem cells from distinct adipose depots can be routinely performed to identify tissue specific responses. In our study, over 500 botanical extracts were screened and 16 (2.7%) were found to affect lipogenesis and 4 (0.7%) affected lipolysis. PMID:21543201

  12. Assessment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a human cell-based reporter gene assay

    Vondráček, Jan; Pěnčíková, K.; Neca, J.; Ciganek, M.; Grycová, A.; Dvořák, Z.; Machala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 220, JAN2017 (2017), s. 307-316 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07711S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : rat primary hepatocytes * liver epithelial-cells * cancer-risk assessment Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  13. Demonstration of the dynamic mass redistribution label-free technology as a useful cell-based pharmacological assay for endogenously expressed GABAA receptors

    Klein, Anders Bue; Nittegaard-Nielsen, Mia; Christensen, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    the immortalized IMR-32 neuroblastoma cell line, which expresses relatively high levels of several endogenous GABAA receptor subunits, we show that GABA produces concentration-dependent cellular responses that can be measured and quantified in real-time. With the aid of the GABAA receptor-specific agonist muscimol...

  14. Development of a cell-based reporter assay for screening of inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor 2-induced gene expression.

    Woldemichael, Girma M; Vasselli, James R; Gardella, Roberta S; McKee, Tawnya C; Linehan, W Marston; McMahon, James B

    2006-09-01

    Reporter cell lines have been developed for the identification of inhibitors of gene expression enhanced by hypoxia-inducible factor 2, which has been implicated as a transcription factor involved in the tumorigenesis of clear cell renal carcinoma. Stably transformed reporter clones of the human renal clear cell carcinoma cell line 786-O were generated by transfection or retroviral infection. Luciferase reporter expression in the vectors used was driven by either the natural human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter-enhancer or by the VEGF and the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancers modulating minimal human cytomegalovirus promoter. Utility of the generated reporter cell lines was validated by introducing the von Hippel-Lindau protein complex and testing for reporter inducibility by hypoxia. The dynamic range in reporter activity under hypoxic stress was found to be at least 30- to 40-fold, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 60:1. Properties of the cell lines such as tolerance to up to 3% DMSO, signal stability with multiple in vitro passages, and utility in both 96- and 384-well plate formats indicated their suitability for use in a high-throughput screen. In addition, the potential use of these reporter lines in the evaluation of high-throughput screening hits in vivo in various mice models has been demonstrated.

  15. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  16. Genetically Modified T-Cell-Based Adoptive Immunotherapy in Hematological Malignancies

    Baixin Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of hematological malignancies remain limited in treatment options. Immune system modulation serves as a promising therapeutic approach to eliminate malignant cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs play a central role in antitumor immunity; unfortunately, nonspecific approaches for targeted recognition of tumor cells by CTLs to mediate tumor immune evasion in hematological malignancies imply multiple mechanisms, which may or may not be clinically relevant. Recently, genetically modified T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T-cell therapy and engineered T-cell receptor (TCR T-cell therapy, promise to overcome immune evasion by redirecting the specificity of CTLs to tumor cells. In clinic trials, CAR-T-cell- and TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy have produced encouraging clinical outcomes, thereby demonstrating their therapeutic potential in mitigating tumor development. The purpose of the present review is to (1 provide a detailed overview of the multiple mechanisms for immune evasion related with T-cell-based therapies; (2 provide a current summary of the applications of CAR-T-cell- as well as neoantigen-specific TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy and routes taken to overcome immune evasion; and (3 evaluate alternative approaches targeting immune evasion via optimization of CAR-T and TCR-T-cell immunotherapies.

  17. Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by ...

    Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by SCAPS. ... use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic ... η for typical structures of ZnO / i- ZnO / CdS / CZTS and ITO / ZnO / CdS / CZTS.

  18. IBC c-Si solar cells based on ion-implanted poly-silicon passivating contacts

    Yang, G.; Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-implanted poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si), in combination with a tunnel oxide layer, is investigated as a carrier-selective passivating contact in c-Si solar cells based on an interdigitated back contact (IBC) architecture. The optimized poly-Si passivating contacts enable low interface

  19. Full Ceramic Fuel Cells Based on Strontium Titanate Anodes, An Approach Towards More Robust SOFCs

    Holtappels, Peter; Irvine, J.T.S.; Iwanschitz, B.

    2013-01-01

    The persistent problems with Ni-YSZ cermet based SOFCs, with respect to redox stability and tolerance towards sulfur has stimulated the development of a full ceramic cell based on strontium titanate(ST)- based anodes and anode support materials, within the EU FCH JU project SCOTAS-SOFC. Three...

  20. A Statistical Approach for Gain Bandwidth Prediction of Phoenix-Cell Based Reflect arrays

    Hassan Salti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new statistical approach to predict the gain bandwidth of Phoenix-cell based reflectarrays is proposed. It combines the effects of both main factors that limit the bandwidth of reflectarrays: spatial phase delays and intrinsic bandwidth of radiating cells. As an illustration, the proposed approach is successfully applied to two reflectarrays based on new Phoenix cells.

  1. Consolidative dendritic cell-based immunotherapy elicits cytotoxicity against malignant mesothelioma.

    Hegmans, J.P.; Veltman, J.D.; Lambers, M.E.; Vries, I.J.M. de; Figdor, C.G.; Hendriks, R.W.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Lambrecht, B.N.; Aerts, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: We previously demonstrated that dendritic cell-based immunotherapy induced protective antitumor immunity with a prolonged survival rate in mice. However, the clinical relevance is still in question. To examine this, we designed a clinical trial using chemotherapy followed by

  2. Controversial issue: is it safe to employ mesenchymal stem cells in cell-based therapies?

    Lepperdinger, Günter; Brunauer, Regina; Jamnig, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    The prospective clinical use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSC) holds enormous promise for the treatment of a large number of degenerative and age-related diseases. However, the challenges and risks for cell-based therapies are multifaceted. The risks for patients receiving stem ...

  3. Stem and Progenitor Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System

    Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of neurological disorders are attractive targets for stem and progenitor cell-based therapy. Yet many conditions are not, whether by virtue of an inhospitable disease environment, poorly understood pathophysiology, or poor alignment of donor cell capabilities with patient needs. Moreove...

  4. Creation of a Cell-Based Digital Cadastral Mapping System (Digital ...

    Digital cadastre enhances land transaction activities to be conducted in a business manner. Similarly, land subdivision or boundary redefinition, land registration and land marketing are achieved with better accuracy. This paper discusses the need to introduce a national Cell-Based Digital Cadastral Mapping System model ...

  5. Engineering spinal fusion: evaluating ceramic materials for cell based tissue engineered approaches

    Wilson, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis was to advance the development of tissue engineered posterolateral spinal fusion by investigating the potential of calcium phosphate ceramic materials to support cell based tissue engineered bone formation. This was accomplished by developing several novel model

  6. Impact of implementation choices on quantitative predictions of cell-based computational models

    Kursawe, Jochen; Baker, Ruth E.; Fletcher, Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    'Cell-based' models provide a powerful computational tool for studying the mechanisms underlying the growth and dynamics of biological tissues in health and disease. An increasing amount of quantitative data with cellular resolution has paved the way for the quantitative parameterisation and validation of such models. However, the numerical implementation of cell-based models remains challenging, and little work has been done to understand to what extent implementation choices may influence model predictions. Here, we consider the numerical implementation of a popular class of cell-based models called vertex models, which are often used to study epithelial tissues. In two-dimensional vertex models, a tissue is approximated as a tessellation of polygons and the vertices of these polygons move due to mechanical forces originating from the cells. Such models have been used extensively to study the mechanical regulation of tissue topology in the literature. Here, we analyse how the model predictions may be affected by numerical parameters, such as the size of the time step, and non-physical model parameters, such as length thresholds for cell rearrangement. We find that vertex positions and summary statistics are sensitive to several of these implementation parameters. For example, the predicted tissue size decreases with decreasing cell cycle durations, and cell rearrangement may be suppressed by large time steps. These findings are counter-intuitive and illustrate that model predictions need to be thoroughly analysed and implementation details carefully considered when applying cell-based computational models in a quantitative setting.

  7. The clinical relevance of cell-based therapy for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Gräs, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a common disorder affecting the quality of life for millions of women worldwide. Effective surgical procedures involving synthetic permanent meshes exist, but significant short- and long-term complications occur. Cell-based therapy using autologous stem cells...

  8. The acceptability of stem cell-based fertility treatments for different indications

    Hendriks, S.; Dancet, E. A. F.; Vliegenthart, R.; Repping, S.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the acceptability of using stem cell-based fertility treatments (SCFT) for different indications according to gynaecologists and the general public? SUMMARY ANSWER: The majority of gynaecologists and the general public accept SCFT for the indications female or male

  9. Platelet-Rich Blood Derivatives for Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    Masoudi, E.A.; Ribas, J.; Kaushik, G.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich blood derivatives have been widely used in different fields of medicine and stem cell-based tissue engineering. They represent natural cocktails of autologous growth factors, which could provide an alternative for recombinant protein-based approaches. Platelet-rich blood derivatives,

  10. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    Mafra Guidicini, Olga; Llacer, Carlos D.; Rojo, Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  11. Assay of cysteine dioxygenase activity

    Bagley, P.J.; Stipanuk, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed that rat liver contains two cysteine dioxygenase enzymes which convert cysteine to cysteinesulfinic acid, one which is stimulated by NAD + and has a pH optimum of 6.8 and one which is not stimulated by NAD + and has a pH optimum of 9.0. This led the authors to reinvestigate assay conditions for measuring cysteine dioxygenase activity in rat liver homogenate. An HPLC method, using an anion exchange column (Dionex Amino-Pac trademark PA1 (4x250 mm)) was used to separate the [ 35 S]cysteinesulfinic acid produced from [ 35 S]cysteine in the incubation mixture. They demonstrated that inclusion of hydroxylamine prevented further metabolism of cysteinesulfinic acid. which occurred rapidly in the absence of hydroxylamine

  12. Feasibility evaluation of 3 automated cellular drug screening assays on a robotic workstation.

    Soikkeli, Anne; Sempio, Cristina; Kaukonen, Ann Marie; Urtti, Arto; Hirvonen, Jouni; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the implementation and optimization of 3 cell-based assays on a TECAN Genesis workstation-the Caspase-Glo 3/7 and sulforhodamine B (SRB) screening assays and the mechanistic Caco-2 permeability protocol-and evaluates their feasibility for automation. During implementation, the dispensing speed to add drug solutions and fixative trichloroacetic acid and the aspiration speed to remove the supernatant immediately after fixation were optimized. Decontamination steps for cleaning the tips and pipetting tubing were also added. The automated Caspase-Glo 3/7 screen was successfully optimized with Caco-2 cells (Z' 0.7, signal-to-base ratio [S/B] 1.7) but not with DU-145 cells. In contrast, the automated SRB screen was successfully optimized with the DU-145 cells (Z' 0.8, S/B 2.4) but not with the Caco-2 cells (Z' -0.8, S/B 1.4). The automated bidirectional Caco-2 permeability experiments separated successfully low- and high-permeability compounds (Z' 0.8, S/B 84.2) and passive drug permeation from efflux-mediated transport (Z' 0.5, S/B 8.6). Of the assays, the homogeneous Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay benefits the most from automation, but also the heterogeneous SRB assay and Caco-2 permeability experiments gain advantages from automation.

  13. Evaluation of the GARD assay in a blind Cosmetics Europe study.

    Johansson, Henrik; Gradin, Robin; Forreryd, Andy; Agemark, Maria; Zeller, Kathrin; Johansson, Angelica; Larne, Olivia; van Vliet, Erwin; Borrebaeck, Carl; Lindstedt, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Chemical hypersensitivity is an immunological response towards foreign substances, commonly referred to as sensitizers, which gives rise primarily to the clinical symptoms known as allergic contact dermatitis. For the purpose of mitigating risks associated with consumer products, chemicals are screened for sensitizing effects. Historically, such predictive screenings have been performed using animal models. However, due to industrial and regulatory demand, animal models for the purpose of sensitization assessment are being replaced by non-animal testing methods, a global trend that is spreading across industries and market segments. To meet this demand, the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay was developed. GARD is a novel, cell-based assay that utilizes the innate recognition of xenobiotic substances by dendritic cells, as measured by a multivariate readout of genomic biomarkers. Following cellular stimulation, chemicals are classified as sensitizers or non-sensitizers based on induced transcriptional profiles. Recently, a number of non-animal methods were comparatively evaluated by Cosmetics Europe, using a coherent and blinded test panel of reference chemicals with human and local lymph node assay data, comprising a wide range of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The outcome of the GARD assay is presented in this paper. It was demonstrated that GARD is a highly functional assay with a predictive performance of 83% in this Cosmetics Europe dataset. The average accumulated predictive accuracy of GARD across independent datasets was 86% for skin sensitization hazard.

  14. Clinical applications of cell-based approaches in alveolar bone augmentation: a systematic review.

    Shanbhag, Siddharth; Shanbhag, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based approaches, utilizing adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are reported to overcome the limitations of conventional bone augmentation procedures. The study aims to systematically review the available evidence on the characteristics and clinical effectiveness of cell-based ridge augmentation, socket preservation, and sinus-floor augmentation, compared to current evidence-based methods in human adult patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched for related literature. Both observational and experimental studies reporting outcomes of "tissue engineered" or "cell-based" augmentation in ≥5 adult patients alone, or in comparison with non-cell-based (conventional) augmentation methods, were eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome was histomorphometric analysis of new bone formation. Effectiveness of cell-based augmentation was evaluated based on outcomes of controlled studies. Twenty-seven eligible studies were identified. Of these, 15 included a control group (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), and were judged to be at a moderate-to-high risk of bias. Most studies reported the combined use of cultured autologous MSCs with an osteoconductive bone substitute (BS) scaffold. Iliac bone marrow and mandibular periosteum were frequently reported sources of MSCs. In vitro culture of MSCs took between 12 days and 1.5 months. A range of autogenous, allogeneic, xenogeneic, and alloplastic scaffolds was identified. Bovine bone mineral scaffold was frequently reported with favorable outcomes, while polylactic-polyglycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) scaffold resulted in graft failure in three studies. The combination of MSCs and BS resulted in outcomes similar to autogenous bone (AB) and BS. Three RCTs and one controlled trial reported significantly greater bone formation in cell-based than conventionally grafted sites after 3 to 8 months. Based on limited controlled evidence at a moderate-to-high risk of bias, cell-based approaches are comparable, if

  15. Science, ethics and communication remain essential for the success of cell-based therapies

    Massimo Dominici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapeutics, such as marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, are a standard of care for certain malignancies. More recently, a wider variety of cell-based therapeutics including the use of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, T-cells, and others show great promise in a wider range of diseases. With increased efforts to expand cell-based treatments to several clinical settings, many institutions around the world have developed programs to explore cellular therapy's potential for safe and effective applications. In legitimate investigations, usually conducted through academic centers or biotechnology industry-sponsored efforts, these studies are regulated and peer-reviewed to ensure safety and clear determination of potential efficacy. However, in some cases, the use of cell-based approaches is conducted with insufficient preclinical data, scientific rationale, and/or study plan for the diseases claimed to be treated, with patients being charged for these services without clear evidence of clinical benefit. In this context, patients may not be properly informed regarding the exact treatment they are receiving within a consenting process that may not be completely valid or ethical. Here, the authors emphasize the importance of distinguishing “proven cell-based therapies” from “unproven” and unauthorized cell-based therapies. This publication also addresses the necessity for improved communication between the different stakeholders in the field, patient associations, and advocacy groups in particular, to favor medical innovation and provide legitimate benefits to patients. Considering the progressive growth of cell-based treatments, their increasing therapeutic value and the expectation that society has about these therapies, it is critically important to protect patients and ensure that the risk/benefit ratio is favorable. This paper is a review article. Literature referred to in this paper has been listed in the

  16. Reference cells and ploidy in the comet assay

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the comet assay, single cells are analyzed with respect to their level of DNA damage. Discrimination of the individual cell or cell type based on DNA content, with concomitant scoring of the DNA damage, is useful since this may allow analysis of mixtures of cells. Different cells can then be characterized based on their ploidy, cell cycle stage, or genome size. We here describe two applications of such a cell type-specific comet assay: (i Testicular cell suspensions, analyzed on the basis of their ploidy during spermatogenesis; and (ii reference cells in the form of fish erythrocytes which can be included as internal standards to correct for inter-assay variations. With standard fluorochromes used in the comet assay, the total staining signal from each cell – whether damaged or undamaged – was found to be associated with the cell’s DNA content. Analysis of the fluorescence intensity of single cells is straightforward since these data are available in scoring systems based on image analysis. The analysis of testicular cell suspensions provides information on cell type specific composition, susceptibility to genotoxicants, and DNA repair. Internal reference cells, either untreated or carrying defined numbers of lesions induced by ionizing radiation, are useful for investigation of experimental factors that can cause variation in comet assay results, and for routine inclusion in experiments to facilitate standardization of methods and comparison of comet assay data obtained in different experiments or in different laboratories. They can also be used - in combination with a reference curve - to quantify the DNA lesions induced by a certain treatment. Fish cells of a range of genome sizes, both greater and smaller than human, are suitable for this purpose and they are inexpensive.

  17. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems.

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-06-29

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R² = 98.78%).

  18. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect.

