WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell water dynamics

  1. Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell : Dynamic Pore-Network Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The pore-scale modeling is a powerful tool for increasing our understanding of water transport in the fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). In this work, a new dynamic pore-network model for air-water flow in the GDL is developed. It incorporates water vapor tr

  2. Influence of Hydration Level on Polymer and Water Dynamics in Alkaline Anion Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Jacob; Kim, Jenny; Tyagi, Madhu; Soles, Christopher; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Coughlin, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    Triblock copolymers based on poly(chloromethylstyrene)-b-poly(ethylene)-b-poly(chloromethylstyrene) can be quaternized to different extents to yield anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. In the absence of moisture, these membranes demonstrate bilayer lamellar morphology. Upon high levels of hydration, however, in-situ small angle neutron scattering reveals the emergence of higher-order diffraction peaks. This phenomena has previously been observed in analogous diblock copolymer-based membranes and has been attributed to the induction of a multilayer lamellar morphology in which selective striping of water occurs in the center of the ion-rich domain. By conducting humidity-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements using deuterated water, we are able to isolate differences in the pico- to nanosecond timescale dynamics of the hydrogenated membrane upon hydration. QENS measurements in the presence of a hydrogenated water source subsequently permit deconvolution and isolation of the translational and rotational dynamics of water as a function of relative humidity, revealing spatial and temporal changes in polymer and water motion at high levels of hydration.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Cyclic DP-240 Amylose Fragment in a Periodic Cell: Glass Transition Temperature and Water Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular dynamics simulations using AMB06C, an in-house carbohydrate force field, (NPT ensembles, 1atm) were carried out on a periodic cell that contained a cyclic-DP-240 amylose fragment and TIP3P water molecules. Molecular conformation and movement of the amylose fragment and water molecules at ...

  4. Dynamics of water droplets detached from porous surfaces of relevance to PEM fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakakos, A; Ous, T; Gavaises, M; Nouri, J M; Nikolopoulos, N; Yanagihara, H

    2006-08-15

    The detachment of liquid droplets from porous material surfaces used with proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells under the influence of a cross-flowing air is investigated computationally and experimentally. CCD images taken on a purpose-built transparent fuel cell have revealed that the water produced within the PEM is forming droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. These droplets are swept away if the velocity of the flowing air is above a critical value for a given droplet size. Static and dynamic contact angle measurements for three different carbon gas-diffusion layer materials obtained inside a transparent air-channel test model have been used as input to the numerical model; the latter is based on a Navier-Stokes equations flow solver incorporating the volume of fluid (VOF) two-phase flow methodology. Variable contact angle values around the gas-liquid-solid contact-line as well as their dynamic change during the droplet shape deformation process, have allowed estimation of the adhesion force between the liquid droplet and the solid surface and successful prediction of the separation line at which droplets loose their contact from the solid surface under the influence of the air stream flowing around them. Parametric studies highlight the relevant importance of various factors affecting the detachment of the liquid droplets from the solid surface.

  5. Collective dynamics of water in the living cell and in bulk liquid. New physical models and biologcial infereneces

    CERN Document Server

    Preoteasa, Eugen A

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of collective dynamics in water, models built on elementary excitations and long-range electromagnetic interactions in the cell and bulk liquid are presented. Making use of the low effective mass of water coherence domains (CDs), we examined the relevance of simple quantum models to cellular characteristics. A hypothesis of CDs Bose-type condensation, and models of CD in spherical wells with impenetrable and semipenetrable walls, and of an isotropic oscillator consisting of two interacting CDs were investigated. Estimated cellular volumes matched to medium-sized bacteria and small prokaryotes, and to some organelles in eukaryotic cells. Also, the cytotoxic effects of heavy water in eukaryotes were explained. In another approach we proposed a plasmon-like model of hydrogen-oxygen ionic plasma in liquid water. In addition to plasmonic oscillations, the model predicted sound-like non-equilibrium elementary excitations that we called densitons (the sound anomaly of water), the vaporization heat and t...

  6. Mathematical model of dynamic behavior of microbial desalination cells for simultaneous wastewater treatment and water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Qingyun; Zhang, Chenyao; Chen, Xueer; Zhang, Bo; Huang, Zuyi; He, Zhen

    2014-11-04

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are an emerging concept for simultaneous wastewater treatment and water desalination. This work presents a mathematical model to simulate dynamic behavior of MDCs for the first time through evaluating multiple factors such as organic supply, salt loading, and current generation. Ordinary differential equations were applied to describe the substrate as well as bacterial concentrations in the anode compartment. Local sensitivity analysis was employed to select model parameters that needed to be re-estimated from the previous studies. This model was validated by experimental data from both a bench- and a large-scale MDC system. It could fit current generation fairly well and simulate the change of salt concentration. It was able to predict the response of the MDC with time under various conditions, and also provide information for analyzing the effects of different operating conditions. Furthermore, optimal operating conditions for the MDC used in this study were estimated to have an acetate flow rate of 0.8 mL·min(-1), influent salt concentration of 15 g·L(-1) and salt solution flow rate of 0.04 mL·min(-1), and to be operated with an external resistor less than 30 Ω. The MDC model will be helpful with determining operational parameters to achieve optimal desalination in MDCs.

  7. Cell and tissue dynamics of olive endocarp sclerification vary according to water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Sofiene B M; Costagli, Giacomo; Rapoport, Hava F

    2013-12-01

    Endocarp developmental timing in drupe-type fruits, involving tissue expansion and sclerification processes, is increasingly used as marker for biological studies and crop management. In spite of its wide application, however, little is known regarding how these morphogenetic processes unfold or the factors that modify it. This study evaluates endocarp expansion and sclerification of olive (Olea europaea) fruits, used as an example of drupe-type fruits, from trees growing under different water regimes: full irrigated, deficit irrigated (moderate reduction of water availability) and rainfed (severe reduction of water availability). Fruits were sampled weekly until pit hardening, and fruit and endocarp areas were evaluated in histological preparations. An image analysis process was tested and adjusted to quantify sclerified area and distribution within the endocarp. Individual stone cells differentiated independently but distribution and timing indicated the overall coordination of endocarp tissue sclerification. Increase in sclerified area was initially gradual, accelerated abruptly the week prior to the end of endocarp expansion and then continued at an intermediate rate. These results suggest that the end of the expansion period is driven by sclerification and the morphogenetic signals involved act first on sclerification rather than endocarp size. Intensification of sclerification and the end of expansive growth occurred first with lowest water supply. Moderate and severe reductions in water availability proportionately decreased endocarp expansion and prolonged the sclerification, delaying the date of physically perceived hardening but not affecting the final degree of endocarp sclerification.

  8. Dynamic water management of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using intermittent RH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, I. S.; Wang, C. Y.

    A novel method of water management of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells using intermittent humidification is presented in this study. The goal is to maintain the membrane close to full humidification, while eliminating channel flooding. The entire cycle is divided into four stages: saturation and de-saturation of the gas diffusion layer followed by de-hydration and hydration of membrane. By controlling the duration of dry and humid flows, it is shown that the cell voltage can be maintained within a narrow band. The technique is applied on experimental test cells using both plain and hydrophobic materials for the gas diffusion layer and an improvement in performance as compared to steady humidification is demonstrated. Duration of dry and humid flows is determined experimentally for several operating conditions.

  9. Dynamic water management of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using intermittent RH control

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.

    2010-06-01

    A novel method of water management of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells using intermittent humidification is presented in this study. The goal is to maintain the membrane close to full humidification, while eliminating channel flooding. The entire cycle is divided into four stages: saturation and de-saturation of the gas diffusion layer followed by de-hydration and hydration of membrane. By controlling the duration of dry and humid flows, it is shown that the cell voltage can be maintained within a narrow band. The technique is applied on experimental test cells using both plain and hydrophobic materials for the gas diffusion layer and an improvement in performance as compared to steady humidification is demonstrated. Duration of dry and humid flows is determined experimentally for several operating conditions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of Water Entry

    CERN Document Server

    Truscott, Tadd T; Techet, Alexandra H

    2008-01-01

    The hydrodynamics associated with water-entry of spheres can be highly variable with respect to the material and kinematic properties of the sphere. This series of five fluid dynamics videos illustrates several subtle but interesting variations that can be seen. The first series of videos contrasts the nature of impact ($Fr = U_o/\\sqrt{gd} = 5.15$) between a hydrophilic (wetting angle of $\\alpha$ = 60$^\\circ$) and hydrophobic sphere ($\\alpha$ = 120$^\\circ$), and illustrates how surface coating can affect whether or not an air cavity is formed; the views from the side and from above are synchronized in time. The second video series illustrates how spin and surface treatments can alter the splash and cavity formation following water entry. The spinning sphere ($S = \\omega r / U_o = 1.7$; $Fr = 5.15$) causes a wedge of fluid to be drawn into the cavity due to the no-slip condition and follows a curved trajectory. The non-spinning sphere ($Fr = 5.15$) has two distinct surface treatments on the left and right hemi...

  11. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  12. Dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  13. Single cell dynamic phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Katherin Patsch; Chi-Li Chiu; Mark Engeln; Agus, David B.; Parag Mallick; Shannon M. Mumenthaler; Daniel Ruderman

    2016-01-01

    Live cell imaging has improved our ability to measure phenotypic heterogeneity. However, bottlenecks in imaging and image processing often make it difficult to differentiate interesting biological behavior from technical artifact. Thus there is a need for new methods that improve data quality without sacrificing throughput. Here we present a 3-step workflow to improve dynamic phenotype measurements of heterogeneous cell populations. We provide guidelines for image acquisition, phenotype track...

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of triflic acid and triflate ion/water mixtures: a proton conducting electrolytic component in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, Anurag Prakash; Venkatnathan, Arun

    2011-11-30

    Triflic acid is a functional group of perflourosulfonated polymer electrolyte membranes where the sulfonate group is responsible for proton conduction. However, even at extremely low hydration, triflic acid exists as a triflate ion. In this work, we have developed a force-field for triflic acid and triflate ion by deriving force-field parameters using ab initio calculations and incorporated these parameters with the Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations - All Atom (OPLS-AA) force-field. We have employed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the developed force field to characterize structural and dynamical properties of triflic acid (270-450 K) and triflate ion/water mixtures (300 K). The radial distribution functions (RDFs) show the hydrophobic nature of CF(3) group and presence of strong hydrogen bonding in triflic acid and temperature has an insignificant effect. Results from our MD simulations show that the diffusion of triflic acid increases with temperature. The RDFs from triflate ion/water mixtures shows that increasing hydration causes water molecules to orient around the SO(3)(-) group of triflate ions, solvate the hydronium ions, and other water molecules. The diffusion of triflate ions, hydronium ion, and water molecules shows an increase with hydration. At λ = 1, the diffusion of triflate ion is 30 times lower than the diffusion of triflic acid due to the formation of stable triflate ion-hydronium ion complex. With increasing hydration, water molecules break the stability of triflate ion-hydronium ion complex leading to enhanced diffusion. The RDFs and diffusion coefficients of triflate ions, hydronium ions and water molecules resemble qualitatively the previous findings using per-fluorosulfonated membranes.

  15. New insights into the dynamic regulation of water and acid-base balance by renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dennis; Bouley, Richard; Păunescu, Teodor G; Breton, Sylvie; Lu, Hua A J

    2012-05-15

    Maintaining tight control over body fluid and acid-base homeostasis is essential for human health and is a major function of the kidney. The collecting duct is a mosaic of two cell populations that are highly specialized to perform these two distinct processes. The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) and its receptor, the V2R, play a central role in regulating the urinary concentrating mechanism by stimulating accumulation of the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel in the apical membrane of collecting duct principal cells. This increases epithelial water permeability and allows osmotic water reabsorption to occur. An understanding of the basic cell biology/physiology of AQP2 regulation and trafficking has informed the development of new potential treatments for diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, in which the VP/V2R/AQP2 signaling axis is defective. Tubule acidification due to the activation of intercalated cells is also critical to organ function, and defects lead to several pathological conditions in humans. Therefore, it is important to understand how these "professional" proton-secreting cells respond to environmental and cellular cues. Using epididymal proton-secreting cells as a model system, we identified the soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC) as a sensor that detects luminal bicarbonate and activates the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) via cAMP to regulate tubular pH. Renal intercalated cells also express sAC and respond to cAMP by increasing proton secretion, supporting the hypothesis that sAC could function as a luminal sensor in renal tubules to regulate acid-base balance. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of these fundamental processes.

  16. Microbial Cell Dynamics Lab (MCDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microbial Cell Dynamics Laboratory at PNNL enables scientists to study the molecular details of microbes under relevant environmental conditions. The MCDL seeks...

  17. Manual for Dynamic Triaxial Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Schmidt; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report is a test report that describes the test setup for a dynamic triaxial cell at the Laboratory for Geotechnique at Aalborg University.......This report is a test report that describes the test setup for a dynamic triaxial cell at the Laboratory for Geotechnique at Aalborg University....

  18. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  19. Dynamics of Electron Injection in SnO2/TiO2 Core/Shell Electrodes for Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Nicholas S; Swierk, John R; Nemes, Coleen T; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (WS-DSPECs) rely on photoinduced charge separation at a dye/semiconductor interface to supply electrons and holes for water splitting. To improve the efficiency of charge separation and reduce charge recombination in these devices, it is possible to use core/shell structures in which photoinduced electron transfer occurs stepwise through a series of progressively more positive acceptor states. Here, we use steady-state emission studies and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to follow the dynamics of electron injection from a photoexcited ruthenium polypyridyl dye as a function of the TiO2 shell thickness on SnO2 nanoparticles. Electron injection proceeds directly into the SnO2 core when the thickness of the TiO2 shell is less than 5 Å. For thicker shells, electrons are injected into the TiO2 shell and trapped, and are then released into the SnO2 core on a time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. As the TiO2 shell increases in thickness, the probability of electron trapping in nonmobile states within the shell increases. Conduction band electrons in the TiO2 shell and the SnO2 core can be differentiated on the basis of their mobility. These observations help explain the observation of an optimum shell thickness for core/shell water-splitting electrodes.

  20. Water dynamics of vegetable using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Neutral ray is specifically adsorbed and scattered by hydrogen, which is construction element of water. We applied nondestructive visualization of water dynamics in vegetable using neutral ray. The neutron ray was produced by JRR-3M of JAERI. Water dynamics of epigeal part of vegetable, tree, seed, root and soil near root were observed. The distribution and behavior of water were seen by image. For examples, the dry process of cedar, water adsorption process of seed of broad beam, corn, morning glory, rice and wheat. The growing process of root in the soil was analyzed by CT images that constructed three-dimensional image. Water image of root-soil system made clear water dynamics of the optional site near root. The distribution of water in the cut carnation was observed before and after dry treatment. The change of distribution of water was observed. (S.Y.)

  1. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mitra; A Pramanik; D Chakrabarty; R Mukhopadhyay

    2004-08-01

    Results of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on the dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random translational jump diffusion model. The observed increase in translational diffusivity with increase in the amount of excess water is attributed to the change in binding of the water molecules to the host layer.

  2. Dynamics of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克让; 陈明

    2001-01-01

    On the base of the study on dynamics of water jet in water jet looms, the parameters of water jet mechanism which affect the speed of water jet are analyzed and optimized. So the stability of the water jet can be improved to raise the speed of water jet as well as weft insertion rate and to enlarge the width of woven fabrics a lot. At the same time it also points out that to increase water jet speed and to prolong its affective jet time depend mainly on the accretion of spring rate (constant)of stiffness and the diminution of plunger's cross sectional area respectively.

  3. Dynamics of deeply supercooled interfacial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Jan; Cerveny, Silvina

    2015-01-28

    In this review we discuss the relaxation dynamics of glassy and deeply supercooled water in different types of systems. We compare the dynamics of such interfacial water in ordinary aqueous solutions, hard confinements and biological soft materials. In all these types of systems the dielectric relaxation time of the main water process exhibits a dynamic crossover from a high-temperature non-Arrhenius temperature dependence to a low-temperature Arrhenius behavior. Moreover, at large enough water content the low-temperature process is universal and exhibits the same temperature behavior in all types of systems. However, the physical nature of the dynamic crossover is somewhat different for the different types of systems. In ordinary aqueous solutions it is not even a proper dynamic crossover, since the water relaxation decouples from the cooperative α-relaxation of the solution slightly above the glass transition in the same way as all secondary (β) relaxations of glass-forming materials. In hard confinements, the physical origin of the dynamic crossover is not fully clear, but it seems to occur when the cooperative main relaxation of water at high temperatures reaches a temperature where the volume required for its cooperative motion exceeds the size of the geometrically-confined water cluster. Due to this confinement effect the α-like main relaxation of the confined water seems to transform to a more local β-relaxation with decreasing temperature. Since this low-temperature β-relaxation is universal for all systems at high water content it is possible that it can be considered as an intrinsic β-relaxation of supercooled water, including supercooled bulk water. This possibility, together with other findings for deeply supercooled interfacial water, suggests that the most accepted relaxation scenarios for supercooled bulk water have to be altered.

  4. Water losses dynamic modelling in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Valeria; Milici, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    In the last decades, one of the main concerns of the water system managers have been the minimisation of water losses, that frequently reach values of 30% or even 70% of the volume supplying the water distribution network. The economic and social costs associated with water losses in modern water supply systems are rapidly rising to unacceptably high levels. Furthermore, the problem of the water losses assumes more and more importance mainly when periods of water scarcity occur or when not sufficient water supply takes part in areas with fast growth. In the present analysis, a dynamic model was used for estimating real and apparent losses of a real case study. A specific nodal demand model reflecting the user's tank installation and a specific apparent losses module were implemented. The results from the dynamic model were compared with the modelling estimation based on a steady-state approach.

  5. Transcription Dynamics in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenstra, Tineke L; Rodriguez, Joseph; Chen, Huimin; Larson, Daniel R

    2016-07-01

    The transcription cycle can be roughly divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Understanding the molecular events that regulate all these stages requires a dynamic view of the underlying processes. The development of techniques to visualize and quantify transcription in single living cells has been essential in revealing the transcription kinetics. They have revealed that (a) transcription is heterogeneous between cells and (b) transcription can be discontinuous within a cell. In this review, we discuss the progress in our quantitative understanding of transcription dynamics in living cells, focusing on all parts of the transcription cycle. We present the techniques allowing for single-cell transcription measurements, review evidence from different organisms, and discuss how these experiments have broadened our mechanistic understanding of transcription regulation.

  6. Dynamical conductivity of confined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    The electrodynamic response of water confined in nanoporous MCM-41 is measured in the frequency range 1 MHz-3 THz at room temperature. The results are analyzed in the context of a recently proposed ionic model of water. We found an increase in dc-conductivity of confined water by 3 orders of magnitude (3.3 · 10-3 Ω-1 · m-1) compared to bulk water (5.5 · 10-6 Ω-1 · m-1). This is attributed to the increase of H3O+ and OH- ion mobility, due to a decrease of the effective potential amplitude by walls of the confining environment. We found that the absorption in the microwave frequency range is much smaller in the medium with confined water than in the bulk water, and the quadratic dependence of the conductivity (σ) on frequency (ω) becomes less steep and tends to σ ~ ω. The results are of fundamental importance and can be used for understanding of the proton transport in systems with water in the nanoconfined state.

  7. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  8. Application of a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) ICP-MS in chromium and iron determinations in rock, soil and terrestrial water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Despite environmental and geochemical interests, Cr and Fe have been left beyond the reach of determinations by ICP-MS due to severe interferences originating from Ar. The applicability of a dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS has been examined for determinations in environmental and geochemical samples. The reaction with NH(3) in the DRC system provides an eligible technique to determine Cr, because of a greater improvement in the signal/noise (S/N) ratio due to an effective elimination of interferences arising from Ar (ArC, ArN and ArO), and makes it possible to analyze Cr even at sub-microg L(-1) levels. As compared to non-DRC mode analyses, the DRC technique using m/z 56 appeared to be preferable for Fe determination in most terrestrial waters because of effective suppression of (40)Ar(16)O(+). In addition, the effects of cluster ions, such as (39)K(14)N(1)H(3)(+) and (40)Ca(14)N(1)H(2)(+), on Fe determination were also negligibly small. Measurements using (54)Fe by the DRC mode are also advantageous for Ca-rich samples, such as limestone and dolomite.

  9. Fuel-Cell Water Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan; Fisher, Caleb; Newman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The main product of a typical fuel cell is water, and many fuel-cell configurations use the flow of excess gases (i.e., gases not consumed by the reaction) to drive the resultant water out of the cell. This two-phase mixture then exits through an exhaust port where the two fluids must again be separated to prevent the fuel cell from flooding and to facilitate the reutilization of both fluids. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has designed, built, and tested an innovative fuel-cell water separator that not only removes liquid water from a fuel cell s exhaust ports, but does so with no moving parts or other power-consuming components. Instead it employs the potential and kinetic energies already present in the moving exhaust flow. In addition, the geometry of the separator is explicitly intended to be integrated into a fuel-cell stack, providing a direct mate with the fuel cell s existing flow ports. The separator is also fully scalable, allowing it to accommodate a wide range of water removal requirements. Multiple separators can simply be "stacked" in series or parallel to adapt to the water production/removal rate. GRC s separator accomplishes the task of water removal by coupling a high aspect- ratio flow chamber with a highly hydrophilic, polyethersulfone membrane. The hydrophilic membrane readily absorbs and transports the liquid water away from the mixture while simultaneously resisting gas penetration. The expansive flow path maximizes the interaction of the water particles with the membrane while minimizing the overall gas flow restriction. In essence, each fluid takes its corresponding path of least resistance, and the two fluids are effectively separated. The GRC fuel-cell water separator has a broad range of applications, including commercial hydrogen-air fuel cells currently being considered for power generation in automobiles.

  10. Water dynamics in rigid ionomer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, N. C.; Etampawala, T. N.; Shrestha, U. M.; Aryal, D.; Tyagi, M.; Diallo, S. O.; Mamontov, E.; Cornelius, C. J.; Perahia, D.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of water within ionic polymer networks formed by sulfonated poly(phenylene) (SPP), as revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), is presented. These polymers are distinguished from other ionic macromolecules by their rigidity and therefore in their network structure. QENS measurements as a function of temperature as the fraction of ionic groups and humidity were varied have shown that the polymer molecules are immobile while absorbed water molecules remain dynamic. The water molecules occupy multiple sites, either bound or loosely constrained, and bounce between the two. With increasing temperature and hydration levels, the system becomes more dynamic. Water molecules remain mobile even at subzero temperatures, illustrating the applicability of the SPP membrane for selective transport over a broad temperature range.

  11. High-dynamic-range water window ptychography

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Max; Senkbeil, Tobias; von Gundlach, Andreas R; Stuhr, Susan; Rumancev, Christoph; Besedin, Ilya; Skopintsev, Petr; Viefhaus, Jens; Rosenhahn, Axel; Vartanyants, Ivan A

    2016-01-01

    Ptychographic imaging with soft X-rays, especially in the water window energy range, suffers from limited detector dynamic range that directly influences the maximum spatial resolution achievable. High-dynamic-range data can be obtained by multiple exposures. By this approach we have increased the dynamic range of a ptychographic data set by a factor of 76 and obtained diffraction signal till the corners of the detector. The real space half period resolution was improved from 50 nm for the single exposure data to 18 nm for the high-dynamic-range data.

  12. Fluid dynamics: How water explodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Susan Davis

    2016-10-01

    Micro-explosions triggered by the absorption of X-ray laser light in drops and jets of water result in shock waves and in rapid heating and expansion of the liquid -- as now revealed in state-of-the-art experiments.

  13. Wetting dynamics of a water nanodrop on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joseph Eugene; Sinha, Shayandev; Chung, Peter W; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-09-14

    Water-graphene wetting interactions are central to several applications such as desalination, water filtration, electricity generation, biochemical sensing, fabrication of fuel cells, and many more. While substantial attention has been devoted to probe the wetting statics of a water drop on graphene, unraveling the possible wetting translucency nature of graphene, very little research has been done on the dynamics of wetting of water drops on graphene-coated solids or free-standing graphene layers. In this paper, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the contact and the spreading of a water nanodrop, quantifying its wetting dynamics, on supported and free-standing graphene. We demonstrate that nanoscale water drops establish contact with graphene by forming patches on graphene, and this patch formation is hastened for graphene layer(s) supported on hydrophilic solids. More importantly, our results demonstrate that the nanodrop spreading dynamics, regardless of the number of graphene layers or the nature of the underlying solid, obey the half-power law, i.e., r∼t(1/2) (where r is the wetting contact radius and t is the spreading time) for the entire timespan of spreading except towards the very end of the spreading lifetime when the spreading stops. Such a spreading behavior is exactly analogous to the spreading dynamics of nanodroplets for standard solids - this is in sharp contrast to the wetting statics of graphene where the wetting translucency effect makes graphene different from other standard solids.

  14. Vibrational dynamics of hydration water in amylose

    CERN Document Server

    Cavatorta, F; Albanese, G; Angelini, N

    2002-01-01

    We present a study of the dynamical properties of hydration water associated with amylose helices, based on low-temperature vibrational spectra collected using the TOSCA inelastic spectrometer at ISIS. The structural constraints of the polysaccharidic chains favour the formation of a high-density structure for water, which has been suggested by Imberty and Perez on the basis of conformational analysis. According to this model, hydration water can only enter the pores formed by six adjacent helices and completely fills the pores at a hydration level of about 0.27-g water/g dry amylose. Our measurements show that the dynamical behaviour of hydration water is similar to that observed in high-density amorphous ice. (orig.)

  15. Thermodynamics and dynamics of supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Marco G.

    This thesis employs methods of statistical mechanics and numerical simulations to study some aspects of the thermodynamic and dynamic behavior of liquid water. As liquid water is cooled down into the supercooled state, some regions of the sample show correlated molecular motion. Previously, only the translational motion has been the object of investigation. Given the importance of orientational dynamics for water, a question that naturally arises is whether the rotational molecular motion also shows heterogeneous dynamics. We show that the most rotationally mobile molecules tend to form clusters, "rotational heterogeneities", and we study their dependence upon observation time and temperature. Further, we show evidence that molecules belonging to dynamic heterogeneities are involved in bifurcated bonds. Since the presence of dynamic heterogeneities is increasingly important as the temperature is lowered, one would expect a signature of this phenomenon in dynamical quantities. We study the effect of dynamic heterogeneities on the origin of the breakdown of the Stokes--- Einstein and Stokes---Einstein---Debye relations for water. These relations link the diffusivity to temperature and viscosity. We study the separation of time scales of dynamic heterogeneities and the diffusive regime. We also consider different sets of mobility, slowest and fastest, for both translational and rotational heterogeneities. A long-standing problem in biology is the seemingly universal loss of biological activity of all biomolecules, a phenomenon termed the "protein glass transition". We explore the connection between the hypothesized liquid-liquid phase transition of water, and the protein glass transition. We find that the protein glass transition coincides with the crossing of the Widom line of hydration water. Many different scenarios have been proposed to rationalize water's thermodynamic anomalies. We study a tell model for water using the Wolff' cluster algorithm, which permits

  16. Plant water balance with tritiated water-tracing dynamical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文炳; 颉红梅; 魏宝文; 陈荷生; 冯金朝; 董家伦

    1996-01-01

    The conception of "metabolic pool" is introduced and an ecosystem model consisting of sand body metabolic pool, plant metabolic pool, atmospheric pool and their corresponding channels is established. In addition, the input and output terms of water balance including plant transpiration etc. are measured by tritiated water-tracing dynamical method, etc. and thus a water balance table is obtained. Finally, the plant water balance in the steppified desert environment of the Shapotou area at southeastern fringe of Tengger Desert in China is comprehensively analysed.

  17. The Dynamic Surface Tension of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauner, Ines M; Deblais, Antoine; Beattie, James K; Kellay, Hamid; Bonn, Daniel

    2017-03-23

    The surface tension of water is an important parameter for many biological or industrial processes, and roughly a factor of 3 higher than that of nonpolar liquids such as oils, which is usually attributed to hydrogen bonding and dipolar interactions. Here we show by studying the formation of water drops that the surface tension of a freshly created water surface is even higher (∼90 mN m(-1)) than under equilibrium conditions (∼72 mN m(-1)) with a relaxation process occurring on a long time scale (∼1 ms). Dynamic adsorption effects of protons or hydroxides may be at the origin of this dynamic surface tension. However, changing the pH does not significantly change the dynamic surface tension. It also seems unlikely that hydrogen bonding or dipole orientation effects play any role at the relatively long time scale probed in the experiments.

  18. Water dynamics in glass ionomer cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. C.; Jacobsen, J.; Momsen, N. C. R.; Benetti, A. R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Seydel, T.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2016-07-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are an alternative for preventive dentistry. However, these dental cements are complex systems where important motions related to the different states of the hydrogen atoms evolve in a confined porous structure. In this paper, we studied the water dynamics of two different liquids used to prepare either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. By combining thermal analysis with neutron scattering data we were able to relate the water structure in the liquids to the materials properties.

  19. Volume adaptation in chronic liver disease: on the static and dynamic location of water, salt, protein and red cells in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2004-01-01

    . The pattern and temporal relations of plasma and blood volume expansion are important for pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and depend highly on the type of load (water, saline, oncotic material, red blood cells). In some aspects patients with cirrhosis respond differently from healthy...

  20. Optimality and soil water-vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important factor for nearly all hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Antecedent soil moisture impacts on infiltration and runoff generation, the soil moisture distribution within the soil together with other factors determines the soil carbon and nutrient cycling and the amount of soil moisture within the rooting zone often constitutes a major constraint for plant growth and evapo-transpiration. The main processes determining soil moisture dynamics are infiltration, percolation, evaporation and root water uptake. Therefore, modelling soil moisture dynamics requires an interdisciplinary approach that links hydrological and biological processes. Previous approaches treat either root water uptake rates or root distributions and transpiration rates as a given, and calculate the soil moisture dynamics based on the theory of flow in unsaturated media. The present study introduces a different approach to linking soil water and vegetation dynamics, based on optimality. Assuming that plants aim at minimising the costs related to the maintenance of the root system while meeting their demand for water, a model was formulated that dynamically adjusts the vertical root distribution in the soil profile to meet this objective. The model was used to compute the soil moisture dynamics in a tropical savanna over 12 months, which showed a better resemblance with the observed time series of surface soil moisture than models based on fixed root distributions. The optimality-based approach to modelling soil-vegetation interactions requires a new level of interdisciplinary synthesis, as biological and hydrological knowledge needs to be combined to derive the very basis of the model, namely the costs and benefits of different root properties. On the other hand, this approach has the potential to reduce the number of unknowns in a model (e.g. the vertical root distribution), which makes it a valuable alternative to more empirically-based approaches.

  1. The dynamic crossover in water does not require bulk water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, David A; Corsaro, Carmelo; Martin, David F; Mallamace, Francesco; Wynne, Klaas

    2012-06-14

    Many of the anomalous properties of water may be explained by invoking a second critical point that terminates the coexistence line between the low- and high-density amorphous states in the liquid. Direct experimental evidence of this point, and the associated polyamorphic liquid-liquid transition, is elusive as it is necessary for liquid water to be cooled below its homogeneous-nucleation temperature. To avoid crystallization, water in the eutectic LiCl solution has been studied but then it is generally considered that "bulk" water cannot be present. However, recent computational and experimental studies observe cooperative hydration in which case it is possible that sufficient hydrogen-bonded water is present for the essential characteristics of water to be preserved. For femtosecond optical Kerr-effect and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, we observe in each case a fractional Stokes-Einstein relation with evidence of the dynamic crossover appearing near 220 K and 250 K respectively. Spectra obtained in the glass state also confirm the complex nature of the hydrogen-bonding modes reported for neat room-temperature water and support predictions of anomalous diffusion due to "worm-hole" structure.

  2. Shape dynamics of growing cell walls

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Dinner, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a general theoretical framework to study the shape dynamics of actively growing and remodeling surfaces. Using this framework we develop a physical model for growing bacterial cell walls and study the interplay of cell shape with the dynamics of growth and constriction. The model allows us to derive constraints on cell wall mechanical energy based on the observed dynamics of cell shape. We predict that exponential growth in cell size requires a constant amount of cell wall energy to be dissipated per unit volume. We use the model to understand and contrast growth in bacteria with different shapes such as spherical, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and toroidal morphologies. Coupling growth to cell wall constriction, we predict a discontinuous shape transformation, from partial constriction to cell division, as a function of the chemical potential driving cell-wall synthesis. Our model for cell wall energy and shape dynamics relates growth kinetics with cell geometry, and provides a unified framework to d...

  3. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-08-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this `photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli.

  4. Macromolecular Dynamics in Red Blood Cells Investigated Using Neutron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Demmel, Franz; Artmann, Gerhard; 10.1098/rsif.2010.0306

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of hemoglobin (Hb) in human red blood cells in vivo. Global and internal Hb dynamics were measured in the ps to ns time- and {\\AA} length-scale using quasielastic neutron backscattering spectroscopy. We observed the cross-over from global Hb short-time to long-time self-diffusion. Both short- and long-time diffusion coefficients agree quantitatively with predicted values from hydrodynamic theory of non-charged hard-sphere suspensions when a bound water fraction of around 0.23g H2O/ g Hb is taken into account. The higher amount of water in the cells facilitates internal protein fluctuations in the ps time-scale when compared to fully hydrated Hb powder. Slower internal dynamics of Hb in red blood cells in the ns time-range were found to be rather similar to results obtained with fully hydrated protein powders, solutions and E. coli cells.

  5. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  6. Quantifying Salmonella population dynamics in water and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Qiong; Vattem, Dhiraj A; Forstner, Michael R J; Hahn, Dittmar

    2013-01-01

    Members of the bacterial genus Salmonella are recognized worldwide as major zoonotic pathogens often found to persist in non-enteric environments including heterogeneous aquatic biofilms. In this study, Salmonella isolates that had been detected repeatedly over time in aquatic biofilms at different sites in Spring Lake, San Marcos, Texas, were identified as serovars Give, Thompson, Newport and -:z10:z39. Pathogenicity results from feeding studies with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as host confirmed that these strains were pathogenic, with Salmonella-fed C. elegans dying faster (mean survival time between 3 and 4 days) than controls, i.e., Escherichia coli-fed C. elegans (mean survival time of 9.5 days). Cells of these isolates inoculated into water at a density of up to 10(6) ml(-1) water declined numerically by 3 orders of magnitude within 2 days, reaching the detection limit of our quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based quantification technique (i.e., 10(3) cells ml(-1)). Similar patterns were obtained for cells in heterogeneous aquatic biofilms developed on tiles and originally free of Salmonella that were kept in the inoculated water. Cell numbers increased during the first days to more than 10(7) cells cm(-2), and then declined over time. Ten-fold higher cell numbers of Salmonella inoculated into water or into biofilm resulted in similar patterns of population dynamics, though cells in biofilms remained detectable with numbers around 10(4) cells cm(-2) after 4 weeks. Independent of detectability by qPCR, samples of all treatments harbored viable salmonellae that resembled the inoculated isolates after 4 weeks of incubation. These results demonstrate that pathogenic salmonellae were isolated from heterogeneous aquatic biofilms and that they could persist and stay viable in such biofilms in high numbers for some time.

  7. Polarizable water model for Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peter, Emanuel

    2015-11-01

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is an efficient particle-based method for modeling mesoscopic behavior of fluid systems. DPD forces conserve the momentum resulting in a correct description of hydrodynamic interactions. Polarizability has been introduced into some coarse-grained particle-based simulation methods; however it has not been done with DPD before. We developed a new polarizable coarse-grained water model for DPD, which employs long-range electrostatics and Drude oscillators. In this talk, we will present the model and its applications in simulations of membrane systems, where polarization effects play an essential role.

  8. Epigenetic dynamics across the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Tony Bou; Lund, Anders H.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of the mammalian cell cycle depends on correct timing and co-ordination of a series of events, which are managed by the cellular transcriptional machinery and epigenetic mechanisms governing genome accessibility. Epigenetic chromatin modifications are dynamic across the cell cycle...... a correct inheritance of epigenetic chromatin modifications to daughter cells. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge on the dynamics of epigenetic chromatin modifications during progression of the cell cycle....

  9. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  10. Salt—Water Dynamics in Soils:II.Effect of Precipitation on SaltWater Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUWEN-RUI; MENGFAN-HUA

    1992-01-01

    Through a simulation test carried out with soil columns (61.8cm in diameter),the effect of precipitation on salt-water dynamics in soils was studied by in-situ monitoring of salt-water dynamics using soil salinity sensors and tensioneters.The results show that in the profile of whole silty loam soil,the surface runoff volume due to precipitation and the salt-leaching role of infiltrated precipitation increased with the depth of ground water;and in the profile with an intercalated bed of clay or with a thick upper layer of clay,the amount of surface runoff was greater but the salt-leaching role of precipitation was smaller than those in the profile of whole silty loam soil.In case of soil water being supplemented by precipitation,the evaporation of groundwater in the soil columns reduced,resulting in a great decline of salt accumulation from soil profile to surface soil.The effect of precipitation on the water regime of soil profile was performed via both water infiltration and water pressure transfer.The direct infiltration depth of precipitation was less than 1m in general,but water pressure transfer could go up to groundwater surface directly.

  11. Water Channel Facility for Fluid Dynamics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam-Panah, Azar; Sabatino, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    This study presents the design, assembly, and verification process of the circulating water channel constructed by undergraduate students at the Penn State University at Berks. This work was significantly inspired from the closed-loop free-surface water channel at Lafayette College (Sabatino and Maharjan, 2015) and employed for experiments in fluid dynamics. The channel has a 11 ft length, 2.5 ft width, and 2 ft height glass test section with a maximum velocity of 3.3 ft/s. First, the investigation justifies the needs of a water channel in an undergraduate institute and its potential applications in the whole field of engineering. Then, the design procedures applied to find the geometry and material of some elements of the channel, especially the contraction, the test section, the inlet and end tanks, and the pump system are described. The optimization of the contraction design, including the maintenance of uniform exit flow and avoidance of flow separation, is also included. Finally, the discussion concludes by identifying the problems with the undergraduate education through this capstone project and suggesting some new investigations to improve flow quality.

  12. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, N.

    2016-09-06

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  13. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-09-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  14. American coot collective on-water dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    American coot (Fulica americana) flocks exhibit water surface (two-dimensional) collective dynamics that oscillate between two primary phases: a disordered phase of low density and non-uniform coot body orientations; a synchronized phase characterized by high density, uniform body orientations and speed. For this small-scale study, data was obtained for flocks of 10 to ~250 members for these phases. Approximate durations of phase occurrences were recorded for different flock sizes and for both relatively calm and severe weather conditions. Results indicate that for timed durations of up to ~ 2 hours, small flocks (10 coots) exhibit a comparatively high disordered/synchronized phase ratio (PR) in relatively warm and well-sheltered conditions (substantially >1); large flocks (~100 or more) generally exhibit a PR near 1, while large flocks spend comparatively more time in a disordered phase in relatively calm conditions (PR somewhat >1), and spend more time in a synchronized phase during severe conditions (PR &l...

  15. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in surface and waste water using high-performance ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (HPIC-ICP-DRC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Maximilian; Hann, Stephan; Mentler, Axel; Fuerhacker, Maria; Stingeder, Gerhard; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2008-05-01

    A novel method employing high-performance cation chromatography in combination with inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of the herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) and its main metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is presented. P was measured as (31)P(16)O(+) using oxygen as reaction gas. For monitoring the stringent target value of 0.1 μg L(-1) for glyphosate, applicable for drinking and surface water within the EU, a two-step enrichment procedure employing Chelex 100 and AG1-X8 resins was applied prior to HPIC-ICP-MS analysis. The presented approach was validated for surface water, revealing concentrations of 0.67 μg L(-1) glyphosate and 2.8 μg L(-1) AMPA in selected Austrian river water samples. Moreover, investigations at three waste water-treatment plants showed that elimination of the compounds at the present concentration levels was not straightforward. On the contrary, all investigated plant effluents showed significant amounts of both compounds. Concentration levels ranged from 0.5-2 μg L(-1) and 4-14 μg L(-1) for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively.

  16. Dynamic interactions between microbubbles in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Manica, Rogerio; Tang, Xiaosong; O'Shea, Sean J; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C

    2010-06-22

    The interaction between moving bubbles, vapor voids in liquid, can arguably represent the simplest dynamical system in continuum mechanics as only a liquid and its vapor phase are involved. Surprisingly, and perhaps because of the ephemeral nature of bubbles, there has been no direct measurement of the time-dependent force between colliding bubbles which probes the effects of surface deformations and hydrodynamic flow on length scales down to nanometers. Using ultrasonically generated microbubbles (approximately 100 microm size) that have been accurately positioned in an atomic force microscope, we have made direct measurements of the force between two bubbles in water under controlled collision conditions that are similar to Brownian particles in solution. The experimental results together with detailed modeling reveal the nature of hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the air/water interface, the importance of the coupling of hydrodynamic flow, attractive van der Waals-Lifshitz forces, and bubble deformation in determining the conditions and mechanisms that lead to bubble coalescence. The observed behavior differs from intuitions gained from previous studies conducted using rigid particles. These direct force measurements reveal no specific ion effects at high ionic strengths or any special role of thermal fluctuations in film thickness in triggering the onset of bubble coalescence.

  17. Cell Division, Differentiation and Dynamic Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    1993-01-01

    A novel mechanism for cell differentiation is proposed, based on the dynamic clustering in a globally coupled chaotic system. A simple model with metabolic reaction, active transport of chemicals from media, and cell division is found to show three successive stages with the growth of the number of cells; coherent growth, dynamic clustering, and fixed cell differentiation. At the last stage, disparity in activities, germ line segregation, somatic cell differentiation, and homeochaotic stability against external perturbation are found. Our results, in consistency with the experiments of the preceding paper, imply that cell differentiation can occur without a spatial pattern. From dynamical systems viewpoint, the new concept of ``open chaos" is proposed, as a novel and general scenario for systems with growing numbers of elements, also seen in economics and sociology.A

  18. An automated dynamic water vapor permeation test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Phillip; Kendrick, Cyrus; Rivin, Donald; Charmchii, Majid; Sicuranza, Linda

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an automated apparatus developed to measure the transport of water vapor through materials under a variety of conditions. The apparatus is more convenient to use than the traditional test methods for textiles and clothing materials, and allows one to use a wider variety of test conditions to investigate the concentration-dependent and nonlinear transport behavior of many of the semipermeable membrane laminates which are now available. The dynamic moisture permeation cell (DMPC) has been automated to permit multiple setpoint testing under computer control, and to facilitate investigation of transient phenomena. Results generated with the DMPC are in agreement with and of comparable accuracy to those from the ISO 11092 (sweating guarded hot plate) method of measuring water vapor permeability.

  19. Hierarchic Theory of Condensed Matter Role of water in protein dynamics, function and cancer emergency

    CERN Document Server

    Kaivarainen, A

    2000-01-01

    1. Role of inter-domain water clusters in large-scale dynamics of proteins; 2. Description of large-scale dynamics of proteins based on generalized Stokes-Einstein and Eyring-Polany equation; 3. Dynamic model of protein-ligand complexes formation; 4. The life-time of quasiparticles and frequencies of their excitation; 5. Mesoscopic mechanism of enzyme catalysis; 6. The mechanism of ATP hydrolysis energy utilization in muscle contraction and protein polymerization; 7. Water activity as a regulative factor in the intra- and inter-cell processes; 8. Water and cancer.

  20. Dynamic culture improves cell reprogramming efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Junren; Sun, Raymond; Chu, Julia; Li, Song

    2016-06-01

    Cell reprogramming to pluripotency is an inefficient process and various approaches have been devised to improve the yield of induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the effect of biophysical factors on cell reprogramming is not well understood. Here we showed that, for the first time, dynamic culture with orbital shaking significantly improved the reprogramming efficiency in adherent cells. Manipulating the viscosity of the culture medium suggested that the improved efficiency is mainly attributed to convective mixing rather than hydrodynamic shear stress. Temporal studies demonstrated that the enhancement of reprogramming efficiency required the dynamic culture in the middle but not early phase. In the early phase, fibroblasts had a high proliferation rate, but as the culture became over-confluent in the middle phase, expression of p57 was upregulated to inhibit cell proliferation and consequently, cell reprogramming. Subjecting the over confluent culture to orbital shaking prevented the upregulation of p57, thus improving reprogramming efficiency. Seeding cells at low densities to avoid over-confluency resulted in a lower efficiency, and optimal reprogramming efficiency was attained at a high seeding density with dynamic culture. Our findings provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of how dynamic culture condition regulate cell reprogramming, and will have broad impact on cell engineering for regenerative medicine and disease modeling.

  1. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of a polysorbate 80 micelle in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amani, Amir; York, Peter; de Waard, Hans; Anwar, Jamshed

    2011-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of a single molecule of the nonionic surfactant polysorbate 80 (POE (20) sorbitan monooleate; Tween 80 (R)) as well as a micelle comprising sixty molecules of polysorbate 80 in water have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. In its free state in water the po

  3. Simulation study of water and sugar dynamics in supercooled mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Valeria; Cagin, Tahir; Goddard, William A.

    2003-03-01

    Water dynamics in concentrated carbohydrate solutions is of utmost importance in food and pharmaceutical technology, where low water mobility is desirable to slow down chemical degradation and preserve biomolecules. We have studied the microscopic mechanism of water diffusion in binary and polydisperse malto-oligosaccharides and water mixtures by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The computations were performed with a coarse grain model (M3B), derived from atomistic simulations of water and malto-oligosaccharides. The use of the M3B model permits simulations of the order of 0.1 microsecond, thus allowing us to explore water dynamics from the liquid to the deep supercooled regime. The dynamics of water confined in the sugar matrix is slowed down with respect to bulk water. We found that at low moisture content and low temperature, ranslational diffusion of water and glucose rotation proceed through a hopping-diffusion mechanism. Moreover, we found water mobility to be heterogeneous: there is a broad distribution of time scales for different water molecules in the mixtures. We discuss whether there is a relationship between the heterogeneous structure of these mixtures in the sub-nanometer scale and the heterogeneous dynamics of water molecules.

  4. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...

  5. Sorting cells by their dynamical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Ewan; Holm, Stefan H.; Zhang, Zunmin; Beech, Jason P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in cell sorting aim at the development of novel methods that are sensitive to various mechanical properties of cells. Microfluidic technologies have a great potential for cell sorting; however, the design of many micro-devices is based on theories developed for rigid spherical particles with size as a separation parameter. Clearly, most bioparticles are non-spherical and deformable and therefore exhibit a much more intricate behavior in fluid flow than rigid spheres. Here, we demonstrate the use of cells’ mechanical and dynamical properties as biomarkers for separation by employing a combination of mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations and microfluidic experiments. The dynamic behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) within deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices is investigated for different device geometries and viscosity contrasts between the intra-cellular fluid and suspending medium. We find that the viscosity contrast and associated cell dynamics clearly determine the RBC trajectory through a DLD device. Simulation results compare well to experiments and provide new insights into the physical mechanisms which govern the sorting of non-spherical and deformable cells in DLD devices. Finally, we discuss the implications of cell dynamics for sorting schemes based on properties other than cell size, such as mechanics and morphology.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Centralized Dynamic Cell Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Pedersen, Klaus I.;

    2016-01-01

    mechanism and solutions involving cell switching in general. Simulation results show that such solutions can greatly benefit from the use of receivers with interference suppression capabilities and a larger number of antennas, with a maximum data rate gain of 120%. High performance gains are observed...... with two different traffic models, and it is not necessary to be able to connect to a large number of cells in order to reap most of the benefits of the centralized dynamic cell selection....

  7. Water Resource Dynamics in Asian Pacific Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Richard; Rothenberg, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Adequate water supplies are an obvious necessity for the health of cities and their residents. Water is used for drinking, hygiene, cleaning, waste disposal, irrigation, transportation, and a host of industrial processes. Yet, projections of the match between the demand for water and supply of water are grim (Lettenmaier et al. 1999; Gleick, 2000; HELP Task Force, 2000, Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000, Aldhous, 2003). For example, Jakarta and Bangkok may not be able to meet water demand within ...

  8. STABLE ISOTOPES AS INDICATORS OF SOIL WATER DYNAMICS IN WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream water quality and quantity depend on discharge rates of water and nutrients from soils. However, soil-water storage is very dynamic and strongly influenced by plants. We analyzed stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to quantify spatial and temporal changes in evaporati...

  9. Retardation of Bulk Water Dynamics by Disaccharide Osmolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Nimesh; Chen, Lee; Chergui, Majed; Othon, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    The bioprotective nature of disaccharides is hypothesized to derive from the modification of the hydrogen bonding network of water which protects biomolecules through lowered water activity at the protein interface. Using ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy we measured the relaxation of bulk water dynamics around the induced dipole moment of two fluorescent probes (Lucifer Yellow Ethylenediamine and Tryptophan). Our results indicate a reduction in bulk water reorganization rate of approximately of 30%. We observe this retardation in the low concentration regime measured at 0.1M and 0.25 M, far below the onset of glassy dynamics. This reduction in water activity could be significant in crowded biological systems, contributing to global change in protein energy landscape, resulting in a significant enhancement of protein stability under environmental stress. We observed similar dynamic reduction for two disaccharide osmolytes, sucrose and trehalose, with trehalose being the more effective dynamic reducer.

