WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell type emigrating

  1. Elevated proportions of recent thymic emigrants in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Johannes; Hofer, Sabine; Zlamy, Manuela; Jeller, Verena; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Brandstätter, Anita; Kern, Hannelore; Köhle, Julia; Zimmerhackl, Lothar Bernd; Prelog, Martina

    2009-10-01

    It is unclear, whether pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) show immunological alterations typically found in autoimmune conditions resembling immune dysfunction of the thymus, such as decrease of naïve T cells, lower T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers, telomeric erosion, and diminished interleukin-7 (IL-7) levels. Furthermore, it is unknown, whether long-term therapy with insulin, a thymic growth factor, interferes with these changes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quantity of the naïve T cell subset and its TREC content, relative telomere length (RTL) of naïve T cells, and peripheral IL-7 levels in patients with recent-onset T1DM (n = 5), long-standing T1DM (n = 33), and age-matched healthy donors (HD) (n = 37). In long-standing T1DM, TREC numbers/CD8+CD45RA+ T cells were enhanced (p RTLs in CD8+CD45RA+ T cells were significantly increased compared to HD (p < 0.02). Our data suggest that longterm insulin therapy may serve as a driving factor for thymic function and rejuvenation of the naïve T cell compartment. The ability of the immune system to reconstitute the naïve T cell compartment under well-adjusted insulin therapy may be of major importance for recognition of new antigens, response to vaccinations, and defense of infectious complications. PMID:19725773

  2. Emigration of mature T cells from the thymus is inhibited by the imidazole-based compound 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugasyan, R; Coward, A; O'Connor, L; Shortman, K; Scollay, R

    1998-01-01

    The primary role of the thymus is to provide mature T cells for the peripheral immune system. The mechanisms involved in the cellular export processes are as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the ability of 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), an agent widely used as a component of ammonia caramel food colouring, to inhibit T-cell export from the thymus. BALB/c mice were maintained on drinking water containing THI for 5 days. The mice showed a twofold increase in the total number of mature medullary thymocytes (CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+) as well as a slight decrease in the total number of immature double-positive cells (CD4+CD8+). The mature single-positive thymocytes were found to express high levels of the homing molecule L-selectin, suggesting that these potential emigrants were prevented from leaving the thymus. To confirm this, THI-treated mice were injected intrathymically with fluorescein isothiocyanate and the number of labelled T cells appearing in the lymph nodes and spleen was determined 16 hr later. A 10-fold decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ recent thymic emigrants in the lymph nodes and spleen of THI-treated mice was observed. Previous studies have shown that THI does not affect other aspects of thymocyte development, such as proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that the immunosuppressive effects of THI may be due, in part, to preventing of the final step of T-cell export out of the thymus. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9640251

  3. Emigration for Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana

    2013-01-01

    necessary if resources from emigration are to become seeds for development. By analysing the case of Romania, one of the largest labour sending countries in Eastern Europe, it argues that its laissez-faire approach is likely not enough to capitalize on emigrants' resources for development. International...

  4. Emigration as popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry, Tarik

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the symbolic dimensions of emigration by enquiring into the relationship between emigration as a social phenomenon in Morocco, and Moroccan popular culture. The article critiques the discourses of unity and reconciliation inherent in analyses of Moroccan popular culture and contends that the popular in Moroccan popular culture is a pseudo-popular that speaks for the voices of ...

  5. T-cell Receptor Excision Circles (TREC) in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell Subpopulations in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis Show Major Differences in the Emission of Recent Thymic Emigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Helle; Deleuran, Mette; Vestergaard, Christian; Deleuran, Bent; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    We used T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) to evaluate thymic function in adult patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We observed that men, but not women, with atopic dermatitis had a significantly faster decline in TREC content with increasing age compared with healthy men. In cont...... indicates that atopic dermatitis patients can have compensatory emissions of thymic emigrants, whereas psoriatic patients do not, thus supporting different thymic function in these two diseases....

  6. Intrathymic T cell differentiation in radiation bone marrow chimeras and its role in T cell emigration to the spleen. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunohistochemical studies were made on the regeneration of T cells of host- and donor-type in the thymus and spleen of radiation bone marrow chimeras by using B10- and B10.BR-Thy-1 congenic mice. In Thy-1 congenic chimeras, thymocytes of donor bone marrow origin, were first recognized at day 7, when the thymus involuted to the smallest size after the irradiation. The thymocytes of donor-type then proliferated exponentially, showing a slightly faster rate when higher doses of bone marrow cells were used for reconstitution, reaching a level of 100 million by day 17 and completely replacing the cortical thymocytes of host origin by day 21. The replacement of medullary thymocytes from host- to donor-type occurred gradually between days 21 and 35, after the replacement in the cortex was completed. In the spleen, about 1 million survived cells were recovered at day 3 after the irradiation, and approximately 60% of them were shown to be host-type T cells that were observed in the white pulp areas. The host-type T cells in the spleen increased gradually after day 10, due to the influx of host-type T cells from the regenerating thymus. Thus a pronounced increase of T cells of host-type was immunohistochemically observed in the splenic white pulp between days 21 and 28, when thymocytes of host-type were present mainly in the thymic medulla. These host-type T cells were shown to persist in the spleen for a long time, as long as 420 days after the treatment. Phenotypically, they were predominantly Lyt-1+2+ when examined at day 28, but 5 mo later, they were about 50% Lyt-1+2+ and 50% Lyt-1+2-

  7. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  8. Emigration from Nepal: some major issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M L

    1997-07-01

    This study examined emigration from Nepal during 1952-91. Data were obtained from census records decennially. Records indicate that the volume of emigration amounted to about 2.39% of total population in 1952-53, and 3.58% in 1991. The level of emigration rose from 198,120 persons to 658,290. Emigrants are persons who were absent from their home for more than 6 months due to tourism, pilgrimage, business trips, studies, employment, or permanent migration. Most emigrants return home after several months or years. A recent survey finds that 14.1% returned after more than 5 years. The Nepal model of migration is different from conventional or Marxist models. For example, landlessness or near landlessness are not the primary reasons for migration. The recent emigration to Arab countries is driven by the desire for better income. Emigrants pay handsomely to go abroad for work (Rs. 85,000). Nepalese emigrate to Australia and the US for a better income and a better life. The proportion of female emigrants was 6.23% of total emigrants to Arab countries, and 16.2% to India. 31% of emigrants were females who emigrated to North America, and 29% emigrated to European countries. Emigrants to Arab countries were likely to return home. Emigrants to North America and Europe were likely to be permanent migrants. The author prefers Mellassoux's (1981) model that says that Nepal is losing manpower during their most productive years. Remittances do not offset the loss. Government costs are incurred for supporting education abroad, benefits in old age and for youth, and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12293765

  9. Differentiation of ICOS+ and ICOS- recent thymic emigrant regulatory T cells (RTE T regs) during normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M I; Jöst, M; Spratte, J; Schaier, M; Mahnke, K; Meuer, S; Zeier, M; Steinborn, A

    2016-01-01

    Two different subsets of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs), defined by their expression of the inducible co-stimulatory (ICOS) molecule, are produced by the human thymus. To examine the differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) recent thymic emigrant (RTE) T regs during normal pregnancy and in the presence of pre-eclampsia or haemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelet (HELLP)-syndrome, we used six-colour flow cytometric analysis to determine the changes in the composition of the ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) T reg pools with CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE T regs, CD45RA(+) CD31(-) mature naive (MN) T regs, CD45RA(-) CD31(+) and CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory Tregs. With the beginning of pregnancy until term, we observed a strong differentiation of both ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE, but not CD45RA(+) CD31(-) MN T regs, into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs. At the end of pregnancy, the onset of spontaneous term labour was associated with a significant breakdown of ICOS(+) CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs. However, in the presence of pre-eclampsia, there was a significantly increased differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE T regs into CD45RA(-) CD31(+) memory T regs, wherein the lacking differentiation into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs was partially replaced by the increased differentiation of ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(-) MN Tregs into CD45RA(-) CD31(-) memory T regs. In patients with HELLP syndrome, this alternatively increased differentiation of CD45RA(-) CD31(-) MN T regs seemed to be exaggerated, and presumably restored the suppressive activity of magnetically isolated ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) T regs, which were shown to be significantly less suppressive in pre-eclampsia patients, but not in HELLP syndrome patients. Hence, our findings propose that the regular differentiation of both ICOS(+) and ICOS(-) CD45RA(+) CD31(+) RTE T regs ensures a healthy pregnancy course, while their disturbed differentiation is

  10. Emigration from Russia: New Trends and Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseyevich Iontsev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this article is migration from Russia. The study deals with current aspects and new forms of emigration. The goal of this paper is to identify new patterns determining the emigration from Russia. The article views the emigration in a broad sense, including, in addition to classic emigration (i.e. leaving the home country for permanent residence in another country, various categories of return migration (labor migration, shuttle traders, seasonal migration, episodic migration, economic tourism, business migration, education abroad, etc.. With the emergence of these new forms and categories, there is a need to clarify the migration concepts. This analysis is built on a broad historical perspective on emigration, which has been a typical phenomenon for Russia over the last three centuries. The article is based on such economic theories, as the human capital theory, new economic theory of migration, Todaro’s economic theory of migration and other. In this article, a variety of methods are used, including historical analogy, statistical and mathematical approaches, sociological and econometric models. The article analyzes the patterns of modern emigration from Russia. It also considers certain aspects in the legal regulation of migration processes, with a focus on emigrants, including potential emigrants. In conclusion, the article notes the need for the state control of emigration processes. This means not so much the improvement of statistical records for this group of migrants, but rather specific government measures aimed at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the nonreturn migration. In other words, it is not aimed at banning the emigration (a measure, the adverse effects of which were noted as long ago as by Mikhail Lomonosov, but at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the non-return migration. The findings of this research can be

  11. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L;

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type and...... number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  12. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  13. Emigration trajectories of former Portuguese emigrants: the construction of family integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Daniela Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Constructing family integrity is a normative developmental challenge for older people, which is influenced by the family and social systems. This exploratory study examines the emigration trajectories of former Portuguese emigrants, now in old age, who returned to their home country (Portugal. And aims to contribute to a better understand of the influence of emigration experiences in the construction of family integrity versus disconnection and alienation.

  14. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase. PMID:12347007

  15. Swallows' children : emigration and development in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, S

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on relationships between migration policy and development policy in Algeria, focusing on emigration to France during the period 1962 to 1977 - covers historical emigration under colonialism and since independence, noting the influence of nationalism and political ideology, outlines working conditions and living conditions of Algerian migrant workers in France, and discusses return migration and remittance factors. Graphs, references and statistical tables.

  16. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  17. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future. PMID:12347011

  18. Emigration dynamics in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1995-01-01

    This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the

  19. Motivations and Earnings of Emigrants from a Rich Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu

    2016-01-01

    Northern European countries lose more than ten percent of their university graduates as a result of emigration. This could undermine welfare states if the high-income earners emigrate to avoid high taxes. Register data shows that those facing a high tax burden are much more likely to emigrate. Yet...... little is known about individual motivations to emigrate. To bridge this gap, we organized the first-ever survey of emigrants from a welfare state. We find that migration decisions are rarely driven by taxes. For men, the main reason to emigrate is own work, for women partner and family....

  20. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  1. P-selectin/ICAM-1 double mutant mice: acute emigration of neutrophils into the peritoneum is completely absent but is normal into pulmonary alveoli.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, D C; Qin, L.; Lorenzo, I.; Quinlin, W M; Doyle, N A; Bosse, R; Vestweber, D; Doerschuk, C. M.; Beaudet, A L

    1995-01-01

    Neutrophil emigration during an inflammatory response is mediated through interactions between adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and neutrophils. P-Selectin mediates rolling or slowing of neutrophils, while intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) contributes to the firm adhesion and emigration of neutrophils. Removing the function of either molecule partially prevents neutrophil emigration. To analyze further the role of P-selectin and ICAM-1, we have generated a line of mice with mu...

  2. Pakistani labour emigration: new destinations in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasra M. Shah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper a historical overview is made of Pakistani labour emigration to the countries of the Persian Gulf, and to Anglo-Saxon countries in general and to the United Kingdom in particular. In the second part of the paper the new European labourmarkets which Pakistani emigrants have been increasingly discovering is analyzed. In this sense, Spain has become one of the new destinations. The author goes on to point out the specific nature of this new situation and at the same time details some of the future implications for Spain.

  3. The Impact of Emigration on Jamaican Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Heriberto

    1980-01-01

    Massive emigration from Jamaica of professionals, technicians, managers and administrators, and skilled workers has resulted in a critical shortage of a well-educated work force. If present political and economic trends continue, this problem is likely to remain for some time to come. (ST)

  4. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF EMIGRATION OF YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the oldest phenomena that accompanied the development of human society, sometimes causing clashes between peoples, cultures and civilizations. Recent events or from a not too distant past of Europe show that tensions created by migratory movements often have an impact on political and economic relations between countries, cultures and religions. The Romanian reality shows that after 1989 the resident population experienced a decline. According to the National Institute of Statistics, in the period 1989-2012, Romania's population decreased by about 3.1 million, this reduction being due to both migration phenomenon and negative natural increase of population. Some statistic records also show that the extremes are usually among those who decide to emigrate. On the one hand those who are choosing this path are individuals with low income and a low or medium level of education; on the other hand, we can find the phenomenon of brain drain. It is alarming that among those who choose to emigrate are registered young people able to work, this generating the problem of funding on medium and long term the social services. Starting from such aspects, this paper aims to highlight key issues regarding the intention of emigration of highly educated young people. Using quantitative and qualitative methods the authors of this paper aim to identify some possible causes that may determine the highly educated youth to emigrate, evaluate some possible effects due to this phenomenon and to find proposals to limit the negative effects of demographic decline.

  5. Emigration, wage differentials and brain drain: The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine two hypotheses concerning emigration. The first hypothesis is that emigration is positively correlated with wage differentials. The second hypothesis concerns a positive correlation between emigration and higher education in the sending country (the so-called bra

  6. Health emigration: a challenge in paediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, Luisa M; Wiley, Thomas J; Caprino, Daniela

    2008-06-01

    For the past 10 years European states have experienced an increasing flow of emigrating families from developing countries seeking better medical care for their sick children. For Italian paediatricians this has become a new challenge, considering the cultural differences in customs regarding the illness. The onset of a life-threatening disease has a strong impact on the family. The natural bond between the patient and the family must be preserved and strengthened; parents should be encouraged to entertain their child during hospitalization. The inclusion of art therapy may facilitate communication, especially for children of a different language and culture. This approach can help medical staff to understand better both the child's and the parents' anxieties and feelings. This article discusses facets of the now well-known phenomenon of ;health emigration', that is, when a family searches abroad in the hope of finding the most advanced medical treatment possible for their sick child. PMID:18469295

  7. Criminality among Romanian Emigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Ilie

    2014-01-01

    The current community of Romanians in Spain is a very active and integrated one at all levels in the host society. There is a mass media developed by Romanians, a large number of churches and associations of our countrymen and, also, there are a high number of cultural and artistic events in the community. Unfortunately, the Spanish public perception on Romanian immigrants is not very good one, as they are seen as the most disagreeable group of emigrants. This is due to the high degree of ant...

  8. Mexican labour market performance and emigration

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Pederzini

    2012-01-01

    During the last three decades, the Mexican economy has not generated enough jobs for the expanding labour force. Unemployment rate in Mexico is low, but almost one third of the labour force works in the informal sector. Migration flows from Mexico to the US have been significant in the last decade. Even though the number of Mexicans in the US has remained stable, Mexican immigration to the US dropped from 2006 to 2009. Emigration is a key employment channel for the enlarged working-age Mexica...

