WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell wall polymers

  1. Imaging the Dynamics of Cell Wall Polymer Deposition in the Unicellular Model Plant, Penium margaritaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domozych, David; Lietz, Anna; Patten, Molly; Singer, Emily; Tinaz, Berke; Raimundo, Sandra C

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum, represents a novel and valuable model organism for elucidating cell wall dynamics in plants. This organism's cell wall contains several polymers that are highly similar to those found in the primary cell walls of land plants. Penium is easily grown in laboratory culture and is effectively manipulated in various experimental protocols including microplate assays and correlative microscopy. Most importantly, Penium can be live labeled with cell wall-specific antibodies or other probes and returned to culture where specific cell wall developmental events can be monitored. Additionally, live cells can be rapidly cryo-fixed and cell wall surface microarchitecture can be observed with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy. Here, we describe the methodology for maintaining Penium for experimental cell wall enzyme studies.

  2. High-throughput microarray mapping of cell wall polymers in roots and tubers during the viscosity-reducing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yuhong; Willats, William George Tycho; Lange, Lene

    2016-01-01

    the viscosity-reducing process are poorly characterized. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, which is a high-throughput microarray, was used for the first time to map changes in the cell wall polymers of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and Canna edulis Ker. over the entire...... viscosity-reducing process. The results indicated that the composition of cell wall polymers among these three roots and tubers was markedly different. The gel-like matrix and glycoprotein network in the C. edulis Ker. cell wall caused difficulty in viscosity reduction. The obvious viscosity reduction......Viscosity reduction has a great impact on the efficiency of ethanol production when using roots and tubers as feedstock. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes have been successfully applied to overcome the challenges posed by high viscosity. However, the changes in cell wall polymers during...

  3. High-throughput mapping of cell-wall polymers within and between plants using novel microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; Sørensen, Iben; Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena

    2007-01-01

    We describe here a methodology that enables the occurrence of cell-wall glycans to be systematically mapped throughout plants in a semi-quantitative high-throughput fashion. The technique (comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, or CoMPP) integrates the sequential extraction of glycans from...... analysis of mutant and wild-type plants, as demonstrated here for the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants fra8, mur1 and mur3. CoMPP was also applied to Physcomitrella patens cell walls and was validated by carbohydrate linkage analysis. These data provide new insights into the structure and functions of plant...

  4. Revised mechanism of d-alanine incorporation into cell wall polymers in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Nathalie T.; Cassona, Carolina Picarra

    2013-01-01

    Teichoic acids (TAs) are important for growth, biofilm formation, adhesion and virulence of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The chemical structures of the TAs vary between bacteria, though they typically consist of zwitterionic polymers that are anchored to either the peptidoglycan layer as in the case of wall teichoic acid (WTA) or the cell membrane and named lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The polymers are modified with d-alanines and a lack of this decoration leads to increased susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Four proteins, DltA–D, are essential for the incorporation of d-alanines into cell wall polymers and it has been established that DltA transfers d-alanines in the cytoplasm of the cell onto the carrier protein DltC. However, two conflicting models have been proposed for the remainder of the mechanism. Using a cellular protein localization and membrane topology analysis, we show here that DltC does not traverse the membrane and that DltD is anchored to the outside of the cell. These data are in agreement with the originally proposed model for d-alanine incorporation through a process that has been proposed to proceed via a d-alanine undecaprenyl phosphate membrane intermediate. Furthermore, we found that WTA isolated from a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking LTA contains only a small amount of d-alanine, indicating that LTA has a role, either direct or indirect, in the efficient d-alanine incorporation into WTA in living cells. PMID:23858088

  5. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  6. Chemical and functional properties of cell wall polymers from two cherry varieties at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; de Escalada Plá, Marina F; Stortz, Carlos A; Rojas, Ana M

    2013-01-30

    The cell wall polysaccharides of Regina and Sunburst cherry varieties at two developmental stages were extracted sequentially, and their changes in monosaccharide composition and functional properties were studied. The loosely-attached pectins presented a lower d-galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratio than ionically-bound pectins, as well as lower thickening effects of their respective 2% aqueous solution: the lowest Newtonian viscosity and shear rate dependence during the pseudoplastic phase. The main constituents of the cell wall matrix were covalently bound pectins (probably through diferulate cross-linkings), with long arabinan side chains at the RG-I cores. This pectin domain was also anchored into the XG-cellulose elastic network. Ripening occurred with a decrease in the proportion of HGs, water extractable GGM and xylogalacturonan, and with a concomitant increase in neutral sugars. Ripening was also associated with higher viscosities and thickening effects, and to larger distribution of molecular weights. The highest firmness and compactness of Regina cherry may be associated with its higher proportion of calcium-bound HGs localized in the middle lamellae of cell walls, as well as to some higher molar proportion of NS (Rha and Ara) in covalently bound pectins. These pectins showed significantly better hydration properties than hemicellulose and cellulose network. Chemical composition and functional properties of cell wall polymers were dependent on cherry variety and ripening stage, and helped explain the contrasting firmness of Regina and Sunburst varieties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shi-You [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  8. A model of cell wall expansion based on thermodynamics of polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veytsman, B. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of cell wall extension is proposed. It is shown that macroscopic properties of cell walls can be explained through the microscopic properties of interpenetrating networks of cellulose and hemicellulose. The qualitative conclusions of the theory agree with the existing experimental data. The dependence of the cell wall yield threshold on the secretion of the wall components is discussed.

  9. Evaluation of the significance of cell wall polymers in flax infected with a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Czemplik, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2016-03-22

    Fusarium oxysporum infection leads to Fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (Linum usitatissimum) crop yield. Plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum show severe symptoms of dehydration due to the growth of the fungus in vascular tissues. As the disease develops, vascular browning and leaf yellowing can be observed. In the case of more virulent strains, plants die. The pathogen's attack starts with secretion of enzymes degrading the host cell wall. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the cell wall polymers in the flax plant response to the infection in order to better understand the process of resistance and develop new ways to protect plants against infection. For this purpose, the expression of genes involved in cell wall polymer metabolism and corresponding polymer levels were investigated in flax seedlings after incubation with Fusarium oxysporum. This analysis was facilitated by selecting two groups of genes responding differently to the infection. The first group comprised genes strongly affected by the infection and activated later (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and glucosyltransferase). The second group comprised genes which are slightly affected (up to five times) and their expression vary as the infection progresses. Fusarium oxysporum infection did not affect the contents of cell wall polymers, but changed their structure. The results suggest that the role of the cell wall polymers in the plant response to Fusarium oxysporum infection is manifested through changes in expression of their genes and rearrangement of the cell wall polymers. Our studies provided new information about the role of cellulose and hemicelluloses in the infection process, the change of their structure and the expression of genes participating in their metabolism during the pathogen infection. We also confirmed the role of pectin and lignin in this process, indicating the major changes at the mRNA level of lignin metabolism genes

  10. Substrate Shift Reveals Roles for Members of Bacterial Consortia in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Camila; Fan, Huan; Currie, Cameron R

    2018-01-01

    Deconstructing the intricate matrix of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin poses a major challenge in biofuel production. In diverse environments in nature, some microbial communities, are able to overcome plant biomass recalcitrance. Identifying key degraders of each component of plant cell wall can help improve biological degradation of plant feedstock. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of lignocellulose-adapted microbial consortia sub-cultured on xylan and alkali lignin media. We observed a drastic shift on community composition after sub-culturing, independently of the original consortia. Proteobacteria relative abundance increased after growth in alkali lignin medium, while Bacteroidetes abundance increased after growth in xylan medium. At the genus level, Pseudomonas was more abundant in the communities growing on alkali lignin, Sphingobacterium in the communities growing on xylan and Cellulomonas abundance was the highest in the original microbial consortia. We also observed functional convergence of microbial communities after incubation in alkali lignin, due to an enrichment of genes involved in benzoate degradation and catechol ortho-cleavage pathways. Our results represent an important step toward the elucidation of key members of microbial communities on lignocellulose degradation and may aide the design of novel lignocellulolytic microbial consortia that are able to efficiently degrade plant cell wall polymers.

  11. Substrate Shift Reveals Roles for Members of Bacterial Consortia in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carlos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deconstructing the intricate matrix of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin poses a major challenge in biofuel production. In diverse environments in nature, some microbial communities, are able to overcome plant biomass recalcitrance. Identifying key degraders of each component of plant cell wall can help improve biological degradation of plant feedstock. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of lignocellulose-adapted microbial consortia sub-cultured on xylan and alkali lignin media. We observed a drastic shift on community composition after sub-culturing, independently of the original consortia. Proteobacteria relative abundance increased after growth in alkali lignin medium, while Bacteroidetes abundance increased after growth in xylan medium. At the genus level, Pseudomonas was more abundant in the communities growing on alkali lignin, Sphingobacterium in the communities growing on xylan and Cellulomonas abundance was the highest in the original microbial consortia. We also observed functional convergence of microbial communities after incubation in alkali lignin, due to an enrichment of genes involved in benzoate degradation and catechol ortho-cleavage pathways. Our results represent an important step toward the elucidation of key members of microbial communities on lignocellulose degradation and may aide the design of novel lignocellulolytic microbial consortia that are able to efficiently degrade plant cell wall polymers.

  12. Overexpression of PhEXPA1 increases cell size, modifies cell wall polymer composition and affects the timing of axillary meristem development in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Dal Santo, Silvia; Sanson, Andrea; de Groot, Peter; Sordo, Sara; Citterio, Sandra; Monti, Francesca; Pezzotti, Mario

    2011-08-01

    • Expansins are cell wall proteins required for cell enlargement and cell wall loosening during many developmental processes. The involvement of the Petunia hybrida expansin A1 (PhEXPA1) gene in cell expansion, the control of organ size and cell wall polysaccharide composition was investigated by overexpressing PhEXPA1 in petunia plants. • PhEXPA1 promoter activity was evaluated using a promoter-GUS assay and the protein's subcellular localization was established by expressing a PhEXPA1-GFP fusion protein. PhEXPA1 was overexpressed in transgenic plants using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical analysis were used for the quantitative analysis of cell wall polymers. • The GUS and GFP assays demonstrated that PhEXPA1 is present in the cell walls of expanding tissues. The constitutive overexpression of PhEXPA1 significantly affected expansin activity and organ size, leading to changes in the architecture of petunia plants by initiating premature axillary meristem outgrowth. Moreover, a significant change in cell wall polymer composition in the petal limbs of transgenic plants was observed. • These results support a role for expansins in the determination of organ shape, in lateral branching, and in the variation of cell wall polymer composition, probably reflecting a complex role in cell wall metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Arabinose-rich polymers as an evolutionary strategy to plasticize resurrection plant cell walls against desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, John P.; Nguema-Ona, Eric E.; Vicré-Gibouin, Mäite

    2013-01-01

    A variety of Southern African resurrection plants were surveyed using high-throughput cell wall profiling tools. Species evaluated were the dicotyledons, Myrothamnus flabellifolia and Craterostigma plantagineum; the monocotyledons, Xerophyta viscosa, Xerophyta schlecterii, Xerophyta humilis and t......-arabinans, arabinogalactan proteins and arabinoxylans) as the major contributors in ensuring flexibility is maintained and rehydration is facilitated in these plants....

  14. Probing the effect of polymer molecular weight on penetration into the wood cell wall using polyethylenimine (PEI) as a model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorvel, Brian; Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar; Chen, Ida; Bowling, Andrew; Williams, Kerry; King, Steve

    2018-05-01

    Decking is one of the largest applications for the treated wood market. The most challenging property to obtain for treated wood is dimensional stability, which can be achieved, in part, by cell wall bulking, cell wall polymer crosslinking and removal of hygroscopic components in the cell wall. A commonly accepted key requirement is for the actives to infuse through the cell wall, which has a microporosity of ∼5-13 nm. Equally as challenging is being able to measure and quantify the cell wall penetration. Branched polyethylenimine (PEI) was studied as a model polymer for penetration due to its water solubility, polarity, variable molecular weight ranges, and ability to form a chelation complex with preservative metals to treat lumbers. Two different molecular weight polyethylenimines (PEI), one with a weight average molecular weight (Mw) equal to 800 Da and the other 750 000 Da, were investigated for penetration by microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Analytical methods were developed to both create smooth interfaces and for relative quantitation and visualisation of PEI penetration into the wood. The results showed both PEI with Mw of 800 Da and PEI with Mw of 750 000 Da coated the lumens in high density. However, only the PEI with Mw of 800 appeared to penetrate the cell walls in sufficient levels. Literature has shown the hydrodynamic radii of PEI 750 000 is near 29 nm, whereas a smaller PEI at 25 K showed 4.5 nm. Most importantly the results, based on methods developed, show how molecular weight and tertiary structure of the polymer can affect its penetration, with the microporosity of the wood being the main barrier. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Expression of mung bean pectin acetyl esterase in potato tubers: effect on acetylation of cell wall polymers and tuber mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfila, Caroline; Dal Degan, Florence; Jørgensen, Bodil; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Ray, Peter M; Ulvskov, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A mung bean (Vigna radiata) pectin acetyl esterase (CAA67728) was heterologously expressed in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter or the patatin promoter in order to probe the significance of O-acetylation on cell wall and tissue properties. The recombinant tubers showed no apparent macroscopic phenotype. The enzyme was recovered from transgenic tubers using a high ionic strength buffer and the extract was active against a range of pectic substrates. Partial in vivo de-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides occurred in the transformants, as shown by a 39% decrease in the degree of acetylation (DA) of tuber cell wall material (CWM). Treatment of CWM using a combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase extracted more pectin polymers from the transformed tissue compared to wild type. The largest effect of the pectin acetyl esterase (68% decrease in DA) was seen in the residue from this extraction, suggesting that the enzyme is preferentially active on acetylated pectin that is tightly bound to the cell wall. The effects of acetylation on tuber mechanical properties were investigated by tests of failure under compression and by determination of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. These tests suggested that de-acetylation resulted in a stiffer tuber tissue and a stronger cell wall matrix, as a result of changes to a rapidly relaxing viscoelastic component. These results are discussed in relation to the role of pectin acetylation in primary cell walls and its implications for industrial uses of potato fibres.

  16. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells electrocatalyst single wall carbon nanohorns-supported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Lúcia; Boaventura, Marta; Passeira, Carolina; Gattia, Daniele Mirabile; Marazzi, Renzo; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Mendes, Adélio

    2011-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) performance when using single wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH) to support Pt nanoparticles. Additionally, as-prepared and oxidized SWNH Pt-supports were compared with conventional carbon black. Two different oxidizing treatments were considered: oxygen flow at 500 degrees C and reflux in an acid solution at 85 degrees C. Both oxidizing treatments increased SWNH surface area; oxygen treatment increased surface area 4 times while acid treatment increased 2.6 times. The increase in surface area should be related to the opening access to the inner tube of SWNH. Acid treatment of SWNH increased chemical fragility and decreased electrocatalyst load in comparison with as-prepared SWNH. On the other hand, the oxygen treated SWNH sample allowed to obtain the highest electrocatalyst load. The use of as-prepared and oxygen treated SWNH showed in both cases catalytic activities 60% higher than using conventional carbon black as electrocatalyst support in PEMFC. Moreover, EIS analysis indicated that the major improvement in performance is related to the cathode kinetics in the as-prepared SWNH sample, while concerning the oxidized SWNH sample, the improvements are related to the electrokinetics in both anode and cathode electrodes. These improvements should be related with differences in the hydrophobic character between SWNH and carbon black.

  17. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Kristoffer T.; Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase) gene arise...... not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement...

  18. Chapter 3 Cell Wall Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Roger Pettersen; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2012-01-01

    Wood is best defined as a three-dimensional biopolymer composite composed of an interconnected network of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin with minor amounts of extractives, and inorganics. The major chemical component of a living tree is water, but on a dry weight basis, all wood cell walls consist mainly of sugar-based polymers (carbohydrates, 65-75%) that are...

  19. Vascular smooth muscle cells in cultures on lactide based polymers for potential construction of artificial vessel wall

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filová, Elena; Bačáková, Lucie; Lisá, Věra; Machová, Luďka; Lapčíková, Monika; Kubies, Dana; Proks, Vladimír; Rypáček, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2003), s. 9-11 ISSN 1429-7248. [Konferencja Naukowa "Biomaterialy w medycynie i weterynarii" /13./. Rytro, 09.10.2003-12.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050202; GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913; CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : tissue engineering * bioactive polymers, RGD * bioartificial vessel wall Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  20. Immersion Refractometry of Isolated Bacterial Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Immersion-refractometric and light-scattering measurements were adapted to determinations of average refractive indices and physical compactness of isolated bacterial cell walls. The structures were immersed in solutions containing various concentrations of polymer molecules that cannot penetrate into wall pores, and then an estimate was made of the polymer concentration or the refractive index of the polymer solution in which light scattering was reduced to zero. Because each wall preparation was heterogeneous, the refractive index of the medium for zero light scattering had to be estimated by extrapolation. Refractive indices for walls suspended in bovine serum albumin solutions ranged from 1.348 for walls of the rod form of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes to 1.382 for walls of the teichoic acid deficient, 52A5 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. These indices were used to calculate approximate values for solids content per milliliter, and the calculated values agreed closely with those estimated from a knowledge of dextran-impermeable volumes per gram, dry weight, of the walls. When large molecules such as dextrans or serum albumin were used for immersion refractometry, the refractive indices obtained were for entire walls, including both wall polymers and wall water. When smaller molecules that can penetrate wall pores to various extents were used with Micrococcus lysodeikticus walls, the average, apparent refractive index of the structures increased as the molecular size of probing molecules was decreased. It was possible to obtain an estimate of 1.45 to 1.46 for the refractive index of wall polymers, predominantly peptidoglycans in this case, by extrapolating the curve for refractive index versus molecular radius to a value of 0.2 nm, the approximate radius of a water molecule. This relatively low value for polymer refractive index was interpreted as evidence in favor of the amorphous, elastic model of peptidoglycan structure and against the crystalline, rigid

  1. Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoyuan

    Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...

  2. Formation of three-dimensional cell/polymer constructs for bone tissue engineering in a spinner flask and a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.; Bancroft, Gregory N.; Mikos, Antonios G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the cell culture conditions of three-dimensional polymer scaffolds seeded with rat marrow stromal cells (MSCs) cultured in different bioreactors concerning the ability of these cells to proliferate, differentiate towards the osteoblastic lineage, and generate mineralized extracellular matrix. MSCs harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats were culture expanded, seeded on three-dimensional porous 75:25 poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days under static conditions or in two model bioreactors (a spinner flask and a rotating wall vessel) that enhance mixing of the media and provide better nutrient transport to the seeded cells. The spinner flask culture demonstrated a 60% enhanced proliferation at the end of the first week when compared to static culture. On day 14, all cell/polymer constructs exhibited their maximum alkaline phosphatase activity (AP). Cell/polymer constructs cultured in the spinner flask had 2.4 times higher AP activity than constructs cultured under static conditions on day 14. The total osteocalcin (OC) secretion in the spinner flask culture was 3.5 times higher than the static culture, with a peak OC secretion occurring on day 18. No considerable AP activity and OC secretion were detected in the rotating wall vessel culture throughout the 21-day culture period. The spinner flask culture had the highest calcium content at day 14. On day 21, the calcium deposition in the spinner flask culture was 6.6 times higher than the static cultured constructs and over 30 times higher than the rotating wall vessel culture. Histological sections showed concentration of cells and mineralization at the exterior of the foams at day 21. This phenomenon may arise from the potential existence of nutrient concentration gradients at the interior of the scaffolds. The better mixing provided in the spinner flask, external to the outer surface of the scaffolds, may explain the

  3. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composite thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod Mulbagal; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Yagafarov, Timur; Alekseeva, Alena; Anisimov, Anton; Sergeev, Oleg; Neumueller, Alex; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert

    2018-01-09

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and a thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high quality SWCNTs with an enhanced conductivity by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with different SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit Jsc, open-circuit Voc, and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5G direct illumination. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and polymer composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod M.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia P.; Yagafarov, Timur; Aleekseeva, Alena K.; Anisimov, Anton S.; Neumüller, Alex; Sergeev, Oleg; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high-quality SWCNTs with conductivity enhanced by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with varying SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit J sc , open-circuit V oc , and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and an efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5 G direct illumination.

  5. Fungal cell wall polymer based nanoparticles in protection of tomato plants from wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabama, M; Charles, R Einstein

    2015-11-20

    Cell wall polymer (chitosan) was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. They were cross linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to synthesize nanoparticles (CWP-NP). The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, DLS, SEM, XRD and NMR analyses. The isolated CWP-NP exhibit antifungal activity under in vitro condition. The foliar application of the CWP-NP to tomato plants challenged with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici showed delay in wilt disease symptom expression and reduce the wilt disease severity. Treated plants also showed enhanced yield. These results suggested the role of the CWP-NP in protecting tomato plants from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of plant cell wall oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    Plant cell walls are structurally complex and contain a large number of diverse carbohydrate polymers. These plant fibers are a highly valuable bio-resource and the focus of food, energy and health research. We are interested in studying the interplay of plant cell wall carbohydrates with proteins...... for characterizing protein-carbohydrate binding. The presentation will highlight chemical syntheses of plant cell wall oligosaccharides from the group and provide examples from studies of their interactions with proteins....... such as enzymes, cell surface lectins, and antibodies. However, detailed molecular level investigations of such interactions are hampered by the heterogeneity and diversity of the polymers of interest. To circumvent this, we target well-defined oligosaccharides with representative structures that can be used...

  7. Design of Polymer-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Black-based Fuel Cell Catalysts with High Durability and Performance Under Non-humidified Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zehui; Berber, Mohamed R.; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-01-01

    To realize a high catalyst utilization, better fuel cell performance and durability as well as low production cost, an efficient design strategy of the catalyst layer that can improve both the oxygen accessibility and structure stability is highly required. Here, we describe the preparation of fuel cell electrocatalysts with an efficient fuel cell performance and better stability based on hybrids of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon black (CB) which were wrapped by a proton conducting polymer, poly[2,2′-(2,6-pyridine)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole], before deposition of the platinum (Pt) metal catalyst. The catalyst mass activity after feeding only 10%-MWNTs to CB increased by 1.5 and 2 times than those of the MWNTs-based- and CB-based catalysts, respectively. The results also demonstrated that 90 wt% of the MWNTs in the catalyst layer allows it to be replaced by CB without any significant change in its durability and performance under 120 °C and non-humidified condition

  8. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraschuk, Dmitry Y

    2006-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices...

  9. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  10. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  11. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  12. Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood using phenol-formaldehyde remains the industrial standard in wood product bond durability. Not only does this adhesive infiltrate the cell wall, it also is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers, particularly guaiacyl lignin. However, the mechanism by which phenol-formaldehyde adhesive intergrally interacts and bonds to...

  13. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  14. An emerging role of pectic rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul, Rebecca; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    The plant cell wall is a complex network of different polysaccharides and glycoproteins, showing high diversity in nature. The essential components, tethering cell wall are under debate, as novel mutants challenge established models. The mutant ugd2,3 with a reduced supply of the important wall precursor UDP-glucuronic acid reveals the critical role of the pectic compound rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall stability. This polymer seems to be more important for cell wall integrity than the pre...

  15. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyl...

  16. Confining multiple polymers between sticky walls: a directed walk model of two polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Thomas; Rechnitzer, Andrew; Owczarek, Aleksander L

    2014-01-01

    We study a model of two polymers confined to a slit with sticky walls. More precisely, we find and analyse the exact solution of two directed friendly walks in such a geometry on the square lattice. We compare the infinite slit limit, in which the length of the polymer (thermodynamic limit) is taken to infinity before the width of the slit is considered to become large, to the opposite situation where the order of the limits are swapped, known as the half-plane limit when one polymer is modelled. In contrast with the single polymer system we find that the half-plane and infinite slit limits coincide. We understand this result in part due to the tethering of polymers on both walls of the slit. We also analyse the entropic force exerted by the polymers on the walls of the slit. Again the results differ significantly from single polymer models. In a single polymer system both attractive and repulsive regimes were seen, whereas in our two walk model only repulsive forces are observed. We do, however, see that the range of the repulsive force is dependent on the parameter values. This variation can be explained by the adsorption of the walks on opposite walls of the slit. (paper)

  17. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  18. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  19. Isolation of the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a method allowing the purification of the cell wall for studying both polysaccharides and proteins. The plant primary cell wall is mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95 % in mass) and of proteins (5-10 %). At the end of growth, specialized cells may synthesize a lignified secondary wall composed of polysaccharides (about 65 %) and lignin (about 35 %). Due to its composition, the cell wall is the cellular compartment having the highest density and this property is used for its purification. It plays critical roles during plant development and in response to environmental constraints. It is largely used in the food and textile industries as well as for the production of bioenergy. All these characteristics and uses explain why its study as a true cell compartment is of high interest. The proposed method of purification can be used for large amount of material but can also be downscaled to 500 mg of fresh material. Tools for checking the quality of the cell wall preparation, such as protein analysis and microscopy observation, are also provided.

  20. Advanced technologies for plant cell wall evolution and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik

    Plant cell walls consist of polysaccharides, glycoproteins and phenolic polymers interlinked together in a highly complex network. The detailed analysis of cell walls is challenging because of their inherent complexity and heterogeneity. Also, complex carbohydrates, unlike proteins and nucleotides...... cannot really be synthesised or sequenced. The work described in this thesis is focused to a large extent on the development of a microarray-based high-throughput method for cell wall analysis known as Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling or CoMPP. The procedure uses highly specific molecular...... probes (monoclonal antibodies mAbs and carbohydrate binding modules, CBMs) to rapidly profile polysaccharides across a sample set. During my PhD I have further developed the CoMPP technique and used it for cell wall analysis within the context of a variety of applied and fundamental projects. The data...

  1. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  2. Back wall solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  3. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  5. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelmeer, EAM; Klis, FM; Sietsma, JH; Cornelissen, BJC

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for

  6. Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium-polymer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pan [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Han, Jia-Jun, E-mail: hanjiajunhitweihai@163.com [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Li-Feng [Dalian Chemical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116011 (China); Li, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Jin-Ning [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The polyaniline multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, and the materials were characterized by physical and chemical methods. • The PANI/WMCNTs was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization with core-shell structures. • The WMCNTs highly enhanced the conductivity of composites. • The comopsites were more conducive to the intercalation and deintercalation of anions and cations. • The much better performance as the cathode for lithium-ion cells was acquired for the composites. • The composites are low cost and eco-friendly which have a good prospect in future. - Abstract: The aniline was polymerized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in order to obtain a cathode material with core-shell structures for lithium batteries. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, the charge/discharge property, coulombic efficiency, and ac impedance spectroscopy in detail. At a constant current density of 0.2 C, the first specific discharge capacity of the reduced and oxidized PANI/WMCNTs were 181.8 mAh/g and 135.1 mAh/g separately, and the capacity retention rates were corresponding to 76.75% and 86.04% for 100 cycles with 99% coulombic efficiency. It was confirmed that the CNTs obviously enhanced the conductivity and electrochemical performance of polyaniline, and compared with the pure PANI, the reduced composite possessed a quite good performance for the cathode of lithium batteries.

  7. Mutations blocking side chain assembly, polymerization, or transport of a Wzy-dependent Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule are lethal in the absence of suppressor mutations and can affect polymer transfer to the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Yother, Janet

    2007-05-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides of many bacteria are synthesized by the Wzy polymerase-dependent mechanism, where long-chain polymers are assembled from undecaprenyl-phosphate-linked repeat units on the outer face of the cytoplasmic membrane. In gram-positive bacteria, Wzy-dependent capsules remain largely cell associated via membrane and peptidoglycan linkages. Like many Wzy-dependent capsules, the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 capsule is branched. In this study, we found that deletions of cps2K, cps2J, or cps2H, which encode a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase necessary for side chain synthesis, the putative Wzx transporter (flippase), and the putative Wzy polymerase, respectively, were obtained only in the presence of suppressor mutations. Most of the suppressor mutations were in cps2E, which encodes the initiating glycosyltransferase for capsule synthesis. The cps2K mutants containing the suppressor mutations produced low levels of high-molecular-weight polymer that was detected only in membrane fractions. cps2K-repaired mutants exhibited only modest increases in capsule production due to the effect of the secondary mutation, but capsule was detectable in both membrane and cell wall fractions. Lethality of the cps2K, cps2J, and cps2H mutations was likely due to sequestration of undecaprenyl-phosphate in the capsule pathway and either preclusion of its turnover for utilization in essential pathways or destabilization of the membrane due to an accumulation of lipid-linked intermediates. The results demonstrate that proper polymer assembly requires not only a functional transporter and polymerase but also complete repeat units. A central role for the initiating glycosyltransferase in controlling capsule synthesis is also suggested.

  8. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  9. Biomass digestibility is predominantly affected by three factors of wall polymer features distinctive in wheat accessions and rice mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. Results Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains

  10. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA)............... 12 2.6 Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy... gravimetry analysis (TGA) Thermal analysis of polymer films has been accomplished by TGA and DSC methods with the aid of Perkin-Elmer Series 7 Analysers...The MEH-PPV/acceptor films were prepared by spin-casting of the resulting mixture (with or without precipitate ) on glass substrates of diameter 23 mm

  11. The Research on Polymer Microcapsulation for Cell Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; LI Min; SONG Hong; FANG Yi; HUA Hui; CHEN Li-guo; ZHOU Wei; WANG Zheng-rong

    2004-01-01

    Microcapsulation is a technology that enwrapped the solid or liquid or some gas matter with membrane materials to form microparticles(i.e.microcapsules). The materials of microcapsule is composed of naturnal polymers or modified naturnal polymers or synthesized polymers. The water-soluble core matter can only use oil-soluble wall materials, and vice versa.Synthesized methods of polymer microcapsulesSynthesized methods with monomers as raw materialsThis kind of methods include suspension polymerization, emulsion polymerization, dispersal polymerization, precipitation polymerization,suspension condensation polymerization, dispersal condensation polymerization, deposition condensation polymerization, interface condensation polymerization, and so on.Synthesized methods with polymers as raw materialsThese methods are suspension cross-linked polymerization, coacervation phase separation,extraction with solvent evaporation, polymer deposition, polymer chelation, polymer gel,solidification of melting polymer, tray-painted ways, fluidized bed ways, and so forth.Polymer materials to synthesize microcapsules2.1. Naturnal polymer materialsThe characteristics of this kind of materials are easy to form membrane, good stability and no toxicity. The polymer materials include lipids(liposome), amyloses, proteins, plant gels, waxes, etc.2.2. Modified polymer materialsThe characteristics of these materials are little toxicity, high viscidity(viscosity), soluble salt materials. But they cannot be used in water, acidic environment and high temperature environment for a long time. The materials include all kind of derivants of celluloses.2.3. Synthesized polymer materialsThe characteristics of the materials are easy to form membrane, good stability and adjustment of membrane properties. The synthesized polymer materials include degradable polymers(PLA, PGA,PLGA, PCL, PHB, PHV, PHA, PEG, PPG and the like) and indegradable polymers(PA, PMMA,PAM, PS, PVC, PB, PE, PU, PUA, PVA and otherwise

  12. Pulling a polymer with anisotropic stiffness near a sticky wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbara, R; Owczarek, A L

    2012-01-01

    We solve exactly a two-dimensional partially directed walk model of a semi-flexible polymer that has one end tethered to a sticky wall, while a pulling force away from the adsorbing surface acts on the free end of the walk. This model generalizes a number of previously considered adsorption models by incorporating individual horizontal and vertical stiffness effects, in competition with a variable pulling angle. A solution to the corresponding generating function is found by means of the kernel method. While the phases and related phase transitions are similar in nature to those found previously the analysis of the model in terms of its physical variables highlights various novel structures in the shapes of the phase diagrams and related behaviour of the polymer. We review the results of previously considered sub-cases, augmenting these findings to include analysis with respect to the model’s physical variables—namely, temperature, pulling force, pulling angle away from the surface, stiffness strength and the ratio of vertical to horizontal stiffness potentials, with our subsequent analysis for the general model focusing on the effect that stiffness has on this pulling angle range. In analysing the model with stiffness we also pay special attention to the case where only vertical stiffness is included. The physical analysis of this case reveals behaviour more closely resembling that of an upward pulling force acting on a polymer than it does of a model where horizontal stiffness acts. The stiffness–temperature phase diagram exhibits re-entrance for low temperatures, previously only seen for three-dimensional or co-polymer models. For the most general model we delineate the shift in the physical behaviour as we change the ratio of vertical to horizontal stiffness between the horizontal-only and the vertical-only stiffness regimes. We find that a number of distinct physical characteristics will only be observed for a model where the vertical stiffness dominates

  13. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Iuliana V; Walker, Louise A; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P

    2015-07-28

    The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. The C. albicans cell wall is the first line of defense against external insults, the site of immune recognition by the host, and an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Its tensile strength is conferred by

  14. Altered Cell Wall Plasticity Can Restrict Plant Growth under Ammonium Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórska, Anna; Burian, Maria; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Monika; Zebrowski, Jacek; Solecka, Danuta; Szal, Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Plants mainly utilize inorganic forms of nitrogen (N), such as nitrate (NO 3 - ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ). However, the composition of the N source is important, because excess of NH 4 + promotes morphological disorders. Plants cultured on NH 4 + as the sole N source exhibit serious growth inhibition, commonly referred to as "ammonium toxicity syndrome." NH 4 + -mediated suppression of growth may be attributable to both repression of cell elongation and reduction of cell division. The precondition for cell enlargement is the expansion of the cell wall, which requires the loosening of the cell wall polymers. Therefore, to understand how NH 4 + nutrition may trigger growth retardation in plants, properties of their cell walls were analyzed. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana using NH 4 + as the sole N source has smaller cells with relatively thicker cell walls. Moreover, cellulose, which is the main load-bearing polysaccharide revealed a denser assembly of microfibrils. Consequently, the leaf blade tissue showed elevated tensile strength and indicated higher cell wall stiffness. These changes might be related to changes in polysaccharide and ion content of cell walls. Further, NH 4 + toxicity was associated with altered activities of cell wall modifying proteins. The lower activity and/or expression of pectin hydrolyzing enzymes and expansins might limit cell wall expansion. Additionally, the higher activity of cell wall peroxidases can lead to higher cross-linking of cell wall polymers. Overall, the NH 4 + -mediated inhibition of growth is related to a more rigid cell wall structure, which limits expansion of cells. The changes in cell wall composition were also indicated by decreased expression of Feronia , a receptor-like kinase involved in the control of cell wall extension.

  15. Investigation of Plant Cell Wall Properties: A Study of Contributions from the Nanoscale to the Macroscale Impacting Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jacob Dillon

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol is one of a few challenging, yet opportune technologies that can reduce the consumption of petroleum-derived transportation fuels, while providing parallel reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass recalcitrance, or resistance to deconstruction, is a major technical challenge that limits effective conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars, often requiring a costly thermochemical pretreatment step to improve biomass deconstruction. Biomass recalcitrance is imparted largely by the secondary cell wall, a complex polymeric matrix of cell wall polysaccharides and aromatic heteropolymers, that provides structural stability to cells and enables plant upright growth. Polymers within the cell wall can vary both compositionally and structurally depending upon plant species and anatomical fraction, and have varied responses to thermochemical pretreatments. Cell wall properties impacting recalcitrance are still not well understood, and as a result, the goal of this dissertation is to investigate structural features of the cell wall contributing to recalcitrance (1) in diverse anatomical fractions of a single species, (2) in response to diverse pretreatments, and (3) resulting from genetic modification. In the first study, feedstock cell wall heterogeneity was investigated in anatomical (stem, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) and internode fractions of switchgrass at varying tissue maturities. Lignin content was observed as the key contributor to recalcitrance in maturing stem tissues only, with non-cellulosic substituted glucuronoarabinoxylans and pectic polysaccharides contributing to cell wall recalcitrance in leaf sheath and leaf blades. Hydroxycinnamate (i.e., saponifiable p-coumarate and ferulate) content along with xylan and pectin extractability decreased with tissue maturity, suggesting lignification is only one component imparting maturity specific cell wall recalcitrance. In the second study

  16. Glycoprotein component of plant cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.B.; Chen, J.A.; Varner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary wall surrounding most dicotyledonous plant cells contains a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) component named extensin. A small group of glycopeptides solubilized from isolated cell walls by proteolysis contained a repeated pentapeptide glycosylated by tri- and tetraarabinosides linked to hydroxyproline and, by galactose, linked to serine. Recently, two complementary approaches to this problem have provided results which greatly increase the understanding of wall extensin. In this paper the authors describe what is known about the structure of soluble extensin secreted into the walls of the carrot root cells

  17. A 3-D Model of a Perennial Ryegrass Primary Cell Wall and Its Enzymatic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrakumar Vetharaniam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel 3-D, agent-based model of cell-wall digestion to improve our understanding of ruminal cell-wall digestion. It offers a capability to study cell walls and their enzymatic modification, by providing a representation of cellulose microfibrils and non-cellulosic polysaccharides and by simulating their spatial and catalytic interactions with enzymes. One can vary cell-wall composition and the types and numbers of enzyme molecules, allowing the model to be applied to a range of systems where cell walls are degraded and to the modification of cell walls by endogenous enzymes. As a proof of principle, we have modelled the wall of a mesophyll cell from the leaf of perennial ryegrass and then simulated its enzymatic degradation. This is a primary, non-lignified cell wall and the model includes cellulose, hemicelluloses (glucuronoarabinoxylans, 1,3;1,4-β-glucans, and xyloglucans and pectin. These polymers are represented at the level of constituent monosaccharides, and assembled to form a 3-D, meso-scale representation of the molecular structure of the cell wall. The composition of the cell wall can be parameterised to represent different walls in different cell types and taxa. The model can contain arbitrary combinations of different enzymes. It simulates their random diffusion through the polymer networks taking collisions into account, allowing steric hindrance from cell-wall polymers to be modelled. Steric considerations are included when target bonds are encountered, and breakdown products resulting from enzymatic activity are predicted.

  18. Polymer tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cells convert solar energy directly into electricity and are attractive contribute to the increasing energy demand of modern society. Commercial mono-crystalline silicon based devices are infiltrating the energy market but their expensive, time and energy consuming production process

  19. 30 years of battling the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, J P

    2017-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus, like in other pathogenic fungi, the cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting environmental stresses such as phagocytic killing. Most of the chemical analyses undertaken on the cell wall of A. fumigatus are focused on the mycelial cell wall because it is the vegetative stage of the fungus. However, the cell walls of the mycelium and conidium (which is the infective propagule) are different especially at the level of the surface layer, which plays a significant role in the interaction between A. fumigatus conidia and phagocytic cells of the immune system. In spite of the essential function of the cell wall in fungal life, progresses have been extremely slow in the understanding of biosynthesis as well in the identification of the key host responses against the cell wall components. A major difficulty is the fact that the composition and structural organization of the cell wall is not immutably set and is constantly reshuffled depending on the environmental conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers for organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wei Wei; Hendriks, K.H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a

  1. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  2. Functional duality of the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide cell wall is the extracellular armour of the fungal cell. Although essential in the protection of the fungal cell against aggressive external stresses, the biosynthesis of the polysaccharide core is poorly understood. For a long time it was considered that this cell wall skeleton was a fixed structure whose role was only to be sensed as non-self by the host and consequently trigger the defence response. It is now known that the cell wall polysaccharide composition and localization continuously change to adapt to their environment and that these modifications help the fungus to escape from the immune system. Moreover, cell wall polysaccharides could function as true virulence factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biocompatible multi-walled carbon nanotube–CdTe quantum dot–polymer hybrids for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baslak, Canan, E-mail: cananbaslak@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Demirel Kars, Meltem, E-mail: dmeltem@yahoo.com [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Sarayonu Vocational High School, Selcuk University, 42430 Konya (Turkey); Karaman, Mustafa; Kus, Mahmut [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Cengeloglu, Yunus; Ersoz, Mustafa [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2015-04-15

    Herein we report the synthesis of polymer coated quantum dots (QDs)–carbon nanotube composite material with high biocompatibility and low cellular toxicity. The synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–QD-(-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)) (pGMA) hybrids were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that quantum dots were well-distributed on nanotube surfaces in high density. The toxicological assessments of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids in human mammary carcinoma cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids possess intense red fluorescence signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability over 6-h exposure in living cell system. The toxicity comparison of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids has shown that the existence of PGMA thin coating on MWCNT–QD hybrid surface decreased the cellular toxicity and increased biocompatibility. - Highlights: • We report that polymer coating of QDs on CNTs increased their biocompatibility by decreasing cellular toxicity. • QD–CNT polymer hybrid material may be proposed as a good diagnostic agent to visualize cancer cells which may be improved as a therapeutic carrier in future. • Coating QDs with polymer seems to be a right choice to be used in medicinal applications both for diagnosis and for therapy.