  19. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect

  20. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    Hardison, D Ransom; Holland, William C; McCall, Jennifer R; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A; Shea, Damian; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Morris, James A; Litaker, R Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  1. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    D Ransom Hardison

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs. One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R. However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2 for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1. Fish (N = 61 of six different species were screened using the RBA(F. Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a correlated well (R2 = 0.71 with those of the RBA(F, given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F, which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F advantages include the long-term (> 5 years stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R. The RBA(F is cost-effective, allows high sample

  2. Inmunofluorescencia con Crithidia luciliae para la detección de anticuerpos anti-ADN: Imágenes atípicas y su relación con enfermedad de Chagas y leishmaniasis Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies: Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas’ disease and leishmaniasis

    Gloria Griemberg

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Los anticuerpos anti-ADN nativo pueden detectarse por inmunofluorescencia indirecta con Crithidia luciliae, observándose tinción fluorescente anular del kinetoplasto que contiene ADN de doble cadena. En algunos casos pueden observarse imágenes fluorescentes en flagelo, membrana y corpúsculo basal, consideradas atípicas. Como C. luciliae pertenece a la familia Trypanosomatidae, que incluye patógenos para el hombre como Trypanosoma cruzi y Leishmaniaspp., se consideró que las imágenes atípicas pudieran deberse a reacciones cruzadas. Se realizaron estudios serológicos para Chagas a 105 muestras provenientes de zona endémica (Corrientes y no endémica (Buenos Aires para T. cruzi que presentaban imágenes atípicas con C. luciliae. La serología para Chagas resultó positiva en el 64.7% de las muestras de Buenos Aires y en el 78.3% de las de Corrientes que presentaban frente a C. luciliae imagen conjunta de membrana y flagelo. No presentaron la imagen conjunta ninguna de las muestras de dadores de sangre normales, ni de pacientes con enfermedades del tejido conectivo, excepto dos con lupus que también eran chagásicos. Todas las muestras de pacientes chagásicos analizadas frente a C. luciliae presentaron la imagen conjunta. Se estudiaron también 46 muestras de pacientes con leishmaniasis, 28 de ellos coinfectados con T. cruzi. La imagen conjunta se observó en el 88.0% de las muestras de leishmaniásicos y en el 78.5% de las de coinfectados. Los resultados sugieren que C. luciliae podría ser un sustrato alternativo, económico y de bajo riesgo para el diagnóstico serológico de enfermedad de Chagas, aunque no discrimina la infección por Leishmania. El hallazgo de la imagen conjunta en la detección de anti-ADN nativo señala la conveniencia de realizar en esos pacientes, estudios clínicos y de laboratorio para enfermedad de Chagas y leishmaniasis.Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with

  3. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  6. Harmonization of radiobiological assays: why and how?

    Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has made available a technical manual for cytogenetic biodosimetry assays (dicentric chromosome aberration (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays) used for radiation dose assessment in radiation accidents. The International Standardization Organization, which develops standards and guidelines, also provides an avenue for laboratory accreditation, has developed guidelines and recommendations for performing cytogenetic biodosimetry assays. Harmonization of DCA and CBMN assays, has improved their accuracy. Double-blinded inter-laboratory comparison studies involving several networks have further validated DCA and CBMN assays and improved the confidence in their potential use for radiation dose assessment in mass casualties. This kind of international harmonization is lacking for pre-clinical radiobiology assays. The widely used pre-clinical assays that are relatively important to set stage for clinical trials include clonogenic assays, flow-cytometry assays, apoptotic assays, and tumor regression and growth delay assays. However, significant inter-laboratory variations occur with respect to data among laboratories. This raises concerns on the reliability and reproducibility of preclinical data that drives further development and translation. Lack of reproducibility may stem from a variety of factors such as poor scientist training, less than optimal experimental design, inadequate description of methodology, and impulse to publish only the positive data etc. Availability of technical manuals, standard operating procedures, accreditation avenues for laboratories performing such assays, inter-laboratory comparisons, and use of standardized protocols are necessary to enhance reliability and reproducibility. Thus, it is important that radiobiological assays are harmonized for laboratory protocols to ensure successful translation of pre-clinical research on radiation effect modulators to help design clinic trials with

  7. Validation of the Filovirus Plaque Assay for Use in Preclinical Studies

    Amy C. Shurtleff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A plaque assay for quantitating filoviruses in virus stocks, prepared viral challenge inocula and samples from research animals has recently been fully characterized and standardized for use across multiple institutions performing Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4 studies. After standardization studies were completed, Good Laboratory Practices (GLP-compliant plaque assay method validation studies to demonstrate suitability for reliable and reproducible measurement of the Marburg Virus Angola (MARV variant and Ebola Virus Kikwit (EBOV variant commenced at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID. The validation parameters tested included accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, stability of the virus stocks and system suitability. The MARV and EBOV assays were confirmed to be accurate to ±0.5 log10 PFU/mL. Repeatability precision, intermediate precision and reproducibility precision were sufficient to return viral titers with a coefficient of variation (%CV of ≤30%, deemed acceptable variation for a cell-based bioassay. Intraclass correlation statistical techniques for the evaluation of the assay’s precision when the same plaques were quantitated by two analysts returned values passing the acceptance criteria, indicating high agreement between analysts. The assay was shown to be accurate and specific when run on Nonhuman Primates (NHP serum and plasma samples diluted in plaque assay medium, with negligible matrix effects. Virus stocks demonstrated stability for freeze-thaw cycles typical of normal usage during assay retests. The results demonstrated that the EBOV and MARV plaque assays are accurate, precise and robust for filovirus titration in samples associated with the performance of GLP animal model studies.

  8. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes.

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Canine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Potential and the Importance of Dog Breed: Implication for Cell-Based Therapies.

    Bertolo, Alessandro; Steffen, Frank; Malonzo-Marty, Cherry; Stoyanov, Jivko

    2015-01-01

    The study of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a prominent position in veterinary cell-based applications. Yet the plethora of breeds, their different life spans, and interbreed variations provide unclearness on what can be achieved specifically by such therapies. In this study, we compared a set of morphological, physiological, and genetic markers of MSCs derived from large dog breeds, namely, Border collie, German shepherd, Labrador, Malinois, Golden retriever, and Hovawart. We compared colony-forming units (CFUs) assay, population doubling time (PDT), senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, telomere length, and gene expression of MSCs, as well as the ability of cells to differentiate to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic phenotypes. The influence of the culture media α-MEM, low-glucose DMEM, and high-glucose DMEM, used in cell isolation and expansion, was investigated in the presence and absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Initial cell yield was not affected by culturing medium, but MSCs expanded best in α-MEM supplemented with bFGF. After isolation, the number of MSCs was similar among breeds--as shown by equivalent CFUs--except in the Hovawart samples, which had fivefold less CFU. Telomere lengths were similar among breeds. MSCs divided actively only for 4 weeks in culture (PDT = ∼50 h/division), except Border collie cells divided for a longer time than cells from other groups. The percentage of senescent cells increased linearly in all breeds with time, with a faster rate in German shepherd, Labrador, and Golden retriever. Border collie cells underwent efficient osteogenic differentiation, Hovawart cells performed the best in chondrogenic differentiation, and Labrador cells in both, while German shepherd cells had the lower differentiation potential. MSCs from all breeds preserved the same adipogenic differentiation potential. In conclusion, despite variations, isolated MSCs can be

  10. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  11. TRU assay system and measurements

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    The measurement of the transuranic content of nuclear products or process residues has become increasingly important for the recovery of fissionable material from spent fuel elements, the identification of commercial fuel elements which have not yet reached full burnup, the measurement and recovery of transuranics from discarded or stored waste materials, the determination of the transuranic content in high gamma activity waste material scheduled for disposal, compliance with 10CFR61 by land burial operators/shippers, and the satisfaction of accountability requirements. Active neutron interrogation techniques measure either the prompt neutrons or the beta delayed neutrons from fission products following induced fission. These techniques normally only measure fissile transuranics ( 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu) and are commonly applied only to contact handleable waste. Passive neutron interrogation techniques, on the other hand, are capable of measuring all transuranics except 235 U with adequate sensitivity and will work on both contact handleable and high gamma activity wastes. Since the passive techniques are senstitive to a wider spectrum of transuranic isotopes than the active techniques, substantially less complex and less expensive than the active systems, and they have proven techniques for measuring small quantities of TRU in high gamma activity packages, the passive neutron TRU assay technology was chosen for development into the instruments discussed in this paper

  12. Micronucleus assay for radiation workers

    Balasem, A.N.; Ali, A.S.K.

    1997-01-01

    Micronucleus assay was performed on 49 radiation workers and 22 healthy volunteers. Radiation workers were subdivided into two groups according to their employments durations in the radiation field. Group a consisted of 18 radiation workers who have been in this work between 5 and 22 years. Group b included 31 employees who have been classified as radiation workers for 1 to 4.5 years. Statistical analysis showed significant variations between the yields of micronuclei in groups A and B as well as between group A and a group of healthy controls. Meanwhile no significant difference was noticed between the yields of micronuclei in group B and the corresponding values in the healthy controls. The possible effect of age in the induction of micronuclei was discussed and a comparison with the yield of chromosomal aberrations was described. It seems that cytokinesis- blocking method may be used to detect the radiation-induced micronuclei in workers exposed occupationally to ionizing radiation in levels below the maximum permissible limit of 0.05 Sv per year

  13. PAME: plasmonic assay modeling environment

    Adam Hughes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic assays are an important class of optical sensors that measure biomolecular interactions in real-time without the need for labeling agents, making them especially well-suited for clinical applications. Through the incorporation of nanoparticles and fiberoptics, these sensing systems have been successfully miniaturized and show great promise for in-situ probing and implantable devices, yet it remains challenging to derive meaningful, quantitative information from plasmonic responses. This is in part due to a lack of dedicated modeling tools, and therefore we introduce PAME, an open-source Python application for modeling plasmonic systems of bulk and nanoparticle-embedded metallic films. PAME combines aspects of thin-film solvers, nanomaterials and fiber-optics into an intuitive graphical interface. Some of PAME’s features include a simulation mode, a database of hundreds of materials, and an object-oriented framework for designing complex nanomaterials, such as a gold nanoparticles encased in a protein shell. An overview of PAME’s theory and design is presented, followed by example simulations of a fiberoptic refractometer, as well as protein binding to a multiplexed sensor composed of a mixed layer of gold and silver colloids. These results provide new insights into observed responses in reflectance biosensors.

  14. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  16. An ultrafiltration assay for lysyl oxidase

    Shackleton, D.R.; Hulmes, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A modification of the original microdistillation assay for lysyl oxidase is described in which Amicon C-10 microconcentrators are used to separate, by ultrafiltration, the 3H-labeled products released from a [4,5-3H]-lysine-labeled elastin substrate. Enzyme activity is determined by scintillation counting of the ultrafiltrate, after subtraction of radioactivity released in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Conditions are described which optimize both the sensitivity and the efficient use of substrate. The assay shows linear inhibition of activity in up to 1 M urea; hence, as the enzyme is normally diluted in the assay, samples in 6 M urea can be assayed directly, without prior dialysis, and corrected for partial inhibition. Comparable results are obtained when enzyme activity is assayed by ultrafiltration or microdistillation. The assay is simple and convenient and, by using disposable containers throughout, it eliminates the need for time-consuming decontamination of radioactive glassware

  17. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN - ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation

  18. Linearization of the Bradford Protein Assay

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-01-01

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, t...

  19. New automated pellet/powder assay system

    Olsen, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses an automated, high precision, pellet/ powder assay system. The system is an active assay system using a small isotopic neutron source and a coincidence detection system. The handling of the pellet powder samples has been automated and a programmable calculator has been integrated into the system to provide control and data analysis. The versatile system can assay uranium or plutonium in either active or passive modes

  20. Matrix effects of TRU [transuranic] assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of 239 Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Assessment of Safety and Functional Efficacy of Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Approaches Using Retinal Degenerative Animal Models

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction and death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and or photoreceptors can lead to irreversible vision loss. The eye represents an ideal microenvironment for stem cell-based therapy. It is considered an “immune privileged” site, and the number of cells needed for therapy is relatively low for the area of focused vision (macula. Further, surgical placement of stem cell-derived grafts (RPE, retinal progenitors, and photoreceptor precursors into the vitreous cavity or subretinal space has been well established. For preclinical tests, assessments of stem cell-derived graft survival and functionality are conducted in animal models by various noninvasive approaches and imaging modalities. In vivo experiments conducted in animal models based on replacing photoreceptors and/or RPE cells have shown survival and functionality of the transplanted cells, rescue of the host retina, and improvement of visual function. Based on the positive results obtained from these animal experiments, human clinical trials are being initiated. Despite such progress in stem cell research, ethical, regulatory, safety, and technical difficulties still remain a challenge for the transformation of this technique into a standard clinical approach. In this review, the current status of preclinical safety and efficacy studies for retinal cell replacement therapies conducted in animal models will be discussed.

  2. Spatial organization of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro--results from a new individual cell-based model with podia.

    Martin Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC requires their extensive in vitro expansion. MSC in culture typically grow to confluence within a few weeks. They show spindle-shaped fibroblastoid morphology and align to each other in characteristic spatial patterns at high cell density. We present an individual cell-based model (IBM that is able to quantitatively describe the spatio-temporal organization of MSC in culture. Our model substantially improves on previous models by explicitly representing cell podia and their dynamics. It employs podia-generated forces for cell movement and adjusts cell behavior in response to cell density. At the same time, it is simple enough to simulate thousands of cells with reasonable computational effort. Experimental sheep MSC cultures were monitored under standard conditions. Automated image analysis was used to determine the location and orientation of individual cells. Our simulations quantitatively reproduced the observed growth dynamics and cell-cell alignment assuming cell density-dependent proliferation, migration, and morphology. In addition to cell growth on plain substrates our model captured cell alignment on micro-structured surfaces. We propose a specific surface micro-structure that according to our simulations can substantially enlarge cell culture harvest. The 'tool box' of cell migratory behavior newly introduced in this study significantly enhances the bandwidth of IBM. Our approach is capable of accommodating individual cell behavior and collective cell dynamics of a variety of cell types and tissues in computational systems biology.

  3. 233U Assay A Neutron NDA System

    Hensley, D.C.; Lucero, A.J.; Pierce, L.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of highly enriched {sup 233}U material presents some unique challenges. Techniques which apply to the assay of materials of Pu or enriched {sup 235}U do not convert easily over to the assay of {sup 233}U. A specialized neutron assay device is being fabricated to exploit the singles neutron signal, the weak correlated neutron signal, and an active correlated signal. These pieces of information when combined with {gamma} ray isotopics information should give a good overall determination of {sup 233}U material now stored in bldg. 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. 233U Assay A Neutron NDA System

    Hensley, D.C.; Lucero, A.J.; Pierce, L.

    1998-01-01

    The assay of highly enriched 233 U material presents some unique challenges. Techniques which apply to the assay of materials of Pu or enriched 235 U do not convert easily over to the assay of 233 U. A specialized neutron assay device is being fabricated to exploit the singles neutron signal, the weak correlated neutron signal, and an active correlated signal. These pieces of information when combined with γ ray isotopics information should give a good overall determination of 233 U material now stored in bldg. 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  5. Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    Carchon, R.; Bruggeman, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes: (1) various activities to assure nuclear materials accountancy; (2) contributes to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards measures in Belgium and to assist the IAEA through the Belgian Support Programme; (3) renders services to internal and external customers in the field of safeguards; (4) improves passive neutron coincidence counting techniques for waste assay and safeguards verification measurements by R and D on correlation algorithms implemented via software or dedicated hardware; (5) improves gamma assay techniques for waste assay by implementing advanced scanning techniques and different correlation algorithms; and (6) develops numerical calibration techniques. Major achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  6. Assay-specific decision limits for two new automated parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays.

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Fayol, Véronique; Sault, Corinne; Lawson-Body, Ethel; Kahan, André; Cormier, Catherine

    2005-02-01

    The recent development of nonradioactive automated assays for serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has made measurement of these two hormones possible in many laboratories. In this study, we compared two new assays for PTH and 25OHD adapted on an automated analyzer, the LIAISON, with two manual immunoassays used worldwide. We studied 228 osteoporotic patients, 927 healthy individuals, 38 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and 167 hemodialyzed patients. Serum PTH was measured with the Allegro and the LIAISON assays, and 25OHD was measured with DiaSorin RIA and the LIAISON assay. Regression analysis was used to calculate decision thresholds for the LIAISON assays that were equivalent to those of the Allegro PTH and DiaSorin 25OHD assays. The 25OHD concentrations obtained with the LIAISON assay and the RIA in osteoporotic patients were well correlated (r = 0.83; P 50 nmol/L as eligible for the reference population for the LIAISON PTH assay. In this group, the 3rd-97th percentile interval for LIAISON PTH was 3-51 ng/L. Considering upper reference limits of 46 and 51 ng/L for the Allegro and LIAISON assays, respectively, the frequency of above-normal PTH concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism was similar in both assays. Regression analysis between serum PTH measured by the Allegro and LIAISON assays in 167 hemodialyzed patients and the corresponding Bland-Altman analysis of these data suggest that the LIAISON PTH assay tends to read higher than the Allegro assay at low concentrations but lower at high concentrations (>300 ng/L). Because clinical decision limits for both PTH and 25OHD should be assay specific, we propose equivalences between these assays and two manual assays used worldwide. These assay-specific decision limits should help potential users of the LIAISON PTH and 25OHD assays.