  9. Indians in England: why did they emigrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, S

    1987-01-01

    The period of highest migration from India to England was 1955-1975. In 1981, the Bradford metropolitan district had about 13,000 Indians. 46% were Punjabis and 43.3% were from Gujarat. Using a 10% sample of Indian households in the Bradford district in 1984 and secondary information, this study examines the impact of the following reasons on decision to migrate: 1) push factors in the area of origin, 2) the 1947 partition of India, 3) strong economic attraction of the destination, and 4) "cultural ethos" and "status competition" among the migrant communities in the areas of emigration. Findings show that 1) Punjab and Gujarat do not have high poverty levels nor very high population densities; 2) the partition of India did not influence migration decisions; 3) the economic well-being of returning migrants and the high conversion rate of English currency did attract migrants to England (39% of surveyed migrants emigrated to England for purely economic reasons); and 4) 60% of the Punjabis and over 50% of the Gujaratis state that local status competition had a significant influence on their decisions to migrate. Thus, the economic attraction of England and the status competition among local families and the community were the dominant factors in migration decision making. PMID:12179028

  10. Non-random temporary emigration and the robust design: Conditions for bias at the end of a time series: Section VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Deviations from model assumptions in the application of capture–recapture models to real life situations can introduce unknown bias. Understanding the type and magnitude of bias under these conditions is important to interpreting model results. In a robust design analysis of long-term photo-documented sighting histories of the endangered Florida manatee, I found high survival rates, high rates of non-random temporary emigration, significant time-dependence, and a diversity of factors affecting temporary emigration that made it difficult to model emigration in any meaningful fashion. Examination of the time-dependent survival estimates indicated a suspicious drop in survival rates near the end of the time series that persisted when the original capture histories were truncated and reanalyzed under a shorter time frame. Given the wide swings in manatee emigration estimates from year to year, a likely source of bias in survival was the convention to resolve confounding of the last survival probability in a time-dependent model with the last emigration probabilities by setting the last unmeasurable emigration probability equal to the previous year’s probability when the equality was actually false. Results of a series of simulations demonstrated that if the unmeasurable temporary emigration probabilities in the last time period were not accurately modeled, an estimation model with significant annual variation in survival probabilities and emigration probabilities produced bias in survival estimates at the end of the study or time series being explored. Furthermore, the bias propagated back in time beyond the last two time periods and the number of years affected varied positively with survival and emigration probabilities. Truncating the data to a shorter time frame and reanalyzing demonstrated that with additional years of data surviving temporary emigrants eventually return and are detected, thus in subsequent analysis unbiased estimates are eventually realized.

  11. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  12. Recent thymic emigrants are tolerized in the absence of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Travis J; Ji, Qingyong; Fink, Pamela J

    2016-05-30

    T cell development requires a period of postthymic maturation. Why this is the case has remained a mystery, particularly given the rigors of intrathymic developmental checkpoints, successfully traversed by only ∼5% of thymocytes. We now show that the first few weeks of T cell residence in the lymphoid periphery define a period of heightened susceptibility to tolerance induction to tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), the outcome of which depends on the context in which recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) encounter antigen. After encounter with TRAs in the absence of inflammation, RTEs exhibited defects in proliferation, diminished cytokine production, elevated expression of anergy-associated genes, and diminished diabetogenicity. These properties were mirrored in vitro by enhanced RTE susceptibility to regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. In the presence of inflammation, RTEs and mature T cells were, in contrast, equally capable of inducing diabetes, proliferating, and producing cytokines. Thus, recirculating RTEs encounter TRAs during a transitional developmental stage that facilitates tolerance induction, but inflammation converts antigen-exposed, tolerance-prone RTEs into competent effector cells. PMID:27139493

  13. Emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    The introduction to this description of emigration dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa notes that the region is characterized by intensive migration caused by such factors as population growth, negative economic growth, ethnic conflict, and human rights abuses. The second section of the report discusses the fragmentary and incomplete nature of data on international migration in the region, especially data on conventional migration. Section 3 looks at demographic factors such as high population growth, illiteracy levels, HIV seroprevalence, and urbanization which lead to high unemployment and emigration. The fourth section considers the effects of the rapid expansion of education which is outstripping the absorptive capacity of the economies of many countries. Unemployment is a serious problem which is projected to become worse as increases in employment opportunities continue to lag behind increases in output. Sections five, six, and seven of the report describe relevant economic factors such as per capita income, income distribution, the economic resource base, and economic development; poverty; and the effects of economic adjustment programs, especially on employment opportunities and wages in the public and private sectors. The next section is devoted to sociocultural factors influencing migration both on the micro- and the macro-levels, including the influence of ethnicity and ethnic conflicts as well as the domination of leadership positions by members of minority groups. The political factors discussed in section 9 include women's status, repressive regimes, political instability which leads to underdevelopment, and the policies of the Organization of African Unity which broadened the definition of refugees and set inviolable borders of member states identical to those inherited upon independence. Section 10 outlines ecological factors contributing to migration, including the decline in acreage of arable land, soil deterioration, poor land management, and the

  14. [A decade of Italian Studies on emigration to Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, A

    1981-01-01

    The author critically examines essays on Italian emigration to Latin Amrica that have been published during the past 10 years. Sources evaluated include scientific congresses, specialized journals, research centers, and cultural institutions (SUMMARY IN ENG, FRE) PMID:12338507

  15. POLITICAL LIFE OF THE COSSACKS IN EMIGRATION: TENDENCIES AND FEATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Matsievsky German Olegovitch

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To consider the main tendencies and features of political life of the Cossack emigration in the XX century. Methodology: Methodological basis of research are the standard principles of a historicism and the objectivity, assuming the concrete historical approach to the analysis of events in their dialectic development. Results: It is revealed that the Cossack emigration lost the political positions. Separation from sociocultural and geographical space of formation and development of t...

  16. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark–release–r...

  17. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-11-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark-release-recapture methods for 7 years. Dispersal parameters, derived using the virtual migration model, were assessed against butterfly densities, which fluctuated strongly over the study period. Emigration was positively correlated with density, and this effect was particularly strong at densities above carrying capacity, when emigration increased up to threefold in females and twofold in males compared with the normal levels. In turn, density had little impact on other dispersal parameters analysed. Our findings provide good evidence for positive density-dependence of emigration in butterflies. Emigrating at high densities is particularly beneficial for females, because it gives them a chance to lay part of their egg-load in less crowded patches, where offspring survival is higher due to lower intraspecific competition. Even though the rise in emigration becomes considerable at densities exceeding carrying capacity, i.e. relatively infrequently, it still has serious implications for many ecological phenomena, such as species range expansions, gene flow, and metapopulation persistence. Consequently, instead of treating emigration as a fixed trait, it is worth allowing for its density-dependence in applications such as population viability analyses, genetic models or metapopulation models. PMID:21625981

  18. Emigrated neuroscientists from Berlin to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The highest number of German scholars and physicians, forced by the National Socialist regime to emigrate for "race" or political reasons, were from Berlin. Language and medical exams were requested differently in their new host country-the United States-leading to a concentration of immigrants in the New York and Boston areas. Very early Emergency Committees in Aid of German Scholars and Physicians were established. Undergraduate students (like F. A. Freyhan, H. Lehmann, and H.-L. Teuber) from Berlin seemed to integrate easily, in contrast to colleagues of more advanced age. Some of the former chiefs and senior assistants of Berlin's neurological departments could achieve a successful resettlement (C. E. Benda, E. Haase, C. F. List, and F. Quadfasel) and some a minor degree of success (F. H. Lewy and K. Goldstein). A group of neuropsychiatrists from Bonhoeffer's staff at the Berlin Charité Hospital could rely on the forceful intercession of their former chief. The impact of the émigré colleagues on North American neuroscience is traced in some cases. Apart from the influential field of psychoanalysis, a more diffuse infiltration of German and European neuropsychiatry may be assumed. The contribution to the postwar blossoming of neuropsychology by the émigré neuroscientists K. Goldstein, F. Quadfasel, and H.-L. Teuber is demonstrated in this article. PMID:26853762

  19. Characterization of Structural and Pigmentary Colors in Common Emigrant (Catopsilia Pomona) Butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. [Emigration and immigration in Italy. (1861-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The creation of the Italian Kingdom was characterized by the mass emigration of Italian people, mainly peasants towards European and American destinations. Poverty, unemployment, diseases, like pellagra, malaria and tubercolosis forced millions of Italians to leave the Country. The phenomenon of emigration is usually divided in three periods: the mass emigration from 1976 to 1914, the second one between the two world wars, the third one from 1946 to 1976. In the last quarter of the 20th century the number of repatriations overcome expatriations and the number of immigrants from Albania, Romania, Senegal, Tunisia, China, Philippines grew up becoming more and more important. Italy was a country of emigrants, now is a country of immigrants. It is difficult to compare the work conditions of the Italian emigrants with the new immigrants. At the end of the 19th Century or in the first decades of the 20th Century there were no consideration for human rights, no legislations to protect workers. Immigration from North Africa and from all the low and middle income countries should be studied in all its aspects because it will characterize our future. In the new era of economical globalization, Universities should prepare the new medical doctors to extend their professional culture to a international dimension to be able to cope with the new challenges of our time. PMID:22073690

  1. The Effect of Emigration on the Hungarian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, Katalin; Szabó, Lajos Tamás

    2014-01-01

    In our analysis, we examine the effects of emigration from Hungary on the labour market and its other economic implications. Since 2008 the number of emigrants has been rising significantly faster than the previous trend, and thus it is important to assess the possible consequences of higher mobility in the Hungarian economy. We focus primarily on the effects on wages, for which it is indispensable to give an overview of the productivity effects as well. To that end, we need to gain a deeper ...

  2. [Italian emigration in the first phase of the transitional process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Comite, L

    1983-01-01

    The principal characteristics of emigration from Italy between 1880 and 1915 are analyzed. The author shows how this migration affected population dynamics in the various regions of Italy. It is noted that most of this migration was to the Americas, and particularly to the United States. (summary in ENG) PMID:12266091

  3. Quality of medical training and emigration of physicians from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Anand A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician 'brain drain' negatively impacts health care delivery. Interventions to address physician emigration have been constrained by lack of research on systematic factors that influence physician migration. We examined the relationship between the quality of medical training and rate of migration to the United States and the United Kingdom among Indian medical graduates (1955–2002. Methods We calculated the fraction of medical graduates who emigrated to the United States and the United Kingdom, based on rankings of medical colleges and universities according to three indicators of the quality of medical education (a student choice, (b academic publications, and (c the availability of specialty medical training. Results Physicians from the top quintile medical colleges and of universities were 2 to 4 times more likely to emigrate to the United States and the United Kingdom than graduates from the bottom quintile colleges and universities. Conclusion Graduates of institutions with better quality medical training have a greater likelihood of emigrating. Interventions designed to counter loss of physicians should focus on graduates from top quality institutions.

  4. Just One of the 'PIIGS' or a European Outlier? Studying Irish Emigration from a Comparative Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The return of high levels of emigration has become one of the most debated and sensitive social topics in Ireland in recent years. But Irish emigration continues to be discussed in the singular rather than the plural. This paper compares Irish emigration to other Eurozone states that also encountere

  5. Who Stays? Who Goes? Selective Emigration Among the Foreign-Born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Zhang, Weiwei

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the level and selectivity of emigration from the United States among foreign-born adults. We use the CPS Matching Method (Van Hook et al. 2006) to estimate the probability of emigration among foreign-born adults aged 18-34, 35-64 and 65+ from 1996 to 2009 (N = 92,852). The results suggest higher levels of emigration than used in the production of official population estimates. Also, indicators of economic integration (home ownership, school enrollment, poverty) and social ties in the U.S. (citizenship, having young children, longer duration in the United States) deter emigration. Conversely, having connections with the sending society, such as living apart from a spouse, was associated with emigration, particularly among Mexican men. Health was least strongly related to emigration. Simulations suggest that selective emigration may alter the home ownership and marital status, but not health, composition of immigrant cohorts. The implications for public policy are discussed. PMID:22679341

  6. Premigration ethnic and national identities: Jewish adolescents planning emigration from Russia and Ukraine to Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The ethnic and national identities of Jewish high-school adolescents planning emigration from Russia and Ukraine to Israel were investigated about six months before their emigration. The national identities of adolescent emigrants (n = 243) were compared with those of non-emigrant Russian and Ukrainian adolescents (n = 740). The emigrants' attitude to their country of origin was less positive and their identification with Russians and Ukrainians was weaker as compared with the non-emigrant adolescents. In addition, the attitude of the emigrants towards Israel was more positive than their attitude to Russia or Ukraine. Finally, the emigrants' strongest identification was with the Jewish people, followed by identification with Israelis, while their weakest identification was with Russians and Ukrainians. Israeli and Jewish identities of the emigrant adolescents were positively correlated, and they were independent of the Russian and Ukrainian identities. Perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with the emigrants' attitude to Russia or Ukraine, and it was positively correlated with the emigrants' identification with Israelis and with the Jewish people. Jewish ethnicity was correlated with identification with Jewish people; however, it was not correlated with any component of the Israeli or Russian/Ukrainian identities. The study results indicate that in the premigration period emigrants form a multidimensional system of ethnic and national identities, which reflects their partial detachment from their homeland and affiliation with the country of provisional immigration. This premigration identity system may be termed "anticipatory" (cf. Merton, 1968), because it is not based on real contact with the country of provisional immigration, but rather on the emigrants' expectations. On the other hand, the premigration identities are reactive, in the sense that they reflect the emigrants' reaction to the perceived discrimination they experience in their

  7. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  8. FUNCTIONING OF THE SOVIET IDEOLOGEME IN THE EMIGRANT LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Шкредова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the features of functioning of the Soviet ideologeme in the literature of emigrants in details. Much attention is given to the term "ideologeme", its characteristics and features. Criteria of differentiation of the terms "Sovietism" and "ideologeme" are considered. There is the analysis of changes in perception of ideological expressions into space and time by examples of passages from the literature of the emigrant writers.The received results of research will spark the interest of the authors of dictionaries and teachers in development of programs for studying lexicon, stylistics and the culture of speech.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-40

  9. The Russian musical emigration in Yugoslavia after 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Milin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Around forty thousand Russian emigrants settled in Yugoslavia running away from the terror of the 1917 Revolution. A high percentage of them were writers, artists, musicians and ballet dancers. Their greatest contribution to Yugoslav musical culture consists in the important acceleration they brought to the development of the domestic scene. Especially valuable were the activities of opera singers and directors, ballet dancers and choreographers, scenery designers, conductors of church choirs and music pedagogues.

  10. The Russian musical emigration in Yugoslavia after 1917

    OpenAIRE

    Melita Milin

    2003-01-01

    Around forty thousand Russian emigrants settled in Yugoslavia running away from the terror of the 1917 Revolution. A high percentage of them were writers, artists, musicians and ballet dancers. Their greatest contribution to Yugoslav musical culture consists in the important acceleration they brought to the development of the domestic scene. Especially valuable were the activities of opera singers and directors, ballet dancers and choreographers, scenery designers, conductors of church choirs...

  11. Los Come-muertos: the Grotesque Tale of Emigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Giordano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the key aspects of the "grotesque" interpretationproposed by José Rafael Pocaterra in Los Come-muertos for the theme of emigration.Pocaterra has traced an alternative route, probably deeper than it was made until thatmoment, rooted in the conviction that literature, necessarily realist, could, with satire and thedistortion of human characteristics, not only lay bare human spirit, but above all, awake thedormant conscience of people.

  12. Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process?

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \\gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then inc...

  13. Emigration and the Foundation of West Germany, 1933-1963

    OpenAIRE

    Strote, Noah Benezra

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation traces the development of German national life from the disintegration of the Weimar Republic in 1933 to the end of the foundational period of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1963. Charting the alliances between previously hostile groups formed in emigration in response to National Socialism, I offer a way of understanding the ideological strength of reconstruction and nation-building after Hitler. The study covers four principal areas of activity: law and politics, human...