  4. Biocompatible multi-walled carbon nanotube–CdTe quantum dot–polymer hybrids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baslak, Canan; Demirel Kars, Meltem; Karaman, Mustafa; Kus, Mahmut; Cengeloglu, Yunus; Ersoz, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report the synthesis of polymer coated quantum dots (QDs)–carbon nanotube composite material with high biocompatibility and low cellular toxicity. The synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–QD-(-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)) (pGMA) hybrids were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that quantum dots were well-distributed on nanotube surfaces in high density. The toxicological assessments of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids in human mammary carcinoma cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids possess intense red fluorescence signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability over 6-h exposure in living cell system. The toxicity comparison of QDs and MWCNT–QD–polymer hybrids has shown that the existence of PGMA thin coating on MWCNT–QD hybrid surface decreased the cellular toxicity and increased biocompatibility. - Highlights: • We report that polymer coating of QDs on CNTs increased their biocompatibility by decreasing cellular toxicity. • QD–CNT polymer hybrid material may be proposed as a good diagnostic agent to visualize cancer cells which may be improved as a therapeutic carrier in future. • Coating QDs with polymer seems to be a right choice to be used in medicinal applications both for diagnosis and for therapy

  5. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  6. Cell Wall Diversity in Forage Maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, A.F.; Noordam-Boot, C.M.M.; Dolstra, Oene; Weijde, van der Tim; Combes, Eliette; Dufour, Philippe; Vlaswinkel, Louis; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies are ideal platforms for assessing the extent of genetic diversity, inferring the genetic architecture, and evaluating complex trait interrelations for cell wall compositional and bioconversion traits relevant to bioenergy applications. Through the characterization of a forage

  7. Cell-wall recovery after irreversible deformation of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckes, Jozef; Burgert, Ingo; Frühmann, Klaus; Müller, Martin; Kölln, Klaas; Hamilton, Myles; Burghammer, Manfred; Roth, Stephan V.; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie; Fratzl, Peter

    2003-12-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of biological materials reside in their complex hierarchical architecture and in specific molecular mechanistic phenomena. The fundamental importance of molecular interactions and bond recovery has been suggested by studies on deformation and fracture of bone and nacre. Like these mineral-based materials, wood also represents a complex nanocomposite with excellent mechanical performance, despite the fact that it is mainly based on polymers. In wood, however, the mechanistic contribution of processes in the cell wall is not fully understood. Here we have combined tensile tests on individual wood cells and on wood foils with simultaneous synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis in order to separate deformation mechanisms inside the cell wall from those mediated by cell-cell interactions. We show that tensile deformation beyond the yield point does not deteriorate the stiffness of either individual cells or foils. This indicates that there is a dominant recovery mechanism that re-forms the amorphous matrix between the cellulose microfibrils within the cell wall, maintaining its mechanical properties. This stick-slip mechanism, rather like Velcro operating at the nanometre level, provides a 'plastic response' similar to that effected by moving dislocations in metals. We suggest that the molecular recovery mechanism in the cell matrix is a universal phenomenon dominating the tensile deformation of different wood tissue types.

  8. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell’s metabolic

  9. Unconventional device concepts for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, S.C.; Slooff, L.H.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Cobussen-Pool, E.M.; Lenzmann, F.O.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Sessolo, M.; Bolink, H.J. [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The inclusion of metal-oxide layers in polymer solar cells enables the fabrication of a series of unconventional device architectures. These devices include: semi-transparent polymer solar cells, devices with inverted polarity, as well as devices with air stable electrodes. A proof-of-principle of these devices is presented. The anticipated benefits of these novel device structures over conventional polymer solar cells are discussed.

  10. Sucrose Synthase Is Associated with the Cell Wall of Tobacco Pollen Tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persia, D.; Cai, G.; Casino, C.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Cresti, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus; EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in plant cells, providing carbon for respiration and for the synthesis of cell wall polymers and starch. Since Sus is important for plant cell growth, insights into its structure, localization, and features are useful for

  11. The Cell Wall of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Graumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The cell wall of Bacillus subtilis is a rigid structure on the outside of the cell that forms the first barrier between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains cell shape and withstands the pressure generated by the cell’s turgor. In this chapter, the chemical composition

  12. Effects of an attractive wall on the translocation of polymer under driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Weiping; Wang Chao; Sun Lizhen; Luo Mengbo

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an attractive wall at the trans side on the translocation of an eight-site bond-fluctuation model (BFM) polymer through a pore in a membrane under driving are simulated by the dynamic Monte Carlo method. The attractive wall shows two contrary effects: its excluded volume effect reduces configuration entropy and thus hinders the translocation of the polymer, while its attraction decreases the energy and thus accelerates the translocation. At a critical polymer-wall interaction ε* ≈- 1, we find that the two effects compensate each other and the translocation time τ is roughly independent of the separation distance between the wall and the pore. The value ε* ≈- 1 is roughly equal to the critical adsorption point for the BFM polymer. Moreover, the value of the critical attraction is roughly independent of chain length N and chemical potential difference Δμ. At last, a scaling relation τ ∼ N α is observed for polymer translocation at a high value of NΔμ. Though the translocation time is highly dependent on the polymer-wall interaction and pore-wall separation distance, the exponent α is always about 1.30 ± 0.05 so long as NΔμ is large enough. (paper)

  13. Identification of Novel Cell Wall Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelle Momany

    2009-10-26

    Our DOE Biosciences-funded work focused on the fungal cell wall and morphogenesis. We are especially interested in how new cell wall material is targeted to appropriate areas for polar (asymmetric) growth. Polar growth is the only way that filamentous fungi explore the environment to find suitable substrates to degrade. Work funded by this grant has resulted in a total of twenty peer-reviewed publications. In work funded by this grant, we identified nine Aspergillus nidulans temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants that fail to send out a germ tube and show a swollen cell phenotype at restrictive temperature, the swo mutants. In other organisms, a swollen cell phenotype is often associated with misdirected growth or weakened cell walls. Our work shows that several of the A. nidulans swo mutants have defects in the establishment and maintenance of polarity. Cloning of several swo genes by complementation also showed that secondary modification of proteins seems is important in polarity. We also investigated cell wall biosynthesis and branching based on leads in literature from other organisms and found that branching and nuclear division are tied and that the cell wall reorganizes during development. In our most recent work we have focused on gene expression during the shift from isotropic to polar growth. Surprisingly we found that genes previously thought to be involved only in spore formation are important in early vegetative growth as well.

  14. Modification of near-wall coherent structures in polymer drag reduced flow: simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubief, Yves; White, Christopher; Shaqfeh, Eric; Moin, Parviz; Lele, Sanjiva

    2002-11-01

    Polymer drag reduced flows are investigated through direct numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows. The solver for the viscoelastic model (FENE-P) is based on higher-order finite difference schemes and a novel implicit time integration method. Its robustness allows the simulation of all drag reduction (DR) regimes from the onset to the maximum drag reduction (MDR). It also permits the use of realistic polymer length and concentration. The maximum polymer extension in our simulation matches that of a polystyrene molecule of 10^6 molecular weight. Two distinct regimes of polymer drag reduced flows are observed: at low drag reduction (LDR, DR< 40-50%), the near-wall structure is essentially similar to Newtonian wall turbulence whereas the high drag reduction regime (HDR, DR from 40-50% to MDR) shows significant differences in the organization of the coherent structures. The 3D information provided by numerical simulations allows the determination of the interaction of polymers and near-wall coherent structures. To isolate the contribution of polymers in the viscous sublayer, the buffer and the outer region of the flow, numerical experiments are performed where the polymer concentration is varied in the wall-normal direction. Finally a mechanism of polymer drag reduction derived from our results and PIV measurements is discussed.

  15. Conjugated polymer zwitterions and solar cells comprising conjugated polymer zwitterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas; Page, Zachariah; Liu, Yao

    2018-06-05

    A conjugated polymer zwitterion includes repeating units having structure (I), (II), or a combination thereof ##STR00001## wherein Ar is independently at each occurrence a divalent substituted or unsubstituted C3-30 arylene or heteroarylene group; L is independently at each occurrence a divalent C1-16 alkylene group, C6-30arylene or heteroarylene group, or alkylene oxide group; and R1 is independently at each occurrence a zwitterion. A polymer solar cell including the conjugated polymer zwitterion is also disclosed.

  16. Diurnal Periodicity in the Supply of Cell Wall Components during Wood Cell Wall Formation

    OpenAIRE

    細尾, 佳宏

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies on the diurnal periodicity in wood cell wall formation, with a major focus on those that we have conducted. Differences in the innermost surface of developing secondary walls of differentiating conifer tracheids can be seen from day to night Cellulose microfibrils are clearly evident during the day, and amorphous material containing abundant hemicelluloses is prevalent at night. These findings suggest a diurnal periodicity in the supply of cell wall compo...

  17. Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2001-10-18

    This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis.

  18. Mechanochemical Polarization of Contiguous Cell Walls Shapes Plant Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Mateusz; Grones, Peter; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Vain, Thomas; Milani, Pascale; Krupinski, Pawel; Zagórska-Marek, Beata; Viotti, Corrado; Jönsson, Henrik; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Hamant, Olivier; Robert, Stéphanie

    2017-11-06

    The epidermis of aerial plant organs is thought to be limiting for growth, because it acts as a continuous load-bearing layer, resisting tension. Leaf epidermis contains jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells whose shape has been proposed to be a result of subcellular variations in expansion rate that induce local buckling events. Paradoxically, such local compressive buckling should not occur given the tensile stresses across the epidermis. Using computational modeling, we show that the simplest scenario to explain pavement cell shapes within an epidermis under tension must involve mechanical wall heterogeneities across and along the anticlinal pavement cell walls between adjacent cells. Combining genetics, atomic force microscopy, and immunolabeling, we demonstrate that contiguous cell walls indeed exhibit hybrid mechanochemical properties. Such biochemical wall heterogeneities precede wall bending. Altogether, this provides a possible mechanism for the generation of complex plant cell shapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell adhesion pattern created by OSTE polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Li, Yiyang; Ding, Xianting

    2017-04-24

    Engineering surfaces with functional polymers is a crucial issue in the field of micro/nanofabrication and cell-material interface studies. For many applications of surface patterning, it does not need cells to attach on the whole surface. Herein, we introduce a novel polymer fabrication protocol of off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers to create heterogeneity on the surface by utilizing 3D printing and soft-lithography. By choosing two OSTE polymers with different functional groups, we create a pattern where only parts of the surface can facilitate cell adhesion. We also study the hydrophilic property of OSTE polymers by mixing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) directly with pre-polymers and plasma treatments afterwards. Moreover, we investigate the effect of functional groups' excess ratio and hydrophilic property on the cell adhesion ability of OSTE polymers. The results show that the cell adhesion ability of OSTE materials can be tuned within a wide range by the coupling effect of functional groups' excess ratio and hydrophilic property. Meanwhile, by mixing PEG with pre-polymers and undergoing oxygen plasma treatment afterward can significantly improve the hydrophilic property of OSTE polymers.

  20. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  1. Structure, cell wall elasticity and polysaccharide properties of living yeast cells, as probed by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsteens, David; Dupres, Vincent; Evoy, Kevin Mc; Dufrene, Yves F; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J

    2008-01-01

    Although the chemical composition of yeast cell walls is known, the organization, assembly, and interactions of the various macromolecules remain poorly understood. Here, we used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) in three different modes to probe the ultrastructure, cell wall elasticity and polymer properties of two brewing yeast strains, i.e. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae. Topographic images of the two strains revealed smooth and homogeneous cell surfaces, and the presence of circular bud scars on dividing cells. Nanomechanical measurements demonstrated that the cell wall elasticity of S. carlsbergensis is homogeneous. By contrast, the bud scar of S. cerevisiae was found to be stiffer than the cell wall, presumably due to the accumulation of chitin. Notably, single molecule force spectroscopy with lectin-modified tips revealed major differences in polysaccharide properties of the two strains. Polysaccharides were clearly more extended on S. cerevisiae, suggesting that not only oligosaccharides, but also polypeptide chains of the mannoproteins were stretched. Consistent with earlier cell surface analyses, these findings may explain the very different aggregation properties of the two organisms. This study demonstrates the power of using multiple complementary AFM modalities for probing the organization and interactions of the various macromolecules of microbial cell walls

  2. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche, which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  3. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-02-16

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche,which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  4. Roles of membrane trafficking in plant cell wall dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo eEbine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell wall is one of the characteristic components of plant cells. The cell wall composition differs among cell types and is modified in response to various environmental conditions. To properly generate and modify the cell wall, many proteins are transported to the plasma membrane or extracellular space through membrane trafficking, which is one of the key protein transport mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Given the diverse composition and functions of the cell wall in plants, the transport of the cell wall components and proteins that are involved in cell wall-related events could be specialized for each cell type, i.e., the machinery for cell wall biogenesis, modification, and maintenance could be transported via different trafficking pathways. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the current understanding of the roles and mechanisms of membrane trafficking in plant cells and focus on the biogenesis and regulation of the cell wall.

  5. Reconstitution of a secondary cell wall in a secondary cell wall-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2015-02-01

    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  6. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Polymers for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Hendriks, Koen H; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-01-19

    Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a result, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells based on conjugated polymers as electron donor and fullerene derivatives as electron acceptor have exceeded 10% in single-junction and 11% in multijunction devices. Despite these efforts, it is notoriously difficult to establish thorough structure-property relationships that will be required to further optimize existing high-performance polymers to their intrinsic limits. In this Account, we highlight progress on the development and our understanding of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells. The DPP moiety is strongly electron withdrawing and its polar nature enhances the tendency of DPP-based polymers to crystallize. As a result, DPP-based conjugated polymers often exhibit an advantageously broad and tunable optical absorption, up to 1000 nm, and high mobilities for holes and electrons, which can result in high photocurrents and good fill factors in solar cells. Here we focus on the structural modifications applied to DPP polymers and rationalize and explain the relationships between chemical structure and organic photovoltaic performance. The DPP polymers can be tuned via their aromatic substituents, their alkyl side chains, and the nature of the π-conjugated segment linking the units along the polymer chain. We show that these building blocks work together in determining the molecular conformation, the optical properties, the charge carrier mobility, and the solubility of the polymer. We identify the latter as a decisive parameter for DPP-based organic solar cells because it regulates the diameter of the semicrystalline DPP polymer fibers that form in the photovoltaic blends with

  7. Finite-size scaling functions for directed polymers confined between attracting walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owczarek, A L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Prellberg, T [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rechnitzer, A [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)

    2008-01-25

    The exact solution of directed self-avoiding walks confined to a slit of finite width and interacting with the walls of the slit via an attractive potential has been recently calculated. The walks can be considered to model the polymer-induced steric stabilization and sensitized flocculation of colloidal dispersions. The large-width asymptotics led to a phase diagram different to that of a polymer attached to, and attracted to, a single wall. The question that arises is: Can one interpolate between the single wall and two wall cases? In this paper, we calculate the exact scaling functions for the partition function by considering the two variable asymptotics of the partition function for simultaneous large length and large width. Consequently, we find the scaling functions for the force induced by the polymer on the walls. We find that these scaling functions are given by elliptic {theta} functions. In some parts of the phase diagram there is more a complex crossover between the single wall and two wall cases and we elucidate how this happens.

  8. Characterization of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum cell wall proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longzhou; Free, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    We used a proteomic analysis to identify cell wall proteins released from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hyphal and sclerotial cell walls via a trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS) digestion. Cell walls from hyphae grown in Vogel's glucose medium (a synthetic medium lacking plant materials), from hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth and from sclerotia produced on potato dextrose agar were used in the analysis. Under the conditions used, TFMS digests the glycosidic linkages in the cell walls to release intact cell wall proteins. The analysis identified 24 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall proteins and 30 non-GPI-anchored cell wall proteins. We found that the cell walls contained an array of cell wall biosynthetic enzymes similar to those found in the cell walls of other fungi. When comparing the proteins in hyphal cell walls grown in potato dextrose broth with those in hyphal cell walls grown in the absence of plant material, it was found that a core group of cell wall biosynthetic proteins and some proteins associated with pathogenicity (secreted cellulases, pectin lyases, glucosidases and proteases) were expressed in both types of hyphae. The hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth contained a number of additional proteins (laccases, oxalate decarboxylase, peroxidase, polysaccharide deacetylase and several proteins unique to Sclerotinia and Botrytis) that might facilitate growth on a plant host. A comparison of the proteins in the sclerotial cell wall with the proteins in the hyphal cell wall demonstrated that sclerotia formation is not marked by a major shift in the composition of cell wall protein. We found that the S. sclerotiorum cell walls contained 11 cell wall proteins that were encoded only in Sclerotinia and Botrytis genomes. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cell wall heterogeneity in root development of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Somssich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signalling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modelling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes.

  10. A dynamical model for plant cell wall architecture formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.M.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a dynamical mathematical model to explain cell wall architecture in plant cells. The highly regular textures observed in cell walls reflect the spatial organisation of the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs), the most important structural component of cell walls. Based on a geometrical theory

  11. Exploring the Role of Cell Wall-Related Genes and Polysaccharides during Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew R; Lou, Haoyu; Aubert, Matthew K; Wilkinson, Laura G; Little, Alan; Houston, Kelly; Pinto, Sara C; Shirley, Neil J

    2018-05-31

    The majority of organs in plants are not established until after germination, when pluripotent stem cells in the growing apices give rise to daughter cells that proliferate and subsequently differentiate into new tissues and organ primordia. This remarkable capacity is not only restricted to the meristem, since maturing cells in many organs can also rapidly alter their identity depending on the cues they receive. One general feature of plant cell differentiation is a change in cell wall composition at the cell surface. Historically, this has been viewed as a downstream response to primary cues controlling differentiation, but a closer inspection of the wall suggests that it may play a much more active role. Specific polymers within the wall can act as substrates for modifications that impact receptor binding, signal mobility, and cell flexibility. Therefore, far from being a static barrier, the cell wall and its constituent polysaccharides can dictate signal transmission and perception, and directly contribute to a cell's capacity to differentiate. In this review, we re-visit the role of plant cell wall-related genes and polysaccharides during various stages of development, with a particular focus on how changes in cell wall machinery accompany the exit of cells from the stem cell niche.

  12. Phenol-formaldehyde reactivity with lignin in the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Latewood from Pinus taeda was reacted with alkaline phenol–formaldehyde (PF) adhesive and characterised using two-dimensional 1H–13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy so that chemical modification of the wood cell wall polymers, after PF resol curing, could be elucidated. The...

  13. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  14. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, George; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Armour, Gary; Whitworth, Craig; Rybak, Leonard

    2003-03-01

    The role of apoptosis and proliferation in maintenance of cochlear lateral wall cells was examined. The methods employed for detection of apoptosis were the Hoechst fluorescence stain and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling) assay, and proliferations were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The incidence of apoptosis in the strial marginal cell was 50% greater (32.9+/-3.7%) than strial intermediate and basal cells but similar to spiral ligament cells. Although division of marginal strial cells was rarely detected, a significant number of proliferating cells in the remaining stria vascularis and spiral ligament were observed. These data implied that replacement of marginal cells arose elsewhere and could be followed by a BrdU-deoxythymidine pulse-chase study. At 2 h post injection, nuclear BrdU in marginal cells was not detected; however, by 24 h post injection, 20-25% of marginal cell nuclei were BrdU-positive. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis.

  15. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for

  16. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  17. Synthesis of cell wall xylans and glucans by golgi membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the biosynthesis of mixed-linkage β-D-glucan and glucuronoarabinoxylans which make up the hemicellulosic matrix of the primary cell walls of maize and other cereal grasses. The Golgi apparatus was enriched from plasma membrane and other organelles by flotation density gradient centrifugation. Glucan synthase I and II, which are established markers for Golgi and plasma membrane, respectively, displayed considerable overlap in conventional separations with sucrose density gradients. Flotation gradients improved separation of the membranes substantially, but the different synthases themselves also incorporated radioactivity from either 10 μM or 1 mM UDP-[ 14 C]-glucose into polymer. Relative incorporation of radioactivity into polymers from UDP-[ 14 C]-xylose by the various membrane fractions was nearly identical to relative IDPase activities, indicating that combined xylosyl transferase-xylan synthase represents a new, unequivocal marker for the Golgi apparatus. We also have developed techniques of gas-liquid chromatography and radiogas proportional counting to achieve capillary quality separation of partially methylated alditol acetates with simultaneous determination of radioactivity in the derivatives. Digestion of polymeric products by specific endo-glycanohydrolases to diagnostic oligosaccharides also reveal specific kinds of polysaccharides synthesized by the Golgi membranes. A combination of these techniques provides unequivocal determination of the linkage structure of specific polymers synthesized by the purified Golgi apparatus

  18. Association Mapping of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes and Cell Wall Quality in Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Laura [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Plant Biology; Wu, Y. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Zhu, L. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Brummer, E. C. [Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States); Saha, M. [Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Inefficient conversion of biomass to biofuels is one of the main barriers for biofuel production from such materials. Approximately half of polysaccharides in biomass remain unused by typical biochemical conversion methods. Conversion efficiency is influenced by the composition and structure of cell walls of biomass. Grasses such as wheat, maize, and rice, as well as dedicated perennial bioenergy crops, like switchgrass, make up ~55% of biomass that can be produced in the United States. Grass cell walls have a different composition and patterning compared with dicotyledonous plants, including the well-studied model plant, Arabidopsis. This project identified genetic determinants of cell wall composition in grasses using both naturally occurring genetic variation of switchgrass and gene network reconstruction and functional assays in rice. In addition, the project linked functional data in rice and other species to switchgrass improvement efforts through curation of the most abundant class of regulators in the switchgrass genome. Characterizing natural diversity of switchgrass for variation in cell wall composition and properties, also known as quality, provides an unbiased avenue for identifying biologically viable diversity in switchgrass cell walls. To characterizing natural diversity, this project generated cell wall composition and enzymatic deconstruction data for ~450 genotypes of the Switchgrass Southern Association Collection (SSAC), a diverse collection composed of 36 switchgrass accessions from the southern U.S. distribution of switchgrass. Comparing these data with other measures of cell wall quality for the same samples demonstrated the complementary nature of the diverse characterization platforms now being used for biomass characterization. Association of the composition data with ~3.2K single nucleotide variant markers identified six significant single nucleotide variant markers co-associated with digestibility and another compositional trait. These

  19. Tools to Understand Structural Property Relationships for Wood Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes; Daniel J. Yelle; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Understanding structure-property relationships for wood cell walls has been hindered by the complex polymeric structures comprising these cell walls and the difficulty in assessing meaningful mechanical property measurements of individual cell walls. To help overcome these hindrances, we have developed two experimental methods: 1) two-dimensional solution state nuclear...

  20. An enzymatic approach to cell wall structure | Hungate | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminococcus albus was incubated with isolated alfalfa cell wall material for 72 h in batch culture. Cellulose in the cell walls was digested to a somewhat greater extent (88%) than were the fermentable sugars of the hemicellulose fraction (62- 76%). The digestibility of the total insoluble alfalfa cell wall, including lignin but ...

  1. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  2. Flexible ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the material-of-choice for transparent conductors in any optoelectronic application. However, scarce resources of indium and high market demand of ITO have created large price fluctuations and future supply concerns. In polymer solar cells (PSCs), ITO is the single......-cost alternatives to ITO suitable for use in PSCs. These alternatives belong to four material groups: polymers; metal and polymer composites; metal nanowires and ultra-thin metal films; and carbon nanotubes and graphene. We further present the progress of employing these alternatives in PSCs and identify future...

  3. Diffusion of drag-reducing polymer solutions within a rough-walled turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of surface roughness on diffusion of wall-injected, drag-reducing polymer solutions within a turbulent boundary layer was studied with a 0.94 m long flat-plate test model at speeds of up to 10.6 m s-1 and Reynolds numbers of up to 9×106. The surface was hydraulically smooth, transitionally rough, or fully rough. Mean concentration profiles were acquired with planar laser induced fluorescence, which was the primary flow diagnostic. Polymer concentration profiles with high injection concentrations (≥1000 wppm) had the peak concentration shifted away from the wall, which was partially attributed to a lifting phenomenon. The diffusion process was divided into three zones—initial, intermediate, and final. Studies of polymer injection into a polymer ocean at concentrations sufficient for maximum drag reduction indicated that the maximum initial zone length is of the order of 100 boundary layer thicknesses. The intermediate zone results indicate that friction velocity and roughness height are important scaling parameters in addition to flow and injection conditions. Lastly, the current results were combined with those in Petrie et al. ["Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow," Exp. Fluids 35, 8 (2003)] to demonstrate that the influence of polymer degradation increases with increased surface roughness.

  4. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Lei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  5. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meijuan; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-04-29

    It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  6. The cell wall: a carbohydrate armour for the fungal cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2007-10-01

    The cell wall is composed of a polysaccharide-based three-dimensional network. Considered for a long time as an inert exoskeleton, the cell wall is now seen as a dynamic structure that is continuously changing as a result of the modification of culture conditions and environmental stresses. Although the cell wall composition varies among fungal species, chemogenomic comparative analysis have led to a better understanding of the genes and mechanisms involved in the construction of the common central core composed of branched beta1,3 glucan-chitin. Because of its essential biological role, unique biochemistry and structural organization and the absence in mammalian cells of most of its constitutive components, the cell wall is an attractive target for the development of new antifungal agents. Genomic as well as drug studies have shown that the death of the fungus can result from inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide synthases. To date, only beta1,3 glucan synthase inhibitors have been launched clinically and many more targets remain to be explored.

  7. Probing cell internalisation mechanics with polymer capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Ping, Yuan; Suma, Tomoya; Cavalieri, Francesca; Besford, Quinn A; Chen, George; Braunger, Julia A; Caruso, Frank

    2016-10-06

    We report polymer capsule-based probes for quantifying the pressure exerted by cells during capsule internalisation (P in ). Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) capsules with tuneable mechanical properties were fabricated through layer-by-layer assembly. The P in was quantified by correlating the cell-induced deformation with the ex situ osmotically induced deformation of the polymer capsules. Ultimately, we found that human monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells exerted up to approximately 360 kPa on the capsules during internalisation.

  8. A study of the native cell wall structures of the marine alga Ventricaria ventricosa (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyceae) using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Enid M; Beilby, Mary J; Moon, Anthony R

    2014-04-01

    A substantial proportion of the architecture of the plant cell wall remains unknown with a few cell wall models being proposed. Moreover, even less is known about the green algal cell wall. Techniques that allow direct visualization of the cell wall in as near to its native state are of importance in unravelling the spatial arrangement of cell wall structures and hence in the development of cell wall models. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the native cell wall of living cells of Ventricaria ventricosa (V. ventricosa) at high resolution under physiological conditions. The cell wall polymers were identified mainly qualitatively via their structural appearance. The cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) were easily recognizable and the imaging results indicate that the V. ventricosa cell wall has a cross-fibrillar structure throughout. We found the native wall to be abundant in matrix polysaccharides existing in different curing states. The soft phase matrix polysaccharides susceptible by the AFM scanning tip existed as a glutinous fibrillar meshwork, possibly incorporating both the pectic- and hemicellulosic-type substances. The hard phase matrix producing clearer images, revealed coiled fibrillar structures associated with CMFs, sometimes being resolved as globular structures by the AFM tip. The coiling fibrillar structures were also seen in the images of isolated cell wall fragments. The mucilaginous component of the wall was discernible from the gelatinous cell wall matrix as it formed microstructural domains over the surface. AFM has been successful in imaging the native cell wall and revealing novel findings such as the 'coiling fibrillar structures' and cell wall components which have previously not been seen, that is, the gelatinous matrix phase.

  9. Characterization of MreB polymers in E. coli and their correlations to cell shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey; Ouzonov, Nikolay; Gitai, Zemer; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Shape influences all facets of how bacteria interact with their environment. The size of E. coli is determined by the peptidoglycan cell wall and internal turgor pressure. The cell wall is patterned by MreB, an actin homolog that forms short polymers on the cytoplasmic membrane. MreB coordinates the breaking of old material and the insertion of new material for growth, but it is currently unknown what mechanism sets the absolute diameter of the cell. Using new techniques in fluorescence microscopy and image processing, we are able to quantify cell shape in 3- dimensions and access previously unattainable data on the conformation of MreB polymers. To study how MreB affects the diameter of bacteria, we analyzed the shapes and polymers of cells that have had MreB perturbed by one of two methods. We first treated cells with the MreB polymerization-inhibiting drug A22. Secondly, we created point mutants in MreB that change MreB polymer conformation and the cell shape. By analyzing the correlations between different shape and polymer metrics, we find that under both treatments, the average helical pitch angle of the polymers correlates strongly with the cell diameter. This observation links the micron scale shape of the cell to the nanometer scale MreB cytoskeleton.

  10. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  11. Indaceno-Based Conjugated Polymers for Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuli; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Liancheng

    2018-01-04

    Polymer solar cells have received considerable attention due to the advantages of low material cost, tunable band gaps, ultralight weight, and high flexible properties, and they have been a promising organic photovoltaic technology for alternative non-renewable fossil fuels for the past decade. Inspired by these merits, numerous state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic materials have been constructed. Among them, indaceno-based polymer materials have made an impact in obtaining an impressive power conversion efficiency of more than 11%, which shows the momentous potential of this class of materials for commercial applications. In this review, recent progress of indaceno-based organic polymer solar cells are reviewed, and the structure-property device performance correlations of the reported materials are highlighted. Then, common regularities of these successful cases are collected, and encouraging viewpoints on the further development of more exciting indaceno-based organic photovoltaic materials are provided. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fermentation of the endosperm cell walls of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant species: The relationship between cell wall characteristics and fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls from the endosperm of four monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rye, and rice) and four dicotyledons (soya bean, lupin, faba bean, and pea) seeds were studied to relate cell wall composition and structure with fermentation characteristics. Cell wall material was isolated from the endosperm of

  13. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of

  14. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar...

  15. The Role of Auxin in Cell Wall Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Mateusz; Robert, Stéphanie

    2018-03-22

    Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls, which are dynamic structures displaying a strictly regulated balance between rigidity and flexibility. Walls are fairly rigid to provide support and protection, but also extensible, to allow cell growth, which is triggered by a high intracellular turgor pressure. Wall properties regulate the differential growth of the cell, resulting in a diversity of cell sizes and shapes. The plant hormone auxin is well known to stimulate cell elongation via increasing wall extensibility. Auxin participates in the regulation of cell wall properties by inducing wall loosening. Here, we review what is known on cell wall property regulation by auxin. We focus particularly on the auxin role during cell expansion linked directly to cell wall modifications. We also analyze downstream targets of transcriptional auxin signaling, which are related to the cell wall and could be linked to acid growth and the action of wall-loosening proteins. All together, this update elucidates the connection between hormonal signaling and cell wall synthesis and deposition.

  16. Processive movement of MreB-associated cell wall biosynthetic complexes in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Escobar, Julia; Chastanet, Arnaud; Crevenna, Alvaro H; Fromion, Vincent; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Carballido-López, Rut

    2011-07-08

    The peptidoglycan cell wall and the actin-like MreB cytoskeleton are major determinants of cell shape in rod-shaped bacteria. The prevailing model postulates that helical, membrane-associated MreB filaments organize elongation-specific peptidoglycan-synthesizing complexes along sidewalls. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to visualize the dynamic relation between MreB isoforms and cell wall synthesis in live Bacillus subtilis cells. During exponential growth, MreB proteins did not form helical structures. Instead, together with other morphogenetic factors, they assembled into discrete patches that moved processively along peripheral tracks perpendicular to the cell axis. Patch motility was largely powered by cell wall synthesis, and MreB polymers restricted diffusion of patch components in the membrane and oriented patch motion.

  17. Expression of S-adenosylmethionine Hydrolase in Tissues Synthesizing Secondary Cell Walls Alters Specific Methylated Cell Wall Fractions and Improves Biomass Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymerick Eudes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is a large source of fermentable sugars for the synthesis of bioproducts using engineered microbes. These sugars are stored as cell wall polymers, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, and are embedded with lignin, which makes their enzymatic hydrolysis challenging. One of the strategies to reduce cell wall recalcitrance is the modification of lignin content and composition. Lignin is a phenolic polymer of methylated aromatic alcohols and its synthesis in tissues developing secondary cell walls is a significant sink for the consumption of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet. In this study, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis stems that targeted expression of S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (AdoMetase, E.C. 3.3.1.2 in secondary cell-wall synthesizing tissues reduces the AdoMet pool and impacts lignin content and composition. In particular, both NMR analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry of lignin in engineered biomass showed relative enrichment of non-methylated p-hydroxycinnamyl (H units and a reduction of dimethylated syringyl (S units. This indicates a lower degree of methylation compared to that in wild-type lignin. Quantification of cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamates revealed a reduction of ferulate in AdoMetase transgenic lines. Biomass from transgenic lines, in contrast to that in control plants, exhibits an enrichment of glucose content and a reduction in the degree of hemicellulose glucuronoxylan methylation. We also show that these modifications resulted in a reduction of cell wall recalcitrance, because sugar yield generated by enzymatic biomass saccharification was greater than that of wild type plants. Considering that transgenic plants show no important diminution of biomass yields, and that heterologous expression of AdoMetase protein can be spatiotemporally optimized, this novel approach provides a valuable option for the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock.

  18. Biomass enzymatic saccharification is determined by the non-KOH-extractable wall polymer features that predominately affect cellulose crystallinity in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jun; Yu, Bin; Wu, Leiming; Wang, Hongwu; Wu, Zhiliang; Li, Ming; Huang, Pengyan; Feng, Shengqiu; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Yonglian; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-01-01

    Corn is a major food crop with enormous biomass residues for biofuel production. Due to cell wall recalcitrance, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of lignocellulose on biomass saccharification. In this study, we examined total 40 corn accessions that displayed a diverse cell wall composition. Correlation analysis showed that cellulose and lignin levels negatively affected biomass digestibility after NaOH pretreatments at pcorn samples indicated that cellulose and lignin should not be the major factors on biomass saccharification after pretreatments with NaOH and H2SO4 at three concentrations. Notably, despite that the non-KOH-extractable residues covered 12%-23% hemicelluloses and lignin of total biomass, their wall polymer features exhibited the predominant effects on biomass enzymatic hydrolysis including Ara substitution degree of xylan (reverse Xyl/Ara) and S/G ratio of lignin. Furthermore, the non-KOH-extractable polymer features could significantly affect lignocellulose crystallinity at pcorn.

  19. Plant cell wall signalling and receptor-like kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian

    2017-02-15

    Communication between the extracellular matrix and the cell interior is essential for all organisms as intrinsic and extrinsic cues have to be integrated to co-ordinate development, growth, and behaviour. This applies in particular to plants, the growth and shape of which is governed by deposition and remodelling of the cell wall, a rigid, yet dynamic, extracellular network. It is thus generally assumed that cell wall surveillance pathways exist to monitor the state of the wall and, if needed, elicit compensatory responses such as altered expression of cell wall remodelling and biosynthesis genes. Here, I highlight recent advances in the field of cell wall signalling in plants, with emphasis on the role of plasma membrane receptor-like kinase complexes. In addition, possible roles for cell wall-mediated signalling beyond the maintenance of cell wall integrity are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. A Structurally Specialized Uniform Wall Layer is Essential for Constructing Wall Ingrowth Papillae in Transfer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans-differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta. Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated. PMID:29259611

  1. A directed walk model of a long chain polymer in a slit with attractive walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brak, R; Owczarek, A L; Rechnitzer, A; Whittington, S G

    2005-01-01

    We present the exact solutions of various directed walk models of polymers confined to a slit and interacting with the walls of the slit via an attractive potential. We consider three geometric constraints on the ends of the polymer and concentrate on the long chain limit. Apart from the general interest in the effect of geometrical confinement, this can be viewed as a two-dimensional model of steric stabilization and sensitized flocculation of colloidal dispersions. We demonstrate that the large width limit admits a phase diagram that is markedly different from the one found in a half-plane geometry, even when the polymer is constrained to be fixed at both ends on one wall. We are not able to find a closed form solution for the free energy for finite width, at all values of the interaction parameters, but we can calculate the asymptotic behaviour for large widths everywhere in the phase plane. This allows us to find the force between the walls induced by the polymer and hence the regions of the plane where either steric stabilization or sensitized flocculation would occur

  2. Cyborg cells: functionalisation of living cells with polymers and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Minullina, Renata T; Konnova, Svetlana A; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2012-06-07

    Living cells interfaced with a range of polyelectrolyte coatings, magnetic and noble metal nanoparticles, hard mineral shells and other complex nanomaterials can perform functions often completely different from their original specialisation. Such "cyborg cells" are already finding a range of novel applications in areas like whole cell biosensors, bioelectronics, toxicity microscreening, tissue engineering, cell implant protection and bioanalytical chemistry. In this tutorial review, we describe the development of novel methods for functionalisation of cells with polymers and nanoparticles and comment on future advances in this technology in the light of other literature approaches. We review recent studies on the cell viability and function upon direct deposition of nanoparticles, coating with polyelectrolytes, polymer assisted assembly of nanomaterials and hard shells on the cell surface. The cell toxicity issues are considered for many practical applications in terms of possible adverse effects of the deposited polymers, polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles on the cell surface.

  3. Yeast-assisted synthesis of polypyrrole: Quantification and influence on the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Stirke, Arunas; Garbaras, Andrius; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Thornton, Barry; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the metabolism of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was utilized for the synthesis of the conducting polymer - polypyrrole (Ppy).Yeast cells were modified in situ by synthesized Ppy. The Ppy was formed in the cell wall by redox-cycling of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- , performed by the yeast cells. Fluorescence microscopy, enzymatic digestions, atomic force microscopy and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy were applied to determine both the polymerization reaction itself and the polymer location in yeast cells. Ppy formation resulted in enhanced resistance to lytic enzymes, significant increase of elasticity and alteration of other mechanical cell wall properties evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The suggested method of polymer synthesis allows the introduction of polypyrrole structures within the cell wall, which is build up from polymers consisting of carbohydrates. This cell wall modification strategy could increase the usefulness of yeast as an alternative energy source in biofuel cells, and in cell based biosensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  5. Solid-State NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Bardet, Michel; De Paepe, Gael; Hediger, Sabine; Ayala, Isabel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool. (authors)

  6. Solid-state NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Ayala, Isabel; Bardet, Michel; De Paëpe, Gaël; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Hediger, Sabine

    2013-04-03

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool.

  7. Anthocyanins influence tannin-cell wall interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Martínez-Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2016-09-01

    The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  9. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...

  10. Turnover of galactans and other cell wall polysaccharides during development of flax plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Lozovaya, V.V.; Carpita, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the synthesis and turnover of cell wall polysaccharides of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant during development of the phloem fibers. One-month-old flax plants were exposed to a 40-min pulse with 14CO2 followed by 8-h, 24-h, and 1-month periods of chase with ambient CO2, and radioactivity in cell wall sugars was determined in various plant parts. The relative radioactivity of glucose in noncellulosic polysaccharides was the highest compared with all other cell wall sugars immediately after the pulse and decreased substantially during the subsequent chase. The relative radioactivities of the other cell wall sugars changed with differing rates, indicating turnover of specific polysaccharides. Notably, after 1 month of chase there was a marked decrease in the proportional mass and total radioactivity in cell wall galactose, indicating a long-term turnover of the galactans enriched in the fiber-containing tissues. The ratio of radiolabeled xylose to arabinose also increased during the chase, indicating a turnover of arabinose-containing polymers and interconversion to xylose. The pattern of label redistribution differed between organs, indicating that the cell wall turnover processes are tissue- and cell-specific

  11. Identification of polysaccharide hydrolases involved in autolytic degradation of Zea cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nock, L.P.; Smith, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Cell walls of Zea mays (cv L.G.11) seedlings labeled with 14 C were treated with α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis to remove starch and mixed linkage glucans. These walls released arabinose, xylose, galactose, and galacturonic acid in addition to glucose when they were allowed to autolyze. Methylation analysis was performed on samples of wall which had been incubated autolytically and the results indicated that degradation of the major polymer of the wall, the glucoarabinoxylan, had occurred. A number of glycanases could be dissociated from the wall by use of 3 M LiCL. The proteins which were released were found to contain a number of exoglycosidase activities in addition to being effective in degrading the polysaccharide substrates, araban, xylan, galactan, laminarin, mannan, and polygalacturonic acid. The effects of these enzymes on the wall during autolysis appear to result from endo-activity in addition to exo-activity. The structural changes that occurred in the cell walls during autolysis were found to be related to the changes previously found to occur in cell walls during auxin induced extension

  12. Production and characterization of polymer nanocomposite with aligned single wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Tao Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    We reported a simple method to fabricate polymer nanocomposites with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) having exceptional alignment and improved mechanical properties. The composite films were fabricated by casting a suspension of single walled carbon nanotubes in a solution of thermoplastic polyurethane and tetrahydrofuran. The orientation as well as dispersion of nanotubes was determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and polarized Raman spectroscopy. The macroscopic alignment probably results from solvent-polymer interaction induced orientation of soft segment chain during swelling and moisture curing. The tensile behavior of the aligned nanotube composite film was also studied. At a 0.5 wt.% nanotube loading, a 1.9-fold increase in Young's modulus was achieved

  13. Investigation of the adsorption of polymer chains on amine-functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R; Ajori, S; Rouhi, S

    2015-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the adsorption of different polymer chains on functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). The nanotubes were functionalized with two different amines: NH2 (a small amine) and CH2-NH2 (a large amine). Considering three different polymer chains, all with the same number of atoms, the effect of polymer type on the polymer-nanotube interaction was studied. In general, it was found that covalent functionalization considerably improved the polymer-DWCNT interaction. By comparing the results obtained with different polymer chains, it was observed that, unlike polyethylene and polyketone, poly(styrene sulfonate) only weakly interacts with the functionalized DWCNTs. Accordingly, the smallest radius of gyration was obtained with adsorbed poly(styrene sulfonate). It was also observed that the DWCNTs functionalized with the large amine presented more stable interactions with polyketone and poly(styrene sulfonate) than with polyethylene, whereas the DWCNTs functionalized with the small amine showed better interfacial noncovalent bonding with polyethylene.

  14. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Kim, Jong H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure

  15. Spectroscopy on Polymer-Fullerene Photovoltaic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakonov, V.; Riedel, I.; Godovsky, D.; Parisi, J.; Ceuster, J. De; Goovaerts, E.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the electrical transport properties of ITO/conjugated polymer-fullerene/Al photovoltaic cells and the role of defect states with current-voltage studies, admittance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance technique. In the temperature range 293-40K, the characteristic step in the

  16. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2015-11-25

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the ‘Young's modulus’ of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics.