  7. The clinical relevance of cell-based therapy for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Gräs, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    or progenitor cells presents an alternative approach, which aims at repairing the anatomical components of the urethral continence mechanism. In vitro expanded progenitor cells isolated from muscle biopsies have been most intensely investigated, and both preclinical trials and a few clinical trials have......Stress urinary incontinence is a common disorder affecting the quality of life for millions of women worldwide. Effective surgical procedures involving synthetic permanent meshes exist, but significant short- and long-term complications occur. Cell-based therapy using autologous stem cells...... provided proof of concept for the idea. An initial enthusiasm caused by positive results from early clinical trials has been dampened by the recognition of scientific irregularities. At the same time, the safety issue for cell-based therapy has been highlighted by the appearance of new and comprehensive...

  8. Spatial planning via extremal optimization enhanced by cell-based local search

    Sidiropoulos, Epaminondas

    2014-01-01

    A new treatment is presented for land use planning problems by means of extremal optimization in conjunction to cell-based neighborhood local search. Extremal optimization, inspired by self-organized critical models of evolution has been applied mainly to the solution of classical combinatorial optimization problems. Cell-based local search has been employed by the author elsewhere in problems of spatial resource allocation in combination with genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. In this paper it complements extremal optimization in order to enhance its capacity for a spatial optimization problem. The hybrid method thus formed is compared to methods of the literature on a specific characteristic problem. It yields better results both in terms of objective function values and in terms of compactness. The latter is an important quantity for spatial planning. The present treatment yields significant compactness values as emergent results

  9. Convergence of Cell Based Finite Volume Discretizations for Problems of Control in the Conduction Coefficients

    Evgrafov, Anton; Gregersen, Misha Marie; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a convergence analysis of a cell-based finite volume (FV) discretization scheme applied to a problem of control in the coefficients of a generalized Laplace equation modelling, for example, a steady state heat conduction. Such problems arise in applications dealing with geometric optimal......, whereas the convergence of the coefficients happens only with respect to the "volumetric" Lebesgue measure. Additionally, depending on whether the stationarity conditions are stated for the discretized or the original continuous problem, two distinct concepts of stationarity at a discrete level arise. We...... provide characterizations of limit points, with respect to FV mesh size, of globally optimal solutions and two types of stationary points to the discretized problems. We illustrate the practical behaviour of our cell-based FV discretization algorithm on a numerical example....

  10. Standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network hardware.

    Maier, K D; Beckstein, C; Blickhan, R; Erhard, W

    2001-03-10

    A standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network architecture is presented. The overall structure of the multilayer perceptron network that was used, the optoelectronic interconnection system between the layers, and all components required in each layer are defined. The design process from VHDL-based modeling from synthesis and partly automatic placing and routing to the final editing of one layer of the circuit of the multilayer perceptrons are described. A suitable approach for the standard cell-based design of optoelectronic systems is presented, and shortcomings of the design tool that was used are pointed out. The layout for the microelectronic circuit of one layer in a multilayer perceptron neural network with a performance potential 1 magnitude higher than neural networks that are purely electronic based has been successfully designed.

  11. Qualification of academic facilities for small-scale automated manufacture of autologous cell-based products.

    Hourd, Paul; Chandra, Amit; Alvey, David; Ginty, Patrick; McCall, Mark; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J

    2014-01-01

    Academic centers, hospitals and small companies, as typical development settings for UK regenerative medicine assets, are significant contributors to the development of autologous cell-based therapies. Often lacking the appropriate funding, quality assurance heritage or specialist regulatory expertise, qualifying aseptic cell processing facilities for GMP compliance is a significant challenge. The qualification of a new Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility with automated processing capability, the first of its kind in a UK academic setting, provides a unique demonstrator for the qualification of small-scale, automated facilities for GMP-compliant manufacture of autologous cell-based products in these settings. This paper shares our experiences in qualifying the Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility, focusing on our approach to streamlining the qualification effort, the challenges, project delays and inefficiencies we encountered, and the subsequent lessons learned.

  12. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    Erwin, David N.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Batishko, Charles R.; Stahl, Kurt A.

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  13. In vitro protein expression: an emerging alternative to cell-based approaches.

    He, Mingyue

    2011-04-30

    Protein expression remains a bottleneck in the production of proteins. Owing to several advantages, cell-free translation is emerging as an alternative to cell-based methods for the generation of proteins. Recent advances have led to many novel applications of cell-free systems in biotechnology, proteomics and fundamental biological research. This special issue of New Biotechnology describes recent advances in cell-free protein expression systems and their applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Challenges of stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective.

    Huang, George T-J; Al-Habib, Mey; Gauthier, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    There are two types of approaches to regenerate tissues: cell-based and cell-free. The former approach is to introduce exogenous cells into the host to regenerate tissues, and the latter is to use materials other than cells in an attempt to regenerate tissues. There has been a significant advancement in stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration research in the past few years. Studies in small and large animals have demonstrated that pulp/dentin-like tissues can be regenerated partially or completely in the root canal space with apical openings of 0.7-3.0 mm using dental pulp stem cells, including stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and subpopulations of pulp stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) have also been shown to regenerate pulp-like tissue. In contrast, the cell-free approach has not produced convincing evidence on pulp regeneration. However, one crucial concept has not been considered nor defined in the field of pulp/dentin regeneration and that is the critical size defect of dentin and pulp. Without such consideration and definition, it is difficult to predict or anticipate the extent of cell-free pulp regeneration that would occur. By reasoning, cell-free therapy is unlikely to regenerate an organ/tissue after total loss. Similarly, after a total loss of pulp, it is unlikely to regenerate without using exogenously introduced cells. A cell homing approach may provide a limited amount of tissue regeneration. Although stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration has shown great promise, clinical trials are difficult to launch at present. This article will address several issues that challenge and hinder the clinical applications of pulp/dentin regeneration which need to be overcome before stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration can occur in the clinic.

  15. Antitumour responses induced by a cell-based Reovirus vaccine in murine lung and melanoma models

    Campion, Ciorsdan A.; Soden, Declan; Forde, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing knowledge in the areas of cell biology, the immune system and the mechanisms of cancer are allowing a new phase of immunotherapy to develop. The aim of cancer vaccination is to activate the host immune system and some success has been observed particularly in the use of the BCG vaccine for bladder cancer as an immunostimulant. Reovirus, an orphan virus, has proven itself as an oncolytic virus in vitro and in vivo. Over 80 % of tumour cell lines have been found to be susceptible to Reovirus infection and it is currently in phase III clinical trials. It has been shown to induce immune responses to tumours with very low toxicities. In this study, Reovirus was examined in two main approaches in vivo, in mice, using the melanoma B16F10 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) models. Initially, mice were treated intratumourally (IT) with Reovirus and the immune responses determined by cytokine analysis. Mice were also vaccinated using a cell-based Reovirus vaccine and subsequently exposed to a tumourigenic dose of cells (B16F10 or LLC). Using the same cell-based Reovirus vaccine, established tumours were treated and subsequent immune responses and virus retrieval investigated. Upregulation of several cytokines was observed following treatment and replication-competent virus was also retrieved from treated tumours. Varying levels of cytokine upregulation were observed and no replication-competent virus was retrieved in vaccine-treated mice. Prolongation of survival and delayed tumour growth were observed in all models and an immune response to Reovirus, either using Reovirus alone or a cell-based vaccine was also observed in all mice. This study provides evidence of immune response to tumours using a cell-based Reovirus vaccine in both tumour models investigated, B16F10 and LLC, cytokine induction was observed with prolongation of survival in almost all cases which may suggest a new method for using Reovirus in the clinic

  16. Do cell based tissue engineering products for meniscus regeneration influence vascularization?

    Koch, Matthias; Ehrenreich, Tobias; Koehl, Gudrun; Pattappa, Girish; Pfeifer, Christian; Loibl, Markus; Müller, Michael; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Zellner, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Meniscus regeneration is observed within the peripheral, vascularized zone but decreases in the inner two thirds alongside the vascularization. Within this avascular area, cell-based tissue-engineering-approaches appear to be a promising strategy for the treatment of meniscal defects. Evaluation of the angiogenic potential of cell-based tissue-engineering-products for meniscus healing. Evaluation of angiogenesis induced by rabbit meniscus-pellets, meniscus-cells (MC) or mesenchymal stem-cells (MSC) in cell-based tissue-engineering-products within a rabbit meniscus-ring was performed using a transparent dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. Observations were undertaken during a 14 days period. Cell preconditioning differed between experimental groups. Immunohistochemical analysis of the regenerated tissue in the meniscus-ring induced by cell loaded composite scaffolds for differentiation and anti-angiogenic factors were performed. Meniscus-pellets and MSC-/MC-based tissue-engineering-products induced angiogenesis. An accelerated vascularization was detected in the group of meniscus-pellets derived from the vascularized zone compared to avascular meniscus-pellets. In terms of cell-based tissue-engineering-products, chondrogenic preconditioning resulted in significantly increased vessel growth. MSC-constructs showed an accelerated angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed a progressive differentiation and lower content for anti-angiogenic endostatin in the precultured group. Preconditioning of MC-/MSC-based tissue-engineering-products is a promising tool to influence the angiogenic potential of tissue-engineering-products and to adapt these properties according to the aimed tissue qualities.

  17. The Role of Recipient T Cells in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tissue Regeneration

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Songlin; Shi, Songtao

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, and stem cell-based tissue engineering. Such scientific strides highlight the potential of replacing or repairing damaged tissues in congenital abnormalities, diseases, or injuries, as well as constructing functional tissue or organs in vivo. Since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into bone-forming cells, they constitute an appropriate cell source to repair damaged bone tissues. In addi...

  18. Signal transduction profile of chemical sensitisers in dendritic cells: An endpoint to be included in a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification?

    Neves, Bruno Miguel; Goncalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Americo; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The development of non-animal testing methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential is an urgent challenge within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. Efforts have been made to replace current animal tests, but so far no alternative methods have been developed. It is widely recognised that alternatives to animal testing cannot be accomplished with a single approach, but rather will require the integration of results obtained from different in vitro and in silico assays. The argument subjacent to the development of in vitro dendritic cell (DC)-based assays is that sensitiser-induced changes in the DC phenotype can be differentiated from those induced by irritants. This assumption is derived from the unique capacity of DC to convert environmental signals encountered at the skin into a receptor expression pattern (MHC class II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules, chemokine receptors) and a soluble mediator release profile that will stimulate T lymphocytes. Since signal transduction cascades precede changes in surface marker expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion, these phenotypic modifications are a consequence of a signal transduction profile that is specifically triggered by sensitisers and not by irritants. A limited number of studies have addressed this subject and the present review attempts to summarise and highlight all of the signalling pathways modulated by skin sensitisers and irritants. Furthermore, we conclude this review by focusing on the most promising strategies suitable for inclusion into a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification.

  19. Translational Application of Microfluidics and Bioprinting for Stem Cell-Based Cartilage Repair

    Silvia Lopa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage defects can impair the most elementary daily activities and, if not properly treated, can lead to the complete loss of articular function. The limitations of standard treatments for cartilage repair have triggered the development of stem cell-based therapies. In this scenario, the development of efficient cell differentiation protocols and the design of proper biomaterial-based supports to deliver cells to the injury site need to be addressed through basic and applied research to fully exploit the potential of stem cells. Here, we discuss the use of microfluidics and bioprinting approaches for the translation of stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair in clinics. In particular, we will focus on the optimization of hydrogel-based materials to mimic the articular cartilage triggered by their use as bioinks in 3D bioprinting applications, on the screening of biochemical and biophysical factors through microfluidic devices to enhance stem cell chondrogenesis, and on the use of microfluidic technology to generate implantable constructs with a complex geometry. Finally, we will describe some new bioprinting applications that pave the way to the clinical use of stem cell-based therapies, such as scaffold-free bioprinting and the development of a 3D handheld device for the in situ repair of cartilage defects.

  20. Translational Application of Microfluidics and Bioprinting for Stem Cell-Based Cartilage Repair

    Mondadori, Carlotta; Mainardi, Valerio Luca; Talò, Giuseppe; Candrian, Christian; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Cartilage defects can impair the most elementary daily activities and, if not properly treated, can lead to the complete loss of articular function. The limitations of standard treatments for cartilage repair have triggered the development of stem cell-based therapies. In this scenario, the development of efficient cell differentiation protocols and the design of proper biomaterial-based supports to deliver cells to the injury site need to be addressed through basic and applied research to fully exploit the potential of stem cells. Here, we discuss the use of microfluidics and bioprinting approaches for the translation of stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair in clinics. In particular, we will focus on the optimization of hydrogel-based materials to mimic the articular cartilage triggered by their use as bioinks in 3D bioprinting applications, on the screening of biochemical and biophysical factors through microfluidic devices to enhance stem cell chondrogenesis, and on the use of microfluidic technology to generate implantable constructs with a complex geometry. Finally, we will describe some new bioprinting applications that pave the way to the clinical use of stem cell-based therapies, such as scaffold-free bioprinting and the development of a 3D handheld device for the in situ repair of cartilage defects. PMID:29535776

  1. Microfluidic-Based Synthesis of Hydrogel Particles for Cell Microencapsulation and Cell-Based Drug Delivery

    Jiandi Wan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation of cells in hydrogel particles has been demonstrated as an effective approach to deliver therapeutic agents. The properties of hydrogel particles, such as the chemical composition, size, porosity, and number of cells per particle, affect cellular functions and consequently play important roles for the cell-based drug delivery. Microfluidics has shown unparalleled advantages for the synthesis of polymer particles and been utilized to produce hydrogel particles with a well-defined size, shape and morphology. Most importantly, during the encapsulation process, microfluidics can control the number of cells per particle and the overall encapsulation efficiency. Therefore, microfluidics is becoming the powerful approach for cell microencapsulation and construction of cell-based drug delivery systems. In this article, I summarize and discuss microfluidic approaches that have been developed recently for the synthesis of hydrogel particles and encapsulation of cells. I will start by classifying different types of hydrogel material, including natural biopolymers and synthetic polymers that are used for cell encapsulation, and then focus on the current status and challenges of microfluidic-based approaches. Finally, applications of cell-containing hydrogel particles for cell-based drug delivery, particularly for cancer therapy, are discussed.

  2. Cell-based therapeutic strategies for replacement and preservation in retinal degenerative diseases

    Jones, Melissa K.; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergey; Wang, Shaomei

    2017-01-01

    Cell-based therapeutics offer diverse options for treating retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). AMD is characterized by both genetic and environmental risks factors, whereas RP is mainly a monogenic disorder. Though treatments exist for some patients with neovascular AMD, a majority of retinal degenerative patients have no effective therapeutics, thus indicating a need for universal therapies to target diverse patient populations. Two main cell-based mechanistic approaches are being tested in clinical trials. Replacement therapies utilize cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to supplant lost or defective host RPE cells. These cells are similar in morphology and function to native RPE cells and can potentially supplant the responsibilities of RPE in vivo. Preservation therapies utilize supportive cells to aid in visual function and photoreceptor preservation partially by neurotrophic mechanisms. The goal of preservation strategies is to halt or slow the progression of disease and maintain remaining visual function. A number of clinical trials are testing the safety of replacement and preservation cell therapies in patients; however, measures of efficacy will need to be further evaluated. In addition, a number of prevailing concerns with regards to the immune-related response, longevity, and functionality of the grafted cells will need to be addressed in future trials. This review will summarize the current status of cell-based preclinical and clinical studies with a focus on replacement and preservation strategies and the obstacles that remain regarding these types of treatments. PMID:28111323

  3. Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro

    Jun Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS. The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

  4. NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy: from basic biology to clinical application.

    Li, Yang; Yin, Jie; Li, Ting; Huang, Shan; Yan, Han; Leavenworth, JianMei; Wang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which recognize and kill target cells independent of antigen specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching, play pivotal roles in immune defence against tumors. However, tumor cells often acquire the ability to escape NK cell-mediated immune surveillance. Thus, understanding mechanisms underlying regulation of NK cell phenotype and function within the tumor environment is instrumental for designing new approaches to improve the current cell-based immunotherapy. In this review, we elaborate the main biological features and molecular mechanisms of NK cells that pertain to regulation of NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity. We further overview current clinical approaches regarding NK cell-based cancer therapy, including cytokine infusion, adoptive transfer of autologous or allogeneic NK cells, applications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing NK cells and adoptive transfer of memory-like NK cells. With these promising clinical outcomes and fuller understanding the basic questions raised in this review, we foresee that NK cell-based approaches may hold great potential for future cancer immunotherapy.