  10. Fluid dynamics: Water flows out of touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces reduce the frictional drag between water and solid materials, but this effect is often temporary. The realization of sustained drag reduction has applications for water vehicles and pipeline flows.

  11. Global water dynamics: issues for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P

    2002-01-01

    The WorldWater system dynamics model has been developed for modeling the global world water balance and capturing the dynamic character of the main variables affecting water availability and use in the future. Despite not being a novel approach, system dynamics offers a new way of addressing complex systems. WorldWater simulations are clearly demonstrating the strong feedback relation between water availability and different aspects of world development. Results of numerous simulations are contradictory to the assumption made by many global modelers that water is not an issue on the global scale. Two major observations can be made from early simulations: (a) the use of clean water for dilution and transport of wastewater, if not dealt with in other ways, imposes a major stress on the global world water balance; and (b) water use by different sectors is demonstrating quite different dynamics than predicted by classical forecasting tools and other water-models. Inherent linkages between water quantity and quality sectors with food, industry, persistent pollution, technology, and non-renewable resources sectors of the model create shoot and collapse behavior in water use dynamics. This paper discusses a number of different water-related scenarios and their implications on the global water balance. In particular, two extreme scenarios (business as usual - named "Chaos", and unlimited desalination - named "Ocean") are presented in the paper. Based on the conclusions derived from these two extreme cases a set of more moderate and realistic scenarios (named "Conservation") is proposed and their consequences on the global water balance are evaluated.

  12. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stumpp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL, which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl- and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater. Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95% was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, S. A.; de, Rumi

    2009-12-01

    The nonlinear dependence of cellular orientation on an external, time-varying stress field determines the distribution of orientations in the presence of noise and the characteristic time, τc , for the cell to reach its steady-state orientation. The short, local cytoskeletal relaxation time distinguishes between high-frequency (nearly perpendicular) and low-frequency (random or parallel) orientations. However, τc is determined by the much longer, orientational relaxation time. This behavior is related to experiments for which we predict the angle and characteristic time as a function of frequency.

  14. Phase transitions and dynamics of bulk and interfacial water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, G; Hernando-Martinez, A [Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Kumar, P [Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Mazza, M G; Stokely, K; Strekalova, E G; Stanley, H E [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); De los Santos, F, E-mail: gfranzese@ub.ed [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-21

    New experiments on water at the surface of proteins at very low temperature display intriguing dynamic behaviors. The extreme conditions of these experiments make it difficult to explore the wide range of thermodynamic state points needed to offer a suitable interpretation. Detailed simulations suffer from the same problem, where equilibration times at low temperature become extremely long. We show how Monte Carlo simulations and mean field calculations using a tractable model of water help interpret the experimental results. Here we summarize the results for bulk water and investigate the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of supercooled water at an interface.

  15. Collective dynamics of cell migration and cell rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabla, Alexandre

    Understanding multicellular processes such as embryo development or cancer metastasis requires to decipher the contributions of local cell autonomous behaviours and long range interactions with the tissue environment. A key question in this context concerns the emergence of large scale coordination in cell behaviours, a requirement for collective cell migration or convergent extension. I will present a few examples where physical and mechanical aspects play a significant role in driving tissue scale dynamics. Geometrical confinement is one of the key external factors influencing large scale coordination during collective migration. Using a combination of in vitro experiments and numerical simulations, we show that the velocity correlation length, measured in unconfined conditions, provides a convenient length scale to predict the dynamic response under confinement. The same length scale can also be used to quantify the influence range of directional cues within the cell population. Heterogeneity within motile cell populations is frequently associated with an increase in their invasive capability and appears to play an important role during cancer metastasis. Using in silico experiments, we studied the way cell invasion is influenced by both the degree of cell coordination and the amount of variability in the motile force of the invading cells. Results suggest that mechanical heterogeneity dramatically enhances the invasion rate through an emerging cooperative process between the stronger and weaker cells, accounting for a number of observed invasion phenotypes. Effective convergent extension requires on a consistent orientation of cell intercalation at the tissue scale, most often in relation with planar cell polarity mechanisms to define the primary axes of deformation. Using a novel modelling approach for cells mechanical interactions, we studied the dynamics of substrate free motile cell populations. Ongoing work shows in particular that nematic order emerges

  16. Dynamics of hydrogen bonds in water and consequences for the unusual behaviour of supercooled water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    José Teixeira

    2008-10-01

    The dynamics of liquid water is evaluated by the coherent quasi-elastic scattering at two different momentum transfers, in order to discriminate hydrogen bond life-time from molecular dynamics. The results indicate a possible issue for the puzzle of the behaviour of supercooled water.

  17. Evaluating Water Conservation and Reuse Policies Using a Dynamic Water Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  18. Dynamics of B cells in germinal centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Nilushi S; Klein, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    Humoral immunity depends on the germinal centre (GC) reaction during which somatically mutated high-affinity memory B cells and plasma cells are generated. Recent studies have uncovered crucial cues that are required for the formation and the maintenance of GCs and for the selection of high-affinity antibody mutants. In addition, it is now clear that these events are promoted by the dynamic movements of cells within and between GCs. These findings have resolved the complexities of the GC reaction in greater detail than ever before. This Review focuses on these recent advances and discusses their implications for the establishment of humoral immunity.

  19. A dynamic gravimetric standard for trace water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P J; Goody, B A; Woods, P T; Milton, M J T

    2011-10-01

    A system for generating traceable reference standards of water vapor at trace levels between 5 and 2000 nmol/mol has been developed. It can provide different amount fractions of trace water vapor by using continuous accurate measurements of mass loss from a permeation device coupled with a dilution system based on an array of critical flow orifices. An estimated relative expanded uncertainty of ±2% has been achieved for most amount fractions generated. The system has been used in an international comparison and demonstrates excellent comparability with National Metrology Institutes maintaining standards of water vapor in this range using other methods.

  20. Tight Coupling of Metabolic Oscillations and Intracellular Water Dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoke, Henrik Seir; Tobiesen, Asger; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    We detected very strong coupling between the oscillating concentration of ATP and the dynamics of intracellular water during glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that: i) dipolar relaxation of intracellular water is heterogeneous within the cell and different from dilute...... conditions, ii) water dipolar relaxation oscillates with glycolysis and in phase with ATP concentration, iii) this phenomenon is scale-invariant from the subcellular to the ensemble of synchronized cells and, iv) the periodicity of both glycolytic oscillations and dipolar relaxation are equally affected by D...

  1. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water...... concentrations. Inelastic water demands, fixed water allocation curtailment costs and fixed wastewater treatment costs (before and after use) are estimated for the water users (agriculture, industry and domestic). If the BOD concentration exceeds a given user pollution thresh-old, the user will need to pay...

  2. Dynamics and structure of water-bitumen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Greenfield, Michael L.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough to counter...

  3. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    CERN Document Server

    Minardi, Stefano; Gopal, Amrutha; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud; Pertsch, Thomas; Dubietis, Audrius

    2014-01-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV.

  4. Using Ethanol to Investigate Dynamic Soil Water Repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.; Beatty, Sarah M.

    2016-04-01

    Large gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of the behaviour of water in dynamically repellent soils. By investigating these systems using other miscible fluids that minimize or eliminate repellency, e.g. ethanol, we seek to better understand and quantify soil water repellency. The advantages of the enhanced wettability of water repellent soils to other miscible fluids, however, come with complications including shifts in effective pore water pressures induced through variable interfacial tensions as well as differences in fluid mobility due to variable fluid viscosities and densities. With these considerations in mind, we compare and contrast the observed behaviours of fluid infiltration and retention in dynamically hydrophobic soils and hydrophilic soils. We conducted field and laboratory studies using tension disc infiltrometers along with water and ethanol solutions to investigate dynamic repellency in post-wildfire soils from Northern Ontario, Canada. Tension infiltrometers maintain a constant negative liquid pressure at the surface which proved to be useful for isolating wettable behaviours sensitive to dynamic changes in wettability. We present the data and system conceptualised and explained through contact angle dynamics and variable fractional wettability of the soil. The limitations of extending hydrophilic concepts and hydraulic functions to hydrophobic soils are discussed along with persistent challenges to advance our ability to simulate and predict system behaviours in naturally occurring water repellent soils.

  5. Molecular dynamics insights into human aquaporin 2 water channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, A R; Kamali, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the first molecular dynamics simulation of the human aquaporin 2 is performed and for a better understanding of the aquaporin 2 permeability performance, the characteristics of water transport in this protein channel and key biophysical parameters of AQP2 tetramer including osmotic and diffusive permeability constants and the pore radius are investigated. For this purpose, recently recovered high resolution X-ray crystal structure of` the human aquaporin 2 is used to perform twenty nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated tetramer of this protein embedded in a lipid bilayer. The resulting water permeability characteristics of this protein channel showed that the water permeability of the human AQP2 is in a mean range in comparison with other human aquaporins family. Finally, the results reported in this research demonstrate that molecular dynamics simulation of human AQP2 provided useful insights into the mechanisms of water permeation and urine concentration in the human kidney.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoqi; Han, Yunfeng; Ren, Yingyu; Yang, Qiuyi; Jin, Ningde

    2016-08-01

    In this article, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions under the addition of surfactant were experimentally investigated. Firstly, based on the vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow experiment in 20 mm inner diameter (ID) testing pipe, dynamic response signals of oil-in-water emulsions were recorded using vertical multiple electrode array (VMEA) sensor. Afterwards, the recurrence plot (RP) algorithm and multi-scale weighted complexity entropy causality plane (MS-WCECP) were employed to analyse the nonlinear characteristics of the signals. The results show that the certainty is decreasing and the randomness is increasing with the increment of surfactant concentration. This article provides a novel method for revealing the nonlinear dynamic characteristics, complexity, and randomness of oil-in-water emulsions with experimental measurement signals.

  7. Dynamics and stability of a vertical water bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Namin, Reza Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    A vertical connection of water is formed when a high voltage electrode is dipped in and pulled out of a container of deionized water. We considered the formation, stability and dynamical characteristics of this vertical water bridge. For the first time in this field, we observed instabilities in the bridge that led to an oscillatory behaviour which is categorized in three dynamical regimes and supplied explanations on the physics behind these varied motions. We report the formation of macroscopic droplets during this motion, which their dynamics revealed that they are electrically charged. In some cases the droplets would be levitating when the electric force opposes the gravity. Also the steady bridge is thoroughly studied regarding its geometry and a set of quantitative data is presented using dimensionless numbers, which brings the possibility of direct quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. Our results shed light on the physics behind this phenomenon and the horizontal water bridge, which...

  8. Protein Dynamics in Organic Media at Varying Water Activity Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; Abildskov, Jens; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nonaqueous enzymology, control of enzyme hydration is commonly approached by fixing the thermodynamic water activity of the medium. In this work, we present a strategy for evaluating the water activity in molecular dynamics simulations of proteins in water/organic solvent mixtures. The method...... relies on determining the water content of the bulk phase and uses a combination of Kirkwood−Buff theory and free energy calculations to determine corresponding activity coefficients. We apply the method in a molecular dynamics study of Candida antarctica lipase B in pure water and the organic solvents...... methanol, tert-butyl alcohol, methyl tert-butyl ether, and hexane, each mixture at five different water activities. It is shown that similar water activity yields similar enzyme hydration in the different solvents. However, both solvent and water activity are shown to have profound effects on enzyme...

  9. Dynamic interactions between microbubbles in water

    OpenAIRE

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Manica, Rogerio; Tang, Xiaosong; O’Shea, Sean J.; Stevens, Geoffrey W.; Grieser, Franz; Raymond R. Dagastine; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between moving bubbles, vapor voids in liquid, can arguably represent the simplest dynamical system in continuum mechanics as only a liquid and its vapor phase are involved. Surprisingly, and perhaps because of the ephemeral nature of bubbles, there has been no direct measurement of the time-dependent force between colliding bubbles which probes the effects of surface deformations and hydrodynamic flow on length scales down to nanometers. Using ultrasonically generated microbu...

  10. A dynamic analysis of water footprint of Jinghe River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Water footprint in a region is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of goods and services consumed by the local people. Ecosystem services are a kind of important services, so ecological water use is one necessary component in water footprint. Water footprint is divided into green water footprint and blue water footprint but the former one is often ignored. In this paper water footprint includes blue water needed by agricultural irrigation, industrial and domestic water demand, and green water needed by crops, economic forests, livestock products, forestlands and grasslands. The study calculates the footprint of the Jinghe River basin in 1990,1995, 2000 and 2005 with quarto methods. Results of research show that water footprints reached 164.1 × 108m3, 175.69×108m3 and 178.45×108m3 respectively in 1990, 1995 and 2000 including that of ecological water use, but reached 77.68×108m3, 94.24×108m3, 92.92×108m3 and 111.36×108m3 respectively excluding that of ecological water use. Green water footprint is much more than blue water footprint: thereby, green water plays an important role in economic development and ecological construction. The dynamic change of water footprints stows that blue water use increases rapidly and that the ecological water use is occupied by economic and domestic water use. The change also shows that water use is transferred from primary industry to secondary industry. In primary industry, it is transferred from crops farming to forestry and animal agriculture. The factors impelling the change include development anticipation on economy, government policies, readjustment of the industrial structure, population growth, the raise of urbanization level, and structural change of consumption, low level of water-saving and poor ability of waste water treatment. With blue water use per unit, green water use per unit, blue water use structure and green water use structure, we analyzed the difference of the six ecological

  11. Adsorbed water on iron surface by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, F.W.; Campos, T.M.B.; Cividanes, L.S., E-mail: flaviano@ita.br; Simonetti, E.A.N.; Thim, G.P.

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed a new force field to describe the Fe–H{sub 2}O interaction. • We developed a new force field to describe the flexible water model at low temperature. • We analyze the orientation of water along the iron surface. • We calculate the vibrational spectra of water near the iron surface. • We found a complex relationship between water orientation and the atomic vibrational spectra at different sites of adsorption along the iron surface. - Abstract: The adsorption of H{sub 2}O molecules on metal surfaces is important to understand the early process of water corrosion. This process can be described by computational simulation using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo. However, this simulation demands an efficient description of the surface interactions between the water molecule and the metallic surface. In this study, an effective force field to describe the iron-water surface interactions was developed and it was used in a molecular dynamics simulation. The results showed a very good agreement between the simulated vibrational-DOS spectrum and the experimental vibrational spectrum of the iron–water interface. The water density profile revealed the presence of a water double layer in the metal interface. Furthermore, the horizontal mapping combined with the angular distribution of the molecular plane allowed the analysis of the water structure above the surface, which in turn agrees with the model of the double layer on metal surfaces.

  12. Rotterdam: Dynamic Polder City = Land + Water + Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.

    2010-01-01

    The planning culture in the Netherlands is based on the experience of building cities on very wet and soft soils. The design of Dutch polder cities was from early on a balance between land and water: building site preparation. The relation between technological development and urban development can

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of water within models of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, J; Sankararamakrishnan, R; Kerr, I D; Sansom, M S

    1996-04-01

    The transbilayer pores formed by ion channel proteins contain extended columns of water molecules. The dynamic properties of such waters have been suggested to differ from those of water in its bulk state. Molecular dynamics simulations of ion channel models solvated within and at the mouths of their pores are used to investigate the dynamics and structure of intra-pore water. Three classes of channel model are investigated: a) parallel bundles of hydrophobic (Ala20) alpha-helices; b) eight-stranded hydrophobic (Ala10) antiparallel beta-barrels; and c) parallel bundles of amphipathic alpha-helices (namely, delta-toxin, alamethicin, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor M2 helix). The self-diffusion coefficients of water molecules within the pores are reduced significantly relative to bulk water in all of the models. Water rotational reorientation rates are also reduced within the pores, particularly in those pores formed by alpha-helix bundles. In the narrowest pore (that of the Ala20 pentameric helix bundle) self-diffusion coefficients and reorientation rates of intra-pore waters are reduced by approximately an order of magnitude relative to bulk solvent. In Ala20 helix bundles the water dipoles orient antiparallel to the helix dipoles. Such dipole/dipole interaction between water and pore may explain how water-filled ion channels may be formed by hydrophobic helices. In the bundles of amphipathic helices the orientation of water dipoles is modulated by the presence of charged side chains. No preferential orientation of water dipoles relative to the pore axis is observed in the hydrophobic beta-barrel models.

  14. Modeling cell dynamics under mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Tullio Antonio; Balduzzo, Maurizio; Milone, Francesco Ferro; Nofrate, Valentina

    2007-04-01

    Perturbations by pulse-modulated microwave radiation from GSM mobile phones on neuron cell membrane gating and calcium oscillations have been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying activation of brain states and electroencephalographic epiphenomena. As the employ of UMTS phones seems to reveal other symptoms, a unified phenomenological framework is needed. In order to explain possible effects of mobile phone radiation on cell oscillations, GSM and UMTS low-frequency envelopes have been detected, recorded and used as input in cell models. Dynamical systems endowed with contiguous regular and chaotic regimes suitable to produce stochastic resonance can both account for the perturbation of the neuro-electrical activity and even for the low intensity of the signal perceived by high sensitive subjects. Neuron models of this kind can be employed as a reductionist hint for the mentioned phenomenology. The Hindmarsh-Rose model exhibits frequency enhancement and regularization phenomena induced by weak GSM and UMTS. More realistic simulations of cell membrane gating and calcium oscillations have been performed with the help of an adaptation of the Chay-Keizer dynamical system. This scheme can explain the suspected subjective sensitivity to mobile phone signals under the thermal threshold, in terms of cell calcium regularity mechanisms. Concerning the two kinds of emission, the stronger occupation of the ELF band of last generation UMTS phones is compensated by lower power emitted.

  15. Static and dynamic contact angles of water droplet on a solid surface using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Do; Ha, Man Yeong; Balachandar, S

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the variation of static contact angle of a water droplet in equilibrium with a solid surface in the absence of a body force and the dynamic contact angles of water droplet moving on a solid surface for different characteristic energies using the molecular dynamics simulation. With increasing characteristic energy, the static contact angle in equilibrium with a solid surface in the absence of a body force decreases because the hydrophobic surface changes its characteristics to the hydrophilic surface. In order to consider the effect of moving water droplet on the dynamic contact angles, we apply the constant acceleration to an individual oxygen and hydrogen atom. In the presence of a body force, the water droplet changes its shape with larger advancing contact angle than the receding angle. The dynamic contact angles are compared with the static contact angle in order to see the effect of the presence of a body force.

  16. Structure and Dynamics of Water at Carbon-Based Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Martí

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water structure and dynamics are affected by the presence of a nearby interface. Here, first we review recent results by molecular dynamics simulations about the effect of different carbon-based materials, including armchair carbon nanotubes and a variety of graphene sheets—flat and with corrugation—on water structure and dynamics. We discuss the calculations of binding energies, hydrogen bond distributions, water’s diffusion coefficients and their relation with surface’s geometries at different thermodynamical conditions. Next, we present new results of the crystallization and dynamics of water in a rigid graphene sieve. In particular, we show that the diffusion of water confined between parallel walls depends on the plate distance in a non-monotonic way and is related to the water structuring, crystallization, re-melting and evaporation for decreasing inter-plate distance. Our results could be relevant in those applications where water is in contact with nanostructured carbon materials at ambient or cryogenic temperatures, as in man-made superhydrophobic materials or filtration membranes, or in techniques that take advantage of hydrated graphene interfaces, as in aqueous electron cryomicroscopy for the analysis of proteins adsorbed on graphene.

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Water Confined in Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; YUAN Hong-Jun

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for water conGned in carbon nanotubes with various diameters (11.0-13.8 A). The simulations under an isobaric pressure (one atmosphere) by lowering temperatures from 300K to 190 K are carried out. Water molecules within variously sized tubes tend to transform from disorder to order with different configurations (four-water-molecule ring, six-water-molecule ring and seven-water-molecule ring) at phase transition temperatures, which may be lowered by the increasing tube radius. It is also found that the configurations of water in (10, 10) tube are not unique (seven-molecule ring and seven-molecule ring plus water chain).

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Nanodroplets on Silica Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    and DNA microarrays technologies.4,5,6,7,8 Although extensive experimental, theoretical and computational work has been devoted to study the nature of the interaction between silica and water,2,9-16 at the molecular level a complete understanding of silica-water systems has not been reached. Contact angle...... computations of water droplets on silica surfaces offers a useful fundamental and quantitative measurement in order to study chemical and physical properties of water-silica systems.3,16,17,18 For hydrophobic systems the static and dynamic properties of the fluid-solid interface are influenced by the presence...

  19. DNA Dynamics in A Water Drop

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, A K

    2002-01-01

    Due to its polyionic character the DNA double helix is stable and biologically active only in salty aqueous media where its charge is compensated by solvent counterions. Monovalent metal ions are ubiquitous in DNA environment and they are usually considered as the possible driving force of sequence-dependent modulations of DNA structure that make it recognizable by proteins. In an effort to directly examine this hypothesis, MD simulations of DNA in a water drop surrounded by vacuum were carried out, which relieves the requirement of charge neutrality. Surprisingly, with zero concentration of counterions a dodecamer DNA duplex appears metastable and its structure remains similar to that observed in experiments.

  20. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  1. Water dynamics in protein hydration shells: the molecular origins of the dynamical perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Aoife C; Laage, Damien

    2014-07-17

    Protein hydration shell dynamics play an important role in biochemical processes including protein folding, enzyme function, and molecular recognition. We present here a comparison of the reorientation dynamics of individual water molecules within the hydration shell of a series of globular proteins: acetylcholinesterase, subtilisin Carlsberg, lysozyme, and ubiquitin. Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical models are used to access site-resolved information on hydration shell dynamics and to elucidate the molecular origins of the dynamical perturbation of hydration shell water relative to bulk water. We show that all four proteins have very similar hydration shell dynamics, despite their wide range of sizes and functions, and differing secondary structures. We demonstrate that this arises from the similar local surface topology and surface chemical composition of the four proteins, and that such local factors alone are sufficient to rationalize the hydration shell dynamics. We propose that these conclusions can be generalized to a wide range of globular proteins. We also show that protein conformational fluctuations induce a dynamical heterogeneity within the hydration layer. We finally address the effect of confinement on hydration shell dynamics via a site-resolved analysis and connect our results to experiments via the calculation of two-dimensional infrared spectra.

  2. Slow dynamics of supercooled water confined in nanoporous silica materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L [Department of Nuclear Engineering, 24-209 MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Faraone, A [Department of Nuclear Engineering, 24-209 MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mou, C-Y [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yen, C-W [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, S-H [Department of Nuclear Engineering, 24-209 MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2004-11-17

    We review our incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) studies of the dynamics of supercooled water confined in nanoporous silica materials. QENS data were analysed by using the relaxing cage model (RCM) previously developed by us. We first use molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the extended simple point charge model (SPC/E) for bulk supercooled water to establish the validity of the RCM, which applies to both the translational and rotational motion of water molecules. We then assume that the dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of a hydrophilic surface is similar to a bulk water at an equivalent lower supercooled temperature. This analogy was experimentally demonstrated in previous investigations of water in Vycor glasses and near hydrophilic protein surfaces. Studies were made of supercooled water in MCM-41-S (pore sizes 25, 18, and 14 A) and MCM-48-S (pore size 22 A) using three QENS spectrometers of respective energy resolutions 1, 30, and 60 {mu}eV, covering the temperature range from 325 to 200 K. Five quantities are extracted from the analysis: they are {beta}, the stretch exponent characterizing the {alpha}-relaxation; {beta}{gamma}, the exponent determining the power-law dependence of the relaxation time on Q; <{tau}{sub 0}>, the Q-independent pre-factor for the average translational relaxation time; <{tau}{sub R{sub 1}}>, the relaxation time for the first-order rotational correlation function; and <{tau}{sub R{sub 3}}>, the relaxation time for the second-order rotational correlation function. We discuss the temperature dependence of these parameters and note that, in particular, the dynamics is rapidly slowing down at temperature around 220 K, signalling the onset of a structural arrest transition of liquid water into an amorphous solid water.

  3. Water and polymer dynamics in highly crosslinked polyamide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieberg, Bradley; Chan, Edwin; Tyagi, Madhu; Stafford, Christopher; Soles, Christopher

    Highly crosslinked polyamides for reverse osmosis are the state-of-the-art active material in membranes for desalination. The thin film composite membrane structure that is used commercially has been empirically designed to selectively allow the passage of water molecules and minimize the passage of solutes such as salt. However, due to the large roughness and variability of the polyamide layer, there is a limited understanding of the structure-property relationship for these materials as well as the transport mechanism. To better understand the water transport mechanism we measure the water and polymer dynamics of polyamide membranes using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). By hydrating the membrane with deuterated water, we are able to isolate the dynamics of the hydrogenated membrane on the pico- and nanosecond time scales. By subsequently hydrating the membranes with hydrogenated water, the QENS measurements on the same times scales reveal information about both the translational and rotational dynamics of water confined within the polyamide membrane. Further understanding of the water diffusion mechanism will establish design rules in which the performance of future membrane materials can be improved.

  4. Estimating Biofuel Feedstock Water Footprints Using System Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, Daniel; Warner, Ethan; Stright, Dana; Macknick, Jordan; Peck, Corey

    2016-07-01

    Increased biofuel production has prompted concerns about the environmental tradeoffs of biofuels compared to petroleum-based fuels. Biofuel production in general, and feedstock production in particular, is under increased scrutiny. Water footprinting (measuring direct and indirect water use) has been proposed as one measure to evaluate water use in the context of concerns about depleting rural water supplies through activities such as irrigation for large-scale agriculture. Water footprinting literature has often been limited in one or more key aspects: complete assessment across multiple water stocks (e.g., vadose zone, surface, and ground water stocks), geographical resolution of data, consistent representation of many feedstocks, and flexibility to perform scenario analysis. We developed a model called BioSpatial H2O using a system dynamics modeling and database framework. BioSpatial H2O could be used to consistently evaluate the complete water footprints of multiple biomass feedstocks at high geospatial resolutions. BioSpatial H2O has the flexibility to perform simultaneous scenario analysis of current and potential future crops under alternative yield and climate conditions. In this proof-of-concept paper, we modeled corn grain (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) under current conditions as illustrative results. BioSpatial H2O links to a unique database that houses annual spatially explicit climate, soil, and plant physiological data. Parameters from the database are used as inputs to our system dynamics model for estimating annual crop water requirements using daily time steps. Based on our review of the literature, estimated green water footprints are comparable to other modeled results, suggesting that BioSpatial H2O is computationally sound for future scenario analysis. Our modeling framework builds on previous water use analyses to provide a platform for scenario-based assessment. BioSpatial H2O's system dynamics is a flexible and user

  5. Communication: On the origin of the non-Arrhenius behavior in water reorientation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, Guillaume; Laage, Damien

    2012-07-21

    We combine molecular dynamics simulations and analytic modeling to determine the origin of the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of liquid water's reorientation and hydrogen-bond dynamics between 235 K and 350 K. We present a quantitative model connecting hydrogen-bond exchange dynamics to local structural fluctuations, measured by the asphericity of Voronoi cells associated with each water molecule. For a fixed local structure the regular Arrhenius behavior is recovered, and the global anomalous temperature dependence is demonstrated to essentially result from a continuous shift in the unimodal structure distribution upon cooling. The non-Arrhenius behavior can thus be explained without invoking an equilibrium between distinct structures. In addition, the large width of the homogeneous structural distribution is shown to cause a growing dynamical heterogeneity and a non-exponential relaxation at low temperature.

  6. Water Table Dynamics of a Rocky Mountain Riparian Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    Riparian areas in mountain valleys serve as collection points for local precipitation, hillslope runoff, deeper groundwater, and channel water. Little is known about how complex hydrological interactions among these water sources govern riparian water table dynamics, particularly on an event basis partly owing to a lack of high frequency spatial and temporal data. Herein I describe the magnitude and rate of change of groundwater storage in a 1.3 km2 Canadian Rocky Mountain peat riparian area. Weekly manual measurement of hydraulic heads in a network of 51 water table wells during the summers of 2006 and 2007 showed large temporal and spatial variations in well response. A near constant increase in the spatial heterogeneity of the water table was observed as the riparian area dried. Cluster analysis and principle components analysis were performed on these weekly data to objectively classify the riparian area into spatial response units. Results were classification of the standpipes into five distinct water table regimes. One well representing each water table regime was outfitted with a sensor in 2008 that measured hourly head, which was used to characterize temporal dynamics of water table response. In spring, snowmelt runoff combined with an ice lens 20-30 cm below the ground surface led to consistently high water tables throughout the riparian area. In summer, the water table fell throughout the riparian in response to declining hillslope inputs and increased evaporative demand, but rates of decline were highly variable among the water table regimes. Chloride concentrations suggest variability reflects differences in the degree to which the water table regimes are influenced by stream stage, hillslope inputs, and proximity to beaver dams. Water table regime responses to rain events were flashy, with dramatic rises and falls (up to 20 cm) in short periods of time (export and plant community composition.

  7. Evaluating water conservation and reuse policies using a dynamic water balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  8. Hydrogen bond dynamics in liquid water: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheolhee; Kim, Eunae [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Min Sun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The effect of intermolecular interaction on the distribution of the harmonic vibrational frequencies of water molecules was investigated through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach. For single water, the effect of the dynamics of the oxygen atom in single water and the simulation time step on the frequency distribution were examined. The distributions of the OH stretching and HOH bending vibrational frequencies of liquid water were compared to those of single water. The probability distributions of the change in OH bond length and the lifetime of the dangling OH bond were also obtained. The distribution of the frequencies was strongly affected by the long lifetime of the dangling OH bond, resulting in the formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of rotating shallow water methods and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The rotating shallow water (RSW) model is of wide use as a conceptual tool in geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), because, in spite of its simplicity, it contains all essential ingredients of atmosphere and ocean dynamics at the synoptic scale, especially in its two- (or multi-) layer version. The book describes recent advances in understanding (in the framework of RSW and related models) of some fundamental GFD problems, such as existence of the slow manifold, dynamical splitting of fast (inertia-gravity waves) and slow (vortices, Rossby waves) motions, nonlinear geostrophic adjustment and wa

  10. Water exit dynamics of buoyant spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd T.; Epps, Brenden P.; Munns, Randy H.

    2016-11-01

    Buoyant spheres released below the free surface can rise well above the surface in a phenomenon known as pop-up. Contrary to intuition, increasing the release depth sometimes results in a lower pop-up height. We present the pop-up height of rising buoyant spheres over a range of release depths (1-12.5 diameters) and Reynolds numbers (4 ×104 to 6 ×105 ). While the dynamics of rising buoyant spheres and bubbles has been thoroughly investigated for Reynolds numbers below 104, pop-up in these larger-Reynolds-number regimes has not been studied. Yet the underwater motions of the sphere for the Reynolds numbers we study are the key to understanding the pop-up height. Two major regimes are apparent: vertical and oscillatory. The vertical regime exhibits a nearly vertical underwater trajectory and results in the largest pop-up heights. The oscillatory regime exhibits an underwater trajectory with periodic lateral motions and results in lower pop-up heights; this periodic lateral motion is modulated by unsteady vortex shedding in the wake of the sphere. Despite these complex fluid structure interactions, the experiments presented herein yield extremely repeatable results.

  11. Dynamics of water and aqueous solutions in geometrical confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias, Sattig

    2016-01-01

    Water is one of the most vital substances for life, science, and technology. In many situations, water is confined to very narrow geometries, for example, in living cells it is severely confined in between biomolecules. The peculiarities of such systems are not yet understood and have drawn a lot of attention in current research. Additionally, the anomalous behavior of water in the bulk, e.g. the density anomaly, is not yet explained. The most common theories aiming to rationalize the beha...

  12. Dynamic Stabilization of Metal Oxide–Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E.; von Rudorff, Guido Falk; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Eng, Peter J.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2017-02-08

    The interaction of water with metal oxide surfaces plays a crucial role in the catalytic and geochemical behavior of metal oxides. In a vast majority of studies, the interfacial structure is assumed to arise from a relatively static lowest energy configuration of atoms, even at room temperature. Using hematite (α-Fe2O3) as a model oxide, we show through a direct comparison of in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering with density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations that the structure of the (1102) termination is dynamically stabilized by picosecond water exchange. Simulations show frequent exchanges between terminal aquo groups and adsorbed water in locations and with partial residence times consistent with experimentally determined atomic sites and fractional occupancies. Frequent water exchange occurs even for an ultrathin adsorbed water film persisting on the surface under a dry atmosphere. The resulting time-averaged interfacial structure consists of a ridged lateral arrangement of adsorbed water molecules hydrogen bonded to terminal aquo groups. Surface pKa prediction based on bond valence analysis suggests that water exchange will influence the proton-transfer reactions underlying the acid/base reactivity at the interface. Our findings provide important new insights for understanding complex interfacial chemical processes at metal oxide–water interfaces.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water confined inside graphite channels: dielectric and dynamical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, J; Nagy, G; Guàrdia, E; Gordillo, M C

    2006-11-30

    Electric and dielectric properties and microscopic dynamics of liquid water confined between graphite slabs are analyzed by means of molecular dynamics simulations for several graphite-graphite separations at ambient conditions. The electric potential across the interface shows oscillations due to water layering, and the overall potential drop is about -0.28 V. The total dielectric constant is larger than the corresponding value for the bulklike internal region of the system. This is mainly due to the preferential orientations of water nearest the graphite walls. Estimation of the capacitance of the system is reported, indicating large variations for the different adsorption layers. The main trend observed concerning water diffusion is 2-fold: on one hand, the overall diffusion of water is markedly smaller for the closest graphite-graphite separations, and on the other hand, water molecules diffuse in interfaces slightly slower than those in the bulklike internal areas. Molecular reorientational times are generally larger than those corresponding to those of unconstrained bulk water. The analysis of spectral densities revealed significant spectral shifts, compared to the bands in unconstrained water, in different frequency regions, and associated to confinement effects. These findings are important because of the scarce information available from experimental, theoretical, and computer simulation research into the dielectric and dynamical properties of confined water.

  14. The Dynamics of Water in Porous Two-Dimensional Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Steven E; Eaves, Joel D

    2017-01-12

    Porous two-dimensional crystals offer many promises for water desalination applications. For computer simulation to play a predictive role in this area, however, one needs to have reliable methods for simulating an atomistic system with hydrodynamic currents and interpretative tools to relate microscopic interactions to emergent macroscopic dynamical quantities, such as friction, slip length, and permeability. In this article, we use Gaussian dynamics, a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method that provides microscopic insights into the interactions that control the flows of both simple liquids and liquid water through atomically small channels. In simulations of aqueous transport, we mimic the effect of changing the membrane chemical composition by adjusting the attractive strength of the van der Waals interactions between the membrane atoms and water. We find that the wetting contact angle, a common measure of a membrane's hydrophobicity, does not predict the permeability of a membrane. Instead, the hydrophobic effect is subtle, with both static and dynamic effects that can both help and hinder water transport through these materials. The competition between the static and dynamical hydrophobicity balances an atomic membrane's tendency to wet against hydrodynamic friction, and determines an optimal contact angle for water passage through nonpolar membranes. To a reasonable approximation, the optimal contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the pore. We also find that water molecules pass through the most hydrophobic membranes in a punctuated series of bursts that are separated by long pauses. A continuous-time Markov model of these data provides evidence of a molecular analogue to the clogging transition, a phenomenon observed in driven granular flows.

  15. Socioeconomic dynamics of water quality in the Egyptian Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Maheen; Nisar, Zainab; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River remains the most important source of freshwater for Egypt as it accounts for nearly all of the country's drinking and irrigation water. About 95% of the total population is accounted to live along the Banks of the Nile(1). Therefore, water quality deterioration in addition to general natural scarcity of water in the region(2) is the main driver for carrying out this study. What further aggravates this issue is the water conflict in the Blue Nile region. The study evaluates different water quality parameters and their concentrations in the Egyptian Nile; further assessing the temporal dynamics of water quality in the area with (a) the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)(3) and (b) the Jevons Paradox (JP)(4) in order to identify water quality improvements or degradations using selected socioeconomic variables(5). For this purpose various environmental indicators including BOD, COD, DO, Phosphorus and TDS were plotted against different economic variables including Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Annual Fresh Water Withdrawal and Improved Water Source. Mathematically, this was expressed by 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial regressions generating the EKC and JP respectively. The basic goal of the regression analysis is to model and highlight the dynamic trend of water quality indicators in relation to their established permissible limits, which will allow the identification of optimal future water quality policies. The results clearly indicate that the dependency of water quality indicators on socioeconomic variables differs for every indicator; while COD was above the permissible limits in all the cases despite of its decreasing trend in each case, BOD and phosphate signified increasing concentrations for the future, if they continue to follow the present trend. This could be an indication of rebound effect explained by the Jevons Paradox i.e. water quality deterioration after its improvement, either due to increase of population or intensification

  16. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  17. Dynamics of water and hydrated protons in confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the dynamics of water and hydrated protons in confinement has been studied using nonlinear spectroscopy methods, including IR pump-probe spectroscopy and vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG spectroscopy). Using the IR pump-probe spectroscopy, we first investigated

  18. Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Disulfide Cages in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Kevin R.; Bake, Kyle D.; Otto, Sijbren

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) containing water-soluble disulfide-linked cages (alongside macrocyclic structures) have been generated and characterized. Unlike most other strategies for generating molecular cages, the structures are held together by covalent bonds, which are formed under the

  19. Ringin' the water bell: dynamic modes of curved fluid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, John; Aharoni, Hillel; Fineberg, Jay; Sharon, Eran

    2015-11-01

    A water bell is formed by fluid flowing in a thin, coherent sheet in the shape of a bell. Experimentally, a water bell is created via the impact of a cylindrical jet on a flat surface. Its shape is set by the splash angle (the separation angle) of the resulting cylindrically symmetric water sheet. The separation angle is altered by adjusting the height of a lip surrounding the impact point, as in a water sprinkler. We drive the lip's height sinusoidally, altering the separation angle, and ringin' the water bell. This forcing generates disturbances on the steady-state water bell that propagate forward and backward in the fluid's reference frame at well-defined velocities, and interact, resulting in the emergence of an interference pattern unique to each steady-state geometry. We analytically model these dynamics by linearizing the amplitude of the bell's response about the underlying curved geometry. This simple model predicts the nodal structure over a wide range of steady-state water bell configurations and driving frequencies. Due to the curved water bell geometry, the nodal structure is quite complex; nevertheless, the predicted nodal structure agrees extremely well with the experimental data. When we drive the bell beyond perturbative separation angles, the nodal locations surprisingly persist, despite the strikingly altered underlying water bell shape. At extreme driving amplitudes the water sheet assumes a rich variety of tortuous, non-convex shapes; nevertheless, the fluid sheet remains intact.

  20. Structure and dynamics of water molecules confined in triglyceride oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Carien C M; Velikov, Krassimir P; Bakker, Huib J

    2016-10-26

    Though it is commonly known that a small amount of water can be present in triglyceride oil, a molecular picture of how water molecules organize in the oil phase is lacking. We investigate the hydrogen-bond configuration and dynamics of water in triacetin, tributyrin and trioctanoin using linear infrared and time-resolved two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy of the water hydroxyl stretch vibration. We identify water molecules with a single strong hydrogen bond to the triglyceride, water molecules with two weaker hydrogen bonds to the triglycerides, and water clusters. These species do not interconvert on the 20 ps timescale of the experiment, as evidenced by the absence of cross-peaks in the 2DIR spectrum. The vibrational response of water molecules with a single strong hydrogen bond to the triglyceride depends strongly on the excitation frequency, revealing the presence of different subspecies of singly-bound water molecules that correspond to different hydrogen-bond locations. In contrast, the water molecules with two weaker hydrogen bonds to the triglyceride correspond to a single, specific hydrogen-bond configuration; these molecules likely bridge the carbonyl groups of adjacent triglyceride molecules, which can have considerable influence on liquid triglyceride properties.

  1. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.

    2016-10-28

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1–3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson’s correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  2. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, E I; Weissbrodt, D G; Hammes, F; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson's correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously undocumented seasonal dynamics in the distribution

  3. Understanding the dynamics of water availability and use in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Engi, E.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of an analysis of China`s water resources, part of an effort undertaken by the National Intelligence Council Medea scientists to improve the understanding of future food production and consumption in the People`s Republic of China. A dynamic water model was developed to simulate the hydrological budgetary processes in five river drainage basins located in northeastern, central, and southern China: the Chang Jiang (Yangtse River), Huanghe (Yellow River), Haihe, Huaihe, and Liaohe. The model was designed to assess the effects of changes in urban, industrial, and agricultural water use requirements on the availability of water in each basin and to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in China through the year 2025. The model imposes a sustainable yield constraint, that is, groundwater extraction is not allowed to exceed the sustainable yield; if the available water does not meet the total water use requirements, a deficit results. An agronomic model was also developed to generate projections of the water required to service China`s agricultural sector and compare China`s projected grain production with projected grain consumption requirements to estimate any grain surplus and/or deficit. In future refinements, the agronomic model will interface directly with the water model to provide for the exchange of information on projected water use requirements and available water. The preliminary results indicate that the Chang Jiang basin will have a substantial surplus of water through 2025 and that the Haihe basin is in an ongoing situation. The agricultural water use requirements based on grain production indicate that an agricultural water deficit in the Haihe basin begins before the onset of the modeling period (1980) and steadily worsens through 2025. This assumption is confirmed by reports that groundwater mining is already under way in the most intensely cultivated and populated areas of northern China.

  4. Dynamics of water uptake in spreading bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, C. Nadir; Mahadevan, L.

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria can colonize a moist, nutrient-rich surface by secreting osmolytes to recruit water from the underlying substrate. We consider the outermost region of an expanding Escherichia coli biofilm, where the rim width is set by the cell growth rate and the colony expansion speed. Based on the hypothesis that sliding due to the mechanical contact between cells governs their speed, we model the interplay between the flow of cells and the water uptake via osmolyte production. This allows us to determine the front expansion speed and the non-uniform biofilm thickness, in agreement with experiments.

  5. Does consideration of water routing affect simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is closely coupled with the cycling of water. An important mechanism connecting ecological and hydrological processes in terrestrial ecosystems is lateral flow of water along landscapes. Few studies, however, have examined explicitly how consideration of water routing affects simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study is to explore how consideration of water routing in a process-based hydroecological model affects simulated water and carbon dynamics. To achieve that end, we rasterized the regional hydroecological simulation systems (RHESSys and employed the rasterized RHESSys (R-RHESSys in a forested watershed. We performed and compared two contrasting simulations, one with and another without water routing. We found that R-RHESSys is able to correctly simulate major hydrological and ecological variables regardless of whether water routing is considered. When water routing was neglected, however, soil water table depth and saturation deficit were simulated to be smaller and spatially more homogeneous. As a result, evaporation, forest productivity and soil heterotrophic respiration also were simulated to be spatially more homogeneous compared to simulation with water routing. When averaged for the entire watershed, however, differences in simulated water and carbon fluxes are not significant between the two simulations. Overall, the study demonstrated that consideration of water routing enabled R-RHESSys to better capture our preconception of the spatial patterns of water table depth and saturation deficit across the watershed. Because the spatial pattern of soil moisture is fundamental to water efflux from land to the atmosphere, forest productivity and soil microbial activity, ecosystem and carbon cycle models, therefore, need to explicitly represent water routing in order to accurately quantify the magnitudes and patterns of water and carbon fluxes

  6. Constructing covalent organic frameworks in water via dynamic covalent bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thote, Jayshri; Barike Aiyappa, Harshitha; Rahul Kumar, Raya; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P.; Balaji Shinde, Digambar; Chaki Roy, Neha; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    The formation of keto-enamine based crystalline, porous polymers in water is investigated for the first time. Facile access to the Schiff base reaction in water has been exploited to synthesize stable porous structures using the principles of Dynamic Covalent Chemistry (DCC). Most credibly, the water-based Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) possess chemical as well as physical properties such as crystallinity, surface area and porosity, which is comparable to their solvothermal counterparts. The formation of COFs in water is further investigated by understanding the nature of the monomers formed using hydroxy and non-hydroxy analogues of the aldehyde. This synthetic route paves a new way to synthesize COFs using a viable, greener route by utilization of the DCC principles in conjunction with the keto–enol tautomerism to synthesize useful, stable and porous COFs in water. PMID:27840679

  7. Molecular dynamics study of the water/n-alkane interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations on the interface between liquid water and liquid n-alkane (including octane, nonane, decane, undecane and dodecane) have been performed with the purpose to study the interfacial properties: (Ⅰ) density profile; (Ⅱ) molecular orientation; (Ⅲ) interfacial tension and the temperature effect on the interfacial tension. Simulation results show that at the interface the structures of both water and n-alkane are different from those in the bulk. Water has an orientational preference due to the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule maximized. N-alkane has a more lateral orientation with respect to the interface in order to be in close contact with water. The calculated individual phase bulk density and interfacial tension of water/n-alkane systems are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.

  8. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...... directly in the other region. This means that models of the water balance need to be tested again and the coefficients at least must be adapted to the new environmental conditions. Two methods for the calculation of water movement in the unsaturated soil zone are described. Simulation programs based...... on both approaches are applied to an actual case with the conditions in Germany. This case is also analyzed under the conditions of Rio de Janeiro. The effects of tropical environmental conditions on water transport in unsaturated soils are also discussed....

  9. Understanding water: Molecular dynamics simulations of solubilized and crystallized myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Gu; Garcia, A.E.; Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on CO myoglobin to evaluate the stability of the bound water molecules as determined in a neutron diffraction analysis. The myoglobin structure derived from the neutron analysis provided the starting coordinate set used in the simulations. The simulations show that only a few water molecules are tightly bound to protein atoms, while most solvent molecules are labile, breaking and reforming hydrogen bonds. Comparison between myoglobin in solution and in a single crystal highlighted some of the packing effects on the solvent structure and shows that water solvent plays an indispensable role in protein dynamics and structural stability. The described observations explain some of the differences in the experimental results of protein hydration as observed in NMR, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies.

  10. Dynamic Water Modeling and Application of Billet Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-hong; XIE Zhi; JI Zhen-ping; WANG Biao; LAI Zhao-yi; JIA Guang-lin

    2008-01-01

    The continuous casting process is used for solidifying molten steel into semi-finished steel. The technology of secondary cooling is extremely important for output of the casting machine and billet quality. A dynamic water model was introduced, including solidification model in the secondary cooling, feedforward control strategy based on continuous temperature measurement in tundish, and feedback control strategy based on surface temperature measurement. The mathematical model of solidification process was developed according to the principle of solidification, and the solidification model was validated by measuring billet shell thickness through shooting nail and sulfur print. Primary water distribution was calculated by the solidification model according to procedure parameters, and it was adjusted by the other two control strategies online. The model was applied on some caster and billet quality was obviously improved, indicating that the dynamic water model is better than conventional ones.

  11. Protein and water dynamics in bovine serum albumin-water mixtures over wide ranges of composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulou, A; Kyritsis, A; Shinyashiki, N; Pissis, P

    2012-04-19

    Dielectric dynamic behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-water mixtures over wide ranges of water fractions, from dry protein until 40 wt % in water, was studied through dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). The α relaxation associated with the glass transition of the hydrated system was identified. The evolution of the low temperature dielectric relaxation of small polar groups of the protein surface with hydration level results in the enhancement of dielectric response and the decrease of relaxation times, until a critical water fraction, which corresponds to the percolation threshold for protonic conductivity. For water fractions higher than the critical one, the position of the secondary ν relaxation of water saturates in the Arrhenius diagram, while contributions originating from water molecules in excess (uncrystallized water or ice) follow separate relaxation modes slower than the ν relaxation.

  12. Sperm Cell Dynamics in Shallow Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condat, Carlos; Marconi, Veronica; Guidobaldi, Alejandro; Giojalas, Laura; Silhanek, Alejandro; Jeyaram, Yogesh; Moshchalkov, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Self-propelled microorganisms are attracted to surfaces. This makes their dynamic behavior in restricted geometries very different from that observed in the bulk. Here we analyze the motion of spermatozoids confined to shallow chambers, investigating the nature of the cell trajectories and their accumulation near the side boundaries. Observed cell trajectories are composed of a succession of quasi-circular and quasi-linear segments. This suggests that the cells follow a path of intermittent trappings near the top and down surfaces separated by stretches of quasi-free motion near the center of the gap. Use of microstructured petal-shaped edges limits accumulation near the borders and contributes to increase the concentration in the chamber interior. System stabilization occurs over times of the order of minutes, which agrees well with a theoretical estimate that assumes that the cell mean-square displacement is largely due to the quasi-linear segments. Pure quasi-circular trajectories would require several hours to stabilize. Our estimates also indicate that stabilization proceeds 2.5 times faster in the rosette geometries than in the smooth-edged chambers, which is another practical reason to prefer the former.

  13. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  14. Dynamic Water Networks in Cytochrome c Oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans Investigated by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Olkhova, Elena; Hutter, Michael C; Lill, Markus A.; Helms, Volkhard; Michel, Hartmut

    2004-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans in the fully oxidized state, embedded in a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer membrane. Parallel simulations with different levels of protein hydration, 1.125 ns each in length, were carried out under conditions of constant temperature and pressure using three-dimensional periodic boundary conditions and full electrostatics to investigate the distribution and dynamics of water ...