  17. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  18. Xylose-rich polysaccharides from the primary walls of embryogenic cell line of Pinus caribaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, A; Domon, J M; David, H; Joseleau, J P

    1997-08-01

    Embryogenic cell lines of Pinus caribaea were isolated from somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos. Previous studies showed that the proteins and glycoproteins were characteristic of the embryogenic state. In the present work we were seeking typical feature in the polysaccharide from the cell walls of embryogenic calli at nine days of culture. Sequential extraction with water, ammonium oxalate, dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium borohydride and 4.3 M potassium hydroxide revealed that the extracted polysaccharides contained high proportions of arabinose and significant amounts of xylose. Fractionation of the hydrosoluble polymers on DEAE cellulose afforded a xylose-rich fraction (80% xylose, 24% glucose and lower properties of fucose and mannose). Methylation analysis and 13C-NMR spectra showed that the glycan backbone consisted of beta 1 --> 4 linked xylosyl residues Similar study of the fractions extracted respectively with DMSO and 4.3 M KOH showed the presence of polydisperse glycoxylans but excluded the presence of xyloglucan in significant amount. This could be a characteristic feature of embryogenic cells walls of Pinus caribaea or could be typical of cells grown as calluses. In the various fractions obtained from DEAE cellulose chromatography of the alkaline extract the infrequent occurrence of fucoxylans beside an arabinogalactan showed again the unusual nature of the cell wall polymers of this embryogenic lines, which seems to differ greatly from those found in the primary wall of cells from suspension cultures.

  19. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  20. Bacterial cell wall composition and the influence of antibiotics by cell-wall and whole-cell NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Joseph A. H.; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterize bacterial cell-wall composition and structure is crucial to understanding the function of the bacterial cell wall, determining drug modes of action and developing new-generation therapeutics. Solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool to quantify chemical composition and to map cell-wall architecture in bacteria and plants, even in the context of unperturbed intact whole cells. In this review, we discuss solid-state NMR approaches to define peptidoglycan composition and to characterize the modes of action of old and new antibiotics, focusing on examples in Staphylococcus aureus. We provide perspectives regarding the selected NMR strategies as we describe the exciting and still-developing cell-wall and whole-cell NMR toolkit. We also discuss specific discoveries regarding the modes of action of vancomycin analogues, including oritavancin, and briefly address the reconsideration of the killing action of β-lactam antibiotics. In such chemical genetics approaches, there is still much to be learned from perturbations enacted by cell-wall assembly inhibitors, and solid-state NMR approaches are poised to address questions of cell-wall composition and assembly in S. aureus and other organisms. PMID:26370936

  1. The Disruptive Effect of Lysozyme on the Bacterial Cell Wall Explored by an "In-Silico" Structural Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano D.; Otero, Lisandro H.; Ruiz, Francisco; Klinke, Sebastián; Giordano, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall…

  2. The Specific Nature of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Donald J.; English, Patricia D.; Albersheim, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Polysaccharide compositions of cell walls were assessed by quantitative analyses of the component sugars. Cell walls were hydrolyzed in 2 n trifluoroacetic acid and the liberated sugars reduced to their respective alditols. The alditols were acetylated and the resulting alditol acetates separated by gas chromatography. Quantitative assay of the alditol acetates was accomplished by electronically integrating the detector output of the gas chromatograph. Myo-inositol, introduced into the sample prior to hydrolysis, served as an internal standard. The cell wall polysaccharide compositions of plant varieties within a given species are essentially identical. However, differences in the sugar composition were observed in cell walls prepared from different species of the same as well as of different genera. The fact that the wall compositions of different varieties of the same species are the same indicates that the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides is genetically regulated. The cell walls of various morphological parts (roots, hypocotyls, first internodes and primary leaves) of bean plants were each found to have a characteristic sugar composition. It was found that the cell wall sugar composition of suspension-cultured sycamore cells could be altered by growing the cells on different carbon sources. This demonstrates that the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides can be manipulated without fatal consequences. PMID:16656594

  3. Conjugated Polymer-Assisted Dispersion of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes : The Power of Polymer Wrapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samanta, Suman Kalyan; Fritsch, Martin; Scherf, Ullrich; Gomulya, Widianta; Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    CONSPECTUS: The future application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in electronic (nano)devices is closely coupled to the availability of pure, semiconducting SWNTs and preferably, their defined positioning on suited substrates. Commercial carbon nanotube raw mixtures contain metallic as

  4. Identification and calculation of the universal asymptote for drag reduction by polymers in wall bounded turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, Roberto; De Angelis, Elisabetta; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar

    2005-11-04

    Drag reduction by polymers in wall turbulence is bounded from above by a universal maximal drag reduction (MDR) velocity profile that is a log law, estimated experimentally by Virk as V+(y+) approximately 11.7logy+ - 17. Here V+(y+) and y+ are the mean streamwise velocity and the distance from the wall in "wall" units. In this Letter we propose that this MDR profile is an edge solution of the Navier-Stokes equations (with an effective viscosity profile) beyond which no turbulent solutions exist. This insight rationalizes the universality of the MDR and provides a maximum principle which allows an ab initio calculation of the parameters in this law without any viscoelastic experimental input.

  5. Mechanical properties of plant cell walls probed by relaxation spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Laugesen; Ray, Peter Martin; Karlsson, Anders Ola

    2011-01-01

    Relax, that deduces relaxation spectra from appropriate rheological measurements is presented and made accessible through a Web interface. BayesRelax models the cell wall as a continuum of relaxing elements, and the ability of the method to resolve small differences in cell wall mechanical properties is demonstrated......Transformants and mutants with altered cell wall composition are expected to display a biomechanical phenotype due to the structural role of the cell wall. It is often quite difficult, however, to distinguish the mechanical behavior of a mutant's or transformant's cell walls from that of the wild...... type. This may be due to the plant’s ability to compensate for the wall modification or because the biophysical method that is often employed, determination of simple elastic modulus and breakstrength, lacks the resolving power necessary for detecting subtle mechanical phenotypes. Here, we apply...

  6. Class III peroxidases in cellulose deficient cultured maize cells during cell wall remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rubio, Romina; Acebes, José Luis; Encina, Antonio; Kärkönen, Anna

    2018-02-21

    Maize (Zea mays L.) suspension-cultured cells habituated to a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) have a modified cell wall, in which the reduction in the cellulose content is compensated by a network of highly cross-linked feruloylated arabinoxylans and the deposition of lignin-like polymers. For both arabinoxylan cross-linking and lignin polymerization, class III peroxidases (POXs) have been demonstrated to have a prominent role. For the first time, a comparative study of POX activity and isoforms in control and cellulose-impaired cells has been addressed, also taking into account their cellular distribution in different compartments. Proteins from the spent medium (SM), soluble cellular (SC), ionically (ICW) and covalently bound cell wall protein fractions were assayed for total and specific peroxidase activity by using coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol and ferulic acid as substrates. The isoPOX profile was obtained by isoelectric focusing. POX activity was higher in DCB-habituated than in non-habituated cells in all protein fractions at all cell culture stages. For all substrates assayed, SC and ICW fractions showed higher activity at the early-log growth phase than at the late-log phase. However, the highest POX activity in the spent medium was found at the late-log phase. According to the isoPOX profiles, the highest diversity of isoPOXs was detected in the ICW and SM protein fractions. The latter fraction contained isoPOXs with higher activity in DCB-habituated cells. Some of the isoPOXs detected could be involved in cross-linking of arabinoxylans and in the lignin-like polymer formation in DCB-habituated cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Ionizing radiation damage in Micrococcus radiodurans cell wall: release of polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Sublethal 60 Co γ-irradiation of the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans in aqueous suspension results in a loss of up to 6 percent of its cellular dry weight and 30 percent of its wet weight. In the process some specific cell wall polysaccharides, including a polymer of glucose and N-acylated glucosamine, are released into the surrounding medium. These polysaccharides appear to originate from a hydrophobic site in the middle, lipid-rich, cell wall layer. The damage to this layer which results in the release of these and other polymers may be due to a disruption of this hydrophobic site. The polysaccharide containing glucose and N-acylated glucosamine exists as a high molecular weight polymer in unirradiated cells, but irradiation causes some degradation prior to release. In a free state this polysaccharide is considerably less sensitive to radiolytic degradation than in a bound state. Free radicals generated from surrounding water by ionizing radiation initiate the release, hydroxyl radicals being the most important species. Oxygen protects the cell wall against loss of the polysaccharides, apparently by a mechanism which does not depend on the ability of O 2 to scavenge hydrogen atoms and aqueous electrons

  8. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Kuki, Hiroaki; Kuroha, Takeshi; Nishitani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The development of a range of sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall has identified many of the cell wall proteins. However, it remains difficult to elucidate the precise biological role of each protein and the cell wall dynamics driven by their actions. The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. It therefore offers a uni...

  9. Plant metabolism and cell wall formation in space (microgravity) and on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    Variations in cell wall chemistry provide vascular plants with the ability to withstand gravitational forces, as well as providing facile mechanisms for correctional responses to various gravitational stimuli, e.g., in reaction wood formation. A principal focus of our current research is to precisely and systematically dissect the essentially unknown mechanism(s) of vascular plant cell wall assembly, particularly with respect to formation of its phenolic constituents, i.e., lignins and suberins, and how gravity impacts upon these processes. Formation of these phenolic polymers is of particular interest, since it appears that elaboration of their biochemical pathways was essential for successful land adaptation. By extrapolation, we are also greatly intrigued as to how the microgravity environment impacts upon 'normal' cell wall assembly mechanisms/metabolism.

  10. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene Suppression in Flax Leads to Changes in Wall Synthesis and Sensing Genes, Cell Wall Chemistry and Stem Morphology Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Magdalena; Działo, Magdalena; Richter, Dorota; Dymińska, Lucyna; Matuła, Jan; Kotecki, Andrzej; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure. PMID:27446124

  11. At the border: the plasma membrane-cell wall continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengyu; Persson, Staffan; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara

    2015-03-01

    Plant cells rely on their cell walls for directed growth and environmental adaptation. Synthesis and remodelling of the cell walls are membrane-related processes. During cell growth and exposure to external stimuli, there is a constant exchange of lipids, proteins, and other cell wall components between the cytosol and the plasma membrane/apoplast. This exchange of material and the localization of cell wall proteins at certain spots in the plasma membrane seem to rely on a particular membrane composition. In addition, sensors at the plasma membrane detect changes in the cell wall architecture, and activate cytoplasmic signalling schemes and ultimately cell wall remodelling. The apoplastic polysaccharide matrix is, on the other hand, crucial for preventing proteins diffusing uncontrollably in the membrane. Therefore, the cell wall-plasma membrane link is essential for plant development and responses to external stimuli. This review focuses on the relationship between the cell wall and plasma membrane, and its importance for plant tissue organization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research....... The research field of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is rapidly progressing along three lines: Improvement of efficiency and stability together with the introduction of large scale production methods. All three lines are explored in this work. The thesis describes low band gap polymers and why these are needed....... Polymer of this type display broader absorption resulting in better overlap with the solar spectrum and potentially higher current density. Synthesis, characterization and device performance of three series of polymers illustrating how the absorption spectrum of polymers can be manipulated synthetically...

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, L.; Pozio, A.

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes the state of art of systems for energy production in electrical vehicles, looking into the general characteristics of electrodes and membranes. The water and thermal balance of the cell in relation to operative conditions, the pressure and temperature influence on the performance are examined. Special emphasis is given to the electrode characteristics-fabrication techniques and assembly of membrane electrodes. The problems related to the oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode are examined, in relation to the fabrication techniques and to operative conditions of the cells. Finally, the possible alternative catalyzers for anode and cathode are reviewed

  14. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Garnett, Erik C.; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L.; McGehee, Michael D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Polymer functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube composites and semi-fluorinated quaternary ammonium polymer colloids and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abhijit

    Scope and Method of Study: Current study focused on understanding of "wetting" and "dewetting" phenomena between surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) which are lightly grafted with polymer chains by reversible-deactivation radical polymerization, when they are mixed with matrix chains of the same architecture as grafts. Effects of grafts to matrix chain lengths on SWCNT dispersion in matrix polymers were studied by measuring electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and storage and loss moduli of nanocomposites. Another area of work was to design semi-fluorinated copolymers with core-shell morphology by emulsion polymerization, study their catalytic activities for hydrolyses of Paraoxon, a toxic insecticide, in the forms of both colloidal dispersions and films, and to characterize the surfaces of the films by atomic force microscopy and by dynamic contact angle measurements. Findings and Conclusions: The glass transition temperature ( Tg) of polystyrene (PS) filled with SWCNT grafted with PS of different lengths increased from 99 to 109 °C at 6 wt% of SWCNT followed by a plateau. The heat capacity (DeltaCp ) at Tg continued to decrease only for the smallest chain length grafted PS nanocomposites. SWCNT/PS nanocomposites had low electrical conductivity and showed no percolation threshold due to the thick polymer coatings. A key finding was that the SWCNT surface can accommodate only a fixed numbers of styrene units. Similar results on change in Tg were obtained for SWCNT/PMMA nanocomposites when molecular weight of matrix (Mmatrix) ≥ molecular weight of grafts (Mgraft). No change in DeltaCp was observed for SWCNT/PMMA nanocomposites. "Wetting" to "dewetting" occurred Mmatrix/ Mgraft ≈ 1. For Mmatrix > Mgraft, electrical conductivity of nanocomposites reached the value of 10-9 S cm-1 at 1.0 wt% nanotube loading and had percolation threshold of electrical conductivity at ˜0.25 wt% SWCNT. Raman and UV-vis-NIR data confirmed that

  17. Magnetic domain wall conduits for single cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Torti, A.; Kostesha, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The ability to trap, manipulate and release single cells on a surface is important both for fundamental studies of cellular processes and for the development of novel lab-on-chip miniaturized tools for biological and medical applications. In this paper we demonstrate how magnetic domain walls...... walls over 16 hours. Moreover, we demonstrate the controlled transport and release of individual yeast cells via displacement and annihilation of individual domain walls in micro- and nano-sized magnetic structures. These results pave the way to the implementation of magnetic devices based on domain...... walls technology in lab-on-chip systems devoted to accurate individual cell trapping and manipulation....

  18. PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A; CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; PONTELANDOLFO, JM

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA. Thin walled polymer shells are needed for OMEGA cryogenic laser experiments. These capsules need to be about 900 (micro)m in diameter and as thin as possible (approx 1-2 (micro)m), while having enough strength to be filled with DT as fast as possible to about 1000 atm. The authors have found that by optimizing the coating parameters in the glow discharge polymer (GDP) deposition system, traditionally used for making ICF targets, they can routinely make robust, ∼ 1.5 (micro)m thick, 900 (micro)m diameter GDP shells with buckle strengths of over 0.3 atm. This is twice the strength of shells made prior to the optimization and is comparable to values quoted for polyimide shells. In addition, these shells were found to be approximately three times more permeable and over 20% denser than previously made GDP shells. The combination of higher strength and permeability is ideal for direct drive cryogenic targets at OMEGA. Shells as thin as 0.5 (micro)m have been made. In this paper, the authors discuss the shell fabrication process, effects of modifying various GDP deposition parameters on shell properties and chemical composition

  19. The exact solution of a three-dimensional lattice polymer confined in a slab with sticky walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brak, R; Iliev, G K; Owczarek, A L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010 (Australia); Whittington, S G [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2010-04-02

    We present the exact solution of a three-dimensional lattice model of a polymer confined between two sticky walls, that is within a slab. We demonstrate that the model behaves in a similar way to its two-dimensional analogues and agrees with Monte Carlo evidence based upon simulations of self-avoiding walks in slabs. The model on which we focus is a variant of the partially directed walk model on the cubic lattice. We consider both the phase diagram of relatively long polymers in a macroscopic slab and the effective force of the polymer on the walls of the slab.

  20. Changes in Cell Wall Polysaccharides Associated With Growth 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Donald J.; English, Patricia D.; Albersheim, Peter

    1968-01-01

    Changes in the polysaccharide composition of Phaseolus vulgaris, P. aureus, and Zea mays cell walls were studied during the first 28 days of seedling development using a gas chromatographic method for the analysis of neutral sugars. Acid hydrolysis of cell wall material from young tissues liberates rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose which collectively can account for as much as 70% of the dry weight of the wall. Mature walls in fully expanded tissues of these same plants contain less of these constituents (10%-20% of dry wt). Gross differences are observed between developmental patterns of the cell wall in the various parts of a seedling, such as root, stem, and leaf. The general patterns of wall polysaccharide composition change, however, are similar for analogous organs among the varieties of a species. Small but significant differences in the rates of change in sugar composition were detected between varieties of the same species which exhibited different growth patterns. The cell walls of species which are further removed phylogenetically exhibit even more dissimilar developmental patterns. The results demonstrate the dynamic nature of the cell wall during growth as well as the quantitative and qualitative exactness with which the biosynthesis of plant cell walls is regulated. PMID:16656862

  1. original article the use of morphological and cell wall chemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    THE USE OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND CELL WALL CHEMICAL MARKERS IN. THE IDENTIFICATION OF ... aerial hyphae, with or without diffusible pigments on medium surface (7, 14). Cell wall components of Actinomycetes enable rapid qualitative identification of certain .... Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the.

  2. Hemicellulose biosynthesis and degradation in tobacco cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Natural fibres have a wide range of technological applications, such as in paper and textile industries. The basic properties and the quality of plant fibres are determined by the composition of the plant cell wall. Characteristic for fibres are thick secondary cell walls, which consist of cellulose

  3. Endotoxins, Glucans and Other Microbial Cell Wall Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Elholm, Grethe; Wouters, Inge M.

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest in microbial cell wall agents has been established, since exposure to these agents has been linked to a wide range of adverse and beneficial health effects. The term microbial cell wall agents refers to a group of molecules of different composition that

  4. Characterising the cellulose synthase complexes of cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoori Zangir, N.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the plant kingdom is the presence of a structural cell wall. Cellulose is a major component in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants. In higher plants cellulose is synthesized by so called rosette protein complexes with cellulose synthases (CESAs) as

  5. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M

    2014-04-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone), polypropylene, sodium polystyrene sulfate, and polyacrylate poly(acrylonitrile-sodium methallylsulfonate). The biocompatibility of these polymers is discussed in terms of tissue responses in both the host and matrix to accommodate the functional survival of the cells. Cells should grow and function in the polymer network as adequately as in their natural environment. This is critical when therapeutic cells from scarce cadaveric donors are considered, such as pancreatic islets. Additionally, the cell mass in capsules is discussed from the perspective of emerging new insights into the release of so-called danger-associated molecular pattern molecules by clumps of necrotic therapeutic cells. We conclude that despite two decades of intensive research, drawing conclusions about which polymer is most adequate for clinical application is still difficult. This is because of the lack of documentation on critical information, such as the composition of the polymer, the presence or absence of confounding factors that induce immune responses, toxicity to enveloped cells, and the permeability of the polymer network. Only alginate has been studied extensively and currently qualifies for application. This review also discusses critical issues that are not directly related to polymers and are not discussed in the other reviews in this issue, such as the functional performance of encapsulated cells in vivo. Physiological endocrine responses may indeed not be expected because of the many barriers that the metabolites encounter when traveling from the blood stream to the enveloped cells and back to circulation. However, despite these diffusion barriers, many studies have shown optimal

  6. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eYoshida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  7. Decoration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping and its application in MWCNT/polyethylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, An-En; Tsai, Shu-Ya; Hsu, Mei-Wen; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2012-05-06

    We dispersed the non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a polymer dispersant and obtained a powder of polymer-wrapped CNTs. The UV-vis absorption spectrum was used to investigate the optimal weight ratio of the CNTs and polymer dispersant. The powder of polymer-wrapped CNTs had improved the drawbacks of CNTs of being lightweight and difficult to process, and it can re-disperse in a solvent. Then, we blended the polymer-wrapped CNTs and polyethylene (PE) by melt-mixing and produced a conductive masterbatch and CNT/PE composites. The polymer-wrapped CNTs showed lower surface resistivity in composites than the raw CNTs. The scanning electron microscopy images also showed that the polymer-wrapped CNTs can disperse well in composites than the raw CNTs.

  8. On-Off Switches for Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Zhong Wang; Richard A.Dixon

    2012-01-01

    Secondary cell walls provide plants with rigidity and strength to support their body weight and ensure water and nutrient transport.They also provide textiles,timber,and potentially second-generation biofuels for human use.Genes responsible for synthesis of the different cell wall components,namely cellulose,hemicelluloses,and lignin,are coordinately expressed and under transcriptional regulation.In the past several years,cell wall-related NAC and MYB transcription factors have been intensively investigated in different species and shown to be master switches of secondary cell wall biosynthesis.Positive and negative regulators,which function upstream of NAC master switches,have also been identified in different plant tissues.Further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of cell wall synthesis will facilitate the engineering of plant feedstocks suitable for biofuel production.

  9. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  10. The role of wall calcium in the extension of cell walls of soybean hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, S. S.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium crosslinks are load-bearing bonds in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyl cell walls, but they are not the same load-bearing bonds that are broken during acid-mediated cell elongation. This conclusion is reached by studying the relationship between wall calcium, pH and the facilitated creep of frozen-thawed soybean hypocotyl sections. Supporting data include the following observations: 1) 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin 2) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) caused only limited facilitated creep as compared with acid, despite removal of comparable or larger amounts of wall calcium; 2) the pH-response curves for calcium removal and acid-facilitated creep were different; 3) reversible acid-extension occurred even after removal of almost all wall calcium with Quin 2; and 4) growth of abraded sections did not involve a proportional loss of wall calcium. Removal of wall calcium, however, increased the capacity of the walls to undergo acid-facilitated creep. These data indicate that breakage of calcium crosslinks is not a major mechanism of cell-wall loosening in soybean hypocotyl tissues.

  11. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Non-covalent functionalization of single wall carbon nanotubes and graphene by a conjugated polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Jiwuer, Jilili

    2014-07-07

    We report first-principles calculations on the binding of poly[(9,9-bis-(6-bromohexylfluorene-2,7-diyl)-co-(benzene-1,4-diyl)] to a (8,0) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and to graphene. Considering different relative orientations of the subsystems, we find for the generalized gradient approximation a non-binding state, whereas the local density approximation predicts reasonable binding energies. The results coincide after inclusion of van der Waals corrections, which demonstrates a weak interaction between the polymer and SWCNT/graphene, mostly of van der Waals type. Accordingly, the density of states shows essentially no hybridization. The physisorption mechanism explains recent experimental observations and suggests that the conjugated polymer can be used for non-covalent functionalization.

  13. Non-covalent functionalization of single wall carbon nanotubes and graphene by a conjugated polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Jiwuer, Jilili; Abdurahman, Ayjamal; Gü lseren, Oğuz; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We report first-principles calculations on the binding of poly[(9,9-bis-(6-bromohexylfluorene-2,7-diyl)-co-(benzene-1,4-diyl)] to a (8,0) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and to graphene. Considering different relative orientations of the subsystems, we find for the generalized gradient approximation a non-binding state, whereas the local density approximation predicts reasonable binding energies. The results coincide after inclusion of van der Waals corrections, which demonstrates a weak interaction between the polymer and SWCNT/graphene, mostly of van der Waals type. Accordingly, the density of states shows essentially no hybridization. The physisorption mechanism explains recent experimental observations and suggests that the conjugated polymer can be used for non-covalent functionalization.

  14. Transcriptional regulatory network controlling secondary cell wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary wall is an abundant component of plant biomass and has a potential to be a renewable resource of bioenergy and biomaterials. It is important to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying secondary wall formation and how it contributes to plant biomass production. In this review, we summarized the potential ...

  15. Evidence for differentiation of cell wall poles in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis was found to the cell surface at polar regions. A significant corollary of DNA attachment to cell poles is the role of the cell wall in chromosome segregation. This project was mainly concerned with visualizing the DNA-cell wall association through autoradiography. The origin and terminus of replication were labelled with ( 3 H)-thymidine using a temperature-sensitive DNA initiation mutant. It was found that most of the radioactivity was associated with cell poles. Ultrastructural analyses of cell walls stained with dilute cationized ferritin showed that the polar area contained a site of dense electronegativity. It is not immediately apparent why cell wall poles would contain an area with a high concentration of negative charge. This finding may be related to the cell pole functioning as the site of chromosome attachment. An additional observation encountered in this study was that cell wall exhibited asymmetry with regard to negative charge, the outside surface being more electronegative than the inside. A significant consequence of this finding is that both teichoic acid and muramyl peptides are situated perpendicularly to the cell surface. This favored arrangement may facilitate cell separation during the division process due to opposition of like charges at septa. The results of this work provide further convincing evidence that the cell wall of B. subtilis is differentiated

  16. Hydroxycinnamate Conjugates as Potential Monolignol Replacements: In vitro Lignification and Cell Wall Studies with Rosmarinic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki, Tobimatsu; Sasikumar, Elumalai; Grabber, John H.; Davidson, Christy L.; Xuejun, Pan; John, Ralph

    2012-04-01

    The plasticity of lignin biosynthesis should permit the inclusion of new compatible phenolic monomers, such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and analogous catechol derivatives, into cell-wall lignins that are consequently less recalcitrant to biomass processing. In vitro lignin polymerization experiments revealed that RA readily underwent peroxidase-catalyzed copolymerization with monolignols and lignin oligomers to form polymers with new benzodioxane inter-unit linkages. Incorporation of RA permitted extensive depolymerization of synthetic lignins by mild alkaline hydrolysis, presumably by cleavage of ester intra-unit linkages within RA. Copolymerization of RA with monolignols into maize cell walls by in situ peroxidases significantly enhanced alkaline lignin extractability and promoted subsequent cell wall saccharification by fungal enzymes. Incorporating RA also improved cell wall saccharification by fungal enzymes and by rumen microflora even without alkaline pretreatments, possibly by modulating lignin hydrophobicity and/or limiting cell wall cross-linking. Consequently, we anticipate that bioengineering approaches for partial monolignol substitution with RA and analogous plant hydroxycinnamates would permit more efficient utilization of plant fiber for biofuels or livestock production.

  17. Detection of Cell Wall Chemical Variation in Zea Mays Mutants Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyck, N.; Thomas, S.

    2001-01-01

    Corn stover is regarded as the prime candidate feedstock material for commercial biomass conversion in the United States. Variations in chemical composition of Zea mays cell walls can affect biomass conversion process yields and economics. Mutant lines were constructed by activating a Mu transposon system. The cell wall chemical composition of 48 mutant families was characterized using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA of the NIR data from 349 maize leaf samples reveals 57 individuals as outliers on one or more of six Principal Components (PCs) at the 95% confidence interval. Of these, 19 individuals from 16 families are outliers on either PC3 (9% of the variation) or PC6 (1% of the variation), the two PCs that contain information about cell wall polymers. Those individuals for which altered cell wall chemistry is confirmed with wet chemical analysis will then be subjected to fermentation analysis to determine whether or not biomass conversion process kinetics, yields and/or economics are significantly affected. Those mutants that provide indications for a decrease in process cost will be pursued further to identify the gene(s) responsible for the observed changes in cell wall composition and associated changes in process economics. These genes will eventually be incorporated into maize breeding programs directed at the development of a truly dual use crop.

  18. Biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall polysaccharide galactomannan requires intraluminal GDP-mannose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jakob; Schmalhorst, Philipp S; Routier, Françoise H

    2012-12-28

    Fungal cell walls frequently contain a polymer of mannose and galactose called galactomannan. In the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, this polysaccharide is made of a linear mannan backbone with side chains of galactofuran and is anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol or is covalently linked to the cell wall. To date, the biosynthesis and significance of this polysaccharide are unknown. The present data demonstrate that deletion of the Golgi UDP-galactofuranose transporter GlfB or the GDP-mannose transporter GmtA leads to the absence of galactofuran or galactomannan, respectively. This indicates that the biosynthesis of galactomannan probably occurs in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and thus contrasts with the biosynthesis of other fungal cell wall polysaccharides studied to date that takes place at the plasma membrane. Transglycosylation of galactomannan from the membrane to the cell wall is hypothesized because both the cell wall-bound and membrane-bound polysaccharide forms are affected in the generated mutants. Considering the severe growth defect of the A. fumigatus GmtA-deficient mutant, proving this paradigm might provide new targets for antifungal therapy.

  19. Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis

  20. Endothelial cell adhesion to ion implanted polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y; Kusakabe, M [SONY Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, J S; Kaibara, M; Iwaki, M; Sasabe, H [RIKEN (Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research), Saitama (Japan)

    1992-03-01

    The biocompatibility of ion implanted polymers has been studied by means of adhesion measurements of bovine aorta endothelial cells in vitro. The specimens used were polystyrene (PS) and segmented polyurethane (SPU). Na{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} and Kr{sup +} ion implantations were performed at an energy of 150 keV with fluences ranging from 1x10{sup 15} to 3x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. The chemical and physical structures of ion-implanted polymers have been investigated in order to analyze their tissue compatibility such as improvement of endothelial cell adhesion. The ion implanted SPU have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells than unimplanted specimens. By contrast, ion implanted PS demonstrated a little improvement of adhesion of cells in this assay. Results of FT-IR-ATR showed that ion implantation broke the original chemical bond to form new radicals such as OH, ....C=O, SiH and condensed rings. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that ion implantation always produced a peak near 1500 cm{sup -1}, which indicated that these ion implanted PS and SPU had the same carbon structure. This structure is considered to bring the dramatic increase in the extent of cell adhesion and spreading to these ion implanted PS and SPU. (orig.).

  1. Branched pectic galactan in phloem-sieve-element cell walls: implications for cell mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torode, Thomas A.; O'Neill, Rachel E.; Marcus, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    has previously been identified in garlic bulbs in which the LM26 epitope is widespread throughout most cell walls including those of phloem cells. Garlic bulb cell wall material has been used to confirm the association of the LM26 epitope with cell wall pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG...

  2. Fabrication of antibacterial PVA nanocomposite films containing dendritic polymer functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapalidis, Andreas; Sideratou, Zili; Panagiotaki, Katerina N.; Sakellis, Elias; Kouvelos, Evangelos P.; Papageorgiou, Sergios; Katsaros, Fotios

    2018-03-01

    A series of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite films containing quaternized hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ox-CNTs@QPEI) are prepared by solvent casting technique. The modified carbon based material exhibits high aqueous solubility, due to the hydrophilic character of the functionalized hyperbranched dendritic polymer. The quaternized PEI successfully wraps around nanotube walls, as polycations provide electrostatic repulsion. Various contents of ox-CNTs@QPEI ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 % w/w were employed to prepare functionalized PVA nanocomposites. The developed films exhibit adequate optical transparency, improved mechanical properties and extremely high antibacterial behavior due to the excellent dispersion of the functionalized carbon nanotubes into the PVA matrix.

  3. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of β1,3- and β1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, β1,3- and β1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  4. Insoluble (1 → 3), (1 → 4)-β-Dglucan is a component of cell walls in brown algae (Phaeophyceae) and is masked by alginates in tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmeán, Armando A.; Duffieux, Delphine; Harholt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    -rich cell-wall. Brown algal cell walls are composed predominantly of the polyanionic polysaccharides alginates and fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides. These polymers are prevalent over neutral and crystalline components, which are believed to be mostly, if not exclusively, cellulose. In an attempt...... to better understand brown algal cell walls, we performed an extensive glycan array analysis of a wide range of brown algal species. Here we provide the first demonstration that mixed-linkage (1 → 3), (1 → 4)-β-d-glucan (MLG) is common in brown algal cell walls. Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...

  5. Understanding plant cell-wall remodelling during the symbiotic interaction between Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana using a carbohydrate microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillo, Fabiano; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Henrissat, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    . An important feature of these interactions concerns changes in the cell-wall composition during interaction with other organisms. In ectomycorrhizae, plant and fungal cell walls come into direct contact, and represent the interface between the two partners. However, very little information is available...... on the re-arrangement that could occur within the plant and fungal cell walls during ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Taking advantage of the Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) technology, the current study has had the aim of monitoring the changes that take place in the plant cell wall in Corylus...

  6. Biomass enzymatic saccharification is determined by the non-KOH-extractable wall polymer features that predominately affect cellulose crystallinity in corn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jia

    Full Text Available Corn is a major food crop with enormous biomass residues for biofuel production. Due to cell wall recalcitrance, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of lignocellulose on biomass saccharification. In this study, we examined total 40 corn accessions that displayed a diverse cell wall composition. Correlation analysis showed that cellulose and lignin levels negatively affected biomass digestibility after NaOH pretreatments at p<0.05 & 0.01, but hemicelluloses did not show any significant impact on hexoses yields. Comparative analysis of five standard pairs of corn samples indicated that cellulose and lignin should not be the major factors on biomass saccharification after pretreatments with NaOH and H2SO4 at three concentrations. Notably, despite that the non-KOH-extractable residues covered 12%-23% hemicelluloses and lignin of total biomass, their wall polymer features exhibited the predominant effects on biomass enzymatic hydrolysis including Ara substitution degree of xylan (reverse Xyl/Ara and S/G ratio of lignin. Furthermore, the non-KOH-extractable polymer features could significantly affect lignocellulose crystallinity at p<0.05, leading to a high biomass digestibility. Hence, this study could suggest an optimal approach for genetic modification of plant cell walls in bioenergy corn.

  7. Biomass Enzymatic Saccharification Is Determined by the Non-KOH-Extractable Wall Polymer Features That Predominately Affect Cellulose Crystallinity in Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leiming; Wang, Hongwu; Wu, Zhiliang; Li, Ming; Huang, Pengyan; Feng, Shengqiu; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Yonglian; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-01-01

    Corn is a major food crop with enormous biomass residues for biofuel production. Due to cell wall recalcitrance, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of lignocellulose on biomass saccharification. In this study, we examined total 40 corn accessions that displayed a diverse cell wall composition. Correlation analysis showed that cellulose and lignin levels negatively affected biomass digestibility after NaOH pretreatments at pbiomass saccharification after pretreatments with NaOH and H2SO4 at three concentrations. Notably, despite that the non-KOH-extractable residues covered 12%–23% hemicelluloses and lignin of total biomass, their wall polymer features exhibited the predominant effects on biomass enzymatic hydrolysis including Ara substitution degree of xylan (reverse Xyl/Ara) and S/G ratio of lignin. Furthermore, the non-KOH-extractable polymer features could significantly affect lignocellulose crystallinity at pbiomass digestibility. Hence, this study could suggest an optimal approach for genetic modification of plant cell walls in bioenergy corn. PMID:25251456

  8. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L; Scherer, G G; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... oxidation of ethanol is in principle a promising concept to supply HTPEM-FCs with a sustainable and on large scale available fuel (ethanol from biomass). However, the intermediate temperature tests in the GDE setup show that even on Pt-based catalysts the reaction rates become first significant...... at potentials, which approach the usual cathode potentials of HTPEM-FCs. Therefore, it seems that H3PO4-based fuel cells are not much suited to efficiently convert ethanol in accordance with findings in earlier research papers. Given that HTPEM-FCs can tolerate CO containing reformate gas, focusing research...

  10. N-acetylglucosamine affects Cryptococcus neoformans cell-wall composition and melanin architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Emma; Chrissian, Christine; Cordero, Radames J B; Liporagi-Lopes, Livia; Stark, Ruth E; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that belongs to the phylum Basidiomycetes and is a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin pigments represents its second most important virulence factor, after the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. Both the capsule and melanin are closely associated with the fungal cell wall, a complex structure that is essential for maintaining cell morphology and viability under conditions of stress. The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a key constituent of the cell-wall chitin and is used for both N-linked glycosylation and GPI anchor synthesis. Recent studies have suggested additional roles for GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signalling in fungal and plant cells. Furthermore, chitin and chitosan polysaccharides interact with melanin pigments in the cell wall and have been found to be essential for melanization. Despite the importance of melanin, its molecular structure remains unresolved; however, we previously obtained critical insights using advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and imaging techniques. In this study, we investigated the effect of GlcNAc supplementation on cryptococcal cell-wall composition and melanization. C. neoformans was able to metabolize GlcNAc as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, indicating a capacity to use a component of a highly abundant polymer in the biospherenutritionally. C. neoformans cells grown with GlcNAc manifested changes in the chitosan cell-wall content, cell-wall thickness and capsule size. Supplementing cultures with isotopically 15 N-labelled GlcNAc demonstrated that the exogenous monomer serves as a building block for chitin/chitosan and is incorporated into the cell wall. The altered chitin-to-chitosan ratio had no negative effects on the mother-daughter cell separation; growth with GlcNAc affected the fungal cell-wall scaffold, resulting in increased melanin deposition and assembly. In

  11. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  12. Charge Transport in Carbon Nanotubes-Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ltaief, Adnen; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz; Davenas, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dark and illuminated current density-voltage (J/V) characteristics of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)1-4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV)/single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) composite photovoltaic cells. Using an exponential band tail model, the conduction mechanism has been analysed for polymer only devices and composite devices, in terms of space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanism, where we determine the power parameters and the threshold voltages. Elaborated devices for MEH-PPV:SWNTs (1:1) composites showed a photoresponse with an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.4 V, a short-circuit current density JSC of 1 µA/cm² and a fill factor FF of 43%. We have modelised the organic photovoltaic devices with an equivalent circuit, where we calculated the series and shunt resistances.

  13. Origins of the helical wrapping of phenyleneethynylene polymers about single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bargen, Christopher D; MacDermaid, Christopher M; Lee, One-Sun; Deria, Pravas; Therien, Michael J; Saven, Jeffery G

    2013-10-24

    The highly charged, conjugated polymer poly[p-{2,5-bis(3-propoxysulfonicacidsodiumsalt)}phenylene]ethynylene (PPES) has been shown to wrap single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), adopting a robust helical superstructure. Surprisingly, PPES adopts a helical rather than a linear conformation when adhered to SWNTs. The complexes formed by PPES and related polymers upon helical wrapping of a SWNT are investigated using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the presence and absence of aqueous solvent. In simulations of the PPES/SWNT system in an aqueous environment, PPES spontaneously takes on a helical conformation. A potential of mean force, ΔA(ξ), is calculated as a function of ξ, the component of the end-to-end vector of the polymer chain projected on the SWNT axis; ξ is a monotonic function of the polymer's helical pitch. ΔA(ξ) provides a means to quantify the relative free energies of helical conformations of the polymer when wrapped about the SWNT. The aqueous system possesses a global minimum in ΔA(ξ) at the experimentally observed value of the helical pitch. The presence of this minimum is associated with preferred side chain conformations, where the side chains adopt conformations that provide van der Waals contact between the tubes and the aliphatic components of the side chains, while exposing the anionic sulfonates for aqueous solvation. The simulations provide a free energy estimate of a 0.2 kcal/mol/monomer preference for the helical over the linear conformation of the PPES/SWNT system in an aqueous environment.

  14. Immunocytochemical characterization of the cell walls of bean cell suspensions during habituation and dehabituation to dichlobenil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Angulo, P.; Willats, W. G. T.; Encina, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the cellulose inhibitor dichlobenil on the cell wall composition and structure during the habituation/dehabituation process of suspension-cultured bean cells were assessed. A range of techniques were used including cell wall fractionation, sugar analysis, immunofluorescence...... and fluorochrome labelling of resin-embedded sections, and immunodot assays (IDAs) of cell wall fractions. The cell walls from bean cell suspensions with initial levels of habituation to dichlobenil had decreased levels of cellulose, but this effect lessened with increasing numbers of subcultures. All cell walls...

  15. Combining polysaccharide biosynthesis and transport in a single enzyme: dual-function cell wall glycan synthases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kent Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are synthesized by a wide variety of species, from unicellular bacteria and Archaea to the largest multicellular plants and animals in the biosphere. In every case, the biosynthesis of these polymers requires transport across a membrane, from the cytosol to either the lumen of secretory pathway organelles or directly into the extracellular space. Although some polysaccharide biosynthetic substrates are moved across the membrane to sites of polysaccharide synthesis by separate transporter proteins before being incorporated into polymers by glycosyltransferase proteins, many polysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes appear to have both transporter and transferase activities. In these cases, the biosynthetic enzymes utilize substrate on one side of the membrane and deposit the polymer product on the other side. This review discusses structural characteristics of plant cell wall glycan synthases that couple synthesis with transport, drawing on what is known about such dual-function enzymes in other species.

  16. Cell wall remodeling in mycorrhizal symbiosis: a way towards biotrophism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Cell walls are deeply involved in the molecular talk between partners during plant and microbe interactions, and their role in mycorrhizae, i.e., the widespread symbiotic associations established between plant roots and soil fungi, has been investigated extensively. All mycorrhizal interactions achieve full symbiotic functionality through the development of an extensive contact surface between the plant and fungal cells, where signals and nutrients are exchanged. The exchange of molecules between the fungal and the plant cytoplasm takes place both through their plasma membranes and their cell walls; a functional compartment, known as the symbiotic interface, is thus defined. Among all the symbiotic interfaces, the complex intracellular interface of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has received a great deal of attention since its first description. Here, in fact, the host plasma membrane invaginates and proliferates around all the developing intracellular fungal structures, and cell wall material is laid down between this membrane and the fungal cell surface. By contrast, in ectomycorrhizae (ECM), where the fungus grows outside and between the root cells, plant and fungal cell walls are always in direct contact and form the interface between the two partners. The organization and composition of cell walls within the interface compartment is a topic that has attracted widespread attention, both in ecto- and endomycorrhizae. The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the current knowledge on this topic by integrating morphological observations, which have illustrated cell wall features during mycorrhizal interactions, with the current data produced by genomic and transcriptomic approaches.

  17. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Kuki, Hiroaki; Kuroha, Takeshi; Nishitani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The development of a range of sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall has identified many of the cell wall proteins. However, it remains difficult to elucidate the precise biological role of each protein and the cell wall dynamics driven by their actions. The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to investigate the de novo construction process of the cell wall. This review deals with sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall through the use of protoplasts, a methodology that will provide the basis for further exploration of cell wall proteins and cell wall dynamics. PMID:28248244

  18. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  19. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall-pressure fluctuations with dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.