  5. A radiochemical assay for biotin in biological materials

    Hood, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical assay for biotin is described. The assay was sensitive to one nanogram and simple enough for routine biotin analyses. The assay yielded results which were comparable to those obtained from a microbiological assay using Lactobacillus plantarum. (author)

  6. Nondestructive assay of TRU waste using gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    Roberson, G.P.; Decman, D.; Martz, H.; Keto, E.R.; Johansson, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed an active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) scanner for assaying radioactive waste drums. Here they describe the hardware components of their system and the software used for data acquisition, gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, and image reconstruction. They have measured the performance of the system using ''mock'' waste drums and calibrated radioactive sources. They also describe the results of measurements using this system to assay a real TRU waste drum with relatively low Pu content. The results are compared with X-ray NDE studies of the same TRU waste drum as well as assay results from segmented gamma scanner (SGS) measurements

  7. A quantitative assay measuring the function of lipase maturation factor 1

    Yin, Fen; Doolittle, Mark H.; Péterfy, Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Newly synthesized lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and related members of the lipase gene family require an endoplasmic reticulum maturation factor for attainment of enzyme activity. This factor has been identified as lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1), and mutations affecting its function and/or expression result in combined lipase deficiency (cld) and hypertriglyceridemia. To assess the functional impact of Lmf1 sequence variations, both naturally occurring and induced, we report the development of a cell-based assay using LPL activity as a quantitative reporter of Lmf1 function. The assay uses a cell line homozygous for the cld mutation, which renders endogenous Lmf1 nonfunctional. LPL transfected into the mutant cld cell line fails to attain activity; however, cotransfection of LPL with wild-type Lmf1 restores its ability to support normal lipase maturation. In this report, we describe optimized conditions that ensure the detection of a complete range of Lmf1 function (full, partial, or complete loss of function) using LPL activity as the quantitative reporter. To illustrate the dynamic range of the assay, we tested several novel mutations in mouse Lmf1. Our results demonstrate the ability of the assay to detect and analyze Lmf1 mutations having a wide range of effects on Lmf1 function and protein expression. PMID:19471043

  8. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  9. Multiplexed profiling of GPCR activities by combining split TEV assays and EXT-based barcoded readouts.

    Galinski, Sabrina; Wichert, Sven P; Rossner, Moritz J; Wehr, Michael C

    2018-05-25

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of cell surface receptors and are implicated in the physiological regulation of many biological processes. The high diversity of GPCRs and their physiological functions make them primary targets for therapeutic drugs. For the generation of novel compounds, however, selectivity towards a given target is a critical issue in drug development as structural similarities between members of GPCR subfamilies exist. Therefore, the activities of multiple GPCRs that are both closely and distantly related to assess compound selectivity need to be tested simultaneously. Here, we present a cell-based multiplexed GPCR activity assay, termed GPCRprofiler, which uses a β-arrestin recruitment strategy and combines split TEV protein-protein interaction and EXT-based barcode technologies. This approach enables simultaneous measurements of receptor activities of multiple GPCR-ligand combinations by applying massively parallelized reporter assays. In proof-of-principle experiments covering 19 different GPCRs, both the specificity of endogenous agonists and the polypharmacological effects of two known antipsychotics on GPCR activities were demonstrated. Technically, normalization of barcode reporters across individual assays allows quantitative pharmacological assays in a parallelized manner. In summary, the GPCRprofiler technique constitutes a flexible and scalable approach, which enables simultaneous profiling of compound actions on multiple receptor activities in living cells.

  10. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions.

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Calder, Kathryn; Du, Li; El Emam, Khaled; Hyde-Lay, Robyn; Isasi, Rosario; Joly, Yann; Kerr, Ian; Malin, Bradley; McDonald, Michael; Penney, Steven; Piat, Gayle; Roy, Denis-Claude; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vercauteren, Suzanne; Verhenneman, Griet; West, Lori; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-02-03

    The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors' clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants' ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that privacy risks associated with cell-based

  11. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    Perret, G.; Simon, P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, β-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising [fr

  12. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  13. A Continuous, Fluorogenic Sirtuin 2 Deacylase Assay

    Galleano, Iacopo; Schiedel, Matthias; Jung, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    and kinetic insight regarding sirtuin inhibitors, it is important to have access to efficient assays. In this work, we report readily synthesized fluorogenic substrates enabling enzyme-economical evaluation of SIRT2 inhibitors in a continuous assay format as well as evaluation of the properties of SIRT2...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  15. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine

  16. Comparison of Batch Assay and Random Assay Using Automatic Dispenser in Radioimmunoassay

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Young; Shin, Sun Young; Min, Gyeong Sun; Lee, Hyun Joo [Seoul National University college of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was usually performed by the batch assay. To improve the efficiency of RIA without increase of the cost and time, random assay could be a choice. We investigated the possibility of the random assay using automatic dispenser by assessing the agreement between batch assay and random assay. The experiments were performed with four items; Triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In each item, the sera of twenty patients, the standard, and the control samples were used. The measurements were done 4 times with 3 hour time intervals by random assay and batch assay. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the standard samples and patients' data in T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA were assessed. ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) and coefficient of correlation were measured to assessing the agreement between two methods. The CVs (%) of T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA measured by batch assay were 3.2+-1.7%, 3.9+-2.1%, 7.1+-6.2%, 11.2+-7.2%. The CVs by random assay were 2.1+-1.7%, 4.8+-3.1%, 3.6+-4.8%, and 7.4+-6.2%. The ICC between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9968 (T3), 0.9973 (fT4), 0.9996 (PSA), and 0.9901 (CEA). The coefficient of correlation between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9924(T3), 0.9974 (fT4), 0.9994 (PSA), and 0.9989 (CEA) (p<0.05). The results of random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay in a day. These results suggest that random assay using automatic dispenser could be used in radioimmunoassay

  17. Comparison of Batch Assay and Random Assay Using Automatic Dispenser in Radioimmunoassay

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Ho Young; Shin, Sun Young; Min, Gyeong Sun; Lee, Hyun Joo

    2009-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was usually performed by the batch assay. To improve the efficiency of RIA without increase of the cost and time, random assay could be a choice. We investigated the possibility of the random assay using automatic dispenser by assessing the agreement between batch assay and random assay. The experiments were performed with four items; Triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In each item, the sera of twenty patients, the standard, and the control samples were used. The measurements were done 4 times with 3 hour time intervals by random assay and batch assay. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the standard samples and patients' data in T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA were assessed. ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) and coefficient of correlation were measured to assessing the agreement between two methods. The CVs (%) of T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA measured by batch assay were 3.2±1.7%, 3.9±2.1%, 7.1±6.2%, 11.2±7.2%. The CVs by random assay were 2.1±1.7%, 4.8±3.1%, 3.6±4.8%, and 7.4±6.2%. The ICC between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9968 (T3), 0.9973 (fT4), 0.9996 (PSA), and 0.9901 (CEA). The coefficient of correlation between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9924(T3), 0.9974 (fT4), 0.9994 (PSA), and 0.9989 (CEA) (p<0.05). The results of random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay in a day. These results suggest that random assay using automatic dispenser could be used in radioimmunoassay

  18. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in radar facility workers: comparison of the comet assay with micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.

    2003-01-01

    Genotoxic risks of occupational exposure in a radar facility were evaluated by using alkaline comet assay, micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay on peripheral blood leukocytes in exposed subjects and corresponding controls. Results show that occupational exposure to microwave radiation correlates with an increase of genome damage in somatic cells. The levels of DNA damage in exposed subjects determined by using alkaline comet assay were increased compared to control and showed interindividual variations. Incidence of micronuclei was also significantly increased compared to baseline control values. After short exposure of cultured lymphocytes to bleomycin, cells of occupationally exposed subjects responded with high numbers of chromatid breaks. Although the level of chromosome damage generated by bleomycin varied greatly between individuals, in exposed subjects a significantly elevated number of chromatid breaks was observed. Our results support data reported in literature indicating that microwave radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard. Alkaline comet assay is confirmed as a sensitive and highly reproducible technique for detection of primary DNA damage inflicted in somatic cells. Micronucleus assay was confirmed as reliable bio-markers of effect and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive bio-marker of individual cancer susceptibility. The results obtained also confirm the necessity to improve measures and to perform accurate health surveillance of individuals occupationally exposed to microwave radiation

  19. Lectin binding assays for in-process monitoring of sialylation in protein production.

    Xu, Weiduan; Chen, Jianmin; Yamasaki, Glenn; Murphy, John E; Mei, Baisong

    2010-07-01

    Many therapeutic proteins require appropriate glycosylation for their biological activities and plasma half life. Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is a glycoprotein which has extensive post-translational modification by N-linked glycosylation. The terminal sialic acid in the N-linked glycans of FVIII is required for maximal circulatory half life. The extent of FVIII sialylation can be determined by high pH anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulse electrochemical detector (HPAEC-PED), but this requires a large amount of purified protein. Using FVIII as a model, the objective of the present study was to develop assays that enable detection and prediction of sialylation deficiency at an early stage in the process and thus prevent downstream product quality excursions. Lectin ECA (Erythrina Cristagalli) binds to unsialylated Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc and the ECA-binding level (i.e., terminal Gal(beta1-4) exposure) is inversely proportional to the level of sialylation. By using ECA, a cell-based assay was developed to measure the global sialylation profile in FVIII producing cells. To examine the Galbeta1-4 exposure on the FVIII molecule in bioreactor tissue culture fluid (TCF), an ELISA-based ECA-FVIII binding assay was developed. The ECA-binding specificity in both assays was assessed by ECA-specific sugar inhibitors and neuraminidase digestion. The ECA-binding specificity was also independently confirmed by a ST3GAL4 siRNA knockdown experiment. To establish the correlation between Galbeta1-4 exposure and the HPAEC-PED determined FVIII sialylation value, the FVIII containing bioreactor TCF and the purified FVIII samples were tested with ECA ELISA binding assay. The results indicated an inverse correlation between ECA binding and the corresponding HPAEC-PED sialylation value. The ECA-binding assays are cost effective and can be rapidly performed, thereby making them effective for in-process monitoring of protein sialylation.

  20. Anatomic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Engineered Cartilage Constructs for Biologic Total Joint Replacement

    Saxena, Vishal; Kim, Minwook; Keah, Niobra M.; Neuwirth, Alexander L.; Stoeckl, Brendan D.; Bickard, Kevin; Restle, David J.; Salowe, Rebecca; Wang, Margaret Ye; Steinberg, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage has a poor healing response, and few viable options exist for repair of extensive damage. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) polymerized through UV crosslinking can generate functional tissue, but this crosslinking is not compatible with indirect rapid prototyping utilizing opaque anatomic molds. Methacrylate-modified polymers can also be chemically crosslinked in a cytocompatible manner using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). The objectives of this study were to (1) compare APS/TEMED crosslinking with UV crosslinking in terms of functional maturation of MSC-seeded HA hydrogels; (2) generate an anatomic mold of a complex joint surface through rapid prototyping; and (3) grow anatomic MSC-seeded HA hydrogel constructs using this alternative crosslinking method. Juvenile bovine MSCs were suspended in methacrylated HA (MeHA) and crosslinked either through UV polymerization or chemically with APS/TEMED to generate cylindrical constructs. Minipig porcine femoral heads were imaged using microCT, and anatomic negative molds were generated by three-dimensional printing using fused deposition modeling. Molded HA constructs were produced using the APS/TEMED method. All constructs were cultured for up to 12 weeks in a chemically defined medium supplemented with TGF-β3 and characterized by mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histologic analysis. Both UV- and APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs showed increasing mechanical properties and robust proteoglycan and collagen deposition over time. At 12 weeks, APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs had higher equilibrium and dynamic moduli than UV-polymerized constructs, with no differences in proteoglycan or collagen content. Molded HA constructs retained their hemispherical shape in culture and demonstrated increasing mechanical properties and proteoglycan and collagen deposition, especially at the edges compared to the center of these

  1. Medically relevant assays with a simple smartphone and tablet based fluorescence detection system.

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M

    2015-05-20

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

  2. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    Piotr Wargocki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis.

  3. Nano-immunosafety: issues in assay validation

    Boraschi, Diana; Italiani, Paola; Oostingh, Gertie J; Duschl, Albert; Casals, Eudald; Puntes, Victor F; Nelissen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials for human health must include a thorough evaluation of their effects on the immune system, which is responsible for defending the integrity of our body from damage and disease. An array of robust and representative assays should be set up and validated, which could be predictive of the effects of nanomaterials on immune responses. In a trans-European collaborative work, in vitro assays have been developed to this end. In vitro tests have been preferred for their suitability to standardisation and easier applicability. Adapting classical assays to testing the immunotoxicological effects of nanoparticulate materials has raised a series of issues that needed to be appropriately addressed in order to ensure reliability of results. Besides the exquisitely immunological problem of selecting representative endpoints predictive of the risk of developing disease, assay results turned out to be significantly biased by artefactual interference of the nanomaterials or contaminating agents with the assay protocol. Having addressed such problems, a series of robust and representative assays have been developed that describe the effects of engineered nanoparticles on professional and non-professional human defence cells. Two of such assays are described here, one based on primary human monocytes and the other employing human lung epithelial cells transfected with a reporter gene.

  4. Radioactive wastes assay technique and equipment

    Lee, K. M.; Hong, D. S; Kim, T. K.; Bae, S. M.; Shon, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment

  5. A multiwell format assay for heparanase.

    Behzad, Farhad; Brenchley, Paul E C

    2003-09-15

    This assay employs a biotinylated heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HSGAG) substrate that is covalently linked to the surface of 96-well immunoassay plates. The ratio of biotin:HSGAG and the coating concentration of substrate bound to the wells have been optimized and allow removal of biotin HSGAG within 60 min of incubation at 37 degrees C in assay buffer with a standard dilution of bacterial heparitinase or platelet heparanase. Loss of biotin signal from the well surface is detected on incubation with peroxidase-streptavidin followed by color development using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as the peroxidase substrate. The new assay allows specific detection of heparanase activity in multiple samples in a total time of 3 h including a 1-h substrate digestion step and is a significant improvement with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and ease of handling of multiple samples compared to other described assays. Heparanase specifically degrades the biotinylated HSGAG substrate, when used with an optimized assay buffer. A range of enzymes including collagenase, trypsin, plasmin, pepsin, chondroitinases, hyaluronidase, and neuraminidase show no effect on the substrate under optimized assay conditions. The covalent linkage of the substrate to the well prevents leaching of substrate and allows preparation and long-term storage of substrate-coated plates. The assay can be used to detect heparanase levels in clinical samples and cell culture supernatants and is ideal as a screening method for antagonists of enzyme activity.

  6. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  7. Understanding positional cues in salamander limb regeneration: implications for optimizing cell-based regenerative therapies

    Catherine D. McCusker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine has reached the point where we are performing clinical trials with stem-cell-derived cell populations in an effort to treat numerous human pathologies. However, many of these efforts have been challenged by the inability of the engrafted populations to properly integrate into the host environment to make a functional biological unit. It is apparent that we must understand the basic biology of tissue integration in order to apply these principles to the development of regenerative therapies in humans. Studying tissue integration in model organisms, where the process of integration between the newly regenerated tissues and the ‘old’ existing structures can be observed and manipulated, can provide valuable insights. Embryonic and adult cells have a memory of their original position, and this positional information can modify surrounding tissues and drive the formation of new structures. In this Review, we discuss the positional interactions that control the ability of grafted cells to integrate into existing tissues during the process of salamander limb regeneration, and discuss how these insights could explain the integration defects observed in current cell-based regenerative therapies. Additionally, we describe potential molecular tools that can be used to manipulate the positional information in grafted cell populations, and to promote the communication of positional cues in the host environment to facilitate the integration of engrafted cells. Lastly, we explain how studying positional information in current cell-based therapies and in regenerating limbs could provide key insights to improve the integration of cell-based regenerative therapies in the future.

  8. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    Ruhter, Wayne D.; Lee, R. Stephen; Ottmar, Herbert; Guardini, Sergio

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants [ru

  9. Thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: TELISA.

    Mattiasson, B; Borrebaeck, C; Sanfridson, B; Mosbach, K

    1977-08-11

    A new method, thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TELISA), for the assay of endogenous and exogenous compounds in biological fluids is described. It is based on the previously described enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique, ELISA, but utilizes enzymic heat formation which is measured in an enzyme thermistor unit. In the model system studied determination of human serum albumin down to a concentration of 10(-10) M (5 ng/ml) was achieved, with both normal and catalase labelled human serum albumin competing for the binding sites on the immunosorbent, which was rabbit antihuman serum albumin immobilized onto Sepharose CL-4B.

  10. Analysis of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation

    Marangoni, Rafael R; Rahneberg, Ilko; Fröhlich, Thomas; Hilbrunner, Falko; Theska, René

    2017-01-01

    An analytical model that considers the static behaviour of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) is presented. With this model, adjustment strategies for the stiffness and tilt sensitivity of EMFC weighing cells are derived. These parameters are known as limiting factors for the achievable sensitivity and measurement uncertainty respectively. In order to obtain the analytical equations of the system, linear and rigid-body behaviour is assumed. The results obtained with the model are compared with results from multi-body simulations. It is shown that, for the considered model, an optimum design that eliminates the tilt sensitivity of the weighing cell while minimizing its stiffness exists. (paper)

  11. Recent advances and challenges of fuel cell based power system architectures and control – A review

    Das, Vipin; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan

    2017-01-01

    by bit with expansion in current because of losses associated with fuel cell. It is difficult in handling large rated fuel cell based power system without regulating mechanism. The issue connected with fuel based structural planning and the arrangements are widely investigated for all sorts......Renewable energy generation is rapidly growing in the power sector industry and widely used for two categories: grid connected and standalone system. This paper gives the insights about fuel cell operation and application of various power electronics systems. The fuel cell voltage decreases bit...

  12. Microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for toxic carbon monoxide monitoring

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    This study presents an innovative microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. The hypothesis for the function of the biosensor is that CO inhibits bacterial activity in the anode and thereby reduces electricity production. A mature electrochemically active biofilm...... increasing CO concentration over 70%. Besides, the response time of the biosensor was 1 h. The compact design and simple operation of the biosensor makes it easy to be integrated in existing CO-based industrial facilities either as a forewarning sensor for CO toxicity or even as an individual on...