  15. Water Dynamics at the Root of Metamorphosis in Living Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rosa Spinetti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid water has been recognized long ago to be the matrix of many processes, including life and also rock dynamics. Interactions among biomolecules occur very differently in a non-aqueous system and are unable to produce life. This ability to make living processes possible implies a very peculiar structure of liquid water. According to modern Quantum Field Theory (QFT, a complementary principle (in the sense of Niels Bohr holds between the number N of field quanta (including the matter field whose quanta are just the atoms/molecules and the phase Ф. This means that when we focus on the atomic structure of matter it loses its coherence properties and, vice versa, when we examine the phase dynamics of the system its atomic structure becomes undefined. Superfluid liquid Helium is the first example of this peculiar quantum dynamics. In the present paper we show how consideration of the phase dynamics of liquid water makes the understanding of its peculiar role in the onset of self-organization in living organisms and in ecosystems possible.

  16. Dynamic Stabilization of Metal Oxide–Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Division; von Rudorff, Guido Falk [Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Stubbs, Joanne E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS); Eng, Peter J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS); Blumberger, Jochen [Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Division

    2017-02-08

    Metal oxide growth, dissolution, and redox reactivity depend on the structure and dynamics at the interface with aqueous solution. We present the most definitive analysis to date of the hydrated naturally abundant r-cut (11$\\bar{0}$2) termination of the iron oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3). In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering analysis reveals a ridged lateral arrangement of adsorbed water molecules hydrogen bonded to terminal aquo groups. Large-scale hybrid-functional density functional theory-based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations show how this structure is dynamically stabilized by picosecond exchange between aquo groups and adsorbed water, even under nominally dry conditions. Surface pKa prediction based on bond valence analysis suggests that water exchange may influence the proton transfer reactions associated with acid/base reactivity at the interface. Our findings rectify inconsistencies between existing models and may be extended to resolving more complex electrochemical phenomena at metal oxide-water interfaces.

  17. Effects of Dimerization of Serratia marcescens Endonuclease on Water Dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuanying; Beck, Brian W.; Krause, Kurt; Weksberg, Tiffany E.; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-02-15

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The dynamics and structure of Serratia marcescens endonuclease and its neighboring solvent are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD). Comparisons are made with structural and biochemical experiments. The dimer form is physiologic and functions more processively than the monomer. We previously found a channel formed by connected clusters of waters from the active site to the dimer interface. Here, we show that dimerization clearly changes correlations in the water structure and dynamics in the active site not seen in the monomer. Our results indicate that water at the active sites of the dimer is less affected compared with bulk solvent than in the monomer where it has much slower characteristic relaxation times. Given that water is a required participant in the reaction, this gives a clear advantage to dimerization in the absence of an apparent ability to use both active sites simultaneously.

  18. Micro-dynamic Behavior and Self-adjusting Water Transmit Mechanism of Water-transferring Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zengzhi; XU Hongmei; MA Dandan; ZHAO Jin

    2011-01-01

    Constructional and micro-dynamic process of the water-transferring composite was analyzed.This composite can transmit water to soil with a self-adjustable speed to ensure the survival of seedlings in arid and semi-arid regions when it is embedded in soil around the roots of the seedlings.It is obtained from natural plant fiber coated with a colloid made by mixing a certain proportion of polyacrylamide and montmorillonite.The rules of water being transmitted to soil by the coating under different condition were tested by M-30 quick moisture measure instrument.The process of water-desorption of the coating material was investigated by a Perkin Elmer Diamond S Ⅱ thermal multi-analyzer.Moreover,the micro-dynamic behavior was detected by a FEIQuanta 2000 environment scanning electron microscope.The results demonstrate that montmorillonite has lower water-desorption energy barrier than polyacrylamide and can lose water more easily.montmorillonite particles bridge up to be the main water-transmit material at low water potential (when the soil relatively dry or when the temperature is high),and they break bridge at high water potential while the polyacrylamide acts as the main water-transmit material.

  19. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  20. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  1. Short time dynamics of water coalescence on a flat water pool

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Su Jin; Fezzaa, Kamel; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-01-01

    Coalescence is an important hydrodynamic event that frequently takes place in nature as well as in industry. Here we provide an experimental study on short time dynamics of water coalescence, particularly when a water droplet comes in contact with a flat water surface, by utilizing high-resolution high-penetration ultrafast X-ray microscopy. Our results demonstrate a possibility that an extreme curvature difference between a drop and a flat surface can significantly modify the hydrodynamics of water coalescence, which is unexpected in the existing theory. We suggest a plausible explanation for why coalescence can be modified by an extreme curvature difference.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Benzene in Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Microscopic structure and diffusion properties of benzene in ambient water (298 K, 0.1 MPa) and super critical water (673-773 K, 25-35 MPa) are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with site-site models. It is found that at the ambient condition, the water molecules surrounding a benzene molecule form a hydrogen bond network. The hydrogen bond interaction between supercritical water molecules decreases dramatically under supercritical conditions. The diffusion coefficients of both the solute molecule and solvent molecule at supercritical conditions increase by 30-180 times than those at the ambient condition. With the temperature approaching the critical temperature, the change of diffusion coefficient with pressure becomes pronounced.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Carbon Nanotubes in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, J. H.; Jaffe, R.; Halicioglu, T.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2000-01-01

    We study the hydrophobic/hydrophilic behavior of carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The energetics of the carbon-water interface are mainly dispersive but in the present study augmented with a carbon quadrupole term acting on the charge sites of the water. The simulations indicate that this contribution is negligible in terms of modifying the structural properties of water at the interface. Simulations of two carbon nanotubes in water display a wetting and drying of the interface between the nanotubes depending on their initial spacing. Thus, initial tube spacings of 7 and 8 A resulted in a drying of the interface whereas spacing of > 9 A remain wet during the course of the simulation. Finally, we present a novel particle-particle-particle-mesh algorithm for long range potentials which allows for general (curvilinear) meshes and "black-box" fast solvers by adopting an influence matrix technique.

  4. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  5. Dynamic Ice-Water Interactions Form Europa's Chaos Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, D. D.; Schmidt, B. E.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P.

    2011-12-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. We present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. This model is consistent with key observations of chaos, predicts observables for future missions, and indicates that the surface is likely still active today[1]. We apply lessons from ice-water interaction in the terrestrial cryosphere to hypothesize a dynamic lense-collapse model to for Europa's chaos terrain. Chaos terrain morphology, like that of Conamara chaos and Thera Macula, suggests a four-phase formation [1]: 1) Surface deflection occurs as ice melts over ascending thermal plumes, as regularly occurs on Earth as subglacial volcanoes activate. The same process can occur at Europa if thermal plumes cause pressure melt as they cross ice-impurity eutectics. 2) Resulting hydraulic gradients and driving forces produce a sealed, pressurized melt lense, akin to the hydraulic sealing of subglacial caldera lakes. On Europa, the water cannot escape the lense due to the horizontally continuous ice shell. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid above the lense opens cracks, allowing for the ice to be hydrofractured by pressurized water. Fracture, brine injection and percolation within the ice and possible iceberg toppling produces ice-melange-like granular matrix material. 4) Refreezing of the melt lense and brine-filled pores and cracks within the matrix results in raised chaos. Brine soaking and injection concentrates the ice in brines and adds water volume to the shell. As this englacial water freezes, the now water-filled ice will expand, not unlike the process of forming pingos and other "expansion ice" phenomena on Earth. The refreezing can raise the surface and create the oft-observed matrix "domes" In this presentation, we describe how catastrophic ice-water interactions on Earth have

  6. Dynamics of surfactant sorption at the air/water interface: continuous-flow tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, T F; Wetherbee, M J; Radke, C J

    2003-05-01

    Dynamic interfacial tensiometry, gauged by axisymmetric drop shape analysis of static drops or bubbles, provides useful information on surfactant adsorption kinetics. However, the traditional pendant-drop methodology is not readily amenable to the study of desorption kinetics. Thus, the question of sorption reversibility is difficult to assess by this technique. We extend classical pendant/sessile drop dynamic tensiometry by immersing a sessile bubble in a continuously mixed optical cell. Ideal-mixed conditions are established by stirring and by constant flow through the cell. Aqueous surface-active-agent solutions are either supplied to the cell (loading) or removed from the cell by flushing with water (washout), thereby allowing study of both adsorption and desorption kinetics. Well-mixed conditions and elimination of any mass transfer resistance permit direct identification of sorption kinetic barriers to and from the external aqueous phase with time constants longer than the optical-cell residence time. The monodisperse nonionic surfactant ethoxy dodecyl alcohol (C(12)E(5)), along with cationic cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in the presence of added salt, adsorbs and desorbs instantaneously at the air/water interface. In these cases, the experimentally observed dynamic-tension curves follow the local-equilibrium model precisely for both loading and washout. Accordingly, these surfactants below their critical micelle concentrations (CMC) exhibit no detectable sorption-activation barriers on time scales of order a min. However, the sorption dynamics of dilute CTAB in the absence of electrolyte is markedly different from that in the presence of KBr. Here CTAB desorption occurs at local equilibrium, but the adsorption rate is kinetically limited, most likely due to an electrostatic barrier arising as the charged surfactant accumulates at the interface. The commercial, polydisperse nonionic surfactant ethoxy nonylphenol (NP9) loads in good agreement with

  7. Slow dynamics of phospholipid monolayers at the air/water interface

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Siyoung Q

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface serve as model systems for various biological interfaces, e.g. lung surfactant layers and outer leaflets of cell membranes. Although the dynamical (viscoelastic) properties of these interfaces may play a key role in stability, dynamics and function, the relatively weak rheological properties of most such monolayers have rendered their study difficult or impossible. A novel technique to measure the dynamical properties of fluid-fluid interfaces have developed accordingly. We microfabricate micron-scale ferromagnetic disks, place them on fluid-fluid interfaces, and use external electromagnets to exert torques upon them. By measuring the rotation that results from a known external torque, we compute the rotational drag, from which we deduce the rheological properties of the interface. Notably, our apparatus enable direct interfacial visualization while the probes are torqued. In this fluid dynamics video, we directly visualize dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine(DPPC...

  8. The Water to Solute Permeability Ratio Governs the Osmotic Volume Dynamics in Beetroot Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Victoria; Sutka, Moira; Amodeo, Gabriela; Chara, Osvaldo; Ozu, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf) is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous) osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modeling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps), which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons, or stems that perform extensive rhythmic growth movements

  9. The water to solute permeability ratio governs the osmotic volume dynamics in beetroot vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vitali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modelling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps, which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons or stems that perform extensive rhythmic

  10. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@stefanominardi.eu; Pertsch, Thomas [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Majus, Donatas; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Dubietis, Audrius [Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, bldg. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gopal, Amrutha [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV. We also introduce an equation for the Raman gain valid for ultra-short pulses that validates our experimental procedure.

  11. Variational path integral molecular dynamics study of a water molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shinichi

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, a variational path integral molecular dynamics method developed by the author [Chem. Phys. Lett. 482, 165 (2009)] is applied to a water molecule on the adiabatic potential energy surface. The method numerically generates an exact wavefunction using a trial wavefunction of the target system. It has been shown that even if a poor trial wavefunction is employed, the exact quantum distribution is numerically extracted, demonstrating the robustness of the variational path integral method.

  12. Dynamic imaging of cell-free and cell-associated viral capture in mature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Esteban, Olga; Rodriguez-Plata, Maria T; Erkizia, Itziar; Prado, Julia G; Blanco, Julià; García-Parajo, Maria F; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through a non-fusogenic mechanism that enables viral transmission to CD4(+) T cells, contributing to in vivo viral dissemination. Although previous studies have provided important clues to cell-free viral capture by mature DCs (mDCs), dynamic and kinetic insight on this process is still missing. Here, we used three-dimensional video microscopy and single-particle tracking approaches to dynamically dissect both cell-free and cell-associated viral capture by living mDCs. We show that cell-free virus capture by mDCs operates through three sequential phases: virus binding through specific determinants expressed in the viral particle, polarized or directional movements toward concrete regions of the cell membrane and virus accumulation in a sac-like structure where trapped viral particles display a hindered diffusive behavior. Moreover, real-time imaging of cell-associated viral transfer to mDCs showed a similar dynamics to that exhibited by cell-free virus endocytosis leading to viral accumulation in compartments. However, cell-associated HIV type 1 transfer to mDCs was the most effective pathway, boosted throughout enhanced cellular contacts with infected CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that in lymphoid tissues, mDC viral uptake could occur either by encountering cell-free or cell-associated virus produced by infected cells generating the perfect scenario to promote HIV pathogenesis and impact disease progression.

  13. Comment on "Structure and dynamics of liquid water on rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Zhang, Zhan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Predota, M. [University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic; Kumar, Nitin [ORNL; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL; Machesky, Michael L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL; Fenter, Paul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Skelton, A A [Vanderbilt University; Rosenqvist, Jorgen K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Liu and co-workers [Phys. Rev. B 82, 161415 (2010)] discussed the long-standing debate regarding whether H2O molecules on the defect-free (110) surface of rutile ( -TiO2) sorb associatively, or there is dissociation of some or all first-layer water to produce hydroxyl surface sites. They conducted static density functional theory (DFT) and DFT molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) investigations using a range of cell configurations and functionals. We have reproduced their static DFT calculations of the influence of crystal slab thickness on water sorption energies. However, we disagree with several assertions made by these authors: (a) that second-layer water structuring and hydrogen bonding to surface oxygens and adsorbed water molecules are weak ; (b) that translational diffusion of water molecules in direct contact with the surface approaches that of bulk liquid water; and (c) that there is no dissociation of adsorbed water at this surface in contact with liquid water. These assertions directly contradict our publishedwork, which compared synchrotron x-ray crystal truncation rod, second harmonic generation, quasielastic neutron scattering, surface charge titration, and classical MD simulations of rutile (110) single-crystal surfaces and (110)-dominated powders in contact with bulk water, and (110)-dominated rutile nanoparticles with several monolayers of adsorbed water.

  14. Protein-water dynamics in antifreeze protein III activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Bäumer, Alexander; Meister, Konrad; Bischak, Connor G.; DeVries, Arthur L.; Leitner, David M.; Havenith, Martina

    2016-03-01

    We combine Terahertz absorption spectroscopy (THz) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism for the antifreeze activity of one class of antifreeze protein, antifreeze protein type III (AFP-III) with a focus on the collective water hydrogen bond dynamics near the protein. After summarizing our previous work on AFPs, we present a new investigation of the effects of cosolutes on protein antifreeze activity by adding sodium citrate to the protein solution of AFP-III. Our results reveal that for AFP-III, unlike some other AFPs, the addition of the osmolyte sodium citrate does not affect the hydrogen bond dynamics at the protein surface significantly, as indicated by concentration dependent THz measurements. The present data, in combination with our previous THz measurements and molecular simulations, confirm that while long-range solvent perturbation is a necessary condition for the antifreeze activity of AFP-III, the local binding affinity determines the size of the hysteresis.

  15. Evaporation dynamics of water droplets on inclined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    When a water droplet is gently placed on a flat substrate, particularly which is tilted at an inclined angle, usually there are advancing and receding angles inside the droplet formed by inclination under gravitational force. Evaporation dynamics of an nonspherical inclined droplet at inclinations would deviate from that of a spherical droplet. Here we study on evaporation dynamics rates of inclined droplets by measuring mass changes with time and their lifetimes. We find that the lifetime of an evaporating inclined droplets becomes longer as the gravitational influence becomes stronger. The lifetime depends on the pinning-depinning transitions and the depinning onset times, which are changed by the gravitational influence. This The dependence inclination-induced evaporation behavior would be useful important in understanding evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  16. Dynamic contact angle of water-based titanium oxide nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiom, Milad; Yang, Chun; Chan, Weng Kong

    2013-06-11

    This paper presents an investigation into spreading dynamics and dynamic contact angle of TiO2-deionized water nanofluids. Two mechanisms of energy dissipation, (1) contact line friction and (2) wedge film viscosity, govern the dynamics of contact line motion. The primary stage of spreading has the contact line friction as the dominant dissipative mechanism. At the secondary stage of spreading, the wedge film viscosity is the dominant dissipative mechanism. A theoretical model based on combination of molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic theory which incorporates non-Newtonian viscosity of solutions is used. The model agreement with experimental data is reasonable. Complex interparticle interactions, local pinning of the contact line, and variations in solid-liquid interfacial tension are attributed to errors.

  17. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing

  18. Mitochondrial dynamics and the cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny M.A. Kianian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear-mitochondrial (NM communication impacts many aspects of plant development including vigor, sterility and viability. Dynamic changes in mitochondrial number, shape, size, and cellular location takes place during the cell cycle possibly impacting the process itself and leading to distribution of this organelle into daughter cells. The genes that underlie these changes are beginning to be identified in model plants such as Arabidopsis. In animals disruption of the drp1 gene, a homolog to the plant drp3A and drp3B, delays mitochondrial division. This mutation results in increased aneuploidy due to chromosome mis-segregation. It remains to be discovered if a similar outcome is observed in plants. Alloplasmic lines provide an opportunity to understand the communication between the cytoplasmic organelles and the nucleus. Examples of studies in these lines, especially from the extensive collection in wheat, point to the role of mitochondria in chromosome movement, pollen fertility and other aspects of development. Genes involved in NM interaction also are believed to play a critical role in evolution of species and interspecific cross incompatibilities.

  19. Dynamics of water and solute transport in polymeric reverse osmosis membranes via molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Meng; Lueptow, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The Angstrom-scale transport characteristics of water and six different solutes, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, urea, Na+, and Cl-, were studied for a polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, FT-30, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. Results indicate that water transport increases with an increasing fraction of connected percolated free volume, or water-accessible open space, in the membrane polymer structure. This free volume is enhanced by the dynamic structure of the membrane at the molecular level as it swells when hydrated and vibrates due to molecular collisions allowing a continuous path connecting the opposite membrane surfaces. The tortuous paths available for transport of solutes result in Brownian motion of solute molecules and hopping from pore to pore as they pass through the polymer network structure of the membrane. The transport of alcohol solutes decreases for solutes with larger Van der Waals volume, which corresponds to less available percolated free volume, or sol...

  20. Water dynamics and retrogradation of ultrahigh pressurized wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2006-09-06

    The water dynamics and retrogradation kinetics behavior of gelatinized wheat starch by either ultrahigh pressure (UHP) processing or heat are investigated. Wheat starch completely gelatinized in the condition of 90, 000 psi at 25 degrees C for 30 min (pressurized gel) or 100 degrees C for 30 min (heated gel). The physical properties of the wheat starches were characterized in terms of proton relaxation times (T2 times) measured using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and evaluated using commercially available continuous distribution modeling software. Different T2 distributions in both micro- and millisecond ranges between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels suggest distinctively different water dynamics between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels. Smaller water self-diffusion coefficients were observed for pressurized wheat starch gels and are indicative of more restricted translational proton mobility than is observed with heated wheat starch gels. The physical characteristics associated with changes taking place during retrogradation were evaluated using melting curves obtained with differential scanning calorimetry. Less retrogradation was observed in pressurized wheat starch, and it may be related to a smaller quantity of freezable water in pressurized wheat starch. Starches comprise a major constituent of many foods proposed for commercial potential using UHP, and the present results furnish insight into the effect of UHP on starch gelatinization and the mechanism of retrogradation during storage.

  1. A molecular dynamics study on surface properties of supercooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yongjun; WEI Bingbo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the surface properties of water in a temperature range from 228 to 293 K by using the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and four-site TIP4P potentials. The calculated surface tension increases with the decrease of temperature, and moreover the slopes of the surface tension-temperature curves show a weak rise below 273 K, whereas no obvious anomalies appear near 228 K, which accords with the previous experiments. Compared with the measured values, the SPC/E potential shows a good agreement, and the TIP4P potential scription of the surface structure of supercooled water for the SPC/E. When simulating the orientational distributions of water molecules near the surface, the SPC/E potential produces higher ordering and larger surface potentials than the TIP4P potential.

  2. Molecular dynamics of the water liquid-vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; MacElroy, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The results of molecular dynamics calculations on the equilibrium interface between liquid water and its vapor at 325 K are presented. For the TIP4P model of water intermolecular pair potentials, the average surface dipole density points from the vapor to the liquid. The most common orientations of water molecules have the C2 nu molecular axis roughly parallel to the interface. The distributions are quite broad and therefore compatible with the intermolecular correlations characteristic of bulk liquid water. All near-neighbor pairs in the outermost interfacial layers are hydrogen bonded according to the common definition adopted here. The orientational preferences of water molecules near a free surface differ from those near rigidly planar walls which can be interpreted in terms of patterns found in hexagonal ice 1. The mean electric field in the interfacial region is parallel to the mean polarization which indicates that attention cannot be limited to dipolar charge distributions in macroscopic descriptions of the electrical properties of this interface. The value of the surface tension obtained is 132 +/- 46 dyn/cm, significantly different from the value for experimental water of 68 dyn/cm at 325 K.

  3. Salt—Water Dynamics in Soils:I.Salt—Water Dynamics in Unsaturated Soils Under Stable Evaporation Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUWEN-RUI; MENGFAN-HUA; 等

    1992-01-01

    A long term simulation test on salt-water dynamics in unsaturated soils with different groundwater depths and soil texture profiles under stable evaporation condition was conducted.Salinity sensors and tensiometers were used to monitor salt and water variation in soils.The experiment revealed that in the process of fresh groundwater moving upwards by capillary rise in the column,the salts in subsoil were brought upwards and accumulated in the surface soil,and consequently the salinization of surface soil took place.The rate of salt accumulation is determined mainly by the volume of capillary water flow and the conditions of salts contained in the soil profile.Water flux in soils decreased obviously when groundwater depths fell below 1.5m.When there was an interbedded clay layer 30cm in thickness in the silty loam soil profile or a clay layer 100cm in thickness at the top layer,the water flux was 3-5 times less than in the soil profile of homogeneous silty loam soil.Therefore,the rate of salt accumulation was decreased and the effect of variation of groundwater depth on the water flux in soils was weakened comparatively.If there was precipitation or irrigation supplying water to the soil,the groundwater could rarely take a direct part in the process of salt accumulation in surface soil,especially,in soil profiles with an interbedded stratum or a clayey surface soil layer.

  4. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen production and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weiwei

    The global energy crisis presents two major challenges for scientists around the world: Producing cleaner energy which is sustainable for the environment; And improving the efficiency of energy production as well as consumption. It is crucial and yet elusive to understand the atomistic mechanisms and electronic properties, which are needed in order to tackle those challenges. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations and nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics are two of the dominant methods used to address the atomistic and electronic properties in various energy studies. This dissertation is an ensemble of three studies in energy research: (1) Hydrogen production from the reaction of aluminum clusters with water to provide a renewable energy cycle; (2) The photo-excited charge transfer and recombination at a quaterthiophene/zinc oxide interface to improve the power conversion efficiency of hybrid poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) /ZnO solar cells; and (3) the charge transfer at a rubrene/C60 interface to understand why phenyl groups in rubrene improve the performance of rubrene/C60 solar cells.

  5. Salt—Water Dynamics in Highly Salinized Topsoil of Salt—Affected Soil During Water Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXUE-FENG; YOUWEN-RUI; 等

    1991-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of salt and water movement in the soil profile of highly salinized topsoil under steadystate infiltration was conducted.It gives that salt and water dynamics during convection-diffusion period can be divided into three stages:1.formation of a salt peak,2.the salt peak moving downwards till the appearance of the summit of the salt peak,3.the salt peak moving further downwards with the peak value decreasing.Results show that the maximum salt peak appears at the same depth if soil texture and outflow condition are the same.Factors affecting salt and water movement and ion components in the outflow solution underinfiltration are discussed.

  6. Spontaneous assembly of HSP90 inhibitors at water/octanol interface: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolghadr, Amin Reza; Boroomand, Samaneh

    2017-02-01

    Drug absorption at an acceptable dose depends on the pair of solubility and permeability. There are many potent therapeutics that are not active in vivo, presumably due to the lack of capability to cross the cell membrane. Molecular dynamics simulation of radicicol, diol-radicicol, cyclopropane-radicicol and 17-DMAG were performed at water/octanol interface to suggest interfacial activity as a physico-chemical characteristic of these heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors. We have observed that orally active HSP90 inhibitors form aggregates at the water/octanol and DPPC-lipid/water interfaces by starting from an initial configuration with HSP90 inhibitors embedded in the water matrix.

  7. WATER CONDITION IN CELLS OF CHLORELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kuznetsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water condition in cages of the paste of chlorella was investigated by the method of thermogravimetric analysis. With increasing heating rate endothermic effect corresponding to the dehydration process is shifted towards higher temperatures. Temperature intervals of chlorella dehydration are defined at rate of heating 2 К/min - 308-368 K, 5 К/min - 323-403 K, and 10 К/min - 348-403 K. Quantitative characteristics of kinetic unequal water in chlorella have been received for each step (∆, ∆Т, a mass fraction (w, energy of activation (Еа. This process is similar to the process of the dehydration in ion exchange membranes. The derived kinetic characteristics give the possibility to define an optimum temperature interval and rate of drying microalgae for the purpose of increase of periods of storage in the form of paste or a solid substance for the further use as the bioadditive. In addition the presence of three types of water chlorella in a cell set according to NMR with pulsed magnetic field gradient. Since free water is involved in biochemical, chemical and microbiological processes, it is desirable to remove during drying of the preparation. The resulting temperature range of 323-343 K (step 2 at a heating rate of 2 K / min corresponds to a temperature range of drying the chlorella in a production environment. It should be noted that the highest number of algae in a tightly-water (the last stage. Apparently, this is determined by a unique cell structure. Temperature ranges dehydration process are not clear and vary depending on the heating rate, which is fully in line with previous studies of thermal analysis for grains, vegetables and bakery products.

  8. Molecular dynamics of water at high temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodholt, John; Wood, Bernard

    1990-09-01

    There are currently no precise P-V-T data for water at pressures above 8.9 kbars and temperatures above 900°C. Many petrological processes in the lower crust and upper mantle take place under more extreme conditions, however and petrologists commonly rely on empirical equations of state such as the modified Redlich-Kwong equation (MRK) to extrapolate the low pressure data. In this study we have taken an alternative approach and attempted to simulate the P-V-T properties of water using molecular dynamics. The TIP4P intermolecular potential for H 2O ( JORGENSEN et al., 1983) has had considerable success predicting the properties of water at low temperatures and pressures up to 10 kbar ( MADURA et al., 1988). We have extended its application by making molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at a density of 1.0 g/cc from 300 to 2300 K and 0.5 to 40 kbars. The results agree with the P-V-T data of BURNHAM et al. (1969) (up to 10 kbars) with an average error of under 2%. This is a much better concordance than is obtained with any of the currently used versions of MRK. At 300 kbars and 2000 K the MD simulations predict densities within 8% of those obtained in the shock wave experiments of KORMER (1968). This is a very good agreement given the fact that water ionizes to some extent at high pressures ( MITCHELL and NELLIS, 1982) and we have made no provisions for this effect. We conclude that molecular dynamics simulations provide the possibility of estimating P-V-T properties in the upper mantle P-T regime with very good accuracy.

  9. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, N.

    1992-11-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm{sup {minus}1} intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d{sub 4}. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K{sub a}{double_prime}=0 and terminate in either K{sub a}{prime}=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A{prime} rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K{sub a}{prime} quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a{prime} symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the {nu}{sub 12} acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D{sub 2}O-DOH isotopomer.

  10. Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliano, N.

    1992-11-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm[sup [minus]1] intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d[sub 4]. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K[sub a][double prime]=0 and terminate in either K[sub a][prime]=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A[prime] rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K[sub a][prime] quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a[prime] symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the [nu][sub 12] acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D[sub 2]O-DOH isotopomer.

  11. Characterization of bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Ling, Fangqiong; Zhang, Minglu; Liu, Wen-Tso; Li, Yuxian; Liu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of microbial communities in drinking water systems is vital to securing the microbial safety of drinking water. The objective of this study was to comprehensively characterize the dynamics of microbial biomass and bacterial communities at each step of a full-scale drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China. Both bulk water and biofilm samples on granular activated carbon (GAC) were collected over 9months. The proportion of cultivable cells decreased during the treatment processes, and this proportion was higher in warm season than cool season, suggesting that treatment processes and water temperature probably had considerable impact on the R2A cultivability of total bacteria. 16s rRNA gene based 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial community revealed that Proteobacteria predominated in all samples. The GAC biofilm harbored a distinct population with a much higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria than water samples. Principle coordinate analysis and one-way analysis of similarity indicated that the dynamics of the microbial communities in bulk water and biofilm samples were better explained by the treatment processes rather than by sampling time, and distinctive changes of the microbial communities in water occurred after GAC filtration. Furthermore, 20 distinct OTUs contributing most to the dissimilarity among samples of different sampling locations and 6 persistent OTUs present in the entire treatment process flow were identified. Overall, our findings demonstrate the significant effects that treatment processes have on the microbial biomass and community fluctuation and provide implications for further targeted investigation on particular bacteria populations.

  12. Fluid dynamics and noise in bacterial cell-cell and cell-surface scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, Knut; Cisneros, Luis H; Ganguly, Sujoy; Goldstein, Raymond E; 10.1073/pnas.1019079108

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial processes ranging from gene expression to motility and biofilm formation are constantly challenged by internal and external noise. While the importance of stochastic fluctuations has been appreciated for chemotaxis, it is currently believed that deterministic long-range fluid dynamical effects govern cell-cell and cell-surface scattering - the elementary events that lead to swarming and collective swimming in active suspensions and to the formation of biofilms. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the bacterial flow field generated by individual swimming Escherichia coli both far from and near to a solid surface. These experiments allowed us to examine the relative importance of fluid dynamics and rotational diffusion for bacteria. For cell-cell interactions it is shown that thermal and intrinsic stochasticity drown the effects of long-range fluid dynamics, implying that physical interactions between bacteria are determined by steric collisions and near-field lubrication forces. This dom...

  13. Imaging Cellular Dynamics with Spectral Relaxation Imaging Microscopy: Distinct Spectral Dynamics in Golgi Membranes of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardipour, Alireza; Chon, James W. M.; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2016-11-01

    Spectral relaxation from fluorescent probes is a useful technique for determining the dynamics of condensed phases. To this end, we have developed a method based on wide-field spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to extract spectral relaxation correlation times of fluorescent probes in living cells. We show that measurement of the phase and modulation of fluorescence from two wavelengths permit the identification and determination of excited state lifetimes and spectral relaxation correlation times at a single modulation frequency. For NBD fluorescence in glycerol/water mixtures, the spectral relaxation correlation time determined by our approach exhibited good agreement with published dielectric relaxation measurements. We applied this method to determine the spectral relaxation dynamics in membranes of living cells. Measurements of the Golgi-specific C6-NBD-ceramide probe in living HeLa cells revealed sub-nanosecond spectral dynamics in the intracellular Golgi membrane and slower nanosecond spectral dynamics in the extracellular plasma membrane. We interpret the distinct spectral dynamics as a result of structural plasticity of the Golgi membrane relative to more rigid plasma membranes. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute one of the first measurements of Golgi rotational dynamics.

  14. Structural relaxation of acridine orange dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Nandi, Somen; Halder, Ritaban; Jana, Biman; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-02-01

    Structural relaxation of the acridine orange (AO) dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell is studied using time resolved confocal microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The emission maxima ( λem max ˜ 630 nm) of AO in a lung cancer cell (A549) and a non-cancer lung fibroblast cell (WI38) suggest that AO exists as a dimer inside the cell. Time-dependent red shift in emission maximum indicates dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer (in the excited state) with a time constant of 500-600 ps, both in bulk water and inside the cell. We have calculated the equilibrium relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer in the ground state using MD simulations and found a slow component of time scale ˜350 ps. The intra- and inter-molecular components of the total relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer reveal the presence of a slow component of the order of a few hundred picoseconds. Upon restricting intra-molecular dye dynamics by harmonic constraint between AO monomers, the slow component vanishes. Combining the experimental observations and MD simulation results, we ascribe the slow component of the dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer to the structural relaxation, namely, fluctuations in the distance between the two monomers and associated fluctuation in the number of water molecules.

  15. Saline Water Irrigation Scheduling Through a Crop-Water-Salinity Production Function and a Soil-Water-Salinity Dynamic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang-Ren; KANG Shao-Zhong; LI Fu-heng; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Using a crop-water-salinity production function and a soil-water-salinity dynamic model, optimal irrigation scheduling was developed to maximize net return per irrigated area. Plot and field experiments were used to obtain the crop water sensitivity index, the salinity sensitivity index, and other parameters. Using data collected during 35 years to calculate the 10-day mean precipitation and evaporation, the variation in soil salinity concentrations and in the yields of winter wheat and cotton were simulated for 49 irrigation scheduling that were combined from 7 irrigation schemes over 3 irrigation dates and 7 salinity concentrations of saline irrigation water (fresh water and 6 levels of saline water). Comparison of predicted results with irrigation data obtained from a large area of the field showed that the model was valid and reliable. Based on the analysis of the investment cost of the irrigation that employed deep tube wells or shallow tube wells, a saline water irrigation schedule and a corresponding strategy for groundwater development and utilization were proposed. For wheat or cotton, if the salinity concentration was higher than 7.0 g L-1 in groundwater, irrigation was needed with only fresh water; if about 5.0 g L-1, irrigation was required twice with fresh water and once with saline water; and if not higher than 3.0 g L-1, irrigation could be solely with saline water.

  16. Hydro-dynamic damping theory in flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Seeley, C.; Coutu, A.; Marmont, H.

    2014-03-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid-head to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon always has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues later on. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. The prediction of the two first factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of fluid damping has received less attention in spite of being critical when the runner is close to resonance. Experimental damping measurements in flowing water on hydrofoils were presented previously. Those results showed that the hydro-dynamic damping increased linearly with the flow. This paper presents development and validation of a mathematical model, based on momentum exchange, to predict damping due to fluid structure interaction in flowing water. The model is implemented as an analytical procedure for simple structures, such as cantilever beams, but is also implemented in more general ways using three different approaches for more complex structures such as runner blades: a finite element procedure, a CFD modal work based approach and a CFD 1DOF approach. The mathematical model and all three implementation approaches are shown to agree well with experimental results.

  17. Dynamically slow processes in supercooled water confined between hydrophobic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Giancarlo [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: gfranzese@ub.ed, E-mail: fdlsant@ugr.e [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    We study the dynamics of water confined between hydrophobic flat surfaces at low temperature. At different pressures, we observe different behaviors that we understand in terms of the hydrogen bond dynamics. At high pressure, the formation of the open structure of the hydrogen bond network is inhibited and the surfaces can be rapidly dried (dewetted) by formation of a large cavity with decreasing temperature. At lower pressure we observe strong non-exponential behavior of the correlation function, but with no strong increase of the correlation time. This behavior can be associated, on the one hand, to the rapid ordering of the hydrogen bonds that generates heterogeneities and, on the other hand, to the lack of a single timescale as a consequence of the cooperativity in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point that characterizes the phase diagram at low temperature of the water model considered here. At very low pressures, the gradual formation of the hydrogen bond network is responsible for the large increase of the correlation time and, eventually, the dynamical arrest of the system, with a strikingly different dewetting process, characterized by the formation of many small cavities.

  18. Water Vapor and the Dynamics of Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tapio; O'Gorman, Paul A.; Levine, Xavier J.

    2010-07-01

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change nonmonotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circulation changes through simulations with an idealized general circulation model. This allows us to explore a continuum of climates, to constrain macroscopic laws governing this climatic continuum, and to place past and possible future climate changes in a broader context.

  19. Discharging dynamics in an electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feicht, Sarah E.; Frankel, Alexandra E.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a discharging electrolytic cell comprised of a binary symmetric electrolyte between two planar, parallel blocking electrodes. When a voltage is initially applied, ions in the electrolyte migrate towards the electrodes, forming electrical double layers. After the system reaches steady state and the external current decays to zero, the applied voltage is switched off and the cell discharges, with the ions eventually returning to a uniform spatial concentration. At voltages on the order of the thermal voltage VT=kBT /q ≃25 mV, where kB is Boltzmann's constant, T is temperature, and q is the charge of a proton, experiments on surfactant-doped nonpolar fluids observe that the temporal evolution of the external current during charging and discharging is not symmetric [V. Novotny and M. A. Hopper, J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 925 (1979), 10.1149/1.2129195; P. Kornilovitch and Y. Jeon, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 064509 (2011), 10.1063/1.3554445]. In fact, at sufficiently large voltages (several VT), the current during discharging is no longer monotonic: it displays a "reverse peak" before decaying in magnitude to zero. We analyze the dynamics of discharging by solving the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations governing ion transport via asymptotic and numerical techniques in three regimes. First, in the "linear regime" when the applied voltage V is formally much less than VT, the charging and discharging currents are antisymmetric in time; however, the potential and charge density profiles during charging and discharging are asymmetric. The current evolution is on the R C timescale of the cell, λDL /D , where L is the width of the cell, D is the diffusivity of ions, and λD is the Debye length. Second, in the (experimentally relevant) thin-double-layer limit ɛ =λD/L ≪1 , there is a "weakly nonlinear" regime defined by VT≲V ≲VTln(1 /ɛ ) , where the bulk salt concentration is uniform; thus the R C timescale of the evolution of the current magnitude

  20. Dynamic Adsorptive Removal of Toxic Chemicals for Purification of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Saxena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine the efficiency of carbon column for the removal of toxic chemicals from water, the adsorption of phenol in concentration range from 0.600 glt to 1.475 gll was studied on activecarbon of 80 CTC grade, 12 X 30 BSS particle size, 1280 m2/g surface area, and of coconut shell origin, under dynamic conditions at space velocity from 0.318 min-' to 4.24 min-' at 25 'C. The carbon column of 100 cm length and 2 cm diameter was found to be removing phenol from the aqueous solution of concentration 1.475 gll up to 84 min at 0.678 min-' space velocity at 5.0 ppm phenol breakthrough concentration. However, no phenol was observed in carbon-treated water after 80 min. The service life of carbon column (100 cm lengthX25 cm diameter was assessed through the water purification system developed at the Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur and was determined to be 4.095 days with twoas factor of safety for 10 ppm initial concentration of phenol at 0.678 min-' space velocity (corresponding to water flow rate. Effects of carbon bed length, water flow rate, and the phenol concentration were also studied.

  1. A dynamic knowledge model for water management in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yinqiao; LIN Yuping; ZHAO Chuande; WANG Wenxin; LI Cundong

    2007-01-01

    Farmland irrigation management and model establishment are always core and difficult contents in crop simulation.This research was focused on exerting the establishment theory of knowledge model,and applying the systematic analysis method and mathematic modeling technology to knowledge expression system of maize water management.Based on soil water balance,a dynamic knowledge model with systematic and wide-application characteristics for maize water management was developed,after periodically quantifying the relationship of irrigation ration between cultivars' characteristics and environmental factors.Cases were studied on the knowledge model with the data sets of normal year in different eco-sites and those of different rain years in the same eco-sites.The results showed that there was no difference in water saving in normal years under different eco-sites,irrigation schedule changes with eco-sites greatly;but a more obvious difference in different rain years of the same eco-sites existing,with 8.6% and 31.9% of water saving in both more rainfall and normal rainfall years,respectively.Additionally,irrigation in the seedling stage did not change with year types,but it did in Knurling and filling stages.This can be concluded that the irrigation regime designed by the model is well coherent to the actual planting system,which indicated that the model had good decision-making and applicability.

  2. Dynamical properties of confined supercooled water: an NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Broccio, Matteo; Corsaro, Carmelo; Faraone, Antonio; Liu, Li; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2006-09-01

    We report a set of dynamical data of confined water measured in a very deeply supercooled regime (290-190 K). Water is contained in silica matrices (MCM-41-S) which consist of 1D cylindrical pores with diameters d = 14,18 and 24 Å. When confined in these tubular pores, water does not crystallize, and can be supercooled well below 200 K. We use the NMR technique to obtain the characteristic proton relaxation time-constants (the spin-lattice relaxation time-constant T1 and the spin-spin relaxation time-constant T2) and a direct measurement of the self-diffusion coefficient in the whole temperature range. We give evidence of the existence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover (FSC) at TL = 225 K from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient. A combination of the NMR self-diffusion coefficient with the average translational relaxation time, as measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, shows a well defined decoupling of transport coefficients, i.e. the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation, on approaching the crossover temperature TL.

  3. Dynamical properties of confined supercooled water: an NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallamace, Francesco [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Broccio, Matteo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Faraone, Antonio [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Liu Li [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mou, C-Y [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, S-H [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2006-09-13

    We report a set of dynamical data of confined water measured in a very deeply supercooled regime (290-190 K). Water is contained in silica matrices (MCM-41-S) which consist of 1D cylindrical pores with diameters d = 14,18 and 24 A. When confined in these tubular pores, water does not crystallize, and can be supercooled well below 200 K. We use the NMR technique to obtain the characteristic proton relaxation time-constants (the spin-lattice relaxation time-constant T1 and the spin-spin relaxation time-constant T2) and a direct measurement of the self-diffusion coefficient in the whole temperature range. We give evidence of the existence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover (FSC) at T{sub L} = 225 K from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient. A combination of the NMR self-diffusion coefficient with the average translational relaxation time, as measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, shows a well defined decoupling of transport coefficients, i.e. the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation, on approaching the crossover temperature T{sub L}.

  4. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  5. Structure and dynamics of water in crowded environments slows down peptide conformational changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cheng; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Rao, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.rao@frias.uni-freiburg.de [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, School of Soft Matter Research, Albertstrasse 19, 79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2014-07-28

    The concentration of macromolecules inside the cell is high with respect to conventional in vitro experiments or simulations. In an effort to characterize the effects of crowding on the thermodynamics and kinetics of disordered peptides, molecular dynamics simulations were run at different concentrations by varying the number of identical weakly interacting peptides inside the simulation box. We found that the presence of crowding does not influence very much the overall thermodynamics. On the other hand, peptide conformational dynamics was found to be strongly affected, resulting in a dramatic slowing down at larger concentrations. The observation of long lived water bridges between peptides at higher concentrations points to a nontrivial role of the solvent in the altered peptide kinetics. Our results reinforce the idea for an active role of water in molecular crowding, an effect that is expected to be relevant for problems influenced by large solvent exposure areas like in intrinsically disordered proteins.

  6. Electrochemical Cell with Improved Water or Gas Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William F. (Inventor); McElroy, James F. (Inventor); LaGrange, Jay W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a water/gas porous separator prepared from a polymeric material and one or more conductive cell components that pass through, or are located in close proximity to, the water/gas porous separator, is provided. The inventive cell provides a high level of in-cell electrical conductivity.

  7. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, D; Rovere, M; Gallo, P

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  8. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, D. [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rovere, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Gallo, P., E-mail: gallop@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); INFN Sez. Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  9. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  10. Solvation structures and dynamics of alkaline earth metal halides in supercritical water: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshri, Sonanki; Mandal, Ratnamala; Tembe, B. L.

    2016-09-01

    Constrained molecular dynamics simulations of alkaline earth metal halides have been carried out to investigate their structural and dynamical properties in supercritical water. Potentials of mean force (PMFs) for all the alkaline earth metal halides in supercritical water have been computed. Contact ion pairs (CIPs) are found to be more stable than all other configurations of the ion pairs except for MgI2 where solvent shared ion pair (SShIP) is more stable than the CIP. There is hardly any difference in the PMFs between the M2+ (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and the X- (X = F, Cl, Br, I) ions whether the second X- ion is present in the first coordination shell of the M2+ ion or not. The solvent molecules in the solvation shells diffuse at a much slower rate compared to the bulk. Orientational distribution functions of solvent molecules are sharper for smaller ions.

  11. The interplay between dynamic heterogeneities and structure of bulk liquid water: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unità di ricerca di Sassari, Via Vienna, 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Gulín-González, Jorge [Grupo de Matemática y Física Computacionales, Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas (UCI), Carretera a San Antonio de los Baños, Km 21/2, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Masia, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unità di ricerca di Sassari, Via Vienna, 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR, UOS SLACS, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Sant, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli studi di Sassari, Sassari (Italy)

    2015-06-28

    In order to study the interplay between dynamical heterogeneities and structural properties of bulk liquid water in the temperature range 130–350 K, thus including the supercooled regime, we use the explicit trend of the distribution functions of some molecular properties, namely, the rotational relaxation constants, the atomic mean-square displacements, the relaxation of the cross correlation functions between the linear and squared displacements of H and O atoms of each molecule, the tetrahedral order parameter q and, finally, the number of nearest neighbors (NNs) and of hydrogen bonds (HBs) per molecule. Two different potentials are considered: TIP4P-Ew and a model developed in this laboratory for the study of nanoconfined water. The results are similar for the dynamical properties, but are markedly different for the structural characteristics. In particular, for temperatures higher than that of the dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at higher temperatures) and “strong” (at lower temperatures) liquid behaviors detected around 207 K, the rotational relaxation of supercooled water appears to be remarkably homogeneous. However, the structural parameters (number of NNs and of HBs, as well as q) do not show homogeneous distributions, and these distributions are different for the two water models. Another dynamic crossover between “fragile” (at lower temperatures) and “strong” (at higher temperatures) liquid behaviors, corresponding to the one found experimentally at T{sup ∗} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, was spotted at T{sup ∗} ∼ 283 K and T{sup ∗} ∼ 276 K for the TIP4P-Ew and the model developed in this laboratory, respectively. It was detected from the trend of Arrhenius plots of dynamic quantities and from the onset of a further heterogeneity in the rotational relaxation. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that this dynamical crossover is detected in computer simulations of bulk water. On the basis of the simulation results, the possible

  12. A molecular dynamics study on surface properties of supercooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü; Yongjun

    2006-01-01

    [1]Basu J K,Hazra S,Sanyal M K.Growth mechanism of Langmuir-Blodgett films.Phys Rev Lett,1999,82:4675-4678[2]Taylor R S,Shields R L.Molecular-dynamics simulations of the ethanol liquid-vapor interface.J Chem Phys,2003,119:12569-12576[3]Velev O D,Gurkov T D,Ivanov I B,et al.Abnormal thickness and stability of nonequilibrium liquid films.Phys Rev Lett,1995,75:264-267[4]Weng J G,Park S,Lukes J R,et al.Molecular dynamics investigation of thickness effect on liquid films.J Chem Phys,2000,113:5917-5923[5]Zakharov V V,Brodskaya E N,Laaksonen A.Surface tension of water droplets:A molecular dynamics study of model and size dependencies.J Chem Phys,1997,107:10675-10683[6]Wang J Z,Chen M,Guo Z Y.A two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-vapor nucleation.Chin Sci Bull,2003,48(7):623-626[7]Guissani Y,Guillot B.A computer simulation study of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve of water.J Chem Phys,1993,98:8221-8235[8]Wilson M A,Pohorille A,Pratt L R.Surface potential of the water liquid-vapor interface.J Chem Phys,1988,88:3281-3285[9]Alejandre J,Tildesley D J,Chapela G A.Molecular dynamics simulation of the orthobaric densities and surface tension of water.J Chem Phys,1995,102:4574-4583[10]Matsumoto M,Kataoka Y.Study on liquid-vapor interface of water (Ⅰ):Simulational results of thermodynamic properties and orientational structure.J Chem Phys,1988,88:3233-3245[11]Floriano M A,Angell C A.Surface tension and molar surface free energy and entropy of water to-27.2℃.J Phys Chem,1990,94:4199-4202[12]Jorgensen W L,Chandrasekhar J,Madura J D.Comparison of simple potential functions for simulating liquid water.J Chem Phys,1993,79:926-935[13]Berendsen H J C,Grigera J R,Straatsma T P.The missing term in effective pair potentials.J Phys Chem,1987,91:6269-6271[14]Arbuckle B W,Clancy P.Effects of the Ewald sum on the free energy of the extended simple point charge model for water.J Chem Phys,2002,116:5090-5098[15]Tarazona P,Chacon E,Reinaldo-Falagan M,et al

  13. Influence of surface polarity on water dynamics at the water/rutile TiO₂(110) interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Mishra, Ankur; Yoshimune, Seiji; Nakamura, Hisao; Bonn, Mischa; Nagata, Yuki

    2014-06-18

    We report molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the water/clean rutile TiO2 (110) interface using polarizable and non-surface polarity force field models. The effect of surface polarity on the water dynamics near the TiO2(110) surface is addressed, specifically by calculating the water hydrogen bond and reorientational dynamics. The hydrogen bond lifetime of interfacial water molecules is several times longer than that of bulk water due to the strong water-TiO2 interactions. A comparison of the dynamics simulated with the polarizable and non-surface polarity models shows that, while the hydrogen bond lifetime between the interfacial water and TiO2 surface is insensitive to the surface polarity, the reorientational dynamics around this hydrogen bond axis is significantly influenced by the surface polarity; the surface polarity of the TiO2 increases the water-TiO2 interactions, stabilizing the local structure of the interfacial water molecules and restricting their rotational motion. This reorientation occurs predominantly by rotation around the O-H group hydrogen bonded to the TiO2 surface. Furthermore, we correlate the dynamics of the induced charge on the TiO2 surface with the interfacial water dynamics. Our results show that the timescale of correlations of the atom charges induced by the local electric field in bulk water is influenced by the rotational motion, hydrogen bond rearrangement and translational motion, while the induced charge dynamics of the TiO2 surface is governed primarily by the rotational dynamics of the interfacial water molecules. This study demonstrates that the solid surface polarity has a significant impact on the dynamics of water molecules near TiO2 surfaces.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of water and water/chlorinated hydrocargon mixtures with polarizable potential models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, L.X. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A series of molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study water and water/chlorinated hydrocarbon mixtures. The properties of water clusters containing up to six water molecules were evaluated. A prism-like structure is predicted to be lowest in energy for the (H{sub 2}O){sub 6} cluster and a cage-like structure is the second lowest in energy with the energy about 0.2 kcal/mol higher than the prism-like structure. The computed dipole moments of water molecules in clusters indicated that there is a transition from cyclic planar configurations to three dimensional structure networks. The computed thermodynamic properties for the model including the liquid density, the enthalpy of vaporization, as well as the diffusion coefficient at room temperature, are in excellent agreement with experimental values. The computed density profile of the water of liquid/valor interface shows that the interface is not sharp at a microscopic level and has a thickness of 3.2 A at 298 K. The calculated surface tension at room temperature is in reasonably agreement with the corresponding experimental data. The computed average dipole moments of water molecules near the interface are close to their gas phase values. The thermodynamic and structural properties of water/chlorinated hydrocarbon mixtures as a function of mole fraction were evaluated.