  14. POLITICAL LIFE OF THE COSSACKS IN EMIGRATION: TENDENCIES AND FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsievsky German Olegovitch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To consider the main tendencies and features of political life of the Cossack emigration in the XX century. Methodology: Methodological basis of research are the standard principles of a historicism and the objectivity, assuming the concrete historical approach to the analysis of events in their dialectic development. Results: It is revealed that the Cossack emigration lost the political positions. Separation from sociocultural and geographical space of formation and development of traditional culture; foreign culture environment; refusal of the Cossack ideas of a collectivism and military brotherhood; destruction of the main institute of preservation and transfer of historical and cultural experience – a family; the constant feeling of «temporariness», despair and loss of belief in the future – all this generated the phenomenon called in cross-cultural psychology «cultural shock». Also crisis of ethnic and sociocultural consciousness and self-identification increased. Practical implications: Results of research can be interesting to the experts who are taking up the problems stories of the Cossacks in emigration.

  15. Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew; King, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Few species are distributed uniformly in space, and populations of mobile organisms are rarely closed with respect to movement, yet many models of density rely upon these assumptions. We present a hierarchical model allowing inference about the density of unmarked populations subject to temporary emigration and imperfect detection. The model can be fit to data collected using a variety of standard survey methods such as repeated point counts in which removal sampling, double-observer sampling, or distance sampling is used during each count. Simulation studies demonstrated that parameter estimators are unbiased when temporary emigration is either "completely random" or is determined by the size and location of home ranges relative to survey points. We also applied the model to repeated removal sampling data collected on Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvancia) in the White Mountain National Forest, USA. The density estimate from our model, 1.09 birds/ha, was similar to an estimate of 1.11 birds/ha produced by an intensive spot-mapping effort. Our model is also applicable when processes other than temporary emigration affect the probability of being available for detection, such as in studies using cue counts. Functions to implement the model have been added to the R package unmarked.

  16. Turning One Cell Type into Another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2016-01-01

    The nature of cells in early embryos may be respecified simply by exposure to inducing factors. In later stage embryos, determined cell populations do not respond to inducing factors but may be respecified by other stimuli, especially the introduction of specific transcription factors. Fully differentiated cell types are hard to respecify by any method, but some degree of success can be achieved using selected combinations of transcription factors, and this may have clinical significance in the future. PMID:26969988

  17. Industrial n-type solar cells with >20% cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Anker, J.; Burgers, A.R.; Gutjahr, A.; Koppes, M.; Kossen, E.J.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Heurtault, Benoit; Saynova-Oosterling, D.S.; Tool, C.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    To realize high efficiencies at low costs, ECN has developed the n-Pasha solar cell concept. The n-Pasha cell concept is a bifacial solar cell concept on n-Cz base material, with which average efficiencies of above 20% have been demonstrated. In this paper recent developments at ECN to improve the cost of ownership (lower Euro/Wp) of the n-Pasha cell concept are discussed. Two main drivers for the manufacturing costs of n-type solar cells are addressed: the n-type Cz silicon material and the silver consumption. We show that a large resistivity range between 2 and 8 cm can be tolerated for high cell efficiency, and that the costs due to the silver metallization can be significantly reduced while increasing the solar cell efficiency. Combining the improved efficiency and cost reduction makes the n-Pasha cell concept a very cost effective solution to manufacture high efficient solar cells and modules.

  18. Identification of Vulnerable Cell Types in Major Brain Disorders Using Single Cell Transcriptomes and Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Skene, Nathan G.; Grant, Seth G.N.

    2016-01-01

    The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment ...

  19. Identification of vulnerable cell types in major brain disorders using single cell transcriptomes and expression weighted cell type enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Skene, Nathan G.; Grant, Seth G.N.

    2016-01-01

    The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment ...

  20. The Research of the Causal Relationship Between Unemployment and Emigration in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitana Dudzevičiūtė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the causal relationship between unemployment and emigration in Lithuania using Granger – causality test. The research is based on annual data spanning the period of 2004–2012. The investigation encompasses two steps. Firstly, the authors have analyzed the Lithuanian position regarding relationship between unemployment rate and emigration in the context of the European Union countries; secondly, the causality between unemployment and emigration has been determined in the case of Lithuania. On the basis of the European Union countries statistical data, results of the research have revealed a weak correlation between unemployment rate and emigration. On the contrary, evidence has suggested the existence of a strong relationship between unemployment and emigration in Lithuania. Results of the Granger – causality test have showed that unemployment impacts on emigration in Lithuania.

  1. Emigration of Immigrants and Measures of Immigrant Assimilation: Evidence from Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Per-Anders; Robert J. LaLonde; Åslund, Olof

    2000-01-01

    Most previously used measures of immigrant labor market assimilation will be biased if there is non-random emigration of immigrants. We use longitudinal data on immigration to Sweden 1970-1990 to examine the extent and pattern of immigrant emigration and its consequences for measures of assimilation. Large fractions of the immigrants leave the host country shortly after arrival; within five years, more than a quarter of the people studied emigrated. As expected, economic migrants are much mor...

  2. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  3. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele; Marcio Roberto Pie; Wilson Reis Filho

    2012-01-01

    Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  4. The Substitutability of Emigrants and Non-migrants in the Construction Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Mahmood

    1990-01-01

    To predict the impact of emigration on labour displacement and factor rewards, a translogarithmic production function has been used. The estimation determined that unskilled emigrants and skilled and unskilled non-migrants have a complementarity with capital. While skilled emigrants and capital are substitutes, they are complementary with unskilled non-migrants. Based on these results, the model predicts displacement of unskilled non-migrants in the short run. Long-run predictions include an ...

  5. Is Temporary Emigration of Unskilled Workers a Solution to the Child Labor Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Tiana Rambeloma

    2010-01-01

    This paper reassesses the case for temporary emigration of unskilled workers as a solution to the child labor problem, based upon a general equilibrium model of migrant remittances, parental investment in child schooling, and intersectoral allocation of capital. Counterfactual simulations uncover a U-shape effect of temporary emigration on the incidence of child labor, suggesting that the case for temporary emigration as a solution to the child labor problem may be weak.

  6. A model for estimating passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna efficiencies for interval-specific emigration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, G.E.; Dubreuil, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior, environmental characteristics, and electronic limitations influenced our ability to detect 100% of the emigration from our stream site. Therefore, we required antenna efficiency estimates to adjust observed emigration rates. We obtained such estimates by testing a full-scale physical model of our PIT tag antenna array in a laboratory setting. From the physical model, we developed a statistical model that we used to predict efficiency in the field. The factors most important for predicting efficiency were external radio frequency signal and tag type. For most sampling intervals, there was concordance between the predicted and observed efficiencies, which allowed us to estimate the true emigration rate for our field populations of tagged salmonids. One caveat is that the model's utility may depend on its ability to characterize external radio frequency signals accurately. Another important consideration is the trade-off between the volume of data necessary to model efficiency accurately and the difficulty of storing and manipulating large amounts of data.

  7. Cell elasticity with altered cytoskeletal architectures across multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Martha E; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is primarily responsible for providing structural support, localization and transport of organelles, and intracellular trafficking. The structural support is supplied by actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which contribute to overall cell elasticity to varying degrees. We evaluate cell elasticity in five different cell types with drug-induced cytoskeletal derangements to probe how actin filaments and microtubules contribute to cell elasticity and whether it is conserved across cell type. Specifically, we measure elastic stiffness in primary chondrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells (HUVEC), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HUH-7), and fibrosarcoma cells (HT 1080) subjected to two cytoskeletal destabilizers: cytochalasin D and nocodazole, which disrupt actin and microtubule polymerization, respectively. Elastic stiffness is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the disruption of the cytoskeleton is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. The two cancer cell lines showed significantly reduced elastic moduli values (~0.5kPa) when compared to the three healthy cell lines (~2kPa). Non-cancer cells whose actin filaments were disrupted using cytochalasin D showed a decrease of 60-80% in moduli values compared to untreated cells of the same origin, whereas the nocodazole-treated cells showed no change in elasticity. Overall, we demonstrate actin filaments contribute more to elastic stiffness than microtubules but this result is cell type dependent. Cancer cells behaved differently, exhibiting increased stiffness as well as stiffness variability when subjected to nocodazole. We show that disruption of microtubule dynamics affects cancer cell elasticity, suggesting therapeutic drugs targeting microtubules be monitored for significant elastic changes. PMID:26874250

  8. Cell culture models using rat primary alveolar type I cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Charles A; Montgomery, David W; Merkle, Carrie J

    2011-10-01

    There is a lack of cell culture models using primary alveolar type I (AT I) cells. The purpose of this study was to develop cell culture models using rat AT I cells and microvascular endothelial cells from the lung (MVECL). Two types of model systems were developed: single and co-culture systems; additionally a 3-dimensional model system was developed. Pure AT I cell (96.3 ± 2.7%) and MVECL (97.9 ± 1.1%) preparations were used. AT I cell morphology, mitochondrial number and distribution, actin filament arrangement and number of apoptotic cells at confluence, and telomere attrition were characterized. AT I cells maintained their morphometric characteristics through at least population doubling (PD) 35, while demonstrating telomere attrition through at least PD 100. Furthermore, AT I cells maintained the expression of their specific markers, T1α and AQ-5, through PD 42. For the co-cultures, AT I cells were grown on the top and MVECL were grown on the bottom of fibronectin-coated 24-well Transwell Fluroblok™ filter inserts. Neither cell type transmigrated the 1 μm pores. Additionally, AT I cells were grown in a thick layer of Matrigel(®) to create a 3-dimensional model in which primary AT I cells form ring-like structures that resemble an alveolus. The development of these model systems offers the opportunities to investigate AT I cells and their interactions with MVECL in response to pharmacological interventions and in the processes of disease, repair and regeneration. PMID:21624488

  9. Stem Cell Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MingLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is a common chronic disease in children, characterized by a loss of  cells, which results in defects in insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia causes diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Curative therapies mainly include diet and insulin administration. Although hyperglycemia can be improved by insulin administration, exogenous insulin injection cannot successfully mimic the insulin secretion from normal  cells, which keeps blood glucose levels within the normal range all the time. Islet and pancreas transplantation achieves better glucose control, but there is a lack of organ donors. Cell based therapies have also been attempted to treat T1DM. Stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and tissue stem cells (TSCs such as bone marrow-, adipose tissue- and cord blood-derived stem cells, have been shown to generate insulin-producing cells. In this review, we summarize the most-recently available information about T1DM and the use of TSCs to treat T1DM.

  10. Dispersal Timing: Emigration of Insects Living in Patchy Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Lakovic

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a life-history trait affecting dynamics and persistence of populations; it evolves under various known selective pressures. Theoretical studies on dispersal typically assume 'natal dispersal', where individuals emigrate right after birth. But emigration may also occur during a later moment within a reproductive season ('breeding dispersal'. For example, some female butterflies first deposit eggs in their natal patch before migrating to other site(s to continue egg-laying there. How breeding compared to natal dispersal influences the evolution of dispersal has not been explored. To close this gap we used an individual-based simulation approach to analyze (i the evolution of timing of breeding dispersal in annual organisms, (ii its influence on dispersal (compared to natal dispersal. Furthermore, we tested (iii its performance in direct evolutionary contest with individuals following a natal dispersal strategy. Our results show that evolution should typically result in lower dispersal under breeding dispersal, especially when costs of dispersal are low and population size is small. By distributing offspring evenly across two patches, breeding dispersal allows reducing direct sibling competition in the next generation whereas natal dispersal can only reduce trans-generational kin competition by producing highly dispersive offspring in each generation. The added benefit of breeding dispersal is most prominent in patches with small population sizes. Finally, the evolutionary contests show that a breeding dispersal strategy would universally out-compete natal dispersal.

  11. Dispersal Timing: Emigration of Insects Living in Patchy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakovic, Milica; Poethke, Hans-Joachim; Hovestadt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal is a life-history trait affecting dynamics and persistence of populations; it evolves under various known selective pressures. Theoretical studies on dispersal typically assume 'natal dispersal', where individuals emigrate right after birth. But emigration may also occur during a later moment within a reproductive season ('breeding dispersal'). For example, some female butterflies first deposit eggs in their natal patch before migrating to other site(s) to continue egg-laying there. How breeding compared to natal dispersal influences the evolution of dispersal has not been explored. To close this gap we used an individual-based simulation approach to analyze (i) the evolution of timing of breeding dispersal in annual organisms, (ii) its influence on dispersal (compared to natal dispersal). Furthermore, we tested (iii) its performance in direct evolutionary contest with individuals following a natal dispersal strategy. Our results show that evolution should typically result in lower dispersal under breeding dispersal, especially when costs of dispersal are low and population size is small. By distributing offspring evenly across two patches, breeding dispersal allows reducing direct sibling competition in the next generation whereas natal dispersal can only reduce trans-generational kin competition by producing highly dispersive offspring in each generation. The added benefit of breeding dispersal is most prominent in patches with small population sizes. Finally, the evolutionary contests show that a breeding dispersal strategy would universally out-compete natal dispersal. PMID:26132493

  12. Emigrating Beyond Earth Human Adaptation and Space Colonization

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Cameron M

    2012-01-01

    For four million years humankind has been actively expanding geographically and in doing so has adapted to a wide variety of hostile environments. Now we are looking towards the ultimate adaptation - the colonization of space. Emigrating Beyond Earth illustrates that this is not a technocratic endeavor, but a natural continuation of human evolution; a journey not just for the engineer and rocket scientist, but for everyman. Based on the most current understanding of our universe, human adaptation and evolution, the authors explain why space colonization must be planned as an adaptation to, rather than the conquest of, space. Emigrating Beyond Earth argues that space colonization is an insurance policy for our species, and that it isn't about rockets and robots, it's about humans doing what we've been doing for four million years: finding new places and new ways to live. Applying a unique anthropological approach, the authors outline a framework for continued human space exploration and offer a glimpse of a po...

  13. DNA typing of epithelial cells after strangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, P; Kleiber, M

    1997-01-01

    DNA typing was carried out on epithelial cells which were transferred from the hands of the suspect onto the neck of the victim. In an experimental study 16 suspect-victim combinations were investigated for estimating the typing success. Alternatively to an attack against the neck, the upper arm was used for "strangulation". PCR typing was carried out using the short tandem repeat systems (STRs) HumCD4, HumVWF31A (VWA) and Hum-FIBRA (FGA) and the success rate was > 70% for all 3 systems. In most of the cases mixed patterns containing the phenotype of the suspect and the victim were obtained. In a case where strangulation was the cause of death, epithelial cells could be removed from the neck of the victim. The DNA pattern of the suspect could be successfully amplified using four STRs, demonstrating the applicability of this approach for practical casework. PMID:9274940

  14. Threat of Emigration for the Socio-Economic Development of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ranceva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of international migration is among the most prominent global demographic processes currently taking place and influencing both the economic and social situation worldwide. An intensive emigration is a matter of serious concern for such a small country as Lithuania. Firstly, emigration further exacerbates the current negative demographic indicators (low birth rate, high mortality rate, stagnant average lifespan, which, on the whole, leads to a decrease in the absolute number of the population. Secondly, emigration of persons of working age, leaving behind the population that lacks the capacity for work, reduces the state budget and social security budget revenues. Thirdly, departure of well-educated and competent citizens from the country results in the shrinking of the country’s intellectual potential and diminishing of possibilities of mastering and development of high technologies, innovations and modernisation of the economy. The authors of the article point out the threat posed by emigration to Lithuania’s socioeconomic development and present a comprehensive analysis of the demographic structure of the population: by sex and age, the population ageing tendency, the causes and consequences of emigration. The goal of the article is to raise the issue of emigration from Lithuania and to manifest its impact on the socio-economic development of the country. The object of the article is the extent, dynamics, structure, causes and economic effects of emigration and the problems arising for the economy in the context of emigration.