  13. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  14. 16.1% Efficient Hysteresis-Free Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Synergistically Improved ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Significant efficiency improvements are reported in mesoscopic perovskite solar cells based on the development of a low-temperature solution-processed ZnO nanorod (NR) array exhibiting higher NR aspect ratio, enhanced electron density

  15. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    IAS Admin

    A Search for the Molecular Better Half! Vaishali Verma ... These assays comprise of a protein molecule, ... ciferase, beta-galactosidase, GFP, g3p of M13 filamentous ph- .... sensors of protein–protein interactions, Nature Biotechnology, Vol.20,.

  16. Linearization of the bradford protein assay.

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-04-12

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, the ratio of the absorbance measurements at 590 nm and 450 nm is strictly linear with protein concentration. This simple procedure increases the accuracy and improves the sensitivity of the assay about 10-fold, permitting quantification down to 50 ng of bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, the interference commonly introduced by detergents that are used to create the cell lysates is greatly reduced by the new protocol. A linear equation developed on the basis of mass action and Beer's law perfectly fits the experimental data.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a... intended for use in conjunction with other laboratory findings and clinical assessment of the patient to...

  18. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  19. Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials

    Reilly, D.; Ensslin, N.; Smith, H. Jr.; Kreiner, S.

    1991-03-01

    The term nondestructive assay (NDA) is applied to a series of measurement techniques for nuclear fuel materials. The techniques measure radiation induced or emitted spontaneously from the nuclear material; the measurements are nondestructive in that they do not alter the physical or chemical state of the nuclear material. NDA techniques are characterized as passive or active depending on whether they measure radiation from the spontaneous decay of the nuclear material or radiation induced by an external source. This book emphasizes passive NDA techniques, although certain active techniques like gamma-ray absorption densitometry and x-ray fluorescence are discussed here because of their intimate relation to passive assay techniques. The principal NDA techniques are classified as gamma-ray assay, neutron assay, and calorimetry. Gamma-ray assay techniques are treated in Chapters 1--10. Neutron assay techniques are the subject of Chapters 11--17. Chapters 11--13 cover the origin of neutrons, neutron interactions, and neutron detectors. Chapters 14--17 cover the theory and applications of total and coincidence neutron counting. Chapter 18 deals with the assay of irradiated nuclear fuel, which uses both gamma-ray and neutron assay techniques. Chapter 19 covers perimeter monitoring, which uses gamma-ray and neutron detectors of high sensitivity to check that no unauthorized nuclear material crosses a facility boundary. The subject of Chapter 20 is attribute and semiquantitative measurements. The goal of these measurements is a rapid verification of the contents of nuclear material containers to assist physical inventory verifications. Waste and holdup measurements are also treated in this chapter. Chapters 21 and 22 cover calorimetry theory and application, and Chapter 23 is a brief application guide to illustrate which techniques can be used to solve certain measurement problems

  20. Optical assay for biotechnology and clinical diagnosis.

    Moczko, Ewa; Cauchi, Michael; Turner, Claire; Meglinski, Igor; Piletsky, Sergey

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present an optical diagnostic assay consisting of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes combined with multivariate data analysis for quantitative and qualitative examination of biological and clinical samples. The performance of the assay is based on the analysis of spectrum of the selected fluorescent dyes with the operational principle similar to electronic nose and electronic tongue systems. This approach has been successfully applied for monitoring of growing cell cultures and identification of gastrointestinal diseases in humans.

  1. Calibration method for a radwaste assay system

    Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Toma, Al.; Paunoiu, C.

    2004-01-01

    A waste assay system entirely designed and manufactured in the Institute for Nuclear Research is used in radwaste treatment and conditioning stream to ensure compliance with national repository radiological requirements. Usually, waste assay systems are calibrated by using various experimental arrangements including calibration phantoms. The paper presents a comparative study concerning the efficiency calibration performed by shell source method and a semiempirical, computational method based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. (authors)

  2. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK"1"/"2) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. - Highlights: • Electrochemical effect of MBZ and PTX (anti tubulin drugs) on breast cancer cells was detected. • Detection was carried by silicon nanograss electrodes(SiNGEs). • Signaling pathways activated in the cells by drug treatment, change the anodic

  3. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad [Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Nano Bio Electronic Devices Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Thin Film and Nanoelectronic Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolahad, Mohammad, E-mail: m.abdolahad@ut.ac.ir [Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Nano Bio Electronic Devices Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Electronic Center of Excellence, Thin Film and Nanoelectronic Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Eng, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK{sup 1/2}) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. - Highlights: • Electrochemical effect of MBZ and PTX (anti tubulin drugs) on breast cancer cells was detected. • Detection was carried by silicon nanograss electrodes(SiNGEs). • Signaling pathways activated in the cells by drug treatment, change the

  4. Assessment of gamma ray-induced DNA damage in Lasioderma serricorne using the comet assay

    Kameya, Hiromi; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2012-01-01

    We attempted a DNA comet assay under alkaline conditions to verify the irradiation treatment of pests. Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) were chosen as test insects and irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source at 1 kGy. We conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over time for 7 day. Severe DNA fragmentation in L. serricorne cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. The parameters of the comet image analysis were calculated, and the degree of DNA damage and repair were evaluated. Values for the Ratio (a percentage determined by fluorescence in the damaged area to overall luminance, including intact DNA and the damaged area of a comet image) of individual cells showed that no cells in the irradiated group were included in the Ratio<0.1 category, the lowest grade. This finding was observed consistently throughout the 7-day post-irradiation period. We suggest that the Ratio values of individual cells can be used as an index of irradiation history and conclude that the DNA comet assay under alkaline conditions, combined with comet image analysis, can be used to identify irradiation history. - Highlights: ► We investigated the DNA comet assay to verify the irradiation of pests. ► Ratio and Tail Moment were higher in irradiated groups than in the control group. ► The DNA comet assay can be used to identify irradiation history.

  5. A cell-based design approach for RSFQ circuits using a binary decision diagram

    Yoshikawa, N.; Koshiyama, J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a cell-based design approach for rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits based on a binary decision diagram (BDD). The BDD is a way to represent a logical function using a directed graph which consists of binary switches having one input and two outputs. Since complex logic circuits can be implemented in the form of regular arrays of the BDD binary switches, we can use a cell-based layout methodology for the design of the RSFQ circuits. In this study, we implemented the BDD binary switches by a D 2 flip-flop. In the BDD design approach we made a cell library which contains a binary switch, pulse splitters, confluence buffers and Josephson transmission lines. All cell layouts in the library have identical widths and heights, so that any logic function can be laid out by simple connection of the library cells. As a case study, we implemented a 1-bit RSFQ half-adder and a 3-bit encoder for a flash AD converter. (author)

  6. A multilayer microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening

    Liu, Chong; Wang, Lei; Li, Jingmin; Ding, Xiping; Chunyu, Li; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    A multilayer polydimethylsiloxane microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening is described in this paper. This established microdevice was based on a modularization method and it integrated a drug/medium concentration gradient generator (CGG), pneumatic microvalves and a cell culture microchamber array. The CGG was able to generate five steps of linear concentrations with the same outlet flow rate. The medium/drug flowed through CGG and then into the pear-shaped cell culture microchambers vertically. This vertical perfusion mode was used to reduce the impact of the shear stress on the physiology of cells induced by the fluid flow in the microchambers. Pear-shaped microchambers with two arrays of miropillars at each outlet were adopted in this microdevice, which were beneficial to cell distribution. The chemotherapeutics Cisplatin (DDP)-induced Cisplatin-resistant cell line A549/DDP apoptotic experiments were performed well on this platform. The results showed that this novel microdevice could not only provide well-defined and stable conditions for cell culture, but was also useful for cell-based high-throughput drug screening with less reagents and time consumption. (paper)

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL BASED THIN FILMS CZTS BY SCAPS

    C. Mebarkiaa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the overall context of the diversification of the use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic has become increasingly indispensable. As such, the development of a new generation of photovoltaic cells based on CuZnSnS4 (CZTS looks promising. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS is a new film absorber, with good physical properties (band gap energy 1.4-1.6 eV [01] with a large absorption coefficient over 104 cm-1. Indeed, the performance of these cells exceeded 30% in recent years.In the present paper, our work based on modeling and numerical simulation, we used SCAPS to study the performance of solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS and thus evaluate the electrical efficiency η for typical structures of ZnO / i- ZnO / CdS / CZTS and ITO / ZnO / CdS / CZTS. Furthermore, the influence of the change of CdS by ZnSe buffer layer was treated in this paper.

  8. Looking into the Future: Toward Advanced 3D Biomaterials for Stem-Cell-Based Regenerative Medicine.

    Liu, Zhongmin; Tang, Mingliang; Zhao, Jinping; Chai, Renjie; Kang, Jiuhong

    2018-04-01

    Stem-cell-based therapies have the potential to provide novel solutions for the treatment of a variety of diseases, but the main obstacles to such therapies lie in the uncontrolled differentiation and functional engraftment of implanted tissues. The physicochemical microenvironment controls the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells, and the key step in mimicking the stem cell microenvironment is to construct a more physiologically relevant 3D culture system. Material-based 3D assemblies of stem cells facilitate the cellular interactions that promote morphogenesis and tissue organization in a similar manner to that which occurs during embryogenesis. Both natural and artificial materials can be used to create 3D scaffolds, and synthetic organic and inorganic porous materials are the two main kinds of artificial materials. Nanotechnology provides new opportunities to design novel advanced materials with special physicochemical properties for 3D stem cell culture and transplantation. Herein, the advances and advantages of 3D scaffold materials, especially with respect to stem-cell-based therapies, are first outlined. Second, the stem cell biology in 3D scaffold materials is reviewed. Third, the progress and basic principles of developing 3D scaffold materials for clinical applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are reviewed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy: A promising therapeutic strategy.

    Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Abasi, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in bone marrow, fat, and so many other tissues, and can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, as well as myocytes and neurons. Moreover, they have great capacity for self-renewal while maintaining their multipotency. Their capacity for proliferation and differentiation, in addition to their immunomodulatory activity, makes them very promising candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine. Moreover, MSCs have the ability of mobilization to the site of damage; therefore, they can automatically migrate to the site of injury via their chemokine receptors following intravenous transplantation. In this respect, they can be applied for MSC-based gene therapy. In this new therapeutic method, genes of interest are introduced into MSCs via viral and non-viral-based methods that lead to transgene expression in them. Although stem cell-based gene therapy is a relatively new strategy, it lights a new hope for the treatment of a variety of genetic disorders. In the near future, MSCs can be of use in a vast number of clinical applications, because of their uncomplicated isolation, culture, and genetic manipulation. However, full consideration is still crucial before they are utilized for clinical trials, because the number of studies that signify the advantageous effects of MSC-based gene therapy are still limited.

  10. A Study of a Load Cell Based High Speed Weighting Method for a Potato Sorter

    Yang, Jong Hoon

    2002-02-01

    Potatoes, together with tangerines, are one of the major agricultural products in Jeju, and the production account for more than 30 % of the domestic production. Recently some kinds of sorting machine for potatoes are available, but they are not extensively used because their performance is not satisfactory and/or they are very expensive. This paper presents a load cell based high speed weighting method for sorting the potatoes. This method is based on the fact that the linear momentum of a potato is proportional to the mass of it. To test the performance of the weighting system, we developed load cell based automatic sorting system for potatoes. The system does not adopt an additional mechanism for weighting the potato such as a cup conveyer. It uses normal flat conveyers themselves so that the cost for maintenance and establishment will be lower than other system. Through sets of experiments, the developed weighting system was proved to be very reliable, and its performance is good enough to use as a practical sorting system

  11. Perspectives of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Age-Related Retinal Degenerative Diseases.

    Holan, Vladimir; Hermankova, Barbora; Kossl, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases, which include age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, mostly affect the elderly population and are the most common cause of decreased quality of vision or even blindness. So far, there is no satisfactory treatment protocol to prevent, stop, or cure these disorders. A great hope and promise for patients suffering from retinal diseases is represented by stem cell-based therapy that could replace diseased or missing retinal cells and support regeneration. In this respect, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained from the particular patient and used as autologous cells have turned out to be a promising stem cell type for treatment. Here we show that MSCs can differentiate into cells expressing markers of retinal cells, inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by retinal tissue, and produce a number of growth and neuroprotective factors for retinal regeneration. All of these properties make MSCs a prospective cell type for cell-based therapy of age-related retinal degenerative diseases.

  12. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed.

  13. [Regulatory requirements regarding cell-based medicinal products for human and veterinary use - a comparison].

    Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act.

  14. Cell-based delivery of glucagon-like peptide-1 using encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Wallrapp, Christine; Thoenes, Eric; Thürmer, Frank; Jork, Anette; Kassem, Moustapha; Geigle, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) CellBeads are cell-based implants for the sustained local delivery of bioactive factors. They consist of GLP-1 secreting mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in a spherically shaped immuno-isolating alginate matrix. A highly standardized and reproducible encapsulation method is described for the manufacturing of homogeneous CellBeads. Viability and sustained secretion was shown for the recombinant GLP-1 and the cell endogenous bioactive factors like vascular endothelial growth factor, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Manufacturing and quality control is performed in compliance with good manufacturing practice and fulfils all regulatory requirements for human clinical use. GLP-1 CellBeads combine the neuro- and cardioprotective properties of both GLP-1 and mesenchymal stem cells. First promising results were obtained from preclinical studies and an ongoing safety trial in humans but further studies have to prove the overall potential of CellBead technology in cell-based regenerative medicine.

  15. Low-Dose Cyclophosphamide Synergizes with Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Antitumor Activity

    Joris D. Veltman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical immunotherapy trials like dendritic cell-based vaccinations are hampered by the tumor's offensive repertoire that suppresses the incoming effector cells. Regulatory T cells are instrumental in suppressing the function of cytotoxic T cells. We studied the effect of low-dose cyclophosphamide on the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and investigated if the success rate of dendritic cell immunotherapy could be improved. For this, mesothelioma tumor-bearing mice were treated with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose of cyclophosphamide. Proportions of regulatory T cells and the cytotoxic T cell functions at different stages of disease were analyzed. We found that low-dose cyclophosphamide induced beneficial immunomodulatory effects by preventing the induction of Tregs, and as a consequence, cytotoxic T cell function was no longer affected. Addition of cyclophosphamide improved immunotherapy leading to an increased median and overall survival. Future studies are needed to address the usefulness of this combination treatment for mesothelioma patients.

  16. Cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions: ethical challenges for early human trials.

    Mathews, D J H; Sugarman, J; Bok, H; Blass, D M; Coyle, J T; Duggan, P; Finkel, J; Greely, H T; Hillis, A; Hoke, A; Johnson, R; Johnston, M; Kahn, J; Kerr, D; Kurtzberg, J; Liao, S M; McDonald, J W; McKhann, G; Nelson, K B; Rao, M; Regenberg, A; Siegel, A W; Smith, K; Solter, D; Song, H; Vescovi, A; Young, W; Gearhart, J D; Faden, R

    2008-07-22

    Attempts to translate basic stem cell research into treatments for neurologic diseases and injury are well under way. With a clinical trial for one such treatment approved and in progress in the United States, and additional proposals under review, we must begin to address the ethical issues raised by such early forays into human clinical trials for cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. An interdisciplinary working group composed of experts in neuroscience, cell biology, bioethics, law, and transplantation, along with leading disease researchers, was convened twice over 2 years to identify and deliberate on the scientific and ethical issues raised by the transition from preclinical to clinical research of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. While the relevant ethical issues are in many respects standard challenges of human subjects research, they are heightened in complexity by the novelty of the science, the focus on the CNS, and the political climate in which the science is proceeding. Distinctive challenges confronting US scientists, administrators, institutional review boards, stem cell research oversight committees, and others who will need to make decisions about work involving stem cells and their derivatives and evaluate the ethics of early human trials include evaluating the risks, safety, and benefits of these trials, determining and evaluating cell line provenance, and determining inclusion criteria, informed consent, and the ethics of conducting early human trials in the public spotlight. Further study and deliberation by stakeholders is required to move toward professional and institutional policies and practices governing this research.

  17. Cell based-gene delivery approaches for the treatment of spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr

    2010-03-01

    Cell based-gene delivery has provided an important therapeutic strategy for different disorders in the recent years. This strategy is based on the transplantation of genetically modified cells to express specific genes and to target the delivery of therapeutic factors, especially for the treatment of cancers and neurological, immunological, cardiovascular and heamatopoietic disorders. Although, preliminary reports are encouraging, and experimental studies indicate functionally and structurally improvements in the animal models of different disorders, universal application of this strategy for human diseases requires more evidence. There are a number of parameters that need to be evaluated, including the optimal cell source, the most effective gene/genes to be delivered, the optimal vector and method of gene delivery into the cells and the most efficient route for the delivery of genetically modified cells into the patient. Also, some obstacles have to be overcome, including the safety and usefulness of the approaches and the stability of the improvements. Here, recent studies concerning with the cell-based gene delivery for spinal cord injury and some neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease are briefly reviewed, and their exciting consequences are discussed.

  18. Entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater: Performances, fouling, and bacterial community structure.