  15. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  16. Dynamics of groundwater-surface water interactions in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    In industrialized countries the majority of streams and rivers have been subject to changes in the hydrological regime and alteration of the channel morphology. Urban streams are typically characterized by “flashier” hydrographs as a result of more direct runoff from impervious surfaces. Channel structure and complexity are often impaired compared to pristine streams. As a consequence the potential for bedform-driven water flow in the streambed is reduced. The downward transport of oxygen by advective flow in the streambed is known to be of great ecological importance for the hyporheic macro and micro fauna and facilitates nutrient cycling and the degradation of organic pollutants. We studied the dynamics of groundwater-surface water exchange of two anthropogenically impacted streams in urban areas to examine the effects of variable hydrologic boundary conditions on water flux and redox conditions in the streambed. The first stream is fed by groundwater as well as storm-water from a large industrial area. Here, we monitored the variability of vertical hydraulic gradients, streambed temperature and redox conditions in the streambed over the course of 5 months. The second stream is frequently polluted by combined sewer overflows (CSO) from an urban watershed. Here, we measured the vertical hydraulic gradients, streambed temperature and electrical conductivity (EC) in the stream, the streambed and in the adjacent aquifer. Both streams are characterized by strong variations in hydraulic gradients due to the dynamic hydrographs as well as the variations in total head in the shallow aquifer. Therefore, magnitude and direction of water flux through the streambed changed significantly over time. At the first site long-term variations of redox conditions in the shallow streambed (0.1 m) were related to the direction of water fluxes. Downward water flow resulted in increased redox potentials. However, the high short-term variability of redox conditions could not be

  17. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...... and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during...... a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between...

  18. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  19. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Robert [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Peter [BMT Scientific Marine Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shi, Shan [Houston Offshore Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Marinho, Thiago [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). LabOceano

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  20. Molecular Dynamics of a Water-Lipid Bilayer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of a glycerol 1-monooleate bilayer in water. The total length of analyzed trajectories is 5ns. The calculated width of the bilayer agrees well with the experimentally measured value. The interior of the membrane is in a highly disordered fluid state. Atomic density profile, orientational and conformational distribution functions, and order parameters indicate that disorder increases toward the center of the bilayer. Analysis of out-of-plane thermal fluctuations of the bilayer surfaces occurring at the time scale of the present calculations reveals that the distribution of modes agrees with predictions of the capillary wave model. Fluctuations of both bilayer surfaces are uncorrelated, yielding Gaussian distribution of instantaneous widths of the membrane. Fluctuations of the width produce transient thinning defects in the bilayer which occasionally span almost half of the membrane. The leading mechanism of these fluctuations is the orientational and conformational motion of head groups rather than vertical motion of the whole molecules. Water considerably penetrates the head group region of the bilayer but not its hydrocarbon core. The total net excess dipole moment of the interfacial water points toward the aqueous phase, but the water polarization profile is non-monotonic. Both water and head groups significantly contribute to the surface potential across the interface. The calculated sign of the surface potential is in agreement with that from experimental measurements, but the value is markedly overestimated. The structural and electrical properties of the water-bilayer system are discussed in relation to membrane functions, in particular transport of ions and nonelectrolytes across membranes.

  1. Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Hanson, Jason (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grimsrud, Kristine (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Thacher, Jennifer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Broadbent, Craig (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brookshire, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Chemak, Janie (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockeril Consulting, Boone, NC); Aragon, Carlos (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

    2006-12-01

    Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward

  2. Holistic irrigation water management approach based on stochastic soil water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Appreciating the essential gap between fundamental unsaturated zone transport processes and soil and water management due to low effectiveness of some of monitoring and modeling approaches, this study presents a mathematical programming model for irrigation management optimization based on stochastic soil water dynamics. The model is a nonlinear non-convex program with an economic objective function to address water productivity and profitability aspects in irrigation management through optimizing irrigation policy. Utilizing an optimization-simulation method, the model includes an eco-hydrological integrated simulation model consisting of an explicit stochastic module of soil moisture dynamics in the crop-root zone with shallow water table effects, a conceptual root-zone salt balance module, and the FAO crop yield module. Interdependent hydrology of soil unsaturated and saturated zones is treated in a semi-analytical approach in two steps. At first step analytical expressions are derived for the expected values of crop yield, total water requirement and soil water balance components assuming fixed level for shallow water table, while numerical Newton-Raphson procedure is employed at the second step to modify value of shallow water table level. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, combined with the eco-hydrological simulation model, has been used to solve the non-convex program. Benefiting from semi-analytical framework of the simulation model, the optimization-simulation method with significantly better computational performance compared to a numerical Mote-Carlo simulation-based technique has led to an effective irrigation management tool that can contribute to bridging the gap between vadose zone theory and water management practice. In addition to precisely assessing the most influential processes at a growing season time scale, one can use the developed model in large scale systems such as irrigation districts and agricultural catchments. Accordingly

  3. Nonequilibrium population dynamics of phenotype conversion of cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Xu Zhou

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a dynamic biological process that involves distinct cancer cell subpopulations proliferating at different rates and interconverting between them. In this paper we proposed a mathematical framework of population dynamics that considers both distinctive growth rates and intercellular transitions between cancer cell populations. Our mathematical framework showed that both growth and transition influence the ratio of cancer cell subpopulations but the latter is more significant. We derived the condition that different cancer cell types can maintain distinctive subpopulations and we also explain why there always exists a stable fixed ratio after cell sorting based on putative surface markers. The cell fraction ratio can be shifted by changing either the growth rates of the subpopulations (Darwinism selection or by environment-instructed transitions (Lamarckism induction. This insight can help us to understand the dynamics of the heterogeneity of cancer cells and lead us to new strategies to overcome cancer drug resistance.

  4. First principles molecular dynamics of metal/water interfaces under bias potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Luana; Brandimarte, Pedro; Rocha, Alexandre; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of the water-metal system at an atomic level is extremely important in electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysis among other systems. The question of the interface energetics involves a detailed study of the nature of the interactions between water-water and water-substrate. A first principles description of all components of the system is the most appropriate methodology in order to advance understanding of electrochemically processes. In this work we describe, using first principles molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of a combined surface(Au and Pd)/water system both in the presence and absence of an external bias potential applied to the electrodes, as one would come across in electrochemistry. This is accomplished using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green's functions methods (NEGF), thus accounting for the fact that one is dealing with an out-of-equilibrium open system, with and without van der Waals interactions. DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871.

  5. Dynamic Polymer Brush at Polymer/Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hideaki; Inoue, Kazuma; Ito, Kohzo; Inutsuka, Manabu; Tanaka, Keiji; Yamada, Norifumi

    2015-03-01

    A layer of polymer chains tethered by one end to a surface is called polymer brush and known to show various unique properties such as anti-fouling. The surface segregation phenomena of copolymers with surface-active blocks should be useful for preparing such a brush layer in spontaneous process. We report hydrophilic polymer brushes formed at the interface between water and polymer by the segregation of amphiphilic diblock copolymers blended in a crosslinked rubbery matrix and call it ``dynamic polymer brush.'' In this system, the hydrophilic block with high surface energy avoids air surface, but segregates to cover the interface between hydrophobic elastomer and water. The structures of the brush layers at D2O/polymer interfaces were measured by neutron reflectivity. The dynamic polymer brush layer surprisingly reached 75% of the contour length of the chain and 2.7 chains/nm2. The brush density was surprisingly comparable to the polymer brush fabricated by the ``grafting-from'' method. We will discuss the dependence of the brush structure on molecular weight and block fraction of amphiphilic block copolymers. Such a surprisingly thick and dense polymer brush were induced by the large enthalpy gain of hydration of hydrophilic block.

  6. Global dynamical behaviors in a physical shallow water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchakoutio Nguetcho, Aurélien Serge; Li, Jibin; Bilbault, Jean-Marie

    2016-07-01

    The theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems is used to investigate the behavior of travelling wave solutions in an entire family of shallow water wave equations. This family is obtained by a perturbative asymptotic expansion for unidirectional shallow water waves. According to the parameters of the system, this family can lead to different sets of known equations such as Camassa-Holm, Korteweg-de Vries, Degasperis and Procesi and several other dispersive equations of the third order. Looking for possible travelling wave solutions, we show that different phase orbits in some regions of parametric planes are similar to those obtained with the model of the pressure waves studied by Li and Chen. Many other exact explicit travelling waves solutions are derived as well, some of them being in perfect agreement with solutions obtained in previous works by researchers using different methods. When parameters are varied, the conditions under which the above solutions appear are also shown. The dynamics of singular nonlinear travelling system is completely determined for each of the above mentioned equations. Moreover, we define sufficient conditions leading to the existence of propagating wave solutions and demonstrate how and why travelling waves lose their smoothness and develop into solutions with compact support or breaking waves.

  7. Improving dynamic performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell system using time delay control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Bae

    Transient behaviour is a key parameter for the vehicular application of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The goal of this presentation is to construct better control technology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model comprises a compressor, an injection pump, a humidifier, a cooler, inlet and outlet manifolds, and a membrane-electrode assembly. The model includes the dynamic states of current, voltage, relative humidity, stoichiometry of air and hydrogen, cathode and anode pressures, cathode and anode mass flow rates, and power. Anode recirculation is also included with the injection pump, as well as anode purging, for preventing anode flooding. A steady-state, isothermal analytical fuel cell model is constructed to analyze the mass transfer and water transportation in the membrane. In order to prevent the starvation of air and flooding in a PEM fuel cell, time delay control is suggested to regulate the optimum stoichiometry of oxygen and hydrogen, even when there are dynamical fluctuations of the required PEM fuel cell power. To prove the dynamical performance improvement of the present method, feed-forward control and Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control with a state estimator are compared. Matlab/Simulink simulation is performed to validate the proposed methodology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system.

  8. Improving dynamic performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell system using time delay control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Bae [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea)

    2010-10-01

    Transient behaviour is a key parameter for the vehicular application of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The goal of this presentation is to construct better control technology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model comprises a compressor, an injection pump, a humidifier, a cooler, inlet and outlet manifolds, and a membrane-electrode assembly. The model includes the dynamic states of current, voltage, relative humidity, stoichiometry of air and hydrogen, cathode and anode pressures, cathode and anode mass flow rates, and power. Anode recirculation is also included with the injection pump, as well as anode purging, for preventing anode flooding. A steady-state, isothermal analytical fuel cell model is constructed to analyze the mass transfer and water transportation in the membrane. In order to prevent the starvation of air and flooding in a PEM fuel cell, time delay control is suggested to regulate the optimum stoichiometry of oxygen and hydrogen, even when there are dynamical fluctuations of the required PEM fuel cell power. To prove the dynamical performance improvement of the present method, feed-forward control and Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control with a state estimator are compared. Matlab/Simulink simulation is performed to validate the proposed methodology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system. (author)

  9. Desmosome dynamics in migrating epithelial cells requires the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brett J.; Pashaj, Anjeza; Johnson, Keith R.; Wahl, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Re-modeling of epithelial tissues requires that the cells in the tissue rearrange their adhesive contacts in order to allow cells to migrate relative to neighboring cells. Desmosomes are prominent adhesive structures found in a variety of epithelial tissues that are believed to inhibit cell migration and invasion. Mechanisms regulating desmosome assembly and stability in migrating cells are largely unknown. In this study we established a cell culture model to examine the fate of desmosomal components during scratch wound migration. Desmosomes are rapidly assembled between epithelial cells at the lateral edges of migrating cells and structures are transported in a retrograde fashion while the structures become larger and mature. Desmosome assembly and dynamics in this system are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton prior to being associated with the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton. These studies extend our understanding of desmosome assembly and provide a system to examine desmosome assembly and dynamics during epithelial cell migration. PMID:21945137

  10. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cameron HJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracing cell dynamics in the embryo becomes tremendously difficult when cell trajectories cross in space and time and tissue density obscure individual cell borders. Here, we used the chick neural crest (NC as a model to test multicolor cell labeling and multispectral confocal imaging strategies to overcome these roadblocks. Results We found that multicolor nuclear cell labeling and multispectral imaging led to improved resolution of in vivo NC cell identification by providing a unique spectral identity for each cell. NC cell spectral identity allowed for more accurate cell tracking and was consistent during short term time-lapse imaging sessions. Computer model simulations predicted significantly better object counting for increasing cell densities in 3-color compared to 1-color nuclear cell labeling. To better resolve cell contacts, we show that a combination of 2-color membrane and 1-color nuclear cell labeling dramatically improved the semi-automated analysis of NC cell interactions, yet preserved the ability to track cell movements. We also found channel versus lambda scanning of multicolor labeled embryos significantly reduced the time and effort of image acquisition and analysis of large 3D volume data sets. Conclusions Our results reveal that multicolor cell labeling and multispectral imaging provide a cellular fingerprint that may uniquely determine a cell's position within the embryo. Together, these methods offer a spectral toolbox to resolve in vivo cell dynamics in unprecedented detail.

  11. Adsorption dynamics of colloidal ellipsoids at oil-water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anna; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    Nonspherical particles at immiscible fluid interfaces have strong interactions with each other and with the curvature of the host interface. However, the dynamics of nonspherical colloidal particles attaching to an interface have not yet been studied. We use digital holographic microscopy to image micron-sized polystyrene ellipsoids breaching an oil-water interface at hundreds of frames per second. We show that the particle height and polar angle have large fluctuations, but both change approximately logarithmic with time, likely due to contact line pinning on the surface of the particle. Equilibrium is reached on a timescale at least three orders of magnitude slower than that expected from Langevin dynamics simulations. We also find that all the trajectories collapse into straight lines when we plot particle polar angle as a function of particle height, unlike the trajectories seen in simulation. The differences between experiment and simulation suggest that contact line pinning and the shape of the three phase contact line may strongly influence the dynamics of particle adsorption.

  12. Effect of supercritical water shell on cavitation bubble dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei-Hang; Chen, Wei-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Based on reported experimental data, a new model for single cavitation bubble dynamics is proposed considering a supercritical water (SCW) shell surrounding the bubble. Theoretical investigations show that the SCW shell apparently slows down the oscillation of the bubble and cools the gas temperature inside the collapsing bubble. Furthermore, the model is simplified to a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for a thin SCW shell. The dependence of the bubble dynamics on the thickness and density of the SCW shell is studied. The results show the bubble dynamics depends on the thickness but is insensitive to the density of the SCW shell. The thicker the SCW shell is, the smaller are the wall velocity and the gas temperature in the bubble. In the authors’ opinion, the SCW shell works as a buffering agent. In collapsing, it is compressed to absorb a good deal of the work transformed into the bubble internal energy during bubble collapse so that it weakens the bubble oscillations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174145 and 11334005).

  13. Water Temperature Dynamics in High Arctic River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, P. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of polar regions to climate change, and the strong influence of temperature upon ecosystem processes, contemporary understanding of water temperature dynamics in Arctic river systems is limited. This research gap is addressed by exploring high-resolution water column thermal regimes for glacier-fed and non-glacial rivers at eight sites across Svalbard during the 2010 melt season. Mean water column temperatures in glacier-fed rivers (0.3 - 3.2 °C) were the lowest and most thermally-stable near the glacier terminus but increased downstream (0.7 - 2.3 °C km-1). Non-glacial rivers, where discharge was sourced primarily from snowmelt, were warmer (mean 2.9 - 5.7 °C) and more variable, indicating increased water residence times in shallow alluvial zones with increased potential for atmospheric influence. Mean summer water temperature and the magnitude of daily thermal variation were similar to those of Alaskan rivers but low at all sites when compared to alpine glacierized environments at lower latitudes. Thermal regimes were strongly correlated (pgeomorphological features (e.g. channel morphology). These results provide insight into the potential changes in high-latitude river systems in the context of projected warming in polar regions. We hypothesise warmer and more variable temperature regimes may prevail in future as the proportion of bulk discharge sourced from glacial meltwater declines and rivers undergo a progressive shift towards snow- and groundwater sources. Importantly, such changes could have implications for species diversity and abundance in benthic communities and influence rates of ecosystem functioning in high-latitude aquatic systems.

  14. Thermodynamic study on dynamic water vapor sorption in Sylgard-184.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Stephen J; Glascoe, Elizabeth A; Maxwell, Robert S

    2012-12-01

    The dynamic and equilibrium water vapor sorption properties of Sylgard-184, a commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMS), were determined via gravimetric analysis from 30 to 70 °C. Described here is a methodology for quantitatively assessing how water vapor diffuses and ad/absorbs into polymeric materials that are traditionally considered hydrophobic. PDMS materials are frequently chosen for their moisture barrier properties; our results, however, demonstrate that moisture is able to penetrate the material over a range of temperatures and humidities. The sorption values measured here ranged from ca. 0.1 to 1.4 cm(3) (STP) H(2)O/g Sylgard. The isotherms exhibited sigmoidal character and were fit to a triple mode sorption model. Asymptotic behavior at low water activities was characterized using a Langmuir type adsorption model, linear behavior was fit to a Henry's law type dependence, and the convex portion at higher activities was fit with good agreement to Park's equation for pooling or clustering. The thermal dependence of these sorption modes was also explored and reported. The dynamics of the sorption process were fit to a Fickian model and effective diffusivities are reported along with corresponding activation energies. The diffusivity values measured here ranged from ca. 0.5 to 3.5 × 10(-5) cm(2)/s depending on the temperature and relative humidity. The concentration dependence of the diffusivity showed a direct correlation with the three modes of uptake obtained from the isotherms. Corrections to the diffusivities were calculated using existing models that take into account adsorption and pooling.

  15. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12 μm{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  16. Development and dynamics of cell polarity at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanale, Joseph P; Sun, Thomas Y; Montell, Denise J

    2017-04-01

    Cells exhibit morphological and molecular asymmetries that are broadly categorized as cell polarity. The cell polarity established in early embryos prefigures the macroscopic anatomical asymmetries characteristic of adult animals. For example, eggs and early embryos have polarized distributions of RNAs and proteins that generate global anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral axes. The molecular programs that polarize embryos are subsequently reused in multiple contexts. Epithelial cells require apical/basal polarity to establish their barrier function. Migrating cells polarize in the direction of movement, creating distinct leading and trailing structures. Asymmetrically dividing stem cells partition different molecules between themselves and their daughter cells. Cell polarity can develop de novo, be maintained through rounds of cell division and be dynamically remodeled. In this Cell Science at a Glance review and poster, we describe molecular asymmetries that underlie cell polarity in several cellular contexts. We highlight multiple developmental systems that first establish cell/developmental polarity, and then maintain it. Our poster showcases repeated use of the Par, Scribble and Crumbs polarity complexes, which drive the development of cell polarity in many cell types and organisms. We then briefly discuss the diverse and dynamic changes in cell polarity that occur during cell migration, asymmetric cell division and in planar polarized tissues.

  17. Water behavior in a u-shaped flow channel of PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, P.; Zhou, B.; Sobiesiak, A. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering; Liu, Z.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to find a practical approach for predicting liquid water distribution in the U-shaped flow channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Computational fluid dynamics modeling with the FLUENT software package was used to demonstrate the two-phase flow of the air-water transport process inside the channel. It was noted that no chemical reaction occurs inside the flow channels and the liquid water is formed either on the surfaces of the flow channels or inside the flow channels. The problem can therefore be simplified as a fluid mechanics problem with water sources inside its physical domain or on its boundaries. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) model was used to track dynamic air-water interactions. Three cases with a range of initial water phase distributions corresponding to different fuel cell operating conditions were simulated numerically to gain a better understanding of water behaviour inside the serpentine channel. It was concluded that the bend area in the serpentine flow field affects the fuel cell performance. This is because it influences the flow field which in turn influences the air-water flow and water liquid distribution inside the channel or along the inside channel surfaces. 15 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassat, Mohammad; Bailey, Joanne; Yetisir, Metin

    2015-11-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed on the proposed design for the Canadian SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR). The proposed Canadian SCWR is a 1200 MW(e) supercritical light-water cooled nuclear reactor with pressurized fuel channels. The reactor concept uses an inlet plenum that all fuel channels are attached to and an outlet header nested inside the inlet plenum. The coolant enters the inlet plenum at 350 C and exits the outlet header at 625 C. The operating pressure is approximately 26 MPa. The high pressure and high temperature outlet conditions result in a higher electric conversion efficiency as compared to existing light water reactors. In this work, CFD simulations were performed to model fluid flow and heat transfer in the inlet plenum, outlet header, and various parts of the fuel assembly. The ANSYS Fluent solver was used for simulations. Results showed that mass flow rate distribution in fuel channels varies radially and the inner channels achieve higher outlet temperatures. At the outlet header, zones with rotational flow were formed as the fluid from 336 fuel channels merged. Results also suggested that insulation of the outlet header should be considered to reduce the thermal stresses caused by the large temperature gradients.

  19. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-04-21

    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  20. Water Plan 2030: A Dynamic Education Model for Teaching Water Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, C.; Washburne, J.; Lansey, K.; Williams, A.

    2006-12-01

    Dynamic educational tools to assist teachers and students in recognizing the impacts of water management decisions in a realistic context are not readily available. Water policy issues are often complex and difficult for students trying to make meaningful connections between system components. To fill this need, we have developed a systems modeling-based educational decision support system (DSS) with supplementary materials. This model, called Water Plan 2030, represents a general semi-arid watershed; it allows users to examine water management alternatives by changing input values for various water uses and basin conditions and immediately receive graphical outputs to compare decisions. The main goal of our DSS model is to foster students' abilities to make knowledgeable decisions with regard to water resources issues. There are two reasons we have developed this model for traditional classroom settings. First, the DSS model provides teachers with a mechanism for educating students about inter-related hydrologic concepts, complex systems and facilitates discussion of water resources issues. Second, Water Plan 2030 encourages student discovery of cause/effect relationships in a dynamic, hands-on environment and develops the ability to realize the implications of water management alternatives. The DSS model has been utilized in an undergraduate, non-major science class for 5 course hours, each of the past 4 semesters. Accompanying the PC-based model are supplementary materials to improve the effectiveness of implementation by emphasizing important concepts and guiding learners through the model components. These materials include in-class tutorials, introductory questions, role-playing activities and homework extensions that have been revised after each user session, based on student and instructor feedback. Most recently, we have developed individual lessons that teach specific model functions and concepts. These modules provide teachers the flexibility to adapt

  1. Protein dynamics in individual human cells: experiment and theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Aharon Cohen

    Full Text Available A current challenge in biology is to understand the dynamics of protein circuits in living human cells. Can one define and test equations for the dynamics and variability of a protein over time? Here, we address this experimentally and theoretically, by means of accurate time-resolved measurements of endogenously tagged proteins in individual human cells. As a model system, we choose three stable proteins displaying cell-cycle-dependant dynamics. We find that protein accumulation with time per cell is quadratic for proteins with long mRNA life times and approximately linear for a protein with short mRNA lifetime. Both behaviors correspond to a classical model of transcription and translation. A stochastic model, in which genes slowly switch between ON and OFF states, captures measured cell-cell variability. The data suggests, in accordance with the model, that switching to the gene ON state is exponentially distributed and that the cell-cell distribution of protein levels can be approximated by a Gamma distribution throughout the cell cycle. These results suggest that relatively simple models may describe protein dynamics in individual human cells.

  2. Water influx and cell swelling after nanosecond electropermeabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Stefania; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Levine, Zachary A; Gundersen, Martin A; Vernier, P Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pulsed electric fields are used to permeabilize cell membranes in biotechnology and the clinic. Although molecular and continuum models provide compelling representations of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, a clear structural link between the biomolecular transformations displayed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the micro- and macroscale cellular responses observed in the laboratory has not been established. In this paper, plasma membrane electropermeabilization is characterized by exposing Jurkat T lymphoblasts to pulsed electric fields less than 10ns long (including single pulse exposures), and by monitoring the resulting osmotically driven cell swelling as a function of pulse number and pulse repetition rate. In this way, we reduce the complexity of the experimental system and lay a foundation for gauging the correspondence between measured and simulated values for water and ion transport through electropermeabilized membranes. We find that a single 10MV/m pulse of 5ns duration produces measurable swelling of Jurkat T lymphoblasts in growth medium, and we estimate from the swelling kinetics the ion and water flux that follows the electropermeabilization of the membrane. From these observations we set boundaries on the net conductance of the permeabilized membrane, and we show how this is consistent with model predictions for the conductance and areal density of nanoelectropulse-induced lipid nanopores.

  3. Dynamics of cell degradation. [nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1978-01-01

    The use of chemical and physical data as a supplement to linear regression models in the prediction of cell failure is discussed. Principal factors to be considered are the positive thickness and weight, and the negative thickness. A model for cell degradation and failure in accelerated life test cells is presented and predictions based on a teardown analysis are included.

  4. Modeling water table dynamics in managed and restored peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Rasche, Livia; Hermans, Renée; Subke, Jens-Arne; Schneider, Uwe; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    European peatlands have been extensively managed over past centuries. Typical management activities consisted of drainage and afforestation, which lead to considerable damage to the peat and potentially significant carbon loss. Recent efforts to restore previously managed peatlands have been carried out throughout Europe. These restoration efforts have direct implications for water table depth and greenhouse gas emissions, thus impacting on the ecosystem services provided by peatland areas. In order to quantify the impact of peatland restoration on water table depth and greenhouse gas budget, We coupled the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to a process-based model for methane emissions (Walter and Heimann, 2000). The new model (EPIC-M) can potentially be applied at the European and even at the global scale, but it is yet to be tested and evaluated. We present results of this new tool from different peatlands in the Flow Country, Scotland. Large parts of the peatlands of the region have been drained and afforested during the 1980s, but since the late 1990s, programs to restore peatlands in the Flow Country have been enforced. This region offers therefore a range of peatlands, from near pristine, to afforested and drained, with different resoration ages in between, where we can apply the EPIC-M model and validate it against experimental data from all land stages of restoration Goals of this study are to evaluate the EPIC-M model and its performances against in situ measurements of methane emissions and water table changes in drained peatlands and in restored ones. Secondly, our purpose is to study the environmental impact of peatland restoration, including methane emissions, due to the rewetting of drained surfaces. To do so, we forced the EPIC-M model with local meteorological and soil data, and simulated soil temperatures, water table dynamics, and greenhouse gas emissions. This is the first step towards a European-wide application of the EPIC

  5. Coupling all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of ions in water with Brownian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Erban, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ions (K$^+$, Na$^+$, Ca$^{2+}$ and Cl$^-$) in aqueous solutions are investigated. Water is described using the SPC/E model. A stochastic coarse-grained description for ion behaviour is presented and parameterized using MD simulations. It is given as a system of coupled stochastic and ordinary differential equations, describing the ion position, velocity and acceleration. The stochastic coarse-grained model provides an intermediate description between all-atom MD simulations and Brownian dynamics (BD) models. It is used to develop a multiscale method which uses all-atom MD simulations in parts of the computational domain and (less detailed) BD simulations in the remainder of the domain.

  6. Molecular properties of aqueous solutions: a focus on the collective dynamics of hydration water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comez, L; Paolantoni, M; Sassi, P; Corezzi, S; Morresi, A; Fioretto, D

    2016-07-07

    When a solute is dissolved in water, their mutual interactions determine the molecular properties of the solute on one hand, and the structure and dynamics of the surrounding water particles (the so-called hydration water) on the other. The very existence of soft matter and its peculiar properties are largely due to the wide variety of possible water-solute interactions. In this context, water is not an inert medium but rather an active component, and hydration water plays a crucial role in determining the structure, stability, dynamics, and function of matter. This review focuses on the collective dynamics of hydration water in terms of retardation with respect to the bulk, and of the number of molecules whose dynamics is perturbed. Since water environments are in a dynamic equilibrium, with molecules continuously exchanging from around the solute towards the bulk and vice versa, we examine the ability of different techniques to measure the water dynamics on the basis of the explored time scales and exchange rates. Special emphasis is given to the collective dynamics probed by extended depolarized light scattering and we discuss whether and to what extent the results obtained in aqueous solutions of small molecules can be extrapolated to the case of large biomacromolecules. In fact, recent experiments performed on solutions of increasing complexity clearly indicate that a reductionist approach is not adequate to describe their collective dynamics. We conclude this review by presenting current ideas that are being developed to describe the dynamics of water interacting with macromolecules.

  7. Modeling and simulation of the dynamic behavior of portable proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, C.

    2005-07-01

    In order to analyze the operational behavior, a mathematical model of planar self-breathing fuel cells is developed and validated in Chapter 3 of this thesis. The multicomponent transport of the species is considered as well as the couplings between the transport processes of heat, charge, and mass and the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, to explain the oxygen mass transport limitation in the porous electrode of the cathode side an agglomerate model for the oxygen reduction reaction is developed. In Chapter 4 the important issue of liquid water generation and transport in PEMFCs is addressed. One of the major tasks when operating this type of fuel cell is avoiding the complete flooding of the PEMFC during operation. A one-dimensional and isothermal model is developed that is based on a coupled system of partial differential equations. The model contains a dynamic and two-phase description of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The mass transport in the gas phase and in the liquid phase is considered as well as the phase transition between liquid water and water vapor. The transport of charges and the electrochemical reactions are part of the model. Flooding effects that are caused by liquid water accumulation are described by this model. Moreover, the model contains a time-dependent description of the membrane that accounts for Schroeder's paradox. The model is applied to simulate cyclic voltammograms. Chapter 5 is focused on the dynamic investigation of PEMFC stacks. Understanding the dynamic behavior of fuel cell stacks is important for the operation and control of fuel cell stacks. Using the single cell model of Chapter 3 and the dynamic model of Chapter 4 as basis, a mathematical model of a PEMFC stack is developed. However, due to the complexity of a fuel cell stack, the spatial resolution and dynamic description of the liquid water transport are not accounted for. These restrictions allow for direct comparison between the solution variables of

  8. Mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Linsey; Shirihai, Orian S

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial shape as well as various mitochondrial functions and quality control. This is of particular interest in the beta-cell because of the key role mitochondria play in the regulation of beta-cell insulin secretion function. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the development of Type 2 Diabetes. Genetic tools that shift the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission result in alterations to beta-cell function and viability. Additionally, conditions that induce beta-cell dysfunction, such as exposure to a high nutrient environment, disrupt mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. While it has been shown that mitochondria display a fragmented morphology in islets of diabetic patients and animal models, the mechanism behind this is currently unknown. Here, we review the current literature on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in the beta-cell as well as some of the unanswered question in this field.

  9. Picosecond Fluorescence Dynamics of Tryptophan and 5-Fluorotryptophan in Monellin : Slow Water-Protein Relaxation Unmasked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Binbin; Callis, Patrik Robert; Muiño, Pedro L; Rozeboom, Henriette J; Broos, Jaap; Toptygin, Dmitri; Brand, Ludwig; Knutson, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Time Dependent Fluorescence Stokes (emission wavelength) Shifts (TDFSS) from tryptophan (Trp) following sub-picosecond excitation are increasingly used to investigate protein dynamics, most recently enabling active research interest into water dynamics near the surface of proteins. Unlike many fluor

  10. Cell shape dynamics: from waves to migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan K Driscoll

    Full Text Available We observe and quantify wave-like characteristics of amoeboid migration. Using the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model system for the study of chemotaxis, we demonstrate that cell shape changes in a wave-like manner. Cells have regions of high boundary curvature that propagate from the leading edge toward the back, usually along alternating sides of the cell. Curvature waves are easily seen in cells that do not adhere to a surface, such as cells that are electrostatically repelled from surfaces or cells that extend over the edge of micro-fabricated cliffs. Without surface contact, curvature waves travel from the leading edge to the back of a cell at -35 µm/min. Non-adherent myosin II null cells do not exhibit these curvature waves. At the leading edge of adherent cells, curvature waves are associated with protrusive activity. Like regions of high curvature, protrusive activity travels along the boundary in a wave-like manner. Upon contact with a surface, the protrusions stop moving relative to the surface, and the boundary shape thus reflects the history of protrusive motion. The wave-like character of protrusions provides a plausible mechanism for the zig-zagging of pseudopods and for the ability of cells both to swim in viscous fluids and to navigate complex three dimensional topography.

  11. Ionization dynamics of water dimer on ice surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2016-05-01

    The solid surface provides an effective two-dimensional reaction field because the surface increases the encounter probability of bi-molecular collision reactions. Also, the solid surface stabilizes a reaction intermediate because the excess energy generated by the reaction dissipates into the bath modes of surface. The ice surface in the universe is one of the two dimensional reaction fields. However, it is still unknown how the ice surface affects to the reaction mechanism. In the present study, to elucidate the specific property of the ice surface reaction, ionization dynamics of water dimer adsorbed on the ice surface was theoretically investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method combined with ONIOM (our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics) technique, and the result was compared with that of gas phase reaction. It was found that a proton is transferred from H2O+ to H2O within the dimer and the intermediate complex H3O+(OH) is formed in both cases. However, the dynamic features were different from each other. The reaction rate of the proton transfer on the ice surface was three times faster than that in the gas phase. The intermediate complex H3O+(OH) was easily dissociated to H3O+ and OH radical on the ice surface, and the lifetime of the complex was significantly shorter than that of gas phase (100 fs vs. infinite). The reason why the ice surface accelerates the reaction was discussed in the present study.

  12. Local Nucleosome Dynamics Facilitate Chromatin Accessibility in Living Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saera Hihara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome information, which is three-dimensionally organized within cells as chromatin, is searched and read by various proteins for diverse cell functions. Although how the protein factors find their targets remains unclear, the dynamic and flexible nature of chromatin is likely crucial. Using a combined approach of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, single-nucleosome imaging, and Monte Carlo computer simulations, we demonstrate local chromatin dynamics in living mammalian cells. We show that similar to interphase chromatin, dense mitotic chromosomes also have considerable chromatin accessibility. For both interphase and mitotic chromatin, we observed local fluctuation of individual nucleosomes (∼50 nm movement/30 ms, which is caused by confined Brownian motion. Inhibition of these local dynamics by crosslinking impaired accessibility in the dense chromatin regions. Our findings show that local nucleosome dynamics drive chromatin accessibility. We propose that this local nucleosome fluctuation is the basis for scanning genome information.

  13. The Role of Vegetation Dynamics on the Soil Water Balance in Water-Limited Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, N.; Rondena, R.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.

    2003-12-01

    The structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Vegetation dynamics are usually neglected, other than seasonal phenology, in land surface models (LSMs). However, changes in vegetation densities, influencing the partitioning of incoming solar energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes, can result in long-term changes in both local and global climates (e.g., precipitation and temperature), which in turn will feedback to affect the vegetation growth. In semi-arid regions, this may result in persistent drought and desertification, with substantial impacts on the human populations of these regions through reduction in agricultural productivity and reduction in quantity and quality of water supply. With an objective of finding a simple vegetation model able to accurately simulate the leaf area index (LAI) dynamics, vegetation models of different level of complexity (e.g., including or not the modeling of the root biomass or the modeling of the dead biomass) are developed and compared. The vegetation dynamics models are coupled to a LSM, with the vegetation models providing the green biomass and the LAI evolution through time, and the LSM using this information in the computation of the land surface fluxes and updating the soil water content in the root-zone. We explore the models on a case study of a water limited grass field in California. Results show that a simple vegetation model that simulates the living aboveground green biomass (i.e., with low parameterization and computational efforts) is able to accurately simulate the LAI. Results also highlight the importance of including the plant growth model in the LSM when studying the climate-soil-vegetation interactions and the impact of watershed management practices on the scarce water resources over moderate to long time scales. The inclusion of the vegetation model in the LSM is demonstrated to be essential for assessing the

  14. Fluids as Dynamic Templates for Cytoskeletal Proteins in Plant Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lofthouse, J T

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Template model of biological cell membranes and the cytoplasm as spatially organised fluid layers is extended to plant cells, and is shown to offer a feasible shear driven mechanism for the co-alignment of internal and external fibres observed during growth and tropic responses

  15. Water suppression without signal loss in HR-MAS 1H NMR of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Kennealey, Peter T.; O'Connor, Rachael B.; DeCarolis, Penelope L.; Cory, David G.; Singer, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    In cell and tissue samples, water is normally three orders of magnitude more abundant than other metabolites. Thus, water suppression is required in the acquisition of NMR spectra to overcome the dynamic range problem and to recover metabolites that overlap with the broad baseline of the strong water resonance. However, the heterogeneous cellular environment often complicates water suppression and the strong coupling of water to membrane lipids interferes with the NMR detection of membrane associated lipid components. The widely used water suppression techniques including presaturation and double pulsed field gradient selective echo result in more than a 70% reduction in membrane associated lipid components in proton spectra of cells and tissues compared to proton spectra acquired in the absence of water suppression. A water suppression technique based on the combination of selective excitation pulses and pulsed field gradients is proposed to use in the acquisition of high resolution MAS NMR spectra of tissue specimens and cell samples. This pulse sequence methodology enables efficient water suppression for intact cells and tissue samples and eliminates signal loss from cellular metabolites.

  16. Dynamics of phytoplankton pigments in water and surface sediments of a large shallow lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmar Tõnno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to find out to which extent fossil phytoplankton pigments in the large shallow and turbid Lake Võrtsjärv carry information on the history of phytoplankton communities. For this purpose we examined how the changes in the pigment composition of surface sediments follow their changes in the water column. Depth-integrated lake water and surface sediment samples were collected weekly in May–October 2007. Considering cyanobacterial and diatom dominance in phytoplankton, we analysed fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin as marker pigments for diatoms, zeaxanthin as a marker pigment for total cyanobacteria and canthaxanthin as a marker pigment for colonial cyanobacteria. Chlorophyll a and its derivative pheophytin a were applied as indicators for total phytoplankton. The dynamics of phytoplankton pigments in surface sediments generally did not follow their dynamics in the water column, possibly due to intensive resuspension and a high sedimentation rate in a large and shallow lake. It was noticed that the surface sediment carries information on pigment degradation intensity and on weight and size characteristics of phytoplankton cells, which affect their sinking and floating velocities. Higher pigment contents of sediment in spring were presumably caused by lower resuspension due to high water level and slower degradation in cold water. Pheophytin a and the marker pigments of cyanobacteria were found to be persistent against degradation in upper sediment layers, which makes them useful indicators for tracking the historical changes in phytoplankton communities also in a shallow lake. Sharp decrease in chemically unstable pigment contents between the sediment surface and deeper layers indicates that only the uppermost sediment surface is resuspended in Lake Võrtsjärv. The transformation of the diatom marker carotenoid diadinoxanthin to diatoxanthin was found to occur mainly in sediments and not in the water column, and the

  17. Relation Between the Cell Volume and the Cell Cycle Dynamics in Mammalian cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, A. C. G.; Oliveira, I. L.; Hauck, J. V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The main goal of this work is to add and analyze an equation that represents the volume in a dynamical model of the mammalian cell cycle proposed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2011) [1]. The cell division occurs when the cyclinB/Cdkl complex is totally degraded (Tyson and Novak, 2011)[2] and it reaches a minimum value. At this point, the cell is divided into two newborn daughter cells and each one will contain the half of the cytoplasmic content of the mother cell. The equations of our base model are only valid if the cell volume, where the reactions occur, is constant. Whether the cell volume is not constant, that is, the rate of change of its volume with respect to time is explicitly taken into account in the mathematical model, then the equations of the original model are no longer valid. Therefore, every equations were modified from the mass conservation principle for considering a volume that changes with time. Through this approach, the cell volume affects all model variables. Two different dynamic simulation methods were accomplished: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic simulation, the volume affects every model's parameters which have molar unit, whereas in the deterministic one, it is incorporated into the differential equations. In deterministic simulation, the biochemical species may be in concentration units, while in stochastic simulation such species must be converted to number of molecules which are directly proportional to the cell volume. In an effort to understand the influence of the new equation a stability analysis was performed. This elucidates how the growth factor impacts the stability of the model's limit cycles. In conclusion, a more precise model, in comparison to the base model, was created for the cell cycle as it now takes into consideration the cell volume variation

  18. Observation of bubble formation in water during microwave irradiation by dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Munenaga, Takuya; Nakata, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    A microwave reactor was designed for in situ observation of nano- and micro-bubbles, and size profiles during and after irradiation were measured with respect to irradiation power and time. Bubble formation in water during irradiation was observed even at temperatures below the boiling point of water. The maximum size strongly depended on radiation power and time, even at a given temperature. Nano-particles in the dispersion medium were found to play an important role in achieving more stable nucleation of bubbles around particles, and stable size distributions were obtained from clear autocorrelation by a dynamic light scattering system. Moreover, a combination of microwave induction heating and the addition of nano-particles to the dispersion medium can prevent heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on the cell wall. Quantitative nano-bubble size profiles obtained by in situ observation provide useful information regarding microwave-based industrial processes for nano-particle production.

  19. MODELING OF WATER DYNAMICS AND POLLUTANT SPREADING IN THE LUOMAHU RESERVOIR FOR WATER TRANSFER FORM SOUTH TO NORTH OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water quality is the key problem of the East-Line Project of Water Transfer from South to North China. In this paper, the principles of a 1D and 2D-integrated mathematical model for describing the dynamics of water in a flow-through river, canals and lakes was worked out. The numerical method and model algorithm were developed. The efficiency of the model was estimated by applying it to studying water dynamics in the Luomahu reservoir and simulating the spreading process of a polluted water mass and the evolution of the concentration. The results of calculations are used to assess water environmental quality and to manage water resource in the Luomahu reservoir and the Jinghang-Canal for the Project of Water Transfer from South to North China.

  20. Effects of Water on Structure and Dynamics of Trehalose Glasses at Low Water Contents and its Relationship to Preservation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lindong; Ziaei, Shima; Elliott, Gloria D.

    2016-07-01

    Dry preservation of biologics in sugar glasses is regarded as a promising alternative to conventional cryopreservation. Evidence from various studies has suggested that there is a critical range of water content beyond which the viability of preserved biologics can be greatly compromised. In this study the viability of T-cells was determined as a function of end water content after microwave-assisted drying in trehalose solutions. Hydrogen-bonding and clustering phenomena in trehalose solutions of the same moisture content were also evaluated using molecular dynamics simulation. Post-rehydration viability decreased dramatically within the range of 0.1-1 gH2O/gdw. Molecular modeling revealed that as the water content approached 0.1 gH2O/gdw the matrix formed a large interconnected trehalose skeleton with a minimal number of bound water molecules scattered in the bulk. The diffusion coefficients of trehalose oxygen atoms most distant from the glycosidic linkage fluctuated around 7.5 × 10-14 m2/s within the range of 0.02-0.1 gH2O/gdw and increased again to ~1.13 × 10-13 m2/s at 0.01 gH2O/gdw and below due to the loss of water in the free volume between trehalose molecules. These insights can guide the optimal selection of final moisture contents to advance dry preservation methods.

  1. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: a general theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagis, Leonard M C

    2008-10-06

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or pharmaceutical applications. The stress-deformation behavior of the droplets in these systems is very complex, and affected by mass transfer across the interface. The relaxation time of a deformation of a droplet may depend on interfacial properties such as surface tension, bending rigidity, spontaneous curvature, permeability, and interfacial viscoelasticity. It also depends on bulk viscoelasticity and composition. A non-equilibrium thermodynamic model is developed for the dynamic behavior of these systems, which incorporates all these parameters, and is based on the interfacial transport phenomena (ITP) formalism. The ITP formalism allows us to describe all water-in-water emulsions with one general theory. Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are basically limiting cases of this general theory with respect to bulk and interfacial rheological behavior.

  2. Spatial stochastic dynamics enable robust cell polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Lawson

    Full Text Available Although cell polarity is an essential feature of living cells, it is far from being well-understood. Using a combination of computational modeling and biological experiments we closely examine an important prototype of cell polarity: the pheromone-induced formation of the yeast polarisome. Focusing on the role of noise and spatial heterogeneity, we develop and investigate two mechanistic spatial models of polarisome formation, one deterministic and the other stochastic, and compare the contrasting predictions of these two models against experimental phenotypes of wild-type and mutant cells. We find that the stochastic model can more robustly reproduce two fundamental characteristics observed in wild-type cells: a highly polarized phenotype via a mechanism that we refer to as spatial stochastic amplification, and the ability of the polarisome to track a moving pheromone input. Moreover, we find that only the stochastic model can simultaneously reproduce these characteristics of the wild-type phenotype and the multi-polarisome phenotype of a deletion mutant of the scaffolding protein Spa2. Significantly, our analysis also demonstrates that higher levels of stochastic noise results in increased robustness of polarization to parameter variation. Furthermore, our work suggests a novel role for a polarisome protein in the stabilization of actin cables. These findings elucidate the intricate role of spatial stochastic effects in cell polarity, giving support to a cellular model where noise and spatial heterogeneity combine to achieve robust biological function.

  3. Collective Calcium Dynamics in Networks of Communicating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tommy; Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo; Mugler, Andrew

    Cells can sense and encode information about their environment with remarkable precision. These properties have been studied extensively for single cells, but intercellular communication is known to be important for both single- and multicellular organisms. Here, we examine calcium dynamics of fibroblast cells exposed to external ATP stimuli, and the effects of communication and stimulus strength on cells' response. Experimental results show that increasing communication strength induces a greater fraction of cells to exhibit oscillatory calcium dynamics, but the frequencies of oscillation do not systematically shift with ATP strength. We developed a model of calcium signaling by adding noise, communication, and cell-to-cell variability to the model of Tang and Othmer. This model reproduces cells' increased tendency to oscillate as a function of communication strength, and frequency encoding is nearly removed at the global level. Our model therefore suggests that the propensity of cells to oscillate, rather than frequency encoding, determines the response to external ATP. These results suggest that the system lies near a critical boundary separating non-oscillatory and oscillatory calcium dynamics.

  4. Entrainment of cell division in phytoplankton with dynamic energy budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erik B.; Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Klanjšček, Tin; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2011-11-01

    We explore the entrainment behavior of cell division in phytoplankton in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. In particular, we explore the range of DEB and environmental parameter values within which a cell divides at regular intervals in a periodic light environment with abundant nutrients and investigate the impact of parameter values on the phase of cell division. We consider three types of cells that differ in the evolution of surface area to volume ratio during the cell cycle: cells with a constant shape (isomorphs), cells with a constant surface area (V0-morphs) and cells with a constant surface area to volume ratio (V1-morphs), the latter being the default choice in studies on the population dynamics of unicellular organisms because of its desirable mathematical implications. Only in isomorphs and V0-morphs, however, cell division can be entrained to a periodic light. Regular cell division in V1 is purely coincidental, as it depends on exact choices for parameter values. We attribute this to the fact that V1-morphs lack the negative feedback of size on the dynamics of reserves in V0-morphs and isomorphs. Because entrained isomorphs and V0-morphs divide during the dark hours in our simulations, these two shapes can represent the division behavior of phytoplankton species that complete the cell cycle during the night, such as dinoflagellates and coccolithophores. A description of the division behavior of species completing the cell cycle during the day, such as silicon dependent diatoms and cyanobacteria, requires a more complex model than used in this paper. Furthermore, we explore the robustness of our findings by randomizing model parameters and introducing unevenness in biomass separation between daughter cells during cell division. We conclude that especially the entrainment in V0-morphs is relatively insensitive to perturbations.

  5. Dynamics of biofilm formation in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    determinations. The biofilm grew at a rate of 0.030±0.002 day−1 reaching quasi-stationary state at 2.6×106 cells/cm2 after approximately 200 days. The low substrate level in the bulk phase (AOC at approximately 6 g ac-C/l) most likely caused the relatively slow biofilm formation rate observed. During......The dynamics of biofilm formation in non-chlorinated groundwater-based drinking water was studied in a model distribution system. The formation of biofilm was closely monitored for a period of 522 days by total bacterial counts (AODC), heterotrophic plate counts (R2A media), and ATP content...... the maturation of the biofilm, the bacterial community changed properties in terms of cell-specific ATP content and culturability of the bacteria....