    2010-08-01

    Wall-pressure fluctuations were investigated within a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer (TBL) modified by the addition of dilute friction-drag-reducing polymer solutions. The experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth (k+<0.2) and achieving downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220×106. The polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution was injected into the TBL through a slot in the surface. The primary flow diagnostics were skin-friction drag balances and an array of flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers 9.8 m from the model leading edge. Parameters varied included the free-stream speed (6.7, 13.4, and 20.2 m s-1) and the injection condition (polymer molecular weight, injection concentration, and volumetric injection flux). The behavior of the pressure spectra, convection velocity, and coherence, regardless of the injection condition, were determined primarily based on the level of drag reduction. Results were divided into two regimes dependent on the level of polymer drag reduction (PDR), nominally separated at a PDR of 40%. The low-PDR regime is characterized by decreasing mean-square pressure fluctuations and increasing convection velocity with increasing drag reduction. This shows that the decrease in the pressure spectra with increasing drag reduction is due in part to the moving of the turbulent structures from the wall. Conversely, with further increases in drag reduction, the high-PDR regime has negligible variation in the mean-squared pressure fluctuations and convection velocity. The convection velocity remains constant at approximately 10% above the baseline-flow convection velocity, which suggests that the turbulent structures no longer move farther from the wall with increasing drag reduction. In light of recent numerical work, the coherence results indicate that in the low-PDR regime, the turbulent structures are being elongated in

  20. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Institute

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  1. 2D-immunoblotting analysis of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Ruiz-Baca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting (2D-immunoblotting with anti-Sporothrix schenckii antibodies to identify antigenic proteins in cell wall preparations obtained from the mycelial and yeast-like morphologies of the fungus. Results showed that a 70-kDa glycoprotein (Gp70 was the major antigen detected in the cell wall of both morphologies and that a 60-kDa glycoprotein was present only in yeast-like cells. In addition to the Gp70, the wall from filament cells showed four proteins with molecular weights of 48, 55, 66 and 67 kDa, some of which exhibited several isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first 2D-immunoblotting analysis of the S. schenckii cell wall.

  2. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  3. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  4. 2009 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Research Conference-August 2-7,2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnen, Debra [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2009-08-07

    Plant cell walls are a complex cellular compartment essential for plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stress and a major biological resource for meeting our future bioenergy and natural product needs. The goal of the 2009 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Research Conference is to summarize and critically evaluate the current level of understanding of the structure, synthesis and function of the whole plant extracellular matrix, including the polysaccharides, proteins, lignin and waxes that comprise the wall, and the enzymes and regulatory proteins that drive wall synthesis and modification. Innovative techniques to study how both primary and secondary wall polymers are formed and modified throughout plant growth will be emphasized, including rapid advances taking place in the use of anti-wall antibodies and carbohydrate binding proteins, comparative and evolutionary wall genomics, and the use of mutants and natural variants to understand and identify wall structure-function relationships. Discussions of essential research advances needed to push the field forward toward a systems biology approach will be highlighted. The meeting will include a commemorative lecture in honor of the career and accomplishments of the late Emeritus Professor Bruce A. Stone, a pioneer in wall research who contributed over 40 years of outstanding studies on plant cell wall structure, function, synthesis and remodeling including emphasis on plant cell wall beta-glucans and arabinogalactans. The dwindling supply of fossil fuels will not suffice to meet our future energy and industrial product needs. Plant biomass is the renewable resource that will fill a large part of the void left by vanishing fossil fuels. It is therefore critical that basic research scientists interact closely with industrial researchers to critically evaluate the current state of knowledge regarding how plant biomass, which is largely plant cell walls, is synthesized and utilized by the plant. A final

  5. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology was started in the summer of 2009. The technology comprises a specific design of the polymer solar cell and a corresponding roll-to-roll manufacturing process. This basic technology is referred to as ProcessOne in the open literature. The present report relates to the project's phase 1.The key tasks in phase 1 are to stream-line DTU's tech-nology for the industrial utilization, to demonstrate production according to this stream-lined technology at Mekoprint A/S and finally to fertilize the market for polymer solar cells by demonstrating their use in appli-cations that harmonize with their present maturity level. The main focus in the stream-lining of DTU's technology has been to demonstrate a convincing rate of reduction for the production cost, and thereby make a competitive price plausible. This has been materialized as a learning curve showing that the polymer technology presently develops considerably faster than the silicon technology. The polymer solar cells will, under the assumption that both technologies follow a projection of the learning curve, gain a cost-leading position within a reasonable time. A production cost of 5 Euro/Wp has already been demonstrated in DTU's pilot plant, and a road map for the further decrease to 1 Euro/Wp is drawn. This target is expected to be reached in 2013 in the ongoing phase 2 of the project. Another activity essential for the industrialization has been the launch of specialized materials, equipment and services required for the processing of DTU's polymer solar cells. Relevant products and services are made available for sale on DTU's homepage, www.energyconversion.dtu.dk. A production line for polymer solar cells has been established at Mekoprint. For this a retrofit solution was chosen where the core of an existing screen-printing line was dismantled and fitted to a slot-die printing head manufactured in DTU's workshop

  6. Plant Physiology: FERONIA Defends the Cell Walls against Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Stéphane; Hamant, Olivier

    2018-03-05

    A new study uncovers the role of wall sensing and remodeling in the plant response to salt stress, identifying the FERONIA receptor kinase as a key player in that process, likely through direct sensing of cell wall pectins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of Cell Wall Extensibility during Pollen Tube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hepler, Peter K.; Rounds, Caleb M.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Tip-growing pollen tubes achieve rapid elongation while maintaining cell wall integrity by balancing local expansion, controlled by local changes in wall viscosity, against exocytosis, influenced by the activity of the actin cytoskeleton, cellular energetics, and calcium and proton physiology.

  8. Phthalimide containing donor-acceptor polymers for effective dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Yilmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been dispersed by novel phthalimide containing donor-acceptor type copolymers in organic media. Brominated phthalimide comonomer has been copolymerized with several electron rich structures using Suzuki and Stille coupling reactions. Carbon nanotube dispersion capability of the resultant polymers has been assessed by exploiting the non-covalent interaction of nanotube surface with the pi-system of conjugated backbone of polymers. Four polymers have been found to be good candidates for individually dispersing nanotubes in solution. In order to identify the dispersed nanotube species, 2D excitation-emission map and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. Molecular dynamics modelling has been utilized to reveal the binding energies of dispersants with the nanotube surface and the simulation results have been compared with the experimental findings. Both experimental and theoretical results imply the presence of a complex mechanism that governs the extent of dispersion capacity and selectivity of each conjugated polymeric dispersant in solubilizing carbon nanotubes.

  9. Dissecting the functional significance of non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules in the deconstruction of plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    2017-03-16

    The project seeks to investigate the mechanism by which CBMs potentiate the activity of glycoside hydrolases against complete plant cell walls. The project is based on the hypothesis that the wide range of CBMs present in bacterial enzymes maximize the potential target substrates by directing the cognate enzymes not only to different regions of a specific plant cell wall, but also increases the range of plant cell walls that can be degraded. In addition to maximizing substrate access, it was also proposed that CBMs can target specific subsets of hydrolases with complementary activities to the same region of the plant cell wall, thereby maximizing the synergistic interactions between these enzymes. This synergy is based on the premise that the hydrolysis of a specific polysaccharide will increase the access of closely associated polymers to enzyme attack. In addition, it is unclear whether the catalytic module and appended CBM of modular enzymes have evolved unique complementary activities.

  10. Thermo-cleavable solvents for printing conjugated polymers: Application in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Hagemann, Ole; Alstrup, Jan

    2009-01-01

    large-scale production of polymer solar cells using screen printing. Screen-printed solar cells are still very inferior to state of the art P3HT/PCBM technology, but it is our view that it is necessary to explore these printing technologies if polymer solar cells are to ever become commercial products.......The synthesis and characterization of a number of so-called thermo-cleavable solvents are described with their application in all-air, all-solution and all-screen-printed polymer solar cells. These solvents were developed to meet some requirements for printing techniques such as long “open time...... (TGA) and high-temperature NMR established the onset temperature of decomposition, the rate of the reaction and the nature of the products. Printing experiments with inks based on these solvents together with conjugated polymers are exemplified for polymer solar cell devices to show how they enable...

  11. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient...... and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding...... synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells...

  12. Self-Assembled CNT-Polymer Hybrids in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed Aqueous Triblock Copolymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, D.; Manjunatha, A. S.; Poojitha, C. G.

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), electrical conductivity, and 1H NMR studies as a function of temperature on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) dispersed aqueous triblock copolymer (P123) solutions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes in this system aggregate to form bundles, and the bundles aggregate to form net-like structures. Depending on the temperature and phases of the polymer, this system exhibits three different self-assembled CNT-polymer hybrids. We find CNT-unimer hybrid at low temperatures, CNT-micelle hybrid at intermediate temperatures wherein the polymer micelles are adsorbed in the pores of the CNT nets, and another type of CNT-micelle hybrid at high temperatures wherein the polymer micelles are adsorbed on the surface of the CNT bundles. Our DSC thermogram showed two peaks related to these structural changes in the CNT-polymer hybrids. Temperature dependence of the 1H NMR chemical shifts of the molecular groups of the polymer and the AC electrical conductivity of the composite also showed discontinuous changes at the temperatures at which the CNT-polymer hybrid's structural changes are seen. Interestingly, for a higher CNT concentration (0.5 wt.%) in the system, the aggregated polymer micelles adsorbed on the CNTs exhibit cone-like and cube-like morphologies at the intermediate and at high temperatures respectively.

  13. Development and applications of advanced probing tools for cell wall biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aleksander Riise

    . In this study, antigens consisting of crude mixtures of alkali extracted polymers from the grass model Brachypodium distachyon were targets for probe generation using a naïve human single domain antibody library. Epitope characterization of positive clones from phage ELISA was then further elucidated...... the function of pectin methyl esterase inhibitors and their role in plant defense against microbial degradation, and cell wall structural dynamics in relation to cell detachment from roots. The second part describes phage display as a method for developing probes against targets that are poor immunogens...

  14. Numerical study on injection parameters optimization of thin wall and biodegradable polymers parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C.; Mendes, A.; Carreira, P.; Mateus, A.; Malça, C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the molds industry searches new markets, with diversified and added value products. The concept associated to the production of thin walled and biodegradable parts mostly manufactured by injection process has assumed a relevant importance due to environmental and economic factors. The growth of a global consciousness about the harmful effects of the conventional polymers in our life quality associated with the legislation imposed, become key factors for the choice of a particular product by the consumer. The target of this work is to provide an integrated solution for the injection of parts with thin walls and manufactured using biodegradable materials. This integrated solution includes the design and manufacture processes of the mold as well as to find the optimum values for the injection parameters in order to become the process effective and competitive. For this, the Moldflow software was used. It was demonstrated that this computational tool provides an effective responsiveness and it can constitute an important tool in supporting the injection molding of thin-walled and biodegradable parts.

  15. Effect of polymer melt wall slip on the flow balance of profile extrusion dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Olga S.; Ferrás, Luís L.; Pinho, Fernando T.; Nóbrega, João M.

    2013-04-01

    This work describes the implementation of the wall slip boundary condition in an in-house developed 3D numerical code based on the Finite Volume Method. For this purpose, several phenomenological models relating the velocity and the shear stress at the wall were implemented. This new feature is verified using a simple case study, by comparing the numerical results with those obtained through the corresponding analytical solution. Then, the potentialities of the new code are illustrated performing flow simulations of a polymer melt in a complex flow channel. The results obtained show that the slip at the wall influences the flow distribution at the die flow channel outlet. Therefore, and to assess the relevance of slippage in the optimal die geometry, the automatic optimization of a die flow channel, required for the production of a specific thermoplastic profile, is performed using both the no-slip and slip boundary conditions, together with two alternative optimization strategies. It is shown that slip favors the flow balance of the dies and also other issues of its performance.

  16. Pathogenicity and cell wall-degrading enzyme activities of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    2005-12-17

    Dec 17, 2005 ... be attributed to the activities of these cell wall degrading enzymes. Keywords: Cowpea ... bacteria have long been known to produce enzymes capable of ... Inoculated seeds were sown in small plastic pots filled with steam- ...

  17. Understanding plant cell-wall remodelling during the symbiotic interaction between Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana using a carbohydrate microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillo, Fabiano; Fangel, Jonatan U; Henrissat, Bernard; Faccio, Antonella; Bonfante, Paola; Martin, Francis; Willats, William G T; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2016-08-01

    A combined approach, using a carbohydrate microarray as a support for genomic data, has revealed subtle plant cell-wall remodelling during Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana interaction. Cell walls are involved, to a great extent, in mediating plant-microbe interactions. An important feature of these interactions concerns changes in the cell-wall composition during interaction with other organisms. In ectomycorrhizae, plant and fungal cell walls come into direct contact, and represent the interface between the two partners. However, very little information is available on the re-arrangement that could occur within the plant and fungal cell walls during ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Taking advantage of the Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) technology, the current study has had the aim of monitoring the changes that take place in the plant cell wall in Corylus avellana roots during colonization by the ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus T. melanosporum. Additionally, genes encoding putative plant cell-wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) have been identified in the T. melanosporum genome, and RT-qPCRs have been performed to verify the expression of selected genes in fully developed C. avellana/T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae. A localized degradation of pectin seems to occur during fungal colonization, in agreement with the growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus through the middle lamella and with the fungal gene expression of genes acting on these polysaccharides.

  18. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the

  19. How the deposition of cellulose microfibrils builds cell wall architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, A.M.C.; Mulder, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls, the extracytoplasmic matrices of plant cells, consist of an ordered array of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. This construction is reminiscent of steel rods in reinforced concrete. How a cell organizes these ordered textures around itself,

  20. The interplay of nanostructure and efficiency of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhong, Yin

    2008-12-04

    The aim of this thesis is to achieve a deep understanding of the working mechanism of polymer based solar cells and to improve the device performance. Two types of the polymer based solar cells are studied here: the polymer-polymer solar cells, and the polymer-small molecule solar cell which has polymer as electron donor incorporating with organic small molecule as electron acceptor. For the polymer-polymer devices, I compared the photocurrent characteristics of bilayer and blend devices as well as the blend devices with different nano-morphology, which is fine tuned by applying solvents with different boiling points. The main conclusion based on the complementary measurements is that the performance-limiting step is the field-dependent generation of free charge carriers, while bimolecular recombination and charge extraction do not compromise device performance. Regarding polymer-small molecular hybrid solar cells I combined the hole-transporting polymer M3EH-PPV with a novel small molecule electron acceptor vinazene. This molecule can be either deposited from solution or by thermal evaporation, allowing for a large variety of layer architectures to be realized. I then demonstrated that the layer architecture has a large influence on the photovoltaic properties. Solar cells with very high fill factors of up to 57 % and an open circuit voltage of 1V without thermal treatment of the devices were achieved. In the past, fill factors of solar cells exceeding 50 % have only been observed when using fullerene-derivatives as the electron-acceptor. The finding that proper processing of polymer-vinazene devices leads to similar high values is a major step towards the design of efficient polymer-based solar cells. (orig.)

  1. Bacterial Cell Enlargement Requires Control of Cell Wall Stiffness Mediated by Peptidoglycan Hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard; Turner, Robert D; Bailey, Richard G; Salamaga, Bartłomiej; Mesnage, Stéphane; Mohamad, Sharifah A S; Hayhurst, Emma J; Horsburgh, Malcolm; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2015-07-28

    Most bacterial cells are enclosed in a single macromolecule of the cell wall polymer, peptidoglycan, which is required for shape determination and maintenance of viability, while peptidoglycan biosynthesis is an important antibiotic target. It is hypothesized that cellular enlargement requires regional expansion of the cell wall through coordinated insertion and hydrolysis of peptidoglycan. Here, a group of (apparent glucosaminidase) peptidoglycan hydrolases are identified that are together required for cell enlargement and correct cellular morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating the overall importance of this enzyme activity. These are Atl, SagA, ScaH, and SagB. The major advance here is the explanation of the observed morphological defects in terms of the mechanical and biochemical properties of peptidoglycan. It was shown that cells lacking groups of these hydrolases have increased surface stiffness and, in the absence of SagB, substantially increased glycan chain length. This indicates that, beyond their established roles (for example in cell separation), some hydrolases enable cellular enlargement by making peptidoglycan easier to stretch, providing the first direct evidence demonstrating that cellular enlargement occurs via modulation of the mechanical properties of peptidoglycan. Understanding bacterial growth and division is a fundamental problem, and knowledge in this area underlies the treatment of many infectious diseases. Almost all bacteria are surrounded by a macromolecule of peptidoglycan that encloses the cell and maintains shape, and bacterial cells must increase the size of this molecule in order to enlarge themselves. This requires not only the insertion of new peptidoglycan monomers, a process targeted by antibiotics, including penicillin, but also breakage of existing bonds, a potentially hazardous activity for the cell. Using Staphylococcus aureus, we have identified a set of enzymes that are critical for cellular enlargement. We

  2. Mechanosensation Dynamically Coordinates Polar Growth and Cell Wall Assembly to Promote Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, Valeria; Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Ershov, Dmitry; Haupt, Armin; De Belly, Henry; Le Borgne, Rémi; Couturier, Etienne; Boudaoud, Arezki; Minc, Nicolas

    2018-04-23

    How growing cells cope with size expansion while ensuring mechanical integrity is not known. In walled cells, such as those of microbes and plants, growth and viability are both supported by a thin and rigid encasing cell wall (CW). We deciphered the dynamic mechanisms controlling wall surface assembly during cell growth, using a sub-resolution microscopy approach to monitor CW thickness in live rod-shaped fission yeast cells. We found that polar cell growth yielded wall thinning and that thickness negatively influenced growth. Thickness at growing tips exhibited a fluctuating behavior with thickening phases followed by thinning phases, indicative of a delayed feedback promoting thickness homeostasis. This feedback was mediated by mechanosensing through the CW integrity pathway, which probes strain in the wall to adjust synthase localization and activity to surface growth. Mutants defective in thickness homeostasis lysed by rupturing the wall, demonstrating its pivotal role for walled cell survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A model for cell wall dissolution in mating yeast cells: polarized secretion and restricted diffusion of cell wall remodeling enzymes induces local dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Lori B; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells.

  4. A Model for Cell Wall Dissolution in Mating Yeast Cells: Polarized Secretion and Restricted Diffusion of Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Induces Local Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells. PMID:25329559

  5. Role of the plant cell wall in gravity resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Gravity resistance, mechanical resistance to the gravitational force, is a principal graviresponse in plants, comparable to gravitropism. The cell wall is responsible for the final step of gravity resistance. The gravity signal increases the rigidity of the cell wall via the accumulation of its constituents, polymerization of certain matrix polysaccharides due to the suppression of breakdown, stimulation of cross-link formation, and modifications to the wall environment, in a wide range of situations from microgravity in space to hypergravity. Plants thus develop a tough body to resist the gravitational force via an increase in cell wall rigidity and the modification of growth anisotropy. The development of gravity resistance mechanisms has played an important role in the acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses and the evolution of land plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.; McCann, Maureen C.

    2015-04-06

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with ‘invisible’ phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basis of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall.

  7. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  8. Plant glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins at the plasma membrane-cell wall nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, Trevor H; Bacic, Antony; Johnson, Kim L

    2018-04-18

    Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans. The importance of the GPI-anchored proteome to plant development is underscored by the fact that GPI biosynthetic null mutants exhibit embryo lethality. Mutations in genes encoding specific GPI-anchored proteins (GAPs) further supports their contribution to diverse biological processes occurring at the interface of the plasma membrane and cell wall, including signaling, cell wall metabolism, cell wall polymer cross-linking, and plasmodesmatal transport. Here, we review the literature concerning plant GPI-anchored proteins in the context of their potential to act as molecular hubs that mediate interactions between the plasma membrane and the cell wall and their potential to transduce the signal into the protoplast and thereby activate signal transduction pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of cell wall preparations for proteomics: a new procedure for purifying cell walls from Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canut Hervé

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultimate goal of proteomic analysis of a cell compartment should be the exhaustive identification of resident proteins; excluding proteins from other cell compartments. Reaching such a goal closely depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific difficulties: (i the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP during the isolation procedure, (ii polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins. Several reported procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomic analyses led to the isolation of a high proportion (more than 50% of predicted intracellular proteins. Since isolated cell walls should hold secreted proteins, one can imagine alternative procedures to prepare cell walls containing a lower proportion of contaminant proteins. Results The rationales of several published procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomics were analyzed, with regard to the bioinformatic-predicted subcellular localization of the identified proteins. Critical steps were revealed: (i homogenization in low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP, (ii purification through increasing density cushions, (iii extensive washes with a low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP while removing as many cytosolic proteins as possible, and (iv absence of detergents. A new procedure was developed to prepare cell walls from etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. After salt extraction, a high proportion of proteins predicted to be secreted was released (73%, belonging to the same functional classes as proteins identified using previously described protocols. Finally, removal of intracellular proteins was obtained using detergents, but their amount represented less than 3% in mass of the total protein extract, based on protein quantification. Conclusion The

  10. Chemiresistor Devices for Chemical Warfare Agent Detection Based on Polymer Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John F; Hamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yoon, Bora; Swager, Timothy M

    2017-04-28

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives. We demonstrate that a pendant hexafluoroisopropanol group on the polymer that enhances sensitivity to a nerve agent mimic, dimethyl methylphosphonate, in both nitrogen and air environments to concentrations as low as 5 ppm and 11 ppm, respectively. Additionally, these PEDOT/SWCNT derivative sensor systems experience negligible device performance over the course of two weeks under ambient conditions.

  11. Studies on transport phenomena in polymer solutions and suspensions flowing through tubes of tortuous wall geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attempts have been made to analyse the momentum and heat transfer characteristics in tortuous flow of non-Newtonian fluids such as suspensions and polymer solutions through tubes of diverging-converging geometry. The results of the study indicate that the transfer coefficients are significantly higher in such systems as compared to the conventional couette flow (through uniform cylindrical tubes). Moreover, the simultaneous increase in pressure drop due to the tortuous wall geometry has been observed to be relatively insignificant. Fluids with different rheological characteristics such as Bingham plastic fluids, pseudoplastic fluids, Ellis model fluids and fluids obeying Reiner-Philippoff rheology have been studied. The specific advantages of these geometries in providing enhanced performance efficiency have been effectively highlighted.

  12. The plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism--a case study of a cell wall plasma membrane signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most important functions of plant cell walls are protection against biotic/abiotic stress and structural support during growth and development. A prerequisite for plant cell walls to perform these functions is the ability to perceive different types of stimuli in both qualitative and quantitative manners and initiate appropriate responses. The responses in turn involve adaptive changes in cellular and cell wall metabolism leading to modifications in the structures originally required for perception. While our knowledge about the underlying plant mechanisms is limited, results from Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism represents an excellent example to illustrate how the molecular mechanisms responsible for stimulus perception, signal transduction and integration can function. Here I will review the available knowledge about the yeast cell wall integrity maintenance system for illustration purposes, summarize the limited knowledge available about the corresponding plant mechanism and discuss the relevance of the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism in biotic stress responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Another brick in the cell wall: biosynthesis dependent growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Barbacci

    Full Text Available Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper.

  14. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Cruickshank, C.; Foged, S.

    2010-01-01

    and manufacturing cost leaves little room for competition on the thin film photovoltaic market. However, polymer solar cells do enable the competitive manufacture of low cost niche products and is viewed as financially viable in its currently available form in a large volume approximation. Finally, it is found......The business potential of polymer solar cells is reviewed and the market opportunities analyzed on the basis of the currently reported and projected performance and manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells. Possible new market areas are identified and described. An overview of the present patent...... and intellectual property situation is also given and a patent map of polymer solar cells is drawn in a European context. It is found that the business potential of polymer solar cells is large when taking the projections for future performance into account while the currently available performance...

  15. Implication of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on polymer/graphene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araby, Sherif; Saber, Nasser; Ma, Xing; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Kang, Hailan; Shen, Heng; Zhang, Liqun; Xu, Jian; Majewski, Peter; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into elastomer/graphene composites. • Multi-walled CNTs work supplementally to GnPs by forming conductive networks. • The findings illuminate marked synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene sheets. - Abstract: Graphene sheets stack in polymer matrices while multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) entangle themselves, forming two daunting challenges in the design and fabrication of polymer composites. Both challenges have been simultaneously addressed in this study by hybridizing the two nanomaterials through melt compounding to develop elastomer/graphene platelet/MWCNT (3-phase) composites, where MWCNTs were fixed at 2.8 vol% (5 wt%) for all fractions. We investigated the composites’ structure and properties, and compared the 3-phase composites with elastomer/graphene platelet (2-phase) composites. MWCNTs may bridge graphene platelets (GnPs) and promote their dispersion in the matrix, which would provide more interface area between the matrix and the fillers. MWCNTs worked supplementally to GnPs by forming conductive networks, where MWCNTs acted as long nanocables to transport electrons and stress while GnPs served as interconnection sites between the tubes forming local conductive paths. This produced a percolation threshold of electrical conductivity at 2.3 vol% for 3-phase composites, 88% lower than that of 2-phase composites. At 26.7 vol% of total filler content (MWCNTs + GnPs), tensile strength, Young’s modulus and tear strength showed respectively 303%, 115%, 155% further improvements over those of 2-phase composites. These improvements are originated from the synergistic effect between GnPs and MWCNTs. The conducting elastomeric composites developed would potentially open the door for applications in automotive and aerospace industries

  16. Development of Polymer Acceptors for Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujeong Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a current status report of the various n-type polymer acceptors for use as active materials in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs. The polymer acceptors are divided into four categories. The first section of this review focuses on rylene diimide-based polymers, including perylene diimide, naphthalene diimide, and dithienocoronene diimide-based polymers. The high electron mobility and good stability of rylene diimides make them suitable for use as polymer acceptors in OPVs. The second section deals with fluorene and benzothiadiazole-based polymers such as poly(9,9’-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole, and the ensuing section focuses on the cyano-substituted polymer acceptors. Cyano-poly(phenylenevinylene and poly(3-cyano-4-hexylthiophene have been used as acceptors in OPVs and exhibit high electron affinity arising from the electron-withdrawing cyano groups in the vinylene group of poly(phenylenevinylene or the thiophene ring of polythiophene. Lastly, a number of other electron-deficient groups such as thiazole, diketopyrrolopyrrole, and oxadiazole have also been introduced onto polymer backbones to induce n-type characteristics in the polymer. Since the first report on all-polymer solar cells in 1995, the best power conversion efficiency obtained with these devices to date has been 3.45%. The overall trend in the development of n-type polymer acceptors is presented in this review.

  17. Strain-dependent electrical resistance of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myounggu; Kim, Hyonny; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    The strain-dependent electrical resistance characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polymer composite films were investigated. In this research, polyethylene oxide (PEO) is used as the polymer matrix. Two representative volume fractions of MWCNT/PEO composite films were selected: 0.56 vol% (near the percolation threshold) and 1.44 vol% (away from the percolation threshold) of MWCNT. An experimental setup which can measure electrical resistance and strain simultaneously and continuously has been developed. Unique and repeatable relationships in resistance versus strain were obtained for multiple specimens with different volume fractions of MWCNT. The overall pattern of electrical resistance change versus strain for the specimens tested consists of linear and nonlinear regions. A resistance change model to describe the combination of linear and nonlinear modes of electrical resistance change as a function of strain is suggested. The unique characteristics in electrical resistance change for different volume fractions imply that MWCNT/PEO composite films can be used as tunable strain sensors and for application into embedded sensor systems in structures

  18. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall......Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective...... with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain...

  19. Cationic Polymers Developed for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    into five categories: proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel...SOFC and PAFC belong to high temperature fuel cell, which can be applied in stationary power generation. PEMFC and AFC belong to low temperature fuel...function of the polymer electrolyte is to serve as electrolyte to transport ions between electrodes. PEMFC uses a polymer as electrolyte and works

  20. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications....... This is obtained by detailed knowledge of the degradation mechanisms. Methods to compare and standardize device stability are urgently needed. Methodologies to study failure mechanism that are based on physical processes (e.g. morphological changes) are well-established. However, methodologies to study chemical...... degradation mechanisms are currently scarce. An overview of known degradation mechanisms will be presented and discussed in relation to state-of-the-art methodologies to study failure mechanisms with focus on chemical degradation....

  1. Photochemical stability of π-conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells: a rule of thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Bundgaard, Eva; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2011-01-01

    A comparative photochemical stability study of a wide range of π-conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells is presented. The behavior of each material has been investigated under simulated sunlight (1 sun, 1000 W m−2, AM 1.5G) and ambient atmosphere. Degradation was monitored during age...... ageing combining UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies. From the comparison of the collected data, the influence of the polymer chemical structure on its stability has been discussed. General rules relative to the polymer structure–stability relationship are proposed....

  2. Helium ion microscopy based wall thickness and surface roughness analysis of polymer foams obtained from high internal phase emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, C.; Viswanathan, P.; Jepson, M.A.E.; Liu, X.; Battaglia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their wide range of applications, porous polymers obtained from high internal phase emulsions have been widely studied using scanning electron microscopy. However, due to their lack of electrical conductivity, quantitative information of wall thicknesses and surface roughness, which are of particular interest to tissue engineering, has not been obtained. Here, Helium Ion Microscopy is used to examine uncoated polymer foams and some very strong but unexpected contrast is observed, the origin of which is established here. Based on this analysis, a method for the measurement of wall thickness variations and wall roughness measurements has been developed, based on the modeling of Helium ion transmission. The results presented here indicate that within the walls of the void structure there exist small features with height variations of ∼30 nm and wall thickness variations from ∼100 nm to larger 340 nm in regions surrounding interconnecting windows within the structure. The suggested imaging method is applicable to other porous carbon based structures with wall thicknesses in the range of 40–340 nm. - Highlights: • The first helium ion microscopy image of uncoated structures formed from HIPEs is presented. • Unusually high contrast features that change with accelerating voltage are observed. • The origin of the observed contrast is determined to be mass thickness contrast. • A new method for quantitative wall thickness variation/roughness measurements is demonstrated

  3. Helium ion microscopy based wall thickness and surface roughness analysis of polymer foams obtained from high internal phase emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenburg, C., E-mail: c.rodenburg@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Viswanathan, P. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2 TN (United Kingdom); Jepson, M.A.E. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Liu, X. [Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 22, 73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Battaglia, G. [Department of Chemistry University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); The MRC/UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Due to their wide range of applications, porous polymers obtained from high internal phase emulsions have been widely studied using scanning electron microscopy. However, due to their lack of electrical conductivity, quantitative information of wall thicknesses and surface roughness, which are of particular interest to tissue engineering, has not been obtained. Here, Helium Ion Microscopy is used to examine uncoated polymer foams and some very strong but unexpected contrast is observed, the origin of which is established here. Based on this analysis, a method for the measurement of wall thickness variations and wall roughness measurements has been developed, based on the modeling of Helium ion transmission. The results presented here indicate that within the walls of the void structure there exist small features with height variations of ∼30 nm and wall thickness variations from ∼100 nm to larger 340 nm in regions surrounding interconnecting windows within the structure. The suggested imaging method is applicable to other porous carbon based structures with wall thicknesses in the range of 40–340 nm. - Highlights: • The first helium ion microscopy image of uncoated structures formed from HIPEs is presented. • Unusually high contrast features that change with accelerating voltage are observed. • The origin of the observed contrast is determined to be mass thickness contrast. • A new method for quantitative wall thickness variation/roughness measurements is demonstrated.

  4. Bioinspired metal-cell wall-metal sandwich structure on an individual bacterial cell scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Mei; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei

    2012-08-25

    Pd nanoparticles were introduced to individual Bacillus cells and dispersedly anchored on both the inside and outside of the cell walls. The anchored nanoparticles served as "seeds" to drive the formation of double metallic layers forming a metal-cell wall-metal sandwich structure at the single-cell level.

  5. High-throughput screening of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall glycans by hierarchical clustering of their carbohydrate microarray binding profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; Marcus, Susan E.; Haeger, Ash

    2008-01-01

    Antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were created following immunisation with a crude extract of cell wall polymers from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to rapidly screen the specificities of individual monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), their binding to microarrays containing 50 cell wall...... investigated using subsequent immunochemical and biochemical analyses and two novel mAbs are described in detail. mAb LM13 binds to an arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitope and mAb LM14, binds to an epitope occurring on arabinogalactan-proteins. Both mAbs display novel patterns of recognition of cell walls...

  6. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  7. Tunable Gas Permeability of Polymer-Clay Nano Brick Wall Thin Film Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin films of anionic natural montmorrilonite (MMT) clay and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) have been produced by alternately dipping a plastic substrate into dilute aqueous mixtures containing each ingredient. After 40 polymer-clay layers have been deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below 0.35 cm^3/m^2 . day when the pH of PEI solution is 10. This low permeability is due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar. This brick wall creates an extremely tortuous path at thicknesses below 250 nm and clay concentration above 80 wt%. A 70-bilayer PEI-MMT assembly has an undetectable OTR (< 0.005 cm^3/m^2 . day), which equates to a permeability below SiOx when multiplied by its film thickness of 231 nm. With optical transparency greater than 86% and the ability to be microwaved, these thin film composites are good candidates for flexible electronics packaging and foil replacement for food.

  8. Analyzing Cell Wall Elasticity After Hormone Treatment: An Example Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy, and related nano-indentation techniques, is a valuable tool for analyzing the elastic properties of plant cell walls as they relate to changes in cell wall chemistry, changes in development, and response to hormones. Within this chapter I will describe a method for analyzing the effect of the phytohormone auxin on the cell wall elasticity of tobacco BY-2 cells. This general method may be easily altered for different experimental systems and hormones of interest.

  9. Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; North, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat. The latter has emerged as an excellent system to study cellulose biosynthesis and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall polymers. Here we review some of the major advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in the seed coat, and how mucilage has aided our understanding of the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components required for wall cohesion. Recently, 10 genes involved in cellulose or hemicellulose biosynthesis in mucilage have been identified. These discoveries have helped to demonstrate that xylan side-chains on rhamnogalacturonan I act to link this pectin directly to cellulose. We also examine other factors that, either directly or indirectly, influence cellulose organization or crystallization in mucilage. © 2017 INRA. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.L.; Glaser, D.; Dicker, D.T.; Zito, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly

  11. Phenotype-Based Screening of Small Molecules to Modify Plant Cell Walls Using BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo-Kurihara, Emiko; Matsui, Minami

    2018-01-01

    The plant cell wall is an important and abundant biomass with great potential for use as a modern recyclable resource. For effective utilization of this cellulosic biomass, its ability to degrade efficiently is key point. With the aim of modifying the cell wall to allow easy decomposition, we used chemical biological technology to alter its structure. As a first step toward evaluating the chemicals in the cell wall we employed a phenotype-based approach using high-throughput screening. As the plant cell wall is essential in determining cell morphology, phenotype-based screening is particularly effective in identifying compounds that bring about alterations in the cell wall. For rapid and reproducible screening, tobacco BY-2 cell is an excellent system in which to observe cell morphology. In this chapter, we provide a detailed chemical biological methodology for studying cell morphology using tobacco BY-2 cells.

  12. Magnetic field exposure stiffens regenerating plant protoplast cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Toshihiko; Fujimura, Yuu; Iino, Masaaki

    2006-02-01

    Single suspension-cultured plant cells (Catharanthus roseus) and their protoplasts were anchored to a glass plate and exposed to a magnetic field of 302 +/- 8 mT for several hours. Compression forces required to produce constant cell deformation were measured parallel to the magnetic field by means of a cantilever-type force sensor. Exposure of intact cells to the magnetic field did not result in any changes within experimental error, while exposure of regenerating protoplasts significantly increased the measured forces and stiffened regenerating protoplasts. The diameters of intact cells or regenerating protoplasts were not changed after exposure to the magnetic field. Measured forces for regenerating protoplasts with and without exposure to the magnetic field increased linearly with incubation time, with these forces being divided into components based on the elasticity of synthesized cell walls and cytoplasm. Cell wall synthesis was also measured using a cell wall-specific fluorescent dye, and no changes were noted after exposure to the magnetic field. Analysis suggested that exposure to the magnetic field roughly tripled the Young's modulus of the newly synthesized cell wall without any lag.

  13. Purification and characterization of a soybean cell wall protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Francisco, S.; Tierney, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plant cell wall composition is thought to reflect cellular responses to developmental and environmental signals. We have purified a 33 kDa protein from cell wall extracts of soybean seedlings which is most abundant in extracts from the hook region of the hypocotyl and is rich in proline and hydroxypyroline. In vivo 3 H-proline labelling of hypocotyl tissues indicates that the hook tissue is the predominant site for synthesis of this protein. In unwounded hook, label is incorporated into a 33 kDa protein, while in wounded hook this and additional proteins rich in proline are synthesized. Similarly treated cell wall extracts analyzed by Western blot analysis, using a polyclonal antibody raised against this 33kD protein, showed that the 33 kDa protein is most abundant in cell wall extracts from the hook region of unwounded seedlings and does not increase upon wounding. An immunologically related 35kD protein is also apparent in extracts from wounded hooks and appears to co-migrate with one of the labelled proteins extractable from this tissue. These data indicate that there are two related, proline-rich cell wall proteins in the hook region of soybean seedlings, one of which (33 kDa) is prominent during seedling development and another (35 kDa) which is wound inducible

  14. Growth mechanics of bacterial cell wall and morphology of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean

    2010-03-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is responsible for maintaining the cell shape and integrity. During the bacterial life cycle, the growth of the cell wall is affected by mechanical stress and osmotic pressure internal to the cell. We develop a theory to describe cell shape changes under the influence of mechanical forces. We find that the theory predicts a steady state size and shape for bacterial cells ranging from cocci to spirillum. Moreover, the theory suggest a mechanism by which bacterial cytoskeletal proteins such as MreB and crescentin can maintain the shape of the cell. The theory can also explain the several recent experiments on growing bacteria in micro-environments.

  15. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Hagemann, Ole; Manceau, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    connected cells were prepared with a total module active area of 96 cm2. The devices were tested for operational stability under simulated sunlight (AM1.5G) and natural sunlight, and the photochemical stability of the polymer was examined using a combination of UV−vis and IR spectroscopy.......We present the synthesis of a low band gap copolymer based on dithienothiophene and dialkoxybenzothiadiazole (poly(dithienothiophene-co-dialkoxybenzothiadiazole), PDTTDABT). The optical properties of the polymer showed a band gap of 1.6 eV and a sky-blue color in solid films. The polymer...... around a 1:2 mixing ratio. Roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cell devices were prepared under ambient conditions employing solution processing in all steps including the metallic back electrode that was printed as a grid giving semitransparent solar cell devices. Solar cell modules comprising 16 serially...

  16. Enzymatic cell wall degradation of high-pressure-homogenized tomato puree and its effect on lycopene bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Colle, Ines; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Nguyen, Tuyen Thi My; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-15

    High-pressure homogenization disrupts cell structures, assisting carotenoid release from the matrix and subsequent micellarization. However, lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato puree upon high-pressure homogenization is limited by the formation of a process-induced barrier. In this context, cell wall-degrading enzymes were applied to hydrolyze the formed barrier and enhance lycopene bioaccessibility. The effectiveness of the enzymes in degrading their corresponding substrates was evaluated (consistency, amount of reducing sugars, molar mass distribution and immunolabeling). An in vitro digestion procedure was applied to evaluate the effect of the enzymatic treatments on lycopene bioaccessibility. Enzymatic treatments with pectinases and cellulase were proved to effectively degrade their corresponding cell wall polymers; however, no further significant increase in lycopene bioaccessibility was obtained. A process-induced barrier consisting of cell wall material is not the only factor governing lycopene bioaccessibility upon high-pressure homogenization. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Torben D.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Cruickshank, Craig; Foged, Soeren; Thorsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The business potential of polymer solar cells is reviewed and the market opportunities analyzed on the basis of the currently reported and projected performance and manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells. Possible new market areas are identified and described. An overview of the present patent and intellectual property situation is also given and a patent map of polymer solar cells is drawn in a European context. It is found that the business potential of polymer solar cells is large when taking the projections for future performance into account while the currently available performance and manufacturing cost leaves little room for competition on the thin film photovoltaic market. However, polymer solar cells do enable the competitive manufacture of low cost niche products and is viewed as financially viable in its currently available form in a large volume approximation. Finally, it is found that the polymer solar cell technology is very poorly protected in Europe with the central patents being valid in only France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Several countries with a large potential for PV such as Portugal and Greece are completely open and have apparently no relevant patents. This is viewed as a great advantage for the possible commercialization of polymer solar cells in a European setting as the competition for the market will be based on the manufacturing performance rather than domination by a few patent stakeholders. (author)

  18. Chemical analysis of isolated cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria and the determination of the cell wall to cell mass ratio.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.; Norde, W.; Bendinger, B.; Zehnder, A.J.B.; Lyklema, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cell walls of five Gram-positive bacterial strains, including four coryneforms and a Bacillus brevis strain were isolated and subsequently chemically analysed. The wall contribution to the total cell mass is calculated from a comparison of D-Lactate concentrations in hydrolysates of whole cells and

  19. Roles of tRNA in cell wall biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Kiley; Ibba, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research into various aspects of bacterial metabolism such as cell wall and antibiotic synthesis, degradation pathways, cellular stress, and amino acid biosynthesis has elucidated roles of aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (aa-tRNA) outside of translation. Although the two enzyme families...... responsible for cell wall modifications, aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) and Fem, were discovered some time ago, they have recently become of intense interest for their roles in the antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. The addition of positively charged amino acids...... and play a role in resistance to antibiotics that target the cell wall. Additionally, the formation of truncated peptides results in shorter peptide bridges and loss of branched linkages which makes bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobials. A greater understanding of the structure and substrate...