    Juntawang, Chaipon; Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-11-01

    A laboratory scale study on treatment performances and fouling of entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (E-AnMBR) in comparison with suspended cells-based-bioreactor (S-AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was conducted. The difference between E-AnMBR and S-AnMBR was the uses of cells entrapped in phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol versus planktonic cells. Bulk organic removal efficiencies by the two AnMBRs were comparable. Lower concentrations of suspended biomass, bound extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in E-AnMBR resulted in less fouling compared to S-AnMBR. S-AnMBR provided 7 days of operation time versus 11 days for E-AnMBR before chemical cleaning was required. The less frequent chemical cleaning potentially leads to a longer membrane life-span for E-AnMBR compared to S-AnMBR. Phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant in cake sludge from both AnMBRs but their abundances were different between the two AnMBRs, suggesting influence of cell entrapment on the bacteria community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioimmune assay of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase

    Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH 2 from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and [ 125 I]-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the [ 125 I]antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10 9 platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency

  20. Nondestructive assay methods for irradiated nuclear fuels

    Hsue, S.T.; Crane, T.W.; Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Lee, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a review of the status of nondestructive assay (NDA) methods used to determine burnup and fissile content of irradiated nuclear fuels. The gamma-spectroscopy method measures gamma activities of certain fission products that are proportional to the burnup. Problems associated with this method are migration of the fission products and gamma-ray attenuation through the relatively dense fuel material. The attenuation correction is complicated by generally unknown activity distributions within the assemblies. The neutron methods, which usually involve active interrogation and prompt or delayed signal counting, are designed to assay the fissile content of the spent-fuel elements. Systems to assay highly enriched spent-fuel assemblies have been tested extensively. Feasibility studies have been reported of systems to assay light-water reactor spent-fuel assemblies. The slowing-down spectrometer and neutron resonance absorption methods can distinguish between the uranium and plutonium fissile contents, but they are limited to the assay of individual rods. We have summarized the status of NDA techniques for spent-fuel assay and present some subjects in need of further investigation. Accuracy of the burnup calculations for power reactors is also reviewed

  1. The Effect of Primary Cancer Cell Culture Models on the Results of Drug Chemosensitivity Assays: The Application of Perfusion Microbioreactor System as Cell Culture Vessel

    Chen, Yi-Dao; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To precisely and faithfully perform cell-based drug chemosensitivity assays, a well-defined and biologically relevant culture condition is required. For the former, a perfusion microbioreactor system capable of providing a stable culture condition was adopted. For the latter, however, little is known about the impact of culture models on the physiology and chemosensitivity assay results of primary oral cavity cancer cells. To address the issues, experiments were performed. Results showed that minor environmental pH change could significantly affect the metabolic activity of cells, demonstrating the importance of stable culture condition for such assays. Moreover, the culture models could also significantly influence the metabolic activity and proliferation of cells. Furthermore, the choice of culture models might lead to different outcomes of chemosensitivity assays. Compared with the similar test based on tumor-level assays, the spheroid model could overestimate the drug resistance of cells to cisplatin, whereas the 2D and 3D culture models might overestimate the chemosensitivity of cells to such anticancer drug. In this study, the 3D culture models with same cell density as that in tumor samples showed comparable chemosensitivity assay results as the tumor-level assays. Overall, this study has provided some fundamental information for establishing a precise and faithful drug chemosensitivity assay. PMID:25654105

  2. High-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology.

    Hu, Ning; Fang, Jiaru; Zou, Ling; Wan, Hao; Pan, Yuxiang; Su, Kaiqi; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based bioassays were effective method to assess the compound toxicity by cell viability, and the traditional label-based methods missed much information of cell growth due to endpoint detection, while the higher throughputs were demanded to obtain dynamic information. Cell-based biosensor methods can dynamically and continuously monitor with cell viability, however, the dynamic information was often ignored or seldom utilized in the toxin and drug assessment. Here, we reported a high-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording method via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology. The dynamic cell viability, inhibition ratio and growth rate were derived from the dynamic response curves from the cell-based impedance biosensor. The results showed that the biosensors has the dose-dependent manners to diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadiac acid based on the analysis of the dynamic cell viability and cell growth status. Moreover, the throughputs of dynamic cytotoxicity were compared between cell-based biosensor methods and label-based endpoint methods. This cell-based impedance biosensor can provide a flexible, cost and label-efficient platform of cell viability assessment in the shellfish toxin screening fields.

  3. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    Polireddy, Kishore; Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J; Haynes, Mark K; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Tegos, George P; Sklar, Larry A; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity.

  4. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    Kishore Polireddy

    Full Text Available ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS, can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity.

  5. Quality Control Assays for Clinical-Grade Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Methods for ATMP Release.

    Radrizzani, Marina; Soncin, Sabrina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Andriolo, Gabriella; Bolis, Sara; Turchetto, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are promising candidates for the development of cell-based therapies for various diseases and are currently being evaluated in a number of clinical trials (Sharma et al., Transfusion 54:1418-1437, 2014; Ikebe and Suzuki, Biomed Res Int 2014:951512, 2014). MSC for therapeutic applications are classified as advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) (Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 November 2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004) and must be prepared according to good manufacturing practices ( http://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/eudralex/vol-4 ). They may be derived from different starting materials (mainly bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue, or cord blood) and applied as fresh or cryopreserved products, in the autologous as well as an allogeneic context (Sharma et al., Transfusion 54:1418-1437, 2014; Ikebe and Suzuki, Biomed Res Int 2014:951512, 2014; Sensebé and Bourin, Transplantation 87(9 Suppl):S49-S53, 2009). In any case, they require an approved and well-defined panel of assays in order to be released for clinical use.This chapter describes analytical methods implemented and performed in our cell factory as part of the release strategy for an ATMP consisting of frozen autologous BM-derived MSC. Such methods are designed to assess the safety (sterility, endotoxin, and mycoplasma assays) and identity/potency (cell count and viability, immunophenotype and clonogenic assay) of the final product. Some assays are also applied to the biological starting material (sterility) or carried out as in-process controls (sterility, cell count and viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic assay).The validation strategy for each analytical method is described in the accompanying Chapter 20 .

  6. A high-throughput in vitro ring assay for vasoactivity using magnetic 3D bioprinting

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Shen, Tsaiwei; Hebel, Chris; Barthlow, Herbert G.; Wagoner, Matthew; Souza, Glauco R.

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive liabilities are typically assayed using wire myography, which is limited by its high cost and low throughput. To meet the demand for higher throughput in vitro alternatives, this study introduces a magnetic 3D bioprinting-based vasoactivity assay. The principle behind this assay is the magnetic printing of vascular smooth muscle cells into 3D rings that functionally represent blood vessel segments, whose contraction can be altered by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. A cost-effective imaging modality employing a mobile device is used to capture contraction with high throughput. The goal of this study was to validate ring contraction as a measure of vasoactivity, using a small panel of known vasoactive drugs. In vitro responses of the rings matched outcomes predicted by in vivo pharmacology, and were supported by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, this ring assay robustly models vasoactivity, which could meet the need for higher throughput in vitro alternatives. PMID:27477945

  7. Two-Phase Microfluidic Systems for High Throughput Quantification of Agglutination Assays

    Castro, David

    2018-04-01

    Lab-on-Chip, the miniaturization of the chemical and analytical lab, is an endeavor that seems to come out of science fiction yet is slowly becoming a reality. It is a multidisciplinary field that combines different areas of science and engineering. Within these areas, microfluidics is a specialized field that deals with the behavior, control and manipulation of small volumes of fluids. Agglutination assays are rapid, single-step, low-cost immunoassays that use microspheres to detect a wide variety molecules and pathogens by using a specific antigen-antibody interaction. Agglutination assays are particularly suitable for the miniaturization and automation that two-phase microfluidics can offer, a combination that can help tackle the ever pressing need of high-throughput screening for blood banks, epidemiology, food banks diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this thesis, we present a two-phase microfluidic system capable of incubating and quantifying agglutination assays. The microfluidic channel is a simple fabrication solution, using laboratory tubing. These assays are incubated by highly efficient passive mixing with a sample-to-answer time of 2.5 min, a 5-10 fold improvement over traditional agglutination assays. It has a user-friendly interface that that does not require droplet generators, in which a pipette is used to continuously insert assays on-demand, with no down-time in between experiments at 360 assays/h. System parameters are explored, using the streptavidin-biotin interaction as a model assay, with a minimum detection limit of 50 ng/mL using optical image analysis. We compare optical image analysis and light scattering as quantification methods, and demonstrate the first light scattering quantification of agglutination assays in a two-phase ow format. The application can be potentially applied to other biomarkers, which we demonstrate using C-reactive protein (CRP) assays. Using our system, we can take a commercially available CRP qualitative slide

  8. Selection of non-destructive assay methods: Neutron counting or calorimetric assay?

    Cremers, T.L.; Wachter, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to D ampersand D has lead to more measurements of product, waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. Some of these materials are difficult to analyze by either neutron counting or calorimetric assay. To determine the most efficacious analysis method, variety of materials, impure salts and hydrofluorination residues have been assayed by both calorimetric assay and neutron counting. New data will be presented together with a review of published data. The precision and accuracy of these measurements are compared to chemistry values and are reported. The contribution of the gamma ray isotopic determination measurement to the overall error of the calorimetric assay or neutron assay is examined and discussed. Other factors affecting selection of the most appropriate non-destructive assay method are listed and considered

  9. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  10. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  11. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  12. Multiple-endpoints gene alteration-based (MEGA) assay: A toxicogenomics approach for water quality assessment of wastewater effluents.

    Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hara-Yamamura, Hiroe; Nakashima, Koji; Tan, Lea Chua; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    Wastewater effluents contain a significant number of toxic contaminants, which, even at low concentrations, display a wide variety of toxic actions. In this study, we developed a multiple-endpoints gene alteration-based (MEGA) assay, a real-time PCR-based transcriptomic analysis, to assess the water quality of wastewater effluents for human health risk assessment and management. Twenty-one genes from the human hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2), covering the basic health-relevant stress responses such as response to xenobiotics, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity, were selected and incorporated into the MEGA assay. The genes related to the p53-mediated DNA damage response and cytochrome P450 were selected as markers for genotoxicity and response to xenobiotics, respectively. Additionally, the genes that were dose-dependently regulated by exposure to the wastewater effluents were chosen as markers for cytotoxicity. The alterations in the expression of an individual gene, induced by exposure to the wastewater effluents, were evaluated by real-time PCR and the results were validated by genotoxicity (e.g., comet assay) and cell-based cytotoxicity tests. In summary, the MEGA assay is a real-time PCR-based assay that targets cellular responses to contaminants present in wastewater effluents at the transcriptional level; it is rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput and can thus complement any chemical analysis for water quality assessment and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Random assay in radioimmunoassay: Feasibility and application compared with batch assay

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hwan Hee; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineNational Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The batch assay has been conventionally used for radioimmunoassay (RIA) because of its technical robustness and practical convenience. However, it has limitations in terms of the relative lag of report time due to the necessity of multiple assays in a small number of samples compared with the random assay technique. In this study, we aimed to verify whether the random assay technique can be applied in RIA and is feasible in daily practice. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of eight standard curves within a single kit were calculated in a CA-125 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the reference of the practically ideal CV of the CA-125 kit. Ten standard curves of 10 kits from 2 prospectively collected lots (pLot) and 85 standard curves of 85 kits from 3 retrospectively collected lots (Lot) were obtained. Additionally, the raw measurement data of both 170 control references and 1123 patients' sera were collected retrospectively between December 2015 and January 2016. A standard curve of the first kit of each lot was used as a master standard curve for a random assay. The CVs of inter-kits were analyzed in each lot, respectively. All raw measurements were normalized by decay and radioactivity. The CA-125 values from control samples and patients' sera were compared using the original batch assay and random assay. In standard curve analysis, the CVs of inter-kits in pLots and Lots were comparable to those within a single kit. The CVs from the random assay with normalization were similar to those from the batch assay in the control samples (CVs % of low/high concentration; Lot1 2.71/1.91, Lot2 2.35/1.83, Lot3 2.83/2.08 vs. Lot1 2.05/1.21, Lot2 1.66/1.48, Lot3 2.41/2.14). The ICCs between the batch assay and random assay using patients' sera were satisfactory (Lot1 1.00, Lot2 0.999, Lot3 1.00). The random assay technique could be successfully applied to the conventional CA-125 IRMA kits. The random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay. The

  14. A Meshfree Cell-based Smoothed Point Interpolation Method for Solid Mechanics Problems

    Zhang Guiyong; Liu Guirong

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of a weakened weak (W 2 ) formulation using a generalized gradient smoothing operation, this paper introduces a novel meshfree cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) for solid mechanics problems. The W 2 formulation seeks solutions from a normed G space which includes both continuous and discontinuous functions and allows the use of much more types of methods to create shape functions for numerical methods. When PIM shape functions are used, the functions constructed are in general not continuous over the entire problem domain and hence are not compatible. Such an interpolation is not in a traditional H 1 space, but in a G 1 space. By introducing the generalized gradient smoothing operation properly, the requirement on function is now further weakened upon the already weakened requirement for functions in a H 1 space and G 1 space can be viewed as a space of functions with weakened weak (W 2 ) requirement on continuity. The cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) is formulated based on the W 2 formulation, in which displacement field is approximated using the PIM shape functions, which possess the Kronecker delta property facilitating the enforcement of essential boundary conditions [3]. The gradient (strain) field is constructed by the generalized gradient smoothing operation within the cell-based smoothing domains, which are exactly the triangular background cells. A W 2 formulation of generalized smoothed Galerkin (GS-Galerkin) weak form is used to derive the discretized system equations. It was found that the CS-PIM possesses the following attractive properties: (1) It is very easy to implement and works well with the simplest linear triangular mesh without introducing additional degrees of freedom; (2) it is at least linearly conforming; (3) this method is temporally stable and works well for dynamic analysis; (4) it possesses a close-to-exact stiffness, which is much softer than the overly-stiff FEM model and

  15. Cellular MR Imaging

    Michel Modo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [(USPIO] particles or (polymeric paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, and (USPIO-based cellular imaging has been focused on imaging of macrophage activity. Several of these magneto-pharmaceuticals have been FDA-approved or are in late-phase clinical trials. As for prelabeling of cells in vitro, a challenge has been to induce a sufficient uptake of contrast agents into nonphagocytic cells, without affecting normal cellular function. It appears that this issue has now largely been resolved, leading to an active research on monitoring the cellular biodistribution in vivo following transplantation or transfusion of these cells, including cell migration and trafficking. New applications of cellular MR imaging will be directed, for instance, towards our understanding of hematopoietic (immune cell trafficking and of novel guided (stem cell-based therapies aimed to be translated to the clinic in the future.

  16. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  17. Immune chromatography: a quantitative radioimmunological assay

    Davis, J.W.; Demetriades, M.; Bowen, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Immune chromatography, a radioimmunological binding assay, employs paper chromatography to separate immune complexes from free antigen and antibodies. During chromatography free antigen and antibodies become distributed throughout the paper, while immune complexes remain near the bottoms of the strips. The chromatographic differences can be made quantitative by using either iodinated antigens or antibodies. Under these conditions nanogram quantities of antigen can be detected or antibodies in sera diluted several 1000-fold. The immune chromatography assay can also be performed as an indirect assay, since the paper strips are cut from nitrocellulose paper. In this case the immune components are absorbed by the paper during chromatography. Antigen is then detected with an iodinated second antibody. The indirect immune chromatography assay is particularly useful for identifying different sera that react with the same antigen. Reaction with the first serum before chromatography reduces the amount of antigen available to the second serum following chromatography. In addition to characterizing the immune chromatography procedure, we discuss the possible applications of chromatography assays for the quantitation of other types of molecular binding interactions. (Auth.)

  18. Evaluation of three gentamicin serum assay techniques

    Matzke, G.R.; Gwizdala, C.; Wery, J.; Ferry, D.; Starnes, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation was designed to compare the enzyme-modified immunoassay (Syva--EMIT) with a radioimmunoassay (New England Nuclear--RIA) and the radiometric assay (Johnston--BACTEC) to determine the optimal assay for use in our aminoglycoside dosing service. The serum concentration determinations obtained via the three assay methods were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Significant positive correlations were noted between the three assay techniques (p less than 0.005) during both sample collection phases. The coefficients of determination for EMIT vs BACTEC and RIA vs BACTEC were 0.73 and 0.83 during phase 1, respectively, and 0.65 and 0.68 during phase 2, respectively. The slope of the regression lines also varied markedly during the two phases; 0.49 and 0.42 for EMIT and for RIA vs BACTEC, respectively, during phase 1 compound with 1.12 and 0.77, respectively, during phase 2. The differences noted in these relationships during phase 1 and 2 may be related to the alteration of the pH of the control sera utilized in the BACTEC assay. In contrast, RIA vs EMIT regression analysis indicated that existence of a highly significant relationship (p less than 0.0005 and r2 . 0.90). The EMIT technique was the easiest and most accurate for determination of serum gentamicin concentrations, whereas the BACTEC method was judged unacceptable for clinical use

  19. Portable load-cell based system for weighing UF6 cylinders

    Fainberg, A.; Gordon, D.; Dermendjiev, E.; Terrey, D.; Mitchell, R.