  6. The role of ice dynamics in shaping vegetation in flowing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Polvi, Lina E; Weber, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Ice dynamics is an important factor affecting vegetation in high-altitude and high-latitude streams and rivers. During the last few decades, knowledge about ice in streams and rivers has increased significantly and a respectable body of literature is now available. Here we review the literature on how ice dynamics influence riparian and aquatic vegetation. Traditionally, plant ecologists have focused their studies on the summer period, largely ignoring the fact that processes during winter also impact vegetation dynamics. For example, the freeze-up period in early winter may result in extensive formation of underwater ice that can restructure the channel, obstruct flow, and cause flooding and thus formation of more ice. In midwinter, slow-flowing reaches develop a surface-ice cover that accumulates snow, protecting habitats under the ice from formation of underwater ice but also reducing underwater light, thus suppressing photosynthesis. Towards the end of winter, ice breaks up and moves downstream. During this transport, ice floes can jam up and cause floods and major erosion. The magnitudes of the floods and their erosive power mainly depend on the size of the watercourse, also resulting in different degrees of disturbance to the vegetation. Vegetation responds both physically and physiologically to ice dynamics. Physical action involves the erosive force of moving ice and damage caused by ground frost, whereas physiological effects - mostly cell damage - happen as a result of plants freezing into the ice. On a community level, large magnitudes of ice dynamics seem to favour species richness, but can be detrimental for individual plants. Human impacts, such as flow regulation, channelisation, agriculturalisation and water pollution have modified ice dynamics; further changes are expected as a result of current and predicted future climate change. Human impacts and climate change can both favour and disfavour riverine vegetation dynamics. Restoration of streams

  7. Effects of hydrogen-bond environment on single particle and pair dynamics in liquid water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amalendu Chandra; Snehasis Chowdhuri

    2001-10-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water at 298 and 258 K to investigate the effects of hydrogen-bond environment on various single-particle and pair dynamical properties of water molecules at ambient and supercooled conditions. The water molecules are modelled by the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model. We first calculate the distribution of hydrogen-bond environment in liquid water at both temperatures and then investigate how the selfdiffusion and orientational relaxation of a single water molecule and also the relative diffusion and relaxation of the hydrogen-bond of a water pair depend on the nature of the hydrogen-bond environment of the tagged molecules. We find that the various dynamical quantities depend significantly on the hydrogen-bond environment, especially at the supercooled temperature. The present study provides a molecular-level insight into the dynamics of liquid water under ambient and supercooled conditions.

  8. Inverse problem of HIV cell dynamics using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. A.; Guzmán, F. S.

    2017-01-01

    In order to describe the cell dynamics of T-cells in a patient infected with HIV, we use a flavour of Perelson's model. This is a non-linear system of Ordinary Differential Equations that describes the evolution of healthy, latently infected, infected T-cell concentrations and the free viral cells. Different parameters in the equations give different dynamics. Considering the concentration of these types of cells is known for a particular patient, the inverse problem consists in estimating the parameters in the model. We solve this inverse problem using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) that minimizes the error between the solutions of the model and the data from the patient. These errors depend on the parameters of the GA, like mutation rate and population, although a detailed analysis of this dependence will be described elsewhere.

  9. Intergenerational continuity of cell shape dynamics in Caulobacter crescentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charles S.; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the intergenerational shape dynamics of single Caulobacter crescentus cells using a novel combination of imaging techniques and theoretical modeling. We determine the dynamics of cell pole-to-pole lengths, cross-sectional widths, and medial curvatures from high accuracy measurements of cell contours. Moreover, these shape parameters are determined for over 250 cells across approximately 10000 total generations, which affords high statistical precision. Our data and model show that constriction is initiated early in the cell cycle and that its dynamics are controlled by the time scale of exponential longitudinal growth. Based on our extensive and detailed growth and contour data, we develop a minimal mechanical model that quantitatively accounts for the cell shape dynamics and suggests that the asymmetric location of the division plane reflects the distinct mechanical properties of the stalked and swarmer poles. Furthermore, we find that the asymmetry in the division plane location is inherited from the previous generation. We interpret these results in terms of the current molecular understanding of shape, growth, and division of C. crescentus.

  10. System Dynamics Approach to Urban Water Demand Forecasting A Case Study of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongwei; ZHANG Xuehua; ZHANG Baoan

    2009-01-01

    A system dynamics approach to urban water demand forecasting was developed based on the analysis of urban water resources system.which was characterized by multi.feedback and nonlinear interactions among system elements.As an example,Tianjin water resources system dynamic model was set up to forecast water resources demand of the planning years.The practical verification showed that the relative error was lower than 1O%.Furthermore,through the comparison and analysis of the simulation results under different development modes presented in this paper.the forecasting results ofthe water resources demand ofTianiin was achieved based on sustainable utilization strategy of water resources.

  11. Water structure and dynamics in phosphate fluorosurfactant based reverse micelle: A computer simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Sanjib; Berkowitz, Max L.

    2003-01-01

    We performed a molecular dynamics simulation on a system containing a water pool inside the reverse micelle made up of an assembly of phosphate fluorosurfactant molecules dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide. The water molecules in the first solvation shell of the headgroup lose the water to water tetrahedral hydrogen bonded network but are strongly bonded to the surfactant headgroups. This change in inter-water hydrogen bonding in connection with the confined geometry of the reverse micelle slows down the translational and especially the rotational dynamics of water.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of water between two charged layers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascales, J.J.L.; Berendsen, H.J.C.; delaTorre, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of water between two charged layers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine in its liquid-crystalline state with atomic detail was carried out. From an analysis of a trajectory of 184 ps of length, we obtained information about the dynamics and structure of water between suc

  13. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Mujumdar; Pavan Saxena

    2004-10-01

    This paper deals with development of a seasonal fraction-removal policy model for waste load allocation in streams addressing uncertainties due to randomness and fuzziness. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model is developed to arrive at the steady-state seasonal fraction-removal policy. A fuzzy decision model (FDM) developed by us in an earlier study is used to compute the system performance measure required in the SDP model. The state of the system in a season is defined by streamflows at the headwaters during the season and the initial DO deficit at some pre-specified checkpoints. The random variation of streamflows is included in the SDP model through seasonal transitional probabilities. The decision vector consists of seasonal fraction-removal levels for the effluent dischargers. Uncertainty due to imprecision (fuzziness) associated with water quality goals is addressed using the concept of fuzzy decision. Responses of pollution control agencies to the resulting end-of-season DO deficit vector and that of dischargers to the fraction-removal levels are treated as fuzzy, and modelled with appropriate membership functions. Application of the model is illustrated with a case study of the Tungabhadra river in India.

  14. Dynamics of aluminum leaching from water purification sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Po; Fu, Chi-Hua; Chen, Ping-Hung; Yu, Ruey-Fang

    2012-05-30

    In this investigation, the shrinking core model is used to study the rate of aluminum salt leaching from water purification sludge (WPS). This model, which describes the aluminum leaching rate, can be developed to maximize the Al(III) recovering efficiency. Laboratory results indicate that when the mixing speed exceeds 80rpm, the effect of film diffusion control on the leaching process is greatly reduced, such that any further increase in the mixing speed does not affect the Al(III) leaching rate. Additionally, increasing the temperature or acid concentration improves Al(III) leaching rate. The laboratory data were verified by using the shrinking core model to confirm that the leaching of Al(III) from WPS is consistent with the inert-layer diffusion control model. This finding reveals that large amounts of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and other inert constituents will form an inter diffusion layer in the WPS and thus become the major limiting factors that control the Al(III) leaching process. The dynamic equation can be expressed as 1-3(1-x)(2/3)+2(1-x)=(2707.3 exp(-3887.6/T))t, in which the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factors are 32.32 kJ/mol and 2707.3 min(-1), respectively, as determined by solving the Arrhenius equation.

  15. Simulation of carbohydrates, from molecular docking to dynamics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapay, Nicolas; Nurisso, Alessandra; Imberty, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of carbohydrates is particularly challenging because of the variety of structures resulting for the high number of monosaccharides and possible linkages and also because of their intrinsic flexibility. The development of carbohydrate parameters for molecular modeling is still an active field. Nowadays, main carbohydrates force fields are GLYCAM06, CHARMM36, and GROMOS 45A4. GLYCAM06 includes the largest choice of compounds and is compatible with the AMBER force fields and associated. Furthermore, AMBER includes tools for the implementation of new parameters. When looking at protein-carbohydrate interaction, the choice of the starting structure is of importance. Such complex can be sometimes obtained from the Protein Data Bank-although the stereochemistry of sugars may require some corrections. When no experimental data is available, molecular docking simulation is generally used to the obtain protein-carbohydrate complex coordinates. As molecular docking parameters are not specifically dedicated to carbohydrates, inaccuracies should be expected, especially for the docking of polysaccharides. This issue can be addressed at least partially by combining molecular docking with molecular dynamics simulation in water.

  16. Optimization of conventional water treatment plant using dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Khezri Seyed; Bahareh, Ghafari; Elahe, Dadvar; Pegah, Dadras

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mathematical models, indicating the capability of various units, such as rapid mixing, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, and the rapid sand filtration are used. Moreover, cost functions were used for the formulation of conventional water and wastewater treatment plant by applying Clark's formula (Clark, 1982). Also, by applying dynamic programming algorithm, it is easy to design a conventional treatment system with minimal cost. The application of the model for a case reduced the annual cost. This reduction was approximately in the range of 4.5-9.5% considering variable limitations. Sensitivity analysis and prediction of system's feedbacks were performed for different alterations in proportion from parameters optimized amounts. The results indicated (1) that the objective function is more sensitive to design flow rate (Q), (2) the variations in the alum dosage (A), and (3) the sand filter head loss (H). Increasing the inflow by 20%, the total annual cost would increase to about 12.6%, while 20% reduction in inflow leads to 15.2% decrease in the total annual cost. Similarly, 20% increase in alum dosage causes 7.1% increase in the total annual cost, while 20% decrease results in 7.9% decrease in the total annual cost. Furthermore, the pressure decrease causes 2.95 and 3.39% increase and decrease in total annual cost of treatment plants.

  17. Phosphorylation site dynamics of early T-cell receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chylek, Lily A; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Dengjel, Jörn;

    2014-01-01

    a systems-level understanding of how these components cooperate to control signaling dynamics, especially during the crucial first seconds of stimulation. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to characterize reshaping of the T-cell phosphoproteome in response to TCR/CD28 co-stimulation, and found...... that diverse dynamic patterns emerge within seconds. We detected phosphorylation dynamics as early as 5 s and observed widespread regulation of key TCR signaling proteins by 30 s. Development of a computational model pointed to the presence of novel regulatory mechanisms controlling phosphorylation of sites...

  18. Simulations of structural and dynamic anisotropy in nano-confined water between parallel graphite plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaddeghi, Hamid; Alavi, Saman; Kowsari, M H; Najafi, Bijan

    2012-11-14

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the structure, dynamics, and transport properties of nano-confined water between parallel graphite plates with separation distances (H) from 7 to 20 Å at different water densities with an emphasis on anisotropies generated by confinement. The behavior of the confined water phase is compared to non-confined bulk water under similar pressure and temperature conditions. Our simulations show anisotropic structure and dynamics of the confined water phase in directions parallel and perpendicular to the graphite plate. The magnitude of these anisotropies depends on the slit width H. Confined water shows "solid-like" structure and slow dynamics for the water layers near the plates. The mean square displacements (MSDs) and velocity autocorrelation functions (VACFs) for directions parallel and perpendicular to the graphite plates are calculated. By increasing the confinement distance from H = 7 Å to H = 20 Å, the MSD increases and the behavior of the VACF indicates that the confined water changes from solid-like to liquid-like dynamics. If the initial density of the water phase is set up using geometric criteria (i.e., distance between the graphite plates), large pressures (in the order of ~10 katm), and large pressure anisotropies are established within the water. By decreasing the density of the water between the confined plates to about 0.9 g cm(-3), bubble formation and restructuring of the water layers are observed.

  19. Intermediate filaments: a dynamic network that controls cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Yosef; Aebi, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    In humans the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins is encoded by more than 70 different genes, which are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. IFs assemble into approximately 10 nm-wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. They are also required for organizing the microtubule and microfilament networks. In this review, we focus on the dynamics of IFs and how modifications regulate it. We also discuss the role of nuclear IF organization in determining nuclear mechanics as well as that of cytoplasmic IFs organization in maintaining cell stiffness, formation of lamellipodia, regulation of cell migration, and permitting cell adhesion.

  20. A decision support tool for sustainable planning of urban water systems: presenting the Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuweit, Lars; O'Sullivan, John J

    2013-12-15

    Population growth, urbanisation and climate change represent significant pressures on urban water resources, requiring water managers to consider a wider array of management options that account for economic, social and environmental factors. The Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model (DUWSiM) developed in this study links urban water balance concepts with the land use dynamics model MOLAND and the climate model LARS-WG, providing a platform for long term planning of urban water supply and water demand by analysing the effects of urbanisation scenarios and climatic changes on the urban water cycle. Based on potential urbanisation scenarios and their effects on a city's water cycle, DUWSiM provides the functionality for assessing the feasibility of centralised and decentralised water supply and water demand management options based on forecasted water demand, stormwater and wastewater generation, whole life cost and energy and potential for water recycling. DUWSiM has been tested using data from Dublin, the capital of Ireland, and it has been shown that the model is able to satisfactorily predict water demand and stormwater runoff.

  1. Long term charge retention dynamics of SONOS cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreghini, A.; Akil, N.; Driussi, F.; Esseni, D.; Selmi, L.; van Duuren, M. J.

    2008-09-01

    We present a model for charge retention dynamics in SONOS non volatile memory cells which accounts for the space and energy distributions of the trapped charge in the silicon nitride, self consistently with the potential. Long term retention measurements (beyond 106 s) versus temperature allowed us to decouple two charge loss mechanisms, to calibrate the model parameters and then to reproduce a large set of measurements on devices featuring different gate stacks, initial threshold voltages (including negative ones) and operation temperatures. A detailed analysis has been also carried out to compare the retention dynamics of cells featuring thin or thick tunnel oxide barriers.

  2. Preparation of cell lines for single-cell analysis of transcriptional activation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U; Janicki, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Imaging molecularly defined regions of chromatin in single living cells during transcriptional activation has the potential to provide new insight into gene regulatory mechanisms. Here, we describe a method for isolating cell lines with multi-copy arrays of reporter transgenes, which can be used for real-time high-resolution imaging of transcriptional activation dynamics in single cells.

  3. Femtosecond vibrational dynamics in water nano-droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Gheorghe Dan

    2008-01-01

    Water is probably the most researched substance on Earth. The interest in water, and redominantly in liquid water, is due to its importance on both macro- and microscopic scales. Although people have been trying to understand water for centuries, this ubiquitous liquid is still surrounded by mystery

  4. Sediment Transport Dynamics in River Networks: A Model for Higher-Water Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Jin-Feng

    A dynamical model is proposed to study sediment transport in river networks in higher-water seasons. The model emphasizes the difference between the sediment-carrying capability of the stream in higher-water seasons and that in lower-water seasons. The dynamics of sediment transport shows some complexities such as the complex dependence of the sediment-carrying capability on sediment concentration, the response of the channel(via erosion or sedimentation) to the changes of discharge.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of the behaviour of water in nano-confined ionic liquid-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo-Álvarez, B.; Gómez-González, V.; Montes-Campos, H.; Otero-Mato, J. M.; Méndez-Morales, T.; Cabeza, O.; Gallego, L. J.; Lynden-Bell, R. M.; Ivaništšev, V. B.; Fedorov, M. V.; Varela, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the behaviour of water molecules in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid under nanoconfinement, between graphene sheets. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, the adsorption of water molecules at the graphene surface is studied. A depletion of water molecules in the vicinity of the neutral and negatively charged graphene surfaces, and their adsorption at the positively charged surface are observed in line with the preferential hydration of the ionic liquid anions. The findings are appropriately described using a two-level statistical model. The confinement effect on the structure and dynamics of the mixtures is thoroughly analyzed using the density and the potential of mean force profiles, as well as by the vibrational densities of the states of water molecules near the graphene surface. The orientation of water molecules and the water-induced structural transitions in the layer closest to the graphene surface are also discussed.

  6. Dynamic Model and Experimental Validation of a PEM Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Younane; Godoy, Emmanuel; Bethoux, Olivier; Roche, Ivan

    Fuel cells are expected to become a challenging technology in terms of efficiency, and fitting the emission reduction schedules [Lemons, J. Power Sources, 29:251, 1] for the automotive application. Their fundamental component consists of two electrodes separated by a membrane. Fuel cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy while producing water and heat. To not disturb the transportation of the reactant gas, a proper membrane hydration needs to be maintained. Two different conditions can occur facing an inadequate water balance which decreases the performance of the stack. An insufficient removal of the accumulated water causes water flooding, decreasing reactant transport rate. Similarly, excessive water removal dries the membrane. To monitor the amount of water inside the cell, dynamic model based on the mass conservation principles and thermodynamic properties is developed in the form of nonlinear state space representation. Fick's law and Maxwell-Stefan model are used to describe multicomponent diffusion. Darcy's law is used to define the porous medium permeability. To demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model, obtained results are compared with measured data at steady states operation mode. Investigation of the steady-state behavior is discussed in this paper.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation study of water adsorption on hydroxylated graphite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Sylvain; Collignon, B; Hoang, Paul N M; Rayez, J C

    2006-04-27

    In this paper, we present results from molecular dynamic simulations devoted to the characterization of the interaction between water molecules and hydroxylated graphite surfaces considered as models for surfaces of soot emitted by aircraft. The hydroxylated graphite surfaces are modeled by anchoring several OH groups on an infinite graphite plane. The molecular dynamics simulations are based on a classical potential issued from quantum chemical calculations. They are performed at three temperatures (100, 200, and 250 K) to provide a view of the structure and dynamics of water clusters on the model soot surface. These simulations show that the water-OH sites interaction is quite weak compared to the water-water interaction. This leads to the clustering of the water molecules above the surface, and the corresponding water aggregate can only be trapped by the OH sites when the temperature is sufficiently low, or when the density of OH sites is sufficiently high.

  8. Dynamics of water solutions of natural polysaccharides by fast field cycling nmr relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusova, Alena; Conte, Pellegrino; Kucerik, Jiri; de Pasquale, Claudio; Alonzo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Cryobiology studies the effect of low temperatures on living systems such as microorganisms and plants. In particular, plants growing in cold or frozen environments can survive such extreme conditions due to the cold hardening process. Hardening is a three step process during which, first, translocation of polysaccharides to the plant roots affects water structure in the cell-soil surface. For this reason, increase of cell-membrane permeability and resistance to temperatures from -5°C to -10°C is achieved. In a second step, chemical alteration of cell membrane arises and resistance to temperatures up to -20°C is obtained. The last hardening step consists in the vitrification of the plant tissues which allow plants to survive at temperatures as low as -50°C. Since polysaccharides play a very important role in the initial part of the cold hardening process, it is of paramount importance to study the effect of such natural biopolymers on water structure. Here, we present preliminary data obtained by fast field cycling NMR relaxometry on the effect of hyaluronan (an anionic, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan) on water structure at different concentrations of the polysaccharide. Although hyaluronan is a polysaccharide found exceptionally in animal, human or bacterial bodies, in the present work it was used as a model "pilot" compound. In fact, it has an unique ability to hold water and it contains both polysaccharide and protein-like acetamido functionalities. For this reason, hyaluronan promotes the future research on other plant biopolymers such as, for instance, starch and other very specific proteins. Results revealed that different water-structure systems surround the molecule of hyaluronan in diluted and semidiluted systems. Namely, at the lowest hyaluronan concentration, three hydration shells can be recognized. The first hydration shell is made by bound water (BW) which is strongly fixed to the hyaluronan surface mainly through electrostatic interactions. A

  9. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  10. Sperm cell surface dynamics during activation and fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerke, A.

    2013-01-01

    Before the sperm cell can reach the oocyte it needs to be activated and to undergo a series of preparative steps. The sperm surface dynamics was studied in relation to this activation process and the modifications and removal of sperm surface components havebeen investigated. Bicarbonate-induced rad

  11. Dynamic heterogeneity and DNA methylation in embryonic stem cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Singer, Zakary S

    2014-07-01

    Cell populations can be strikingly heterogeneous, composed of multiple cellular states, each exhibiting stochastic noise in its gene expression. A major challenge is to disentangle these two types of variability and to understand the dynamic processes and mechanisms that control them. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an ideal model system to address this issue because they exhibit heterogeneous and dynamic expression of functionally important regulatory factors. We analyzed gene expression in individual ESCs using single-molecule RNA-FISH and quantitative time-lapse movies. These data discriminated stochastic switching between two coherent (correlated) gene expression states and burst-like transcriptional noise. We further showed that the "2i" signaling pathway inhibitors modulate both types of variation. Finally, we found that DNA methylation plays a key role in maintaining these metastable states. Together, these results show how ESC gene expression states and dynamics arise from a combination of intrinsic noise, coherent cellular states, and epigenetic regulation.

  12. Analysing the dynamics of transitions in residential water consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, C.M.; Blokker, E.J.M.; Buscher, C.H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Water infrastructure is inherently a socio-technical system. Rapidly changing urban trends and long-term uncertainties make water infrastructure management complex. This paper analyses the dynamics of residential water consumption in the Netherlands since 1900. During this period, different drivers

  13. Self consistent tight binding molecular dynamics study of Ti02 nanoclusters in water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdin, S.; Lin, Y.; Halley, J. W.; Zapol, P.; Redfern, P.; Curtiss, L.; Northern Illinois Univ.; Univ. of Minnesota

    2007-09-01

    Self-consistent tight binding molecular dynamics studies of TiO{sub 2}2 anatase and rutile nanoclusters in dissociable water are reported. It is found that the structure of the particle expands as a result of interaction between the particle's surface and water. Water molecules dissociate at the nanoparticle surface during simulation.

  14. Assessment of water hammer effects on boiling water nuclear reactor core dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousbia-Salah Anis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena, as water hammer transients, occurring in nuclear power plants are still not very well investigated by the current best estimate computational tools. Within this frame work, a rapid positive reactivity addition into the core generated by a water hammer transient is considered. The numerical simulation of such phenomena was carried out using the coupled RELAP5/PARCS code. An over all data comparison shows good agreement between the calculated and measured core pressure wave trends. However, the predicted power response during the excursion phase did not correctly match the experimental tendency. Because of this, sensitivity studies have been carried out in order to identify the most influential parameters that govern the dynamics of the power excursion. After investigating the pressure wave amplitude and the void feed back responses, it was found that the disagreement between the calculated and measured data occurs mainly due to the RELAP5 low void condensation rate which seems to be questionable during rapid transients. .

  15. Mechanobiology of cell migration in the context of dynamic two-way cell-matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Chaudhuri, Parthiv Kant; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-05-24

    Migration of cells is integral in various physiological processes in all facets of life. These range from embryonic development, morphogenesis, and wound healing, to disease pathology such as cancer metastasis. While cell migratory behavior has been traditionally studied using simple assays on culture dishes, in recent years it has been increasingly realized that the physical, mechanical, and chemical aspects of the matrix are key determinants of the migration mechanism. In this paper, we will describe the mechanobiological changes that accompany the dynamic cell-matrix interactions during cell migration. Furthermore, we will review what is to date known about how these changes feed back to the dynamics and biomechanical properties of the cell and the matrix. Elucidating the role of these intimate cell-matrix interactions will provide not only a better multi-scale understanding of cell motility in its physiological context, but also a more holistic perspective for designing approaches to regulate cell behavior.

  16. The structure and dynamics of water inside armchair carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiao-Yan; Lu Hang-Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some simulation results about the behaviour of water molecules inside a single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT). We find that the confinement of water in an SWNT can induce a wave-like pattern distribution along the channel axis, similar phenomena are also observed in biological water channels. Carbon nanotubes(CNTs)can serve as simple nonpolar water channels. Molecular transport through narrow CNTs is highly collective because of tight hydrogen bonds in the protective environment of the pore. The hydrogen bond net is important for proton and other signal transports. The average dipoles of water molecules inside CNTs (7,7), (8,8) and (9,9) are discussed in detail. Simulation results indicate that the states of dipole are affected by the diameter of SWNT. The number of hydrogen bonds, the water-water interaction and water-CNT interaction are also studied in this paper.

  17. Dynamically constrained pipeline for tracking neural progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Dahl, Anders; Holm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . A mitosis detector constructed from empirical observations of cells in a pre-mitotic state interacts with the graph formulation to dynamically allow for cell mitosis when appropriate. Track consistency is ensured by introducing pragmatic constraints and the notion of blob states. We validate the proposed...... tracking methods are fundamental building blocks of setting up multi purpose pipelines. Segmentation by discriminative dictionary learning and a graph formulated tracking method constraining the allowed topology changes are combined here to accommodate for highly irregular cell shapes and movement patterns...

  18. Critical behavior of 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water: Measurements of specific heat, dynamic light scattering, and shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaev, S. Z.; Behrends, R.; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer

    2006-01-01

    2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April......2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April...

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  20. Modeling dynamics of HIV infected cells using stochastic cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precharattana, Monamorn; Triampo, Wannapong

    2014-08-01

    Ever since HIV was first diagnosed in human, a great number of scientific works have been undertaken to explore the biological mechanisms involved in the infection and progression of the disease. Several cellular automata (CA) models have been introduced to gain insights into the dynamics of the disease progression but none of them has taken into account effects of certain immune cells such as the dendritic cells (DCs) and the CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8+ T cells). In this work, we present a CA model, which incorporates effects of the HIV specific immune response focusing on the cell-mediated immunities, and investigate the interaction between the host immune response and the HIV infected cells in the lymph nodes. The aim of our work is to propose a model more realistic than the one in Precharattana et al. (2010) [10], by incorporating roles of the DCs, the CD4+ T cells, and the CD8+ T cells into the model so that it would reproduce the HIV infection dynamics during the primary phase of HIV infection.

  1. Direct Visualization of DNA Replication Dynamics in Zebrafish Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2015-12-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the S-phase nucleus has been extensively studied in mammalian cells because it is tightly coupled with the regulation of other nuclear processes such as transcription. However, little is known about the replication dynamics in nonmammalian cells. Here, we analyzed the DNA replication processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells through the direct visualization of replicating DNA in the nucleus and on DNA fiber molecules isolated from the nucleus. We found that zebrafish chromosomal DNA at the nuclear interior was replicated first, followed by replication of DNA at the nuclear periphery, which is reminiscent of the spatiotemporal regulation of mammalian DNA replication. However, the relative duration of interior DNA replication in zebrafish cells was longer compared to mammalian cells, possibly reflecting zebrafish-specific genomic organization. The rate of replication fork progression and ori-to-ori distance measured by the DNA combing technique were ∼ 1.4 kb/min and 100 kb, respectively, which are comparable to those in mammalian cells. To our knowledge, this is a first report that measures replication dynamics in zebrafish cells.

  2. An Endothelial Planar Cell Model for Imaging Immunological Synapse Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Roberta; Carman, Christopher V

    2015-12-24

    Adaptive immunity is regulated by dynamic interactions between T cells and antigen presenting cells ('APCs') referred to as 'immunological synapses'. Within these intimate cell-cell interfaces discrete sub-cellular clusters of MHC/Ag-TCR, F-actin, adhesion and signaling molecules form and remodel rapidly. These dynamics are thought to be critical determinants of both the efficiency and quality of the immune responses that develop and therefore of protective versus pathologic immunity. Current understanding of immunological synapses with physiologic APCs is limited by the inadequacy of the obtainable imaging resolution. Though artificial substrate models (e.g., planar lipid bilayers) offer excellent resolution and have been extremely valuable tools, they are inherently non-physiologic and oversimplified. Vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells have emerged as an important peripheral tissue (or stromal) compartment of 'semi-professional APCs'. These APCs (which express most of the molecular machinery of professional APCs) have the unique feature of forming virtually planar cell surface and are readily transfectable (e.g., with fluorescent protein reporters). Herein a basic approach to implement endothelial cells as a novel and physiologic 'planar cellular APC model' for improved imaging and interrogation of fundamental antigenic signaling processes will be described.

  3. Development of EEM based silicon-water and silica-water wall potentials for non-reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghan; Iype, Eldhose; Frijns, Arjan J. H.; Nedea, Silvia V.; van Steenhoven, Anton A.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer in gases are computationally expensive when the wall molecules are explicitly modeled. To save computational time, an implicit boundary function is often used. Steele's potential has been used in studies of fluid-solid interface for a long time. In this work, the conceptual idea of Steele's potential was extended in order to simulate water-silicon and water-silica interfaces. A new wall potential model is developed by using the electronegativity-equalization method (EEM), a ReaxFF empirical force field and a non-reactive molecular dynamics package PumMa. Contact angle simulations were performed in order to validate the wall potential model. Contact angle simulations with the resulting tabulated wall potentials gave a silicon-water contact angle of 129°, a quartz-water contact angle of 0°, and a cristobalite-water contact angle of 40°, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  4. Structure and Dynamics of Shock-Induced Nanobubble Collapse in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedadi, Mohammad; Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; van Duin, Adri

    2011-03-01

    Structure of water under shock and shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field. Shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. In the presence of a nanobubble, we observe a focused nanojet at the onset of nanobubble shrinkage and a secondary shock wave upon nanobubble collapse. The secondary shock wave propagates spherically backwards and induces high pressure as it propagates. Both the propagation velocity and the induced pressure are larger than those of the primary shock. We explored effects of nanobubble radius and shock amplitude on nanojet formation. The nanojet size increases by increasing particle velocity but the effect of increasing radius is more significant. The jet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. Shock-induced collapse of a nanobubble in the vicinity of a cell membrane creates a transient nanopore when the nanojet impacts the membrane. Transient cell poration has potential applications in drug delivery.

  5. Transcriptome Dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 under Water Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülez, Gamze; Dechesne, Arnaud; Workman, Christopher;

    2012-01-01

    Water deprivation can be a major stressor to microbial life in surface and subsurface soil. In unsaturated soils, the matric potential (Ψm) is often the main component of the water potential, which measures the thermodynamic availability of water. A low matric potential usually translates...... into water forming thin liquid films in the soil pores. Little is known of how bacteria respond to such conditions, where, in addition to facing water deprivation that might impair their metabolism, they have to adapt their dispersal strategy as swimming motility may be compromised. Using the pressurized...

  6. Innovative gas diffusion layers and their water removal characteristics in PEM fuel cell cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Kui; Zhou, Biao [Department of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Ont. (Canada)

    2007-06-20

    Liquid water transport is one of the key challenges regarding the water management in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Conventional gas diffusion layers (GDLs) do not allow a well-organized liquid water flow from catalyst layer to gas flow channels. In this paper, three innovative GDLs with different micro-flow channels were proposed to solve liquid water flooding problems that conventional GDLs have. This paper also presents numerical investigations of air-water flow across the proposed innovative GDLs together with a serpentine gas flow channel on PEM fuel cell cathode by use of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package FLUENT. The results showed that different designs of GDLs will affect the liquid water flow patterns significantly, thus influencing the performance of PEM fuel cells. The detailed flow patterns of liquid water were shown. Several gas flow problems for the proposed different kinds of innovative GDLs were observed, and some useful suggestions were given through investigating the flow patterns inside the proposed GDLs. (author)

  7. Anomalous composition-dependent dynamics of nanoconfined water in the interlayer of disordered calcium-silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomi, Mohammad Javad Abdolhosseini; Bauchy, Mathieu; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J-M

    2014-02-07

    With shear interest in nanoporous materials, the ultraconfining interlayer spacing of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) provides an excellent medium to study reactivity, structure, and dynamic properties of water. In this paper, we present how substrate composition affects chemo-physical properties of water in ultraconfined hydrophilic media. This is achieved by performing molecular dynamics simulation on a set of 150 realistic models with different compositions of calcium and silicon contents. It is demonstrated that the substrate chemistry directly affects the structural properties of water molecules. The motion of confined water shows a multi-stage dynamics which is characteristic of supercooled liquids and glassy phases. Inhomogeneity in that dynamics is used to differentiate between mobile and immobile water molecules. Furthermore, it is shown that the mobility of water molecules is composition-dependent. Similar to the pressure-driven self-diffusivity anomaly observed in bulk water, we report the first study on composition-driven diffusion anomaly, the self diffusivity increases with increasing confined water density in C-S-H. Such anomalous behavior is explained by the decrease in the typical activation energy required for a water molecule to escape its dynamical cage.

  8. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  9. The Dynamics of Interactions Among Immune and Glioblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Katalin; Kalman, Bernadette

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common intracranial malignancy that constitutes about 50 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive, multimodal therapy consisting of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the outcome of patients with glioblastoma remains poor with 5-year survival rates of immune mediators may represent a critical contributor to this resistance. The tumor microenvironment contains innate and adaptive immune cells in addition to the cancer cells and their surrounding stroma. These various cells communicate with each other by means of direct cell-cell contact or by soluble factors including cytokines and chemokines, and act in autocrine and paracrine manners to modulate tumor growth. There are dynamic interactions among the local immune elements and the tumor cells, where primarily the protective immune cells attempt to overcome the malignant cells. However, by developing somatic mutations and epigenetic modifications, the glioblastoma tumor cells acquire the capability of counteracting the local immune responses, and even exploit the immune cells and products for their own growth benefits. In this review, we survey those immune mechanisms that likely contribute to glioblastoma pathogenesis and may serve as a basis for novel treatment strategies.

  10. Microenvironment-Centred Dynamics in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cacciatore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive B-cell lymphomas share high proliferative and invasive attitudes and dismal prognosis despite heterogeneous biological features. In the interchained sequence of events leading to cancer progression, neoplastic clone-intrinsic molecular events play a major role. Nevertheless, microenvironment-related cues have progressively come into focus as true determinants for this process. The cancer-associated microenvironment is a complex network of nonneoplastic immune and stromal cells embedded in extracellular components, giving rise to a multifarious crosstalk with neoplastic cells towards the induction of a supportive milieu. The immunological and stromal microenvironments have been classically regarded as essential partners of indolent lymphomas, while considered mainly negligible in the setting of aggressive B-cell lymphomas that, by their nature, are less reliant on external stimuli. By this paper we try to delineate the cardinal microenvironment-centred dynamics exerting an influence over lymphoid clone progression in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

  11. Mitochondrial dynamics and inheritance during cell division, development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant; Chan, David C

    2014-10-01

    During cell division, it is critical to properly partition functional sets of organelles to each daughter cell. The partitioning of mitochondria shares some common features with that of other organelles, particularly in the use of interactions with cytoskeletal elements to facilitate delivery to the daughter cells. However, mitochondria have unique features - including their own genome and a maternal mode of germline transmission - that place additional demands on this process. Consequently, mechanisms have evolved to regulate mitochondrial segregation during cell division, oogenesis, fertilization and tissue development, as well as to ensure the integrity of these organelles and their DNA, including fusion-fission dynamics, organelle transport, mitophagy and genetic selection of functional genomes. Defects in these processes can lead to cell and tissue pathologies.

  12. Predict the glass transition temperature of glycerol-water binary cryoprotectant by molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dai-Xi; Liu, Bao-Lin; Liu, Yi-shu; Chen, Cheng-lung

    2008-04-01

    Vitrification is proposed to be the best way for the cryopreservation of organs. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of vitrification solutions is a critical parameter of fundamental importance for cryopreservation by vitrification. The instruments that can detect the thermodynamic, mechanical and dielectric changes of a substance may be used to determine the glass transition temperature. T(g) is usually measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this study, the T(g) of the glycerol-aqueous solution (60%, wt/%) was determined by isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamic simulation (NPT-MD). The software package Discover in Material Studio with the Polymer Consortium Force Field (PCFF) was used for the simulation. The state parameters of heat capacity at constant pressure (C(p)), density (rho), amorphous cell volume (V(cell)) and specific volume (V(specific)) and radial distribution function (rdf) were obtained by NPT-MD in the temperature range of 90-270K. These parameters showed a discontinuity at a specific temperature in the plot of state parameter versus temperature. The temperature at the discontinuity is taken as the simulated T(g) value for glycerol-water binary solution. The T(g) values determined by simulation method were compared with the values in the literatures. The simulation values of T(g) (160.06-167.51K) agree well with the DSC results (163.60-167.10K) and the DMA results (159.00K). We drew the conclusion that molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) is a potential method for investigating the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of glycerol-water binary cryoprotectants and may be used for other vitrification solutions.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Diffusion Coefficients of Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sodium Chloride in Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to determine the infinite-dilution diffusion coefficients of oxygen and nitrogen, and the diffusion coefficients of NaCl in supercritical water from 703.2- 763.2 K and 30-45 MPa.The results obtained show that the diffusion coefficients in supercritical water increase with temperature, while decreasing with pressure. Nevertheless, the diffusion coefficients in supercritical water are much larger than those in normal water.

  14. Interdigitated Electrophotocatalytic Cell for Water Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Shemer; Yaron Paz

    2011-01-01

    The preparation, characterization, and performance of an electrophotocatalytic cell, made of low-cost, planar interdigitated electrodes is reported hereby. The operation of the cell under small positive bias was demonstrated by photocatalytically degrading the dye rhodamine 6G in solution as well as by monitoring the degradation of self-assembled monolayer chemisorbed on the TiO2 electrode. Results point out to the importance of activated oxygen species formed in the process and suggest that ...

  15. Water behavior in a U-shaped flow channel of PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-036

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, P.; Zhou, B.; Sobiesiak, A. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: bzhou@uwindsor.ca; Liu, Z.-S. [National Research Council Canada, Inst. for Fuel Cell innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The behavior of liquid water inside a U-shaped channel for a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell was investigated through CFD modeling with the FLUENT software package. The Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) model was adopted to track dynamic air-water interfaces. Three cases with varying initial water phase distributions corresponding to different fuel cell operating conditions were numerically simulated to obtain a better understanding of water behavior inside the serpentine channel. The results show that the bend area in the serpentine flow channel has significant effects on the flow field, which in turn affects the air-water flow and water liquid distribution inside the channel or along the interior channel surfaces, thus affecting fuel cell performance. (author)

  16. DYNAMICS OF WATER CONSUMPTION CHANGES IN A TOURIST RESORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bartkowska

    2014-10-01

    Over 2011–2012 water extraction to the municipal water supply network was studied. The volume of water extracted every day was analyzed and the gathered volumes were analyzed statistically. The varying water extraction was also studied. The obtained results were presented in a graphic form. Basing on the descriptive stats and prepared diagrams certain general conclusions were drawn and the collected study figures and facts were summed up. This allowed to determine days of the highest and lowest water consumption. Also months of extreme water extraction and consumption were determined. The water extraction ranged from 1641 m3/24h to 2607 m3/24h, at an average value of 2077.4 m3/24h. Over the period under study the day of the largest water extraction and consumption was in July and the day of the lowest water extraction and consumption in December. During a week inhabitants used the highest water amount on Saturdays and the lowest on Sundays and other feast-days. Basing on the conducted measurements also the coefficient of water consumption per capita was determined. The fluctuation of this coefficient was identical as that for the water consumption. Within the period of study it ranged from 73.3 l/M 24h to 116.5 l/M 24h. The average value of the specific water consumption was 92.8 l/M 24h. For the sake of discussion the obtained results were compared with observations across the country.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure and dynamics of water-1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Cabeza, Oscar; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2011-06-02

    We have performed extensive molecular dynamic simulations to analyze the influence of cation and anion natures, and of water concentration, on the structure and dynamics of water-1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid mixtures. The dependence on water concentration of the radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and hydrogen bonding degree between the different species has been systematically analyzed for different lengths of the cation alkyl chain (alkyl = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl) and several counterions. These include two halogens of different sizes and positions in Hoffmeister series, Cl(-) and Br(-), and the highly hydrophobic inorganic anion PF(6)(-) throughout its whole solubility regime. The formation of water clusters in the mixture has been verified, and the influences of both anion hydrophobicity and cation chain length on the structure and size of these clusters have been analyzed. The water cluster size is shown to be relatively independent of the cation chain length, but strongly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the anion, which also determines critically the network formation of water and therefore the miscibility of the ionic liquid. The greater influence of the anion relative to the cation one is seen to be reflected in all the analyzed physical properties. Finally, single-particle dynamics in IL-water mixtures is considered, obtaining the self-diffusion coefficients and the velocity autocorrelation functions of water molecules in the mixture, and analyzing the effect of cation, anion, and water concentration on the duration of the ballistic regime and on the time of transition to the diffusive regime. Complex non-Markovian behavior was detected at intermediate times within an interval progressively shorter as water concentration increases.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Charge Transfer Relaxation between Myoglobin and Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Feng-Shou; ZHANG Bo-Yang; ZHOU Hong-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical processes of myoglobin after photon-excited charge transfer between Fe ion and surrounding water anion ale simulated by a molecular dynamics model.The roles of Coulomb interaction effect and water effect in the relaxation process are discussed.It is found that the relaxations before and after charge transfer are similar.Strong Coulomb interactions and less water mobility decrease Coulomb energy fluctuations.An extra transferred charge of Fe ion has impact on water packing with a distance up to 0.86nm.

  19. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis of plant cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuewen; Alonso, Ana P; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of plant cell wall synthesis pathways remains poorly understood. This has become a bottleneck in designing bioenergy crops. The goal of this study was to analyze the regulation of plant cell wall precursor metabolism using metabolic flux analysis based on dynamic labeling experiments. Arabidopsis T87 cells were cultured heterotrophically with (13)C labeled sucrose. The time course of ¹³C labeling patterns in cell wall precursors and related sugar phosphates was monitored using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry until steady state labeling was reached. A kinetic model based on mass action reaction mechanisms was developed to simulate the carbon flow in the cell wall synthesis network. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by fitting the model to the labeling time course data, cell wall composition, and synthesis rates. A metabolic control analysis was performed to predict metabolic regulations that may improve plant biomass composition for biofuel production. Our results describe the routes and rates of carbon flow from sucrose to cell wall precursors. We found that sucrose invertase is responsible for the entry of sucrose into metabolism and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase plays a dominant role in UDP-Gal synthesis in heterotrophic Aradidopsis cells under aerobic conditions. We also predicted reactions that exert strong regulatory influence over carbon flow to cell wall synthesis and its composition.

  20. Dynamic Pressure of Seabed around Buried Pipelines in Shallow Water

    OpenAIRE

    Changjing Fu; Guoying Li; Tianlong Zhao; Donghai Guan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the obvious nonlinear effect caused by the shallow waves, the nonlinear wave loads have a great influence on the buried pipelines in shallow water. In order to ensure their stability, the forces on the pipelines that resulted from nonlinear waves should be considered thoroughly. Based on the Biot consolidation theory and the first-order approximate cnoidal wave theory, analytical solutions of the pore water pressure around the buried pipelines in shallow water caused by waves are first...

  1. Testing the effects of basic numerical implementations of water migration on models of subduction dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. T. Quinquis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Subduction of oceanic lithosphere brings water into the Earth's upper mantle. Previous numerical studies have shown how slab dehydration and mantle hydration can impact the dynamics of a subduction system by allowing a more vigorous mantle flow and promoting localisation of deformation in the lithosphere and mantle. The depths at which dehydration reactions occur in the hydrated portions of the slab are well constrained in these models by thermodynamic calculations. However, computational models use different numerical schemes to simulate the migration of free water. We aim to show the influence of the numerical scheme of free water migration on the dynamics of the upper mantle and more specifically the mantle wedge. We investigate the following three simple migration schemes with a finite-element model: (1 element-wise vertical migration of free water, occurring independent of the flow of the solid phase; (2 an imposed vertical free water velocity; and (3 a Darcy velocity, where the free water velocity is a function of the pressure gradient caused by the difference in density between water and the surrounding rocks. In addition, the flow of the solid material field also moves the free water in the imposed vertical velocity and Darcy schemes. We first test the influence of the water migration scheme using a simple model that simulates the sinking of a cold, hydrated cylinder into a dry, warm mantle. We find that the free water migration scheme has only a limited impact on the water distribution after 1 Myr in these models. We next investigate slab dehydration and mantle hydration with a thermomechanical subduction model that includes brittle behaviour and viscous water-dependent creep flow laws. Our models demonstrate that the bound water distribution is not greatly influenced by the water migration scheme whereas the free water distribution is. We find that a bound water-dependent creep flow law results in a broader area of hydration in the

  2. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, C.

    2009-12-01

    Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture

  3. Interdigitated Electrophotocatalytic Cell for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Shemer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation, characterization, and performance of an electrophotocatalytic cell, made of low-cost, planar interdigitated electrodes is reported hereby. The operation of the cell under small positive bias was demonstrated by photocatalytically degrading the dye rhodamine 6G in solution as well as by monitoring the degradation of self-assembled monolayer chemisorbed on the TiO2 electrode. Results point out to the importance of activated oxygen species formed in the process and suggest that the short distance between the two electrodes provides a way to utilize the activated oxygen species formed at the negatively biased electrode.

  4. Cell-based therapy - navigating troubled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Michael S

    2010-05-04

    Cells and engineered tissue can be used to treat an increasing number of diseases. This development, together with promising pre-clinical data in regenerative medicine, has raised the expectations of many patients. However, this situation tends to make people vulnerable to the lures of companies that abuse the stem cell promise. The problem is compounded by people's propensity to believe that the healing powers of positive thinking, large sums of money and foreign institutions are greater than those of therapies developed through well-tested, properly constructed, clinical trials.

  5. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  6. Single-Cell DNA Methylome Sequencing and Bioinformatic Inference of Epigenomic Cell-State Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Farlik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods for single-cell genome and transcriptome sequencing have contributed to our understanding of cellular heterogeneity, whereas methods for single-cell epigenomics are much less established. Here, we describe a whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS assay that enables DNA methylation mapping in very small cell populations (μWGBS and single cells (scWGBS. Our assay is optimized for profiling many samples at low coverage, and we describe a bioinformatic method that analyzes collections of single-cell methylomes to infer cell-state dynamics. Using these technological advances, we studied epigenomic cell-state dynamics in three in vitro models of cellular differentiation and pluripotency, where we observed characteristic patterns of epigenome remodeling and cell-to-cell heterogeneity. The described method enables single-cell analysis of DNA methylation in a broad range of biological systems, including embryonic development, stem cell differentiation, and cancer. It can also be used to establish composite methylomes that account for cell-to-cell heterogeneity in complex tissue samples.

  7. System dynamics model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHENG

    2010-01-01

    A model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) was set up using the method of system dynamics (SD).In the model, three different water resources utilization programs were adopted: (1) continuity of existing water utilization, (2) water conservation/saving, and (3) water exploitation.The dynamic variation of the Suzhou WRCC was simulated with the supply-decided principle for the time period of 2001 to 2030, and the results were characterized based on socio-economic factors.The corresponding Suzhou WRCC values for several target years were calculated by the model.Based on these results, proper ways to improve the Suzhou WRCC are proposed.The model also produced an optimized plan, which can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable utilization of Suzhou water resources and for the coordinated development of the society, economy, and water resources.

  8. System dynamics model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHENG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity (WRCC was set up using the method of system dynamics (SD. In the model, three different water resources utilization programs were adopted: (1 continuity of existing water utilization, (2 water conservation/saving, and (3 water exploitation. The dynamic variation of the Suzhou WRCC was simulated with the supply-decided principle for the time period of 2001 to 2030, and the results were characterized based on socio-economic factors. The corresponding Suzhou WRCC values for several target years were calculated by the model. Based on these results, proper ways to improve the Suzhou WRCC are proposed. The model also produced an optimized plan, which can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable utilization of Suzhou water resources and for the coordinated development of the society, economy, and water resources.

  9. Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman Dr. Cheryl Ann Blain Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch...of a circulation model for the Arabian Gulf and connecting waters that realistically predicts the complex, 3-D circulation and mixing patterns in the...forcings in the region, a strong evaporative flux, seasonal wind forcing, and freshwater river discharge. Not only are realistic current fields sought but

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of trehalose as a 'dynamic reducer' for solvent water molecules in the hydration shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngjin; Cho, Kum Won; Jeong, Karpjoo; Jung, Seunho

    2006-06-12

    Systematic computational work for a series of 13 disaccharides was performed to provide an atomic-level insight of unique biochemical role of the alpha,alpha-(1-->1)-linked glucopyranoside dimer over the other glycosidically linked sugars. Superior osmotic and cryoprotective abilities of trehalose were explained on the basis of conformational and hydration characteristics of the trehalose molecule. Analyses of the hydration number and radial distribution function of solvent water molecules showed that there was very little hydration adjacent to the glycosidic oxygen of trehalose and that the dynamic conformation of trehalose was less flexible than any of the other sugars due to this anisotropic hydration. The remarkable conformational rigidity that allowed trehalose to act as a sugar template was required for stable interactions with hydrogen-bonded water molecules. Trehalose made an average of 2.8 long-lived hydrogen bonds per each MD step, which was much larger than the average of 2.1 for the other sugars. The stable hydrogen-bond network is derived from the formation of long-lived water bridges at the expense of decreasing the dynamics of the water molecules. Evidence for this dynamic reduction of water by trehalose was also established based on each of the lowest translational diffusion coefficients and the lowest intermolecular coulombic energy of the water molecules around trehalose. Overall results indicate that trehalose functions as a 'dynamic reducer' for solvent water molecules based on its anisotropic hydration and conformational rigidity, suggesting that macroscopic solvent properties could be modulated by changes in the type of glycosidic linkages in sugar molecules.