  20. Histochemical effects of γ radiation on soft fruit cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foa, E.; Jona, R.; Vallania, R.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation effects in peaches, tomatoes, cherries and grapes on the composition of cell wall polysaccharides were investigated by histochemical techniques. Cell wall polysaccharides, separated by a modified Jensen's method were pectins, hemicellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and cellulose. The extinction values of Periodic Acid Schiff stained tissues was measured by microscopical photometry. Irradiation induced highly significant changes in polysaccharide composition of mesocarp cell walls; these changes were found to be a function of time of irradiation after harvest and of the species tested. A general influence on polysaccharide molecules was not found. Variations produced by irradiation are postulated to be an interference with a regulatory system rather than a breakdown of a functional molecule (metabolic enzyme or polysaccharide. (author)

  1. The role of the cell wall in plant immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    The battle between plants and microbes is evolutionarily ancient, highly complex, and often co-dependent. A primary challenge for microbes is to breach the physical barrier of host cell walls whilst avoiding detection by the plant's immune receptors. While some receptors sense conserved microbial...... features, others monitor physical changes caused by an infection attempt. Detection of microbes leads to activation of appropriate defense responses that then challenge the attack. Plant cell walls are formidable and dynamic barriers. They are constructed primarily of complex carbohydrates joined...... by numerous distinct connection types, and are subject to extensive post-synthetic modification to suit prevailing local requirements. Multiple changes can be triggered in cell walls in response to microbial attack. Some of these are well described, but many remain obscure. The study of the myriad of subtle...

  2. Outside-in control -Does plant cell wall integrity regulate cell cycle progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli-Bisceglia, Nora; Hamann, Thorsten

    2018-04-13

    During recent years it has become accepted that plant cell walls are not inert objects surrounding all plant cells but are instead highly dynamic, plastic structures. They are involved in a large number of cell biological processes and contribute actively to plant growth, development and interaction with environment. Therefore, it is not surprising that cellular processes can control plant cell wall integrity while, simultaneously, cell wall integrity can influence cellular processes. In yeast and animal cells such a bi-directional relationship also exists between the yeast/animal extra-cellular matrices and the cell cycle. In yeast, the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism and a dedicated plasmamembrane integrity checkpoint are mediating this relationship. Recent research has yielded insights into the mechanism controlling plant cell wall metabolism during cytokinesis. However, knowledge regarding putative regulatory pathways controlling adaptive modifications in plant cell cycle activity in response to changes in the state of the plant cell wall are not yet identified. In this review, we summarize similarities and differences in regulatory mechanisms coordinating extra cellular matrices and cell cycle activity in animal and yeast cells, discuss the available evidence supporting the existence of such a mechanism in plants and suggest that the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism might also control cell cycle activity in plant cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  4. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  5. Photovoltaic cells and photodetectors made with semiconductor polymers: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Srdanov, Gordana; Wang, Hailiang; Cao, Yong; Heeger, Alan J.

    2000-05-01

    In this presentation, we discuss recent progress on polymer photovoltaic cells and polymer photodetectors. By improving the fill-factor of polymer photovoltaic cells, the energy conversion efficiency was improved significantly to over 4 percent. Such high efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells are promising for many applications including e-papers, e-books and smart-windows. Polymer photodetectors with similar device configuration show high photosensitivity, low dark current, large dynamic range, linear intensity dependence, low noise level and fast response time. These parameters are comparable to or even better than their inorganic counterparts. The advantages of low manufacturing cost, large detection area, and easy hybridization and integration with other electronic or optical components make them promising for a variety of applications including chemical/biomedical analysis, full-color digital image sensing and high energy radiation detection.

  6. Advances in polymer concrete technology for cell house components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, P.

    2000-01-01

    The cell house environment is very challenging with regard to protection of the concrete structure and components against the corrosive effects of acid. Coating technology using Epoxy, Vinyl Ester and Polyurethane Polymers is available, to provide the necessary chemical and heat resistance. However, producing suitable POLYMER CONCRETE technology for pre-cast components, especially tanks and cells requires not only the correct POLYMER selection, but also significant know-how in mineral aggregate technology to achieve the desired performance properties. Furthermore, the POLYMER CONCRETE technology must enable the pre-caster to manufacture the components in a simple one-step procedure. This paper outlines the important aspects in formulating POLYMER CONCRETE, the performance properties that can be achieved and the practical issues relating to the cost effective pre-casting of tanks and cells in particular. (author)

  7. Evolution of the cell wall components during terrestrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Banasiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of terrestrial ecosystems by the first land plants, and their subsequent expansion and diversification, were crucial for the life on the Earth. However, our understanding of these processes is still relatively poor. Recent intensification of studies on various plant organisms have identified the plant cell walls are those structures, which played a key role in adaptive processes during the evolution of land plants. Cell wall as a structure protecting protoplasts and showing a high structural plasticity was one of the primary subjects to changes, giving plants the new properties and capabilities, which undoubtedly contributed to the evolutionary success of land plants. In this paper, the current state of knowledge about some main components of the cell walls (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins and lignins and their evolutionary alterations, as preadaptive features for the land colonization and the plant taxa diversification, is summarized. Some aspects related to the biosynthesis and modification of the cell wall components, with particular emphasis on the mechanism of transglycosylation, are also discussed. In addition, new surprising discoveries related to the composition of various cell walls, which change how we perceive their evolution, are presented, such as the presence of lignin in red algae or MLG (1→3,(1→4-β-D-glucan in horsetails. Currently, several new and promising projects, regarding the cell wall, have started, deciphering its structure, composition and metabolism in the evolutionary context. That additional information will allow us to better understand the processes leading to the terrestrialization and the evolution of extant land plants.

  8. Semiflexible polymers confined in a slit pore with attractive walls: two-dimensional liquid crystalline order versus capillary nematization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, Andrey; Egorov, Sergei A; Binder, Kurt

    2017-03-01

    Semiflexible polymers under good solvent conditions interacting with attractive planar surfaces are investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and classical Density Functional Theory (DFT). A bead-spring type potential complemented by a bending potential is used, allowing variation of chain stiffness from completely flexible coils to rod-like polymers whose persistence length by far exceeds their contour length. Solvent is only implicitly included, monomer-monomer interactions being purely repulsive, while two types of attractive wall-monomer interactions are considered: (i) a strongly attractive Mie-type potential, appropriate for a strictly structureless wall, and (ii) a corrugated wall formed by Lennard-Jones particles arranged on a square lattice. It is found that in dilute solutions the former case leads to the formation of a strongly adsorbed surface layer, and the profile of density and orientational order in the z-direction perpendicular to the wall is predicted by DFT in nice agreement with MD. While for very low bulk densities a Kosterlitz-Thouless type transition from the isotropic phase to a phase with power-law decay of nematic correlations is suggested to occur in the strongly adsorbed layer, for larger densities a smectic-C phase in the surface layer is detected. No "capillary nematization" effect at higher bulk densities is found in this system, unlike systems with repulsive walls. This finding is attributed to the reduction of the bulk density (in the center of the slit pore) due to polymer adsorption on the attractive wall, for a system studied in the canonical ensemble. Consequently in a system with two attractive walls nematic order in the slit pore can occur only at a higher density than for a bulk system.

  9. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  10. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium...... trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF). The polymer electrode material was polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS). The cells were of the form, Li / PAN : EC : PC : LiCF3SO3 / PPy : DBS. Polymer electrodes of three different thicknesses were studied using cycling at different scan rates. All cells...

  11. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  12. 3D morphology of photoactive layers of polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured polymer solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a promising low-cost alternative to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices. Since PSCs can be fabricated by processing polymers, eventually together with other organic materials, from solution and depositing them onto different types

  13. New polymer electrolytes for low temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundholm, F.; Elomaa, M.; Ennari, J.; Hietala, S.; Paronen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Lab. of Polymer Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Proton conducting polymer membranes for demanding applications, such as low temperature fuel cells, have been synthesised and characterised. Pre-irradiation methods are used to introduce sulfonic acid groups, directly or using polystyrene grafting, in stable, preformed polymer films. The membranes produced in this work show promise for the development of cost-effective, highly conducting membranes. (orig.)

  14. Polymer photovoltaic cells sensitive to the circular polarization ofl light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.; Abbel, R.J.; Lakhwani, G.; Meijer, E.W.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meskers, S.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Chiral conjugated polymer is used to construct a photovoltaic cell whose response depends on the circular polarization of the incoming light. The selectivity for left and right polarized light as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer is accounted for by modeling of the optical properties

  15. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-02

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components.

  16. A computational approach for inferring the cell wall properties that govern guard cell dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Hugh C; Bourdais, Gildas; Kopischke, Michaela; Miedes, Eva; Molina, Antonio; Robatzek, Silke; Morris, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Guard cells dynamically adjust their shape in order to regulate photosynthetic gas exchange, respiration rates and defend against pathogen entry. Cell shape changes are determined by the interplay of cell wall material properties and turgor pressure. To investigate this relationship between turgor pressure, cell wall properties and cell shape, we focused on kidney-shaped stomata and developed a biomechanical model of a guard cell pair. Treating the cell wall as a composite of the pectin-rich cell wall matrix embedded with cellulose microfibrils, we show that strong, circumferentially oriented fibres are critical for opening. We find that the opening dynamics are dictated by the mechanical stress response of the cell wall matrix, and as the turgor rises, the pectinaceous matrix stiffens. We validate these predictions with stomatal opening experiments in selected Arabidopsis cell wall mutants. Thus, using a computational framework that combines a 3D biomechanical model with parameter optimization, we demonstrate how to exploit subtle shape changes to infer cell wall material properties. Our findings reveal that proper stomatal dynamics are built on two key properties of the cell wall, namely anisotropy in the form of hoop reinforcement and strain stiffening. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Yeast cell wall chitin reduces wine haze formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thulile; Divol, Benoit; Bauer, Florian F

    2018-04-27

    Protein haze formation in bottled wines is a significant concern for the global wine industry and wine clarification before bottling is therefore a common but expensive practice. Previous studies have shown that wine yeast strains can reduce haze formation through the secretion of certain mannoproteins, but it has been suggested that other yeast-dependent haze protective mechanisms exist. On the other hand, addition of chitin has been shown to reduce haze formation, likely because grape chitinases have been shown to be the major contributors to haze. In this study, Chardonnay grape must fermented by various yeast strains resulted in wines with different protein haze levels indicating differences in haze protective capacities of the strains. The cell wall chitin levels of these strains were determined, and a strong correlation between cell wall chitin levels and haze protection capability was observed. To further evaluate the mechanism of haze protection, Escherichia coli -produced GFP-tagged grape chitinase was shown to bind efficiently to yeast cell walls in a cell wall chitin concentration-dependent manner, while commercial chitinase was removed from synthetic wine in quantities also correlated with the cell wall chitin levels of the strains. Our findings suggest a new mechanism of reducing wine haze, and propose a strategy for optimizing wine yeast strains to improve wine clarification. Importance In this study, we establish a new mechanism by which wine yeast strains can impact on the protein haze formation of wines, and demonstrate that yeast cell wall chitin binds grape chitinase in a chitin-concentration dependent manner. We also show that yeast can remove this haze-forming protein from wine. Chitin has in the past been shown to efficiently reduce wine haze formation when added to the wine in high concentration as a clarifying agent. Our data suggest that the selection of yeast strains with high levels of cell wall chitin can reduce protein haze. We also

  18. Cost Effective Polymer Solar Cells Research and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing [Norfolk State Univ, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The technical or research objective of this project is to investigate and develop new polymers and polymer based optoelectronic devices for potentially cost effective (or cost competitive), durable, lightweight, flexible, and high efficiency solar energy conversion applications. The educational objective of this project includes training of future generation scientists, particularly young, under-represented minority scientists, working in the areas related to the emerging organic/polymer based solar energy technologies and related optoelectronic devices. Graduate and undergraduate students will be directly involved in scientific research addressing issues related to the development of polymer based solar cell technology.

  19. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M.

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone),

  20. Magnetic orientation of single-walled carbon nanotubes or their composites using polymer wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Yonemura et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic orientation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs or the SWNT composites wrapped with polymer using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEHPPV as the conducting polymer were examined. The formation of SWNT/MEHPPV composites was confirmed by examining absorption and fluorescence spectra. The N,N-dimethylformamide solution of SWNT/MEHPPV composites or the aqueous solution of the shortened SWNTs was introduced dropwise onto a mica or glass plate. The magnetic processing of the composites or the SWNTs was carried out using a superconducting magnet with a horizontal direction (8 T. The AFM images indicated that the SWNT/MEHPPV composites or the SWNTs were oriented randomly without magnetic processing, while with magnetic processing (8 T, they were oriented with the tube axis of the composites or the SWNTs parallel to the magnetic field. In polarized absorption spectra of SWNT/MEHPPV composites on glass plates without magnetic processing, the absorbance due to semiconducting SWNT in the near-IR region in horizontal polarized light was almost the same as that in vertical polarized light. In contrast, with magnetic processing (8 T, the absorbance due to semiconducting SWNT in the horizontal polarization direction against the direction of magnetic field was stronger than that in the vertical polarization direction. Similar results were obtained from the polarized absorption spectra for the shortened SWNTs. These results of polarized absorption spectra also support the magnetic orientation of the SWNT/MEHPPV composites or the SWNTs. On the basis of a comparison of the composites and the SWNTs alone, the magnetic orientation of SWNT/MEHPPV composites is most likely ascribable to the anisotropy in susceptibilities of SWNTs.

  1. Bacterial Cell Wall Growth, Shape and Division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derouaux, A.; Terrak, M.; den Blaauwen, T.; Vollmer, W.; Remaut, H.; Fronzes, R.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of a bacterial cell is maintained by its peptidoglycan sacculus that completely surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane. During growth the sacculus is enlarged by peptidoglycan synthesis complexes that are controlled by components linked to the cytoskeleton and, in Gram-negative bacteria, by

  2. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, P.; Sapp, H.; Walsh, N.M.G.; Logan, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare highly malignant tumour. There have been previous descriptions of the CT appearances of this tumour, but to our knowledge this is the first MRI description. MRI may be a more sensitive method of initial evaluation of the local extension of the primary tumour. (orig.)

  3. Longevity in vivo of primary cell wall cellulose synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph Lee; Josephs, Cooper; Barnes, William J; Anderson, Charles T; Tien, Ming

    2018-02-01

    Our work focuses on understanding the lifetime and thus stability of the three main cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins involved in primary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis. It had long been thought that a major means of CESA regulation was via their rapid degradation. However, our studies here have uncovered that AtCESA proteins are not rapidly degraded. Rather, they persist for an extended time in the plant cell. Plant cellulose is synthesized by membrane-embedded cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). The CSC is composed of cellulose synthases (CESAs), of which three distinct isozymes form the primary cell wall CSC and another set of three isozymes form the secondary cell wall CSC. We determined the stability over time of primary cell wall (PCW) CESAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, using immunoblotting after inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide treatment. Our work reveals very slow turnover for the Arabidopsis PCW CESAs in vivo. Additionally, we show that the stability of all three CESAs within the PCW CSC is altered by mutations in individual CESAs, elevated temperature, and light conditions. Together, these results suggest that CESA proteins are very stable in vivo, but that their lifetimes can be modulated by intrinsic and environmental cues.

  4. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  5. Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher; Novoa, Fernando; Dupont, Stephanie; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  6. Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  7. Decohesion kinetics in polymer organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Christopher; Novoa, Fernando; Dupont, Stephanie; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  8. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn

    2013-01-01

    in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly......Evaporation is the most commonly used deposition method in the processing of back electrodes in polymer solar cells used in scientifi c studies. However, vacuum-based methods such as evaporation are uneconomical in the upscaling of polymer solar cells as they are throughput limiting steps...... employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...

  9. Characterization of Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    , but a large number of additional degradation mechanisms are introduced. Consequently, research in the stability of polymer solar cells is impractical since the extensive timeframe of stability testing reduces the pace of the research. This thesis reports the first results on the response of polymer solar...... cells to concentrated light, both in terms of performance as well as stability. Additionally, concentrated light was used to study some of the mechanisms governing solar cells operation, which are dominant when currents are very high as a consequence of high photon flux. The response in terms......The field of polymer solar cells has undergone an extensive development in recent years after the invention of semiconducting polymers in 1991. Efficiencies have gradually increased to above 10 %, and high throughput processing methods such as roll-to-roll coating allow for production of thousands...

  10. Synthesis of polypyrrole within the cell wall of yeast by redox-cycling of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanavicius, Arunas; Andriukonis, Eivydas; Stirke, Arunas; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Balevicius, Zigmas; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2016-02-01

    Yeast cells are often used as a model system in various experiments. Moreover, due to their high metabolic activity, yeast cells have a potential to be applied as elements in the design of biofuel cells and biosensors. However a wider application of yeast cells in electrochemical systems is limited due to high electric resistance of their cell wall. In order to reduce this problem we have polymerized conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) directly in the cell wall and/or within periplasmic membrane. In this research the formation of Ppy was induced by [Fe(CN)6](3-)ions, which were generated from K4[Fe(CN)6], which was initially added to polymerization solution. The redox process was catalyzed by oxido-reductases, which are present in the plasma membrane of yeast cells. The formation of Ppy was confirmed by spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy. It was confirmed that the conducting polymer polypyrrole was formed within periplasmic space and/or within the cell wall of yeast cells, which were incubated in solution containing pyrrole, glucose and [Fe(CN)6](4-). After 24h drying at room temperature we have observed that Ppy-modified yeast cell walls retained their initial spherical form. In contrast to Ppy-modified cells, the walls of unmodified yeast have wrinkled after 24h drying. The viability of yeast cells in the presence of different pyrrole concentrations has been evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of cell wall integrity stress and RlmA transcription factor on asexual development and autolysis in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Szarka, Máté; Kovács, Szilvia; Boczonádi, Imre; Emri, Tamás; Abe, Keietsu; Pócsi, István; Pusztahelyi, Tünde

    2013-05-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway is responsible for cell wall remodeling and reinforcement upon cell wall stress, which is proposed to be universal in fungal cultures. In Aspergillus nidulans, both the deletion of rlmA encoding the RlmA transcription factor in CWI signaling and low concentrations of the cell wall polymer intercalating agent Congo Red caused significant physiological changes. The gene deletion mutant ΔrlmA strain showed decreased CWI and oxidative stress resistances, which indicated the connection between the CWI pathway and the oxidative stress response system. The Congo Red stress resulted in alterations in the cell wall polymer composition in submerged cultures due to the induction of the biosynthesis of the alkali soluble fraction as well as the hydrolysis of cell wall biopolymers. Both RlmA and RlmA-independent factors induced by Congo Red stress regulated the expression of glucanase (ANID_00245, engA) and chitinase (chiB, chiA) genes, which promoted the autolysis of the cultures and also modulated the pellet sizes. CWI stress and rlmA deletion affected the expression of brlA encoding the early conidiophore development regulator transcription factor BrlA and, as a consequence, the formation of conidiophores was significantly changed in submerged cultures. Interestingly, the number of conidiospores increased in surface cultures of the ΔrlmA strain. The in silico analysis of genes putatively regulated by RlmA and the CWI transcription factors AnSwi4/AnSwi6 in the SBF complex revealed only a few jointly regulated genes, including ugmA and srrA coding for UgmA UDP-galactopyranose mutase and SrrA stress response regulator, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute

  13. Effect of nutrient calcium on the cell wall composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcium in the nutrient medium on kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst), grown in a solution culture, was investigated. Calcium had no effect on the lignin content of leaf material, but decreased the lignin content per unit stem cell wall. Calcium appeared to have no significant effect on either the ...

  14. Cloning and expression of cell wall acid invertase gene fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... intron. It had a high homology to previously cloned cell wall acid invertase genes in other plants by sequence .... Japan) in a final volume of 50 µl. The programs for ... The first strand of cDNA was synthesized by using SYBR ...

  15. In planta modification of the potato tuber cell wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, R.J.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from its well known uses in the human diet a large amount of the grown potatoes (about one third in the Netherlands) is used for the isolation of starch which is used in several food and non-food applications. The cell wall fibres comprise a large portion of the waste material remaining

  16. The Mechanisms of Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction during Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; E. Thybring, Emil; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-01-01

    . Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry...

  17. Synthesis and Application of Plant Cell Wall Oligogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch

    The plant cell walls represent almost 50% of the biomass found in plants and are therefore one of the main targets for biotechnological research. Major motivators are their potential as a renewable energy source for transport fuels, as functional foods, and as a source of raw materials to generate...

  18. Structure of cellulose microfibrils in primary cell walls from Collenchyma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thomas, L. H.; Forsyth, V. T.; Šturcová, Adriana; Kennedy, C. J.; May, R. P.; Altaner, C. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Wess, T. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2013), s. 465-476 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0703 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : primary cell wall * cellulose microfibril structure * chain packing disorder Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  19. Parenchyma cell wall structure in twining stem of Dioscorea balcanica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radosavljević, J.S.; Pristov, J.B.; Mitrović, A.Lj.; Steinbach, Gabor; Mouille, G.; Tufegdžić, S.; Maksimović, V.; Mutavdžić, D.; Janošević, D.; Vuković, M.; Garab, G.; Radotić, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 11 (2017), s. 4653-4669 ISSN 0969-0239 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/19.0392 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cell wall * Cellulose fibril order * Dioscorea balcanica Kosanin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.417, year: 2016

  20. Characterisation of cell-wall polysaccharides from mandarin segment membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coll-Almela, L.; Saura-Lopez, D.; Laencina-Sanchez, J.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Ros-García, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a process of enzymatic peeling of mandarin segments suitable for use on an industrial scale, the cell wall fraction of the segment membrane of Satsuma mandarin fruits was extracted to obtain a chelating agent-soluble pectin fraction (ChSS), a dilute sodium hydroxide-soluble

  1. Charge Generation Dynamics in Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells: Influence of Polymer Packing and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Bhoj R; Lee, Changyeon; Younts, Robert; Lee, Wonho; Danilov, Evgeny; Kim, Bumjoon J; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-12-23

    All-polymer solar cells exhibit rapid progress in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 2 to 7.7% over the past few years. While this improvement is primarily attributed to efficient charge transport and balanced mobility between the carriers, not much is known about the charge generation dynamics in these systems. Here we measured exciton relaxation and charge separation dynamics using ultrafast spectroscopy in polymer/polymer blends with different molecular packing and morphology. These measurements indicate that preferential face-on configuration with intermixed nanomorphology increases the charge generation efficiency. In fact, there is a direct quantitative correlation between the free charge population in the ultrafast time scales and the external quantum efficiency, suggesting not only the transport but also charge generation is key for the design of high performance all polymer solar cells.

  2. Cell walls and the developmental anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon stem internode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A Matos

    Full Text Available While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, B. distachyon appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C4 grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.

  3. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycoprotein of the wall of sycamore tissue-culture cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M F; Northcote, D H

    1971-12-01

    1. A glycoprotein containing a large amount of hydroxyproline is present in the cell walls of sycamore callus cells. This protein is insoluble and remained in the alpha-cellulose when a mild separation procedure was used to obtain the polysaccharide fractions of the wall. The glycoprotein contained a high proportion of arabinose and galactose. 2. Soluble glycopeptides were prepared from the alpha-cellulose fraction when peptide bonds were broken by hydrazinolysis. The soluble material was fractionated by gel filtration and one glycopeptide was further purified by electrophoresis; it had a composition of 10% hydroxyproline, 35% arabinose and 55% galactose, and each hydroxyproline residue carried a glycosyl radical so that the oligosaccharides on the glycopeptide had an average degree of polymerization of 9. 3. The extraction of the glycopeptides was achieved without cleavage of glycosyl bonds, so that the glycoprotein cannot act as a covalent cross-link between the major polysaccharides of the wall. 4. The wall protein approximates in conformation to polyhydroxyproline and therefore it probably has similar physicochemical properties to polyhydroxyproline. This is discussed in relation to the function of the glycoprotein and its effect on the physical and chemical nature of the wall.

  5. PhEXPA1, a Petunia hybrida expansin, is involved in cell wall metabolism and in plant architecture specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Cavallini, Erika; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Expansins are wall-loosening proteins that induce wall stress relaxation and irreversible wall extension in a pH-dependent manner. Despite a substantial body of work has been performed on the characterization of many expansins genes in different plant species, the knowledge about their precise biological roles during plant development remains scarce. To yield insights into the expansion process in Petunia hybrida, PhEXPA1, an expansin gene preferentially expressed in petal limb, has been characterized. The constitutive overexpression of PhEXPA1 significantly increased expansin activity, cells size and organ dimensions. Moreover, 35S::PhEXPA1 transgenic plants exhibited an altered cell wall polymer composition and a precocious timing of axillary meristem development compared with wild-type plants. These findings supported a previous hypothesis that expansins are not merely structural proteins involved in plant cell wall metabolism but they also take part in many plant development processes. Here, to support this expansins dual role, we discuss about differential cell wall-related genes expressed in PhEXPA1 expression mutants and gradients of altered petunia branching pattern. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  6. Null mutants of individual RABA genes impact the proportion of different cell wall components in stem tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lunn

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, and other plants, the RABA GTPases (orthologous to the Rab11a of mammals have expanded in number and diversity and have been shown to belong to eight sub clades, some of which have been implicated in controlling vesicles that traffic cell wall polymers and enzymes that synthesise or modify them to the cell wall. In order to investigate this, we have investigated whether T-DNA insertion knockouts of individual RABA genes belonging to different sub clades, impact on the composition of the plant cell wall. Single gene knockouts of the RABA1, RABA2 and RABA4 sub clades primarily affected the percentage composition of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose within the cell wall, respectively, despite having no obvious phenotype in the whole plant. We hypothesise that vesicles carrying specific types of cargoes from the Golgi to the cell surface may be regulated by particular sub types of RABA proteins, a finding that could have wider implications for how trafficking systems work and could be a useful tool in cell wall research and other fields of plant biology.

  7. The Absence of a Mature Cell Wall Sacculus in Stable Listeria monocytogenes L-Form Cells Is Independent of Peptidoglycan Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Patrick; Borisova, Marina; Schneider, Alexander; Ayala, Juan A; Mayer, Christoph; Schuppler, Markus; Loessner, Martin J; Briers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    L-forms are cell wall-deficient variants of otherwise walled bacteria that maintain the ability to survive and proliferate in absence of the surrounding peptidoglycan sacculus. While transient or unstable L-forms can revert to the walled state and may still rely on residual peptidoglycan synthesis for multiplication, stable L-forms cannot revert to the walled form and are believed to propagate in the complete absence of peptidoglycan. L-forms are increasingly studied as a fundamental biological model system for cell wall synthesis. Here, we show that a stable L-form of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes features a surprisingly intact peptidoglycan synthesis pathway including glycosyl transfer, in spite of the accumulation of multiple mutations during prolonged passage in the cell wall-deficient state. Microscopic and biochemical analysis revealed the presence of peptidoglycan precursors and functional glycosyl transferases, resulting in the formation of peptidoglycan polymers but without the synthesis of a mature cell wall sacculus. In conclusion, we found that stable, non-reverting L-forms, which do not require active PG synthesis for proliferation, may still continue to produce aberrant peptidoglycan.

  8. Effects of Operating Temperature on Droplet Casting of Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of a flexible polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT composite sensor array as a function of operating temperature. The response magnitudes of a cost-effective flexible gas sensor array equipped with a heater were measured with respect to five different operating temperatures (room temperature, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C via impedance spectrum measurement and sensing response experiments. The selected polymers that were droplet cast to coat a MWCNT conductive layer to form two-layer polymer/MWCNT composite sensing films included ethyl cellulose (EC, polyethylene oxide (PEO, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. Electrical characterization of impedance, sensing response magnitude, and scanning electron microscope (SEM morphology of each type of polymer/MWCNT composite film was performed at different operating temperatures. With respect to ethanol, the response magnitude of the sensor decreased with increasing operating temperatures. The results indicated that the higher operating temperature could reduce the response and influence the sensitivity of the polymer/MWCNT gas sensor array. The morphology of polymer/MWCNT composite films revealed that there were changes in the porous film after volatile organic compound (VOC testing.

  9. Studying biomolecule localization by engineering bacterial cell wall curvature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars D Renner

    Full Text Available In this article we describe two techniques for exploring the relationship between bacterial cell shape and the intracellular organization of proteins. First, we created microchannels in a layer of agarose to reshape live bacterial cells and predictably control their mean cell wall curvature, and quantified the influence of curvature on the localization and distribution of proteins in vivo. Second, we used agarose microchambers to reshape bacteria whose cell wall had been chemically and enzymatically removed. By combining microstructures with different geometries and fluorescence microscopy, we determined the relationship between bacterial shape and the localization for two different membrane-associated proteins: i the cell-shape related protein MreB of Escherichia coli, which is positioned along the long axis of the rod-shaped cell; and ii the negative curvature-sensing cell division protein DivIVA of Bacillus subtilis, which is positioned primarily at cell division sites. Our studies of intracellular organization in live cells of E. coli and B. subtilis demonstrate that MreB is largely excluded from areas of high negative curvature, whereas DivIVA localizes preferentially to regions of high negative curvature. These studies highlight a unique approach for studying the relationship between cell shape and intracellular organization in intact, live bacteria.

  10. Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, B; Sivakov, V; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07743 Jena (Germany); Sensfuss, S, E-mail: bjoern.eisenhawer@ipht-jena.de [Thuringian Institute for Textile and Plastics Research, Breitscheidstrasse 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany)

    2011-08-05

    Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.

  11. Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, B; Sivakov, V; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Sensfuss, S

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.

  12. Triple junction polymer solar cells for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esiner, S.; Eersel, van H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    A triple junction polymer solar cell in a novel 1 + 2 type configuration provides photoelectrochemical water splitting in its maximum power point at V ˜ 1.70 V with an estimated solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of 3.1%. The triple junction cell consists of a wide bandgap front cell and

  13. Control of neural stem cell survival by electroactive polymer substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lundin

    Full Text Available Stem cell function is regulated by intrinsic as well as microenvironmental factors, including chemical and mechanical signals. Conducting polymer-based cell culture substrates provide a powerful tool to control both chemical and physical stimuli sensed by stem cells. Here we show that polypyrrole (PPy, a commonly used conducting polymer, can be tailored to modulate survival and maintenance of rat fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. NSCs cultured on PPy substrates containing different counter ions, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS, tosylate (TsO, perchlorate (ClO(4 and chloride (Cl, showed a distinct correlation between PPy counter ion and cell viability. Specifically, NSC viability was high on PPy(DBS but low on PPy containing TsO, ClO(4 and Cl. On PPy(DBS, NSC proliferation and differentiation was comparable to standard NSC culture on tissue culture polystyrene. Electrical reduction of PPy(DBS created a switch for neural stem cell viability, with widespread cell death upon polymer reduction. Coating the PPy(DBS films with a gel layer composed of a basement membrane matrix efficiently prevented loss of cell viability upon polymer reduction. Here we have defined conditions for the biocompatibility of PPy substrates with NSC culture, critical for the development of devices based on conducting polymers interfacing with NSCs.

  14. Cell wall staining with Trypan Blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eLiesche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  15. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  16. Pyro-electrification of polymer membranes for cell patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rega, R.; Gennari, O.; Mecozzia, L.; Grilli, S.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P. [National Council of Research, Institute of Applied Science & Intelligent Systems (ISASI) ‘E. Caianiello’, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of charging polymer-based materials, due to their potential in developing large-scale and inexpensive flexible thin-film technology. The availability of localized electrostatic fields is in of great interest for a huge amount of applications such as distribution of biomolecules and cells from the liquid phase. Here we report a voltage-free pyro-electrification (PE) process able to induce permanent dipoles into polymer layers; the lithium niobate (LN) crystal is the key component that plays the multi-purpose role of sustaining, heating and poling the polymer layer that is then peeled-off easily in order to have a free-standing charged membrane. The results show the fascinating application for the living cell patterning. It well known that cell behaviour is affected by chemical and topographical cues of substrate. In fact, polymers, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are naturally cytophobic and require specific functionalization treatments in order to promote cell adhesion. Through our proposal technique, it’s possible to obtain spontaneous organization and a driven growth of SH-SY5Y cells that is solely dictated by the nature of the charge polymer surface, opening, in this way, the innovative chance to manipulate and transfer biological samples on a free-standing polymer layer [1].

  17. Penium margaritaceum as a model organism for cell wall analysis of expanding plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydahl, Maja G; Fangel, Jonatan U; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Johansen, I Elisabeth; Andreas, Amanda; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2015-01-01

    The growth of a plant cell encompasses a complex set of subcellular components interacting in a highly coordinated fashion. Ultimately, these activities create specific cell wall structural domains that regulate the prime force of expansion, internally generated turgor pressure. The precise organization of the polymeric networks of the cell wall around the protoplast also contributes to the direction of growth, the shape of the cell, and the proper positioning of the cell in a tissue. In essence, plant cell expansion represents the foundation of development. Most studies of plant cell expansion have focused primarily upon late divergent multicellular land plants and specialized cell types (e.g., pollen tubes, root hairs). Here, we describe a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum (Penium), which can serve as a valuable model organism for understanding cell expansion and the underlying mechanics of the cell wall in a single plant cell.

  18. Identification of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes Controlling Biomass Characteristics and Yield in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Zhaohua PEng [Mississippi State University; Ronald, Palmela [UC-Davis; Wang, Guo-Liang [The Ohio State University

    2013-04-26

    This project aims to identify the regulatory genes of rice cell wall synthesis pathways using a cell wall removal and regeneration system. We completed the gene expression profiling studies following the time course from cell wall removal to cell wall regeneration in rice suspension cells. We also completed, total proteome, nuclear subproteome and histone modification studies following the course from cell wall removal and cell wall regeneration process. A large number of differentially expressed regulatory genes and proteins were identified. Meanwhile, we generated RNAi and over-expression transgenic rice for 45 genes with at least 10 independent transgenic lines for each gene. In addition, we ordered T-DNA and transposon insertion mutants for 60 genes from Korea, Japan, and France and characterized the mutants. Overall, we have mutants and transgenic lines for over 90 genes, exceeded our proposed goal of generating mutants for 50 genes. Interesting Discoveries a) Cell wall re-synthesis in protoplasts may involve a novel cell wall synthesis mechanism. The synthesis of the primary cell wall is initiated in late cytokinesis with further modification during cell expansion. Phragmoplast plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. It services as a scaffold for building the cell plate and formation of a new cell wall. Only one phragmoplast and one new cell wall is produced for each dividing cell. When the cell wall was removed enzymatically, we found that cell wall re-synthesis started from multiple locations simultaneously, suggesting that a novel mechanism is involved in cell wall re-synthesis. This observation raised many interesting questions, such as how the starting sites of cell wall synthesis are determined, whether phragmoplast and cell plate like structures are involved in cell wall re-synthesis, and more importantly whether the same set of enzymes and apparatus are used in cell wall re-synthesis as during cytokinesis. Given that many known cell wall

  19. Targeted and non-targeted effects in cell wall polysaccharides from transgenetically modified potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The plant cell wall is a chemically complex network composed mainly of polysaccharides. Cell wall polysaccharides surround and protect plant cells and are responsible for the stability and rigidity of plant tissue. Pectin is a major component of primary cell wall and the middle lamella of plants.

  20. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered...

  1. Al-induced root cell wall chemical components differences of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root growth is different in plants with different levels of Al-tolerance under Al stress. Cell wall chemical components of root tip cell are related to root growth. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between root growth difference and cell wall chemical components. For this purpose, the cell wall chemical ...

  2. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double....... The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco) mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently...... in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell...

  3. Proteomics Coupled with Metabolite and Cell Wall Profiling Reveal Metabolic Processes of a Developing Rice Stem Internode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Williams, Brad J.; Thangella, Padmavathi A. V.; Ladak, Adam; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Olivos, Hernando J.; Zhao, Kangmei; Callister, Stephen J.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2017-07-13

    Internodes of grass stems function in mechanical support, transport, and, in some species, are a major sink organ for carbon in the form of cell wall polymers. This study reports cell wall composition, proteomic and metabolite analyses of the rice elongating internode. Along eight segments of the second rice internode (internode II) at booting stage, cellulose, lignin, and xylose increase as a percentage of cell wall material from the younger to the older internode segments, indicating active cell wall synthesis. Liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of trypsin-digested peptides of size-fractionated proteins extracted from this internode at booting reveals 2547proteins with at least two unique peptides. The dataset includes many glycosyltransferases, acyltransferases, glycosyl hydrolases, cell wall-localized proteins, and protein kinases that have or may have functions in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. Phospho-enrichment of the internode II peptides identified 21 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 20 phosphoproteins including an LRR-III family receptor like kinase. GO over-representation and KEGG pathway analyses highlight the abundances of internode proteins involved in biosynthetic processes, especially the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. LC-MS of hot methanol-extracted secondary metabolites from internode II at four stages (elongation, early mature, mature and post mature) indicates that secondary metabolites in stems are distinct from those of roots and leaves, and differ during stem maturation. This work fills a void of knowledge of proteomics and metabolomics data for grass stems, specifically for rice, and provides baseline knowledge for more detailed studies of cell wall synthesis and other biological processes during internode development, toward improving grass agronomic properties.

  4. The disruptive effect of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall explored by an in-silico structural outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano D; Otero, Lisandro H; Ruiz, Francisco; Klinke, Sebastián; Giordano, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall are frequently incorporated in biochemistry classes designed for undergraduate students in diverse fields as biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine. Such exercises typically do not include structural data. We describe here a sequence of computer tasks designed to illustrate and reinforce both physiological and structural concepts involved in lysozyme effects on the bacterial cell-wall structure. This lab class usually lasts 3.5 hours. First, the instructor presents introductory concepts of the bacterial cell wall and the effect of lysozyme on its structure. Then, students are taught to use computer modeling to visualize the three-dimensional structure of a lysozyme in complex with bacterial cell-wall fragments. Finally, the lysozyme inhibitory effect on a bacterial culture is optionally proposed as a simple microbiological assay. The computer lab exercises described here give students a realistic understanding of the disruptive effect of lysozymes on the bacterial cell wall, a crucial component in bacterial survival. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(1):83-90, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. The Role of Pectin Acetylation in the Organization of Plant Cell Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fimognari, Lorenzo

    adopt defined 3D organization to allow their composition/interactions to be tweaked upon developmental need. Failure to build functional cell wall architecture will affect plant growth and resistance to stresses. In this PhD dissertation I explored the role of pectin acetylation in controlling...... wall organization, namely polysaccharides-to-polysaccharides interactions. These results suggest that cell wall acetylation is a mechanism that plants evolved to control cell wall organization. In Manuscript III, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis mutants trichome birefringence like (tbl) 10......All plant cells are surrounded by one or more cell wall layers. The cell wall serves as a stiff mechanical support while it allows cells to expand and provide a protective barrier to invading pathogens. Cell walls are dynamic structures composed of entangled cell wall polysaccharides that must...

  6. Cell wall-bound silicon optimizes ammonium uptake and metabolism in rice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Huachun; Ma, Jie; Pu, Junbao; Wang, Lijun

    2018-05-16

    Turgor-driven plant cell growth depends on cell wall structure and mechanics. Strengthening of cell walls on the basis of an association and interaction with silicon (Si) could lead to improved nutrient uptake and optimized growth and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the structural basis and physiological mechanisms of nutrient uptake and metabolism optimization under Si assistance remain obscure. Single-cell level biophysical measurements, including in situ non-invasive micro-testing (NMT) of NH4+ ion fluxes, atomic force microscopy (AFM) of cell walls, and electrolyte leakage and membrane potential, as well as whole-cell proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), were performed. The altered cell wall structure increases the uptake rate of the main nutrient NH4+ in Si-accumulating cells, whereas the rate is only half in Si-deprived counterparts. Rigid cell walls enhanced by a wall-bound form of Si as the structural basis stabilize cell membranes. This, in turn, optimizes nutrient uptake of the cells in the same growth phase without any requirement for up-regulation of transmembrane ammonium transporters. Optimization of cellular nutrient acquisition strategies can substantially improve performance in terms of growth, metabolism and stress resistance.

  7. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  8. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  9. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...... with other PV technologies. It is shown that on a m2 basis the environmental characteristics of polymer-OPV are highly beneficial, while on a watt-peak and on a kWh basis, these benefits are - at the current level of the development - still (over-)compensated by low module efficiency and limited lifetime...