    1982-01-01

    A load-cell-based portable weighing system which is capable of verifying the weights of 2.2 tonne 30-inch UF 6 cylinders has been developed by the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This system weighs about 13 kg and has an attainable accuracy of about 1 kg. After an initial calibration at NBS, the system is ready for use in the field. Approximately 5 to 10 minutes are needed for assembly, and, if an overhead crane has access to all cylinders to be weighed, from 10 to 15 weighings may be performed in one hour. During the past year the system has been tested at several facilities around the world with satisfactory results and with favorable comments from the facility operators. Results of several tests are presented in this paper

  20. Cell-based land use screening procedure for regional siting analysis

    Jalbert, J.S.; Dobson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    An energy facility site-screening methodology which permits the land resource planner to identify candidate siting areas was developed. Through the use of spatial analysis procedures and computer graphics, a selection of candidate areas is obtained. Specific sites then may be selected from among candidate areas for environmental impact analysis. The computerized methodology utilizes a cell-based geographic information system for specifying the suitability of candidate areas for an energy facility. The criteria to be considered may be specified by the user and weighted in terms of importance. Three primary computer programs have been developed. These programs produce thematic maps, proximity calculations, and suitability calculations. Programs are written so as to be transferrable to regional planning or regulatory agencies to assist in rational and comprehensive power plant site identification and analysis

  1. The I-V Measurement System for Solar Cells Based on MCU

    Chen Fengxiang; Ai Yu; Wang Jiafu; Wang Lisheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an I-V measurement system for solar cells based on Single-chip Microcomputer (MCU) is presented. According to the test principles of solar cells, this measurement system mainly comprises of two parts-data collecting, data processing and displaying. The MCU mainly used as to acquire data, then the collecting results is sent to the computer by serial port. The I-V measurement results of our test system are shown in the human-computer interaction interface based on our hardware circuit. By comparing the test results of our I-V tester and the results of other commercial I-V tester, we found errors for most parameters are less than 5%, which shows our I-V test result is reliable. Because the MCU can be applied in many fields, this I-V measurement system offers a simple prototype for portable I-V tester for solar cells.

  2. The I-V Measurement System for Solar Cells Based on MCU

    Chen Fengxiang; Ai Yu; Wang Jiafu; Wang Lisheng, E-mail: phonixchen79@yahoo.com.cn [Department of physics science and technology, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, 430070 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, an I-V measurement system for solar cells based on Single-chip Microcomputer (MCU) is presented. According to the test principles of solar cells, this measurement system mainly comprises of two parts-data collecting, data processing and displaying. The MCU mainly used as to acquire data, then the collecting results is sent to the computer by serial port. The I-V measurement results of our test system are shown in the human-computer interaction interface based on our hardware circuit. By comparing the test results of our I-V tester and the results of other commercial I-V tester, we found errors for most parameters are less than 5%, which shows our I-V test result is reliable. Because the MCU can be applied in many fields, this I-V measurement system offers a simple prototype for portable I-V tester for solar cells.

  3. Potential Application of Electrical Stimulation in Stem Cell-Based Treatment against Hearing Loss

    Mingliang Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deafness is a common human disease, which is mainly caused by irreversible damage to hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs in the mammalian cochlea. At present, replacement of damaged or missing hair cells and SGNs by stem cell transplantation therapy is an effective treatment. However, the survival rate of stem cell transplantation is low, with uncontrollable differentiation hindering its application. Most researchers have focused on biochemical factors to regulate the growth and differentiation of stem cells, whereas little study has been performed using physical factors. This review intends to illustrate the current problems in stem cell-based treatment against deafness and to introduce electric field stimulation as a physical factor to regulate stem cell behavior and facilitate stem cell therapy to treat hearing loss in the future.

  4. Optotransfection of mammalian cells based on a femtosecond laser and facilitated by gold nanorods

    Ma, Zili; Chan, Kam T; Wang, Jianfang; Kong, Siu K; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    The optotransfection of cells based on a femtosecond laser has attracted much attention owing to its high transfection efficiency and high cell viability since its first report by Konig. However, the low throughput in the original method also limits its use in practical applications. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been reported to function as local receivers of light to relax the requirement of accurate optical alignment for the optotransfection of single cells. However, the visible light used in such work is not suitable for penetrating deep tissues in certain applications. In this study, we employed gold nanorods (GNRs) and an infrared femtosecond laser at the wavelength of 980 nm to realize optotransfection of cells with GFP. It was found that the surface coating of GNRs exhibited a significant effect on the process of cell permeabilization. (paper)

  5. A three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for elasto-plasticity

    Lee, Kye Hyung; Im, Se Yong; Lim, Jae Hyuk; Sohn, Dong Woo

    2015-01-01

    This work is concerned with a three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for application to elastic-plastic analysis. The formulation of smoothed finite elements is extended to cover elastic-plastic deformations beyond the classical linear theory of elasticity, which has been the major application domain of smoothed finite elements. The finite strain deformations are treated with the aid of the formulation based on the hyperelastic constitutive equation. The volumetric locking originating from the nearly incompressible behavior of elastic-plastic deformations is remedied by relaxing the volumetric strain through the mean value. The comparison with the conventional finite elements demonstrates the effectiveness and accuracy of the present approach.

  6. Catalyst Degradation in High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Buazar, F.; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    and multi‐walled carbon nanotubes were used as supports for electrode catalysts and evaluated in accelerated durability tests under potential cycling at 150 °C. Measurements of open circuit voltage, area specific resistance and hydrogen permeation through the membrane were carried out, indicating little...... contribution of the membrane degradation to the performance losses during the potential cycling tests. As the major mechanism of the fuel cell performance degradation, the electrochemical active area of the cathodic catalysts showed a steady decrease in the cyclic voltammetric measurements, which was also......Degradation of carbon supported platinum catalysts is a major failure mode for the long term durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes. With Vulcan carbon black as a reference, thermally treated carbon black...

  7. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    Ge Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explicit formulation of the model can be deduced. The proposed technique takes suitable method of selecting sample points, which are used to calculate the values of the model parameters. By comparing with the Quasi-Newton method, the results verify accuracy and reliability of this method.

  8. Solar Cells Based on Inks of n-Type Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Ning, Zhijun; Dong, Haopeng; Zhang, Qiong; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. New inorganic ligands including halide anions have significantly accelerated progress in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics in recent years. All such device reports to date have relied on halide treatment during solid-state ligand exchanges or on co-treatment of long-aliphatic-ligand-capped nanoparticles in the solution phase. Here we report solar cells based on a colloidal quantum dot ink that is capped using halide-based ligands alone. By judicious choice of solvents and ligands, we developed a CQD ink from which a homogeneous and thick colloidal quantum dot solid is applied in a single step. The resultant films display an n-type character, making it suitable as a key component in a solar-converting device. We demonstrate two types of quantum junction devices that exploit these iodide-ligand-based inks. We achieve solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% using this class of colloids.

  9. Tissue engineering and cell-based therapy toward integrated strategy with artificial organs.

    Gojo, Satoshi; Toyoda, Masashi; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    Research in order that artificial organs can supplement or completely replace the functions of impaired or damaged tissues and internal organs has been underway for many years. The recent clinical development of implantable left ventricular assist devices has revolutionized the treatment of patients with heart failure. The emerging field of regenerative medicine, which uses human cells and tissues to regenerate internal organs, is now advancing from basic and clinical research to clinical application. In this review, we focus on the novel biomaterials, i.e., fusion protein, and approaches such as three-dimensional and whole-organ tissue engineering. We also compare induced pluripotent stem cells, directly reprogrammed cardiomyocytes, and somatic stem cells for cell source of future cell-based therapy. Integrated strategy of artificial organ and tissue engineering/regenerative medicine should give rise to a new era of medical treatment to organ failure.

  10. Boosting Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapy with Anticancer Drugs: a Perspective.

    Cifaldi, Loredana; Locatelli, Franco; Marasco, Emiliano; Moretta, Lorenzo; Pistoia, Vito

    2017-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells efficiently recognize and kill tumor cells through several mechanisms including the expression of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors on target cells. Different clinical trials indicate that NK cell-based immunotherapy represents a promising antitumor treatment. However, tumors develop immune-evasion strategies, including downregulation of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors, that can negatively affect antitumor activity of NK cells, which either reside endogenously, or are adoptively transferred. Thus, restoration of the expression of NK cell-activating ligands on tumor cells represents a strategic therapeutic goal. As discussed here, various anticancer drugs can fulfill this task via different mechanisms. We envision that the combination of selected chemotherapeutic agents with NK cell adoptive transfer may represent a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust Allocation of Reserve Policies for a Multiple-Cell Based Power System

    Hu, Junjie; Lan, Tian; Heussen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    modifications. The LDR method can effectively adapt the participation factors of reserve providers to respond to system imbalance signals. The policies considered the covariance of historic system imbalance signals to reduce the overall reserve cost. When applying this method to the cell-based power system...... for a certain horizon, the influence of different time resolutions on policy-making is also investigated, which presents guidance for its practical application. The main results illustrate that: (a) the LDR-based method shows better performance, by producing smaller reserve costs compared to the costs given...... by a reference method; and (b) the cost index decreases with increased time intervals, however, longer intervals might result in insufficient reserves, due to low time resolution. On the other hand, shorter time intervals require heavy computational time. Thus, it is important to choose a proper time interval...

  12. Fetal Cell Based Prenatal Diagnosis: Perspectives on the Present and Future

    Morris Fiddler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to capture and analyze fetal cells from maternal circulation or other sources during pregnancy has been a goal of prenatal diagnostics for over thirty years. The vision of replacing invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures with the prospect of having the entire fetal genome in hand non-invasively for chromosomal and molecular studies for both clinical and research use has brought many investigators and innovations into the effort. While the object of this desire, however, has remained elusive, the aspiration for this approach to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis remains and the inquiry has continued. With the advent of screening by cell-free DNA analysis, the standards for fetal cell based prenatal diagnostics have been sharpened. Relevant aspects of the history and the current status of investigations to meet the goal of having an accessible and reliable strategy for capturing and analyzing fetal cells during pregnancy are reviewed.

  13. Hurdles of CAR-T cell-based cancer immunotherapy directed against solid tumors.

    Zhang, Bing-Lan; Qin, Di-Yuan; Mo, Ze-Ming; Li, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Recent reports on the impressive efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells against hematologic malignancies have inspired oncologists to extend these efforts for the treatment of solid tumors. Clinical trials of CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy for solid tumors showed that the efficacies are not as remarkable as in the case of hematologic malignancies. There are several challenges that researchers must face when treating solid cancers with CAR-T cells, these include choosing an ideal target, promoting efficient trafficking and infiltration, overcoming the immunosuppressive microenvironment, and avoiding associated toxicity. In this review, we discuss the obstacles imposed by solid tumors on CAR-T cell-based immunotherapy and strategies adopted to improve the therapeutic potential of this approach. Continued investigations are necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes and decrease the adverse effects of CAR-T cell therapy in patients with solid malignancies in the future.

  14. Realization of highly efficient polymer solar cell based on PBDTTT-EFT and [71]PCBM

    Bharti, Vishal; Chand, Suresh; Dutta, Viresh

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we have fabricated highly efficient polymer solar cells based on the blend of PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM in the inverted device configuration. By using low temperature processed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer (ETL) and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as additive in chlorobenzene (CB) solvent we have achieved PCE of 9.43% with an excellent short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.6 mAcm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.80 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.67. These results reveals that addition of 3% DIO additive in CB solvent improve the morphology (lower charge carrier recombination and better metal/organic semiconductor interface) and provide uniform interpenetrating networks in PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM blend active layer.

  15. Impute DC link (IDCL) cell based power converters and control thereof

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish; Hernendez, Jorge; Moghe, Rohit; Iyer, Amrit; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad

    2016-04-26

    Power flow controllers based on Imputed DC Link (IDCL) cells are provided. The IDCL cell is a self-contained power electronic building block (PEBB). The IDCL cell may be stacked in series and parallel to achieve power flow control at higher voltage and current levels. Each IDCL cell may comprise a gate drive, a voltage sharing module, and a thermal management component in order to facilitate easy integration of the cell into a variety of applications. By providing direct AC conversion, the IDCL cell based AC/AC converters reduce device count, eliminate the use of electrolytic capacitors that have life and reliability issues, and improve system efficiency compared with similarly rated back-to-back inverter system.

  16. Stem cell-based approach in diabetes and pancreatic cancer management

    Yi-Zhou Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-mediated therapy is a promising strategy for treating pancreatic diseases such as Type-1 diabetes (T1D and pancreatic cancers. Although islet transplantation has been reported to be an effective diabetes therapy, its worldwide application is extremely limited due to the shortage of donor islets and immune rejection problems. Stem cell-based approach for islet neogenesis in vivo could provide a promising alternative source of islets for treating diabetes. On the other hand, targeting the cancer stem cells could be very effective for the treatment of pancreatic cancers. In this review, we focused on the present progress in the field of adult pancreatic stem cells, stem cell-mediated strategies for treating T1D, and pancreatic cancer stem cells, while discussing of the possible challenges involved in them.

  17. Organic solar cells based on anthracene-containing PPE–PPVs and non-fullerene acceptors

    Alam, Shahidul

    2018-04-13

    Lately, non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) have received increasing attention for use in polymer-based bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs), as improved photovoltaic performance compared to classical polymer–fullerene blends could be demonstrated. In this study, polymer solar cells based on a statistically substituted anthracene-containing poly(p-phenylene ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs) copolymer (AnE-PVstat) as donor in combination with a number of different electron accepting materials were investigated. Strong photoluminescence quenching of the polymer donor indicates intimate intermixing of both materials. However, the photovoltaic performances were found to be poor compared to blends that use fullerene as acceptor. Time-delayed collection field (TDCF) measurements demonstrate: charge generation is field-independent, but bimolecular recombination processes limit the fill factor and thus the efficiency of devices.

  18. A three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for elasto-plasticity

    Lee, Kye Hyung; Im, Se Yong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jae Hyuk [KARI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Dong Woo [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with a three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for application to elastic-plastic analysis. The formulation of smoothed finite elements is extended to cover elastic-plastic deformations beyond the classical linear theory of elasticity, which has been the major application domain of smoothed finite elements. The finite strain deformations are treated with the aid of the formulation based on the hyperelastic constitutive equation. The volumetric locking originating from the nearly incompressible behavior of elastic-plastic deformations is remedied by relaxing the volumetric strain through the mean value. The comparison with the conventional finite elements demonstrates the effectiveness and accuracy of the present approach.

  19. A balanced review of the status T cell-based therapy against cancer

    Marincola Francesco M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent commentary stirred intense controversy over the status of anti-cancer immunotherapy. The commentary suggested moving beyond current anti-cancer vaccines since active-specific immunization failed to match expectations toward a more aggressive approach involving the adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded tumor antigen-specific T cells. Although the same authors clarified their position in response to others' rebuttal more discussion needs to be devoted to the current status of T cell-based anti-cancer therapy. The accompanying publications review the status of adoptive transfer of cancer vaccines on one hand and active-specific immunization on the other. Hopefully, reading these articles will offer a balanced view of the current status of antigen-specific ant-cancer therapies and suggest future strategies to foster unified efforts to complement either approach with the other according to specific biological principles.

  20. [Classification of cell-based medicinal products and legal implications: An overview and an update].

    Scherer, Jürgen; Flory, Egbert

    2015-11-01

    In general, cell-based medicinal products do not represent a uniform class of medicinal products, but instead comprise medicinal products with diverse regulatory classification as advanced-therapy medicinal products (ATMP), medicinal products (MP), tissue preparations, or blood products. Due to the legal and scientific consequences of the development and approval of MPs, classification should be clarified as early as possible. This paper describes the legal situation in Germany and highlights specific criteria and concepts for classification, with a focus on, but not limited to, ATMPs and non-ATMPs. Depending on the stage of product development and the specific application submitted to a competent authority, legally binding classification is done by the German Länder Authorities, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, or European Medicines Agency. On request by the applicants, the Committee for Advanced Therapies may issue scientific recommendations for classification.

  1. Organic solar cells based on anthracene-containing PPE–PPVs and non-fullerene acceptors

    Alam, Shahidul; Meitzner, Rico; Nwadiaru, Ogechi V.; Friebe, Christian; Cann, Jonathan; Ahner, Johannes; Ulbricht, Christoph; Kan, Zhipeng; Hö ppener, Stephanie; Hager, Martin D.; Egbe, Daniel A. M.; Welch, Gregory C.; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Hoppe, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Lately, non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) have received increasing attention for use in polymer-based bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs), as improved photovoltaic performance compared to classical polymer–fullerene blends could be demonstrated. In this study, polymer solar cells based on a statistically substituted anthracene-containing poly(p-phenylene ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs) copolymer (AnE-PVstat) as donor in combination with a number of different electron accepting materials were investigated. Strong photoluminescence quenching of the polymer donor indicates intimate intermixing of both materials. However, the photovoltaic performances were found to be poor compared to blends that use fullerene as acceptor. Time-delayed collection field (TDCF) measurements demonstrate: charge generation is field-independent, but bimolecular recombination processes limit the fill factor and thus the efficiency of devices.

  2. Enzymatic biofuel cell based on electrodes modified with lipid liquid-crystalline cubic phases

    Nazaruk, Ewa; Smoliński, Sławomir; Swatko-Ossor, Marta; Ginalska, Grażyna; Fiedurek, Jan; Rogalski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Renata

    Two glassy carbon electrodes modified with enzymes embedded in lyotropic liquid-crystalline cubic phase were used for the biofuel cell construction. The monoolein liquid-crystalline film allowed to avoid separators in the biofuel cell. Glucose and oxygen as fuels, and glucose oxidase and laccase as anode and cathode biocatalysts, respectively were used. The biofuel cell parameters were examined in McIlvaine buffer, pH 7 solution containing 15 mM of glucose and saturated with dioxygen. A series of mediators were tested taking into account their formal potentials, stability in the cubic phase and efficiency of mediation. Most stable was the biofuel cell based on tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as anode and cathode mediators, respectively. The open-circuit voltage was equal to 450 ± 40 mV. The power densities and current densities were measured for all the systems studied.