  15. Development and the Urban and Rural Geography of Mexican Emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Villarreal, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Past research on international migration from Mexico to the United States uses geographically-limited data and analyzes emigrant-sending communities in isolation. Theories supported by this research may not explain urban emigration, and this research does not consider connections between rural and urban Mexico. In this study we use national data…

  16. Identification of Vulnerable Cell Types in Major Brain Disorders Using Single Cell Transcriptomes and Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Nathan G; Grant, Seth G N

    2016-01-01

    The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment (EWCE) method that uses single cell transcriptomes to generate the probability distribution associated with a gene list having an average level of expression within a cell type. Following validation, we applied EWCE to human genetic data from cases of epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Autism, Intellectual Disability, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and anxiety disorders. Genetic susceptibility primarily affected microglia in Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis; was shared between interneurons and pyramidal neurons in Autism and Schizophrenia; while intellectual disabilities and epilepsy were attributable to a range of cell-types, with the strongest enrichment in interneurons. We hypothesized that the primary cell type pathology could trigger secondary changes in other cell types and these could be detected by applying EWCE to transcriptome data from diseased tissue. In Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease we find evidence of pathological changes in all of the major brain cell types. These findings give novel insight into the cellular origins and progression in common brain disorders. The methods can be applied to any tissue and disorder and have applications in validating mouse models. PMID:26858593

  17. Dependence of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced cell fusion on cell type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzik, D.J.; Person, S.

    1981-04-15

    Syncytial mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), such as syn20, cause extensive fusion of human embryonic lung (HEL) cells but only a small amount of fusion of human epidermoid carcinoma No. 2 (HEp-2) cells. In order to determine the cellular basis of this difference in fusion, sparse cultures of syn20-infected HEL or HEp-2 cells, previously labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine, were surrounded with uninfected, unlabeled HEL or HEp-2 cells. The fusion of radioactive with nonradioactive cells was determined at different times after infection using radioautography. The major difference in the fusion capacity of HEL and HEp-2 cells was not due to a difference in cell-surface receptors for a fusion factor in the two cell types. The process of infection of HEp-2 cells did not cause the plasma membranes of the cells to become refractory to fusion, because syn20-infected HEL cells fused equally well with either uninfected or infected HEp-2 cells. In a mixed infection with equal numbers of MP and its nonsyncytial parent, mP, extensive fusion was observed for infected HEL cells and significantly less fusion was observed for infected African green monkey (CV-1), baby hamster kidney (BHK-21), and HEp-2 cells.

  18. Increased recruitment but impaired function of leukocytes during inflammation in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Sofia Pettersson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from diabetes show defective bacterial clearance. This study investigates the effects of elevated plasma glucose levels during diabetes on leukocyte recruitment and function in established models of inflammation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by intravenous alloxan (causing severe hyperglycemia, or by high fat diet (moderate hyperglycemia. Leukocyte recruitment was studied in anaesthetized mice using intravital microscopy of exposed cremaster muscles, where numbers of rolling, adherent and emigrated leukocytes were quantified before and during exposure to the inflammatory chemokine MIP-2 (0.5 nM. During basal conditions, prior to addition of chemokine, the adherent and emigrated leukocytes were increased in both alloxan- (62±18% and 85±21%, respectively and high fat diet-induced (77±25% and 86±17%, respectively diabetes compared to control mice. MIP-2 induced leukocyte emigration in all groups, albeit significantly more cells emigrated in alloxan-treated mice (15.3±1.0 compared to control (8.0±1.1 mice. Bacterial clearance was followed for 10 days after subcutaneous injection of bioluminescent S. aureus using non-invasive IVIS imaging, and the inflammatory response was assessed by Myeloperoxidase-ELISA and confocal imaging. The phagocytic ability of leukocytes was assessed using LPS-coated fluorescent beads and flow cytometry. Despite efficient leukocyte recruitment, alloxan-treated mice demonstrated an impaired ability to clear bacterial infection, which we found correlated to a 50% decreased phagocytic ability of leukocytes in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that reduced ability to clear bacterial infections observed during experimentally induced diabetes is not due to reduced leukocyte recruitment since sustained hyperglycemia results in increased levels of adherent and emigrated leukocytes in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

  19. Immigration and Emigration of Professional and Skilled Manpower During the Post-War Period. Special Study No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, Louis

    The impact of immigration and emigration on Canada's stock of professional and skilled manpower was analyzed for the period 1946-1963. Although the number of immigrants is recorded by Canadian authorities there is no complete record of emigration from Canada; however, a reasonably reliable picture was obtained from emigration data of other…

  20. Migrations in Vojvodina during the 1990s: More immigrants, less emigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 2002 census deepened our insights into a very intensive immigration of the population into Vojvodina, primarily refugees. At the same time, there also occurred significant emigration movements which still had a much weaker intensity than the immigrational ones. The census statistics only partly included emigration, so the paper used indirect methods to acquire as comprehensive estimate as possible about the scope and character of the emigration of the Vojvodina population in the inter-census period 1991-2002. The results of the estimates indicate that in the period the total net emigration was 73 thousand inhabitants, which is 4 thousand persons less than in the preceding inter-census period. At the same time the net immigration was increased for about 3,5 times (from 62 thousand to 213 thousand. The paper points out to the basic characteristics of the emigration (local, inter-municipal, external. Special attention was paid to the regional aspect of migrations (net immigration, net emigration and migration score in order to determine if there was a close interdependence between the number of the immigrated and emigrated persons in the municipalities. The paper also analyzed the influence of migrations on the process of demographic ageing and change in the national structure of the population.

  1. Types of Stem Cell Transplants for Treating Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources of stem cells for transplant Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer In a typical stem ... come from your identical twin or triplet Autologous stem cell transplants These stem cells come from you alone. ...

  2. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  3. A Germanium Back Contact Type Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Ge back contact type photovoltaic cell has been proposed to reduce resistance loss for high current densities in thermophotovoltaic systems. The back contact structure requires less surface recombination velocities than conventional structures with front grid contacts. A SiO2/SiNx double anti-reflection coating including a high refractive index SiNx layer was studied. The SiNx layer has an enough passivation effect to obtain high efficiency. The quantum efficiency of the Ge cell was around 0.8 in the 800-1600 nm wavelength range. The conversion efficiency for infrared lights was estimated at 18% for a blackbody surface and 25% for a selective emitter by using the quantum efficiency and a simulation analysis

  4. Moving hot cell for LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A moving hot cell for an LMFBR type reactor is made movable on a reactor operation floor between a position just above the reactor container and a position retreated therefrom. Further, it comprises an overhung portion which can incorporate a spent fuel just thereunder, and a crane for moving a fuel assembly between a spent fuel cask and a reactor container. Further, an opening/closing means having a shielding structure is disposed to the bottom portion and the overhung portion thereof, to provide a sealing structure, in which only the receiving port for the spent fuel cask faces to the inner side, and the cask itself is disposed at the outside. Upon exchange of fuels, the movable hot cell is placed just above the reactor to take out the spent fuels, so that a region contaminated with primary sodium is limited within the hot cell. On the other hand, upon maintenance and repair for equipments, the hot cell is moved, thereby enabling to provide a not contaminated reactor operation floor. (N.H.)

  5. Destination branding and the role of emigrants: the case of morocco.

    OpenAIRE

    El Aouni, Fatimazohra

    2014-01-01

    Aquesta tesi pretén analitzar el paper de l'emigrant marroquí en la construcció de la marca Marroc com a destinació turística. Per aconseguir aquest objectiu, aquest estudi proposa, primer, desenvolupar un model conceptual que permeti comprendre el paper de la població emigrant en la construcció de la marca dels seus llocs d'origen. Segon, determinar els aspectes clau del paper de l'emigrant marroquí resident a Espanya en la construcció de la marca Marroc. Finalment, analitzar els principals ...

  6. Hemoglobin is Expressed in Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskaran, Manoj; Chen, Haifeng; Chen, Zhongmong; Liu, Lin

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin is the main oxygen carrying heme protein in erythrocytes. In an effort to study the differential gene expression of alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells using DNA microarray technique, we found that the mRNAs of hemoglobin α- and β-chains were expressed in type II cells, but not in type I cells. The microarray data were confirmed by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of both chains decreased when type II cells trans-differentiated into type I-like cells. Immunocyto/histochemistry ...

  7. Panic Emigration: Jewish Agricultural Settlements in Bolivia and the Dominican Republic, 1935-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Anthony August

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE THESISPanic Emigration: Jewish Agricultural Settlements in Bolivia and the Dominican Republic, 1935-1960byAnthony August HoffmanMaster of Arts in Latin American StudiesUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2016Professor Stephen Bell, ChairAlthough Jewish agricultural settlements have had a long history in Latin America, particularly in Argentina and Brazil, those founded as a result of the panic emigration out of Europe on the heels of World War II are unique. Never before in...

  8. Was the African American great migration delayed by outlawing emigrant agents?

    OpenAIRE

    Kha Yen Prentice; László Kónya; David Prentice

    2013-01-01

    The question of why more African Americans did not migrate earlier out of the stagnant and repressive South after emancipation remains open. Previous work has highlighted the role of demand and supply conditions. At the time, though there was much concern about the role of emigrant agents who actively recruited African Americans to migrate away from their homes such that several states introduced emigrant agent laws to effectively drive them out of business. In this paper we provide the first...

  9. Socio-Psychological Capital, Values And Emigration Intentions Of Russian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Chuvashov

    2014-01-01

    This research defines the relatively new concept of socio-psychological capital and examines the interrelation between socio-psychological capital and emigration intentions of Russian youth. Socio-psychological capital is seen as a resource of psychological relations, available to individuals belonging to a group. Socio-psychological capital includes trust, national identity, ethnic tolerance. The research also deals with the theory of planned behaviour, applied to emigration intentions. The ...

  10. The effect of emigration on unemployment: Evidence from the Central and Eastern European EU member states

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Pryymachenko; Klas Fregert; Andersson, Fredrik N. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the scant empirical literature on the effects of emigration on source countries’ labour markets. Using a novel dataset by Brücker et al. (2009), we investigate whether emigration from the Central and Eastern European (CEE) members of European Union (EU) during the period 2000 to 2007 has contributed to the decline in unemployment observed in these countries. We find that along with structural changes that occurred in the CEE economies during the last decade, emigrati...

  11. Potential emigration of engineers within a large mining organisation : an explanatory study / Johannes Hendrik Swart

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, Johannes Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    South Africans leaving their country of birth is not a new phenomenon. South Africa currently has a large shortage of engineers and the fact that engineers are seeking better opportunities abroad is worsening the skills shortage in South Africa. Engineers form a vital part of any manufacturing, design, supply or production entity and leave a large setback if a skilled, experienced engineer decides to emigrate. Official statistics from self-declared emigrants showed that 601 engineers out of t...

  12. Emigration and Economic Crisis: Recent Evidence from Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Pellegrino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay es uno de los países sudamericanos con una proporción significativa de su población viviendo en el exterior. Desde los años setenta, el país ha tenido una emigración neta. Aunque esta tendencia se debilitó a principios de los noventa, recobró fuerza con la llegada de una severa crisis económica en 1999. En este artículo se discuten las características de la migración reciente de uruguayos y se pone en evidencia la relación entre crisis económica y emigración. El volumen del flujo poblacional en 2002 es comparable con las olas de migración que tuvieron lugar en los setenta. Los emigrantes con educación universitaria están sobrerrepresentados en comparación con la población general. Existe una correlación entre el acceso a redes de emigrantes uruguayos en los países de destino y la probabilidad de que un hogar haya tenido un miembro que emigró en 2002.

  13. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials

  14. Emigration, mutations sociales et changements culinaires en pays mixtèque (Oaxaca, Mexique

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    Esther Katz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Comme dans d’autres régions du Mexique, les paysans du haut pays mixtèque (Etat d’Oaxaca ne vivent pratiquement plus de l’agriculture, sinon des revenus de leurs parents émigrés aux États-Unis. Dans la région, le phénomène de la migration a énormément augmenté au cours des dix dernières années. Comme la majorité des jeunes adultes émigrent, de nombreux foyers ne sont plus composés que de la mère et des enfants ou des grands-parents et des petits-enfants. Avec des ressources monétaires plus importantes, l’équipement des cuisines se modernise, impliquant des bouleversements techniques dans les préparations culinaires ; la consommation de viande et d’aliments industriels augmente tandis que celle de légumes spontanés diminue. Simultanément, divers programmes de développement, impulsés par le gouvernement, provoquent des changements profonds au niveau de l’économie familiale, de l’organisation sociale et du rôle des femmes. Actuellement le statut économique des familles ne dépend plus de l’étendue de leurs terres, mais du nombre de leurs membres qui travaillent « au Nord ». Néanmoins, le riche patrimoine culinaire de cette population est préservé, en particulier à l’occasion des repas festifs.Emigration, Social Mutations And Food Changes In The Mixtec Highlands (Oaxaca, MexicoLike in many regions of Mexico, farmers of the Mixtec Highlands, for the most part, no longer make a living from agriculture, but rather rely on money sent home by migrant family members. People from this region have been migrating for several decades, but this phenomenon, now mainly to the United States, has tremendously increased in the past ten years. Since most young adults have migrated, many households are composed of mothers and children or grandparents and grandchildren. As more monetary resources are available, the kitchen equipment is more modern, resulting in technical changes in culinary preparations. Meat and

  15. Cell type-specific transcriptome profiling in mammalian brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVerso, Peter R; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mammalian brain contains numerous types of cells. Advances in neuroscience in the past decade allow us to identify and isolate neural cells of interest from mammalian brains. Recent developments in high-throughput technologies, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS), provide detailed information on gene expression in pooled cells on a genomic scale. As a result, many novel genes have been found critical in cell type-specific transcriptional regulation. These differentially expressed genes can be used as molecular signatures, unique to a particular class of neural cells. Use of this gene expression-based approach can further differentiate neural cell types into subtypes, potentially linking some of them with neurological diseases. In this article, experimental techniques used to purify neural cells are described, followed by a review on recent microarray- or NGS-based transcriptomic studies of common neural cell types. The future prospects of cell type-specific research are also discussed. PMID:27100485

  16. Emigrant psychoanalysts in the USA and the FBI archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, James E; Goggin, Eileen Brockman; Hill, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Interest in the fate of the German psychoanalysts who had to flee Hitler's Germany and find refuge in a new nation, such as the United States, has increased. The "émigré research" shows that several themes recur: (1) the theme of "loss" of one's culture, homeland, language, and family; and (2) the ambivalent welcome these émigrés received in their new country. We describe the political-social-cultural context that existed in the United States during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. Documentary evidence found in the FBI files of three émigré psychoanalysts, Clara Happel, Martin Grotjahn, and Otto Fenichel, are then presented in combination with other source material. This provides a provisional impression of how each of these three individuals experienced their emigration. As such, it gives us elements of a history. The FBI documents suggest that the American atmosphere of political insecurity and fear-based ethnocentric nationalism may have reinforced their old fears of National Socialism, and contributed to their inclination to inhibit or seal off parts of themselves and their personal histories in order to adapt to their new home and become Americanized. They abandoned the rich social, cultural, political tradition that was part of European psychoanalysis. Finally, we look at these elements of a history in order to ask a larger question about the appropriate balance between a liberal democratic government's right to protect itself from internal and external threats on the one hand, or crossover into the blatant invasion of civil rights and due process on the other. PMID:21850796

  17. A Web-Server of Cell Type Discrimination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyou Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and somatic cells (SCs. Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells.