  11. System dynamics modeling for municipal water demand estimation in an urban region under uncertain economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cheng; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2011-06-01

    Accurate prediction of municipal water demand is critically important to water utilities in fast-growing urban regions for drinking water system planning, design, and water utility asset management. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is challenging, however, because the forecasting model must simultaneously consider a variety of factors associated with climate changes, economic development, population growth and migration, and even consumer behavioral patterns. Traditional forecasting models such as multivariate regression and time series analysis, as well as advanced modeling techniques (e.g., expert systems and artificial neural networks), are often applied for either short- or long-term water demand projections, yet few can adequately manage the dynamics of a water supply system because of the limitations in modeling structures. Potential challenges also arise from a lack of long and continuous historical records of water demand and its dependent variables. The objectives of this study were to (1) thoroughly review water demand forecasting models over the past five decades, and (2) propose a new system dynamics model to reflect the intrinsic relationship between water demand and macroeconomic environment using out-of-sample estimation for long-term municipal water demand forecasts in a fast-growing urban region. This system dynamics model is based on a coupled modeling structure that takes into account the interactions among economic and social dimensions, offering a realistic platform for practical use. Practical implementation of this water demand forecasting tool was assessed by using a case study under the most recent alternate fluctuations of economic boom and downturn environments.

  12. Exploring neural cell dynamics with digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-07-11

    In this review, we summarize how the new concept of digital optics applied to the field of holographic microscopy has allowed the development of a reliable and flexible digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy (DH-QPM) technique at the nanoscale particularly suitable for cell imaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the original biological ormation provided by the quantitative phase signal. We present the most relevant DH-QPM applications in the field of cell biology, including automated cell counts, recognition, classification, three-dimensional tracking, discrimination between physiological and pathophysiological states, and the study of cell membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale. In the last part, original results show how DH-QPM can address two important issues in the field of neurobiology, namely, multiple-site optical recording of neuronal activity and noninvasive visualization of dendritic spine dynamics resulting from a full digital holographic microscopy tomographic approach. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

  13. Dynamic behavior of water droplets on solid surfaces with pillar-type nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woog-Jin; Ha, Man Yeong; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Ambrosia, Matthew

    2012-03-27

    In the present study, we investigated the static and dynamic behavior of water droplets on solid surfaces featuring pillar-type nanostructures by using molecular dynamics simulations. We carried out the computation in two stages. As a result of the first computational stage, an initial water cube reached an equilibrium state at which the water droplet showed different shapes depending on the height and the lateral and gap dimensions of the pillars. In the second computational stage, we applied a constant body force to the static water droplet obtained from the first computational stage and evaluated the dynamic behavior of the water droplet as it slid along the pillar-type surface. The dynamic behavior of the water droplet, which could be classified into three different groups, depended on the static state of the water droplet, the pillar characteristics (e.g., height and the lateral and gap dimensions of the pillars), and the magnitude of the applied body force. We obtained the advancing and receding contact angles and the corresponding contact angle hysteresis of the water droplets, which helped classify the water droplets into the three different groups.

  14. Dynamical transition of water in the grooves of DNA duplex at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debasmita; Jana, Biman; Pal, Subrata; Bagchi, Biman

    2009-04-02

    At low temperature (below its freezing/melting temperature), liquid water under confinement is known to exhibit anomalous dynamical features. Here we study structure and dynamics of water in the grooves of a long DNA duplex using molecular dynamics simulations with TIP5P potential at low temperature. We find signatures of a dynamical transition in both translational and orientational dynamics of water molecules in both the major and the minor grooves of a DNA duplex. The transition occurs at a slightly higher temperature (T(GL) approximately 255 K) than the temperature at which the bulk water is found to undergo a dynamical transition, which for the TIP5P potential is at 247 K. Groove water, however, exhibits markedly different temperature dependence of its properties from the bulk. Entropy calculations reveal that the minor groove water is ordered even at room temperature, and the transition at T approximately 255 K can be characterized as a strong-to-strong dynamical transition. Confinement of water in the grooves of DNA favors the formation of a low density four-coordinated state (as a consequence of enthalpy-entropy balance) that makes the liquid-liquid transition stronger. The low temperature water is characterized by pronounced tetrahedral order, as manifested in the sharp rise near 109 degrees in the O-O-O angle distribution. We find that the Adams-Gibbs relation between configurational entropy and translational diffusion holds quite well when the two quantities are plotted together in a master plot for different region of aqueous DNA duplex (bulk, major, and minor grooves) at different temperatures. The activation energy for the transfer of water molecules between different regions of DNA is found to be weakly dependent on temperature.

  15. Water dynamics: relation between hydrogen bond bifurcations, molecular jumps, local density & hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titantah, John Tatini; Karttunen, Mikko

    2013-10-21

    Structure and dynamics of water remain a challenge. Resolving the properties of hydrogen bonding lies at the heart of this puzzle. We employ ab initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) simulations over a wide temperature range. The total simulation time was ≈ 2 ns. Both bulk water and water in the presence of a small hydrophobic molecule were simulated. We show that large-angle jumps and bond bifurcations are fundamental properties of water dynamics and that they are intimately coupled to both local density and hydrogen bond strength oscillations in scales from about 60 to a few hundred femtoseconds: Local density differences are the driving force for bond bifurcations and the consequent large-angle jumps. The jumps are intimately connected to the recently predicted hydrogen bond energy asymmetry. Our analysis also appears to confirm the existence of the so-called negativity track provided by the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom to enable water rotation.

  16. Illuminating the dynamics of signal integration in Natural Killer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Victoria Pageon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cell responses are shaped by the integration of signals transduced from multiple activating and inhibitory receptors at their surface. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified most of the key proteins involved in signal integration but a major challenge remains in understanding how the spatial and temporal dynamics of their interactions lead to NK cells responding appropriately when encountering ligands on target cells. Well over a decade of research using fluorescence microscopy has revealed much about the architecture of the NK cell immune synapse – the structured interface between NK cells and target cells - and how it varies when inhibition or activation is the outcome of signal integration. However, key questions – such as the proximity of individual activating and inhibitory receptors – have remained unanswered because the resolution of optical microscopy has been insufficient, being limited by diffraction. Recent developments in fluorescence microscopy have broken this limit, seeding new opportunities for studying the nanometre-scale organisation of the NK cell immune synapse. Here, we discuss how these new imaging technologies, including super-resolution imaging and other novel light-based methods, can illuminate our understanding of NK cell biology.

  17. Dynamic analysis of magnetic nanoparticles crossing cell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Maysam Z.; Shamloo, Amir; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Alasty, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a variety of biomedical applications including brain disease diagnostics and subsequent treatments. Among the various types of NPs, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been implemented by many research groups for an array of life science applications. In this paper, we studied MNPs controlled delivery into the endothelial cells using a magnetic field. Dynamics equations of MNPs were defined in the continuous domain using control theory methods and were applied to crossing the cell membrane. This study, dedicated to clinical and biomedical research applications, offers a guideline for the generation of a magnetic field required for the delivery of MNPs.

  18. Dynamic Response during PEM Fuel Cell Loading-up

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Gou; Pengcheng Li; Xing Yuan; Pucheng Pei

    2009-01-01

    A study on the effects of controlling and operating parameters for a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell on the dynamic phenomena during the loading-up process is presented. The effect of the four parameters of load-up amplitudes and rates, operating pressures and current levels on gas supply or even starvation in the flow field is analyzed based accordingly on the transient characteristics of current output and voltage. Experiments are carried out in a single fuel cell with an active ar...

  19. Stochastic and coherent dynamics of single and coupled beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    phenomenon, modeled by a slow-fast nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The single cell oscillations are complex as the dynamical behavior is a result of traversing a series of saddle node and homoclinic bifurcations, controlled by the slow variable. We shall present results...... is the simplest reaction-diffusion partial differential equation....... on the burst period as function of an external applied stochastic term and use a technique for reducing the stochastic differential equations to ODEs for the average and higher order moments. The later method is approximate and we shall discuss the limits of validity. The individual beta cells are coupled...

  20. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Durdevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic OiW analysis of hydrocyclones has been carried out. Previous studies have extensively studied the steady state efficiency perspective of hydrocyclones, and have related them to different key parameters, such as the pressure drop ratio (PDR, inlet flow rate, and the flow-spilt. Through our study, we were able to measure the dynamics of the hydrocyclone’s efficiency ( ϵ response to step changes in the inlet flow rate with high accuracy. This is a breakthrough in the modelling, control, and monitoring of hydrocyclones.

  1. Single particle dynamics of water confined in a hydrophobically modified MCM-41-S nanoporous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Antonio; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2009-04-01

    The single particle dynamics of water confined in a hydrophobically modified MCM-41-S sample has been studied using three high resolution quasielastic neutron scattering spectrometers in the temperature range from 300 to 210 K. A careful modeling of the dynamics allowed us to obtain good agreement among the results obtained with the three instruments, which have very different energy resolutions. The picture arising from the data is that, because of the heterogenous environment experienced by the water molecules, the dynamics show a broad distribution of relaxation times. However, the Fickian diffusive behavior is retained. In the investigated temperature range we found no evidence of the dynamic crossover, from a non-Arrhenius to an Arrhenius behavior, which was detected for water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S. This finding is in agreement with what was reported by Chu et al. [Phys. Rev. E 76, 021505 (2007)] for water confined in other hydrophobic confining media that the dynamic crossover takes place at a much lower temperature. The results reported in the paper help clarify the role that the chemical interaction between the water molecules and the walls of the confining host plays in determining the characteristics of the water dynamics, as compared to purely geometric constraints such as the size and shape of the pores.

  2. Dynamics of biological water: insights from molecular modeling of light scattering in aqueous trehalose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Comez, Lucia; Paolantoni, Marco; Fioretto, Daniele; Ladanyi, Branka M

    2012-06-28

    Extended depolarized light scattering (EDLS) measurements have been recently employed to investigate the dynamics of water solvating biological molecules, giving evidence of the presence of two different dynamical regimes among water molecules. An interpretation of EDLS has been proposed that provides an independent estimate of the retardation factor of slowdown with respect to fast water molecules and of the number of solvent molecules affected by this slowing down. Nevertheless this measure is an inherently complex one, due to the collective nature of the physical property probed. In the present work a molecular dynamics (MD) approach has been used to more deeply understand experimental results. Time correlation functions of the collective polarizability anisotropy have been calculated for the prototype disaccharide trehalose in aqueous solutions as a function of concentration. The unique capability of MD to disentangle the contributions to the dynamics arising from solute, solvent, and cross terms between the two allowed us to check the reliability of an interpretation that assumes a spectral separation of water and sugar dynamics, as well as to highlight the very presence of two distinct relaxation processes in water. The two processes have been attributed to the dynamics of bulk and hydration water, respectively. A retardation factor of ~5 and concentration dependent hydration numbers have been observed, in good agreement with experimental results [Paolantoni, M.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 7874-7878].

  3. Optical assessment of colored dissolved organic matter and its related parameters in dynamic coastal water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Varunan, Theenathayalan; Nagendra Jaiganesh, S. N.; Sahay, Arvind; Chauhan, Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of the curve of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and differentiation between marine and terrestrially derived CDOM pools in coastal environments are hampered by a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of CDOM, uncertainties in retrieved remote sensing reflectance and the weak signal-to-noise ratio of space-borne instruments. In the present study, a hybrid model is presented along with empirical methods to remotely determine the amount and type of CDOM in coastal and inland water environments. A large set of in-situ data collected on several oceanographic cruises and field campaigns from different regional waters was used to develop empirical methods for studying the distribution and dynamics of CDOM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and salinity. Our validation analyses demonstrated that the hybrid model is a better descriptor of CDOM absorption spectra compared to the existing models. Additional spectral slope parameters included in the present model to differentiate between terrestrially derived and marine CDOM pools make a substantial improvement over those existing models. Empirical algorithms to derive CDOM, DOC and salinity from remote sensing reflectance data demonstrated success in retrieval of these products with significantly low mean relative percent differences from large in-situ measurements. The performance of these algorithms was further assessed using three hyperspectral HICO images acquired simultaneously with our field measurements in productive coastal and lagoon waters on the southeast part of India. The validation match-ups of CDOM and salinity showed good agreement between HICO retrievals and field observations. Further analyses of these data showed significant temporal changes in CDOM and phytoplankton absorption coefficients with a distinct phase shift between these two products. Healthy phytoplankton cells and macrophytes were recognized to directly contribute to the

  4. Hydrogen-bond dynamics in water explored by heterodyne-detected photon echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeremenko, S; Pshenichnikov, MS; Wiersma, DA; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2003-01-01

    Results of heterodyne-detected photon echo experiments on the OH stretching mode of water are reported and discussed. Two vibrational dynamical processes with time constants of 130 and 900 fs were identified. The former is attributed to bond breaking dynamics of a single hydrogen bond, the latter to

  5. Structural dynamics in water probed by heterodyne-detected photon echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeremenko, S; Pshenichnikov, MS; Wiersma, DA; Miller, DR; Murnane, MM; Scherer, NF; Weiner, AM

    2003-01-01

    Results of heterodyne-detected photon echo experiments on the OH stretching mode of HDO molecule in heavy water and acetonitrile are reported and discussed. Two vibrational dynamical processes with time constants of 130 A and 900 fs were identified. The former is attributed to bond breaking dynamics

  6. Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

  7. Improved generalized cell mapping for global analysis of dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three main parts of generalized cell mapping are improved for global analysis. A simple method, which is not based on the theory of digraphs, is presented to locate complete self-cycling sets that corre- spond to attractors and unstable invariant sets involving saddle, unstable periodic orbit and chaotic saddle. Refinement for complete self-cycling sets is developed to locate attractors and unstable in- variant sets with high degree of accuracy, which can start with a coarse cell structure. A nonuniformly interior-and-boundary sampling technique is used to make the refinement robust. For homeomorphic dissipative dynamical systems, a controlled boundary sampling technique is presented to make gen- eralized cell mapping method with refinement extremely accurate to obtain invariant sets. Recursive laws of group absorption probability and expected absorption time are introduced into generalized cell mapping, and then an optimal order for quantitative analysis of transient cells is established, which leads to the minimal computational work. The improved method is applied to four examples to show its effectiveness in global analysis of dynamical systems.

  8. Improved generalized cell mapping for global analysis of dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU HaiLin; XU JianXue

    2009-01-01

    Three main parts of generalized cell mapping are improved for global analysis. A simple method, whichis not based on the theory of digraphs, is presented to locate complete self-cycling sets that corre-spond to attractors and unstable invariant sets involving saddle, unstable periodic orbit and chaotic saddle. Refinement for complete self-cycling sets is developed to locate attractors and unstable in-variant sets with high degree of accuracy, which can start with a coarse cell structure. A nonuniformly interior-and-boundary sampling technique is used to make the refinement robust. For homeomorphic dissipative dynamical systems, a controlled boundary sampling technique is presented to make gen-eralized cell mapping method with refinement extremely accurate to obtain invariant sets. Recursive laws of group absorption probability and expected absorption time are introduced into generalized cell mapping, and then an optimal order for quantitative analysis of transient cells is established, which leads to the minimal computational work. The improved method is applied to four examples to show its effectiveness in global analysis of dynamical systems.

  9. Modelling the dynamics of stem cells in colonic crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirio, Orozco-Fuentes; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt organisation in the human intestine. We construct a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt behaviour, using a Voronoi tessellation to represent each cell and elastic forces between them we addressed how their dynamical disfunction can lead to tumour masses and cancer. Our results indicate that for certain parameters the crypt is in a homeostatic state, but slight changes on their values can disrupt this behaviour.

  10. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration.

  11. Nanodomain stabilization dynamics in plasma membranes of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tamal; Maiti, Tapas K.; Chakraborty, Suman

    2011-02-01

    We discover that a synergistically amplifying role of stabilizing membrane proteins and continuous lipid recycling can explain the physics governing the stability, polydispersity, and dynamics of lipid raft domains in plasma membranes of biological cells. We establish the conjecture using a generalized order parameter based on theoretical formalism, endorsed by detailed scaling arguments and domain mapping. Quantitative agreements with morphological distributions of raft complexes, as obtained from Förster resonance energy transfer based visualization, support the present theoretical conjecture.

  12. Cell Stability Analysis of Conventional 6T Dynamic 8T SRAM Cell in 45NM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dhanumjaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A SRAM cell must meet requirements for operation in submicron/nano ranges. The scaling of CMOS technology has significant impact on SRAM cell -- random fluctuation of electrical characteristics and substantial leakage current. In this paper we present dynamic column based power supply 8 T SRAM cell and comparing the proposed SRAM cell with respect to conventional SRAM 6T in various aspects. To verify read stability and write ability analysis we use N-curve metric. Simulation results affirmed that proposed 8T SRAM cell achieved improved read stability, read current, and leakage current in 45nm Technology comparing with conventional 6T SRAM using cadence virtuoso tool.

  13. Cell Stability Analysis of Conventional 6T Dynamic 8T SRAM Cell in 45NM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Padmaraju

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A SRAM cell must meet requirements for operation in submicron/nano ranges. The scaling of CMOS technology has significant impact on SRAM cell -- random fluctuation of electrical characteristics andsubstantial leakage current. In this paper we present dynamic column based power supply 8T SRAM cell and comparing the proposed SRAM cell with respect to conventional SRAM 6T in various aspects. To verify read stability and write ability analysis we use N-curve metric. Simulation results affirmed that proposed 8T SRAM cell achieved improved read stability, read current, and leakage current in 45nm Technology comparing with conventional 6T SRAM using cadence virtuoso tool.

  14. Dynamics of water-alcohol mixtures: Insights from nuclear magnetic resonance, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and triplet solvation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, D.; Schuster, B.; Rosenstihl, M.; Schneider, S.; Blochowicz, T.; Stühn, B.; Vogel, M. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Talluto, V.; Walther, T. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-03-21

    We combine {sup 2}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), and triplet solvation dynamics (TSD) to investigate molecular dynamics in glass-forming mixtures of water and propylene glycol in very broad time and temperature ranges. All methods yield consistent results for the α process of the studied mixtures, which hardly depends on the composition and shows Vogel-Fulcher temperature dependence as well as Cole-Davidson spectral shape. The good agreement between BDS and TDS data reveals that preferential solvation of dye molecules in microheterogeneous mixtures does not play an important role. Below the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, NMR and BDS studies reveal that the β process of the mixtures shows correlation times, which depend on the water concentration, but exhibit a common temperature dependence, obeying an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of E{sub a} = 0.54  eV, as previously reported for mixtures of water with various molecular species. Detailed comparison of NMR and BDS correlation functions for the β process unravels that the former decay faster and more stretched than the latter. Moreover, the present NMR data imply that propylene glycol participates in the β process and, hence, it is not a pure water process, and that the mechanism for molecular dynamics underlying the β process differs in mixtures of water with small and large molecules.

  15. The scale-free dynamics of eukaryotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Aon

    Full Text Available Temporal organization of biological processes requires massively parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. We analyzed time-series data obtained from the bioenergetic oscillatory outputs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolated cardiomyocytes utilizing Relative Dispersional (RDA and Power Spectral (PSA analyses. These analyses revealed broad frequency distributions and evidence for long-term memory in the observed dynamics. Moreover RDA and PSA showed that the bioenergetic dynamics in both systems show fractal scaling over at least 3 orders of magnitude, and that this scaling obeys an inverse power law. Therefore we conclude that in S. cerevisiae and cardiomyocytes the dynamics are scale-free in vivo. Applying RDA and PSA to data generated from an in silico model of mitochondrial function indicated that in yeast and cardiomyocytes the underlying mechanisms regulating the scale-free behavior are similar. We validated this finding in vivo using single cells, and attenuating the activity of the mitochondrial inner membrane anion channel with 4-chlorodiazepam to show that the oscillation of NAD(PH and reactive oxygen species (ROS can be abated in these two evolutionarily distant species. Taken together these data strongly support our hypothesis that the generation of ROS, coupled to redox cycling, driven by cytoplasmic and mitochondrial processes, are at the core of the observed rhythmicity and scale-free dynamics. We argue that the operation of scale-free bioenergetic dynamics plays a fundamental role to integrate cellular function, while providing a framework for robust, yet flexible, responses to the environment.

  16. Tap water isotope ratios reflect urban water system structure and dynamics across a semiarid metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Yusuf; Brewer, Simon; Good, Stephen P.; Tipple, Brett J.; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-08-01

    Water extraction for anthropogenic use has become a major flux in the hydrological cycle. With increasing demand for water and challenges supplying it in the face of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand connections between human populations, climate, water extraction, water use, and its impacts. To understand these connections, we collected and analyzed stable isotopic ratios of more than 800 urban tap water samples in a series of semiannual water surveys (spring and fall, 2013-2015) across the Salt Lake Valley (SLV) of northern Utah. Consistent with previous work, we found that mean tap water had a lower 2H and 18O concentration than local precipitation, highlighting the importance of nearby montane winter precipitation as source water for the region. However, we observed strong and structured spatiotemporal variation in tap water isotopic compositions across the region which we attribute to complex distribution systems, varying water management practices and multiple sources used across the valley. Water from different sources was not used uniformly throughout the area and we identified significant correlation between water source and demographic parameters including population and income. Isotopic mass balance indicated significant interannual and intra-annual variability in water losses within the distribution network due to evaporation from surface water resources supplying the SLV. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of isotopes as an indicator of water management strategies and climate impacts within regional urban water systems, with potential utility for monitoring, regulation, forensic, and a range of water resource research.

  17. Isomerization reaction dynamics and equilibrium at the liquid-vapor interface of water. A molecular-dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ilan; Pohorille, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The gauche-trans isomerization reaction of 1,2-dichloroethane at the liquid-vapor interface of water is studied using molecular-dynamics computer simulations. The solvent bulk and surface effects on the torsional potential of mean force and on barrier recrossing dynamics are computed. The isomerization reaction involves a large change in the electric dipole moment, and as a result the trans/gauche ratio is considerably affected by the transition from the bulk solvent to the surface. Reactive flux correlation function calculations of the reaction rate reveal that deviation from the transition-state theory due to barrier recrossing is greater at the surface than in the bulk water. This suggests that the system exhibits non-Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus behavior due to the weak solvent-solute coupling at the water liquid-vapor interface.

  18. Polarizability effects in molecular dynamics simulations of the graphene-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    The importance of including the polarizability of both water and graphene in molecular dynamics simulations of the water/graphene system was quantified. A thin film of either rigid single point charge extended (SPC/E) water or polarizable simple 4-site water model with Drude polarizability (SWM4_DP) water on non-polarizable and polarizable graphene surfaces was simulated. The graphene surface was either maintained neutral or charged, positively and negatively. The results suggest that SPC/E and SWM4_DP water models yield very similar predictions for the water structural properties on neutral non-polarizable graphene, although they yield slightly different dynamical properties of interfacial water on neutral non-polarizable graphene. More pronounced were the differences obtained when graphene was modeled with a polarizable force field. In particular, the polarizability of graphene was found to enhance the number of interfacial SWM4_DP water molecules pointing one of their OH bonds towards the neutral surface. Despite this structural difference, the dynamical properties predicted for the interfacial SWM4_DP water were found to be independent on polarizability as long as the polarizability of a carbon atom is smaller than α = 0.878 Å. On charged graphene surfaces, the effect of polarizability of graphene on structural properties and some dynamical properties of SWM4_DP water is negligible because electrostatic forces due to surface charge dominate polarization forces, as expected. For all cases, our results suggest that the hydrogen bond network is insensitive to the polarizability of both water and graphene. Understanding how these effects will determine the accumulation of ions near neutral or charged graphene could have important implications for applications in the fields of energy storage and water desalination.

  19. Global Dynamics of a Virus Dynamical Model with Cell-to-Cell Transmission and Cure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure effect of a virus model with both cell-to-cell transmission and cell-to-virus transmission is studied. By the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is obtained. The locally asymptotic stability of the virus-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium is considered by investigating the characteristic equation of the model. The globally asymptotic stability of the virus-free equilibrium is proved by constructing suitable Lyapunov function, and the sufficient condition for the globally asymptotic stability of the endemic equilibrium is obtained by constructing suitable Lyapunov function and using LaSalle invariance principal.

  20. Modeling water sorption dynamics of cellular solid food systems using free volume theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2009-01-01

    Water sorption and dynamical properties of bread crust were studied using gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were measured while relative humidity (RH) was step-wise in- or decreased. Experimental results were compared with Fickian diffusion models and empirical models like the

  1. Using stochastic dynamic programming to support catchment-scale water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia

    2013-01-01

    based on stochastic dynamic programming has been developed. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of supplying water to the users, while satisfying minimum ecosystem flow constraints. Each user group (agriculture, domestic and industry) is characterized by fixed demands, fixed water...

  2. Non-periodic molecular dynamics simulations of coarse grained lipid bilayer in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsalis, E. M.; Hanasaki, I.; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiscale algorithm that couples coarse grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) with continuum solver. The coupling requires the imposition of non-periodic boundary conditions on the coarse grained Molecular Dynamics which, when not properly enforced, may result in spurious fluctuations...... of the material properties of the system represented by CGMD. In this paper we extend a control algorithm originally developed for atomistic simulations [3], to conduct simulations involving coarse grained water molecules without periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate the applicability of our method...... in simulating more complex systems by performing a non-periodic Molecular Dynamics simulation of a DPPC lipid in liquid coarse grained water....

  3. Promoting cell proliferation using water dispersible germanium nanowires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bezuidenhout

    Full Text Available Group IV Nanowires have strong potential for several biomedical applications. However, to date their use remains limited because many are synthesised using heavy metal seeds and functionalised using organic ligands to make the materials water dispersible. This can result in unpredicted toxic side effects for mammalian cells cultured on the wires. Here, we describe an approach to make seedless and ligand free Germanium nanowires water dispersible using glutamic acid, a natural occurring amino acid that alleviates the environmental and health hazards associated with traditional functionalisation materials. We analysed the treated material extensively using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, High resolution-TEM, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Using a series of state of the art biochemical and morphological assays, together with a series of complimentary and synergistic cellular and molecular approaches, we show that the water dispersible germanium nanowires are non-toxic and are biocompatible. We monitored the behaviour of the cells growing on the treated germanium nanowires using a real time impedance based platform (xCELLigence which revealed that the treated germanium nanowires promote cell adhesion and cell proliferation which we believe is as a result of the presence of an etched surface giving rise to a collagen like structure and an oxide layer. Furthermore this study is the first to evaluate the associated effect of Germanium nanowires on mammalian cells. Our studies highlight the potential use of water dispersible Germanium Nanowires in biological platforms that encourage anchorage-dependent cell growth.

  4. Water activities of polymeric membrane/water systems in fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Ji Yun; Bae, Young Chan [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang Kook [Division of Chemical Engineering and Center for Information and Communication Material, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2006-07-03

    A new equation of state (EOS) is established to describe water activities of polymeric membrane/water systems in fuel cell. It is developed based on the modified perturbed hard-sphere-chain (PHSC) EOS by introducing a new perturbation equation that is obtained from the generalized Lennard-Jones (GLJ) potential function based on a statistical-mechanical relationship. Experimentally observed water activities of polymeric electrolyte/water systems are interpreted by the proposed model. The values calculated from the proposed model are in a good agreement with the experimental data for given systems. (author)

  5. PREFACE: Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2012-02-01

    This special section has been inspired by the workshop on Dynamic Crossover Phenomena in Water and Other Glass-Forming Liquids, held during November 11-13, 2010 at Pensione Bencistà, Fiesole, Italy, a well-preserved 14th century Italian villa tucked high in the hills overlooking Florence. The meeting, an assembly of world renowned scientists, was organized as a special occasion to celebrate the 75th birthday of Professor Sow-Hsin Chen of MIT, a pioneer in several aspects of complex fluids and soft matter physics. The workshop covered a large variety of experimental and theoretical research topics of current interest related to dynamic crossover phenomena in water and, more generally, in other glass-forming liquids. The 30 invited speakers/lecturers and approximately 60 participants were a select group of prominent physicists and chemists from the USA, Europe, Asia and Mexico, who are actively working in the field. Some highlights of this special issue include the following works. Professor Yamaguchi's group and their collaborators present a neutron spin echo study of the coherent intermediate scattering function of heavy water confined in cylindrical pores of MCM-41-C10 silica material in the temperature range 190-298 K. They clearly show that a fragile-to-strong (FTS) dynamic crossover occurs at about 225 K. They attribute the FTS dynamic crossover to the formation of a tetrahedral-like structure, which is preserved in the bulk-like water confined to the central part of the cylindrical pores. Mamontov and Kolesnikov et al study the collective excitations in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride over a temperature range of 205-270 K using neutron and x-ray Rayleigh-Brillouin (coherent) scattering. They detect both the low-frequency and the high-frequency sounds known to exist in pure bulk water above the melting temperature. They also perform neutron (incoherent) and x-ray (coherent) elastic intensity scan measurements. Clear evidence of the crossover in the

  6. Automated three-dimensional single cell phenotyping of spindle dynamics, cell shape, and volume

    CERN Document Server

    Plumb, Kemp; Pelletier, Vincent; Kilfoil, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    We present feature finding and tracking algorithms in 3D in living cells, and demonstrate their utility to measure metrics important in cell biological processes. We developed a computational imaging hybrid approach that combines automated three-dimensional tracking of point-like features with surface determination from which cell (or nuclear) volume, shape, and planes of interest can be extracted. After validation, we applied the technique to real space context-rich dynamics of the mitotic spindle, and cell volume and its relationship to spindle length, in dividing living cells. These methods are additionally useful for automated segregation of pre-anaphase and anaphase spindle populations in budding yeast. We found that genetic deletion of the yeast kinesin-5 mitotic motor cin8 leads to large mother and daughter cells that were indistinguishable based on size, and that in those cells the spindle length becomes uncorrelated with cell size. The technique can be used to visualize and quantify tracked feature c...

  7. Growth dynamics and cyclin expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Biskup

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated cell growth dynamics and cyclins B1 and E expression in cell lines derived from mycosis fungoides (MyLa, Sézary syndrome (SeAx, and CD30+ lympho-proliferative diseases (Mac1, Mac2a, JK. Mac1 and Mac2a had the highest growth rate (doubling time 18-28 h, >90% cycling cells whereas SeAx was proliferating slowly (doub-ling time 55 h, approximately 35% cycling cells. Expression of cyclin B1 correlated positively with doubling time whereas expression of cyclin E was unscheduled and constant across the investigated cell lines. All cell lines exhibited high expression of PCNA. Thus, we concluded that cyclin B1 could be used for rapid screening of cell proliferation in malignant lymphocytes derived from cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

  8. Water-oil drainage dynamics in oil-wet random microfluidic porous media analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wei; Neeves, Keith; Yin, Xiaolong

    2012-01-01

    Displacement experiments carried out in microfluidic porous media analogs show that reduced surface tension leads to a more stable displacement, opposite to the process in Hele-Shaw cells where surface tension stabilizes the displacement of a more viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid. In addition, geometry of porous media is observed to play an important role. Three random microfluidic porous media analogs were made to study water-oil drainage dynamics, featuring a pattern of randomly connected channels with a uniform width, a pattern with Gaussian channel width distribution, and a pattern with large isolated pores. The microfluidic chips fabricated using Polydimenthylsiloxane with glass covers have the internal surface treated by Trichlorosilane to achieve a uniform oil-wet condition. The aqueous phase displaces the oil phase, with a viscosity ratio of about 1:40 and a density ratio of 1:0.85. Videos 1-3 show water flooding processes. It is observed that both channel size distribution (Video 2) and heteroge...

  9. Structure and dynamics of metalloproteins in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jeremy D; Penner-Hahn, James E; Stemmler, Timothy L

    2008-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has emerged as one of the premier tools for investigating the structure and dynamic properties of metals in cells and in metal containing biomolecules. Utilizing the high flux and broad energy range of X-rays supplied by synchrotron light sources, one can selectively excite core electronic transitions in each metal. Spectroscopic signals from these electronic transitions can be used to dissect the chemical architecture of metals in cells, in cellular components, and in biomolecules at varying degrees of structural resolution. With the development of ever-brighter X-ray sources, X-ray methods have grown into applications that can be utilized to provide both a cellular image of the relative distribution of metals throughout the cell as well as a high-resolution picture of the structure of the metal. As these techniques continue to grow in their capabilities and ease of use, so too does the demand for their application by chemists and biochemists interested in studying the structure and dynamics of metals in cells, in cellular organelles, and in metalloproteins.

  10. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies on dynamics of water confined in nanoporous copper rubeanate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Yonamine, Ryo; Yamada, Teppei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Nagao, Michihiro; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2011-11-24

    We have investigated the mechanism of the first order transition and proton conductivity in copper rubeanate hydrates from microscopic and dynamical points of view. Three different types of neutron spectrometer-time-of-flight, backscattering, and neutron spin echo-were used to cover a wide dynamic range (1 ps to 100 ns). We found that the water molecules adsorbed in the pore are divided into "free water" having diffusion coefficients similar to those of bulk water at room temperature and "condensed water" which is about 10 times slower than bulk water owing to the interaction with the pore wall. The hydrogen atoms in the pore wall exhibited no relaxation within the measured time scales. The free water has, in the framework of the jump-diffusion model, smaller activation energy, longer residence time, and longer jump distance than bulk water. The neutron spin echo measurement revealed that the first order transition is a kind of liquid-liquid transition at which the free water is condensed on the pore surface in the low temperature phase. On cooling the condensed water, the relaxation time starts to deviate from the VFT equation around 200 K as previously observed in the water confined in nanoporous silicates. The free water plays an important role as the proton carrier but the proton conductivity is mainly governed by the number of protons provided into the adsorbed water from the pore wall.

  11. Transient computation fluid dynamics modeling of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guilin; Fan, Jianren

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become a promising candidate for the power source of electrical vehicles because of its low pollution, low noise and especially fast startup and transient responses at low temperatures. A transient, three-dimensional, non-isothermal and single-phase mathematical model based on computation fluid dynamics has been developed to describe the transient process and the dynamic characteristics of a PEMFC with a serpentine fluid channel. The effects of water phase change and heat transfer, as well as electrochemical kinetics and multicomponent transport on the cell performance are taken into account simultaneously in this comprehensive model. The developed model was employed to simulate a single laboratory-scale PEMFC with an electrode area about 20 cm 2. The dynamic behavior of the characteristic parameters such as reactant concentration, pressure loss, temperature on the membrane surface of cathode side and current density during start-up process were computed and are discussed in detail. Furthermore, transient responses of the fuel cell characteristics during step changes and sinusoidal changes in the stoichiometric flow ratio of the cathode inlet stream, cathode inlet stream humidity and cell voltage are also studied and analyzed and interesting undershoot/overshoot behavior of some variables was found. It was also found that the startup and transient response time of a PEM fuel cell is of the order of a second, which is similar to the simulation results predicted by most models. The result is an important guide for the optimization of PEMFC designs and dynamic operation.

  12. Analysis and numerical simulation of dynamic effect on rock under high pressure water jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hong; SI Hu; WANG Dan-dan

    2008-01-01

    Based on continuum mechanics and rock dynamics, analyzed the micro-structure damage of rock and the impulsive effect under high pressure water jet and developed the dynamic model. Further, on the assumption of that rock was homogeneous and isotropic, a computational model was established based on nonlinear finite element and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian(ALE) method. The dynamic effect impacted on rock under high pressure water jet was simulated by the dynamic contact method. The propagation of stress wave in rock was numerically simulated at different impacting velocity. The results show that the propagation velocity of stress wave is proportional to the impacting velocity of high pressure water jet. The faster the impacting velocity is, the quicker the comedown of stress wave.

  13. Calculation of the coefficient and dynamics of water diffusion in graphite joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; LIU Wen-bin

    2006-01-01

    The coefficient and dynamics of water diffusion in adhesive-graphite joints were calculated insitu with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, a method that is significantly simpler than elemental analysis. Water diffusion coefficient and dynamics of adhesive-graphite joints treated by different surface treatment methods were also investigated. Calculation results indicated that the water diffusion rate in adhesive-graphite joints treated by sandpaper was higher than that treated by chemical oxidation or by silane couple agent. Also the durability of graphite joints treated by coupling agent is superior to that treated by chemical oxidation or sandpaper burnishing.

  14. Hydration of methanol in water. A DFT-based molecular dynamics study

    CERN Document Server

    Van Erp, T S; Erp, Titus S. van; Meijer, Evert Jan

    2000-01-01

    We studied the hydration of a single methanol molecule in aqueous solution by first-principle DFT-based molecular dynamics simulation. The calculations show that the local structural and short-time dynamical properties of the water molecules remain almost unchanged by the presence of the methanol, confirming the observation from recent experimental structural data for dilute solutions. We also see, in accordance with this experimental work, a distinct shell of water molecules that consists of about 15 molecules. We found no evidence for a strong tangential ordering of the water molecules in the first hydration shell.

  15. Experimental characterization of active acoustic metamaterial cell with controllable dynamic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Wael; Baz, Amr

    2012-10-01

    Controlling wave propagation pattern within acoustic fluid domains has been the motivation for the acoustic metamaterials developments to target applications ranging from acoustic cloaking to passive noise control techniques. Currently, various numerical and analytical approaches exist to predict the fluid domain material properties necessary for specific propagation pattern. Physical attempts to realize such material properties have revealed engineered material constructions that are focused on predefined wave propagation patterns. In the current paper, coupled fluid-structure one-dimensional metamaterial cell, in which piezoelectric active ingredient has been introduced, is manufactured to achieve controllable dynamic density. The density-controllable cell has been manufactured by coupling a water-filled cavity with piezoelectric elements in a cell of 4.5 cm length and 4.1 cm diameter subject to impulse excitation. A finite element model of the cell has been developed and its predictions are validated against the experimental results. The validated model is utilized to predict the changes in the pressure gradient inside the developed cell which is a direct measure of the changes introduced to the dynamic density of the acoustic metamaterial domain. With such predictions, it is demonstrated that densities as high as 3.2 gm/cm3 and as low as 0.72 gm/cm3 can be achieved experimentally for excitation frequencies ranging between 100 Hz and 500 Hz.

  16. Structure of the rare archaeal biosphere and seasonal dynamics of active ecotypes in surface coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoni, Mylène; Taib, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Domaizon, Isabelle; Jouan Dufournel, Isabelle; Bronner, Gisèle; Salter, Ian; Agogué, Hélène; Mary, Isabelle; Galand, Pierre E

    2013-04-01

    Marine Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details regarding their community structure and long-term seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In this study, we monitored the interannual archaeal community composition of abundant and rare biospheres in northwestern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by pyrosequencing 16S rDNA and rRNA. A detailed analysis of the rare biosphere structure showed that the rare archaeal community was composed of three distinct fractions. One contained the rare Archaea that became abundant at different times within the same ecosystem; these cells were typically not dormant, and we hypothesize that they represent a local seed bank that is specific and essential for ecosystem functioning through cycling seasonal environmental conditions. The second fraction contained cells that were uncommon in public databases and not active, consisting of aliens to the studied ecosystem and representing a nonlocal seed bank of potential colonizers. The third fraction contained Archaea that were always rare but actively growing; their affiliation and seasonal dynamics were similar to the abundant microbes and could not be considered a seed bank. We also showed that the major archaeal groups, Thaumarchaeota marine group I and Euryarchaeota group II.B in winter and Euryarchaeota group II.A in summer, contained different ecotypes with varying activities. Our findings suggest that archaeal diversity could be associated with distinct metabolisms or life strategies, and that the rare archaeal biosphere is composed of a complex assortment of organisms with distinct histories that affect their potential for growth.

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Flexible Polyethylene: A Protein-Like Behaviour in a Water Solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Kretov, D A

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the density and the temperature behaviour of a flexible polyethylene (PE) subjected to various heating conditions and to investigate the PE chain conformational changes in a water solvent. First, we have considered the influence of the heating process on the final state of the polymeric system and the sensitivity of its thermodynamic characteristics (density, energy, etc.) for different heating regimes. For this purpose three different simulations were performed: fast, moderate, and slow heating. Second, we have investigated the PE chain conformational dynamics in water solvent for various simulation conditions and various configurations of the environment. From the obtained results we have got the pictures of the PE dynamical motions in water. We have observed a protein-like behaviour of the PE chain, like that of the DNA and the proteins in water, and have also estimated the rates of the conformational changes. For the MD simulations we used the optimized...

  18. The hydrophobic effect: Molecular dynamics simulations of water confined between extended hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    experimental data from x-ray reflectivity measurements, reveal a uniform weak de-wetting characteristic for the extended hydrophobic surface, while the hydrophilic surface is weakly wetted. These microscopic data are consistent with macroscopic contact angle measurements. Specific water orientation is present......-correlation functions reveal that water molecules have characteristic diffusive behavior and orientational ordering due to the lack of hydrogen bonding interactions with the surface. These observations suggest that the altered dynamical properties of water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces together......Structural and dynamic properties of water confined between two parallel, extended, either hydrophobic or hydrophilic crystalline surfaces of n-alkane C36H74 or n-alcohol C35H71OH, are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Electron density profiles, directly compared with corresponding...

  19. Dynamic corona characteristics of water droplets on charged conductor surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zezhong; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2017-03-01

    The formation of the Taylor cone of a water droplet on the surface of the conductor in a line-ground electrode system is captured using a high-speed camera, while the corona current is synchronously measured using a current measurement system. Repeated Taylor cone deformation is observed, yielding regular groupings of corona current pulses. The underlying mechanism of this deformation is studied and the correlation between corona discharge characteristics and cone deformation is investigated. Depending on the applied voltage and rate of water supply, the Taylor cone may be stable or unstable and has a significant influence on the characteristics of the corona currents. If the rate of water supply is large enough, the Taylor cone tends to be unstable and generates corona-current pulses of numerous induced current pulses with low amplitudes. In consequence, this difference suggests that large rainfall results in simultaneously lower radio interference and higher corona loss.

  20. Dynamic modeling of a three-stage low-temperature ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo; Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    A low-temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for the production of hydrogen has been designed aiming the feed of a fuel cell for an autonomous low-scale power production unit. The reformer comprises three stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen over SnO{sub 2} followed by acetaldehyde steam reforming over Co(Fe)/ZnO catalyst and water gas shift reaction. Kinetic data have been obtained under different experimental conditions and a dynamic model has been developed for a tubular reformer loaded with catalytic monoliths for the production of the hydrogen required to feed a 1 kW PEMFC. (author)

  1. Computational investigation of epithelial cell dynamic phenotype in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Jayanta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When grown in three-dimensional (3D cultures, epithelial cells typically form cystic organoids that recapitulate cardinal features of in vivo epithelial structures. Characterizing essential cell actions and their roles, which constitute the system's dynamic phenotype, is critical to gaining deeper insight into the cystogenesis phenomena. Methods Starting with an earlier in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA1 that validated for several Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cell culture attributes, we built a revised analogue (ISEA2 to increase overlap between analogue and cell culture traits. Both analogues used agent-based, discrete event methods. A set of axioms determined ISEA behaviors; together, they specified the analogue's operating principles. A new experimentation framework enabled tracking relative axiom use and roles during simulated cystogenesis along with establishment of the consequences of their disruption. Results ISEA2 consistently produced convex cystic structures in a simulated embedded culture. Axiom use measures provided detailed descriptions of the analogue's dynamic phenotype. Dysregulating key cell death and division axioms led to disorganized structures. Adhering to either axiom less than 80% of the time caused ISEA1 to form easily identified morphological changes. ISEA2 was more robust to identical dysregulation. Both dysregulated analogues exhibited characteristics that resembled those associated with an in vitro model of early glandular epithelial cancer. Conclusion We documented the causal chains of events, and their relative roles, responsible for simulated cystogenesis. The results stand as an early hypothesis–a theory–of how individual MDCK cell actions give rise to consistently roundish, cystic organoids.

  2. Dynamics of an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of toxic substances in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Ospina, Juan

    2016-05-01

    A proposed analytical method focuses on electrolyte transport to the electrode of an electrochemical cell. The recombinant Escherichia coli whole-cell biosensor detects toxicity in water based on a set of biochemical reactors. Previous contributions elucidated the kinetics of product formation and validated a mathematical model for its diffusion in the chamber. This work introduces an approach to investigate the dynamics of the probe using Laplace transforms and an effective time constant. The transfer function between the electrolyte production and the total current revealed a faster response for larger electrode radii. Both the first-order and effective time constants increased with the chamber height and radius. Separation of variables yields closed-form solutions and helps estimate the kinetics of p-aminophenol generation. When the bacteria were exposed to phenol concentrations of 1.6, 8.3 and 16 ppm, the corresponding overall rate constants were 5.11x10-7, 1.13x10-6 and 1.99x10-6 (product concentration unit/s2), respectively. In addition to parameter estimation, the method can be applied to perform sensitivity analysis and aid manufacturers in meeting design specifications of biosensors.

  3. Static and dynamic length scales in supercooled liquids: insights from molecular dynamics simulations of water and tri-propylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klameth, F; Henritzi, P; Vogel, M

    2014-04-14

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to study static and dynamic length scales in molecular supercooled liquids, in particular, water. For a determination of these scales, we use equilibrium configurations and pin appropriate subsets of molecules so as to obtain random matrices, cylindrical pores, and slit confinements. Static length scales ξ(s) are determined by analyzing overlap correlation functions for various fractions of pinned molecules or distances to the confining walls. For water in all confinements and for propylene oxide trimers in random geometry, a linear increase of ξ(s) with inverse temperature is found. Dynamic length scales ξ(d) are determined by analogous analysis of fraction-dependent or position-resolved correlation times of structural relaxation. While ξ(d) continuously grows upon cooling in the cylindrical and slit confinements, we find no evidence for a temperature dependence in random matrices, implying that molecular dynamics in parsed volumes is qualitatively different from that in bulk liquids. Finally, we study possible connections between the growth of the static and dynamic length scales and the slowdown of the structural relaxation of the supercooled bulk liquids. For water, we observe a linear relation between ln τ(α) and ξ(s)²/T in the whole accessible range down to the critical temperature of mode-coupling theory, T(c). In the weakly supercooled regime, the same relation holds also for ξ(d), as obtained from cylindrical and slit confinements, but deviations from this behavior are observed near T(c). The results are discussed in connection with random first-order theory and experimental studies of liquid dynamics in nanoscopic confinements and binary mixtures.

  4. Single-particle dynamics of hydration water in protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellissent-Funel, M.C.; Teixeira, J. (Lab. Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Bradley, K.F.; Chen, S.H. (Nuclear Engineering Dept., M.I.T., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Crespi, H.L. (Chemistry Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Incoherent quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies of in vivo deuterated C-phycocyanin have been made. At full hydration the high-temperature data can be interpreted using a model where each water molecule is diffusing in a confined space of 3 A in radius. The excess elastic intensity at large Q indicates that a relatively low fraction of a water molecules attached to the immediate vicinity of the protein surface is immobile, in agreement with computer simulation. The translational and librational density of states show slight up-shifts from the corresponding bulk cases. (orig.).

  5. Interaction dynamics of spatially separated cavitation bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinne, Nadine; Schumacher, Silvia; Nuzzo, Valeria; Arnold, Cord L.; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ripken, Tammo

    2010-11-01

    We present a high-speed photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles generated in two spatially separated regions by femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown in water. Depending on the relative energies of the femtosecond laser pulses and their spatial separation, different kinds of interactions, such as a flattening and deformation of the bubbles, asymmetric water flows, and jet formation were observed. The results presented have a strong impact on understanding and optimizing the cutting effect of modern femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates (>1 MHz).

  6. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  7. Dynamic Scaling of Lipofuscin Deposition in Aging Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family, Fereydoon; Mazzitello, K. I.; Arizmendi, C. M.; Grossniklaus, H. E.

    2011-07-01

    Lipofuscin is a membrane-bound cellular waste that can be neither degraded nor ejected from the cell but can only be diluted through cell division and subsequent growth. The fate of postmitotic (non-dividing) cells such as neurons, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle fibers, and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) is to accumulate lipofuscin, which as an "aging pigment" has been considered a reliable biomarker for the age of cells. Environmental stress can accelerate the accumulation of lipofuscin. For example, accumulation in brain cells appears to be an important issue connected with heavy consumption of alcohol. Lipofuscin is made of free-radical-damaged protein and fat, whose abnormal accumulation is related to a range of disorders including Type IV mucolipidosis (ML4), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which is the leading cause of blindness beyond the age of 50 years. The study of lipofuscin formation and growth is important, because of their association with cellular aging. We introduce a model of non-equilibrium cluster growth and aggregation that we have developed for studying the formation and growth of lipofuscin. As an example of lipofuscin deposit in a given kind of postmitotic cell, we study the kinetics of lipofuscin growth in a RPE cell. Our results agree with a linear growth of the number of lipofuscin granules with age. We apply the dynamic scaling approach to our model and find excellent data collapse for the cluster size distribution. An unusual feature of our model is that while small particles are removed from the cell the larger ones become fixed and grow by aggregation.