  3. Cell-based delivery of glucagon-like peptide-1 using encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells

    Wallrapp, Christine; Thoenes, Eric; Thürmer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) CellBeads are cell-based implants for the sustained local delivery of bioactive factors. They consist of GLP-1 secreting mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in a spherically shaped immuno-isolating alginate matrix. A highly standardized and reproducible encapsulation...... and quality control is performed in compliance with good manufacturing practice and fulfils all regulatory requirements for human clinical use. GLP-1 CellBeads combine the neuro- and cardioprotective properties of both GLP-1 and mesenchymal stem cells. First promising results were obtained from preclinical...... method is described for the manufacturing of homogeneous CellBeads. Viability and sustained secretion was shown for the recombinant GLP-1 and the cell endogenous bioactive factors like vascular endothelial growth factor, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Manufacturing...

  4. Solar Cells Based on Inks of n-Type Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Ning, Zhijun

    2014-10-28

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. New inorganic ligands including halide anions have significantly accelerated progress in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics in recent years. All such device reports to date have relied on halide treatment during solid-state ligand exchanges or on co-treatment of long-aliphatic-ligand-capped nanoparticles in the solution phase. Here we report solar cells based on a colloidal quantum dot ink that is capped using halide-based ligands alone. By judicious choice of solvents and ligands, we developed a CQD ink from which a homogeneous and thick colloidal quantum dot solid is applied in a single step. The resultant films display an n-type character, making it suitable as a key component in a solar-converting device. We demonstrate two types of quantum junction devices that exploit these iodide-ligand-based inks. We achieve solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% using this class of colloids.

  5. Progressing a human embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy towards the clinic.

    Whiting, Paul; Kerby, Julie; Coffey, Peter; da Cruz, Lyndon; McKernan, Ruth

    2015-10-19

    Since the first publication of the derivation of human embryonic stem cells in 1998, there has been hope and expectation that this technology will lead to a wave of regenerative medicine therapies with the potential to revolutionize our approach to managing certain diseases. Despite significant resources in this direction, the path to the clinic for an embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy has not proven straightforward, though in the past few years progress has been made. Here, with a focus upon retinal disease, we discuss the current status of the development of such therapies. We also highlight some of our own experiences of progressing a retinal pigment epithelium cell replacement therapy towards the clinic. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Using a Voltage Domain Programmable Technique for Low-Power Management Cell-Based Design

    Ching-Hwa Cheng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-voltage technique is an effective way to reduce power consumption. In the proposed cell-based voltage domain programmable (VDP technique, the high and low voltages applied to logic gates are programmable. The flexible voltage domain reassignment allows the chip performance and power consumption to be dynamically adjusted. In the proposed technique, the power switches possess the feature of flexible programming after chip manufacturing. This VDP method does not use an external voltage regulator to regulate the supply voltage level from outside of the chip but can be easily integrated within the design. This novel technique is proven by use of a video decoder test chip, which shows 55% and 61% power reductions compared to conventional single-Vdd and low-voltage designs, respectively. This power-aware performance adjusting mechanism shows great power reduction with a good power-performance management mechanism.

  7. Effect of annealing on bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine and perylene derivative

    Kim, Inho

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on device performances of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N,N′-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C6). Blended films of CuPc and PTCDI-C6 with annealing at elevated temperature were characterized by measuring optical absorption, photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction. Enhanced molecular ordering and increments in domain sizes of donor and acceptor for the blended films were observed, and their influences on device performances were discussed. Annealing led to substantial improvements in photocurrent owing to enhanced molecular ordering and formation of percolation pathways. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-cell-based system to monitor carrier driven cellular auxin homeostasis

    2013-01-01

    Background Abundance and distribution of the plant hormone auxin play important roles in plant development. Besides other metabolic processes, various auxin carriers control the cellular level of active auxin and, hence, are major regulators of cellular auxin homeostasis. Despite the developmental importance of auxin transporters, a simple medium-to-high throughput approach to assess carrier activities is still missing. Here we show that carrier driven depletion of cellular auxin correlates with reduced nuclear auxin signaling in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cell cultures. Results We developed an easy to use transient single-cell-based system to detect carrier activity. We use the relative changes in signaling output of the auxin responsive promoter element DR5 to indirectly visualize auxin carrier activity. The feasibility of the transient approach was demonstrated by pharmacological and genetic interference with auxin signaling and transport. As a proof of concept, we provide visual evidence that the prominent auxin transport proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN)2 and PIN5 regulate cellular auxin homeostasis at the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Our data suggest that PIN2 and PIN5 have different sensitivities to the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Also the putative PIN-LIKES (PILS) auxin carrier activity at the ER is insensitive to NPA in our system, indicating that NPA blocks intercellular, but not intracellular auxin transport. Conclusions This single-cell-based system is a useful tool by which the activity of putative auxin carriers, such as PINs, PILS and WALLS ARE THIN1 (WAT1), can be indirectly visualized in a medium-to-high throughput manner. Moreover, our single cell system might be useful to investigate also other hormonal signaling pathways, such as cytokinin. PMID:23379388

  9. A portable cell-based impedance sensor for toxicity testing of drinking water.

    Curtis, Theresa M; Widder, Mark W; Brennan, Linda M; Schwager, Steven J; van der Schalie, William H; Fey, Julien; Salazar, Noe

    2009-08-07

    A major limitation to using mammalian cell-based biosensors for field testing of drinking water samples is the difficulty of maintaining cell viability and sterility without an on-site cell culture facility. This paper describes a portable automated bench-top mammalian cell-based toxicity sensor that incorporates enclosed fluidic biochips containing endothelial cells monitored by Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technology. Long-term maintenance of cells on the biochips is made possible by using a compact, self-contained disposable media delivery system. The toxicity sensor monitors changes in impedance of cell monolayers on the biochips after the introduction of water samples. The fluidic biochip includes an ECIS electronic layer and a polycarbonate channel layer, which together reduce initial impedance disturbances seen in commercially available open well ECIS chips caused by the mechanics of pipetting while maintaining the ability of the cells to respond to toxicants. A curve discrimination program was developed that compares impedance values over time between the control and treatment channels on the fluidic biochip and determines if they are significantly different. Toxicant responses of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells grown on fluidic biochips are similar to cells on commercially-available open well chips, and these cells can be maintained in the toxicity sensor device for at least nine days using an automated media delivery system. Longer-term cell storage is possible; bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells survive for up to four months on the fluidic biochips and remain responsive to a model toxicant. This is the first demonstration of a portable bench top system capable of both supporting cell health over extended periods of time and obtaining impedance measurements from endothelial cell monolayers after toxicant exposure.

  10. A cell-based study on pedestrian acceleration and overtaking in a transfer station corridor

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Xuemei; Ran, Bin

    2013-04-01

    Pedestrian speed in a transfer station corridor is faster than usual and sometimes running can be found among some of them. In this paper, pedestrians are divided into two categories. The first one is aggressive, and the other is conservative. Aggressive pedestrians weaving their way through crowd in the corridor are the study object of this paper. During recent decades, much attention has been paid to the pedestrians' behavior, such as overtaking (also deceleration) and collision avoidance, and that continues in this paper. After sufficiently analyzing the characteristics of pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor, a cell-based model is presented in this paper, including the acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking analysis. Acceleration (also deceleration) in a corridor is fixed according to Newton's Law and then speed calculated with a kinematic formula is discretized into cells based on the fuzzy logic. After the speed is updated, overtaking is analyzed based on updated speed and force explicitly, compared to rule-based models, which herein we call implicit ones. During the analysis of overtaking, a threshold value to determine the overtaking direction is introduced. Actually, model in this paper is a two-step one. The first step is to update speed, which is the cells the pedestrian can move in one time interval and the other is to analyze the overtaking. Finally, a comparison between the rule-based cellular automata, the model in this paper and data in HCM 2000 is made to demonstrate our model can be used to achieve reasonable simulation of acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking among pedestrians.

  11. Human cell-based micro electrode array platform for studying neurotoxicity

    Laura eYlä-Outinen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, most of the neurotoxicological analyses are based on in vitro and in vivo models utilizing animal cells or animal models. In addition, the used in vitro models are mostly based on molecular biological end-point analyses. Thus, for neurotoxicological screening, human cell-based analysis platforms in which the functional neuronal networks responses for various neurotoxicants can be also detected real-time are highly needed. Microelectrode array (MEA is a method which enables the measurement of functional activity of neuronal cell networks in vitro for long periods of time. Here, we utilize MEA to study the neurotoxicity of methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl, concentrations 0.5-500 nM to human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived neuronal cell networks exhibiting spontaneous electrical activity. The neuronal cell cultures were matured on MEAs into networks expressing spontaneous spike train-like activity before exposing the cells to MeHgCl for 72 hours. MEA measurements were performed acutely and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the onset of the exposure. Finally, exposed cells were analyzed with traditional molecular biological methods for cell proliferation, cell survival, and gene and protein expression. Our results show that 500 nM MeHgCl decreases the electrical signaling and alters the pharmacologic response of hESC-derived neuronal networks in delayed manner whereas effects can not be detected with qRT-PCR, immunostainings, or proliferation measurements. Thus, we conclude that human cell-based MEA-platform is a sensitive online method for neurotoxicological screening.

  12. [Cell-based therapies - an innovative therapeutic option in ophthalmology: Treating corneal diseases with stem cells].

    Bakker, Ann-Christin; Langer, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Pathological changes and disorders of the cornea are a major cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. Replacement of a pathologically altered cornea with healthy corneal tissue from the eye of a suitable donor is among the most common and successful transplantation procedures in medicine. In Germany, approximately 5000-6000 corneal transplantations are performed each year, but the total demand per year is estimated to be twice as high. With a success rate of 90%, the outcome of cornea transplantation is very favourable. However, long-term maintenance and regeneration of a healthy new cornea requires tissue-specific corneal stem cells residing at the basal layer of the limbus, which is the annular transition zone between the cornea and sclera. When this important limbal stem cell population is destroyed or dysfunctional, a pathological condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) manifests. Limbal stem cell deficiency describes conditions associated with impaired corneal wound healing and regeneration. In this situation, transplantation of healthy limbal stem cells is the only curative treatment approach for restoration of an intact and functional ocular surface. To date, treatment of LSCD presents a great challenge for ophthalmologists. However, innovative, cell-therapeutic approaches may open new, promising treatment perspectives. In February 2015, the European Commission granted marketing authorization to the first stem cell-based treatment in the European Union. The product named Holoclar® is an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the treatment of moderate to severe LSCD due to physical and chemical burns in adults. Further cell-based treatment approaches are in clinical development.

  13. Stem Cell-Based Cell Carrier for Targeted Oncolytic Virotherapy: Translational Opportunity and Open Questions

    Janice Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer is an innovative therapeutic option where the ability of a virus to promote cell lysis is harnessed and reprogrammed to selectively destroy cancer cells. Such treatment modalities exhibited antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings and appear to be well tolerated when tested in clinical trials. However, the clinical success of oncolytic virotherapy has been significantly hampered due to the inability to target systematic metastasis. This is partly due to the inability of the therapeutic virus to survive in the patient circulation, in order to target tumors at distant sites. An early study from various laboratories demonstrated that cells infected with oncolytic virus can protect the therapeutic payload form the host immune system as well as function as factories for virus production and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic virus. While a variety of cell lineages possessed potential as cell carriers, copious investigation has established stem cells as a very attractive cell carrier system in oncolytic virotherapy. The ideal cell carrier desire to be susceptible to viral infection as well as support viral infection, maintain immunosuppressive properties to shield the loaded viruses from the host immune system, and most importantly possess an intrinsic tumor homing ability to deliver loaded viruses directly to the site of the metastasis—all qualities stem cells exhibit. In this review, we summarize the recent work in the development of stem cell-based carrier for oncolytic virotherapy, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of cell carriers, especially focusing on why stem cells have emerged as the leading candidate, and finally propose a future direction for stem cell-based targeted oncolytic virotherapy that involves its establishment as a viable treatment option for cancer patients in the clinical setting.

  14. A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay

    Yamamura, M.; Valdimarsson, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay is described. It was found that the opsonin activity generated by incubating brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in medium containing less than 5% human serum was exclusively complement dependent. In contrast, C.albicans was effectively opsonized in the absence of complement. Antibodies and the early classical complement pathway did not contribute to the opsonization of S.cerevisiae and neither did C5-9. The brewer's yeast assay can therefore be used for measuring selectively the opsonizing capacity of the alternative pathway. Sera from approximately 7% of apparently healthy adult controls consistently failed to generate significant opsonin activity while 8 out of 26 patients with suspected immune deficiency of unknown cause were defective in this assay. All opsonin deficient sera so far tested had haemolytically normal alternative pathway and Factor B activity. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a molybdenum assay canister

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Keener, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a commercial molybdenum assay canister were evaluated. The geometrical variation of the technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) activity reading was studied as a function of the elution volume for the standard vials. It was found that the /sup 99m/Tc canister activity reading was ∼ 5% lower than that of the standard method. This is due to attenuation by the canister wall. However, the effect of the geometric variation on the clinical dose preparation was found to be insignificant. The molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) contamination level was compared by two methods: (1) the commercial canister and (2) the standard assay kit. The 99 Mo contamination measurements with the canister indicated consistently lower readings than those with the standard 99 Mo assay kit. The authors conclude that the canister may be used in the clinical settings. However, the user must be aware of the problems and the limitations associated with this canister

  16. Elements of nondestructive assay (NDA) technology

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session provides an introduction to nondestructive assay methods and instruments as they are applied to nuclear safeguards. The purpose of the sessions is to enable participants to: (1) discuss the general principles and major applications of NDA; (2) describe situations in which NDA is particularly useful for nuclear safeguards purposes; (3) distinguish between various passive and active gamma-ray and neutron NDA methods; (4) describe several NDA instruments that measure gamma rays, and identify assay situations particularly suited to gamma-ray techniques; (5) describe several NDA instruments that measure neutrons, and identify assay situations particularly suited to neutron techniques; (6) discuss the role of calorimetry in the NDA of plutonium-bearing materials; and (7) compare the advantages and disadvantages of various NDA methods for different types of nuclear materials

  17. Development of an integrated assay facility

    Molesworth, T.V.; Bailey, M.; Findlay, D.J.S.; Parsons, T.V.; Sene, M.R.; Swinhoe, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    The I.R.I.S. concept proposed the use of passive examination and active interrogation techniques in an integrated assay facility. A linac would generate the interrogating gamma and neutron beams. Insufficiently detailed knowledge about active neutron and gamma interrogation of 500 litre drums of cement immobilised intermediate level waste led to a research programme which is now in its main experimental stage. Measurements of interrogation responses are being made using simulated waste drums containing actinide samples and calibration sources, in an experimental assay assembly. Results show that responses are generally consistent with theory, but that improvements are needed in some areas. A preliminary appraisal of the engineering and economic aspects of integrated assay shows that correct operational sequencing is required to achieve the short cycle time needed for high throughput. The main engineering features of a facility have been identified

  18. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  19. Monitoring environmental exposures with semen assays

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Semen studies in humans and animals have yielded extensive and compelling evidence that sperm can be used to assess reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. More recent studies on mutagens and carcinogens both at this and other laboratories suggest that a combination of mouse and human assays can be an efficient, effective approach to monitoring for reproductive hazards in the environment. We are investigating the potential of using variability in sperm morphology and DNA content to quantify and monitor the effects of environmental agents on the human testes. Here we review the status of human and mouse assays for environmental surveillance, discuss the genetic and fertility implications of chemically induced semen changes, and describe the high-speed flow methods being developed to automate sperm assays

  20. Have you stress tested your assay?

    Zheng Cao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a clinical assay is stressed with extraordinarily high volume of specimens over a short period of time, extra caution may be needed to avoid systematic errors and biases. Here we report our experience with a HgbA1c assay used for high volume wellness screening purpose, to illustrate the importance of stress testing during assay validation. Design and Methods: Over 15,000 whole blood specimens were tested for HgbA1c in a period of 2 months. HgbA1c was tested by an immunoturbidimetric method on a high through-put automation line. The HgbA1c population distribution in our study was compared to that from the NHANES database. Daily distributions of HgbA1c values ≥6%, means and medians were plotted. Correlation studies were performed between the high through-put immunoturbidimetric assay and a medium through-put HPLC method. Results: We observed a shift of HgbA1c distribution to the higher values compared to the NHANES. A bias of 15–20% was noted from further stress testing where large number of samples were batched and tested using the immunoturbidimetric assay. A 5–7% higher bias remained after implementing a cuvette washing program after each HgbA1c sample. We hypothesized this bias was caused by build-up of blood cell fragments in the cuvettes when continuous whole blood samples are run through the system. Our experience suggests stress testing needs to be incorporated early in the test validation process for high volume batched screening applications. This seemingly extra validation step may save significant troubleshooting and retesting efforts down the road. Keywords: Hemoglobin A1c, Immunoturbidimetric assay, HPLC, Quality assurance, Systematic bias, High volume, Automation