  10. Pea Border Cell Maturation and Release Involve Complex Cell Wall Structural Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, Jozef; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Hansen, Aleksander Riise; Schückel, Julia; Kračun, Stjepan Krešimir; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Mouille, Grégory; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth; Ulvskov, Peter; Domozych, David S; Willats, William George Tycho

    2017-06-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases, though, plant cells are programmed to detach, and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea ( Pisum sativum ) root tip cell walls. Our study included immunocarbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis of hydrolytic activities, transmission electron microscopy, and immunolocalization of cell wall components. Using this integrated glycobiology approach, we identified multiple novel modes of cell wall structural and compositional rearrangement during root cap growth and the release of border cells. Our findings provide a new level of detail about border cell maturation and enable us to develop a model of the separation process. We propose that loss of adhesion by the dissolution of homogalacturonan in the middle lamellae is augmented by an active biophysical process of cell curvature driven by the polarized distribution of xyloglucan and extensin epitopes. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Pea Border Cell Maturation and Release Involve Complex Cell Wall Structural Dynamics1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases, though, plant cells are programmed to detach, and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls. Our study included immunocarbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis of hydrolytic activities, transmission electron microscopy, and immunolocalization of cell wall components. Using this integrated glycobiology approach, we identified multiple novel modes of cell wall structural and compositional rearrangement during root cap growth and the release of border cells. Our findings provide a new level of detail about border cell maturation and enable us to develop a model of the separation process. We propose that loss of adhesion by the dissolution of homogalacturonan in the middle lamellae is augmented by an active biophysical process of cell curvature driven by the polarized distribution of xyloglucan and extensin epitopes. PMID:28400496

  12. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Matsuo, Yutaka; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2018-01-22

    Photovoltaics, more generally known as solar cells, are made from semiconducting materials that convert light into electricity. Solar cells have received much attention in recent years due to their promise as clean and efficient light-harvesting devices. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) could play a crucial role in these devices and have been the subject of much research, which continues to this day. SWNTs are known to outperform multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) at low densities, because of the difference in their optical transmittance for the same current density, which is the most important parameter in comparing SWNTs and MWNTs. SWNT films show semiconducting features, which make SWNTs function as active or charge-transporting materials. This chapter, consisting of two sections, focuses on the use of SWNTs in solar cells. In the first section, we discuss SWNTs as a light harvester and charge transporter in the photoactive layer, which are reviewed chronologically to show the history of the research progress. In the second section, we discuss SWNTs as a transparent conductive layer outside of the photoactive layer, which is relatively more actively researched. This section introduces SWNT applications in silicon solar cells, organic solar cells, and perovskite solar cells each, from their prototypes to recent results. As we go along, the science and prospects of the application of solar cells will be discussed.

  13. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of polymer and organic solar cells is reviewed in the context of materials, processes and devices that significantly deviate from the standard approach which involves rigid glass substrates, indium-tin-oxide electrodes, spincoated layers of conjugated polymer/fullerene...... be performing less than the current state-of-the-art in their present form but that may have the potential to outperform these pending a larger investment in effort....

  14. Dynamics of cell wall elasticity pattern shapes the cell during yeast mating morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenbogen, Björn; Giese, Wolfgang; Hemmen, Marie; Uhlendorf, Jannis; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall defines cell shape and maintains integrity of fungi and plants. When exposed to mating pheromone, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows a mating projection and alters in morphology from spherical to shmoo form. Although structural and compositional alterations of the cell wall accompany shape transitions, their impact on cell wall elasticity is unknown. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach using finite-element modelling and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigated the influence of spatially and temporally varying material properties on mating morphogenesis. Time-resolved elasticity maps of shmooing yeast acquired with AFM in vivo revealed distinct patterns, with soft material at the emerging mating projection and stiff material at the tip. The observed cell wall softening in the protrusion region is necessary for the formation of the characteristic shmoo shape, and results in wider and longer mating projections. The approach is generally applicable to tip-growing fungi and plants cells. PMID:27605377

  15. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Luo

    Full Text Available The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry.

  16. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry.

  17. Regulation of plant cells, cell walls and development by mechanical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The overall goal of the revised scope of work for the final year of funding was to characterize cell wall biosynthesis in developing cotyledons and in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana, as a way of learning about developmental control of cell wall biosynthesis in plants, and interactions between cell wall biosynthesis and the microtubule cytoskeleton. The proposed work had two parts – to look at the effect of mutation in the SPIRAL2 gene on microtubule organization and reorganization, and to thoroughly characterize the glycosyltransferase genes expressed in shoot apical meristems by RNA-seq experiments, by in situ hybridization of the RNAs expressed in the meristem, and by antibody staining of the products of the glycosyltransferases in meristems. Both parts were completed; the spiral2 mutant was found to speed microtubule reorientation after ablation of adjacent cells, supporting our hypothesis that reorganization correlates with microtubule severing, the rate of which is increased by the mutation. The glycosyltransferase characterization was completed and published as Yang et al. (2016). Among the new things learned was that primary cell wall biosynthesis is strongly controlled both by cell type, and by stage of cell cycle, implying not only that different, even adjacent, cells can have different sugar linkages in their (nonshared) walls, but also that a surprisingly large proportion of glycosyltransferases is regulated in the cell cycle, and therefore that the cell cycle regulates wall maturation to a degree previously unrecognized.

  18. Cell wall bound anionic peroxidases from asparagus byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; López, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael

    2014-10-08

    Asparagus byproducts are a good source of cationic soluble peroxidases (CAP) useful for the bioremediation of phenol-contaminated wastewaters. In this study, cell wall bound peroxidases (POD) from the same byproducts have been purified and characterized. The covalent forms of POD represent >90% of the total cell wall bound POD. Isoelectric focusing showed that whereas the covalent fraction is constituted primarily by anionic isoenzymes, the ionic fraction is a mixture of anionic, neutral, and cationic isoenzymes. Covalently bound peroxidases were purified by means of ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. In vitro detoxification studies showed that although CAP are more effective for the removal of 4-CP and 2,4-DCP, anionic asparagus peroxidase (AAP) is a better option for the removal of hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main phenol present in olive mill wastewaters.

  19. Identifying Genes Controlling Ferulate Cross-Linking Formation in Grass Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de O. Buanafina, Marcia Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-10-16

    This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties.

  20. High-performance polymer photovoltaic cells and photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Srdanov, Gordana; Wang, Hailiang; Cao, Yong; Heeger, Alan J.

    2001-02-01

    Polymer photovoltaic cells and photodetectors have passed their infancy and become mature technologies. The energy conversion efficiency of polymer photovoltaic cells have been improved to over 4.1% (500 nm, 10 mW/cm2). Such high efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells are promising for many applications including e-papers, e-books and smart- windows. The development of polymer photodetectors is even faster. The performance parameters have been improved to the level meeting all specifications for practical applications. The polymer photodetectors are of high photosensitivity (approximately 0.2 - 0.3 A/Watt in visible and UV), low dark current (0.1 - 1 nA/cm2), large dynamic range (> 8 orders of magnitude), linear intensity dependence, low noise level and fast response time (to nanosecond time domain). These devices show long shelf and operation lives. The advantages of low manufacturing cost, large detection area, and easy hybridization and integration with other electronic or optical components make the polymer photodetectors promising for a variety of applications including chemical/biomedical analysis, full-color digital image sensing and high energy radiation detection.

  1. Pea border cell maturation and release involve complex cell wall structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Hansen, Aleksander Riise

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases though, plant cells are programmed to detach and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this....... Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we...... undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls. Our study included immuno-carbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR), quantitative RT-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis...

  2. Enzyme Amplified Detection of Microbial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Norman R.

    2004-01-01

    This proposal is MBL's portion of NASA's Johnson Space Center's Astrobiology Center led by Principal Investigator, Dr. David McKay, entitled: 'Institute for the Study of Biomarkers in Astromaterials.' Dr. Norman Wainwright is the principal investigator at MBL and is responsible for developing methods to detect trace quantities of microbial cell wall chemicals using the enzyme amplification system of Limulus polyphemus and other related methods.

  3. Fullerene solubility-current density relationship in polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, Joachim A.; Gobsch, Gerhard; Hoppe, Harald; Troshin, Pavel A.; Razumov, V.F.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade polymer solar cells have undergone a steady increase in overall device efficiency. To date, essential efficiency improvements of polymer-fullerene solar cells require the development of new materials. Whilst most research efforts aim at an improved or spectrally extended absorption of the donor polymer, not so much attention has been paid to the fullerene properties themselves. We have investigated a number of structurally related fullerenes, in order to study the relationship between chemical structure and resulting polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic properties. Our study reveals a clear connection between the fullerene solubility as material property on one hand and the solar cells short circuit photocurrent on the other hand. The tendency of the less soluble fullerene derivates to aggregate was accounted for smaller current densities in the respective solar cells. Once a minimum solubility of approx. 25 mg/ml in chlorobenzene was overcome by the fullerene derivative, the short circuit current density reached a plateau, of about 8-10 mA/cm 2 . Thus the solubility of the fullerene derivative directly influences the blend morphology and displays an important parameter for efficient polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell operation. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...

  5. Low-bandgap polymer photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duren, van J.K.J.; Dhanabalan, A.; Hal, van P.A.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A-novel low-bandgap conjugated polymer (PTPTB, Eg = ~1.6 eV), consisting of alternating electron-rich N-dodecyl-2,5-bis(2'-thienyl)pyrrole (TPT) and electron-deficient 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (B) units, as a donor material is studied together with a soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM) as acceptor to

  6. Cell wall proteins in seedling cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J G; Cardemil, L

    1994-01-01

    Four cell wall proteins of cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis seedlings were characterized by PAGE and Western analyses using a polyclonal antibody, generated against soybean seed coat extensin. These proteins had M(r)s of 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 and 63,000, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The proteins exhibited a fluorescent positive reaction with dansylhydrazine suggesting that they are glycoproteins; they did not show peroxidase activity. The cell wall proteins were also characterized by their amino acid composition and by their amino-terminal sequence. These analyses revealed that there are two groups of related cell wall proteins in the cotyledons. The first group comprises the proteins of M(r)s 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 which are rich in glutamic acid/glutamine and aspartic acid/asparagine and they have almost identical NH2-terminal sequences. The second group comprises the M(r) 63,000 protein which is rich in proline, glycine, valine and tyrosine, with an NH2-terminal sequence which was very similar to that of soybean proline-rich proteins.

  7. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The cell wall and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses are coordinately regulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Krysan, Damian J

    2009-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that regulates the cellular response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in eukaryotes. Our group has demonstrated that cell wall stress activates UPR in yeast through signals transmitted by the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. The UPR is required to maintain cell wall integrity; mutants lacking a functional UPR have defects in cell wall biosynthesis and are hypersensitive ...

  9. The cell wall-localized atypical β-1,3 glucanase ZERZAUST controls tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddepalli, Prasad; Fulton, Lynette; Wieland, Jennifer; Wassmer, Katrin; Schaeffer, Milena; Ranf, Stefanie; Schneitz, Kay

    2017-06-15

    Orchestration of cellular behavior in plant organogenesis requires integration of intercellular communication and cell wall dynamics. The underlying signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis depends on the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG. Mutations in ZERZAUST were previously shown to result in a strubbelig -like mutant phenotype. Here, we report on the molecular identification and functional characterization of ZERZAUST We show that ZERZAUST encodes a putative GPI-anchored β-1,3 glucanase suggested to degrade the cell wall polymer callose. However, a combination of in vitro , cell biological and genetic experiments indicate that ZERZAUST is not involved in the regulation of callose accumulation. Nonetheless, Fourier-transformed infrared-spectroscopy revealed that zerzaust mutants show defects in cell wall composition. Furthermore, the results indicate that ZERZAUST represents a mobile apoplastic protein, and that its carbohydrate-binding module family 43 domain is required for proper subcellular localization and function whereas its GPI anchor is dispensable. Our collective data reveal that the atypical β-1,3 glucanase ZERZAUST acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner and is required for cell wall organization during tissue morphogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Establishment of cell lines from adult T-cell leukemia cells dependent on negatively charged polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Harumi; Okada, Yasutaka; Seto, Masao; Kinoshita, Tomohiro

    2017-07-05

    Growing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in vitro is difficult. Here, we examined the effects of static electricity in the culture medium on the proliferation of ATLL cells. Six out of 10 ATLL cells did not proliferate in vitro and thus had to be cultured in a medium containing negatively charged polymers. In the presence of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) or chondroitin sulfate (CDR), cell lines (HKOX3-PGA, HKOX3-CDR) were established from the same single ATLL case using interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and feeder cells expressing OX40L (OX40L + HK). Dextran sulfate inhibited growth in both HKOX3 cell lines. Both PGA and OX40L + HK were indispensable for HKOX3-PGA growth, but HKOX3-CDR could proliferate in the presence of CDR or OX40L + HK alone. Thus, the specific action of each negatively charged polymer promoted the growth of specific ATLL cells in vitro.

  11. Cell Wall Composition and Candidate Biosynthesis Gene Expression During Rice Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra; Peck, Matthew L.; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Williams, Brian; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Saha, Prasenjit; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Conlin, Brian; Zhu, Lan; Hahn, Michael G.; Willats, William G. T.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-08-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had previously been identified as being highly expressed in rice. Most cell wall components vary significantly during development, and correlations among them support current understanding of cell walls. We identified 92 significant correlations between cell wall components and gene expression and establish nine strong hypotheses for genes that synthesize xylans, mixed linkage glucan and pectin components. This work provides an extensive analysis of cell wall composition throughout rice development, identifies genes likely to synthesize grass cell walls, and provides a framework for development of genetically improved grasses for use in lignocellulosic biofuel production and agriculture.

  12. The Unfolded Protein Response Is Induced by the Cell Wall Integrity Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Cascade and Is Required for Cell Wall Integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Scrimale, Thomas; Didone, Louis; de Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; Krysan, Damian J.

    2009-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is an extracellular structure that is dependent on secretory and membrane proteins for its construction. We investigated the role of protein quality control mechanisms in cell wall integrity and found that the unfolded protein response (UPR) and, to a lesser extent, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways are required for proper cell wall construction. Null mutation of IRE1, double mutation of ERAD components (hrd1Δ and ubc7Δ) and ire1Δ, or expres...

  13. Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, R

    2012-07-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too

  14. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas; Mateker, William R.; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Vandewal, Koen; Bartelt, Jonathan A.; Burke, Timothy M.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which

  15. Influence of the polymer architecture on morphology and device properties of polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M.; Sweelssen, J.; Franse, T.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Yang, X.N.; Alexeev, A.A.; Loos, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Schoo, H.F.M.; Kafafi, Z.H.; Lane, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer bulk hetero junction solar cells were made from poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MDMO-PPV) as donor and poly(cyanoetherphenylenevinylene) (PCNEPV) derivatives as acceptor material. In this paper we start out with discussing the synthesis of the materials.

  16. Chemical and enzymatic fractionation of cell walls from Fucales: insights into the structure of the extracellular matrix of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud-Bouët, Estelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry; Kloareg, Bernard; Hervé, Cécile

    2014-10-01

    Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms evolutionarily distant from land plants, with a distinctive cell wall. They feature carbohydrates shared with plants (cellulose), animals (fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, FCSPs) or bacteria (alginates). How these components are organized into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) still remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis of the corresponding biosynthetic routes points toward a complex evolutionary history that shaped the ECM structure in brown algae. Exhaustive sequential extractions and composition analyses of cell wall material from various brown algae of the order Fucales were performed. Dedicated enzymatic degradations were used to release and identify cell wall partners. This approach was complemented by systematic chromatographic analysis to study polymer interlinks further. An additional structural assessment of the sulfated fucan extracted from Himanthalia elongata was made. The data indicate that FCSPs are tightly associated with proteins and cellulose within the walls. Alginates are associated with most phenolic compounds. The sulfated fucans from H. elongata were shown to have a regular α-(1→3) backbone structure, while an alternating α-(1→3), (1→4) structure has been described in some brown algae from the order Fucales. The data provide a global snapshot of the cell wall architecture in brown algae, and contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationships of the main cell wall components. Enzymatic cross-linking of alginates by phenols may regulate the strengthening of the wall, and sulfated polysaccharides may play a key role in the adaptation to osmotic stress. The emergence and evolution of ECM components is further discussed in relation to the evolution of multicellularity in brown algae. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  17. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Fernando; Barros, António; Mota, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-03-10

    The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of which have phytin. The provascular tissue, located in the cotyledons, is oriented in small bundles perpendicular to the transverse embryonic axis. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole and Na(2)CO(3) extracts contain mainly pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low. The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.

  18. Diffusion of Drag-Reducing Polymers within a High-Reynolds-Number, Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David; Solomon, Michael; Ceccio, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate polymer drag reduction (PDR) within high Reynolds number (to 200 million based on downstream distance), rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. The first experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate at speeds to 20 m/s with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough. Local skin-friction measurements on the smooth and rough surfaces had maximum PDR levels of 65 and 75 percent, respectively. However, PDR decreased with increasing downstream distance and flow speed more rapidly on the rough surface, and at the top speed no measureable level of PDR was observed. The roughness-induced increased diffusion was quantified with near-wall concentration measurements and the second experiment, which measured concentration profiles on a 0.94 m long flat-plate with three surface conditions: smooth, 240-grit, and 60-grit sandpaper. The increased diffusion does not fully explain the smooth-rough PDR differences observed in the first experiment. Rheological analysis of drawn samples from the first experiment indicates that polymer degradation (chain scission) could be responsible for the remaining loss of rough-wall PDR. These results have implications for the cost effectiveness of PDR for surface ships.

  19. Influence of electron-donating polymer addition on the performance of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngkyoo; Shin, Minjung; Kim, Hwajeong; Ha, Youri; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the influence of electron-donating polymer addition on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) : 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C 61 (PCBM) solar cells. Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) was chosen as the electron-donating polymer to improve the open circuit voltage (V OC ) due to its higher level of the highest occupied molecular orbital energy compared with P3HT. Results showed that the MDMO-PPV addition led to an improved V OC for ternary blend (P3HT : MDMO-PPV : PCBM) solar cells. In particular, after thermal annealing at 110 deg. C, the short circuit current density of ternary blend solar cells was greatly improved, close to that of comparative binary blend (P3HT : PCBM) solar cells.

  20. The cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana influences actin network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmie, Frances; Poulet, Axel; McKenna, Joseph; Sassmann, Stefan; Graumann, Katja; Deeks, Michael; Runions, John

    2017-07-20

    In plant cells, molecular connections link the cell wall-plasma membrane-actin cytoskeleton to form a continuum. It is hypothesized that the cell wall provides stable anchor points around which the actin cytoskeleton remodels. Here we use live cell imaging of fluorescently labelled marker proteins to quantify the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton and to determine the impact of disrupting connections within the continuum. Labelling of the actin cytoskeleton with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fimbrin actin-binding domain 2 (FABD2) resulted in a network composed of fine filaments and thicker bundles that appeared as a highly dynamic remodelling meshwork. This differed substantially from the GFP-Lifeact-labelled network that appeared much more sparse with thick bundles that underwent 'simple movement', in which the bundles slightly change position, but in such a manner that the structure of the network was not substantially altered during the time of observation. Label-dependent differences in actin network morphology and remodelling necessitated development of two new image analysis techniques. The first of these, 'pairwise image subtraction', was applied to measurement of the more rapidly remodelling actin network labelled with GFP-FABD2, while the second, 'cumulative fluorescence intensity', was used to measure bulk remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton when labelled with GFP-Lifeact. In each case, these analysis techniques show that the actin cytoskeleton has a decreased rate of bulk remodelling when the cell wall-plasma membrane-actin continuum is disrupted either by plasmolysis or with isoxaben, a drug that specifically inhibits cellulose deposition. Changes in the rate of actin remodelling also affect its functionality, as observed by alteration in Golgi body motility. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Characteristic thickened cell walls of the bracts of the 'eternal flower' Helichrysum bracteatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kuniko; Ito, Hiroaki; Awano, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2008-07-01

    Helichrysum bracteatum is called an 'eternal flower' and has large, coloured, scarious bracts. These maintain their aesthetic value without wilting or discoloration for many years. There have been no research studies of cell death or cell morphology of the scarious bract, and hence the aim of this work was to elucidate these characteristics for the bract of H. bracteatum. DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindol dihydrochloride) staining and fluorescence microscopy were used for observation of cell nuclei. Light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polarized light microscopy were used for observation of cells, including cell wall morphology. Cell death occurred at the bract tip during the early stage of flower development. The cell wall was the most prominent characteristic of H. bracteatum bract cells. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls on the inside of the primary cell walls were observed in both epidermal and inner cells. In addition, the walls of all cells exhibited birefringence. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls have orientated cellulose microfibrils as well as general secondary cell walls of the tracheary elements. For comparison, these characters were not observed in the petal and bract tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Bracts at anthesis are composed of dead cells. Helichrysum bracteatum bracts have characteristic thickened secondary cell walls that have not been observed in the parenchyma of any other flowers or leaves. The cells of the H. bracteatum bract differ from other tissues with secondary cell walls, suggesting that they may be a new cell type.

  2. The impact of alterations in lignin deposition on cellulose organization of the plant cell wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiliang; Kim, Jeong Im; Cusumano, Joanne C.; Chapple, Clint; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Fischetti, Robert F.; Makowski, Lee

    2016-06-17

    Background: Coordination of synthesis and assembly of the polymeric components of cell walls is essential for plant growth and development. Given the degree of co-mingling and cross-linking among cell wall components, cellulose organization must be dependent on the organization of other polymers such as lignin. Here we seek to identify aspects of that codependency by studying the structural organization of cellulose fibrils in stems from Arabidopsis plants harboring mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis. Plants containing high levels of G-lignin, S-lignin, H-lignin, aldehyde-rich lignin, and ferulic acid-containing lignin, along with plants with very low lignin content were grown and harvested and longitudinal sections of stem were prepared and dried. Scanning X-ray microdiffraction was carried out using a 5-micron beam that moved across the sections in 5-micron steps and complete diffraction patterns were collected at each raster point. Approximately, 16,000 diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine cellulose fibril orientation and order within the tissues making up the stems. Results: Several mutations-most notably those exhibiting (1) down-regulation of cinnamoyl CoA reductase which leads to cell walls deficient in lignin and (2) defect of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase which greatly reduces lignin content-exhibited significant decrease in the proportion of oriented cellulose fibrils in the cell wall. Distinctions between tissues were maintained in all variants and even in plants exhibiting dramatic changes in cellulosic order the trends between tissues (where apparent) were generally maintained. The resilience of cellulose to degradative processes was investigated by carrying out the same analysis on samples stored in water for 30 days prior to data collection. This treatment led to significant loss of cellulosic order in plants rich in aldehyde or H-lignin, less change in wild type, and essentially no change in samples with

  3. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  4. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  5. Investigation of the functional role of CSLD proteins in plant cell wall deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Erik Etlar [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-21

    The overall goal of this research proposal was to characterize the molecular machinery responsible for polarized secretion of cell wall components in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have used the polarized expansion that occurs during root hair cell growth to identify membrane trafficking pathways involved in polarized secretion of cell wall components to the expanding tips of these cells, and we have recently shown that CSLD3 is preferentially targeted to the apical plasma membranes in root hair cells, where it plays essential roles during cell wall deposition in these cells. The specific aims of the project are designed to answer the following objective: Identification of the cell wall polysaccharide class that CSLD proteins synthesize.

  6. Storage related changes of cell wall based dietary fiber components of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Stanojlovic, Luisa; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2017-03-01

    Storage related changes in the cell wall composition potentially affect the texture of plant-based foods and the physiological effects of cell wall based dietary fiber components. Therefore, a detailed characterization of cell wall polysaccharides and lignins from broccoli stems was performed. Freshly harvested broccoli and broccoli stored at 20°C and 1°C for different periods of time were analyzed. Effects on dietary fiber contents, polysaccharide composition, and on lignin contents/composition were much more pronounced during storage at 20°C than at 1°C. During storage, insoluble dietary fiber contents of broccoli stems increased up to 13%. Storage related polysaccharide modifications include an increase of the portions of cellulose, xylans, and homogalacturonans and a decrease of the neutral pectic side-chains arabinans and galactans. Broccoli stem lignins are generally rich in guaiacyl units. Lignins from freshly harvested broccoli stems contain slightly larger amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units than syringyl units. Syringyl units are predominantly incorporated into the lignin polymers during storage, resulting in increased acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents. NMR-based analysis of the interunit linkage types of broccoli stem lignins revealed comparably large portions of resinol structures for a guaiacyl rich lignin. Incorporation of syringyl units into the polymers over storage predominantly occurs through β-O-4-linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Vogler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The size, shape and stability of a plant depend on the flexibility and integrity of its cell walls, which, at the same time, need to allow cell expansion for growth, while maintaining mechanical stability. Biomechanical studies largely vanished from the focus of plant science with the rapid progress of genetics and molecular biology since the mid-twentieth century. However, the development of more sensitive measurement tools renewed the interest in plant biomechanics in recent years, not only to understand the fundamental concepts of growth and morphogenesis, but also with regard to economically important areas in agriculture, forestry and the paper industry. Recent advances have clearly demonstrated that mechanical forces play a crucial role in cell and organ morphogenesis, which ultimately define plant morphology. In this article, we will briefly review the available methods to determine the mechanical properties of cell walls, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and microindentation assays, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. But we will focus on a novel methodological approach, called cellular force microscopy (CFM, and its automated successor, real-time CFM (RT-CFM.

  8. Water Soluble Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Joe Hwang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relentless increase in the demand for useable power from energy-hungry economies continues to drive energy-material related research. Fuel cells, as a future potential power source that provide clean-at-the-point-of-use power offer many advantages such as high efficiency, high energy density, quiet operation, and environmental friendliness. Critical to the operation of the fuel cell is the proton exchange membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane responsible for internal proton transport from the anode to the cathode. PEMs have the following requirements: high protonic conductivity, low electronic conductivity, impermeability to fuel gas or liquid, good mechanical toughness in both the dry and hydrated states, and high oxidative and hydrolytic stability in the actual fuel cell environment. Water soluble polymers represent an immensely diverse class of polymers. In this comprehensive review the initial focus is on those members of this group that have attracted publication interest, principally: chitosan, poly (ethylene glycol, poly (vinyl alcohol, poly (vinylpyrrolidone, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and poly (styrene sulfonic acid. The paper then considers in detail the relationship of structure to functionality in the context of polymer blends and polymer based networks together with the effects of membrane crosslinking on IPN and semi IPN architectures. This is followed by a review of pore-filling and other impregnation approaches. Throughout the paper detailed numerical results are given for comparison to today’s state-of-the-art Nafion® based materials.

  9. The Cell Wall of the Human Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Biosynthesis, Organization, Immune Response, and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne; Chamilos, Georgios

    2017-09-08

    More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall. For years, the cell wall was considered an inert exoskeleton of the fungal cell. The cell wall is now recognized as a living organelle, since the composition and cellular localization of the different constitutive cell wall components (especially of the outer layers) vary when the fungus senses changes in the external environment. The cell wall plays a major role during infection. The recognition of the fungal cell wall by the host is essential in the initiation of the immune response. The interactions between the different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cell wall pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) orientate the host response toward either fungal death or growth, which would then lead to disease development. Understanding the molecular determinants of the interplay between the cell wall and host immunity is fundamental to combatting Aspergillus diseases.

  10. On the Wrapping of Polyglycolide, Poly(Ethylene Oxide), and Polyketone Polymer Chains Around Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, S.; Alizadeh, Y.; Ansari, R.

    2015-02-01

    By using molecular dynamics simulations, the interaction between a single-walled carbon nanotube and three different polymers has been studied in this work. The effects of various parameters such as the nanotube geometry and temperature on the interaction energy and radius of gyration of polymers have been explored. By studying the snapshots of polymers along the single-walled carbon nanotube, it has been shown that 50 ps can be considered as a suitable time after which the shape of polymer chains around the nanotube remains almost unchanged. It is revealed that the effect of temperature on the interaction energy and radius of gyration of polymers in the range of 250 to 500 K is not significant Also, it is shown that the interaction energy depends on the nanotube diameter.

  11. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated......The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  12. A wormlike chain model of forced desorption of a polymer adsorbed on an attractive wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Forced desorption of a semiflexible polymer chain on a solid substrate is theoretically investigated. The pulling force versus displacement is studied for varying adsorption energy ε and persistence length P. It is found that the relationships between pulling force and cantilever displacement show a series of characteristic force spikes at different persistence lengths P. These force spikes become more pronounced but the average magnitude of this force decreases as P grows. Our results are of relevance to the forced desorption of DNA on an attractive wall in single-molecule pulling experiments. (paper)

  13. Fabrication of Antibacterial Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Films Containing Dendritic Polymer Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sapalidis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA nanocomposite films containing quaternized hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ox-CNTs@QPEI are prepared by solvent casting technique. The modified carbon-based material exhibits high aqueous solubility, due to the hydrophilic character of the functionalized hyperbranched dendritic polymer. The quaternized PEI successfully wraps around nanotube walls as polycations provide electrostatic repulsion. Various contents of ox-CNTs@QPEI ranging from 0.05 to 1.0% w/w were employed to prepare functionalized PVA nanocomposites. The developed films exhibit adequate optical transparency, improved mechanical properties and extremely high antibacterial behavior due to the excellent dispersion of the functionalized CNTs into the PVA matrix.

  14. Proteomic analysis of cell walls of two developmental stages of alfalfa stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C Verdonk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell walls are important for the growth and development of all plants. They are also valuable resources for feed and fiber, and more recently as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. Cell wall proteins comprise only a fraction of the cell wall, but play important roles in establishing the walls and in the chemical interactions (e.g. crosslinking of cell wall components. This crosslinking provides structure, but restricts digestibility of cell wall complex carbohydrates, limiting available energy in animal and bioenergy production systems. Manipulation of cell wall proteins could be a strategy to improve digestibility. An analysis of the cell wall proteome of apical alfalfa stems (less mature, more digestible and basal alfalfa stems (more mature, less digestible was conducted using a recently developed low-salt/density gradient method for the isolation of cell walls. Walls were subsequently subjected to a modified extraction utilizing EGTA to remove pectins, followed by a LiCl extraction to isolate more tightly bound proteins. Recovered proteins were identified using shotgun proteomics. We identified 272 proteins in the alfalfa stem cell wall proteome, 153 of which had not previously been identified in cell wall proteomic analyses. Nearly 70% percent of the identified proteins were predicted to be secreted, as would be expected for most cell wall proteins, an improvement over previously published studies using traditional cell wall isolation methods. A comparison of our and several other cell wall proteomic studies indicates little overlap in identified proteins among them, which may be largely due to differences in the tissues used as well as differences in experimental approach.

  15. Effect of hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite particles on the performance of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun-Young [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Kim, Whi-Dong; Kim, Soo H. [Department of Nanosystem and Nanoprocess Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Do-Geun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Jeong, Yong-Soo; Kang, Jae-Wook [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Kim, Joo Hyun [Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Lee, Jae Keun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite nanoparticles with sea urchin-like structures (SU-CNTs) were introduced to bulk heterojunction polymer-fullerene solar cells to improve their performance. The SU-CNTs were composed of multi-walled CNTs, which were grown radially over the entire surface of the bimetallic nanoparticles composed of Ni and Al. SU-CNTs with a precisely controlled length of {proportional_to}200{+-}40 nm were dispersed homogenously in a polymer active layer. Compared with a pristine device (i.e., without SU-CNTs), the SU-CNTs-doped organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells showed an improved short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency from 7.5 to 9.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and 2.1{+-}0.1% to 2.2{+-}0.2% (max. 2.5%), respectively. The specially designed SU-CNTs have strong potential as an effective exciton dissociation medium in the polymer active layer to enhance the performance of organic solar cells. (author)

  16. KRE5 Suppression Induces Cell Wall Stress and Alternative ER Stress Response Required for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masato; Ito, Fumie; Aoyama, Toshio; Sato-Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content. KRE5 repression induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and MAP kinase pathway activation, including Slt2p and Hog1p phosphorylation, through the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Moreover, the calcineurin pathway negatively regulated cell wall integrity, but not the reduction of β-1,6-glucan content. These results indicate that KRE5 is required for maintaining both endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and cell wall integrity, and that the calcineurin pathway acts as a regulator of chitin-glucan balance in the cell wall and as an alternative mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in C. glabrata. PMID:27548283

  17. Cell wall composition and candidate biosynthesis gene expression during rice development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall...... components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples......, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had...

  18. Engineering cell wall synthesis mechanism for enhanced PHB accumulation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Chen; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Xin-Guang; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The rigidity of bacterial cell walls synthesized by a complicated pathway limit the cell shapes as coccus, bar or ellipse or even fibers. A less rigid bacterium could be beneficial for intracellular accumulation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as granular inclusion bodies. To understand how cell rigidity affects PHB accumulation, E. coli cell wall synthesis pathway was reinforced and weakened, respectively. Cell rigidity was achieved by thickening the cell walls via insertion of a constitutive gltA (encoding citrate synthase) promoter in front of a series of cell wall synthesis genes on the chromosome of several E. coli derivatives, resulting in 1.32-1.60 folds increase of Young's modulus in mechanical strength for longer E. coli cells over-expressing fission ring FtsZ protein inhibiting gene sulA. Cell rigidity was weakened by down regulating expressions of ten genes in the cell wall synthesis pathway using CRISPRi, leading to elastic cells with more spaces for PHB accumulation. The regulation on cell wall synthesis changes the cell rigidity: E. coli with thickened cell walls accumulated only 25% PHB while cell wall weakened E. coli produced 93% PHB. Manipulation on cell wall synthesis mechanism adds another possibility to morphology engineering of microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Auxin-induced modifications of cell wall polysaccharides in cat coleoptile segments. Effect of galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Masuda, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments. Cell elongation induced by exogenously applied auxin is controlled by factors such as auxin uptake, cell wall loosening, osmotic concentration of sap and hydraulic conductivity. However, galactose does not have any effect on these factors. The results discussed in this paper led to the conclusion that galactose does not affect cell wall loosening which controls rapid growth, but inhibits cell wall synthesis which is required to maintain long-term growth

  20. Structure of Cellulose Microfibrils in Primary Cell Walls from Collenchyma1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynne H.; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Šturcová, Adriana; Kennedy, Craig J.; May, Roland P.; Altaner, Clemens M.; Apperley, David C.; Wess, Timothy J.; Jarvis, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In the primary walls of growing plant cells, the glucose polymer cellulose is assembled into long microfibrils a few nanometers in diameter. The rigidity and orientation of these microfibrils control cell expansion; therefore, cellulose synthesis is a key factor in the growth and morphogenesis of plants. Celery (Apium graveolens) collenchyma is a useful model system for the study of primary wall microfibril structure because its microfibrils are oriented with unusual uniformity, facilitating spectroscopic and diffraction experiments. Using a combination of x-ray and neutron scattering methods with vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that celery collenchyma microfibrils were 2.9 to 3.0 nm in mean diameter, with a most probable structure containing 24 chains in cross section, arranged in eight hydrogen-bonded sheets of three chains, with extensive disorder in lateral packing, conformation, and hydrogen bonding. A similar 18-chain structure, and 24-chain structures of different shape, fitted the data less well. Conformational disorder was largely restricted to the surface chains, but disorder in chain packing was not. That is, in position and orientation, the surface chains conformed to the disordered lattice constituting the core of each microfibril. There was evidence that adjacent microfibrils were noncovalently aggregated together over part of their length, suggesting that the need to disrupt these aggregates might be a constraining factor in growth and in the hydrolysis of cellulose for biofuel production. PMID:23175754

  1. Cellulose-hemicellulose interaction in wood secondary cell-wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Shi; Hong, Yu; Chen, Youping; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The wood cell wall features a tough and relatively rigid fiber reinforced composite structure. It acts as a pressure vessel, offering protection against mechanical stress. Cellulose microfibrils, hemicellulose and amorphous lignin are the three major components of wood. The structure of secondary cell wall could be imagined as the same as reinforced concrete, in which cellulose microfibrils acts as reinforcing steel bar and hemicellulose-lignin matrices act as the concrete. Therefore, the interface between cellulose and hemicellulose/lignin plays a significant role in determine the mechanical behavior of wood secondary cell wall. To this end, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study attempting to quantify the strength of the interface between cellulose microfibrils and hemicellulose. Since hemicellulose binds with adjacent cellulose microfibrils in various patterns, the atomistic models of hemicellulose-cellulose composites with three typical binding modes, i.e. bridge, loop and random binding modes are constructed. The effect of the shape of hemicellulose chain on the strength of hemicellulose-cellulose composites under shear loadings is investigated. The contact area as well as hydrogen bonds between cellulose and hemicellulose, together with the covalent bonds in backbone of hemicellulose chain are found to be the controlling parameters which determine the strength of the interfaces in the composite system. For the bridge binding model, the effect of shear loading direction on the strength of the cellulose material is also studied. The obtained results suggest that the shear strength of wood-inspired engineering composites can be optimized through maximizing the formations of the contributing hydrogen bonds between cellulose and hemicellulose. (paper)

  2. Cellulose-hemicellulose interaction in wood secondary cell-wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Shi; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Yu; Chen, Youping

    2015-12-01

    The wood cell wall features a tough and relatively rigid fiber reinforced composite structure. It acts as a pressure vessel, offering protection against mechanical stress. Cellulose microfibrils, hemicellulose and amorphous lignin are the three major components of wood. The structure of secondary cell wall could be imagined as the same as reinforced concrete, in which cellulose microfibrils acts as reinforcing steel bar and hemicellulose-lignin matrices act as the concrete. Therefore, the interface between cellulose and hemicellulose/lignin plays a significant role in determine the mechanical behavior of wood secondary cell wall. To this end, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study attempting to quantify the strength of the interface between cellulose microfibrils and hemicellulose. Since hemicellulose binds with adjacent cellulose microfibrils in various patterns, the atomistic models of hemicellulose-cellulose composites with three typical binding modes, i.e. bridge, loop and random binding modes are constructed. The effect of the shape of hemicellulose chain on the strength of hemicellulose-cellulose composites under shear loadings is investigated. The contact area as well as hydrogen bonds between cellulose and hemicellulose, together with the covalent bonds in backbone of hemicellulose chain are found to be the controlling parameters which determine the strength of the interfaces in the composite system. For the bridge binding model, the effect of shear loading direction on the strength of the cellulose material is also studied. The obtained results suggest that the shear strength of wood-inspired engineering composites can be optimized through maximizing the formations of the contributing hydrogen bonds between cellulose and hemicellulose.

  3. Ferulic acid: an antioxidant found naturally in plant cell walls and feruloyl esterases involved in its release and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2004-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and maize bran with 3.1% (w/w) ferulic acid is one of the most promising sources of this antioxidant. The dehydrodimers of ferulic acid are important structural components in the plant cell wall and serve to enhance its rigidity and strength. Feruloyl esterases are a subclass of the carboxylic acid esterases that hydrolyze the ester bond between hydroxycinnamic acids and sugars present in plant cell walls and they have been isolated from a wide range of microorganisms, when grown on complex substrates such as cereal brans, sugar beet pulp, pectin and xylan. These enzymes perform a function similar to alkali in the deesterification of plant cell wall and differ in their specificities towards the methyl esters of cinnamic acids and ferulolylated oligosaccharides. They act synergistically with xylanases and pectinases and facilitate the access of hydrolases to the backbone of cell wall polymers. The applications of ferulic acid and feruloyl esterase enzymes are many and varied. Ferulic acid obtained from agricultural byproducts is a potential precursor for the production of natural vanillin, due to the lower production cost.

  4. A radioimmunoassay for lignin in plant cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawley, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lignin detection and determination in herbaceous tissue requires selective, specific assays which are not currently available. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to study lignin metabolism in these tissues. A β-aryl ether lignin model compound was synthesized, linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin using a water-soluble carbodiimide, and injected into rabbits. The highest titer of the antiserum obtained was 34 ηg/mL of model derivatized BSA. An in vitro system was developed to characterize the RIA. The model compound was linked to amino activated polyacrylamide beads to mimic lignin in the cell walls. 125 I Radiolabelled protein A was used to detect IgG antibody binding. The RIA was shown in the in vitro system to exhibit saturable binding. The amount of antibody bound decreased when the serum was diluted. Immunoelectrophoresis and competitive binding experiments confirmed that both aromatic rings of the lignin model compound had been antigenic. Chlorogenic acid, a phenolic known to be present in plant cells, did not compete for antibody binding. The RIA was used to measure lignin in milled plant samples and barley seedlings. Antiserum binding to wheat cell walls and stressed barley segments was higher than preimmune serum binding. Antibody binding to stressed barley tissue decreased following NaClO 2 delignification. The RIA was found to be less sensitive than expected, so several avenues for improving the method are discussed

  5. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which polymer is used. We show that the light-induced traps are in the bulk of the active layer and we find a direct correlation between their presence and the open-circuit voltage loss in devices made with amorphous polymers. Solar cells made with crystalline polymers do not show characteristic open circuit voltage losses, even though light-induced traps are also present in these devices. This indicates that crystalline materials are more resistant against the influence of traps on device performance. Recent work on crystalline materials has shown there is an energetic driving force for charge carriers to leave amorphous, mixed regions of bulk heterojunctions, and charges are dominantly transported in pure, ordered phases. This energetic landscape allows efficient charge generation as well as extraction and also may benefit the stability against light-induced traps. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  6. Mass spectrometry for characterizing plant cell wall polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry is a selective and powerful technique to obtain identification and structural information on compounds present in complex mixtures. Since it requires only small sample amount it is an excellent tool for researchers interested in detecting changes in composition of complex carbohydrates of plants. This mini-review gives an overview of common mass spectrometry techniques applied to the analysis of plant cell wall carbohydrates. It presents examples in which mass spectrometry has been used to elucidate the structure of oligosaccharides derived from hemicelluloses and pectins and illustrates how information on sequence, linkages, branching and modifications are obtained from characteristic fragmentation patterns.