  8. Dynamics of depletion and replenishment of water storage in stem and roots of black spruce measured by dendrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eTurcotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short term, trees rely on the internal storage of water because it affects their ability to sustain photosynthesis and growth. However, water is not rapidly available for transpiration from all the compartments of the plant and the living tissues of the stem act as a buffer to preclude low water potentials during peaks of transpiration. In this paper, electronic dendrometers were used from mid-June to mid-September 2008 to compare the radius variations in stem and roots of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P.] in two sites of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada, with different soil characteristics and water retention. The duration of the daily cycles was similar between sites and measurement heights but greater amplitudes of contraction and expansion were observed on the stem and in the site with the shallowest soil organic layer. The expansion phase had higher amplitudes and lasted longer than contraction. On average, the contraction phase occurred between 07:00 and 16:30 (legal time, while expansion lasted 14.5 h. The roots in the site with the deepest organic layer showed a wider variation in the onset of contraction, which could be as late as 13:00. The probability of observing the contraction phase depended on precipitation. With a precipitation <0.5 mm h-1, the bivariate posterior probabilities estimated >60% probability of observing contraction between 05:00 and 21:00, decreasing to 20% with precipitation >1.1 mm h-1. These findings demonstrated that the depth of the organic layer plays an important role in maintaining the internal water reserve of trees. The dynamics of water depletion and replenishment can modify the water potential of xylem and cell turgor during the enlargement phase, thus affecting radial growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation regime could influence the dynamics of internal water storage in trees growing on shallower and drier soils.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Water Pore Formation in Lipid Bilayer Induced by Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Ken-ichiro; Kodama, Tetsuya; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2006-05-01

    Water molecule penetration into a bilayer hydrophobic region with a shock wave impulse has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations [Koshiyama et al., AIP Conference Proceedings, 754, 104-106, (2005)]. Here we report results of simulation of spontaneous water pore formation in a bilayer that contains water molecules in the hydrophobic region in an initial state. The bilayers of 128 DPPC lipid and 3655 water molecules with insertion of 392, 784, and 1176 water molecules in the hydrophobic region are simulated. A water pore is spontaneously formed when 1176 water molecules exist in the hydrophobic region. The water pore diameter is estimated to be c.a. 1.9 nm, which is three times larger than that of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) used in cancer treatment.

  10. Nano-confined water in the interlayers of hydrocalumite: Reorientational dynamics probed by neutron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichev, A. G.; Faraone, A.; Udovic, T.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; de Souza, N. R.; Reinholdt, M. X.; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2008-12-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs, anionic clays) represent excellent model systems for detailed molecular- level studies of the structure, dynamics, and energetics of nano-confined water in mineral interlayers and nano-pores, because LDH interlayers can have a well-defined structures and contain H2O molecules and a wide variety of anions in structurally well-defined positions and coordinations. [Ca2Al(OH)6]Cl·2H2O, also known as hydrocalumite or Friedel's salt, has a well- ordered Ca,Al distribution in the hydroxide layer and a very high degree of H2O,Cl ordering in the interlayer. It is also one of the only LDH phase for which a single crystal structure refinement is available. Thus, it is currently the best model compound for understanding the structure and dynamical behavior of interlayer and surface species in other, less-ordered, LDHs. We investigated the structural and dynamic behavior of water in the interlayers of hydrocalumite using inelastic (INS) and quasielastic (QENS) neutron scattering and molecular dynamics computer simulations. The comperehensive neutron scattering studies were performed for one fully hydrated and one dehydrated sample of hydrocalumite using several complementary instruments (HFBS, DCS and FANS at NCNR; HRMECS and QENS at IPNS) at temperatures above and below the previously discovered order-disorder interlayer phase transition. Together the experimental and molecular modeling results capture the important details of the dynamics of nano-confined water and the effects of the orientational ordering of H2O molecules above and below the phase transition. They provide otherwise unobtainable experimental information about the transformation of H2O librational and diffusional modes across the order-disorder phase transition and significantly add to our current understanding of the structure and dynamics of water in LDH phases based on the earlier NMR, IR, X-ray, and calorimetric measurements. The approach can now be extended to probe the

  11. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong [Univ. of Petroleum Changping, Beijing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  12. Molecular dynamics modeling of a nanomaterials-water surface interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein; Keramati, Ramtin; Abdi, Ahmad; Minary-Jolandan, Majid

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we study the formation of nanomeniscus around a nanoneedle using molecular dynamics simulation approach. The results reveal three distinct phases in the time-evolution of meniscus before equilibrium according to the contact angle, meniscus height, and potential energy. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the nanoneedle diameter and nanomeniscus characteristics. The results have applications in various fields such as scanning probe microscopy and rheological measurements.

  13. A many-body dissipative particle dynamics study of forced water-oil displacement in capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhuang, Lin; Li, Xuefeng; Dong, Jinfeng; Lu, Juntao

    2012-01-17

    The forced water-oil displacement in capillary is a model that has important applications such as the groundwater remediation and the oil recovery. Whereas it is difficult for experimental studies to observe the displacement process in a capillary at nanoscale, the computational simulation is a unique approach in this regard. In the present work, the many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) method is employed to simulate the process of water-oil displacement in capillary with external force applied by a piston. As the property of all interfaces involved in this system can be manipulated independently, the dynamic displacement process is studied systematically under various conditions of distinct wettability of water in capillary and miscibility between water and oil as well as of different external forces. By analyzing the dependence of the starting force on the properties of water/capillary and water/oil interfaces, we find that there exist two different modes of the water-oil displacement. In the case of stronger water-oil interaction, the water particles cannot displace those oil particles sticking to the capillary wall, leaving a low oil recovery efficiency. To minimize the residual oil content in capillary, enhancing the wettability of water and reducing the external force will be beneficial. This simulation study provides microscopic insights into the water-oil displacement process in capillary and guiding information for relevant applications.

  14. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Droplets On Hydrophilic Silica Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Wetting is essential and ubiquitous in a variety of natural and technological processes. Silicon dioxides-water systems are abundant in nature and play fundamental roles in a vast variety of novel science and engineering activities such as silicon based devices, nanoscale lab on a chip systems an...

  16. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers: interior dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrnström, Mats; Villari, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    We study small-amplitude steady water waves with multiple critical layers. Those are rotational two-dimensional gravity-waves propagating over a perfect fluid of finite depth. It is found that arbitrarily many critical layers with cat's-eye vortices are possible, with different structure at different levels within the fluid. The corresponding vorticity depends linearly on the stream function.

  17. Population dynamics of sinking phytoplankton in stratified waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Sommeijer, B.P.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the predictions of a reaction-advection-diffusion model to pinpoint the necessary conditions for bloom development of sinking phytoplanktonspecies in stratified waters. This reveals that there are two parameter windows that can sustain sinking phytoplankton, a turbulence window and atherm

  18. Several Dynamical Properties for a Nonlinear Shallow Water Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ls Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear third order dispersive shallow water equation including the Degasperis-Procesi model is investigated. The existence of weak solutions for the equation is proved in the space L1(R∩BV (R under certain assumptions. The Oleinik type estimate and L2N(R  (N is a natural number estimate for the solution are obtained.

  19. Simulation and experimental validation of droplet dynamics in microchannels of PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Moosa; Shams, Mehrzad; Bozorgnezhad, Ali; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study, dynamics of droplets in the channels of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with straight and serpentine flow-fields was investigated. Tapered and filleted channels were suggested for the straight and serpentine flow-fields respectively in order to improve water removal in channels. Surface tension and wall adhesion forces were applied by using the volume of fluid method. The hydrophilic walls and hydrophobic gas diffusion layer were considered. The mechanism of droplets movement with different diameters was studied by using the Weber and capillary numbers in simple and tapered straight channels. It was illustrated that the flooding was reduced in tapered channel due to increase of water removal rate, and available reaction sites improved subsequently. In addition, film flow was formed in the tapered channel more than the simple channel, so pressure fluctuation was decreased in the tapered channel. Moreover, the water coverage ratio of hydrophilic tapered surface was more than the simple channel, which enhanced water removal from the channel. The filleted serpentine channel was introduced to improve water removal from the simple serpentine channel. It was shown by observation of the unsteady and time-averaged two-phase pressure drop that in the filleted serpentine channels, the two-phase pressure drop was far less than the simple serpentine channel, and also the accumulation of water droplets in the elbows was less leading to lower pressure fluctuation. The numerical simulation results were validated by experiments.

  20. Cell mass and cell cycle dynamics of an asynchronous budding yeast population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Carlquist, Magnus; Lundin, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    consumption observed during batch cultivation. The good agreement between the proposed multi-scale model (a population balance model [PBM] coupled to an unstructured model) and experimental data (both the overall physiology and cell size and cell cycle distributions) indicates that a mechanistic model...... of model predictions for cell property distributions against experimental data is scarce. This study focuses on the experimental and mathematical description of the dynamics of cell size and cell cycle position distributions, of a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in response to the substrate......Despite traditionally regarded as identical, cells in a microbial cultivation present a distribution of phenotypic traits, forming a heterogeneous cell population. Moreover, the degree of heterogeneity is notably enhanced by changes in micro-environmental conditions. A major development...

  1. Molecular-dynamic studies of carbon-water-carbon composite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Ji, Baohua; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2006-11-01

    We recently reported the discovery via molecular-dynamic simulations that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameters, lengths, and chiralities can coaxially self-assemble into multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in water via the spontaneous insertion of smaller tubes into larger ones. Here, we extend that study to investigate the various water structures formed between two selected SWCNTs after such coaxial assembly. Depending on the tube geometry, typical water structures, besides the bulk phase, include a one-dimensional (1D) ordered water chain inside the smaller tube, a uniform or nonuniform water shell between the two tubes, and a "boundary layer" of water near the exterior wall of the larger tube. It was found that a concentric water shell consisting of up to three layers of water molecules can form between the two SWCNTs, which leads to a class of carbon-water-carbon composite nanotubes. Analysis of the potential energy of the SWCNT-water system indicated that the composite nanotubes are stabilized by both the tube-tube and tube-water van der Waals interactions. Geometrically confined between the two SWCNTs, water mono- and bilayers are found to be stable, highly condensed, and ordered, although the average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule is reduced. In contrast, a water trilayer between the two CNTs can be easily disrupted by thermal fluctuations.

  2. Input dynamics of pesticide transformation products into surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Susanne; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Fenner, Kathrin

    2010-05-01

    Some pesticide transformation products have been observed to occur in higher concentrations and more frequently than the parent active pesticide in surface water and groundwater. These products are often more mobile and sometimes more stable than the parent pesticide. If they also represent the major product into which the parent substance is transformed, these transformation products may dominate observed pesticide occurrences in surface water and groundwater. Their potential contribution to the overall risk to the aquatic environment caused by the use of the parent pesticide should therefore not be neglected in chemical risk and water quality assessments. The same is true for transformation products of other compound classes that might reach the soil environment, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals. However, the fate and input pathways of transformation products of soil-applied chemicals into surface water are not yet well understood, which largely prevents their appropriate inclusion into chemical risk and water quality assessments. Here, we studied whether prioritization methods based on available environmental fate data from pesticide registration dossiers in combination with basic fate models could help identify transformation products which can be found in relevant concentrations in surface and groundwater and which should therefore be included into monitoring programs. A three-box steady state model containing air, soil, and surface water compartments was used to predict relative inputs of pesticide transformation products into surface waters based on their physico-chemical and environmental fate properties. The model predictions were compared to monitoring data from a small Swiss river located in an intensely agricultural catchment (90 km2) which was flow-proportionally sampled from May to October 2008 and screened for 74 pesticides as well as 50 corresponding transformation products. Sampling mainly occurred during high discharge, but additional samples

  3. Ureaplasma parvum infection alters filamin a dynamics in host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Mary B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasmas are among the most common bacteria isolated from the human urogenital tract. Ureaplasmas can produce asymptomatic infections or disease characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response. Most investigations have focused on elucidating the pathogenic potential of Ureaplasma species, but little attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms by which these organisms are capable of establishing asymptomatic infection. Methods We employed differential proteome profiling of bladder tissues from rats experimentally infected with U. parvum in order to identify host cell processes perturbed by colonization with the microbe. Tissues were grouped into four categories: sham inoculated controls, animals that spontaneously cleared infection, asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI, and complicated UTI. One protein that was perturbed by infection (filamin A was used to further elucidate the mechanism of U. parvum-induced disruption in human benign prostate cells (BPH-1. BPH-1 cells were evaluated by confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA. Results Bladder tissue from animals actively colonized with U. parvum displayed significant alterations in actin binding proteins (profilin 1, vinculin, α actinin, and filamin A that regulate both actin polymerization and cell cytoskeletal function pertaining to focal adhesion formation and signal transduction (Fisher's exact test, P U. parvum perturbed the regulation of filamin A. Specifically, infected BPH-1 cells exhibited a significant increase in filamin A phosphorylated at serine2152 (P ≤ 0.01, which correlated with impaired proteolysis of the protein and its normal intracellular distribution. Conclusion Filamin A dynamics were perturbed in both models of infection. Phosphorylation of filamin A occurs in response to various cell signaling cascades that regulate cell motility, differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. Thus, this phenomenon may be a useful

  4. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity. PMID:26456362

  5. Water Splitting with Series-Connected Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiner, Serkan; van Eersel, Harm; van Pruissen, Gijs W P; Turbiez, Mathieu; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-10-12

    We investigate light-driven electrochemical water splitting with series-connected polymer solar cells using a combined experimental and modeling approach. The expected maximum solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (ηSTH) for light-driven water splitting is modeled for two, three, and four series-connected polymer solar cells. In the modeling, we assume an electrochemical water splitting potential of 1.50 V and a polymer solar cell for which the external quantum efficiency and fill factor are both 0.65. The minimum photon energy loss (Eloss), defined as the energy difference between the optical band gap (Eg) and the open-circuit voltage (Voc), is set to 0.8 eV, which we consider a realistic value for polymer solar cells. Within these approximations, two series-connected single junction cells with Eg = 1.73 eV or three series-connected cells with Eg = 1.44 eV are both expected to give an ηSTH of 6.9%. For four series-connected cells, the maximum ηSTH is slightly less at 6.2% at an optimal Eg = 1.33 eV. Water splitting was performed with series-connected polymer solar cells using polymers with different band gaps. PTPTIBDT-OD (Eg = 1.89 eV), PTB7-Th (Eg = 1.56 eV), and PDPP5T-2 (Eg = 1.44 eV) were blended with [70]PCBM as absorber layer for two, three, and four series-connected configurations, respectively, and provide ηSTH values of 4.1, 6.1, and 4.9% when using a retroreflective foil on top of the cell to enhance light absorption. The reasons for deviations with experiments are analyzed and found to be due to differences in Eg and Eloss. Light-driven electrochemical water splitting was also modeled for multijunction polymer solar cells with vertically stacked photoactive layers. Under identical assumptions, an ηSTH of 10.0% is predicted for multijunction cells.

  6. Research on Dispersed Oil Droplets Breakage and Emulsification in the Dynamic Oil and Water Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and water dynamic hydrocyclone is one type of facilities that separate two phases or multiple phases applied widely in the fields such as food processing, environmental protection, biological pharmacy, petroleum and chemistry. The dispersed oil droplets in the dynamic oil and water hydrocyclone were often broken into small drops by shear force, which decreased the separation efficiency of dynamic oil-water hydrocyclone greatly. To avoid the breakage of the oil droplets, the turbulence field and the velocity field of the dynamic hydrocyclone were studied by the software of Fluent to analyze the main reason that led to breakage of oil droplets. Results indicated that the deformation of oil droplets was caused by the viscous shear force; the breakage of oil droplets was caused by the Reynolds shear stress and the local pressure fluctuations. The main area that the drops were prone to breakup of the dynamic hydrocyclone is that the rotating grating nearby, the wall boundary layer of the drum and center axis of the drum. Finally, the breakage of oil droplets and emulsification of oil and water in the dynamic hydrocyclone were verified by the experiments.

  7. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Study of Water Molecules in Interlayer of 14 ^|^Aring; Tobermorite

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2013-01-01

    The molecular structure and dynamics of interlayer water of 14 Å tobermorite are investigated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Calculated structural parameters of the interlayer water configuration are in good agreement with current knowledge of the refined structure. The MD simulations provide detailed information on the position and mobility of the hydrogen and oxygen of interlayer water, as well as its self-diffusion coefficient, through the interlayer of 14 Å tobermorite. Comparison of the MD simulation results at 100 and 300 K demonstrates that water molecules in the interlayer maintain their structure but change their mobility. The dominant configuration and self-diffusion coefficient of interlayer water are obtained in this study. Copyright © 2013 Japan Concrete Institute.

  9. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  10. The fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition in confined water: nuclear magnetic resonance results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, F; Broccio, M; Corsaro, C; Faraone, A; Wanderlingh, U; Liu, L; Mou, C-Y; Chen, S H

    2006-04-28

    By means of a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, we give evidence of the existence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition (FST) in confined water at a temperature T(L)=223+/-2 K. We have studied the dynamics of water contained in 1D cylindrical nanoporous matrices (MCM-41-S) in the temperature range 190-280 K, where experiments on bulk water were so far hampered by crystallization. The FST is clearly inferred from the T dependence of the inverse of the self-diffusion coefficient of water (1D) as a crossover point from a non-Arrhenius to an Arrhenius behavior. The combination of the measured self-diffusion coefficient D and the average translational relaxation time tau(T), as measured by neutron scattering, shows the predicted breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in deeply supercooled water.

  11. The fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition in confined water: nuclear magnetic resonance results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, F.; Broccio, M.; Corsaro, C.; Faraone, A.; Wanderlingh, U.; Liu, L.; Mou, C.-Y.; Chen, S. H.

    2006-04-01

    By means of a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, we give evidence of the existence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition (FST) in confined water at a temperature TL=223±2K. We have studied the dynamics of water contained in 1D cylindrical nanoporous matrices (MCM-41-S) in the temperature range 190-280K, where experiments on bulk water were so far hampered by crystallization. The FST is clearly inferred from the T dependence of the inverse of the self-diffusion coefficient of water (1/D) as a crossover point from a non-Arrhenius to an Arrhenius behavior. The combination of the measured self-diffusion coefficient D and the average translational relaxation time ⟨τT⟩, as measured by neutron scattering, shows the predicted breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in deeply supercooled water.

  12. A New Calculation Method of Dynamic Kill Fluid Density Variation during Deep Water Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of uncertainties and enormous challenges in deep water drilling due to complicated shallow flow and deep strata of high temperature and pressure. This paper investigates density of dynamic kill fluid and optimum density during the kill operation process in which dynamic kill process can be divided into two stages, that is, dynamic stable stage and static stable stage. The dynamic kill fluid consists of a single liquid phase and different solid phases. In addition, liquid phase is a mixture of water and oil. Therefore, a new method in calculating the temperature and pressure field of deep water wellbore is proposed. The paper calculates the changing trend of kill fluid density under different temperature and pressure by means of superposition method, nonlinear regression, and segment processing technique. By employing the improved model of kill fluid density, deep water kill operation in a well is investigated. By comparison, the calculated density results are in line with the field data. The model proposed in this paper proves to be satisfactory in optimizing dynamic kill operations to ensure the safety in deep water.

  13. Structure and dynamics of ordered water in a thick nanofilm on ionic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xiu-Ping; Zhou Bo; Li Lan-Ting; Wang Chun-Lei

    2013-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of water in a thick film on an ionic surface are studied by molecular dynamic simulations.We find that there is a dense monolayer of water molecules in the vicinity of the surface.Water molecules within this layer not only show an upright hydrogen-down orientation,but also an upright hydrogen-up orientation.Thus,water molecules in this layer can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules in the next layer.Therefore,the two-dimensional hydrogen bond network of the first layer is disrupted,mainly due to the O atoms in this layer,which are affected by the next layer and are unstable.Moreover,these water molecules exhibit delayed dynamic behavior with relatively long residence time compared with those bulk-like molecules in the other layers.Our study should be helpful to further understand the influence of water film thickness on the interfacial water at the solid-liquid interface.

  14. Dynamics of CO in Amorphous Water Ice Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Karssemeijer, L J; van Hemert, M C; van der Avoird, A; Allodi, M A; Blake, G A; Cuppen, H M

    2013-01-01

    The long-timescale behavior of adsorbed carbon monoxide on the surface of amorphous water ice is studied under dense cloud conditions by means of off-lattice, on-the-fly, kinetic Monte Carlo simula- tions. It is found that the CO mobility is strongly influenced by the morphology of the ice substrate. Nanopores on the surface provide strong binding sites which can effectively immobilize the adsorbates at low coverage. As the coverage increases, these strong binding sites are gradually occupied leav- ing a number of admolecules with the ability to diffuse over the surface. Binding energies, and the energy barrier for diffusion are extracted for various coverages. Additionally, the mobility of CO is determined from isothermal desorption experiments. Reasonable agreement on the diffusivity of CO is found with the simulations. Analysis of the 2152 cm$^{-1}$, polar CO band supports the computational findings that the pores in the water ice provide the strongest binding sites and dominate diffusion at low temperatur...

  15. Dynamics of Coalescence-Induced Jumping Water Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video shows the different interaction mechanisms of coalescence-induced droplet jumping during condensation on a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface. High speed imaging was used to show jumping behavior on superhydrophobic copper oxide and carbon nanotube surfaces. Videos demonstrating multi-jumping droplets, jumping droplet return to the surface, and droplet-droplet electrostatic repulsions were analyzed. Experiments using external electric fields in conjunction with high speed imaging in a custom built experimental chamber were used to show that all coalescence-induced jumping droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces become positively charged upon leaving the surface, which is detailed in the video.

  16. Phase resetting reveals network dynamics underlying a bacterial cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Lin

    Full Text Available Genomic and proteomic methods yield networks of biological regulatory interactions but do not provide direct insight into how those interactions are organized into functional modules, or how information flows from one module to another. In this work we introduce an approach that provides this complementary information and apply it to the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, a paradigm for cell-cycle control. Operationally, we use an inducible promoter to express the essential transcriptional regulatory gene ctrA in a periodic, pulsed fashion. This chemical perturbation causes the population of cells to divide synchronously, and we use the resulting advance or delay of the division times of single cells to construct a phase resetting curve. We find that delay is strongly favored over advance. This finding is surprising since it does not follow from the temporal expression profile of CtrA and, in turn, simulations of existing network models. We propose a phenomenological model that suggests that the cell-cycle network comprises two distinct functional modules that oscillate autonomously and couple in a highly asymmetric fashion. These features collectively provide a new mechanism for tight temporal control of the cell cycle in C. crescentus. We discuss how the procedure can serve as the basis for a general approach for probing network dynamics, which we term chemical perturbation spectroscopy (CPS.

  17. Dynamics of Tetrahymena macronuclear lamina during cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBIN; ZHONGHEZHAI

    1994-01-01

    During mitosis,the nuclear lamina in higher eukaryotic cells undergoes a distinctly morphological change.It breaks down into lamin polymers or monomers at prophase.At telophase,the lamins reassemble around the condensed chromatin to form the layer of lamina.Using antiserum to mammalian lamins,we studied the dynamics of lamina during cell division in the macronuleus of Tetrahymena shanghaiensis,which divided in the way of amitosis.In contrast to those in higher animal cells,the typical perinuclear lamin distribution in the macronucleus persisted throughout the whole cell cycle.It was further found that in some synchronized cells,the lamin distribution bisplayed an unusual pattern consisting of a series of spots within the macronucleus.Using South-western hybridization,we found that the purified 66 KD lamin in Tetrahymena showed specific affinity with the telomere DNA sequence in the same species.Therefore,we propose that pattern of immunofluorescence may be due to the interaction of lamin protein with the nucleoli and the condensed chromatins in the macronucleus.

  18. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.;

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...... coherent detection, respectively. We find that the measured frequency dependent conductivity can be well described by a Drude-Smith model, supplemented by a Lorentz model oscillating near 5 THz....

  19. Surface-water dynamics and land use influence landscape connectivity across a major dryland region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Taylor, Robbi; Tulbure, Mirela G; Broich, Mark

    2017-01-24

    Landscape connectivity is important for the long-term persistence of species inhabiting dryland freshwater ecosystems, with spatiotemporal surface-water dynamics (e.g., flooding) maintaining connectivity by both creating temporary habitats and providing transient opportunities for dispersal. Improving our understanding of how landscape connectivity varies with respect to surface-water dynamics and land use is an important step to maintaining biodiversity in dynamic dryland environments. Using a newly available validated Landsat TM and ETM+ surface-water time series, we modelled landscape connectivity between dynamic surface-water habitats within Australia's 1 million km2 semi-arid Murray Darling Basin across a 25-year period (1987 to 2011). We identified key habitats that serve as well-connected 'hubs', or 'stepping-stones' that allow long-distance movements through surface-water habitat networks. We compared distributions of these habitats for short- and long-distance dispersal species during dry, average and wet seasons, and across land-use types. The distribution of stepping-stones and hubs varied both spatially and temporally, with temporal changes driven by drought and flooding dynamics. Conservation areas and natural environments contained higher than expected proportions of both stepping-stones and hubs throughout the time series; however, highly modified agricultural landscapes increased in importance during wet seasons. Irrigated landscapes contained particularly high proportions of well-connected hubs for long-distance dispersers, but remained relatively disconnected for less vagile organisms. The habitats identified by our study may serve as ideal high-priority targets for land-use specific management aimed at maintaining or improving dispersal between surface-water habitats, potentially providing benefits to biodiversity beyond the immediate site scale. Our results also highlight the importance of accounting for the influence of spatial and temporal

  20. Water Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a recently developed dynamic pore-network model is presented [1]. The model explicitly solves for both water pressure and capillary pressure. A semi-implicit scheme is used in updating water saturation in each pore body, which considerably increases the numerical stability at low capillary number values. Furthermore, a multiple-time-step algorithm is introduced to reduce the computational effort. A number of case studies of water transport in the micro porous layer (MPL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are conducted. We illustrate the role of MPL in reducing water flooding in the GDL. Also, the dynamic water transport through the MPL-GDL interface is explored in detail. This information is essential to the reduced continua model (RCM), which was developed for multiphase flow through thin porous layers [2, 3]. C.Z. Qin, Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: dynamic pore-network modeling, J Electrochimical. Soci., 162, F1036-F1046, 2015. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, Multiphase flow through multilayers of thin porous media: general balance equations and constitutive relationships for a solid-gas-liquid three-phase system, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 70, 693-708, 2014. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, A new approach to modeling water flooding in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40, 3348-3358, 2015.

  1. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  3. Dynamic Cell Formation based on Multi-objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Jia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-objective model is proposed to address the dynamic cellular manufacturing (DCM formation problem. This model considers four conflicting objectives: relocation cost, machine utilization, material handling cost and maintenance cost. The model also considers the situation that some machines could be shared by more than one cell at the same period. A genetic algorithm is applied to get the solution of this mathematical model. Three numerical examples are simulated to evaluate the validity of this model.  

  4. Dynamics and Synchrony of Pancreatic beta-cells and Islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2006-01-01

    biological hypotheses. The subjects addressed are: Quasi-steady-state approximations of enzyme reactions, the effect of noise on bursting electrical behavior, exciation wave propagation in pancreatic islets, intra- and inter-islet synchronization and pulsatile insulin secretion, and mitochondrial dynamics.......Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in response to raised glucose levels. Malfunctioning of this system plays an important role in the metabolic disease diabetes. The biological steps from glucose stimulus to the final release of insulin are incompletely understood, and a more complete...

  5. Influence of decenylsuccinic Acid on water permeability of plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O Y; Stadelmann, E J; Weiser, C J

    1972-11-01

    Decenylsuccinic acid altered permeability to water of epidermal cells of bulb scales of Allium cepa and of the leaf midrib of Rhoeo discolor. Water permeability, as determined by deplasmolysis time measurements, was related to the dose of undissociated decenylsuccinic acid (mm undissociated decenylsuccinic acid x minute). No relationship was found between permeability and total dose of decenylsuccinic acid, or dose of dissociated decenylsuccinic acid, suggesting that the undissociated molecule was the active factor in permeability changes and injury.At doses which did not damage cells (0.0008 to 0.6 [mm of the undissociated molecule x minute]) decenylsuccinic acid decreased water permeability. At higher doses (e.g., 4 to 8 [mm x minute]) injury to cells was common and decenylsuccinic acid increased permeability. Doses above the 10 to 20 (mm x minute) range were generally lethal. The plasmolysis form of uninjured cells was altered and protoplasmic swelling occasionally was observed. The dose-dependent reversal of water permeability changes (decreased to increased permeability) may reflect decenylsuccinic acid-induced changes in membrane structure. Reported effects of decenylsuccinic acid on temperature dependence of permeability and frost resistance were not verified.

  6. Planning for Regional Water Resources in Northwest China Using a Dynamic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2014-12-01

    Problem of water scarcity is prominent in northwest China due to its typical desert climate. Exceedence of sustainable yield of groundwater resources has resulted in groundwater depletion, which has raised a series of issues such as drying wells, increasing pumping costs and environmental damage. With a rapid agricultural and economic development, population increase has added extra stress on available water resources by increasing municipal, agricultural and industrial demands. This necessitates efficient water resources management strategies with better understanding of the causes of water stress and options for sustainable development of economy and management of environment. This study focuses on simulating the water supply and demand, under the influence of changing climate, for Shanshan County, located in northwest of China. A dynamic simulation model is developed using the modeling tool Stella for monthly water balance for the period ranging from 2000-2030. Different future water demand and supply scenarios are developed to represent: (1) base scenario- with current practices; (2) change of the primary water source; (3) improvement of irrigation efficiency; (4) reduction of irrigation area; and (5) reduction of industrial water demand. The results indicate that besides growing demand, the low water use efficiency and low level of water reuse are the primary concerns for water scarcity. Groundwater recharge and abstraction could be balanced by 2030, by reducing industrial demand by 50% and using high efficiency irrigation for agriculture. The model provided a better understanding of the effect of different policies and can help in identifying water resources management strategies.

  7. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2015-01-01

    of stochastic dynamic programming, to optimize water resources management in the Ziya River basin. Natural runoff from the upper basin was estimated with a rainfall-runoff model autocalibrated using in situ measured discharge. The runoff serial correlation was described by a Markov chain and used as input...... for the optimization model. This model was used to assess the economic impacts of ecosystem minimum flow constraints, limited groundwater pumping, and the middle route of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). A regional climate shift has exacerbated water scarcity and increased water values, resulting...... in stricter water management. The results show that the SNWTP reduces the impacts of water scarcity and impacts optimal water management in the basin. The presented modeling framework provides an objective basis for the development of tools to avoid overpumping groundwater resources at minimum costs....

  8. Phase Transition Dynamics of Three Types of Water within Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Ikeda-Fukazawa, Tomoko

    2016-11-01

    Water in hydrogels has been classified into three types: bound, intermediate, and free water. To investigate the individual phase transition dynamics for each type of water, differential scanning calorimetic (DSC) curves and Raman spectra of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) hydrogels were measured with heating from 130 to 310 K. Bound and intermediate water showed glassy initial states at 130 K, whereas free water became hexagonal ice (Ih) structure. Intermediate water in glassy state undergoes four phase transition steps: glass-to-liquid transition (at 160-190 K), crystallization from liquid state to cubic ice (Ic) (at 200-230 K), Ic-Ih transition (at 240-250 K), and melting (at 250-273 K). It is concluded that pre-melting of ice, which has been observed in various polymer hydrogels, results from the exothermic Ic-Ih transition of intermediate water.

  9. The Rutile (110)-Water Interface: A comment on "Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Water on Rutile TiO2(110)" by L.-M. Liu, C. Zhang, G. Thornton and A. Michaelides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Zhang, Zhan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Predota, M. [University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic; Kumar, Nitin [ORNL; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL; Machesky, Michael L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL; Fenter, Paul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Skelton, Adam [ORNL; Rosenqvist, Jorgen K [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The (110) surface of rutile ( -TiO2) in contact with water is one of the most technologically-important and scientifically-investigated interfaces that exists. Liu and coworkers1 (hereafter Liu1) expanded on an excellent review of water-titania interfaces2, by conducting extensive static density functional theory (DFT) and DFT molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) investigations of rutile (110) using a range of cell configurations and DFT functionals. We agree with their DFT calculations of the influence of crystal slab thickness on water sorption energies, but find some of their major conclusions unwarranted or overstated, namely a.) that there is no dissociation of first-layer sorbed water at ~300K; b.) that translational diffusion of water molecules in contact with the surface approaches that of bulk liquid water ; and c.) that second layer water structuring and hydrogen bonding to surface oxygens are weak. We present published evidence not cited by Liu1 that challenge these assertions.

  10. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality man-agement with stochastic dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Engelund Holm, Peter; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen concentrations. Inelastic water demands, fixed water allocation curtailment costs and fixed wastewater treatment costs (before and after use) are estimated for the water users (agriculture, industry and domestic). If the BOD concentration exceeds a given user pollution thresh-old, the user will need to pay for pre-treatment of the water before use. Similarly, treatment of the return flow can reduce the BOD load to the river. A traditional SDP approach is used to solve one-step-ahead sub-problems for all combinations of discrete reservoir storage, Markov Chain inflow clas-ses and monthly time steps. Pollution concentration nodes are introduced for each user group and untreated return flow from the users contribute to increased BOD concentrations in the river. The pollutant concentrations in each node depend on multiple decision variables (allocation and wastewater treatment) rendering the objective function non-linear. Therefore, the pollution concen-tration decisions are outsourced to a genetic algorithm, which calls a linear program to determine the remainder of the decision

  11. Molecular dynamics studies of pathways of water movement in cyanobacterial photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabdulkhakov, A. G., E-mail: azat@vega.protres.ru; Kljashtorny, V. G.; Dontsova, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Protein Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-induced generation of oxygen from water. The oxygen-evolving complex is buried deep in the protein on the lumenal side of PSII, and water molecules need to pass through protein subunits to reach the active site—the manganese cluster. Previous studies on the elucidation of water channels in PSII were based on an analysis of the cavities in the static PSII structure determined by X-ray diffraction. In the present study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of the water movement in the transport system of PSII.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of water on a hydrophilic silica surface at high air pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, H.A.; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    of air in water at different pressures. Using the calibrated force field, we conduct MD simulations to study the interface between a hydrophilic silica substrate and water surrounded by air at different pressures. We find that the static water contact angle is independent of the air pressure imposed......Wepresent a force field forMolecular Dynamics (MD) simulations ofwater and air in contactwith an amorphous silica surface. We calibrate the interactions of each species present in the systemusing dedicated criteria such as the contact angle of a water droplet on a silica surface, and the solubility...

  13. Water permeation dynamics of AqpZ: A tale of two states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Lin; Su, Haibin; Helix Nielsen, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of aquaporin Z homotetramer which is a membrane protein facilitating rapid water movement through the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli were performed. Initial configurations were taken from the open and closed states of crystal structures separately. The resulting...... water osmotic permeability (pf) and diffusive permeability (pd) displayed distinct features. Consistent with previous studies, the side chain conformation of arginine189 was found to mediate the water permeability. A potential of mean force (PMF) as a function of the distance between NH1 of R189...... disclosed a detailed mechanism of the gated water transport....

  14. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Ann

    Understanding the structure and functionality of biological systems on a nanometer-resolution and short temporal scales is important for solving complex biological problems, developing innovative treatment, and advancing the design of highly functionalized biomimetic materials. For example, adhesion of cells to an underlying substrate plays a crucial role in physiology and disease development, and has been investigated with great interest for several decades. In the talk, we would like to highlight recent advances in utilizing neutron scattering to study bio-related structures in dynamic conditions (e . g . under the shear flow) including in-situ investigations of the interfacial properties of living cells. The strength of neutron reflectometry is its non-pertubative nature, the ability to probe buried interfaces with nanometer resolution and its sensitivity to light elements like hydrogen and carbon. That allows us to study details of cell - substrate interfaces that are not accessible with any other standard techniques. We studied the adhesion of human brain tumor cells (U251) to quartz substrates and their responses to the external mechanical forces. Such cells are isolated within the central nervous system which makes them difficult to reach with conventional therapies and therefore making them highly invasive. Our results reveal changes in the thickness and composition of the adhesion layer (a layer between the cell lipid membrane and the quartz substrate), largely composed of hyaluronic acid and associated proteoglycans, when the cells were subjected to shear stress. Further studies will allow us to determine more conditions triggering changes in the composition of the bio-material in the adhesion layer. This, in turn, can help to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness, which can have significant medical impact for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.

  15. Stability and comparative analysis of AOT/water/isooctane reverse micelle system using dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, V R; Williams, B C; Graeve, O A

    2011-03-31

    We use molecular dynamics (MD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements to analyze the size of reverse micellar structures in the AOT-water-isooctane system at different water-to-surfactant ratios at ambient temperature and pressure. We find good qualitative agreement for the size and morphology behavior of the reverse micelle structures between molecular dynamics calculations and DLS measurements; however, the average values for the reverse micelle size distributions are systematically larger for the DLS measurements. The latter tends to capture the average hydrodynamic size of the structures based on self-diffusion rather than the average physical size as measured in MD simulations, explaining the systematic deviations observed. The combination of MD with DLS allows a better interpretation of the experimental results, in particular for conditions where the structures are nonspherical, commonly observed at lower water-to-surfactant ratios. We also present and analyze the effect of zirconyl chloride on the micellar size distributions in this system. These type of salts are common for reverse micellar synthesis processes. We find that zirconyl chloride affects significantly the size distributions.

  16. Role of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites in the dynamic crossover of the protein-hydration water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Mateus Henrique; Barbosa, Rafael C.; da Silva, Leandro B.; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the water structure and dynamics in the hydration shell of the globular TS-Kappa protein. The results show that for a wide range of temperatures the diffusion coefficient of water near the protein surface is lower than in bulk. A crossover in the diffusion behavior of hydration water is observed at different temperatures for hydrophilic and hydrophobic vicinities. We have found a correlation between the crossover in the hydrophilic case and the protein dynamical transition. An explanation in terms of the competition between water-water water-protein H-bond formation is provided based on H-bond network analysis.

  17. Semiquantal molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water using multi-dimensional Gaussian wave packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Junichi; Ando, Koji

    2012-11-01

    A semiquantal (SQ) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation has been developed using multi-dimensional thawed gaussian wave packets (WPs), and applied to an analysis of hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics in liquid water. A set of Hamilton's equations of motion in an extended phase space, which includes variance-covariance matrix elements as auxiliary coordinates representing anisotropic delocalization of the WPs, is derived from the time-dependent variational principle. The present theory allows us to perform real-time and real-space SQMD simulations and analyze nuclear quantum effects on dynamics in large molecular systems in terms of anisotropic fluctuations of the WPs. Introducing the Liouville operator formalism in the extended phase space, we have also developed an explicit symplectic algorithm for the numerical integration, which can provide greater stability in the long-time SQMD simulations. The application of the present theory to H-bond dynamics in liquid water is carried out under a single-particle approximation in which the variance-covariance matrix and the corresponding canonically conjugate matrix are reduced to block-diagonal structures by neglecting the interparticle correlations. As a result, it is found that the anisotropy of the WPs is indispensable for reproducing the disordered H-bond network compared to the classical counterpart with the use of the potential model providing competing quantum effects between intra- and intermolecular zero-point fluctuations. In addition, the significant WP delocalization along the out-of-plane direction of the jumping hydrogen atom associated with the concerted breaking and forming of H-bonds has been detected in the H-bond exchange mechanism. The relevance of the dynamical WP broadening to the relaxation of H-bond number fluctuations has also been discussed. The present SQ method provides the novel framework for investigating nuclear quantum dynamics in the many

  18. Planning for Water Resources of South Florida: A system dynamics modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2006-12-01

    With enormous growth in population, changes in land use, substantial agriculture activity, and need to protect vital environmental resources such as Everglades, south Florida presents a very challenging case for water resources planning. Working with stakeholders to meet challenges of water resources planning in south Florida, we are exploring important questions: (a) What are some major changes in terms of population growth, land use, water demand, and water availability that can be expected in south Florida in the short and long term?; (b) What would be the major hydrologic effects of climate variability and change on south Florida's water system?; (c) How could Florida's water system adapt to anticipated population growth, urban sprawl, and climate change?; and (d) What are the most promising (cost effective) policies for south Florida's water management in response to growth and climate change? We are developing a decision support (DS) framework, using system dynamics modeling approach, to evaluate and compare different short and long term water management policies. Besides climate information, the integrated DS framework considers other major factors that influence water demand and availability including: demographic changes, land use changes, economy, and environment. We analyze how increased or better use of climate information can lead to better, more cost-effective decisions for sustainable management of water resources. Using games/scenarios involving decision makers, we evaluate cost-effectiveness of different policy choices for short and long term water management in the region. We evaluate policies based on both demand side management through efficiency and conservation (low flow appliances, xeriscaping, pricing) and supply side management (desalination, water reuse). The outcome is a framework for exploring cost-effectiveness of alternative water management policies. The research advances work on water resources planning considering the impacts of

  19. Dynamic regulation of Schwann cell enhancers after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Holly A; Sun, Guannan; Keles, Sunduz; Svaren, John

    2015-03-13

    Myelination of the peripheral nervous system is required for axonal function and long term stability. After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells transition from axon myelination to a demyelinated state that supports neuronal survival and ultimately remyelination of axons. Reprogramming of gene expression patterns during development and injury responses is shaped by the actions of distal regulatory elements that integrate the actions of multiple transcription factors. We used ChIP-seq to measure changes in histone H3K27 acetylation, a mark of active enhancers, to identify enhancers in myelinating rat peripheral nerve and their dynamics after demyelinating nerve injury. Analysis of injury-induced enhancers identified enriched motifs for c-Jun, a transcription factor required for Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. We identify a c-Jun-bound enhancer in the gene for Runx2, a transcription factor induced after nerve injury, and we show that Runx2 is required for activation of other induced genes. In contrast, enhancers that lose H3K27ac after nerve injury are enriched for binding sites of the Sox10 and early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factors, which are critical determinants of Schwann cell differentiation. Egr2 expression is lost after nerve injury, and many Egr2-binding sites lose H3K27ac after nerve injury. However, the majority of Egr2-bound enhancers retain H3K27ac, indicating that other transcription factors maintain active enhancer status after nerve injury. The global epigenomic changes in H3K27ac deposition pinpoint dynamic changes in enhancers that mediate the effects of transcription factors that control Schwann cell myelination and peripheral nervous system responses to nerve injury.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Structure and Functions of Water-Membrane Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A large number of essential cellular processes occur at the interfaces between water and membranes. The selectivity and dynamics of these processes are largely determined by the structural and electrical properties of the water-membrane interface. We investigate these properties by the molecular dynamics method. Over the time scales of the simulations, the membrane undergoes fluctuations described by the capillary wave model. These fluctuations produce occasional thinning defects in the membrane which provide effective pathways for passive transport of ions and small molecules across the membrane. Ions moving through the membrane markedly disrupt its structure and allow for significant water penetration into the membrane interior. Selectivity of transport, with respect to ionic charge, is determined by the interfacial electrostatic potential. Many small molecules. of potential significance in catalysis, bioenergetics and pharmacology, are shown to bind to the interface. The energetics and dynamics of this process will be discussed.

  1. Analysis of Water Management in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state, isothermal water-management model for a complete proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was developed. The model includes the transport in the diffusion layer and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) with a pseudo-homogeneous model for the cathode catalyst layer. The predicted fuel cell performance with variable cathode porosities compares well with experimental results. The model is then used to investigate the effects of some structural parameters, such as the rib size, the interdigitated flow field, and various operating conditions including the gas flow rate, the cell temperature and pressure, humidification, and the relative humidity at the inlet. Water management is best achieved by tuning the anode operating conditions.

  2. Characterizing dynamic hysteresis and fractal statistics of chaotic two-phase flow and application to fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Michael B.; Litster, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we analyze the stability of two-phase flow regimes and their transitions using chaotic and fractal statistics, and we report new measurements of dynamic two-phase pressure drop hysteresis that is related to flow regime stability and channel water content. Two-phase flow dynamics are relevant to a variety of real-world systems, and quantifying transient two-phase flow phenomena is important for efficient design. We recorded two-phase (air and water) pressure drops and flow images in a microchannel under both steady and transient conditions. Using Lyapunov exponents and Hurst exponents to characterize the steady-state pressure fluctuations, we develop a new, measurable regime identification criteria based on the dynamic stability of the two-phase pressure signal. We also applied a new experimental technique by continuously cycling the air flow rate to study dynamic hysteresis in two-phase pressure drops, which is separate from steady-state hysteresis and can be used to understand two-phase flow development time scales. Using recorded images of the two-phase flow, we show that the capacitive dynamic hysteresis is related to channel water content and flow regime stability. The mixed-wettability microchannel and in-channel water introduction used in this study simulate a polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathode air flow channel.

  3. Salt-Water Transport in Unsaturated Soils Under Crop Planting: Dynamics and Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-Gang; YANG Jing-Song; ZHANG Qi; LIU Guang-Ming

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory salt-water dynamics experiment using unsaturated soils in packed silt loam and clay soil columns with different soil texture profiles and groundwater levels under crops were conducted to study the changes of salt-water dynamics induced by water uptake of crops and to propose the theoretical basis for the regulation and control of saltwater dynamics as well as to predict salinity levels. The HYDRUS 1D model was applied to simulate the one-dimensional movement of water and salt transport in the soil columns. The results showed that the salts mainly accumulated in the plow layer in the soil columns under crops. Soil water and salt both moved towards the plow layer due to soil water absorption by the crop root system. The salt contents in the column with lower groundwater were mostly greater than those with high groundwater. The water contents in the soil columns increased from top to the bottom due to plant root water uptake. The changes in groundwater level had little influence on water content of the root zone in the soil columns with crop planting. Comparison between the simulated and the determined values showed that model simulation results were ideal, so it is practicable to do numerical simulation of soil salt and water transport by the HYDRUS 1D model.Furthermore, if the actual movement of salt and water in fields is to be described in detail, much work needs to be done.The most important thing is to refine the parameters and select precise boundary conditions.

  4. Dynamic Assessment of Water Quality Based on a Variable Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiguo Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment is an important foundation of water resource protection and is affected by many indicators. The dynamic and fuzzy changes of water quality lead to problems for proper assessment. This paper explores a method which is in accordance with the water quality changes. The proposed method is based on the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR model and combines the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model with the entropy weight (EW method. The proposed method was applied to dynamically assess the water quality of Biliuhe Reservoir (Dailan, China. The results show that the water quality level is between levels 2 and 3 and worse in August or September, caused by the increasing water temperature and rainfall. Weights and methods are compared and random errors of the values of indicators are analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed method has advantages of dynamism, fuzzification and stability by considering the interval influence of multiple indicators and using the average level characteristic values of four models as results.

  5. Quantitative single cell analysis of cell population dynamics during submandibular salivary gland development and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell types to balance progenitor cell retention and expansion with cell differentiation for evolution of tissue architecture. Underlying submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the regulated proliferation and differentiation of perhaps several progenitor cell populations, which have not been characterized throughout development, and yet are critical for understanding organ development, regeneration, and disease. Here we applied a serial multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry technology to map the progressive refinement of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations throughout development from embryonic day 14 through postnatal day 20. Using computational single cell analysis methods, we simultaneously mapped the evolving temporal and spatial location of epithelial cells expressing subsets of differentiation and progenitor markers throughout salivary gland development. We mapped epithelial cell differentiation markers, including aquaporin 5, PSP, SABPA, and mucin 10 (acinar cells; cytokeratin 7 (ductal cells; and smooth muscle α-actin (myoepithelial cells and epithelial progenitor cell markers, cytokeratin 5 and c-kit. We used pairwise correlation and visual mapping of the cells in multiplexed images to quantify the number of single- and double-positive cells expressing these differentiation and progenitor markers at each developmental stage. We identified smooth muscle α-actin as a putative early myoepithelial progenitor marker that is expressed in cytokeratin 5-negative cells. Additionally, our results reveal dynamic expansion and redistributions of c-kit- and K5-positive progenitor cell populations throughout development and in postnatal glands. The data suggest that there are temporally and spatially discreet progenitor populations that contribute to salivary gland development and homeostasis.

  6. A DYNAMIC APPROACH TO CALCULATE SHADOW PRICES OF WATER RESOURCES FOR NINE MAJOR RIVERS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing HE; Xikang CHEN; Yong SHI

    2006-01-01

    China is experiencing from serious water issues. There are many differences among the Nine Major Rivers basins of China in the construction of dikes, reservoirs, floodgates, flood discharge projects, flood diversion projects, water ecological construction, water conservancy management, etc.The shadow prices of water resources for Nine Major Rivers can provide suggestions to the Chinese government. This article develops a dynamic shadow prices approach based on a multiperiod input-output optimizing model. Unlike previous approaches, the new model is based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model to solve the problem of marginal long-term prices of water resources.First, definitions and algorithms of DCGE are elaborated. Second, the results of shadow prices of water resources for Nine Major Rivers in 1949-2050 in China using the National Water Conservancy input-holding-output table for Nine Major Rivers in 1999 are listed. A conclusion of this article is that the shadow prices of water resources for Nine Major Rivers are largely based on the extent of scarcity.Selling prices of water resources should be revised via the usage of parameters representing shadow prices.