  18. A web-server of cell type discrimination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells. PMID:24578634

  19. "A future not of riches but of comfort": the emigration of pauper children from Bristol to Canada, 1870-1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the emigration of orphan and deserted children from Bristol to Canada in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This emigration was organised and financed by the local Boards of Guardians and, as such, raises important questions about the way in which state agencies cared for dependent children. The emigration of Poor Law children is explored in relation to debates about childcare, poverty, racial degeneration and imperialism. Of particular interest is the role played by women in promoting child emigration and the article considers the women's contribution to discourse and practice, both locally and nationally. The dynamics of emigration are analysed by using both British and Canadian sources and the tensions associated with pauper emigration are examined in some detail. PMID:17607864

  20. Cytokine production by endothelial cells infected with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I.

    OpenAIRE

    H. Takashima; Eguchi, K.; Kawakami, A; Kawabe, Y; Migita, K; Sakai, M; Origuchi, T; Nagataki, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) to infect endothelial cells and induce cytokine production by these cells. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cocultured with HTLV-I infected T cell line (MT-2 cells) or uninfected T cell line (CEM cells). RESULTS: Following coculture with MT-2 cells, endothelial cells expressed HTLV-I specific core antigens. Endothelial cells cocultured with MT-2 cells produced significant amoun...

  1. 'Disencumbering our crowded places': theory and practice of estate emigration schemes in mid-nineteenth century Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    The schemes of assisted emigration which were adopted by private owners of landed estates in Ireland in the middle decades of the nineteenth century grew out of a discourse of political economy which was heavily influenced by the ideas on overpopulation of Thomas Malthus and his disciples. Many of their arguments which were rehearsed in the 1820s debates on emigration, echo through the correspondence on estate emigration in the mid nineteenth century.

  2. Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repopulation of denuded heterotopic tracheal grafts with populations of specific epithelial cell types is one approach to study the differentiation potential of various cell types. This technique has been adopted to delineate the differentiation pathways of alveolar type II cells isolated from rat lungs. Under the conditions of this experiment, the reestablished epithelial lining was alveolar-like, however, ultrastructural analysis of the cells showed them to be like Clara cells. These preliminary results suggest that the secretary cells of the lung parenchyma and terminal airways may share a common ancestry. (author)

  3. Gene expression profile of renal cell carcinoma clear cell type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall’Oglio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The determination of prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC is based, classically, on stage and histopathological aspects. The metastatic disease develops in one third of patients after surgery, even in localized tumors. There are few options for treating those patients, and even the new target designed drugs have shown low rates of success in controlling disease progression. Few studies used high throughput genomic analysis in renal cell carcinoma for determination of prognosis. This study is focused on the identification of gene expression signatures in tissues of low-risk, high-risk and metastatic RCC clear cell type (RCC-CCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of approximately 55,000 distinct transcripts using the Whole Genome microarray platform hybridized with RNA extracted from 19 patients submitted to surgery to treat RCC-CCT with different clinical outcomes. They were divided into three groups (1 low risk, characterized by pT1, Fuhrman grade 1 or 2, no microvascular invasion RCC; (2 high risk, pT2-3, Fuhrman grade 3 or 4 with, necrosis and microvascular invasion present and (3 metastatic RCC-CCT. Normal renal tissue was used as control. RESULTS: After comparison of differentially expressed genes among low-risk, high-risk and metastatic groups, we identified a group of common genes characterizing metastatic disease. Among them Interleukin-8 and Heat shock protein 70 were over-expressed in metastasis and validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: These findings can be used as a starting point to generate molecular markers of RCC-CCT as well as a target for the development of innovative therapies.

  4. Delayed type hypersensitivity to allogeneic mouse epidermal cell antigens, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low dose of ultraviolet B radiation impairs the effectiveness of epidermal cell antigens. We studied the effect of ultraviolet B radiation on the delayed type hypersensitivity induced by allogeneic epidermal cell antigen. The delayed type hypersensitivity response was assayed by footpad swelling in mice. When epidermal cells were exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (660 J/m2), their ability to induce T cells of delayed type hypersensitivity activation was markedly inhibited in any combination of recipient mice and allogeneic epidermal cells. The effect of ultraviolet B radiation on epidermal cells was observed before immunization and challenge. Ultraviolet B treated epidermal cells did not induce suppressor T cells in mice. These results indicate that ultraviolet B radiation destroys the antigenicity of epidermal cells. (author)

  5. Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Loh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution made by the private sector to health care in a low- or middle-income country may affect levels of physician emigration from that country. The increasing importance of the private sector in health care in the developing world has resulted in newfound academic interest in that sector's influences on many aspects of national health systems. The growth in physician emigration from the developing world has led to several attempts to identify both the factors that cause physicians to emigrate and the effects of physician emigration on primary care and population health in the countries that the physicians leave. When the relevant data on the emerging economies of Ghana, India and Peru were investigated, it appeared that the proportion of physicians participating in private health-care delivery, the percentage of health-care costs financed publicly and the amount of private health-care financing per capita were each inversely related to the level of physician expatriation. It therefore appears that private health-care delivery and financing may decrease physician emigration. There is clearly a need for similar research in other low- and middle-income countries, and for studies to see if, at the country level, temporal trends in the contribution made to health care by the private sector can be related to the corresponding trends in physician emigration. The ways in which private health care may be associated with access problems for the poor and therefore reduced equity also merit further investigation. The results should be of interest to policy-makers who aim to improve health systems worldwide.

  6. Evidence of extensive lymphocyte death in sheep Peyer's patches. II. Number and fate of newly-formed lymphocytes that emigrate from Peyer's patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emigration of newly produced lymphocytes from Peyer's patches (PP) of lambs was studied. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were excised from most animals a few weeks after birth, and then at 8 to 10 wk of age, the dividing cells in 3 to 4 m of the small intestine were labeled in situ with [3H]thymidine. As extracorporeal perfusion system was used to restrict the 15-min period of labeling to the perfused lengths of intestine, which included either the large continuous ileal PP or a number of smaller jejunal PP. One or 3 days later, the number of labeled cells in the perfused tissue and in other lymphoid organs was studied by autoradiography. In the perfused tissues, labeled lymphocytes accounted for 63.7% of ileal PP cells by 1 day and for 86.7% by 3 days compared with only 9.6% of lymphocytes in the perfused MLN. labeled lymphoid cells in the perfused PP were nearly all in the follicles. Labeled lymphocytes that must have been produced in the segments of ileum or jejunum at the time of the perfusion, subsequently emigrated via the lymphatics, and were identified in the spleen, MLN, other lymph nodes, blood, jejunal PP, and at a lower frequency in the thymus, nonperfused ileal PP, and bone marrow. It was estimated that at both 1 and 3 days after perfusion there were about 100 times more labeled cells in the perfused ileal PP than could be accounted for by emigration to other organs. It was concluded that these results provide additional support for the view that PP in lambs produce a tremendous number of lymphocytes, but relatively few leave their site of production; most apparently die in situ

  7. LABOR FORCE INTERNATIONALIZATION. UNEMPLOYMENT AND EMIGRATION IN BACAU AND VASLUI COUNTIES OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Florina MUNTEANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relations between unemployment and emigration in Bacau and Vaslui counties, in a comparative outlook. The article starts with an analysis on Romania situation concerning the two phenomena. The second part brings forward the two counties, Bacau and Vaslui, trying to provide a clear view over the reality these two are confronting with. A mapping method was further used to cartography the statistical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics in order to provide a visual outlook over the reality concerning unemployment and emigration.

  8. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dachun; Haviland, David L.; Burns, Alan R.; Zsigmond, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells are small, cuboidal cells that constitute ≈60% of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. These cells are crucial for repair of the injured alveolus by differentiating into alveolar epithelial type I cells. ATII cells derived from human ES (hES) cells are a promising source of cells that could be used therapeutically to treat distal lung diseases. We have developed a reliable transfection and culture procedure, which facilitates, via genetic selection, the ...

  9. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  10. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  11. Observations on Forced Colony Emigration in Parachartergus fraternus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini: New Nest Site Marked with Sprayed Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of colony emigration induced by removal of nest envelope and combs and a single one by manipulation are described. The disturbance was followed by defensive patterns, buzz running, and adult dispersion. An odor trail created by abdomen dragging, probably depositing venom or Dufour's gland secretions, connected the original nest to the newly selected nesting place and guided the emigration. The substrate of the selected nesting place is intensely sprayed with venom prior to emigration, and this chemical cue marked the emigration end point. The colony moves to the new site in a diffuse cloud with no temporary clusters formed along the odor trail. At the original nest, scouts performed rapid gaster dragging and intense mouth contacts stimulating inactive individuals to depart. Males were unable to follow the swarm. Individual scouts switched between different behavioral tasks before and after colony emigration. Pulp collected from the old nest was reused at the new nest site.

  12. Uptake of palmitic acid by rabbit alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar type II cells require a source of palmitic acid for synthesis of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major constituent of pulmonary surfactant. Previous studies indicated that maximal rates of DPPC synthesis are achieved only if exogenous palmitate is available to the type II cell. Little is known of the mechanisms by which fatty acids enter type II cells. To determine if uptake is mediated by a membrane carrier system, as described in other cell types, we examined the kinetics of palmitate uptake. Using freshly isolated rabbit type II cells, we demonstrated that radiolabeled palmitate uptake was maximal and linear for 45 s; after 1 min the apparent rate of uptake declined. The initial uptake phase was taken as a measure of cellular fatty acid influx because intracellular radiolabeled palmitate remained 80% nonesterified at this time but was 55% esterified by 2 min. Cellular influx of palmitate showed saturation kinetics with increasing concentration of nonalbumin bound palmitate. Michaelis constant was 52.6 nM, and maximum velocity was 152 pmol.10(6) cells-1.min-1. The hypothesis that saturable cellular influx of palmitate is likely linked to the previously identified membrane fatty acid binding protein (MFABP) was supported by Western-blot analysis of rat lung tissue with an antibody to MFABP that demonstrated the presence of this carrier protein in lung tissue. These data suggest that palmitate uptake by type II cells is saturable and may be mediated by a membrane-associated carrier as described in other cell types

  13. Emigration and labour shortages: an opportunity for trade unions in new member states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Kaminska; M. Kahancová

    2011-01-01

    Emigration from the post-socialist states which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 has reduced unemployment rates and created shortages of some skills. This should provide opportunities for trade unions to improve their situation, by facilitating union organizing and strengthening their bargaining posit

  14. Majority Children's Evaluation of Acculturation Preferences of Immigrant and Emigrant Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Sierksma, Jellie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental design, native majority group children (8-13 years, N = 842) evaluated acculturation strategies (assimilation, integration, and separation) adopted by immigrant and emigrant peers. There were medium to large effects of the perceived acculturation strategies on children's peer evaluations. Overall, assimilation was valued…

  15. Emigration from the South Caucasus: who goes abroad and what are the economic implications?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dermendzhieva, Zvezda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2011), s. 377-398. ISSN 1463-1377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : emigration * economic development * household survey Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2011

  16. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fehrenbach Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, a...

  17. Industrial n-type solar cells. Towards 20% efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Vlooswijk, A. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    This paper presents examples of recent process developments at ECN in silicon solar cells on n-type monocrystalline base material. For all PV manufacturers, the challenge is to increase module efficiencies while maintaining low production cost. An effective way to move to higher and more stable efficiencies, using low-cost industrial-type processing, is n-type solar cell technology. The solar cell considered in this paper is the n-pasha cell - a bifacial solar cell with homogeneous diffusions and screen-printed metallization. The n-pasha cell is currently produced on an industrial scale by Yingli Solar; in 2011 a maximum solar cell conversion efficiency of 19.97% was obtained using this cell concept on 239 cm{sup 2} n-type Cz at the ECN laboratory. The focus of the paper will be increasing efficiency by optimization of the cell process, in particular the front-side metallization, and by improvements to the rear-surface passivation. These two steps have contributed an increase in efficiency of 0.8%, allowing cell efficiencies of 20% to be reached.

  18. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from 35S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol

  19. IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kui; Bi, Yutian; Sun, Kun; Wang, Changzheng

    2007-08-01

    As an important subset of regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1), have some different features to thymic-derived naturally occurring CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells(nTreg cells). Similar to nTreg cells, Tr1 also play important roles in the control of allergic inflammation in several ways. There is a fine balance between Tr1 and Th2 responses in healthy subjects. Skewing of allergic-specific effector T cells to a Tr1 phenotype appears to be a critical event in successful allergen-specific immunotherapy and glucocorticoids and beta2-agonists treatment. Tr1 suppress Th2 cells and effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, through producing IL-10, and perhaps TGF-beta. Understanding of Tr1 may be helpful in developing new strategies for treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:17764617

  20. IL-10-Producing Type 1 Regulatory T Cells and Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Wu; Yutian Bi; Kun Sun; Changzheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    As an important subset of regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1), have some different features to thymic-derived naturally occurring CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells(nTreg cells). Similar to nTreg cells, Tr1 also play important roles in the control of allergic inflammation in several ways. There is a fine balance between Tr1 and Th2 responses in healthy subjects. Skewing of allergic-specific effctor T cells to a Tr1 phenotype appears to be a critical event in successful allergen-specific immunotherapy and glucocorticoids and β2-agonists treatment. Tr1 suppress Th2 cells and effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, through producing IL-10, and perhaps TGF-β. Understanding of Tr1 may be helpful in developing new strategies for treatment of allergic diseases.

  1. Seperator membranes for redox-type electrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This disclosure is directed to improved redox type electrochemical cells, preferably those of the iron (+3)/iron (+2) electrolyte variety, incorporating polymeric, ion-exchange separator membranes produced by radiation grafting techniques

  2. Immunogenic cell death by oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 in squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, A; Masui, A; Hamada, M; Imai, T; Iwai, S; Yura, Y

    2016-04-01

    Molecules essential for the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) are called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The effects of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on the production of DAMPs were examined in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. The cytopathic effects of HSV-1 RH2 were observed in mouse SCCVII cells infected at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the amounts of viable cells were decreased. After being infected with RH2, ATP and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were released extracellulary, while calreticulin (CRT) translocated to the cell membrane. A flow-cytometric analysis revealed an increase in the number of annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI)-stained cells; and the amount of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was increased. The killing effect of RH2 was reduced by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk and the caspase-1 inhibitor z-YVAD-fmk, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis and pyroptosis. In C3H mice bearing synergic SCCVII tumors, the growth of tumors injected with the supernatant of RH2-infected cells was less than that of tumors injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). These results indicate that oncolytic HSV-1 RH2 produces DAMPs from SCC cells to induce cell death. This may contribute to the enhancement of tumor immunity by oncolytic HSV-1. PMID:26987291

  3. Murine Coronavirus Cell Type Dependent Interaction with the Type I Interferon Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Weiss

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect many species of animal including humans, causing acute and chronic diseases of many organ systems. Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV infection of the mouse, provides animal models for the study of central nervous system disease, including encephalitis and demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and for hepatitis. While there are many studies of the adaptive immune response to MHV, there has until recently been scant information on the type I interferon (IFN response to MHV. The relationship between MHV and the IFN-α/β response is paradoxical. While the type I IFN response is a crucial aspect of host defense against MHV in its natural host, there is little if any induction of IFN following infection of mouse fibroblast cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, MHV is relatively resistant to the antiviral effects of IFN-α/β in mouse fibroblast cell lines and in human 293T cells. MHV can, under some circumstances, compromise the antiviral effects of IFN signaling. The nucleocapsid protein as well as the nsp1 and nsp3 proteins of MHV has been reported to have IFN antagonist activity. However, in primary cell types such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC and macrophages, IFN is induced by MHV infection and an antiviral state is established. Other primary cell types such as neurons, astrocytes and hepatocytes fail to produce IFN following infection and, in vivo, likely depend on IFN produced by pDCs and macrophages for protection from MHV. Thus MHV induction of IFN-α/β and the ability to induce an antiviral state in response to interferon is extremely cell type dependent. IFN induced protection from MHV pathogenesis likely requires the orchestrated activities of several cell types, however, the cell types involved in limiting MHV replication may be different in the liver and in the immune privileged CNS.