  7. Investigating Aspergillus nidulans secretome during colonisation of cork cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel; Garcia, Helga; Varela, Adélia; Núñez, Oscar; Planchon, Sébastien; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Renaut, Jenny; Rebelo, Luís P N; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2014-02-26

    Cork, the outer bark of Quercus suber, shows a unique compositional structure, a set of remarkable properties, including high recalcitrance. Cork colonisation by Ascomycota remains largely overlooked. Herein, Aspergillus nidulans secretome on cork was analysed (2DE). Proteomic data were further complemented by microscopic (SEM) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) evaluation of the colonised substrate and by targeted analysis of lignin degradation compounds (UPLC-HRMS). Data showed that the fungus formed an intricate network of hyphae around the cork cell walls, which enabled polysaccharides and lignin superficial degradation, but probably not of suberin. The degradation of polysaccharides was suggested by the identification of few polysaccharide degrading enzymes (β-glucosidases and endo-1,5-α-l-arabinosidase). Lignin degradation, which likely evolved throughout a Fenton-like mechanism relying on the activity of alcohol oxidases, was supported by the identification of small aromatic compounds (e.g. cinnamic acid and veratrylaldehyde) and of several putative high molecular weight lignin degradation products. In addition, cork recalcitrance was corroborated by the identification of several protein species which are associated with autolysis. Finally, stringent comparative proteomics revealed that A. nidulans colonisation of cork and wood share a common set of enzymatic mechanisms. However the higher polysaccharide accessibility in cork might explain the increase of β-glucosidase in cork secretome. Cork degradation by fungi remains largely overlook. Herein we aimed at understanding how A. nidulans colonise cork cell walls and how this relates to wood colonisation. To address this, the protein species consistently present in the secretome were analysed, as well as major alterations occurring in the substrate, including lignin degradation compounds being released. The obtained data demonstrate that this fungus has superficially attacked the cork cell walls apparently by

  8. Plant cell walls: New insights from ancient species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben; Willats, William George Tycho

    2008-01-01

    Cell walls are a defining feature of plants and have numerous crucial roles in growth and development. They are also the largest source of terrestrial biomass and have many important industrial applications - ranging from bulk products to functional food ingredients. There is considerable interest......¿4)-linked ß-D-Glcp are joined by occasional (1¿3)-linkages. This mixed linkage glucan (MLG) has been the subject of extensive research because of the economic importance of several Poales species including rice, barley and wheat and because MLG has proven health benefits. The recent discovery of MLG...

  9. The biosynthesis and wall-binding of hemicelluloses in cellulose-deficient maize cells: an example of metabolic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, María; Miller, Janice G; Acebes, José Luis; Encina, Antonio; García-Angulo, Penélope; Fry, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    Cell-suspension cultures (Zea mays L., Black Mexican sweet corn) habituated to 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) survive with reduced cellulose owing to hemicellulose network modification. We aimed to define the hemicellulose metabolism modifications in DCB-habituated maize cells showing a mild reduction in cellulose at different stages in the culture cycle. Using pulse-chase radiolabeling, we fed habituated and non-habituated cultures with [(3)H]arabinose, and traced the distribution of (3)H-pentose residues between xylans, xyloglucans and other polymers in several cellular compartments for 5 h. Habituated cells were slower taking up exogenous [(3)H]arabinose. Tritium was incorporated into polysaccharide-bound arabinose and xylose residues, but habituated cells diverted a higher proportion of their new [(3)H]xylose residues into (hetero) xylans at the expense of xyloglucan synthesis. During logarithmic growth, habituated cells showed slower vesicular trafficking of polymers, especially xylans. Moreover, habituated cells showed a decrease in the strong wall-binding of all pentose-containing polysaccharides studied; correspondingly, especially in log-phase cultures, habituation increased the proportion of (3)H-hemicelluloses ([(3)H]xylans and [(3)H]xyloglucan) sloughed into the medium. These findings could be related to the cell walls' cellulose-deficiency, and consequent reduction in binding sites for hemicelluloses; the data could also reflect the habituated cells' reduced capacity to integrate arabinoxylans by extra-protoplasmic phenolic cross-linking, as well as xyloglucans, during wall assembly. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Forage digestibility: the intersection of cell wall lignification and plant tissue anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose and the other polysaccharides present in forage cell walls can be completely degraded by the rumen microflora but only when these polysaccharides have been isolated from the wall and all matrix structures eliminated. Understanding how cell wall component interactions limit microbial degrad...

  11. High-resolution solution-state NMR of unfractionated plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Fachuang Lu; Hoon Kim; Dino Ress; Daniel J. Yelle; Kenneth E. Hammel; Sally A. Ralph; Bernadette Nanayakkara; Armin Wagner; Takuya Akiyama; Paul F. Schatz; Shawn D. Mansfield; Noritsugu Terashima; Wout Boerjan; Bjorn Sundberg; Mattias Hedenstrom

    2009-01-01

    Detailed structural studies on the plant cell wall have traditionally been difficult. NMR is one of the preeminent structural tools, but obtaining high-resolution solution-state spectra has typically required fractionation and isolation of components of interest. With recent methods for dissolution of, admittedly, finely divided plant cell wall material, the wall can...

  12. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  13. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  14. Cellulose synthesis inhibition, cell expansion, and patterns of cell wall deposition in Nitella internodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, P.A.; Metraux, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have investigated the pattern of wall deposition and maturation and correlated it with cell expansion and cellulose biosynthesis. The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) was found to be a potent inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, but not of cell expansion in Nitella internodal cells. Although cellulose synthesis is inhibited during DCB treatment, matrix substances continue to be synthesized and deposited. The inhibition of cellulose microfibril deposition can be demonstrated by various techniques. These results demonstrate that matrix deposition is by apposition, not by intussusception, and that the previously deposited wall moves progressively outward while stretching and thinning as a result of cell expansion

  15. A glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is required for membrane localization but dispensable for cell wall association of chitin deacetylase 2 in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicole M; Baker, Lorina G; Specht, Charles A; Lodge, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall proteins (CWPs) mediate important cellular processes in fungi, including adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation, and flocculation. The current model of fungal cell wall organization includes a major class of CWPs covalently bound to β-1,6-glucan via a remnant of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. This model was established by studies of ascomycetes more than a decade ago, and relatively little work has been done with other fungi, although the presumption has been that proteins identified in the cell wall which contain a predicted GPI anchor are covalently linked to cell wall glucans. The pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans encodes >50 putatively GPI-anchored proteins, some of which have been identified in the cell wall. One of these proteins is chitin deacetylase 2 (Cda2), an enzyme responsible for converting chitin to chitosan, a cell wall polymer recently established as a virulence factor for C. neoformans infection of mammalian hosts. Using a combination of biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics, we show that Cda2 is GPI anchored to membranes but noncovalently associated with the cell wall by means independent of both its GPI anchor and β-1,6-glucan. We also show that Cda2 produces chitosan when localized to the plasma membrane, but association with the cell wall is not essential for this process, thereby providing insight into the mechanism of chitosan biosynthesis. These results increase our understanding of the surface of C. neoformans and provide models of cell walls likely applicable to other undercharacterized basidiomycete pathogenic fungi. The surface of a pathogenic microbe is a major interface with its host. In fungi, the outer surface consists of a complex matrix known as the cell wall, which includes polysaccharides, proteins, and other molecules. The mammalian host recognizes many of these surface molecules and mounts appropriate responses to combat the microbial infection. Cryptococcus neoformans is a

  16. Patterns of efficiency and degradation of composite polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeranko, T; Tributsch, H; Sariciftci, NS; Hummelen, JC

    2004-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction plastic solar cells (PSC) produced from a conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl-oxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV), and a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using photocurrent imaging techniques to

  17. Toughness of membranes applied in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, J; Brack, H P; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Since several years we apply the radiation-grafting technique to prepare polymeric membranes for application in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Our investigations presented here focus on changes in toughness of these materials after the various synthesis steps and the importance of membrane toughness for their application in PEFCs. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  18. Ultimate performance of polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer:fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a maximum

  19. Polymers application in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells (PEMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Kulikowska, Justyna; Wolska, Joanna; Koroniak, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    This review presents the most important research on alternative polymer membranes with ionic groups attached, provides examples of materials with a well-defined chemical structure that are described in the literature. Furthermore, it elaborates on the synthetic methods used for preparing PEMs, the current status of fuel cell technology and its application. It also briefly discusses the development of the PEMFC market.

  20. Bipolar polaron pair recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupijai, Alexander J.; Behringer, Konstantin M.; Schaeble, Florian G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the rate-limiting spin-dependent charge-transfer processes in different polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells at 10 K. Observing central spin-locking signals in pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance and an inversion of Rabi oscillations in multifrequency...

  1. Overcoming the Scaling Lag for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Helgesen, Martin; Hagemann, Ole

    2017-01-01

    -to-roll printed polymer solar cell to a realistic scale across the entire value chain. The materials synthesis, the manufacture, the installation, the failure modes, and the operation have all been covered and addressed. We demonstrate outdoor operation for 2 years through a large-scale, grid-tied, high...

  2. A novel screening method for cell wall mutants in Aspergillus niger identifies UDP-galactopyranose mutase as an important protein in fungal cell wall biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Franken, A.; Arentshorst, M.; Punt, P.J.; Klis, F.M.; van den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.; Ram, A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    To identify cell wall biosynthetic genes in filamentous fungi and thus potential targets for the discovery of new antifungals, we developed a novel screening method for cell wall mutants. It is based on our earlier observation that the Aspergillus niger agsA gene, which encodes a putative

  3. A novel screening method for cell wall mutants in Aspergillus niger identifies UDP-galactopyranose mutase as an important protein in fungal cell wall biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Franken, A.; Arentshorst, M.; Punt, P.J.; Klis, F.M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Ram, A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    To identify cell wall biosynthetic genes in filamentous fungi and thus potential targets for the discovery of new antifungals, we developed a novel screening method for cell wall mutants. It is based on our earlier observation that the Aspergillus niger agsA gene, which encodes a putative a-glucan

  4. Binding of 18F by cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; McNulty, J.; Kirchner, F.; Reilly, C.; Glendenin, L.

    1983-01-01

    The binding of 18 F to isolated cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 or other bacteria was assayed. The attachment of 18 F to these cell envelopes proceeded slowly and reached equilibrium within 60 min. 18 F binding was stimulated by Ca 2+ (1 mM). The binding of 18 F to cellular components was dependent upon the pH, as well as the amount of 18 F and dose of the binder employed. The binding of 18 F by cell walls prepared from fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-resistant cells of S. salivarius and S. mutans did not differ significantly. The pretreatment of cell walls or cell membranes for 60 min at 30 degrees C with 1 mg of RNase, DNase, or trypsin per ml did not influence the binding of 18 F by the walls and membranes of S. mutans GS-5. However, prior exposure of cell membranes to sodium dodecyl sulfate caused a significant reduction in the number of 18 F atoms bound by the membranes. In saturated assay systems, cell membranes of S. mutans GS-5 bound 10(15) to 10(16) atoms of 18 F per mg (dry weight), whereas cell walls from S. mutans GS-5, FA-1, and HS-6 or Actinomyces viscosus T14V and T14AV bound 10(12) to 10(13) atoms of 18 F per mg (dry weight). 18 F in this quantity (10(12) to 10(13) atoms) cannot be detected with the fluoride electrode. The data provide, for the first time, a demonstration of 18 F binding by cell membranes and walls of oral flora

  5. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the GH72 family of cell wall transglycosylases in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Jie; Free, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    The Neurospora crassa genome encodes five GH72 family transglycosylases, and four of these enzymes (GEL-1, GEL-2, GEL-3 and GEL-5) have been found to be present in the cell wall proteome. We carried out an extensive genetic analysis on the role of these four transglycosylases in cell wall biogenesis and demonstrated that the transglycosylases are required for the formation of a normal cell wall. As suggested by the proteomic analysis, we found that multiple transglycosylases were being expressed in N. crassa cells and that different combinations of the enzymes are required in different cell types. The combination of GEL-1, GEL-2 and GEL-5 is required for the growth of vegetative hyphae, while the GEL-1, GEL-2, GEL-3 combination is needed for the production of aerial hyphae and conidia. Our data demonstrates that the enzymes are redundant with partially overlapping enzymatic activities, which provides the fungus with a robust cell wall biosynthetic system. Characterization of the transglycosylase-deficient mutants demonstrated that the incorporation of cell wall proteins was severely compromised. Interestingly, we found that the transglycosylase-deficient mutant cell walls contained more β-1,3-glucan than the wild type cell wall. Our results demonstrate that the GH72 transglycosylases are not needed for the incorporation of β-1,3-glucan into the cell wall, but they are required for the incorporation of cell wall glycoprotein into the cell wall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural characterization of a mixed-linkage glucan deficient mutant reveals alteration in cellulose microfibril orientation in rice coleoptile mesophyll cell walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Michelle Smith-Moritz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE F6 (CslF6 gene was previously shown to mediate the biosynthesis of mixed-linkage glucan (MLG, a cell wall polysaccharide that is hypothesized to be a tightly associated with cellulose and also have a role in cell expansion in the primary cell wall of young seedlings in grass species. We have recently shown that loss-of-function cslf6 rice mutants do not accumulate MLG in most vegetative tissues. Despite the absence of a structurally important polymer, MLG, these mutants are unexpectedly viable and only show a moderate growth compromise compared to wild type. Therefore these mutants are ideal biological systems to test the current grass cell wall model. In order to gain a better understanding of the role of MLG in the primary wall, we performed in-depth compositional and structural analyses of the cell walls of three day-old rice seedlings using various biochemical and novel microspectroscopic approaches. We found that cellulose content as well as matrix polysaccharide composition was not significantly altered in the MLG deficient mutant. However, we observed a significant change in cellulose microfibril bundle organization in mesophyll cell walls of the cslf6 mutant. Using synchrotron source Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectromicroscopy for high-resolution imaging, we determined that the bonds associated with cellulose and arabinoxylan, another major component of the primary cell was of grasses, were in a lower energy configuration compared to wild type, suggesting a slightly weaker primary wall in MLG deficient mesophyll cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MLG may influence cellulose deposition in mesophyll cell walls without significantly affecting anisotropic growth thus challenging MLG importance in cell wall expansion.

  7. Penium margaritaceum as a model organism for cell wall analysis of expanding plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Maja Gro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    organization of the polymeric networks of the cell wall around the protoplast also contributes to the direction of growth, the shape of the cell, and the proper positioning of the cell in a tissue. In essence, plant cell expansion represents the foundation of development. Most studies of plant cell expansion...... have focused primarily upon late divergent multicellular land plants and specialized cell types (e.g., pollen tubes, root hairs). Here, we describe a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum (Penium), which can serve as a valuable model organism for understanding cell expansion and the underlying......The growth of a plant cell encompasses a complex set of subcellular components interacting in a highly coordinated fashion. Ultimately, these activities create specific cell wall structural domains that regulate the prime force of expansion, internally generated turgor pressure. The precise...

  8. Local differentiation of cell wall matrix polysaccharides in sinuous pavement cells: its possible involvement in the flexibility of cell shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, P; Giannoutsou, E; Panteris, E; Galatis, B; Apostolakos, P

    2018-03-01

    The distribution of homogalacturonans (HGAs) displaying different degrees of esterification as well as of callose was examined in cell walls of mature pavement cells in two angiosperm and two fern species. We investigated whether local cell wall matrix differentiation may enable pavement cells to respond to mechanical tension forces by transiently altering their shape. HGA epitopes, identified with 2F4, JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, and callose were immunolocalised in hand-made or semithin leaf sections. Callose was also stained with aniline blue. The structure of pavement cells was studied with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In all species examined, pavement cells displayed wavy anticlinal cell walls, but the waviness pattern differed between angiosperms and ferns. The angiosperm pavement cells were tightly interconnected throughout their whole depth, while in ferns they were interconnected only close to the external periclinal cell wall and intercellular spaces were developed between them close to the mesophyll. Although the HGA epitopes examined were located along the whole cell wall surface, the 2F4- and JIM5- epitopes were especially localised at cell lobe tips. In fern pavement cells, the contact sites were impregnated with callose and JIM5-HGA epitopes. When tension forces were applied on leaf regions, the pavement cells elongated along the stretching axis, due to a decrease in waviness of anticlinal cell walls. After removal of tension forces, the original cell shape was resumed. The presented data support that HGA epitopes make the anticlinal pavement cell walls flexible, in order to reversibly alter their shape. Furthermore, callose seems to offer stability to cell contacts between pavement cells, as already suggested in photosynthetic mesophyll cells. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Insights into Substrate Specificity of NlpC/P60 Cell Wall Hydrolases Containing Bacterial SH3 Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    ABSTRACT

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. These enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    IMPORTANCEPeptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural

  10. Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability...... during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art...... understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing...

  11. Employing proteomic analysis to compare Paracoccidioides lutzii yeast and mycelium cell wall proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Danielle Silva; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Melo Bailão, Alexandre; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2017-11-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus. During the infective process, the cell wall acts at the interface between the fungus and the host. In this way, the cell wall has a key role in growth, environment sensing and interaction, as well as morphogenesis of the fungus. Since the cell wall is absent in mammals, it may present molecules that are described as target sites for new antifungal drugs. Despite its importance, up to now few studies have been conducted employing proteomics in for the identification of cell wall proteins in Paracoccidioides spp. Here, a detailed proteomic approach, including cell wall-fractionation coupled to NanoUPLC-MS E , was used to study and compare the cell wall fractions from Paracoccidioides lutzii mycelia and yeast cells. The analyzed samples consisted of cell wall proteins extracted by hot SDS followed by extraction by mild alkali. In summary, 512 proteins constituting different cell wall fractions were identified, including 7 predicted GPI-dependent cell wall proteins that are potentially involved in cell wall metabolism. Adhesins previously described in Paracoccidioides spp. such as enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified. Comparing the proteins in mycelium and yeast cells, we detected some that are common to both fungal phases, such as Ecm33, and some specific proteins, as glucanase Crf1. All of those proteins were described in the metabolism of cell wall. Our study provides an important elucidation of cell wall composition of fractions in Paracoccidioides, opening a way to understand the fungus cell wall architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The receptor-like kinase AtVRLK1 regulates secondary cell wall thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Rui; Gui, Jinshan; Zhong, Yu; Li, Laigeng

    2018-04-20

    During the growth and development of land plants, some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, undergo secondary cell wall thickening. Secondary cell walls contain additional lignin, compared with primary cell walls, thus providing mechanical strength and potentially improving defenses against pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms that initiate wall thickening are unknown. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, encoded by AtVRLK1 (Vascular-Related RLK 1), that is specifically expressed in cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening. Suppression of AtVRLK1expression resulted in a range of phenotypes that included retarded early elongation of the inflorescence stem, shorter fibers, slower root growth, and shorter flower filaments. In contrast, upregulation of AtVRLK1 led to longer fiber cells, reduced secondary cell wall thickening in fiber and vessel cells, and defects in anther dehiscence. Molecular and cellular analyses showed that downregulation of AtVRLK1 promoted secondary cell wall thickening and upregulation of AtVRLK1 enhanced cell elongation and inhibited secondary cell wall thickening. We propose that AtVRLK1 functions as a signaling component in coordinating cell elongation and cell wall thickening during growth and development. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective mobility and photocurrent in carbon nanotube-polymer composite photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kymakis, E; Servati, P; Tzanetakis, P; Koudoumas, E; Kornilios, N; Rompogiannakis, I; Franghiadakis, Y; Amaratunga, G A J

    2007-01-01

    We examine the dark and the illuminated current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT)/single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite photovoltaic cells as a function of SWNT concentration. Using an exponential band tail model, the influence of SWNT concentration on the J-V characteristics of the cells is analysed in terms of corresponding parameters such as effective hole mobility, short-circuit current, and open-circuit voltage. For the device with optimum 1% SWNT concentration, the increased photoresponse (∼500 times) as compared to the pristine P3OT cell can be attributed partly to the increase (∼50 times) in effective hole mobility, due to the reduction of localized states of the pristine P3OT matrix, and partly to the enhanced exciton extraction at the polymer/nanotube junctions

  14. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton

    2010-01-01

    , a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...

  15. Photovoltaic Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Using Hybrid Carbon Quantum Dots and Absorption Polymer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hwain; Lee, Kyu Seung; Liu, Yang; Kim, Hak Yong; Son, Dong Ick

    2018-05-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of the carbon quantum dots (C-dots) easily obtained from citric acid and ethanediamine, and also investigated structural, optical and electrical properties. The C-dots have extraordinary optical and electrical features such as absorption of ultraviolet range and effective interface for charge separation and transport in active layer, which make them attractive materials for applications in photovoltaic devices (PV). The C-dots play important roles in charge extraction in the PV structures, they can be synthesized by a simple method and used to insert in active layer of polymer solar cells. In this study, we demonstrate that improve charge transport properties of inverted polymer solar cells (iPSCs) with C-dots and structural, optical and electrical properties of C-dots. As a result, iPSCs with C-dots showed enhancement of more than 30% compared with that of the contrast device in power conversion efficiency.

  16. Isolation of a novel cell wall architecture mutant of rice with defective Arabidopsis COBL4 ortholog BC1 required for regulated deposition of secondary cell wall components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kanna; Suzuki, Ryu; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Takenouchi, Sachi; Ito, Sachiko; Nakano, Yoshimi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Kajita, Shinya; Kitano, Hidemi; Katayama, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-01

    The plant secondary cell wall is a highly ordered structure composed of various polysaccharides, phenolic components and proteins. Its coordinated regulation of a number of complex metabolic pathways and assembly has not been resolved. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate secondary cell wall synthesis, we isolated a novel rice mutant, cell wall architecture1 (cwa1), that exhibits an irregular thickening pattern in the secondary cell wall of sclerenchyma, as well as culm brittleness and reduced cellulose content in mature internodes. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cwa1 mutant plant has regions of local aggregation in the secondary cell walls of the cortical fibers in its internodes, showing uneven thickness. Ultraviolet microscopic observation indicated that localization of cell wall phenolic components was perturbed and that these components abundantly deposited at the aggregated cell wall regions in sclerenchyma. Therefore, regulation of deposition and assembly of secondary cell wall materials, i.e. phenolic components, appear to be disturbed by mutation of the cwa1 gene. Genetic analysis showed that cwa1 is allelic to brittle culm1 (bc1), which encodes the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-like protein specifically in plants. BC1 is known as a regulator that controls the culm mechanical strength and cellulose content in the secondary cell walls of sclerenchyma, but the precise function of BC1 has not been resolved. Our results suggest that CWA1/BC1 has an essential role in assembling cell wall constituents at their appropriate sites, thereby enabling synthesis of solid and flexible internodes in rice.

  17. The cell wall protein Ecm33 of Candida albicans is involved in chronological life span, morphogenesis, cell wall regeneration, stress tolerance and host-cell interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eGil-Bona

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecm33 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored protein in the human pathogen Candida albicans. This protein is known to be involved in fungal cell wall integrity and is also critical for normal virulence in the mouse model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis, but its function remains unknown. In this work, several phenotypic analyses of the C. albicans ecm33/ecm33 mutant (RML2U were performed. We observed that RML2U displays the inability of protoplast to regenerate the cell wall, activation of the cell wall integrity pathway, hypersensitivity to temperature, osmotic and oxidative stresses and a shortened chronological lifespan. During the exponential and stationary culture phases, nuclear and actin staining revealed the possible arrest of the cell cycle in RML2U cells. Interestingly, a veil growth, never previously described in C. albicans, was serendipitously observed under static stationary cells. The cells that formed this structure were also observed in cornmeal liquid cultures. These cells are giant, round cells, without DNA, and contain large vacuoles, similar to autophagic cells observed in other fungi. Furthermore, RML2U was phagocytozed more than the wild-type strain by macrophages at earlier time points, but the damage caused to the mouse cells was less than with the wild-type strain. Additionally, the percentage of RML2U apoptotic cells after interaction with macrophages was fewer than in the wild-type strain.

  18. High temperature induced disruption of the cell wall integrity and structure in Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhiheng; Wu, Xiangli; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Jinxia; Huang, Chenyang

    2018-05-30

    Fungal cells are surrounded by a tight cell wall to protect them from harmful environmental conditions and to resist lysis. The synthesis and assembly determine the shape, structure, and integrity of the cell wall during the process of mycelial growth and development. High temperature is an important abiotic stress, which affects the synthesis and assembly of cell walls. In the present study, the chitin and β-1,3-glucan concentrations in the cell wall of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia were changed after high-temperature treatment. Significantly higher chitin and β-1,3-glucan concentrations were detected at 36 °C than those incubated at 28 °C. With the increased temperature, many aberrant chitin deposition patches occurred, and the distribution of chitin in the cell wall was uneven. Moreover, high temperature disrupts the cell wall integrity, and P. ostreatus mycelia became hypersensitive to cell wall-perturbing agents at 36 °C. The cell wall structure tended to shrink or distorted after high temperature. The cell walls were observed to be thicker and looser by using transmission electron microscopy. High temperature can decrease the mannose content in the cell wall and increase the relative cell wall porosity. According to infrared absorption spectrum, high temperature broke or decreased the glycosidic linkages. Finally, P. ostreatus mycelial cell wall was easily degraded by lysing enzymes after high-temperature treatment. In other words, the cell wall destruction caused by high temperature may be a breakthrough for P. ostreatus to be easily infected by Trichoderma.

  19. Investigation of microstructural and mechanical properties of cell walls of closed-cell aluminium alloy foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.A.; Kader, M.A.; Hazell, P.J.; Brown, A.D. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, UNSW Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Saadatfar, M. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Quadir, M.Z [Electron Microscope Unit, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre (MWAC), The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility (MMF), John de Laeter Centre (JdLC), Curtin University, WA 6102 (Australia); Escobedo, J.P., E-mail: J.Escobedo-Diaz@adfa.edu.au [School of Engineering and Information Technology, UNSW Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia)

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of microstructure on the strength properties of individual cell walls of closed-cell stabilized aluminium foams (SAFs). Optical microscopy (OM), micro-computed X-ray tomography (µ-CT), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted to examine the microstructural properties of SAF cell walls. Novel micro-tensile tests were performed to investigate the strength properties of individual cell walls. Microstructural analysis of the SAF cell walls revealed that the material consists of eutectic Al-Si and dendritic a-Al with an inhomogeneous distribution of intermetallic particles and micro-pores (void defects). These microstructural features affected the micro-mechanism fracture behaviour and tensile strength of the specimens. Laser-based extensometer and digital image correlation (DIC) analyses were employed to observe the strain fields of individual tensile specimens. The tensile failure mode of these materials has been evaluated using microstructural analysis of post-mortem specimens, revealing a brittle cleavage fracture of the cell wall materials. The micro-porosities and intermetallic particles reduced the strength under tensile loading, limiting the elongation to fracture on average to ~3.2% and an average ultimate tensile strength to ~192 MPa. Finally, interactions between crack propagation and obstructing intermetallic compounds during the tensile deformation have been elucidated.

  20. MreB: pilot or passenger of cell wall synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Courtney L; Gober, James W

    2012-02-01

    The discovery that the bacterial cell shape determinant MreB is related to actin spurred new insights into bacterial morphogenesis and development. The trafficking and mechanical roles of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton were hypothesized to have a functional ancestor in MreB based on evidence implicating MreB as an organizer of cell wall synthesis. Genetic, biochemical and cytological studies implicate MreB as a coordinator of a large multi-protein peptidoglycan (PG) synthesizing holoenzyme. Recent advances in microscopy and new biochemical evidence, however, suggest that MreB may function differently than previously envisioned. This review summarizes our evolving knowledge of MreB and attempts to refine the generalized model of the proteins organizing PG synthesis in bacteria. This is generally thought to be conserved among eubacteria and the majority of the discussion will focus on studies from a few well-studied model organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The cell wall stress response in Aspergillus niger involves increased expression of the glutamine: Fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-encoding gene (gfaA) and increased deposition of chitin in the cell wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ram, A.F.J.; Arentshorst, M.; Damveld, R.A.; Kuyk, P.A. van; Klis, F.M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    Perturbation of cell wall synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, either by mutations in cell wall synthesis-related genes or by adding compounds that interfere with normal cell wall assembly, triggers a compensatory response to ensure cell wall integrity. This response includes an increase in chitin

  2. Proteomic Analysis to Identify Tightly-Bound Cell Wall Protein in Rice Calli

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won Kyong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Rim, Yeonggil; Chen, Xiong Yan; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Suwha; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Zee-Yong; Lucas, William J.; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2015-01-01

    Rice is a model plant widely used for basic and applied research programs. Plant cell wall proteins play key roles in a broad range of biological processes. However, presently, knowledge on the rice cell wall proteome is rudimentary in nature. In the present study, the tightly-bound cell wall proteome of rice callus cultured cells using sequential extraction protocols was developed using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods, leading to the identification of 1568 candidate proteins. Ba...

  3. High Temperature Polymers for use in Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Katherine M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is currently working on polymers for fuel cell and lithium battery applications. The desire for more efficient, higher power density, and a lower environmental impact power sources has led to interest in proton exchanges membrane fuels cells (PEMFC) and lithium batteries. A PEMFC has many advantages as a power source. The fuel cell uses oxygen and hydrogen as reactants. The resulting products are electricity, heat, and water. The PEMFC consists of electrodes with a catalyst, and an electrolyte. The electrolyte is an ion-conducting polymer that transports protons from the anode to the cathode. Typically, a PEMFC is operated at a temperature of about 80 C. There is intense interest in developing a fuel cell membrane that can operate at higher temperatures in the range of 80 C- 120 C. Operating the he1 cell at higher temperatures increases the kinetics of the fuel cell reaction as well as decreasing the susceptibility of the catalyst to be poisoned by impurities. Currently, Nafion made by Dupont is the most widely used polymer membrane in PEMFC. Nafion does not function well above 80 C due to a significant decrease in the conductivity of the membrane from a loss of hydration. In addition to the loss of conductivity at high temperatures, the long term stability and relatively high cost of Nafion have stimulated many researches to find a substitute for Nafion. Lithium ion batteries are popular for use in portable electronic devices, such as laptop computers and mobile phones. The high power density of lithium batteries makes them ideal for the high power demand of today s advanced electronics. NASA is developing a solid polymer electrolyte that can be used for lithium batteries. Solid polymer electrolytes have many advantages over the current gel or liquid based systems that are used currently. Among these advantages are the potential for increased power density and design flexibility. Automobiles, computers, and cell phones require

  4. Effect of cross-linkable polymer on the morphology and properties of transparent multi-walled carbon nanotube conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Teng, Chih-Chun; Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wei, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Sheng-Yen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated optically transparent and electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thin films using a spray-coating technique. The transparency and the electrical resistance of thin film are dependent on the nanotube content deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used as adhesion promoters to improve MWCNT coating more significantly. The cross-linked polymer resulted in a superior bond between the MWCNTs and the substrates. The surface electrical resistance was significantly lower than the original sheet after nitric acid (HNO 3 ) treatment because of the removed surfactant and the increased interconnecting networks of MWCNT bundles, thus improving the electrical and optical properties of the films. Stronger interaction between the MWCNTs and the substrates resulted in lower decomposition of the polymer chain and less amounts of MWCNTs separated into the HNO 3 solution. The lower sheet electrical resistance of PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT conductive films on the PET substrate was because of a more complete conductive path with the cross-linked polymer than that without. Such an improved sheet of electrical resistance varied from 8.83 x 10 4 Ω/□ to 2.65 x 10 3 Ω/□ with 5.0 wt.% PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT sprayed on the PET after acid treatment.

  5. Effect of cross-linkable polymer on the morphology and properties of transparent multi-walled carbon nanotube conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Teng, Chih-Chun; Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wei, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Sheng-Yen

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we fabricated optically transparent and electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thin films using a spray-coating technique. The transparency and the electrical resistance of thin film are dependent on the nanotube content deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used as adhesion promoters to improve MWCNT coating more significantly. The cross-linked polymer resulted in a superior bond between the MWCNTs and the substrates. The surface electrical resistance was significantly lower than the original sheet after nitric acid (HNO 3) treatment because of the removed surfactant and the increased interconnecting networks of MWCNT bundles, thus improving the electrical and optical properties of the films. Stronger interaction between the MWCNTs and the substrates resulted in lower decomposition of the polymer chain and less amounts of MWCNTs separated into the HNO 3 solution. The lower sheet electrical resistance of PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT conductive films on the PET substrate was because of a more complete conductive path with the cross-linked polymer than that without. Such an improved sheet of electrical resistance varied from 8.83 × 10 4 Ω/□ to 2.65 × 10 3 Ω/□ with 5.0 wt.% PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT sprayed on the PET after acid treatment.

  6. Binding of paraquat to cell walls of paraquat resistant and susceptible biotypes of Hordeum glaucum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, H.M.; Preston, C.; Powles, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Paraquat is a widely used, non-selective, light activated contact herbicide acting as a photosystem electron acceptor. Resistance to paraquat in weed species has occurred in Australia and world-wide following extensive use of this herbicide. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat in 'Hordeum glaucum' is correlated with reduced herbicide translocation and may be due to sequestration of herbicide away from its site of action by either binding to cell walls or other means. We measured paraquat binding to a cell wall fraction in resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum to determine whether differences in binding of paraquat to cell walls could explain herbicide resistance. The cell wall fraction was isolated from leaves of resistant and susceptible biotypes and incubated with 14 C-labelled paraquat. Of the total paraquat - absorbed by a cell wall preparation, about 80% remains strongly bind to the cell wall and doesn't readily exchange with solution in the absence of divalent cations. Divalent cations (Ca 2+ ,putrescine and paraquat) can competitively exchange for paraquat tightly bound to the cell wall. From kinetic experiments it seems that there are two types of binding sites in the cell wall with different affinities for paraquat. No significant differences between cell wall, characteristics of resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum have been found in any of our experiments. Therefore, increased binding of paraquat to the cell wall appears not to be a mechanism for exclusion of paraquat in resistant biotype

  7. The transcription factor Rap1p is required for tolerance to cell-wall perturbing agents and for cell-wall maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Baranwal, Shivani; Thakare, Mayur Jankiram; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2015-01-02

    Yeast repressor activator protein (Rap1p) is involved in genomic stability and transcriptional regulation. We explored the function of Rap1p in yeast physiology using Rap1p truncation mutants. Our results revealed that the N-terminal truncation of Rap1p (Rap1ΔN) leads to hypersensitivity towards elevated temperature and cell-wall perturbing agents. Cell wall analysis showed an increase in the chitin and glucan content in Rap1ΔN cells as compared with wild type cells. Accordingly, mutant cells had a twofold thicker cell wall, as observed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, Rap1ΔN cells had increased levels of phosphorylated Slt2p, a MAP kinase of the cell wall integrity pathway. Mutant cells also had elevated levels of cell wall integrity response transcripts. Taken together, our findings suggest a connection between Rap1p and cell wall homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modification of Aspergillus niger by conducting polymer, Polypyrrole, and the evaluation of electrochemical properties of modified cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Roxana-Mihaela; Carac, Geta; Bahrim, Gabriela; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2018-06-01

    The enhancement of bioelectrochemical properties of microorganism by in situ formation of conducting polymer within the cell structures (e.g. cell wall) was performed. The synthesis of polypyrrole (Ppy) within fungi (Aspergillus niger) cells was achieved. Two different Aspergillus niger strains were selected due to their ability to produce glucose oxidase, which initiated the Ppy formation through products of enzymatic reaction. The evolution of Ppy structural features was investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using side chain liquid crystal polymer embedded in polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Woosum; Lee, Jae Wook; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jin, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP) embedded in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)-based polymer electrolytes (PVdF-co-HFP:side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP)) was prepared for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The polymer electrolytes contained tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), iodine (I 2 ), and 8 wt% PVdF-co-HFP in acetonitrile. DSSCs comprised of PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes displayed enhanced redox couple reduction and reduced charge recombination in comparison to those of the conventional PVdF-co-HFP-based polymer electrolyte. The significantly increased short-circuit current density (J sc , 10.75 mA cm −2 ) of the DSSCs with PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes afforded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.32% and a fill factor (FF) of 0.64 under standard light intensity of 100 mW cm −2 irradiation of AM 1.5 sunlight. - Highlights: • We developed the liquid crystal polymer embedded on polymer electrolyte for DSSCs. • We fabricated the highly efficient DSSCs using polymer electrolyte. • The best PCE achieved for P1 is 5.32% using polymer electrolyte

  10. Improved power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using side chain liquid crystal polymer embedded in polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Woosum [Department of Chemistry Education, and Department of Frontier Materials Chemistry, and Institute for Plastic Information and Energy Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Wook, E-mail: jlee@donga.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Gal, Yeong-Soon [Polymer Chemistry Lab, College of General Education, Kyungil University, Hayang 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Ra, E-mail: mrkim2@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Ho, E-mail: shjin@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, and Department of Frontier Materials Chemistry, and Institute for Plastic Information and Energy Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP) embedded in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)-based polymer electrolytes (PVdF-co-HFP:side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP)) was prepared for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The polymer electrolytes contained tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), iodine (I{sub 2}), and 8 wt% PVdF-co-HFP in acetonitrile. DSSCs comprised of PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes displayed enhanced redox couple reduction and reduced charge recombination in comparison to those of the conventional PVdF-co-HFP-based polymer electrolyte. The significantly increased short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}, 10.75 mA cm{sup −2}) of the DSSCs with PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes afforded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.32% and a fill factor (FF) of 0.64 under standard light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2} irradiation of AM 1.5 sunlight. - Highlights: • We developed the liquid crystal polymer embedded on polymer electrolyte for DSSCs. • We fabricated the highly efficient DSSCs using polymer electrolyte. • The best PCE achieved for P1 is 5.32% using polymer electrolyte.

  11. High efficiency polymer solar cells with vertically modulated nanoscale morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ankit; Hong Ziruo; Yang Yang; Li Gang

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale morphology has been shown to be a critical parameter governing charge transport properties of polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Recent results on vertical phase separation have intensified the research on 3D morphology control. In this paper, we intend to modify the distribution of donors and acceptors in a classical BHJ polymer solar cell by making the active layer richer in donors and acceptors near the anode and cathode respectively. Here, we chose [6,6]-phenyl- C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to be the acceptor material to be thermally deposited on top of [poly(3-hexylthiophene)] P3HT: the PCBM active layer to achieve a vertical composition gradient in the BHJ structure. Here we report on a solar cell with enhanced power conversion efficiency of 4.5% which can be directly correlated with the decrease in series resistance of the device.

  12. Polymer solar cells with novel fullerene-based acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, I.; Martin, N.; Giacalone, F.; Segura, J.L.; Chirvase, D.; Parisi, J.; Dyakonov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Alternative acceptor materials are possible candidates to improve the optical absorption and/or the open circuit voltage of polymer-fullerene solar cells. We studied a novel fullerene-type acceptor, DPM-12, for application in polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. Though DPM-12 has the identical redox potentials as methanofullerene PCBM, surprisingly high open circuit voltages in the range V OC =0.95 V were measured for OC 1 C 10 -PPV:DPM-12-based samples. The potential for photovoltaic application was studied by means of photovoltaic characterization of solar cells including current-voltage measurements and external quantum yield spectroscopy. Further studies were carried out by profiling the solar cell parameters vs. temperature and white light intensity

  13. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Xylan Mutants Does Not Support the Existence of a Secondary Cell Wall Integrity System in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Mortimer, Jenny C; Dupree, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Yeast have long been known to possess a cell wall integrity (CWI) system, and recently an analogous system has been described for the primary walls of plants (PCWI) that leads to changes in plant growth and cell wall composition. A similar system has been proposed to exist for secondary cell walls (SCWI). However, there is little data to support this. Here, we analyzed the stem transcriptome of a set of cell wall biosynthetic mutants in order to investigate whether cell wall damage, in this case caused by aberrant xylan synthesis, activates a signaling cascade or changes in cell wall synthesis gene expression. Our data revealed remarkably few changes to the transcriptome. We hypothesize that this is because cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening have entered a committed programme leading to cell death, and therefore a SCWI system would have limited impact. The absence of transcriptomic responses to secondary cell wall alterations may facilitate engineering of the secondary cell wall of plants.

  14. Hybrid solar cells composed of perovskite and polymer photovoltaic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaometvarithorn, Apatsanan; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2018-06-01

    Organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted much attention in photovoltaic research, due to the devices show promising ways to achieve high efficiencies. The perovskite devices with high efficiencies, however, are typically fabricated in tandem solar cell which is complicated. In this research work, we introduce a solar cell device with the combination of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite and bulk heterojunction PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer without any tandem structure. The new integrated perovskite/polymer hybrid structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCDTBT:PC70BM/PC70BM/TiOx/Al provides higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices compared with conventional perovskite cell structure. With the optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM thickness of ∼70 nm, the highest PCE of 11.67% is achieved. Variation of conducting donor polymers in this new structure is also preliminary demonstrated. This study provides an attractively innovative structure and a promising design for further development of the new-generation solar cells.

  15. Bioelectrochemical control of neural cell development on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazos-Castro, Jorge E; Polo, José L; Hernández-Labrado, Gabriel R; Padial-Cañete, Vanesa; García-Rama, Concepción

    2010-12-01

    Electrically conducting polymers hold promise for developing advanced neuroprostheses, bionic systems and neural repair devices. Among them, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits superior physicochemical properties but biocompatibility issues have limited its use. We describe combinations of electrochemical and molecule self-assembling methods to consistently control neural cell development on PEDOT:PSS while maintaining very low interfacial impedance. Electro-adsorbed polylysine enabled long-term neuronal survival and growth on the nanostructured polymer. Neurite extension was strongly inhibited by an additional layer of PSS or heparin, which in turn could be either removed electrically or further coated with spermine to activate cell growth. Binding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the heparin layer inhibited neurons but promoted proliferation and migration of precursor cells. This methodology may orchestrate neural cell behavior on electroactive polymers, thus improving cell/electrode communication in prosthetic devices and providing a platform for tissue repair strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  17. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  18. Highly Stable and Flexible Pressure Sensors with Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites for Human Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin; Ming, Yue; Li, Wei; Li, Yafang; Wu, Maoqi; Song, Jinzhong; Li, Xiaojiu; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-26

    A facile method for preparing an easy processing, repeatable and flexible pressure sensor was presented via the synthesis of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWNTs) and polyurethane (PU) films. The surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) simultaneously used a silane coupling agent (KH550) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to improve the dispersibility and compatibility of the MWNTs in a polymer matrix. The electrical property and piezoresistive behavior of the m-MWNT/PU composites were compared with raw multi-walled carbon nanotube (raw MWNT)/PU composites. Under linear uniaxial pressure, the m-MWNT/PU composite exhibited 4.282%kPa −1 sensitivity within the pressure of 1 kPa. The nonlinear error, hysteresis error and repeatability error of the piezoresistivity of m-MWNT/PU decreased 9%, 16.72% and 54.95% relative to raw MWNT/PU respectively. Therefore, the piezoresistive response of m-MWNT/PU had better stability than that of raw MWNT/PU composites. The m-MWNT/PU sensors could be utilized in wearable devices for body movement detection, monitoring of respiration and pressure detection in garments.