  7. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanosized water droplet spreading in an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, F H; Li, B Q; Liu, C

    2013-04-02

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for the spreading of a nanosized water droplet on a solid substrate subject to a parallel electric field. A combined electrostatic and Lennard-Jones potential is employed to represent the intermolecular interactions. Results show that in response to the applied field, polar water molecules realign themselves and this microscopic reorientation of molecular dipoles combines with the intermolecular forces to produce a macroscopic deformation of a free spherical water droplet into an ellipsoid. The applied field has a strong effect on the spreading of the water droplet on a solid substrate. For a weaker parallel field, the droplet spreading is asymmetric with the leading contact angle being greater than the trailing contact angle. With an increase in field strength, this asymmetry continues to increase, culminates, and then decreases until it disappears. The symmetric spreading remains with a further increase in the field strength until the saturation point is reached. This transition from the asymmetric to symmetric spreading is a manifestation of the interaction of the electric field with polar water molecules and the intermolecular forces within the droplet and between the water and solid; the interaction also leads to a change in hydrogen bonds along the droplet surface. The dynamics of the droplet spreading is entailed by the electrically induced motion of molecules along the liquid surface toward the solid substrate and is controlled by a competing mechanism among the electric, water-water, and water-solid intermolecular forces.

  9. Dynamic modeling of a photovoltaic hydrogen fuel cell hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.J.; Lai, L.K. [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Wu, W. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640 (China); Chang, W.R. [Department of Landscape Architecture, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this paper is to mathematically model a stand-alone renewable power system, referred to as ''Photovoltaic-Fuel Cell (PVFC) hybrid system'', which maximizes the use of a renewable energy source. It comprises a photovoltaic generator (PV), a water electrolyzer, a hydrogen tank, and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell generator. A multi-domain simulation platform Simplorer is employed to model the PVFC hybrid systems. Electrical power from the PV generator meets the user loads when there is sufficient solar radiation. The excess power from the PV generator is then used for water electrolysis to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell generator works as a backup generator to supplement the load demands when the PV energy is deficient during a period of low solar radiation, which keeps the system's reliability at the same level as for the conventional system. Case studies using the present model have shown that the present hybrid system has successfully tracked the daily power consumption in a typical family. It also verifies the effectiveness of the proposed management approach for operation of a stand-alone hybrid system, which is essential for determining a control strategy to ensure efficient and reliable operation of each part of the hybrid system. The present model scheme can be helpful in the design and performance analysis of a complex hybrid-power system prior to practical realization. (author)

  10. Lipid signalling dynamics at the β-cell plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic β-cells are clustered in islets of Langerhans and secrete insulin in response to increased concentrations of circulating glucose. Insulin in turn acts on liver, muscle and fat tissue to store energy and normalize the blood glucose level. Inappropriate insulin release may lead to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. In addition to glucose, other nutrients, neural stimuli and hormonal stimuli control insulin secretion. Many of these signals are perceived at the plasma membrane, which is also the site where insulin granules undergo exocytosis. Therefore, it is not surprising that membrane lipids play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion. β-cells release insulin in a pulsatile fashion. Signalling lipids integrate the nutrient and neurohormonal inputs to fine-tune, shape and co-ordinate the pulsatility. An important group of signalling lipids are phosphoinositides and their downstream messengers. This MiniReview will discuss new insights into lipid signalling dynamics in β-cells obtained from live-cell imaging experiments with fluorescent translocation biosensors. The plasma membrane concentration of several phosphoinositides and of their downstream messengers changes rapidly upon nutrient or neurohormonal stimulation. Glucose induces the most complex spatio-temporal patterns, typically involving oscillations of messenger concentrations, which sometimes are locally restricted. The tightly controlled levels of lipid messengers can mediate specific binding of downstream effectors to the plasma membrane, contributing to the appropriate regulation of insulin secretion.

  11. The Cell Probe Complexity of Dynamic Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new technique for proving lower bounds on the update time and query time of dynamic data structures in the cell probe model. With this technique, we prove the highest lower bound to date for any explicit problem, namely a lower bound of tq = ((lg n/ lg(wtu))2). Here n...... is the number of update operations, w the cell size, tq the query time and tu the update time. In the most natural setting of cell size w = (lg n), this gives a lower bound of tq = ((lg n/ lg lg n)2) for any polylogarithmic update time. This bound is almost a quadratic improvement over the highest previous...... is specified by a point q = (x, y), and the goal is to report the sum of the weights assigned to the points dominated by q, where a point (x0, y0) is dominated by q if x0 x and y0 y. In addition to being the highest cell probe lower bound to date, our lower bound is also tight for data struc- tures with update...

  12. Dynamics of Red Cells in Spleen: How Does Vesiculation Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Salehyar, Sara; Cabrales, Pedro; Asaro, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Vesiculation of red blood cells as a result of local separation between lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton is known to happen in vivo, most likely inside spleen where they sustain large mechanical loads during the passage through venus slits. There is, however, little knowledge about the detailed scenario and condition. We address this question via a fluid-cell interaction model by coupling a multiscale model of the cell membrane (including molecular details) with a fluid dynamics model based on boundary-integral equations. A numerical flow channel is created where the cell is driven through a narrow slit by pressure (imitating the transit through venus slits in spleen). The concentration is the occurrence of large dissociation (negative) pressure between the skeleton/membrane connection that promotes separation, a precursor of vesicle formation. Critical levels for the negative pressure are estimated using published data. By following the maximum range of pressure, we conclude that for vesiculation to happen there must be biochemical influences (e.g. binding of degraded haemoglobin) that significantly reduce effective attachment density. This is consistent with reported trends in vesiculation that are believed to occur in cases of various hereditary anemias and during blood storage. Our findings also suggest the criticality of understanding the biochemical phenomena involved with cytoskeleton/membrane attachment.

  13. Water self-diffusivity confined in graphene nanogap using molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulod, M.; Hwang, G.

    2016-11-01

    Fundamental understanding of water confined in graphene is crucial to optimally design and operate sustainable energy, water desalination, and bio-medical systems. However, the current understanding predominantly remains in the static properties near the graphene surfaces. In this paper, a key water transport property, i.e., self-diffusivity, is examined under confinement by various graphene nanogap sizes (Lz = 0.7-4.17 nm), using molecular dynamics simulations with various graphene-water interatomic potentials (Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) and TIP3P water models). It is found that the water self-diffusivity nearly linearly decreases as the graphene-water interatomic potential energy increases at a given nanogap size. It also decreases as the graphene nanogap size decreases down to Lz = 1.34 nm; however, it shows the peak water self-diffusivity at Lz = 0.8 nm and then continues to decrease. The peak water self-diffusivity is related to the significant change of the overlapping surface force, and associated, nonlinear local water density distribution. The in-plane water self-diffusivity is higher up to nearly an order of magnitude than that of the out-of-plane due to the geometrical confinement effect by the graphene nanogap. The obtained results provide a roadmap to fundamentally understand the water transport properties in the graphene geometries and surface interactions.

  14. Exploring water cycle dynamics by sampling multiple stable water isotope pools in a developed landscape in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Natalie; Kraft, Philipp; Pferdmenges, Jakob; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    A dual stable water isotope (δ2H and δ18O) study was conducted in the developed (managed) landscape of the Schwingbach catchment (Germany). The 2-year weekly to biweekly measurements of precipitation, stream, and groundwater isotopes revealed that surface and groundwater are isotopically disconnected from the annual precipitation cycle but showed bidirectional interactions between each other. Apparently, snowmelt played a fundamental role for groundwater recharge explaining the observed differences to precipitation δ values. A spatially distributed snapshot sampling of soil water isotopes at two soil depths at 52 sampling points across different land uses (arable land, forest, and grassland) revealed that topsoil isotopic signatures were similar to the precipitation input signal. Preferential water flow paths occurred under forested soils, explaining the isotopic similarities between top- and subsoil isotopic signatures. Due to human-impacted agricultural land use (tilling and compression) of arable and grassland soils, water delivery to the deeper soil layers was reduced, resulting in significant different isotopic signatures. However, the land use influence became less pronounced with depth and soil water approached groundwater δ values. Seasonally tracing stable water isotopes through soil profiles showed that the influence of new percolating soil water decreased with depth as no remarkable seasonality in soil isotopic signatures was obvious at depths > 0.9 m and constant values were observed through space and time. Since classic isotope evaluation methods such as transfer-function-based mean transit time calculations did not provide a good fit between the observed and calculated data, we established a hydrological model to estimate spatially distributed groundwater ages and flow directions within the Vollnkirchener Bach subcatchment. Our model revealed that complex age dynamics exist within the subcatchment and that much of the runoff must has been stored

  15. Dynamics of lipid transfer by phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadan, Sadaf; Holic, Roman; Carvou, Nicolas; Ee, Patrick; Li, Michelle; Murray-Rust, Judith; Cockcroft, Shamshad

    2008-09-01

    Of many lipid transfer proteins identified, all have been implicated in essential cellular processes, but the activity of none has been demonstrated in intact cells. Among these, phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITP) are of particular interest as they can bind to and transfer phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)--the precursor of important signalling molecules, phosphoinositides--and because they have essential functions in neuronal development (PITPalpha) and cytokinesis (PITPbeta). Structural analysis indicates that, in the cytosol, PITPs are in a 'closed' conformation completely shielding the lipid within them. But during lipid exchange at the membrane, they must transiently 'open'. To study PITP dynamics in intact cells, we chemically targeted their C95 residue that, although non-essential for lipid transfer, is buried within the phospholipid-binding cavity, and so, its chemical modification prevents PtdIns binding because of steric hindrance. This treatment resulted in entrapment of open conformation PITPs at the membrane and inactivation of the cytosolic pool of PITPs within few minutes. PITP isoforms were differentially inactivated with the dynamics of PITPbeta faster than PITPalpha. We identify two tryptophan residues essential for membrane docking of PITPs.

  16. A new method for water desalination using microbial desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoxin; Huang, Xia; Liang, Peng; Xiao, Kang; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shown here that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Omega to 970 Omega at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria.

  17. A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Xiaoxin

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shownhere that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Ω to 970 Ω at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Dynamic Effects in Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Tseng, Yen-Huiang; Ye, Jiun-Yan

    2015-04-01

    The unsaturated soil is a multi-phase system and the embedded physical mechanisms and chemical reactions are very complicated. The characteristics of groundwater flow and mechanisms of mass transport are still ambiguous so far. In order to fully understand the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone, the soil water retention curve plays an important role in description of water flow. However, the measurements and calculations of soil water retention curve are usually obtained under the static condition or steady state (equilibrium), in which the dynamic effects (non-equilibrium) are not considered, and the obtained relationship between capillary pressure and saturation is skeptical. Therefore, the sandbox experiments and field tests will be conducted to discuss the dynamic effects in the soil water retention curve and hysteresis effect in this study. In the laboratory, the relations between capillary pressure, saturation, the rate of change of water content, and dynamic constant are evaluated through different setting of boundary conditions and different sizes of particles. In the field, the tests are conducted to describe the soil water retention curve through the rain simulator and artificial evaporation. Besides, the dynamic dewpoint potentiameter is used to analyze the hysteresis effect of soil samples, and its results are compared with the results obtained from sandbox and field experiments. Finally, through a series of experiments, the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation under the dynamic effects is established, and the associated theories and mechanisms are discussed. The works developed in this study can provide as reference tools for the hydrogeological investigation and contaminated site remediation in the future. Keywords: capillary pressure, saturation, soil water retention curve, hysteresis, sandbox experiment, field test

  19. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota

    2009-09-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  20. Pore-Network Modeling of Water and Vapor Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), a micro porous layer (MPL) added between the catalyst layer (CL) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays an important role in water management. In this work, by using both quasi-static and dynamic pore-network models, water and vapor tra

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of single-walled silicon carbide nanotubes immersed in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Fariba; Javadian, Soheila; Hashemianzadeh, Seyed Majid

    2013-07-01

    The structure and dynamics of water confined in single-walled silicon carbon nanotubes (SWSiCNTs) are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The density of water inside SWSiCNTs is reported, and an equation is suggested to predict the density of water inside SWSiCNTs. Interestingly, the water diffusion coefficients (D) here are larger compared with those in SWCNTs and single-walled boron-nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs). Furthermore, water inside zigzag SWCNTs has a lower diffusion coefficient than water inside armchair SWCNTs. A thorough analysis of the density profiles, hydrogen bonding, and water molecule orientation inside SWSiCNTs is presented to explore the mechanism behind the diffusive behavior of water observed here. It is shown here, by mean square displacement (MSD) analysis, that water molecules inside SWSiCNTs diffuse with a ballistic motion mechanism for up to 500ps. Additionally it is confirmed here for the first time that water molecules confined in the SWSiCNTs with diameters of less than 10Å obey the single-file diffusion mechanism at time scales in excess of 500ps. The orientation of water molecules inside SWSiCNTs could be a good explanation for the difference between the diffusion coefficient in (6,6) and (10,0) SWSiCNTs. Finally, a PMF analysis explains the difficulty of water entrance into SWSiCNTs and also the different water self-diffusion inside armchair and zigzag SWSiCNTs. These results are motivating reasons to use SWSiCNTs in nanoscale biochannels, for instance, in drug-delivery applications.

  2. Hoxb1b controls oriented cell division, cell shape and microtubule dynamics in neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, Mihaela; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Titus, Tom; Postlethwait, John; Moens, Cecilia B

    2014-02-01

    Hox genes are classically ascribed to function in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals; however, their role in directing molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenesis at the cellular level remains largely unstudied. We unveil a non-classical role for the zebrafish hoxb1b gene, which shares ancestral functions with mammalian Hoxa1, in controlling progenitor cell shape and oriented cell division during zebrafish anterior hindbrain neural tube morphogenesis. This is likely distinct from its role in cell fate acquisition and segment boundary formation. We show that, without affecting major components of apico-basal or planar cell polarity, Hoxb1b regulates mitotic spindle rotation during the oriented neural keel symmetric mitoses that are required for normal neural tube lumen formation in the zebrafish. This function correlates with a non-cell-autonomous requirement for Hoxb1b in regulating microtubule plus-end dynamics in progenitor cells in interphase. We propose that Hox genes can influence global tissue morphogenesis by control of microtubule dynamics in individual cells in vivo.

  3. Cell receptor and surface ligand density effects on dynamic states of adhering circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangjun; Cheung, Luthur Siu-Lun; Schroeder, Joyce A; Jiang, Linan; Zohar, Yitshak

    2011-10-21

    Dynamic states of cancer cells moving under shear flow in an antibody-functionalized microchannel are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The cell motion is analyzed with the aid of a simplified physical model featuring a receptor-coated rigid sphere moving above a solid surface with immobilized ligands. The motion of the sphere is described by the Langevin equation accounting for the hydrodynamic loadings, gravitational force, receptor-ligand bindings, and thermal fluctuations; the receptor-ligand bonds are modeled as linear springs. Depending on the applied shear flow rate, three dynamic states of cell motion have been identified: (i) free motion, (ii) rolling adhesion, and (iii) firm adhesion. Of particular interest is the fraction of captured circulating tumor cells, defined as the capture ratio, via specific receptor-ligand bonds. The cell capture ratio decreases with increasing shear flow rate with a characteristic rate. Based on both experimental and theoretical results, the characteristic flow rate increases monotonically with increasing either cell-receptor or surface-ligand density within certain ranges. Utilizing it as a scaling parameter, flow-rate dependent capture ratios for various cell-surface combinations collapse onto a single curve described by an exponential formula.

  4. Water age and stream solute dynamics at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; McGuire, Kevin; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The contribution discusses experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is used to model both conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to estimate the relevant hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). Within this framework, dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow were simulated by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation at Hubbard Brook. The analysis of the results provided by the calibrated model allowed a robust estimate of the emerging concentration-discharge relationship, streamflow age distributions (including the fraction of event water) and storage size, and their evolution in time due to hydrologic variability.

  5. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: A general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or

  6. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm−3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m−1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation

  7. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xinguo

    2014-01-01

    . A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocations and water curtailments. Dynamic allocation problems with inclusion of groundwater resources proved to be more complex to solve with SDP than pure surface water allocation problems due...... costs. As in traditional SDP approaches, one step-ahead sub-problems are solved to find the optimal management at any time knowing the inflow scenario and reservoir/aquifer storage levels. These non-linear sub-problems are solved using a genetic algorithm (GA) that minimizes the sum of the immediate...... and future costs for given surface water reservoir and groundwater aquifer end storages. The immediate cost is found by solving a simple linear allocation sub-problem, and the future costs are assessed by interpolation in the total cost matrix from the following time step. Total costs for all stages...

  8. Dynamics of water molecules in the active-site cavity of human cytochromes P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Rod, Thomas Holm; Olsen, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    have quite big cavities, with 41 water molecules on average in 2C8 and 54-58 in 2C9 and 3A4, giving a water volume of 1500-2100 A3. The two crystal structures of 2C9 differ quite appreciably, whereas those of 3A4 are quite similar. The active-site cavity is connected to the surroundings by three to six......We have studied the dynamics of water molecules in six crystal structures of four human cytochromes P450, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4, with molecular dynamics simulations. In the crystal structures, only a few water molecules are seen and the reported sizes of the active-site cavity vary a lot...

  9. Isobaric first-principles molecular dynamics of liquid water with nonlocal van der Waals interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the structural properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations based on a semilocal density functional augmented with nonlocal van der Waals interactions. The adopted scheme offers the advantage of simulating liquid water at essentially the same computational cost of standard semilocal functionals. Applied to the water dimer and to ice Ih, we find that the hydrogen-bond energy is only slightly enhanced compared to a standard semilocal functional. We simulate liquid water through molecular dynamics in the NpH statistical ensemble allowing for fluctuations of the system density. The structure of the liquid departs from that found with a semilocal functional leading to more compact structural arrangements. This indicates that the directionality of the hydrogen-bond interaction has a diminished role as compared to the overall attractions, as expected when dispersion interactions are accounted for. This is substantiated through a detailed a...

  10. Root responses to soil physical conditions; growth dynamics from field to cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, A Glyn; Bransby, M Fraser; Hans, Joachim; McKenna, Stephen J; Roberts, Tim J; Valentine, Tracy A

    2006-01-01

    Root growth in the field is often slowed by a combination of soil physical stresses, including mechanical impedance, water stress, and oxygen deficiency. The stresses operating may vary continually, depending on the location of the root in the soil profile, the prevailing soil water conditions, and the degree to which the soil has been compacted. The dynamics of root growth responses are considered in this paper, together with the cellular responses that underlie them. Certain root responses facilitate elongation in hard soil, for example, increased sloughing of border cells and exudation from the root cap decreases friction; and thickening of the root relieves stress in front of the root apex and decreases buckling. Whole root systems may also grow preferentially in loose versus dense soil, but this response depends on genotype and the spatial arrangement of loose and compact soil with respect to the main root axes. Decreased root elongation is often accompanied by a decrease in both cell flux and axial cell extension, and recent computer-based models are increasing our understanding of these processes. In the case of mechanical impedance, large changes in cell shape occur, giving rise to shorter fatter cells. There is still uncertainty about many aspects of this response, including the changes in cell walls that control axial versus radial extension, and the degree to which the epidermis, cortex, and stele control root elongation. Optical flow techniques enable tracking of root surfaces with time to yield estimates of two-dimensional velocity fields. It is demonstrated that these techniques can be applied successfully to time-lapse sequences of confocal microscope images of living roots, in order to determine velocity fields and strain rates of groups of cells. In combination with new molecular approaches this provides a promising way of investigating and modelling the mechanisms controlling growth perturbations in response to environmental stresses.

  11. Dynamic Thermal Model And Control Of A Pem Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2013-01-01

    A lumped parameter dynamic model is developed for predicting the stack performance, temperatures of the exit reactant gases and coolant liquid outlet in a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system. The air compressor, humidifier and cooling heat exchanger models are integrated to study...... the fuel cell system. A PID temperature control is implemented to study the effect of stack temperature on settling times of other variables such as stack voltage, air flow rate, oxygen excess ratio and net power of the stack. The model allows an assessment of the effect of operating parameters (stack...... power output, cooling water flow rate, air flow rate, and environmental temperature) and parameter interactions on the system thermal performance. The model represents a useful tool to determine the operating temperatures of the various components of the thermal system, and thus to fully assess...

  12. Dynamical properties of liquid water from ab initio molecular dynamics performed in the complete basis set limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Seung; Tuckerman, Mark E.

    2007-04-01

    Dynamical properties of liquid water were studied using Car-Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)] ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations within the Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory employing the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional for the electronic structure. The KS orbitals were expanded in a discrete variable representation basis set, wherein the complete basis set limit can be easily reached and which, therefore, provides complete convergence of ionic forces. In order to minimize possible nonergodic behavior of the simulated water system in a constant energy (NVE) ensemble, a long equilibration run (30ps) preceded a 60ps long production run. The temperature drift during the entire 60ps trajectory was found to be minimal. The diffusion coefficient [0.055Å2/ps] obtained from the present work for 32 D2O molecules is a factor of 4 smaller than the most up to date experimental value, but significantly larger than those of other recent AIMD studies. Adjusting the experimental result so as to match the finite-sized system used in the present study brings the comparison between theory and experiment to within a factor of 3. More importantly, the system is not observed to become "glassy" as has been reported in previous AIMD studies. The computed infrared spectrum is in good agreement with experimental data, especially in the low frequency regime where the translational and librational motions of water are manifested. The long simulation length also made it possible to perform detailed studies of hydrogen bond dynamics. The relaxation dynamics of hydrogen bonds observed in the present AIMD simulation is slower than those of popular force fields, such as the TIP4P potential, but comparable to that of the TIP5P potential.

  13. Path integral Liouville dynamics: Applications to infrared spectra of OH, water, ammonia, and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian, E-mail: jianliupku@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Zhijun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-01-21

    Path integral Liouville dynamics (PILD) is applied to vibrational dynamics of several simple but representative realistic molecular systems (OH, water, ammonia, and methane). The dipole-derivative autocorrelation function is employed to obtain the infrared spectrum as a function of temperature and isotopic substitution. Comparison to the exact vibrational frequency shows that PILD produces a reasonably accurate peak position with a relatively small full width at half maximum. PILD offers a potentially useful trajectory-based quantum dynamics approach to compute vibrational spectra of molecular systems.

  14. Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.

  15. Development and experimental validation of a PEM fuel cell dynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2007-11-08

    A dynamic model of a 1.2 kW polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) is developed and validated through a series of experiments. This dynamic model is mostly oriented towards control and operation optimization and can be a useful tool for the design of FC-based systems. In the methodology proposed, theoretical equations are combined with experimental relations, resulting in a semi-empirical formulation. The model assumptions are discussed extensively as the equations are presented. This model contributes to the description of the following areas: fluid dynamics in the gas flow fields and gas diffusion layers (oxygen, hydrogen, liquid water and vapor); thermal dynamics and temperature effects; a novel algorithm to calculate an empirical polarization curve. As a result, this model can predict both steady and transient states (such as flooding and anode purges) due to variable loads, as well as the system start-up. Based on this model, a simulator software package has been developed, which is available upon request. The model parameters have been adjusted specifically for a 1.2 kW Ballard stack, which can be considered a benchmark as it is widely used by research groups worldwide. Finally, the simulated results are compared to experimental data from the Ballard stack, demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed model methodology. (author)

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Solubility of H2S and CO2 in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto López Rendón; José Alejandre

    2008-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations at constant temperature and pressure to calculate the solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in water. The solubility of gases in water is important in several technological problems, in particular in the petroleum industry. The calculated liquid densities as function of temperature are in good agreement with experimental data. The results at the liquid-vapor equilibrium show that at low temperatures there is an important...

  17. Molecular dynamics study of the Cu-water interface in the presence of chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Mazzolo, A.; Halley, J.W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy; Price, D.L. [Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1998-05-01

    As part of a program to model and explain the sensitivity of electron transfer reactions at metal interfaces to trace amounts of chloride in aqueous solutions, preliminary results on a direct dynamics model for the adsorption of chloride ion on a copper 100 surface in water are reported. The model predicts the charge state of the chlorine in water and vacuum correctly, but gives a solvation energy which is too large. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  18. Molecular Dynamical Simulation of Water/Ice Phase Transitions within Carbon Nanotubes under Various Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Bing; DONG Shun-Le

    2009-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation is performed for water confined within carbon nanotubes with diameters 11.00 (A) and 12.38 (A).Under pressures from 0.1 MPa to 500MPa the simulations are carried out by cooling from 300K to 240 K.Water molecules tend to transform from disordered to ordered with different configurations (square,pentagonal,hexagonal and hexagonal plus a chain).It is concluded that denser structures may appear under high pressures.

  19. Remarks on stability of the rotating shallow-water vortices in the frontal dynamics regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelloul, M.B.; Zeitlin, V. [P. et M. Curie Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1999-12-01

    Stability properties of large-scale strongly nonlinear isolated vortices in the rotating shallow water on the f-plane are analysed. Working first in the framework of the balanced frontal dynamics equations, the authors demonstrate that vortices of arbitrary sign with monotonous profiles of the free-surface elevation are formally stable and establish criteria for nonlinear stability. Stability in the framework of the full rotating shallow-water equations is also discussed and a conditional stability criterion is obtained.

  20. Water-mediated conformational transitions in nicotinic receptor M2 helix bundles: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S

    1995-12-27

    The ion channel of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a water-filled pore formed by five M2 helix segments, one from each subunit. Molecular dynamics simulations on bundles of five M2 alpha 7 helices surrounding a central column of water and with caps of water molecules at either end of the pore have been used to explore the effects of intrapore water on helix packing. Interactions of water molecules with the N-terminal polar sidechains lead to a conformational transition from right- to left-handed supercoils during these stimulations. These studies reveal that the pore formed by the bundle of M2 helices is flexible. A structural role is proposed for water molecules in determining the geometry of bundles of isolated pore-forming helices.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aqueous and Confined Systems Relevant to the Supercritical Water Cooled Nuclear Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallikragas, Dimitrios Theofanis

    Supercritical water (SCW) is the intended heat transfer fluid and potential neutron moderator in the proposed GEN-IV Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR). The oxidative environment poses challenges in choosing appropriate design materials, and the behaviour of SCW within crevices of the passivation layer is needed for developing a corrosion control strategy to minimize corrosion. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been employed to obtain diffusion coefficients, coordination number and surface density characteristics, of water and chloride in nanometer-spaced iron hydroxide surfaces. Diffusion models for hydrazine are evaluated along with hydration data. Results demonstrate that water is more likely to accumulate on the surface at low density conditions. The effect of confinement on the water structure diminishes as the gap size increases. The diffusion coefficient of chloride decreases with larger surface spacing. Clustering of water at the surface implies that the SCWR will be most susceptible to pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.

  2. Hybrid solar cells from water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. McLeskey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of a water-soluble, light-absorbing polythiophene polymer to fabricate novel photovoltaic devices. The polymer is a water-soluble thiophene known as sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] or PTEBS. The intention is to take advantage of the properties of conjugated polymers (flexible, tunable, and easy to process and incorporate the additional benefits of water solubility (easily controlled evaporation rates and environmentally friendly. The PTEBS polythiophene has shown significant photovoltaic response and has been found to be effective for making solar cells. To date, solar cells in three different configurations have been produced: titanium dioxide (TiO2 bilayer cells, TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs in bulk heterojunctions. The best performance thus far has been achieved with TiO2 bilayer devices. These devices have an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.84V, a short circuit current (Jsc of 0.15 mA/cm2, a fill factor (ff of 0.91, and an efficiency (η of 0.15 %.

  3. Sox17-Mediated XEN Cell Conversion Identifies Dynamic Networks Controlling Cell-Fate Decisions in Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C.H. McDonald

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the gene regulatory networks (GRNs distinguishing extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn stem (XEN cells from those that maintain the extensively characterized embryonic stem cell (ESC. An intriguing network candidate is Sox17, an essential transcription factor for XEN derivation and self-renewal. Here, we show that forced Sox17 expression drives ESCs toward ExEn, generating XEN cells that contribute to ExEn when placed back into early mouse embryos. Transient Sox17 expression is sufficient to drive this fate change during which time cells transit through distinct intermediate states prior to the generation of functional XEN-like cells. To orchestrate this conversion process, Sox17 acts in autoregulatory and feedforward network motifs, regulating dynamic GRNs directing cell fate. Sox17-mediated XEN conversion helps to explain the regulation of cell-fate changes and reveals GRNs regulating lineage decisions in the mouse embryo.

  4. Coupled Soil-Plant Water Dynamics During Drought-Rewetting Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, T. H.; Haberer, K.; Gessler, A.; Weiler, M.

    2013-12-01

    The predicted climate and land-use changes could have dramatic effects on the water balance of the soil-vegetation system, particularly under frequent drought and subsequent rewetting conditions. Yet, estimation of these effects and associated consequences for the structure and functioning of ecosystems, groundwater recharge, drinking water availability, and the water cycle is currently impeded by gaps in our understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water in the rooted soil horizons, the dynamics and driving physiological processes of plant water acquisition, and the transpiration from plant leaves under changing environmental conditions. Combining approaches from the disciplines of plant ecophysiology and soil and isotope hydrology, this work aims to fill this gap by quantitatively characterizing the interaction between plant water use - as affected by rooting patterns and ecophysiology of different plant functional groups - and the water balance of variably complex ecosystems with emphasis on drought and rewetting phases. Results from artificial drought and subsequent rewetting in field experiments using isotopically and dye (Brilliant Blue FCF) labeled water conducted on plots of various surface cover (bare soil, grass, beech, oak, vine) established on luvisol on loess in southwestern Germany are presented. Detailed spatiotemporal insights into the coupled short-term (hours to days) dynamics of soil and plant water during the experiments is facilitated by the application of newly developed techniques for high-frequency in-situ monitoring of stable isotope signatures in both pore water and transpired water using commercial laser-based spectrometers in conjunction with plant ecophysiological, soil physical state, and dye staining observations. On the one hand, the spatiotemporal patterns of plant water uptake are assessed and related to morphological and physiological traits driving plant water uptake, functional adaptations of plants to changes of

  5. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Rego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of water in and around carbon nanotubes: A coarse-grained description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantawane, Sanwardhini; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we intend to investigate behaviour of water in and around hydrophobic open ended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a coarse-grained, core-softened model potential for water. The model potential considered here for water has recently been shown to successfully reproduce dynamic, thermodynamic and structural anomalies of water. The epitome of the study is to understand the incarceration of this coarse-grained water in a single-file carbon nanotube. In order to examine the effect of fluid-water van der Waals interaction on the structure of fluid in and around the nanotube, we have simulated three different CNT-water systems with varying degree of solute-water dispersion interaction. The analyses of the radial one-particle density profiles reveal varying degree of permeation and wetting of the CNT interior depending on the degree of fluid-solute attractive van der Waals interaction. A peak in the radial density profile slightly off the nanotube axis signifies a zigzag chain of water molecule around the CNT axis. The average numbers of water molecules inside the CNT have been shown to increase with the increase in fluid-water attractive dispersion interaction.

  7. Salt—Water Dynamics in Soils:Ⅲ.Effect of Crop Planting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUWEN-RUI; MENGFAN-HUA

    1993-01-01

    Through a simulation test conducted with soil columns (61.8cm in diameter) in field condition,effect of crop planting upon the regulation of salt-water dynamics in soils was studied by monitoring of salt-water dynamics in situ,using soil salinity sensors and tensiometers.The results indicated that the amount of water absorbed by crops from the soil was generally larger than the decrement of water consumption from soil surface evaporation reduced by the crop covering the soil surface and improving the soil structure,therefore,under the conditions of crop growing and non-irrigation,water content in soil profile was less than that without crop growing,and the gradient of negative pressure of soil water in soil profile especially in the root zone was enlarged,thus causing the water flowing from subsoils into root zone and increasing the groundwater moving upwards into soil layer via capillary rise,so that the groundwater evaporation increased.Consequently,under the condition of crop growing,the salt was mainly accumulated towards the root zone rather than to the top soil.the accumulating rate of salt in groundwater via capillary rise of soil water to subsoils was increased thereby.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw, E-mail: miroslaw.zelazny@uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Department of Hydrology, 7 Gronostajowa Str., 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Astel, Aleksander, E-mail: astel@apsl.edu.pl [Environmental Chemistry Research Unit, Biology and Environmental Protection Institute, Pomeranian Academy, 22a Arciszewskiego Str., Slupsk, 76-200 (Poland); Wolanin, Anna [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Department of Hydrology, 7 Gronostajowa Str., 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Malek, Stanislaw, E-mail: rlmalek@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Department of Forest Ecology, Forest Faculty, Agricultural University of Cracow, 46 29 Listopada Ave., Cracow, 31-425 (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: > We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. > Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. > Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. > Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. > Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  9. Dynamical Models of Interactions between Herds Forage and Water Resources in Sahelian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Jules Tewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal foraging is one of the capital topics nowadays in Sahelian region. The vast majority of feed consumed by ruminants in Sahelian region is still formed by natural pastures. Pastoral constraints are the high variability of available forage and drinking water in space and especially in time (highly seasonal, interannual variability and the scarcity of water resources. The mobility is the main functional and opportunistic adaptation to these constraints. Our goal in this paper is to formalize two dynamical models for interactions between a herd of domesticate animals, forage resources, and water resources inside a given Sahelian area, in order to confirm, explain, and predict by mathematical models some observations about pastoralism in Sahelian region. These models in some contexts can be similar to predator-prey models as forage and water resources can be considered as preys and herd’s animals as predators. These models exhibit very rich dynamics, since it predicts abrupt changes in consumer behaviour and disponibility of forage or water resources. The dynamics exhibits a possible coexistence between herd, resources, and water with alternative peaks in their trajectories.

  10. Expansion dynamics of supercritical water probed by picosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladytz, Thomas; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R

    2015-02-21

    Vibrational excitation of liquid water with femtosecond laser pulses can create extreme states of water. Yet, the dynamics directly after initial sub-picosecond delocalization of molecular vibrations remain largely unclear. We study the ultrafast expansion dynamics of an accordingly prepared supercritical water phase with a picosecond time resolution. Our experimental setup combines vacuum-compatible liquid micro-jet technology and a table top High Harmonic light source driven by a femtosecond laser system. An ultrashort laser pulse centered at a wavelength of 2900 nm excites the OH-stretch vibration of water molecules in the liquid. The deposited energy corresponds to a supercritical phase with a temperature of about 1000 K and a pressure of more than 1 GPa. We use a time-delayed extreme ultraviolet pulse centered at 38.6 eV, and obtained via High Harmonic generation (HHG), to record valence band photoelectron spectra of the expanding water sample. The series of photoelectron spectra is analyzed with noise-corrected target transform fitting (cTTF), a specifically developed multivariate method. Together with a simple fluid dynamics simulation, the following picture emerges: when a supercritical phase of water expands into vacuum, temperature and density of the first few nanometers of the expanding phase drop below the critical values within a few picoseconds. This results in a supersaturated phase, in which condensation seeds form and grow from small clusters to large clusters on a 100 picosecond timescale.

  11. Design of Compact Photoelectrochemical Cells for Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosserez Tom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar driven water splitting can be achieved by coupling electrolyzers with PhotoVoltaics (PV. Integration of both functions in a compact PhotoElectroChemical (PEC cell is an attractive option but presents significant scientific challenges. In this work, the design of single- and dual-compartment PEC cells for research purposes is discussed. The fabrication of separator-electrode assemblies is an important aspect, and upscaling of these architectures even to centimeter scale is not trivial. The layout of a new dual-compartment compact PEC cell with in-situ monitoring of pH, temperatures, and oxygen and hydrogen evolution for research purposes is presented. Finally, a prospect of future PEC cells for practical applications is presented.

  12. Structure and Dynamics of the Instantaneous Water/Vapor Interface Revisited by Path-Integral and Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Jan; Spura, Thomas; Karhan, Kristof; Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Hassanali, Ali A; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of the water/vapor interface is revisited by means of path-integral and second-generation Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with an instantaneous surface definition [A. P. Willard and D. Chandler, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 1954 (2010)]. In agreement with previous studies, we find that one of the OH bonds of the water molecules in the topmost layer is pointing out of the water into the vapor phase, while the orientation of the underlying layer is reversed. Therebetween, an additional water layer is detected, where the molecules are aligned parallel to the instantaneous water surface.

  13. Dynamical modeling of the cell cycle and cell fate emergence in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Quiñones-Valles

    Full Text Available The division of Caulobacter crescentus, a model organism for studying cell cycle and differentiation in bacteria, generates two cell types: swarmer and stalked. To complete its cycle, C. crescentus must first differentiate from the swarmer to the stalked phenotype. An important regulator involved in this process is CtrA, which operates in a gene regulatory network and coordinates many of the interactions associated to the generation of cellular asymmetry. Gaining insight into how such a differentiation phenomenon arises and how network components interact to bring about cellular behavior and function demands mathematical models and simulations. In this work, we present a dynamical model based on a generalization of the Boolean abstraction of gene expression for a minimal network controlling the cell cycle and asymmetric cell division in C. crescentus. This network was constructed from data obtained from an exhaustive search in the literature. The results of the simulations based on our model show a cyclic attractor whose configurations can be made to correspond with the current knowledge of the activity of the regulators participating in the gene network during the cell cycle. Additionally, we found two point attractors that can be interpreted in terms of the network configurations directing the two cell types. The entire network is shown to be operating close to the critical regime, which means that it is robust enough to perturbations on dynamics of the network, but adaptable to environmental changes.

  14. Dynamical modeling of the cell cycle and cell fate emergence in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Valles, César; Sánchez-Osorio, Ismael; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino

    2014-01-01

    The division of Caulobacter crescentus, a model organism for studying cell cycle and differentiation in bacteria, generates two cell types: swarmer and stalked. To complete its cycle, C. crescentus must first differentiate from the swarmer to the stalked phenotype. An important regulator involved in this process is CtrA, which operates in a gene regulatory network and coordinates many of the interactions associated to the generation of cellular asymmetry. Gaining insight into how such a differentiation phenomenon arises and how network components interact to bring about cellular behavior and function demands mathematical models and simulations. In this work, we present a dynamical model based on a generalization of the Boolean abstraction of gene expression for a minimal network controlling the cell cycle and asymmetric cell division in C. crescentus. This network was constructed from data obtained from an exhaustive search in the literature. The results of the simulations based on our model show a cyclic attractor whose configurations can be made to correspond with the current knowledge of the activity of the regulators participating in the gene network during the cell cycle. Additionally, we found two point attractors that can be interpreted in terms of the network configurations directing the two cell types. The entire network is shown to be operating close to the critical regime, which means that it is robust enough to perturbations on dynamics of the network, but adaptable to environmental changes.

  15. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tilmant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbours at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanoscale distribution and mobility of water and dimethylmethylphosphonate in sulfonated polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2008-11-27

    The interest in a better understanding of the specific interactions of phosphor-organic compounds and water with sulfonated polystyrene (sPS) is motivated by the use of block copolymers as protective membranes against chemical warfare agents. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we explored the nanoscale segregation and diffusion of water and nerve gas simulant dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) in sPS neutralized with calcium counterions at different sulfonation and hydration levels. The water content was varied from 15 to 54% of dry polymer weight, and the DMMP content was varied from 0 to 100 wt %. We found that, in the 40% sulfonated polystyrene, water forms well defined aggregates, which grow in size as the hydration increases, reaching approximately 20 A at the maximum water content. In the 100% sulfonated polystyrene, the overall structure of hydrated polymer is more uniform with smaller water aggregates. Diffusion of water at the same number of water molecules per sulfonate group is faster at a lower sulfonation level. The solvation of sPS in water-DMMP binary mixtures was found to differ substantially from Nafion, where DMMP forms a layer between the hydropholic and hydrophobic subphases. In sPS with divalent Ca(2+) counterions, DMMP and water compete for the solvation of the sulfonate group. At high water and DMMP contents, the diffusion of DMMP turned out to be rather fast with a diffusion coefficient of ca. 30% of that of water. At the same time, water diffusion slows down as the DMMP concentration increases. This observation suggests that although sPS is permeable for both solvents, water and DMMP are partially segregated on the scale of 1-2 nm and have different pathways through the system. The nonuniform nanoscale distribution of water and DMMP in sPS is confirmed by analyses of different pair correlation functions. This feature may significantly affect the perm-selective properties of sPS-contained block copolymer membranes.

  17. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins have become more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoir operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  18. Calcium dynamics in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Cellular Ca(2+)signaling results from a complex interplay among a variety of Ca(2+) fluxes going across the plasma membrane and across the membranes of several organelles, together with the buffering effect of large numbers of Ca(2+)-binding sites distributed along the cell architecture. Endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and even nucleus have all been involved in cellular Ca(2+) signaling, and the mechanisms for Ca(2+) uptake and release from these organelles are well known. In neuroendocrine cells, the secretory granules also constitute a very important Ca(2+)-storing organelle, and the possible role of the stored Ca(2+) as a trigger for secretion has attracted considerable attention. However, this possibility is frequently overlooked, and the main reason for that is that there is still considerable uncertainty on the main questions related with granular Ca(2+) dynamics, e.g., the free granular [Ca(2+)], the physical state of the stored Ca(2+) or the mechanisms for Ca(2+) accumulation and release from the granules. This review will give a critical overview of the present state of knowledge and the main conflicting points on secretory granule Ca(2+) homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells.

  19. The Cell Probe Complexity of Dynamic Range Counting

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new technique for proving dynamic cell probe lower bounds. With this technique, we achieve the highest lower bound to date for any explicit problem, namely a lower bound of $t_q=\\Omega((\\lg n/\\lg(wt_u))^2)$. Here $n$ is the number of update operations, $w$ the cell size, $t_q$ the query time and $t_u$ the update time. In the most natural setting of cell size $w=\\Theta(\\lg n)$, this gives a lower bound of $t_q=\\Omega((\\lg n/\\lg \\lg n)^2)$ for any polylogarithmic update time. This bound is almost a quadratic improvement over the highest previous lower bound of $\\Omega(\\lg n)$, due to P\\v{a}tra\\c{s}cu and Demaine [SICOMP'06]. We prove our lower bound for the fundamental problem of weighted orthogonal range counting. In this problem, we are to support insertions of two-dimensional points, each assigned a $\\Theta(\\lg n)$-bit integer weight. A query to this problem is specified by a point $q=(x,y)$, and the goal is to report the sum of the weights assigned to the points dominated by $q$, ...

  20. Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in an aerated submerged biofilm reactor for micropolluted raw water pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Ren, Hong-Qiang; Li, Dao-Tang; Yang, Hong

    2008-05-01

    Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a full-scale aerated submerged biofilm reactor for micropolluted raw water pretreatment was investigated using molecular techniques for a period of 1 year. The ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments were amplified from DNA and RNA extracts of biofilm samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile based on the amoA messenger RNA approach exhibited a more variable pattern of temporal dynamics of AOB communities than the DNA-derived approach during the study. Phylogenetic analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed three AOB groups affiliated with the Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage, Nitrosomonas communis lineage, and an unknown Nitrosomonas group. The population size of betaproteobacterial AOB, quantified with 16S ribosomal RNA gene real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, ranged from 6.63 x 10(5) to 2.67 x 10(9) cells per gram of dry biofilm and corresponded to 0.23-1.8% of the total bacterial fraction. Quantitative results of amoA gene of the three specific AOB groups revealed changes in competitive dominance between AOB of the N. oligotropha lineage and N. communis lineage. Water temperature is shown to have major influence on AOB population size in the reactor by the statistic analysis, and a positive correlation between AOB cell numbers and ammonia removal efficiency is suggested (r = 0.628, P < 0.05).

  1. Analysis of Water Dynamics in Banda Sea and its Influences on Continental Shelf Fishing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Muripto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the rise of the Arafura Sea of the vertical configuration results shown curves which easy to understand about its water dynamics. The water character is oceanic’s as cool, salty and stable DO were maintaining by the variability of thermal structure in the continental shelf. The pattern of water masses is the current system surrounding the Banda Sea as an upwelling from undercurrent those enhances and nitrified the shelf.  Along the coast of western part of Papua was conducted the parcel of water masses traveling across the fishing area where’s kind of fishing boat catches the fish in the whole year, and almost confining in the continental shelf has low current from the southern part. The current flows from west to east at the southern part of Nusa Tenggara Islands bringing water and curve to the southwestern coast of Australia. These water masses characterized the temperature, salinity and oxygen gradients from some points where may have an important implication to the slopes area between the deepest and the shallow water near the coast. The lower temperature ranges from 10.0˚C to 8.0˚C at 300m depth and 34.50‰ to 34.85‰ conducted was circulated back to the deepest layer were higher salinity and stable dissolved oxygen. This continental shelf as a fishing area boundary water dynamic may cause by these water dynamic,  especially from data catches of the two fishing vessels catches 17,4 to 39,21kg/haul in the western area and 44.0 to 80kg/haul in eastern coast area.

  2. Aluminum dynamics in forest soil waters in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Holger; Solberg, Svein; Clarke, Nicholas

    2006-08-31

    We report on weekly aluminum (Al) concentration measurements in soil water from forested catchments monitored throughout Norway since 1986. Originating in acidification research, and thus accompanied by many other chemical variables, they constitute a comprehensive data set suited for analysis of short- as well as long-term variations in a geographic perspective. The Al time series at 21 sites are characterized by high temporal variability, seasonal behavior, and episodic events with peak values in the range 200-800 micromol/l, mostly caused by sea salts blown inland in storms, with a subsequent release of Al after cation exchange. Despite a clear south-north gradient in possible acidification over Norway, we found no indication of such south-north trends in Al chemistry, neither in mean values, maximum values, nor time trends. We identified two main drivers for variation in Al concentrations. The first one was sea salts, where Al was released to the soil solution after cation exchange. The second driver was high production of DOC, where Al was driven into the soil solution by complexation with DOC. There appears to be little risk for aluminum toxicity to trees in Norwegian forests. Except during occasional episodes, aluminum concentrations generally lay far below the supposed threshold values for toxic effects on Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch. Much dissolved aluminum was non-labile, and thus relatively non-toxic. Although the Ca2+/labile Al ratio was often below 1.0, considerable doubt exists as to the applicability of this variable in the field.

  3. Water-polysaccharide interactions in the primary cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana from polarization transfer solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul B; Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Hong, Mei

    2014-07-23

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water (1)H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide (13)C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water-pectin polarization transfer is much faster than water-cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water-polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water-pectin spin diffusion precedes water-cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins.

  4. Structural Interpretation of the Large Slowdown of Water Dynamics at Stacked Phospholipid Membranes for Decreasing Hydration Level: All-Atom Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Calero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydration water determines the stability and function of phospholipid membranes as well as the interaction of membranes with other molecules. Experiments and simulations have shown that water dynamics slows down dramatically as the hydration decreases, suggesting that the interfacial water that dominates the average dynamics at low hydration is slower than water away from the membrane. Here, based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we provide an interpretation of the slowdown of interfacial water in terms of the structure and dynamics of water–water and water–lipid hydrogen bonds (HBs. We calculate the rotational and translational slowdown of the dynamics of water confined in stacked phospholipid membranes at different levels of hydration, from completely hydrated to poorly hydrated membranes. For all hydrations, we analyze the distribution of HBs and find that water–lipids HBs last longer than water–water HBs and that at low hydration most of the water is in the interior of the membrane. We also show that water–water HBs become more persistent as the hydration is lowered. We attribute this effect (i to HBs between water molecules that form, in turn, persistent HBs with lipids; (ii to the hindering of the H-bonding switching between water molecules due to the lower water density at the interface; and (iii to the higher probability of water–lipid HBs as the hydration decreases. Our interpretation of the large dynamic slowdown in water under dehydration is potentially relevant in understanding membrane biophysics at different hydration levels.

  5. Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley; Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.; Balliet, Ryan; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Newman, John

    2007-09-07

    Fuel cells may become the energy-delivery devices of the 21st century with realization of a carbon-neutral energy economy. Although there are many types of fuel cells, polymerelectrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are receiving the most attention for automotive and small stationary applications. In a PEFC, hydrogen and oxygen are combined electrochemically to produce water, electricity, and waste heat. During the operation of a PEFC, many interrelated and complex phenomena occur. These processes include mass and heat transfer, electrochemical reactions, and ionic and electronic transport. Most of these processes occur in the through-plane direction in what we term the PEFC sandwich as shown in Figure 1. This sandwich comprises multiple layers including diffusion media that can be composite structures containing a macroporous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) and microporous layer (MPL), catalyst layers (CLs), flow fields or bipolar plates, and a membrane. During operation fuel is fed into the anode flow field, moves through the diffusion medium, and reacts electrochemically at the anode CL to form hydrogen ions and electrons. The oxidant, usually oxygen in air, is fed into the cathode flow field, moves through the diffusion medium, and is electrochemically reduced at the cathode CL by combination with the generated protons and electrons. The water, either liquid or vapor, produced by the reduction of oxygen at the cathode exits the PEFC through either the cathode or anode flow field. The electrons generated at the anode pass through an external circuit and may be used to perform work before they are consumed at the cathode. The performance of a PEFC is most often reported in the form of a polarization curve, as shown in Figure 2. Roughly speaking, the polarization curve can be broken down into various regions. First, it should be noted that the equilibrium potential differs from the open-circuit voltage due mainly to hydrogen crossover through the membrane (i.e., a mixed potential

  6. Kinematics and Dynamics of a Tensegrity-Based Water Wave Energy Harvester