  4. Nanomaterial cytotoxicity is composition, size, and cell type dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaebuddin Syed K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive research efforts, reports of cellular responses to nanomaterials are often inconsistent and even contradictory. Additionally, relationships between the responding cell type and nanomaterial properties are not well understood. Using three model cell lines representing different physiological compartments and nanomaterials of different compositions and sizes, we have systematically investigated the influence of nanomaterial properties on the degrees and pathways of cytotoxicity. In this study, we selected nanomaterials of different compositions (TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes [MWCNTs] with differing size (MWCNTs of different diameters 50 nm; but same length 0.5-2 μm to analyze the effects of composition and size on toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts, RAW 264.7 macrophages, and telomerase-immortalized (hT bronchiolar epithelial cells. Results Following characterization of nanomaterial properties in PBS and serum containing solutions, cells were exposed to nanomaterials of differing compositions and sizes, with cytotoxicity monitored through reduction in mitochondrial activity. In addition to cytotoxicity, the cellular response to nanomaterials was characterized by quantifying generation of reactive oxygen species, lysosomal membrane destabilization and mitochondrial permeability. The effect of these responses on cellular fate - apoptosis or necrosis - was then analyzed. Nanomaterial toxicity was variable based on exposed cell type and dependent on nanomaterial composition and size. In addition, nanomaterial exposure led to cell type dependent intracellular responses resulting in unique breakdown of cellular functions for each nanomaterial: cell combination. Conclusions Nanomaterials induce cell specific responses resulting in variable toxicity and subsequent cell fate based on the type of exposed cell. Our results indicate that the composition and size of nanomaterials as well as the

  5. Towards Optimal Diagnosis of Type II Germ Cell Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Stoop (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathobiology of testicular cancer (type II Germ Cell Tumors) to create possibilities for optimalization of diagnosis for this type of malignancy in routine pathology laboratories. The different studies pr

  6. Calponin 2 Acts As an Effector of Noncanonical Wnt-Mediated Cell Polarization during Neural Crest Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Bärbel Ulmer; Cathrin Hagenlocher; Silke Schmalholz; Sabrina Kurz; Axel Schweickert; Ayelet Kohl; Lee Roth; Dalit Sela-Donenfeld; Martin Blum

    2013-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate throughout the embryo to differentiate into cell types of all germ layers. Initial directed NCC emigration relies on planar cell polarity (PCP), which through the activity of the small GTPases RhoA and Rac governs the actin-driven formation of polarized cell protrusions. We found that the actin binding protein calponin 2 (Cnn2) was expressed in protrusions at the leading edge of migratory NCCs in chicks and frogs. Cnn2 knockdown resulted in NCC migration defe...

  7. Majority children's evaluation of acculturation preferences of immigrant and emigrant peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Sierksma, Jellie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental design, native majority group children (8-13 years, N = 842) evaluated acculturation strategies (assimilation, integration, and separation) adopted by immigrant and emigrant peers. There were medium to large effects of the perceived acculturation strategies on children's peer evaluations. Overall, assimilation was valued most, followed by integration and separation. These effects were in part mediated by perceived national belonging. In addition, the effects were stronger for lower status compared to higher status immigrant groups, and for children with higher compared to lower national identification. For emigrants, separation was valued most, followed by integration and assimilation. This indicates that the intergroup processes rather than migration per se are important for children's acculturation perceptions and evaluations. PMID:23621772

  8. Functional ion channels in pulmonary alveolar type I cells support a role for type I cells in lung ion transport

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Meshell D.; Bao, Hui-Fang; Helms, My N.; Chen, Xi-Juan; Tigue, Zac; Jain, Lucky; Dobbs, Leland G.; Eaton, Douglas C.

    2006-01-01

    Efficient gas exchange in the lungs depends on regulation of the amount of fluid in the thin (average 0.2 μm) liquid layer lining the alveolar epithelium. Fluid fluxes are regulated by ion transport across the alveolar epithelium, which is composed of alveolar type I (TI) and type II (TII) cells. The accepted paradigm has been that TII cells, which cover 95% of the surface area, provide a route for water absorption. Here we present data that TI cells contain functional epithelial Na+ channels...

  9. Lysosomes from rabbit type II cells catabolize surfactant lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, E D; Ikegami, M; Pinkerton, K E; Peake, J L; Jobe, A H

    2000-01-01

    The role of a lysosome fraction from rabbit type II cells in surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) catabolism was investigated in vivo using radiolabeled DPPC and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DEPC), a phospholipase A(1)- and A(2)-resistant analog of DPPC. Freshly isolated type II cells were gently disrupted by shearing, and lysosomes were isolated with Percoll density gradients (density range 1.0591-1.1457 g/ml). The lysosome fractions were relatively free of contaminating organelles as determined by electron microscopy and organelle marker enzymes. After intratracheal injection of rabbits with [(3)H]DPPC and [(14)C]DEPC associated with a trace amount of natural rabbit surfactant, the degradation-resistant DEPC accumulated 16-fold compared with DPPC in lysosome fractions at 15 h. Lysosomes can be isolated from freshly isolated type II cells, and lysosomes from type II cells are the primary catabolic organelle for alveolar surfactant DPPC following reuptake by type II cells in vivo. PMID:10645892

  10. METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW PULP CELL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Karjalainen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues are receiving increasing interest when studying renewable raw materials for industrial use. Residues, generally referred to as nonwood materials, are usually complex materials. Wheat straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues around the world and is therefore available for extensive industrial use. However, more information of its cell types is needed to utilize wheat straw efficiently in pulp and papermaking. The pulp cell types and particle dimensions of wheat straw were studied, using an optical microscope and an automatic optical fibre analyzer. The role of various cell types in wheat straw pulp and papermaking is discussed. Wheat straw pulp components were categorized according to particle morphology and categorization with an automatic optical analyzer was used to determine wheat straw pulp cell types. The results from automatic optical analysis were compared to those with microscopic analysis and a good correlation was found. Automatic optical analysis was found to be a promising tool for the in-depth analysis of wheat straw pulp cell types.

  11. Surgical treatment of unicentric plasma cell histological type Castleman's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Castleman’s disease or angiofollicular lymph hyperplasia is a rare disease with two identified clinical forms. Unicentric or localized form is characterized by isolated growth of lymph nodes, most often in mediastinum, and multicentric form is expressed as systemic disease with spread lymphadenopathy, organomegaly and presence of general symptoms of the disease. Histological types are hyalovascular, plasma-cell and transitive (mixed cell. Case report. This case report shows a woman, 59 years old, with unicentric form of plasma-cell type of Castleman’s disease. Unicentric form is usually shown as hyalovascular histological type, extremely rare as plasma-cell type, and transitive (mixed cell type was never described in literature as localized clinical form. The disease was manifested with chest pain, loss of body weight, exhaustion and weakness of legs. Further diagnostic procedures found the presence of enlarged lymph nodes paratracheally right, in a close contact with vena cava superior. The disease was confirmed by histopathological analysis of bioptated mediastinal lymph node after mediastinoscopy. Surgical treatment included extirpation of enlarged lymph nodes. After the regular postoperative condition, a full therapy effect was confirmed. Conclusion. Unicentric form of Castleman’s disease is expressed with enlarged lymph nodes on predilected places, usually in mediastinum. Surgical treatment is best method for the management of the disease and brings a full recovery of patient.

  12. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehrenbach Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2 cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today.

  13. Porcine circovirus type 2 displays pluripotency in cell targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of a multifactorial disease associated with immunocompromisation and co-infections. In vivo, viral DNA and antigens are found in monocytic, epithelial and endothelial cells. Of these, PCV2 replication has only been studied in monocytic cells, in which little or no replication was identified. Accordingly, PCV2 infection was studied in the endothelial cell line PEDSV.15, aortic endothelial cells, gut epithelial cells, fibrocytes and dendritic cells (DC). In all cells except DC PCV2 replication was detectable, with an increase in the levels of capsid and replicase protein. Variations in endocytic activity, virus binding and uptake did not relate to the replication efficiency in a particular cell. Furthermore, replication did not correlate to cell proliferation, although a close association of viral proteins with chromatin in dividing cells was observed. No alteration in the division rate of PCV2-infected cultures was measurable, relating to replicase expression in only a small minority of the cells. In conclusion, the broad cell targeting of PCV2 offers an explanation for its widespread tissue distribution

  14. Different Streams, Different Needs and Impacts: Managing International Labor Migration in ASEAN - Thailand (Emigration)

    OpenAIRE

    Chalamwong, Yongyuth; Labor Development Research Team

    2013-01-01

    For decades, Thailand has had a strong labor market in both supplying and demanding labor resources. Since the 1970s, Thailand has sent workers to the Middle East, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia, among others. Based on the Socio-Economic Survey, emigrant workers come from households with low income and wealth; therefore they are heavily indebted. It can be concluded that poverty and indebtedness are push factors that had forced the migration of Thai labor, while higher income and bett...

  15. Brain Drain or Brain Bank? The Impact of Skilled Emigration on Poor-Country Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Agrawal; Devesh Kapur; John McHale

    2008-01-01

    The development prospects of a poor country depend in part on its capacity for innovation. The productivity of its innovators depends in turn on their access to technological knowledge. The emigration of highly skilled individuals weakens local knowledge networks (brain drain), but may also help remaining innovators access valuable knowledge accumulated abroad (brain bank). We develop a model in which the size of the optimal innovator diaspora depends on the competing strengths of co-location...

  16. Unemployment of the Educated and Emigration of Post-Secondary Graduates from the LDCs

    OpenAIRE

    AKE G. BLOMQVIST

    1985-01-01

    Emigration of educated manpower from the wes to the industrialized countries has long been the subject of intense debate, and attempts at policy intervention to affect the migration flows have been made at both the national and international levels . At the nationa1 level, the sending countries have tried to use devices such as making graduates post bonds when leaving for post-graduate training in industrialized countries, in order to put pressure on them to return home. The receiving countri...

  17. Causes and implications of the current mass emigration process in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Khoudour-Castéras, David

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, most Latin American countries have become net exporters of labour and this trend has accelerated over the past decade. Wide differences in income with industrialised countries, a low level of social investment and the existence of a large national community already established abroad are all factors that are conducive to the emigration of workers. Both geographic and linguistic proximity also play a significant role in this process. However, beyond the s...

  18. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found

  19. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granita, E-mail: granitafc@gmail.com [Dept. Mathematical Education, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 28293 Indonesia and Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, A. [Dept. of Mathematical Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,Johor Malaysia and UTM Center for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) (Malaysia)

    2015-03-09

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  20. Emigration, immigration and return: Mexican immigrant’s cycle in Calexico, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Fimbres Durazo

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a community of Mexican immigrants legally residing in the city of Calexico, California. Firstly, a brief review on the history of migration from Mexico to the United States, chiefly to Imperial County, is presented. Afterwards, the traits of the immigrant group is described according to the data coming from a survey that was applied to 407 Mexican immigrants. To conclude, the results provided by the survey on the causes for such emigration, the motives for immigrating, ...

  1. Affluent years are over: emigration and development in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Fergany N

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on economic development impact of labour force emigration in Yemen - discusses migration trends, issues and prospects, and examines the impact on skill and labour shortages, balance of payments, economic structure, agricultural production, trade and inflation in the 1970s as well as potential threats from return migration, decline in migrant worker remittance and degree of dependence in view of migration policies alternatives. Graphs and references.

  2. Is Transforming Stem Cells to Pancreatic Beta Cells Still the Holy Grail for Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Sevim; Okawa, Erin R; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a progressive disease affecting millions of people worldwide. There are several medications and treatment options to improve the life quality of people with diabetes. One of the strategies for the treatment of diabetes could be the use of human pluripotent stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. The recent advances in differentiation of stem cells into insulin-secreting beta-like cells in vitro make the transplantation of the stem cell-derived beta-like cells an attractive approach for treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While stem cell-derived beta-like cells provide an unlimited cell source for beta cell replacement therapies, these cells can also be used as a platform for drug screening or modeling diseases. PMID:27313072

  3. Cell-type specific four-component hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Aberle

    Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel, an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.g. during articular cartilage or invertebral disc repair, where pathological innervation and angiogenesis represent adverse events in tissue engineering.

  4. Cell-type specific four-component hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Timo; Franke, Katrin; Rist, Elke; Benz, Karin; Schlosshauer, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin) to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel), an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.g. during articular cartilage or invertebral disc repair, where pathological innervation and angiogenesis represent adverse events in tissue engineering. PMID:24475174

  5. Targeting memory T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Mario R; Rigby, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Compared to healthy controls, a characteristic feature of patients with T1D is the presence of self-reactive T cells with a memory phenotype. These autoreactive memory T cells in both the CD4(+) and CD8(+) compartments are likely to be long-lived, strongly responsive to antigenic stimulation with less dependence on costimulation for activation and clonal expansion, and comparatively resistant to suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs) or downregulation by immune-modulating agents. Persistence of autoreactive memory T cells likely contributes to the difficulty in preventing disease progression in new-onset T1D and maintaining allogeneic islet transplants by regular immunosuppressive regimens. The majority of immune interventions that have demonstrated some success in preserving beta cell function in the new-onset period have been shown to deplete or modulate memory T cells. Based on these and other considerations, preservation of residual beta cells early after diagnosis or restoration of beta cell mass by use of stem cell or transplantation technology will require a successful strategy to control the autoreactive memory T cell compartment, which could include depletion, inhibition of homeostatic cytokines, induction of hyporesponsiveness, or a combination of these approaches. PMID:26370695

  6. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  7. Tuft cells, taste-chemosensory cells, orchestrate parasite type 2 immunity in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Michael R; Lavoie, Sydney; Michaud, Monia; Blum, Arthur M; Tran, Sara V; Weinstock, Joel V; Gallini, Carey Ann; Redding, Kevin; Margolskee, Robert F; Osborne, Lisa C; Artis, David; Garrett, Wendy S

    2016-03-18

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential barrier between a host and its microbiota. Protozoa and helminths are members of the gut microbiota of mammals, including humans, yet the many ways that gut epithelial cells orchestrate responses to these eukaryotes remain unclear. Here we show that tuft cells, which are taste-chemosensory epithelial cells, accumulate during parasite colonization and infection. Disruption of chemosensory signaling through the loss of TRMP5 abrogates the expansion of tuft cells, goblet cells, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells during parasite colonization. Tuft cells are the primary source of the parasite-induced cytokine interleukin-25, which indirectly induces tuft cell expansion by promoting interleukin-13 production by innate lymphoid cells. Our results identify intestinal tuft cells as critical sentinels in the gut epithelium that promote type 2 immunity in response to intestinal parasites. PMID:26847546

  8. Dynamics of surfactant release in alveolar type II cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Thomas; Ortmayr, Jörg; Friedrich, Franz; Völkl, Harald; Dietl, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, secreted via exocytosis of lamellar bodies (LB) by alveolar type II (AT II) cells, maintains low alveolar surface tension and is therefore essential for normal lung function. Here we describe real-time monitoring of exocytotic activity in these cells by visualizing and quantifying LB fusion with the plasma membrane (PM). Two approaches were used. First, fluorescence of LysoTracker Green DND-26 (LTG) in LB disappeared when the dye was released after exocytosis. Second, ph...

  9. Surgical treatment of unicentric plasma cell histological type Castleman's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marić Nebojša; Stanić Vojkan; Cvijanović Vlado; Ristanović Aleksandar; Kovačević Snežana; Krivokapić Žarko; Tasić-Radić Olga

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Castleman’s disease or angiofollicular lymph hyperplasia is a rare disease with two identified clinical forms. Unicentric or localized form is characterized by isolated growth of lymph nodes, most often in mediastinum, and multicentric form is expressed as systemic disease with spread lymphadenopathy, organomegaly and presence of general symptoms of the disease. Histological types are hyalovascular, plasma-cell and transitive (mixed) cell. Case report. This case report sho...