  19. The plant cell wall in the feeding sites of cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Holger; Sobczak, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Plant parasitic cyst nematodes (genera Heterodera and Globodera) are serious pests for many crops. They enter the host roots as migratory second stage juveniles (J2) and migrate intracellularly toward the vascular cylinder using their stylet and a set of cell wall degrading enzymes produced in the pharyngeal glands. They select an initial syncytial cell (ISC) within the vascular cylinder or inner cortex layers to induce the formation of a multicellular feeding site called a syncytium, which is the only source of nutrients for the parasite during its entire life. A syncytium can consist of more than hundred cells whose protoplasts are fused together through local cell wall dissolutions. While the nematode produces a cocktail of cell wall degrading and modifying enzymes during migration through the root, the cell wall degradations occurring during syncytium development are due to the plants own cell wall modifying and degrading proteins. The outer syncytial cell wall thickens to withstand the increasing osmotic pressure inside the syncytium. Furthermore, pronounced cell wall ingrowths can be formed on the outer syncytial wall at the interface with xylem vessels. They increase the surface of the symplast-apoplast interface, thus enhancing nutrient uptake into the syncytium. Processes of cell wall degradation, synthesis and modification in the syncytium are facilitated by a variety of plant proteins and enzymes including expansins, glucanases, pectate lyases and cellulose synthases, which are produced inside the syncytium or in cells surrounding the syncytium.

  20. The plant cell wall in the feeding sites of cyst nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eBohlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic cyst nematodes (genera Heterodera and Globodera are serious pests for many crops. They enter the host roots as migratory second stage juveniles (J2 and migrate intracellularly towards the vascular cylinder using their stylet and a set of cell wall degrading enzymes produced in the pharyngeal glands. They select an initial syncytial cell (ISC within the vascular cylinder or inner cortex layers to induce the formation of a multicellular feeding site called a syncytium, which is the only source of nutrients for the parasite during its entire life. A syncytium can consist of more than hundred cells whose protoplasts are fused together through local cell wall dissolutions. While the nematode produces a cocktail of cell wall degrading and modifying enzymes during migration through the root, the cell wall degradations occurring during syncytium development are due to the plants own cell wall modifying and degrading proteins. The outer syncytial cell wall thickens to withstand the increasing osmotic pressure inside the syncytium. Furthermore, pronounced cell wall ingrowths can be formed on the outer syncytial wall at the interface with xylem vessels. They increase the surface of the symplast-apoplast interface, thus enhancing nutrient uptake into the syncytium. Processes of cell wall degradation, synthesis and modification in the syncytium are facilitated by a variety of plant proteins and enzymes including expansins, glucanases, pectate lyases and cellulose synthases, which are produced inside the syncytium or in cells surrounding the syncytium.

  1. Immunogold scanning electron microscopy can reveal the polysaccharide architecture of xylem cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Juzenas, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide architecture in xylem cells at high resolution over large areas of sample. Using multiple cell wall monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), this immunogold SEM technique reliably localized groups of hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of five different xylem structures (vessel elements, fibers, axial and ray parenchyma cells, and tyloses). This demonstrates its important advantages over the other two methods for studying cell wall polysaccharide composition and distribution in these structures. In addition, it can show the three-dimensional distribution of a polysaccharide group in the vessel lateral wall and the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of developing tyloses. This technique, therefore, should be valuable for understanding the cell wall polysaccharide composition, architecture and functions of diverse cell types. PMID:28398585

  2. The role of cell walls and pectins in cation exchange and surface area of plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatanik-Kloc, A; Szerement, J; Józefaciuk, G

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to assess role of cell walls in formation of cation exchange capacity, surface charge, surface acidity, specific surface, water adsorption energy and surface charge density of plant roots, and to find the input of the cell wall pectins to the above properties. Whole roots, isolated cell walls and the residue after the extraction of pectins from the cell walls of two Apiaceae L. species (celeriac and parsnip) were studied using potentiometric titration curves and water vapor adsorption - desorption isotherms. Total amount of surface charge, as well as the cation exchange capacity were markedly higher in roots than in their cell walls, suggesting large contribution of other cell organelles to the binding of cations by the whole root cells. Significantly lower charge of the residues after removal of pectins was noted indicating that pectins play the most important role in surface charge formation of cell walls. The specific surface was similar for all of the studied materials. For the separated cell walls it was around 10% smaller than of the whole roots, and it increased slightly after the removal of pectins. The surface charge density and water vapor adsorption energy were the highest for the whole roots and the lowest for the cell walls residues after removal of pectins. The results indicate that the cell walls and plasma membranes are jointly involved in root ion exchange and surface characteristics and their contribution depends upon the plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. STUDY OF SINGLE WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES BY HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jing

    reinforcement of the polymer by the addition of SWNTs. Existence of agglomerates, voids, and the lower glass transition temperature of epoxy resin, may give the negative effect on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials. In the design aspect of the composite material, HSP could help match SWNTs...

  4. Mass Spectrometry of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Johánek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis of processes inside fuel cells under operating conditions in either direct or inverted (electrolysis mode and their correlation with potentiostatic measurements is a crucial part of understanding fuel cell electrochemistry. We present a relatively simple yet powerful experimental setup for online monitoring of the fuel cell exhaust (of either cathode or anode side downstream by mass spectrometry. The influence of a variety of parameters (composition of the catalyst, fuel type or its concentration, cell temperature, level of humidification, mass flow rate, power load, cell potential, etc. on the fuel cell operation can be easily investigated separately or in a combined fashion. We demonstrate the application of this technique on a few examples of low-temperature (70°C herein polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (both alcohol- and hydrogen-fed subjected to a wide range of conditions.

  5. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, T.

    A polymer blend is disclosed of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  6. Secondary cell wall formation in Cryptococcus neoformans as a rescue mechanism against acid-induced autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Vladimír; Takeo, Kanji; Maceková, Danka; Ohkusu, Misako; Yoshida, Soichi; Sipiczki, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Growth of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in a synthetic medium containing yeast nitrogen base and 1.0-3.0% glucose is accompanied by spontaneous acidification of the medium, with its pH decreasing from the initial 5.5 to around 2.5 in the stationary phase. During the transition from the late exponential to the stationary phase of growth, many cells died as a consequence of autolytic erosion of their cell walls. Simultaneously, there was an increase in an ecto-glucanase active towards beta-1,3-glucan and having a pH optimum between pH 3.0 and 3.5. As a response to cell wall degradation, some cells developed an unusual survival strategy by forming 'secondary' cell walls underneath the original ones. Electron microscopy revealed that the secondary cell walls were thicker than the primary ones, exposing bundles of polysaccharide microfibrils only partially masked by an amorphous cell wall matrix on their surfaces. The cells bearing secondary cell walls had a three to five times higher content of the alkali-insoluble cell wall polysaccharides glucan and chitin, and their chitin/glucan ratio was about twofold higher than in cells from the logarithmic phase of growth. The cell lysis and the formation of the secondary cell walls could be suppressed by buffering the growth medium between pH 4.5 and 6.5.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of cell wall-related genes in Tuber melanosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Sillo, Fabiano; Kohler, Annegret; Schneider, Georg; Faccio, Antonella; Tisserant, Emilie; Martin, Francis; Bonfante, Paola

    2012-06-01

    A genome-wide inventory of proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling has been obtained by taking advantage of the recently released genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal Tuber melanosporum black truffle. Genes that encode cell wall biosynthetic enzymes, enzymes involved in cell wall polysaccharide synthesis or modification, GPI-anchored proteins and other cell wall proteins were identified in the black truffle genome. As a second step, array data were validated and the symbiotic stage was chosen as the main focus. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments were performed on 29 selected genes to verify their expression during ectomycorrhizal formation. The results confirmed the array data, and this suggests that cell wall-related genes are required for morphogenetic transition from mycelium growth to the ectomycorrhizal branched hyphae. Labeling experiments were also performed on T. melanosporum mycelium and ectomycorrhizae to localize cell wall components.

  8. Asymmetric diketopyrrolopyrrole conjugated polymers for field-effect transistors and polymer solar cells processed from a non-chlorinated solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Y.; Xiao, C.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Li, C.; Wu, Y.; Wei, Z.; Zhan, X.; Hu, W.; Wang, Z.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Li, W.W.

    2016-01-01

    Newly designed asymmetric diketopyrrolopyrrole conjugated polymers with two different aromatic substituents possess a hole mobility of 12.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 in field-effect transistors and a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% in polymer solar cells, when solution processed from a nonchlorinated

  9. Thiophene Rings Improve the Device Performance of Conjugated Polymers in Polymer Solar Cells with Thick Active Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, C.; Gao, K.; Colberts, F. J. M.; Liu, F.; Meskers, S. C. J.; Wienk, M. M.; Janssen, R. A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Developing novel materials that tolerate thickness variations of the active layer is critical to further enhance the efficiency of polymer solar cells and enable large-scale manufacturing. Presently, only a few polymers afford high efficiencies at active layer thickness exceeding 200 nm and

  10. Radiation Grafted Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, G.G.; Wallasch, F.; Ben Youcef, H.; Gubler, L.

    2012-01-01

    Partially fluorinated proton exchange membranes prepared via radiation induced graft copolymerization ('radiation grafting') offer the prospect of cost-effective and tailor made membrane electrolytes for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The composition and structure of radiation grafted membranes can be adjusted in a broad range to balance the different requirements of proton transport and mechanical robustness. Based on the earlier work on Styrene grafting, the novel monomer combination α-methyl-styrene/methacrylonitrile (AMS/MAN) is introduced for improved stability in the prevailing fuel cell environment. Successful fuel cell experiments proved the concept. (author)

  11. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Kastrop, John P.; Beaupré , Serge; Leclerc, Mario; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2', 1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells physical principles of materials and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Eikerling, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book provides a systematic and profound account of scientific challenges in fuel cell research. The introductory chapters bring readers up to date on the urgency and implications of the global energy challenge, the prospects of electrochemical energy conversion technologies, and the thermodynamic and electrochemical principles underlying the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The book then presents the scientific challenges in fuel cell research as a systematic account of distinct components, length scales, physicochemical processes, and scientific disciplines. The main part of t

  13. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Haas, O; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  14. Radiation Grafted Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, G G; Wallasch, F; Ben Youcef, H; Gubler, L [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Partially fluorinated proton exchange membranes prepared via radiation induced graft copolymerization ('radiation grafting') offer the prospect of cost-effective and tailor made membrane electrolytes for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The composition and structure of radiation grafted membranes can be adjusted in a broad range to balance the different requirements of proton transport and mechanical robustness. Based on the earlier work on Styrene grafting, the novel monomer combination {alpha}-methyl-styrene/methacrylonitrile (AMS/MAN) is introduced for improved stability in the prevailing fuel cell environment. Successful fuel cell experiments proved the concept. (author)

  15. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Biomass saccharification is largely enhanced by altering wall polymer features and reducing silicon accumulation in rice cultivars harvested from nitrogen fertilizer supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor; Sun, Dan; Li, Ying; Wang, Jing; Tu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanting; Hu, Zhen; Zhou, Shiguang; Wang, Lingqiang; Xie, Guosheng; Huang, Jianliang; Alam, Aftab; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-11-01

    In this study, two rice cultivars were collected from experimental fields with seven nitrogen fertilizer treatments. All biomass samples contained significantly increased cellulose contents and reduced silica levels, with variable amounts of hemicellulose and lignin from different nitrogen treatments. Under chemical (NaOH, CaO, H 2 SO 4 ) and physical (hot water) pretreatments, biomass samples exhibited much enhanced hexoses yields from enzymatic hydrolysis, with high bioethanol production from yeast fermentation. Notably, both degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and xylose/arabinose (Xyl/Ara) ratio of hemicellulose were reduced in biomass residues, whereas other wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity and monolignol proportion) were variable. Integrative analysis indicated that cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica are the major factors that significantly affect cellulose crystallinity and biomass saccharification. Hence, this study has demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer supply could largely enhance biomass saccharification in rice cultivars, mainly by reducing cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica in cell walls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence that pulsed electric field treatment enhances the cell wall porosity of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeva, Valentina; Galutzov, Bojidar; Teissie, Justin

    2014-02-01

    The application of rectangular electric pulses, with 0.1-2 ms duration and field intensity of 2.5-4.5 kV/cm, to yeast suspension mediates liberation of cytoplasmic proteins without cell lysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field with similar parameters on cell wall porosity of different yeast species. We found that electrically treated cells become more susceptible to lyticase digestion. In dependence on the strain and the electrical conditions, cell lysis was obtained at 2-8 times lower enzyme concentration in comparison with control untreated cells. The increase of the maximal lysis rate was between two and nine times. Furthermore, when applied at low concentration (1 U/ml), the lyticase enhanced the rate of protein liberation from electropermeabilized cells without provoking cell lysis. Significant differences in the cell surface of control and electrically treated cells were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Data presented in this study allow us to conclude that electric field pulses provoke not only plasma membrane permeabilization, but also changes in the cell wall structure, leading to increased wall porosity.

  18. High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Ma, Wei; Guo, Yikun; Fang, Lei; Vandewal, Koen; Diao, Ying; Wang, Chenggong; Yan, Qifan; Reinspach, Julia; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony Lucas; Koleilat, Ghada I.; Gao, Yongli; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Salleo, Alberto; Ade, Harald; Zhao, Dahui; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    An average PCE of 4.2% for all-polymer solar cells from 20 devices with an average J SC of 8.8 mA cm-2 are obtained with a donor-acceptor pair despite a low LUMO-LUMO energy offset of less than 0.1 eV. Incorporation of polystyrene side chains into the donor polymer is found to assist in reducing the phase separation domain length scale, and results in more than 20% enhancement of PCE. We observe a direct correlation between the short circuit current (J SC) and the length scale of BHJ phase separation, which is obtained by resonance soft X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yan

    2014-03-24

    An average PCE of 4.2% for all-polymer solar cells from 20 devices with an average J SC of 8.8 mA cm-2 are obtained with a donor-acceptor pair despite a low LUMO-LUMO energy offset of less than 0.1 eV. Incorporation of polystyrene side chains into the donor polymer is found to assist in reducing the phase separation domain length scale, and results in more than 20% enhancement of PCE. We observe a direct correlation between the short circuit current (J SC) and the length scale of BHJ phase separation, which is obtained by resonance soft X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. In-situ Raman microprobe studies of plant cell walls: macromolecular organization and compositional variability in the secondary wall of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.P. Agarwal; R.H. Atalla

    1986-01-01

    Native-state organization and distribution of cell-wall components in the secondary wall of woody tissue from P. mariana (Black Spruce) have been investigated using polarized Raman microspectroscopy. Evidence for orientation is detected through Raman intensity variations resulting from rotations of the exciting electric vector with respect to cell-wall geometry....

  1. Adhesion of yeast cells on surface of polymers produced by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhaoxin; Takehisa, Masaaki; Xie Zongchuan.

    1995-01-01

    The adhesion of yeast (Saccharomyces formesences) cells on polymers was studied thermodynamically. The polymers were laminally prepared by means of radiation polymerization. By measuring contact angles, we calculated dispersion component and polar component of surface free energy of the polymers and the cells, and interfacial free energy between the polymer and the cells. Then interfacial free energy change of the cell adhesion to surface of the polymer was evaluated. The adhesion behavior of yeast cells on the polymers was observed by optical microscope. From above results, we conclude that the initial adhesion of the cells is related to the surface free energy of the polymer, but the irreversible adhesion may be close to the polar component in surface free energy. The high polar component is favourable the irreversible adhesion of yeast cells. (author)

  2. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Purbasha

    2009-01-01

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche,which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are consta...

  3. Characterization of nonderivatized plant cell walls using high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2008-01-01

    A recently described plant cell wall dissolution system has been modified to use perdeuterated solvents to allow direct in-NMR-tube dissolution and high-resolution solution-state NMR of the whole cell wall without derivatization. Finely ground cell wall material dissolves in a solvent system containing dimethylsulfoxide-d6 and 1-methylimidazole-d6 in a ratio of 4:1 (v/...

  4. Novel Enzymes for Targeted Hydrolysis of Algal Cell Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel

    Seaweeds, also known as macroalgae, constitute a rich source of valuable biomolecules which have a potential industrial application in food and pharma products. The use of enzymes can optimize the extraction and separation of these molecules from the seaweed biomass, but most commercial enzymes...... are incapable of breaking the complex polysaccharides found in seaweed cell walls. Therefore, new enzymes are needed for degradation of seaweed biomass. Bacteria that colonize the surfaces of seaweed secrete enzymes that allow them to degrade and utilize seaweed polysaccharides as energy. In addition, sea...... degradation. In addition, three carrageenases were characterised; one as a GH16 κ-carrageenase whereas the other two belong to a new GH16 subfamily of enzymes that degrade furcellaran (κ/β-carrageenan). From metagenome sequence data three putative GH107 fucanases were identified and characterized...

  5. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Injection molded polymer chip for electrochemical and electrophysiological recordings from single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    We present a novel method to fabricate an all in polymer injection molded chip for electrochemical cell recordings and lateral cell trapping. The complete device is molded in thermoplastic polymer and it results from assembling two halves. We tested spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylen...

  7. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediesse Kengne Francine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK. Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid. The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK showed better antioxidant activity.

  8. Direct dimethyl ether high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    and suffers from low DME solubility in water. When the DME - water mixture is fed as vapour miscibility is no longer a problem. The increased temperature is more beneficial for the kinetics of the direct oxidation of DME than of methanol. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) with DME operation was 50 to 100 m......A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed......V higher than that of methanol, indicating less fuel crossover....

  9. Effects of Argentilactone on the Transcriptional Profile, Cell Wall and Oxidative Stress of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Felipe Souto; Coelho, Luciene Melo; Silva, Lívia do Carmo; da Silva Neto, Benedito Rodrigues; Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Fernandes, Gabriel da Rocha; Hernández, Orville; Ochoa, Juan Guillermo McEwen; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). PCM is an endemic disease that affects at least 10 million people in Latin America, causing severe public health problems. The drugs used against pathogenic fungi have various side effects and limited efficacy; therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for the development of new antifungal drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii exposed to argentilactone, a constituent of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia. A total of 1,058 genes were identified, of which 208 were up-regulated and 850 were down-regulated. Cell rescue, defense and virulence, with a total of 26 genes, was a functional category with a large number of genes induced, including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp), the hemoglobin ligand RBT5 (rbt5) and superoxide dismutase (sod). Quantitative real-time PCR revealed an increase in the expression level of all of those genes. An enzymatic assay showed a significant increase in SOD activity. The reduced growth of Pbhsp90-aRNA, Pbccp-aRNA, Pbsod-aRNA and Pbrbt5-aRNA isolates in the presence of argentilactone indicates the importance of these genes in the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to argentilactone. The response of the P. lutzii cell wall to argentilactone treatment was also evaluated. The results showed that argentilactone caused a decrease in the levels of polymers in the cell wall. These results suggest that argentilactone is a potential candidate for antifungal therapy.

  10. Effects of Argentilactone on the Transcriptional Profile, Cell Wall and Oxidative Stress of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Souto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. PCM is an endemic disease that affects at least 10 million people in Latin America, causing severe public health problems. The drugs used against pathogenic fungi have various side effects and limited efficacy; therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for the development of new antifungal drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii exposed to argentilactone, a constituent of the essential oil of Hyptis ovalifolia. A total of 1,058 genes were identified, of which 208 were up-regulated and 850 were down-regulated. Cell rescue, defense and virulence, with a total of 26 genes, was a functional category with a large number of genes induced, including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90, cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp, the hemoglobin ligand RBT5 (rbt5 and superoxide dismutase (sod. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed an increase in the expression level of all of those genes. An enzymatic assay showed a significant increase in SOD activity. The reduced growth of Pbhsp90-aRNA, Pbccp-aRNA, Pbsod-aRNA and Pbrbt5-aRNA isolates in the presence of argentilactone indicates the importance of these genes in the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to argentilactone. The response of the P. lutzii cell wall to argentilactone treatment was also evaluated. The results showed that argentilactone caused a decrease in the levels of polymers in the cell wall. These results suggest that argentilactone is a potential candidate for antifungal therapy.

  11. Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Candelas; Santiago-Doménech, Nieves; Kirby, Andrew R; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Matas, Antonio J; Mercado, José A

    2017-09-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × anannasa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruit. Rapid loss of firmness occurs during the ripening process, resulting in a short shelf life and high economic losses. To get insight into the role of pectin matrix in the softening process, cell walls from strawberry fruit at two developmental stages, unripe-green and ripe-red, were extracted and sequentially fractionated with different solvents to obtain fractions enriched in a specific component. The yield of cell wall material as well as the per fresh weight contents of the different fractions decreased in ripe fruit. The largest reduction was observed in the pectic fractions extracted with a chelating agent (trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid, CDTA fraction) and those covalently bound to the wall (extracted with Na 2 CO 3 ). Uronic acid content of these two fractions also decreased significantly during ripening, but the amount of soluble pectins extracted with phenol:acetic acid:water (PAW) and water increased in ripe fruit. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the different fractions showed that the degree of esterification decreased in CDTA pectins but increased in soluble fractions at ripen stage. The chromatographic analysis of pectin fractions by gel filtration revealed that CDTA, water and, mainly PAW polyuronides were depolymerised in ripe fruit. By contrast, the size of Na 2 CO 3 pectins was not modified. The nanostructural characteristics of CDTA and Na 2 CO 3 pectins were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Isolated pectic chains present in the CDTA fractions were significantly longer and more branched in samples from green fruit than those from red fruit. No differences in contour length were observed in Na 2 CO 3 strands between samples of both stages. However, the percentage of branched chains decreased from 19.7% in unripe samples to 3.4% in ripe fruit. The number of pectin aggregates was higher in green fruit samples of both

  12. Thioridazine affects transcription of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mette; Højland, Dorte Heidi; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2011-01-01

    have previously shown that the expression of some resistance genes is abolished after treatment with thioridazine and oxacillin. To further understand the mechanism underlying the reversal of resistance, we tested the expression of genes involved in antibiotic resistance and cell wall biosynthesis...... in response to thioridazine in combination with oxacillin. We observed that the oxacillin-induced expression of genes belonging to the VraSR regulon is reduced by the addition of thioridazine. The exclusion of such key factors involved in cell wall biosynthesis will most likely lead to a weakened cell wall...... reversal of resistance by thioridazine relies on decreased expression of specific genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis....

  13. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Gómez, Pablo; Pastorelli, Francesco; Mantilla Perez, Paola; Mariano, Marina; Martinez Otero, Alberto; Elias Pera, Xavier; Betancur Lopera, Rafael; Martorell Pena, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Copyright 2015 Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this publication for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the contents of the publication are prohibited. Over the last three decades, progress in the organic photovoltaic field has resulted in some device features which make organic cells applicable in electricity g...

  14. Molecular mapping of the cell wall polysaccharides of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Péchoux, Christine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Hols, Pascal; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2014-11-01

    The surface of many bacterial pathogens is covered with polysaccharides that play important roles in mediating pathogen-host interactions. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is recognized as a major virulence factor while the group B carbohydrate (GBC) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell division. Despite the important roles of CPS and GBC, there is little information available on the molecular organization of these glycopolymers on the cell surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze the nanoscale distribution of CPS and GBC in wild-type (WT) and mutant strains of S. agalactiae. TEM analyses reveal that in WT bacteria, peptidoglycan is covered with a very thin (few nm) layer of GBC (the ``pellicle'') overlaid by a 15-45 nm thick layer of CPS (the ``capsule''). AFM-based single-molecule mapping with specific antibody probes shows that CPS is exposed on WT cells, while it is hardly detected on mutant cells impaired in CPS production (ΔcpsE mutant). By contrast, both TEM and AFM show that CPS is over-expressed in mutant cells altered in GBC expression (ΔgbcO mutant), indicating that the production of the two surface glycopolymers is coordinated in WT cells. In addition, AFM topographic imaging and molecular mapping with specific lectin probes demonstrate that removal of CPS (ΔcpsE), but not of GBC (ΔgbcO), leads to the exposure of peptidoglycan, organized into 25 nm wide bands running parallel to the septum. These results indicate that CPS forms a homogeneous barrier protecting the underlying peptidoglycan from environmental exposure, while the presence of GBC does not prevent peptidoglycan detection. This work shows that single-molecule AFM, combined with high-resolution TEM, represents a powerful platform for analysing the molecular arrangement of the cell wall polymers of bacterial pathogens.

  15. Characteristic Thickened Cell Walls of the Bracts of the ‘Eternal Flower’ Helichrysum bracteatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kuniko; Ito, Hiroaki; Awano, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Helichrysum bracteatum is called an ‘eternal flower’ and has large, coloured, scarious bracts. These maintain their aesthetic value without wilting or discoloration for many years. There have been no research studies of cell death or cell morphology of the scarious bract, and hence the aim of this work was to elucidate these characteristics for the bract of H. bracteatum. Methods DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindol dihydrochloride) staining and fluorescence microscopy were used for observation of cell nuclei. Light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polarized light microscopy were used for observation of cells, including cell wall morphology. Key Results Cell death occurred at the bract tip during the early stage of flower development. The cell wall was the most prominent characteristic of H. bracteatum bract cells. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls on the inside of the primary cell walls were observed in both epidermal and inner cells. In addition, the walls of all cells exhibited birefringence. Characteristic thickened secondary cell walls have orientated cellulose microfibrils as well as general secondary cell walls of the tracheary elements. For comparison, these characters were not observed in the petal and bract tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Conclusions Bracts at anthesis are composed of dead cells. Helichrysum bracteatum bracts have characteristic thickened secondary cell walls that have not been observed in the parenchyma of any other flowers or leaves. The cells of the H. bracteatum bract differ from other tissues with secondary cell walls, suggesting that they may be a new cell type. PMID:18436550

  16. Wall extensibility: its nature, measurement and relationship to plant cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Expansive growth of plant cells is controlled principally by processes that loosen the wall and enable it to expand irreversibly. The central role of wall relaxation for cell expansion is reviewed. The most common methods for assessing the extension properties of plant cell walls ( wall extensibility') are described, categorized and assessed critically. What emerges are three fundamentally different approaches which test growing cells for their ability (a) to enlarge at different values of turgor, (b) to induce wall relaxation, and (c) to deform elastically or plastically in response to an applied tensile force. Analogous methods with isolated walls are similarly reviewed. The results of these different assays are related to the nature of plant cell growth and pertinent biophysical theory. I argue that the extensibilities' measured by these assays are fundamentally different from one another and that some are more pertinent to growth than others.

  17. Autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of fetal supporting cells and wall cells in rats 19 days after conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugani-Mehta, S.

    1980-01-01

    The duration of the S-phase of supporting cells and wall cells of rat fetuses aged 19 days was determined by the ''labelled mitosis'' method. The supporting cells are predecessors of the sertoli cells while the wall cells are predecessors of the boundary tissue and, possibly, of part of the peritubular Leydig cell system. The S-phase of the supporting cells was found to last 10.1 h while the S-phase of the wall cells lasted 9.2 h. The data were not in agreement with the data of other authors. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Mechanical feedback coordinates cell wall expansion and assembly in yeast mating morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The shaping of individual cells requires a tight coordination of cell mechanics and growth. However, it is unclear how information about the mechanical state of the wall is relayed to the molecular processes building it, thereby enabling the coordination of cell wall expansion and assembly during morphogenesis. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that a mechanical feedback coordinating cell wall assembly and expansion is essential to sustain mating projection growth in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our theoretical results indicate that the mechanical feedback provided by the Cell Wall Integrity pathway, with cell wall stress sensors Wsc1 and Mid2 increasingly activating membrane-localized cell wall synthases Fks1/2 upon faster cell wall expansion, stabilizes mating projection growth without affecting cell shape. Experimental perturbation of the osmotic pressure and cell wall mechanics, as well as compromising the mechanical feedback through genetic deletion of the stress sensors, leads to cellular phenotypes that support the theoretical predictions. Our results indicate that while the existence of mechanical feedback is essential to stabilize mating projection growth, the shape and size of the cell are insensitive to the feedback. PMID:29346368

  19. Vesicles between plasma membrane and cell wall prior to visible senescence of Iris and Dendrobium flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdee, Channatika; Kirasak, Kanjana; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-09-01

    Cut Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica, cv. Blue Magic) show visible senescence about two days after full opening. Epidermal cells of the outer tepals collapse due to programmed cell death (PCD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed irregular swelling of the cell walls, starting prior to cell collapse. Compared to cells in flowers that had just opened, wall thickness increased up to tenfold prior to cell death. Fibrils were visible in the swollen walls. After cell death very little of the cell wall remained. Prior to and during visible wall swelling, vesicles (paramural bodies) were observed between the plasma membrane and the cell walls. The vesicles were also found in groups and were accompanied by amorphous substance. They usually showed a single membrane, and had a variety of diameters and electron densities. Cut Dendrobium hybrid cv. Lucky Duan flowers exhibited visible senescence about 14 days after full flower opening. Paramural bodies were also found in Dendrobium tepal epidermis and mesophyll cells, related to wall swelling and degradation. Although alternative explanations are well possible, it is hypothesized that paramural bodies carry enzymes involved in cell wall breakdown. The literature has not yet reported such bodies in association with senescence/PCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Nanocomposites: A First-Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Francisco; Xia, Zhenhai; Lebrion-Colon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The physics of HRTEM image formation and electron diffraction of SWCNT in a polymer matrix were investigated theoretically on the basis of the multislice method, and the optics of a FEG Super TWIN Philips CM 200 TEM operated at 80 kV. The effect of nanocomposite thickness on both image contrast and typical electron diffraction reflections of nanofillers were explored. The implications of the results on the experimental applicability to study dispersion, chirality and diameter of nanofillers are discussed.

  1. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko; Schroeder, Bob; Nielsen, Christian; Bronstein, Hugo; Fei, Zhuping; McCulloch, Iain; Heeney, Martin; Durrant, James

    2016-01-01

    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact

  2. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  3. Interfacial Layer Engineering for Performance Enhancement in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving power conversion efficiency and device performance stability is the most critical challenge in polymer solar cells for fulfilling their applications in industry at large scale. Various methodologies have been developed for realizing this goal, among them interfacial layer engineering has shown great success, which can optimize the electrical contacts between active layers and electrodes and lead to enhanced charge transport and collection. Interfacial layers also show profound impacts on light absorption and optical distribution of solar irradiation in the active layer and film morphology of the subsequently deposited active layer due to the accompanied surface energy change. Interfacial layer engineering enables the use of high work function metal electrodes without sacrificing device performance, which in combination with the favored kinetic barriers against water and oxygen penetration leads to polymer solar cells with enhanced performance stability. This review provides an overview of the recent progress of different types of interfacial layer materials, including polymers, small molecules, graphene oxides, fullerene derivatives, and metal oxides. Device performance enhancement of the resulting solar cells will be elucidated and the function and operation mechanism of the interfacial layers will be discussed.

  4. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: The cell-wall corral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eMartinière

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  5. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: the cell-wall corral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinière, Alexandre; Runions, John

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  6. Microencapsulation of porcine thyroid cell organoids within a polymer microcapsule construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yipeng; Opara, Emmanuel C; Liu, Yingbin; Atala, Anthony; Zhao, Weixin

    2017-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common condition of hormone deficiency, and oral administration of thyroid hormones is currently the only available treatment option. However, there are some disadvantages with this treatment modality including compliance challenges to patients. Therefore, a physiologically based alternative therapy for hypothyroidism with little or no side-effects is needed. In this study, we have developed a method for microencapsulating porcine thyroid cells as a thyroid hormone replacement approach. The hybrid wall of the polymer microcapsules permits thyroid hormone release while preventing immunoglobulin antibodies from entry. This strategy could potentially enable implantation of the microcapsule organoids containing allogeneic or xenogeneic thyroid cells to secret hormones over time without the need for immunosuppression of recipients. Porcine thyroid cells were isolated and encapsulated in alginate-poly-L-ornithine-alginate microcapsules using a microfluidic device. The porcine thyroid cells formed three-dimensional follicular spheres in the microcapsules with decent cell viability and proliferation. Thyroxine release from the encapsulated cells was higher than from unencapsulated cells ( P 28 days). These results suggest that the microencapsulated thyroid cell organoids may have the potential to be used for therapy and/or drug screening.

  7. Cell wall integrity signaling in plants: "To grow or not to grow that's the question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voxeur, Aline; Höfte, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Plants, like yeast, have the ability to monitor alterations in the cell wall architecture that occur during normal growth or in changing environments and to trigger compensatory changes in the cell wall. We discuss how recent advances in our understanding of the cell wall architecture provide new insights into the role of cell wall integrity sensing in growth control. Next we review the properties of membrane receptor-like kinases that have roles in pH control, mechano-sensing and reactive oxygen species accumulation in growing cells and which may be the plant equivalents of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) sensors. Finally, we discuss recent findings showing an increasing role for CWI signaling in plant immunity and the adaptation to changes in the ionic environment of plant cells. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The structural role of pectins in plant primary cell walls is not yet well understood because of the complex and disordered nature of the cell wall polymers. We recently introduced multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the spatial proximities of wall polysaccharides. The data showed extensive cross peaks between pectins and cellulose in the primary wall of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating subnanometer contacts between the two polysaccharides. This result was unexpected because stable pectin-cellulose interactions are not predicted by in vitro binding assays and prevailing cell wall models. To investigate whether the spatial contacts that give rise to the cross peaks are artifacts of sample preparation, we now compare never-dried Arabidopsis primary walls with dehydrated and rehydrated samples. One-dimensional 13C spectra, two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation spectra, water-polysaccharide correlation spectra, and dynamics data all indicate that the structure, mobility, and intermolecular contacts of the polysaccharides are indistinguishable between never-dried and rehydrated walls. Moreover, a partially depectinated cell wall in which 40% of homogalacturonan is extracted retains cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that the cellulose-pectin contacts are not due to molecular crowding. The cross peaks are observed both at −20°C and at ambient temperature, thus ruling out freezing as a cause of spatial contacts. These results indicate that rhamnogalacturonan I and a portion of homogalacturonan have significant interactions with cellulose microfibrils in the native primary wall. This pectin-cellulose association may be formed during wall biosynthesis and may involve pectin entrapment in or between cellulose microfibrils, which cannot be mimicked by in vitro binding assays. PMID:26036615

  10. Adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to biomimetic polymers: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shotorbani, Behnaz Banimohamad [Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, Effat, E-mail: Alizadehe@tbzmed.ac.ir [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of advanced Medical Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Research Center (UCSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Roya [Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of advanced Medical Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Research Center (UCSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barzegar, Abolfazl [Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy due to the self-renewal, multi-potency, ethically approved state and suitability for autologous transplantation. However, key issue for isolation and manipulation of MSCs is adhesion in ex-vivo culture systems. Biomaterials engineered for mimicking natural extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions which support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation represent a main area of research in tissue engineering. Some of them successfully enhanced cells adhesion and proliferation because of their biocompatibility, biomimetic texture, and chemistry. However, it is still in its infancy, therefore intensification and optimization of in vitro, in vivo, and preclinical studies is needed to clarify efficacies as well as applicability of those bioengineered constructs. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms related to the in-vitro adhesion of MSCs, surfaces biochemical, biophysical, and other factors (of cell's natural and artificial micro-environment) which could affect it and a review of previous research attempting for its bio-chemo-optimization. - Highlights: • The main materials utilized for fabrication of biomimetic polymers are presented. • MSCs cell-material adhesion mechanism and involved molecules are reviewed. • Surface modifications of polymers in terms of MSC adhesion improving are discussed.

  11. Adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to biomimetic polymers: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shotorbani, Behnaz Banimohamad; Alizadeh, Effat; Salehi, Roya; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy due to the self-renewal, multi-potency, ethically approved state and suitability for autologous transplantation. However, key issue for isolation and manipulation of MSCs is adhesion in ex-vivo culture systems. Biomaterials engineered for mimicking natural extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions which support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation represent a main area of research in tissue engineering. Some of them successfully enhanced cells adhesion and proliferation because of their biocompatibility, biomimetic texture, and chemistry. However, it is still in its infancy, therefore intensification and optimization of in vitro, in vivo, and preclinical studies is needed to clarify efficacies as well as applicability of those bioengineered constructs. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms related to the in-vitro adhesion of MSCs, surfaces biochemical, biophysical, and other factors (of cell's natural and artificial micro-environment) which could affect it and a review of previous research attempting for its bio-chemo-optimization. - Highlights: • The main materials utilized for fabrication of biomimetic polymers are presented. • MSCs cell-material adhesion mechanism and involved molecules are reviewed. • Surface modifications of polymers in terms of MSC adhesion improving are discussed.

  12. The Cell Wall Protein Ecm33 of Candida albicans is Involved in Chronological Life Span, Morphogenesis, Cell Wall Regeneration, Stress Tolerance, and Host-Cell Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Bona, Ana; Reales-Calderon, Jose A; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M; Martinez-Lopez, Raquel; Monteoliva, Lucia; Gil, Concha

    2016-01-01

    Ecm33 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein in the human pathogen Candida albicans. This protein is known to be involved in fungal cell wall integrity (CWI) and is also critical for normal virulence in the mouse model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis, but its function remains unknown. In this work, several phenotypic analyses of the C. albicans ecm33/ecm33 mutant (RML2U) were performed. We observed that RML2U displays the inability of protoplast to regenerate the cell wall, activation of the CWI pathway, hypersensitivity to temperature, osmotic and oxidative stresses and a shortened chronological lifespan. During the exponential and stationary culture phases, nuclear and actin staining revealed the possible arrest of the cell cycle in RML2U cells. Interestingly, a "veil growth," never previously described in C. albicans, was serendipitously observed under static stationary cells. The cells that formed this structure were also observed in cornmeal liquid cultures. These cells are giant, round cells, without DNA, and contain large vacuoles, similar to autophagic cells observed in other fungi. Furthermore, RML2U was phagocytozed more than the wild-type strain by macrophages at earlier time points, but the damage caused to the mouse cells was less than with the wild-type strain. Additionally, the percentage of RML2U apoptotic cells after interaction with macrophages was fewer than in the wild-type strain.

  13. The Cell Wall Protein Ecm33 of Candida albicans is Involved in Chronological Life Span, Morphogenesis, Cell Wall Regeneration, Stress Tolerance, and Host–Cell Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Bona, Ana; Reales-Calderon, Jose A.; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Martinez-Lopez, Raquel; Monteoliva, Lucia; Gil, Concha

    2016-01-01

    Ecm33 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein in the human pathogen Candida albicans. This protein is known to be involved in fungal cell wall integrity (CWI) and is also critical for normal virulence in the mouse model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis, but its function remains unknown. In this work, several phenotypic analyses of the C. albicans ecm33/ecm33 mutant (RML2U) were performed. We observed that RML2U displays the inability of protoplast to regenerate the cell wall, activation of the CWI pathway, hypersensitivity to temperature, osmotic and oxidative stresses and a shortened chronological lifespan. During the exponential and stationary culture phases, nuclear and actin staining revealed the possible arrest of the cell cycle in RML2U cells. Interestingly, a “veil growth,” never previously described in C. albicans, was serendipitously observed under static stationary cells. The cells that formed this structure were also observed in cornmeal liquid cultures. These cells are giant, round cells, without DNA, and contain large vacuoles, similar to autophagic cells observed in other fungi. Furthermore, RML2U was phagocytozed more than the wild-type strain by macrophages at earlier time points, but the damage caused to the mouse cells was less than with the wild-type strain. Additionally, the percentage of RML2U apoptotic cells after interaction with macrophages was fewer than in the wild-type strain. PMID:26870022

  14. Dendronized Polymer Architectures for Fuel Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Takamuku, S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi‐step synthetic pathways to low‐ion exchange capacity (IEC) polysulfone (PSU) with sulfonic acid functionalized aliphatic dendrons and sulfonated comb‐type PSU structures are developed and investigated in a comparative study as non‐fluorinated proton exchange membrane (PEM) candidates. In each...... case the side chains are synthesized and introduced in their sulfonated form onto an azide‐functionalized PSU via click chemistry. Three degrees of substitution of each architecture were prepared in order to evaluate the dependence on number of sulfonated side chains. Solution cast membranes were...... evaluated as PEMs for use in fuel cells by proton conductivity measurements, and in the case of dendronized architectures: thermal stability. The proposed synthetic strategy facilitates exploration of a non‐fluorous system with various flexible side chains where IEC is tunable by the degree of substitution....

  15. Arthritis by autoreactive T cell lines obtained from rats after injection of intestinal bacterial cell wall fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Klasen (Ina); J. Kool (Jeanette); M.J. Melief (Marie-José); I. Loeve (I.); W.B. van den Berg (Wim); A.J. Severijnen; M.P.H. Hazenberg (Maarten)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ T cell lines (B13, B19) were isolated from the lymph nodes of Lewis rats 12 days after an arthritogenic injection of cell wall fragments of Eubacterium aerofaciens (ECW), a major resident of the human intestinal flora. These cell wall fragments consist of

  16. Cell wall proteins of Sporothrix schenckii as immunoprotective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fierro, Carlos A; Pérez-Torres, Armando; López-Romero, Everardo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Ruiz-Baca, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Cell wall (CW) proteins located on the cell surface are inducers of cellular and humoral immune responses, potential candidates for diagnosis purposes and to generate vaccines to prevent fungal infections. This mini-review emphasizes the potential use of S. schenckii CW proteins as protective and therapeutic immune response inducers against sporotrichosis. A number of pathogenic fungi display CW components that have been characterized as inducers of protective cellular and