  10. Investigating Striatal Function through Cell-Type-Specific Manipulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum integrates convergent input from the cortex, thalamus, and midbrain, and has a powerful influence over motivated behavior via outputs to downstream basal ganglia nuclei. Although the anatomy and physiology of distinct classes of striatal neurons has been intensively studied, the specific functions of these cell subpopulations have been more difficult to address. Recently, application of new methodologies for perturbing activity and signaling in different cell types in vivo has be...

  11. Morphological types of epithelial-mesenchymal cell contacts in odontogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, A M; Katchburian, E

    1982-01-01

    During early stages of odontogenesis, differentiating ameloblasts form cytoplasmic processes which penetrate deeply into developing uncalcified dentine. Some of these cytoplasmic protrusions form close approximations or contacts with odontoblast processes. The contacts are of a variety of morphological types, but their membranes never fuse or form any known type of cell junction. The present results, together with those derived from other studies, suggest that the approximations or contacts m...

  12. Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on murine thymic emigration and subsets reconstitution after a sublethal dose of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on murine thymic emigration and subsets reconstitution after a sublethal dose of irradiation. Methods: Female BALB/c mice were irradiated with a 6.0 Gy of γ-ray total-body irradiation and then randomly divided into GCSF group and control group. For mice in the GCSF group, recombinant human G-CSF 100 μg · kg-1 · d-1 was injected subcutaneously once daily for 14 continuous days and mice in the control group were given the same volume of phosphate buffered solution (PBS). At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days later, mice were killed and thymus mononuclear cell suspension were analyzed by flow cytometry for the percentage of the four stages of thymic CD4 - CD8 - double negative cells (DN1-4) and the CD4 + CD8 + double positive ( CD4 + CD8 + DP), CD4 + CD8 - single positive (CD4 + SP), CD4 - CD8 + single positive cells (CD8 + SP).Real-time PCR was used for detection and quantitation of murine T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs) of the thymic cells of 30 and 60 d after irradiation. Results: The percentage of thymic DN1 cells in GCSF group was significantly higher than that of the control group 7 d after irradiation (t=9.59, P<0.05). 21 d later, the proportion of thymic DN3 and DN4 cells were higher than those of the control group (t=16.37, 7.6, P<0.05). The percentage of thymic CD4 + CD8 + DP cells decreased 7 d after irradiation,increased at 14 d, decreased again at 21 days,and then got a permanent recover. The percentage of thymic CD4 + CD8 + DP cells in the GCSF group recovered to normal and was significantly higher than that of the control group 28 days after irradiation (t=12.22, P<0.05). The percentage of thymic CD8 + SP cells of the GCSF group was significantly higher than that of the control group 21 d after irradiation (t=3.77, P<0.05), while G-CSF had no obvious influence on the percentage of the thymic CD4 + SP cells. The sjTRECs copies in the

  13. Engineering controlled mammalian type O-Glycosylation in plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Drew, Damian Paul; Jørgensen, Bodil;

    2011-01-01

    Human mucins are large heavily O-glycosylated glycoproteins (>200 kDa), which account for the majority of proteins in mucus layers that e.g. hydrate, lubricate and protect cells from proteases as well as from pathogens. O-linked mucin glycans are truncated in many cancers, yielding truncated cancer...... specific glyco-peptide epitopes, such as the Tn epitope (GalNAc sugar attached to either Serine or Threonine), which are antigenic to the immune system. In the present study, we have identified plant cells as the only eukaryotic cells without mammalian type O-glycosylation or competing (for sites) O...

  14. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells

  15. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji [Nippi Research Institute of Biomatrix, Toride, Ibaraki 302-0017 (Japan); Tashiro, Shin-ichi [Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, Kyoto 603-8072 (Japan); Onodera, Satoshi [Department of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Ikejima, Takashi, E-mail: ikejimat@vip.sina.com [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells.

  16. Cell Growth on Different Types of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Auciello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unique functional materials provide a platform as scaffolds for cell/tissue regeneration. Investigation of cell-materials’ chemical and biological interactions will enable the application of more functional materials in the area of bioengineering, which provides a pathway to the novel treatment for patients who suffer from tissue/organ damage and face the limitation of donation sources. Many studies have been made into tissue/organ regeneration. Development of new substrate materials as platforms for cell/tissue regeneration is a key research area. Studies discussed in this paper focus on the investigation of novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD films as substrate/scaffold materials for developmental biology. Specially designed quartz dishes have been coated with different types of UNCD films and cells were subsequently seeded on those films. Results showed the cells’ growth on UNCD-coated culture dishes are similar to cell culture dishes with little retardation, indicating that UNCD films have no or little inhibition on cell proliferation and are potentially appealing as substrate/scaffold materials. The mechanisms of cell adhesion on UNCD surfaces are proposed based on the experimental results. The comparisons of cell cultures on diamond-powder-seeded culture dishes and on UNCD-coated dishes with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization—time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses provided valuable data to support the mechanisms proposed to explain the adhesion and proliferation of cells on the surface of the UNCD platform.

  17. Genes affecting β-cell function in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions...

  18. Single-cell LEP-type cavity on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    A single-cell cavity, made of copper, with tapered connectors for impedance measurements. It was used as a model of LEP-type superconducting cavities, to investigate impedance and higher-order modes and operated at around 600 MHz (the LEP acceleration frequency was 352.2 MHz). See 8202500.

  19. Human herpesvirus type 6 reactivation after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagter, P.J. de; Schuurman, R.; Meijer, Ellen; Baarle, D. van; Sanders, E.A.M.; Boelens, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6) is known to reactivate after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and has been suggested to be associated with increased mortality and severe clinical manifestations, including graft versus host disease (GvHD). The exact etiological role of HHV6 reactivation

  20. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  1. Identifying cell types from spatially referenced single-cell expression datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Pettit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex tissues, such as the brain, are composed of multiple different cell types, each of which have distinct and important roles, for example in neural function. Moreover, it has recently been appreciated that the cells that make up these sub-cell types themselves harbour significant cell-to-cell heterogeneity, in particular at the level of gene expression. The ability to study this heterogeneity has been revolutionised by advances in experimental technology, such as Wholemount in Situ Hybridizations (WiSH and single-cell RNA-sequencing. Consequently, it is now possible to study gene expression levels in thousands of cells from the same tissue type. After generating such data one of the key goals is to cluster the cells into groups that correspond to both known and putatively novel cell types. Whilst many clustering algorithms exist, they are typically unable to incorporate information about the spatial dependence between cells within the tissue under study. When such information exists it provides important insights that should be directly included in the clustering scheme. To this end we have developed a clustering method that uses a Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF model to exploit both quantitative measures of expression and spatial information. To accurately reflect the underlying biology, we extend current HMRF approaches by allowing the degree of spatial coherency to differ between clusters. We demonstrate the utility of our method using simulated data before applying it to cluster single cell gene expression data generated by applying WiSH to study expression patterns in the brain of the marine annelid Platynereis dumereilii. Our approach allows known cell types to be identified as well as revealing new, previously unexplored cell types within the brain of this important model system.

  2. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II disrupts alveolar epithelial type II to type I cell transdifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distal alveolar morphogenesis is marked by differentiation of alveolar type (AT-II to AT-I cells that give rise to the primary site of gas exchange, the alveolar/vascular interface. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II, an endogenous protein with anti-angiogenic properties, profoundly disrupts distal lung neovascularization and alveolar formation during lung morphogenesis, and is robustly expressed in the dysplastic alveolar regions of infants with Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Determination as to whether EMAP II has a direct or indirect affect on ATII→ATI trans-differentiation has not been explored. Method In a controlled nonvascular environment, an in vitro model of ATII→ATI cell trans-differentiation was utilized to demonstrate the contribution that one vascular mediator has on distal epithelial cell differentiation. Results Here, we show that EMAP II significantly blocked ATII→ATI cell transdifferentiation by increasing cellular apoptosis and inhibiting expression of ATI markers. Moreover, EMAP II-treated ATII cells displayed myofibroblast characteristics, including elevated cellular proliferation, increased actin cytoskeleton stress fibers and Rho-GTPase activity, and increased nuclear:cytoplasmic volume. However, EMAP II-treated cells did not express the myofibroblast markers desmin or αSMA. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that EMAP II interferes with ATII → ATI transdifferentiation resulting in a proliferating non-myofibroblast cell. These data identify the transdifferentiating alveolar cell as a possible target for EMAP II's induction of alveolar dysplasia.

  3. Lipoxin A4 regulates natural killer cell and type 2 innate lymphoid cell activation in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Barnig, C.; Cernadas, M; Dutile, S.; Liu, X.; Perrella, M A; Kazani, S.; Wechsler, M.E.; Israel, E; Levy, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a prevalent disease of chronic inflammation in which endogenous counter-regulatory signaling pathways are dysregulated. Recent evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including natural killer (NK) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), can participate in the regulation of allergic airways responses, in particular airway mucosal inflammation. Here, we have identified both NK cells and ILC2 in human lung and peripheral blood in healthy and asthmatic subjects. NK c...

  4. A stromal cell niche for human and mouse type 3 innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C.; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized ...

  5. Human mast cells decrease SLPI levels in type II – like alveolar cell model, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyström Max

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are known to accumulate at sites of inflammation and upon activation to release their granule content, e.g. histamine, cytokines and proteases. The secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI is produced in the respiratory mucous and plays a role in regulating the activity of the proteases. Result We have used the HMC-1 cell line as a model for human mast cells to investigate their effect on SLPI expression and its levels in cell co-culture experiments, in vitro. In comparison with controls, we found a significant reduction in SLPI levels (by 2.35-fold, p Conclusion These results indicate that SLPI-producing cells may assist mast cell migration and that the regulation of SLPI release and/or consumption by mast cells requires interaction between these cell types. Therefore, a "local relationship" between mast cells and airway epithelial cells might be an important step in the inflammatory response.

  6. Inferring cell type innovations by phylogenetic methods-concepts, methods, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Koryu

    2015-12-01

    Multicellular organisms are composed of distinct cell types that have specific roles in the body. Each cell type is a product of two kinds of historical processes-development and evolution. Although the concept of a cell type is difficult to define, the cell type concept based on the idea of the core regulatory network (CRN), a gene regulatory network that determines the identity of a cell type, illustrates the essential aspects of the cell type concept. The first step toward elucidating cell type evolution is to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of cell types, or the cell type tree. The sister cell type model assumes that a new cell type evolves through divergence from a multifunctional ancestral cell type, creating tree-like evolutionary relationships between cell types. The process of generating a cell type tree can also be understood as the sequential addition of a new branching point on an ancestral cell differentiation hierarchy in evolution. A cell type tree thus represents an intertwined history of cell type evolution and development. Cell type trees can be reconstructed from high-throughput sequencing data, and the reconstruction of a cell type tree leads to the discovery of genes that are functionally important for a cell type. Although many issues including the lack of cross-species comparisons and the lack of a proper model for cell type evolution remain, the study of the origin of a new cell type using phylogenetic methods offers a promising new research avenue in developmental evolution. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 653-661, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26462996

  7. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dachun; Haviland, David L; Burns, Alan R; Zsigmond, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A

    2007-03-13

    Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells are small, cuboidal cells that constitute approximately 60% of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. These cells are crucial for repair of the injured alveolus by differentiating into alveolar epithelial type I cells. ATII cells derived from human ES (hES) cells are a promising source of cells that could be used therapeutically to treat distal lung diseases. We have developed a reliable transfection and culture procedure, which facilitates, via genetic selection, the differentiation of hES cells into an essentially pure (>99%) population of ATII cells (hES-ATII). Purity, as well as biological features and morphological characteristics of normal ATII cells, was demonstrated for the hES-ATII cells, including lamellar body formation, expression of surfactant proteins A, B, and C, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance receptor, as well as the synthesis and secretion of complement proteins C3 and C5. Collectively, these data document the successful generation of a pure population of ATII cells derived from hES cells, providing a practical source of ATII cells to explore in disease models their potential in the regeneration and repair of the injured alveolus and in the therapeutic treatment of genetic diseases affecting the lung. PMID:17360544

  8. Generation of cloned calves from different types of somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Six types of bovine somatic cell lines,including a granulosa cell line of Chinese red-breed yellow cattle(YGR),a granulosa cell line of Holstein cow(HGR),two skin fibroblast cell lines of two adult Holstein cows respectively(AFB1 and AFB2),a skin fibroblast cell line(FFB)and an oviduct epithelial cell line(FOV)of a Holstein fetus,were established.Somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT)was carried out using these cells as nuclei donor,and a total of 12 healthy calves were cloned.The effects of different types of donor cells on developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated.(i)There was no significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from YGR and HGR(33.2% and 35.1%,respectively).Pregnancy rates of them were 33.3% and 30.2%,respectively; and birth rates were 16.7%and 11.6%,respectively.(ii)Development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from diffetent individuals(AFB1 and AFB2)differed significantly(27.9% and 39.4%,respectively,P <0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 36.2% and 36.4%,respectively; and birth rates were 14.9% and 27.3%,respectively.(iii)There was significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from FFB and FOV of the same fetus(37.9% and 41.5%,respectively,P < 0.05).Pregnancy rates of them were 45.7% and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates were 22.9 % and 10.3%,respectively.Finally,developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos from all four types of somatic cells from Holstein cows(HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV)were compared.For in vitro development stage,development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos from HGR,AFB,FFB and FOV were 35.1%A,29.4%B,37.9%A and 41.5%C,respectively(pABC<0.05); for in vivo development stage,pregnancy rates of them were 30.2%,36.2%,45.7%and 24.1%,respectively; and birth rates of them were 11.6%,17.2%,22.9% and 10.3% respectively.

  9. The role of alveolar type II cells in swine leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela P. Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to investigate a possible relationship between alveolar type II cells and the inflammatory response to infection with Leptospira spp., and thus comprise a further element that can be involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury in naturally infected pigs. The study group consisted of 73 adult pigs that were extensively reared and slaughtered in Teresina, Piauí state, and Timon, Maranhão state, Brazil. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT aided by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The MAT registered the occurrence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in 10.96% (8/73 of the pigs. Immunohistochemistry allowed for the visualization of the Leptospira spp. antigen in the lungs of 87.67% (64/73 of the pigs. There was hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and circulatory changes, such as congestion of alveolar septa, parenchymal hemorrhage and edema within the alveoli. Lung inflammation was more intense (p = 0.0312 in infected animals, which also showed increased thickening of the alveolar septa (p = 0.0006. Evaluation of alveolar type II (ATII cells using an anti-TTF-1 (Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 antibody showed that there were more immunostained cells in the non-infected pigs (53.8% than in the infected animals (46.2% and that there was an inverse correlation between TTF-1 positive cells and the inflammatory infiltrate. There was no amplification of Leptospira DNA in the lung samples, but leptospiral DNA amplification was observed in the kidneys. The results of this study showed that a relationship exists between a decrease in alveolar type II cells and a leptospire infection. Thus, this work points to the importance of studying the ATII cells as a potential marker of the level of lung innate immune response during leptospirosis in pigs.

  10. Type-specific cell line models for type-specific ovarian cancer research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Anglesio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: OVARIAN CARCINOMAS CONSIST OF AT LEAST FIVE DISTINCT DISEASES: high-grade serous, low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, and mucinous. Biomarker and molecular characterization may represent a more biologically relevant basis for grouping and treating this family of tumors, rather than site of origin. Molecular characteristics have become the new standard for clinical pathology, however development of tailored type-specific therapies is hampered by a failure of basic research to recognize that model systems used to study these diseases must also be stratified. Unrelated model systems do offer value for study of biochemical processes but specific cellular context needs to be applied to assess relevant therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We have focused on the identification of clear cell carcinoma cell line models. A panel of 32 "ovarian cancer" cell lines has been classified into histotypes using a combination of mutation profiles, IHC mutation-surrogates, and a validated immunohistochemical model. All cell lines were identity verified using STR analysis. RESULTS: Many described ovarian clear cell lines have characteristic mutations (including ARID1A and PIK3CA and an overall molecular/immuno-profile typical of primary tumors. Mutations in TP53 were present in the majority of high-grade serous cell lines. Advanced genomic analysis of bona-fide clear cell carcinoma cell lines also support copy number changes in typical biomarkers such at MET and HNF1B and a lack of any recurrent expressed re-arrangements. CONCLUSIONS: As with primary ovarian tumors, mutation status of cancer genes like ARID1A and TP53 and a general immuno-profile serve well for establishing histotype of ovarian cancer cell We describe specific biomarkers and molecular features to re-classify generic "ovarian carcinoma" cell lines into type specific categories. Our data supports the use of prototype clear cell lines, such as TOV21G and JHOC-5, and questions the use of

  11. Absence of C-type virus production in human leukemic B cell, T cell and null cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura,Hajime

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscope observation of cultured human leukemic B cell, T cell and null cell lines and reverse transcriptase assay of the culture supernatants were all negative for the presence of C-type virus. Bat cell line, which propagates primate C-type viruses well, was cocultivated with the human leukemic cell lines, in the hope of amplification of virus if present. Three weeks after mixed culture, the culture supernatants were again examined for reverse transcriptase activity and the cells were tested for syncytia formation by cocultivation with rat XC, human KC and RSb cell lines. All these tests, except for the positive control using a simian sarcoma virus, were negative, suggesting that no C-type was produced from these human leukemic cell lines.

  12. Asymptotic regimes for the partition into colonies of a branching process with emigration

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2009-01-01

    We consider a spatial branching process with emigration in which children either remain at the same site as their parents or migrate to new locations and then found their own colonies. We are interested in asymptotics of the partition of the total population into colonies for large populations with rare migrations. Under appropriate regimes, we establish weak convergence of the rescaled partition to some random measure that is constructed from the restriction of a Poisson point measure to a certain random region, and whose cumulant solves a simple integral equation.

  13. Where Did Central- and Eastern-European Emigrants Go and Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    countries. Besides economic differences between sending and receiving countries, I include a number of other variables, e.g. language preferences, education, social security pulls and other factors that help to explain migration behavior. My analyses reveal that the economic push/pulls factors play...... an important role in international migration from those countries. The disaggregated results show that there are large differences between the CEE countries with respect to emigration patterns. The lagged stock of immigrants, which may reflect networks has a strong and positive effect for immigrants from...

  14. The Effect of State Policies on Emigration: The Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Sara Linn Lillesund

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate migration in the context of states acting as competitors. By using Malaysia as a case the paper explore how state policies within Malaysia affects the level and composition of emigration. Traditional ‘push’-theory and this paper’s adaption of Hirschman’s (1970) model of ‘exit, voice and loyalty’ and Moses (2005) adaption of this model to a free international migration regime will be used as a framework. Making the assumption that citizens want to ...

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in the residents of an emigration camp in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, S; Ahn, C; Chai, J Y

    1995-03-01

    We examined stool specimens of the residents in the emigration camp in Tijuana, Mexico for helminth eggs or protozoan cysts with formalin-ethyl acetate concentration method in February and July 1992. Out of 92 examined samples, number of positive was 49 (53.3%). While number of cumulative positive was 66 (71.7%). Cysts of Entamoeba coli (29.3%) Giardia lamblia (9.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.6%), and eggs of Taenia spp. (6.5) were most frequently observed. Filtered water supply and chemotherapy were required in this camp. PMID:7735788

  16. Student Mobility or Emigration Flow? The Case of Students Commuting from Serbia to Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Takac

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Student mobility between two European countries in transition, Hungary and Serbia, was considered for the period 2001-2010. The high motivation and number of Hungarian-speaking students emigrating/commuting to Hungary began in 1990, with the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars. In 2010, 1,385 Hungarian-speaking students (from Vojvodina, Serbia studied in Hungary and 3,152 in Serbia. Student mobility between Hungary and Serbia is highly concentrated and causes a very low returning rate of educated young elite (approximately 30%. For this reason, the future of the Hungarian minority has begun to be put into question in Serbia, in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, where their percentage within whole population is noticeably decreasing (1991: 16.9%, 2001: 14.3%. The research has been focused on answering the following questions: Are there integration conflicts in the autochthon minority within the state borders of Serbia? What can higher education offer to these students? Does the region offer enough to provide perspectives for young members of the elite? Will early student mobility end with continuous emigration? Empirical background: Interviews with young adult migrants from Serbia to Hungary; Location: Serbia. Objective: To examine the motives and willingness to emigrate among the Hungarian young adults/students from Vojvodina. Interview subjects: 18 university/college students or young adults with a diploma (from Vojvodina. It is important to note that only those young adults were interviewed who have returned to Serbia having finished their educational career or who are likely to come back later. Conclusions in brief: The Yugoslav Wars, worsening economic conditions, and low living standards have significantly influenced the willingness of the youth to migrate. The motives of migration among the Hungarian youth in Vojvodina are gaining professional experience, broadening knowledge, and improving language. Hungary is the first target country of

  17. The role of emigrants in the construction of a destination brand: a new research line

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimazohra El Aouni; Rosalía Cascón-Pereira; Ana Beatriz Hernández-Lara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The main objective of this work consists of proposing a new line of research which consists of exploring the role of emigrants in the construction of their country of origin’s brand. Design and methodology: To justify the need of this new research line we provide arguments by conducting a literature review on destination branding and topics related to migration in tourism. Approach – A proper destination branding may have a bearing on the image of a particular area, attracting visit...

  18. Connectivity between the OFF bipolar type DB3a and six types of ganglion cell in the marmoset retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Rania A; Percival, Kumiko A; Koizumi, Amane; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2016-06-15

    Parallel visual pathways originate at the first synapse in the retina, where cones make connections with cone bipolar cells that in turn contact ganglion cells. There are more ganglion cell types than bipolar types, suggesting that there must be divergence from bipolar to ganglion cells. Here we analyze the contacts between an OFF bipolar type (DB3a) and six ganglion cell types in the retina of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were transfected via particle-mediated gene transfer of an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP), and DB3a cells were labeled via immunohistochemistry. Ganglion cell types that fully or partially costratified with DB3a cells included OFF parasol, OFF midget, broad thorny, recursive bistratified, small bistratified, and large bistratified cells. On average, the number of DB3a contacts to parasol cells (18 contacts per axon terminal) is higher than that to other ganglion cell types (between four and seven contacts). We estimate that the DB3a output to OFF parasol cells accounts for at least 30% of the total DB3a output. Furthermore, we found that OFF parasol cells receive approximately 20% of their total bipolar input from DB3a cells, suggesting that other diffuse bipolar types also provide input to OFF parasol cells. We conclude that DB3a cells preferentially contact OFF parasol cells but also provide input to other ganglion cell types. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1839-1858, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26559914

  19. The role of alveolar type II cells in swine leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela P. Campos; Dayane F.H. Miranda; Geórgia B.B. Alves; Micherlene S. Carneiro; Prianti, Maria G; Larissa M.F. Gonçalves; Vanessa Castro; Francisco A.L. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate a possible relationship between alveolar type II cells and the inflammatory response to infection with Leptospira spp., and thus comprise a further element that can be involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury in naturally infected pigs. The study group consisted of 73 adult pigs that were extensively reared and slaughtered in Teresina, Piauí state, and Timon, Maranhão state, Brazil. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made using the microscopic aggl...

  20. Types of Parvalbumin-Containing Retinotectal Ganglion Cells in Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) occurs in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of various vertebrate species. In the present study, we aimed to identify the types of PV-containing RGCs that project to the superior colliculus (SC) in the mouse. We injected retrograde tracer dextran into the mouse SC to label RGCs. PV-containing RGCs were first identified by immunocytochemistry and then neurons double-labeled with dextran and PV were iontophoretically injected with a lipophilic dye, DiI. Subsequently, confocal microscopy was used to characterize the morphologic classification of the PV-immunoreactive (IR) retinotectal ganglion cells on the basis of dendritic field size, branching pattern, and stratification within the inner plexiform layer. Among the 8 different types of PV-containing RGCs in the mouse retina, we found all 8 types of RGCs projecting to the SC. The RGCs were heterogeneous in morphology. The combined approach of using tracer injection and a single cell injection after immunocytochemistry on a particular protein will provide valuable data to further understand the functional features of the RGCs which constitute the retinotectal pathway

  1. Study of homogeneous fuel cells type 10 x 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the moment in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies with the purpose of to establish a methodology that allows to carry out the neutron design of fuel cells of type 10 x 10. During the initial stage of the process of cells design, starting from the data that have to do with the planned energy demand it requires to be estimated the average value of the enrichment in U235 w/o of the one assemble. The experience has shown that the accuracy that is achieved in this estimate it depends, among other factors, of the information (e.g. concentrations of U235 and Gd2O3) of the cells that its are disposed in that moment. For what we consider convenient to enlarge the available information by means of a series of calculations of cell physics; and to the one same time some aspects can be studied on the parameters that define the characteristics of a fuel cell. In this work the effect of the presence of different distributions of the concentrations of the fissile material is analyzed and of burnup poisons on the reactivity parameters of the cell as well as in the peak factor of local power (LPPF-Local Power Peaking Factor). (Author)

  2. Development of Bipolar Plate Stack Type Microbial Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) stacked with bipolar plates have been constructed and their performance was tested. In this design, single fuel cell unit was connected in series by bipolar plates where an anode and a cathode were made in one graphite block. Two types of bipolar plate stacked MFCs were constructed. Both utilized the same glucose oxidation reaction catalyzed by Gram negative bacteria, Proteus vulgaris as a biocatalyst in an anodic compartment, but two different cathodic reactions were employed: One with ferricyanide reduction and the other with oxygen reduction reactions. In both cases, the total voltage was the mathematical sum of individual fuel cells and no degradation in performance was found. Electricity from these MFCs was stored in a supercapacitor to drive external loads such as a motor and electric bulb

  3. Different Types of Cell Death Induced by Enterotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Hong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection of bacterial organisms generally causes cell death to facilitate microbial invasion and immune escape, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In addition to the intercellular infectious processes, pathogen-produced/secreted enterotoxins (mostly exotoxins are the major weapons that kill host cells and cause diseases by inducing different types of cell death, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. Blocking these enterotoxins with synthetic drugs and vaccines is important for treating patients with infectious diseases. Studies of enterotoxin-induced apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms have helped us to create efficient strategies to use against these well-characterized cytopathic toxins. In this article, we review the induction of the different types of cell death from various bacterial enterotoxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli, Shiga toxins, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, heat-labile enterotoxins, and the cholera toxin, Vibrio cholerae. In addition, necrosis caused by pore-forming toxins, apoptotic signaling through cross-talk pathways involving mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and lysosomal injury is discussed.

  4. Embryonic stem cells and somatic cells differ in mutation frequency and type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Rachel B.; Stringer, James R.; Shao, Changshun; Tischfield, Jay A.; Stambrook, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells have been used to produce genetically modified mice as experimental models of human genetic diseases. Increasingly, human ES cells are being considered for their potential in the treatment of injury and disease. Here we have shown that mutation in murine ES cells, heterozygous at the selectable Aprt locus, differs from that in embryonic somatic cells. The mutation frequency in ES cells is significantly lower than that in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which is similar to that in adult cells in vivo. The distribution of spontaneous mutagenic events is remarkably different between the two cell types. Although loss of the functional allele is the predominant mutation type in both cases, representing about 80% of all events, mitotic recombination accounted for all loss of heterozygosity events detected in somatic cells. In contrast, mitotic recombination in ES cells appeared to be suppressed and chromosome loss/reduplication, leading to uniparental disomy (UPD), represented more than half of the loss of heterozygosity events. Extended culture of ES cells led to accumulation of cells with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and UPD. Because UPD leads to reduction to homozygosity at multiple recessive disease loci, including tumor suppressor loci, in the affected chromosome, the increased risk of tumor formation after stem cell therapy should be viewed with concern. PMID:11891338

  5. Lamella formation and emigration from the water by a laboratory colony of Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY in flow-through system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. A. Dannemann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamella formation and emigration from the water were investigated in juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata reared at two temperatures in aquaria with a constant water flow. Most snails (97.4% reared at the lower temperature (21- C formed lamella at the shell aperture and emigrated from the water, whereas only 10.1% did so at 25- C. Eighty percent of emigrations at 21- C occurred within a period of 15 days, 70-85 days after hatching. A comparison of the studies done so far indicates that the phenomenon may be affected by the ageing of snail colonies kept in the laboratory and their geographic origin, rather than the rearing conditions. This hypothesis, however, requires experimental confirmation.

  6. Determinants of emigration and their impact on survival during dispersal in fox and jackal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapota, Dror; Dolev, Amit; Bino, Gilad; Yosha, Dotan; Guter, Amichai; King, Roni; Saltz, David

    2016-01-01

    Animals disperse in response to poor resource conditions as a strategy of escaping harsh competition and stress, but may also disperse under good resource conditions, as these provide better chances of surviving dispersal and gaining fitness benefits such as avoiding kin competition and inbreeding. Individual traits should mediate the effect of resources, yielding a complex condition-dependent dispersal response. We investigated how experimental food reductions in a food-rich environment around poultry-growing villages interact with individual-traits (age, gender, body-mass) in two sympatric canids, red foxes and golden jackals, to jointly affect emigration propensity and survival during dispersal. Sub-adult foxes emigrated more frequently from the food-rich habitat than from the pristine, food-limited habitat, while adult foxes showed the opposite trend. During dispersal, adults exhibited lower survival while sub-adults did not experience additional mortality costs. Although fox mortality rates increased in response to food reduction, dispersal remained unchanged, while jackals showed strong dispersal response in two of the three repetitions. Jackal survival under food reduction was lowest for the dispersing individuals. While resources are an important dispersal determinant, different age classes and species experience the same resource environment differently and consequently have different motivations, yielding different dispersal responses and consequences. PMID:27050564

  7. Esmeralda Energy Company, Final Scientific Technical Report, January 2008. Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project, DOE GRED III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deymonaz, John [Fish Lake Green Power Co. (United States); Hulen, Jeffrey B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geosciences Inst.; Nash, Gregory D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geosciences Inst.; Schriener, Alex [Earth Systems Southwest (United States)

    2008-01-22

    The Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project (ESDP) was a highly successful, phased resource evaluation program designed to evaluate the commercial geothermal potential of the eastern margin of the northern Fish Lake Valley pull-apart basin in west-central Nevada. The program involved three phases: (1) Resource evaluation; (2) Drilling and resource characterization; and (3) Resource testing and assessment. Efforts included detailed geologic mapping; 3-D modeling; compilation of a GIS database; and production of a conceptual geologic model followed by the successful drilling of the 2,938 foot deep 17-31 slimhole (core hole), which encountered commercial geothermal temperatures (327⁰ F) and exhibits an increasing, conductive, temperature gradient to total depth; completion of a short injection test; and compilation of a detailed geologic core log and revised geologic cross-sections. Results of the project greatly increased the understanding of the geologic model controlling the Emigrant geothermal resource. Information gained from the 17-31 core hole revealed the existence of commercial temperatures beneath the area in the Silver Peak Core Complex which is composed of formations that exhibit excellent reservoir characteristics. Knowledge gained from the ESDP may lead to the development of a new commercial geothermal field in Nevada. Completion of the 17-31 core hole also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of deep core drilling as an exploration tool and the unequaled value of core in understanding the geology, mineralogy, evolutional history and structural aspects of a geothermal resource.

  8. Cell type-specific neuroprotective activity of untranslocated prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Restelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key pathogenic role in prion diseases was proposed for a cytosolic form of the prion protein (PrP. However, it is not clear how cytosolic PrP localization influences neuronal viability, with either cytotoxic or anti-apoptotic effects reported in different studies. The cellular mechanism by which PrP is delivered to the cytosol of neurons is also debated, and either retrograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum or inefficient translocation during biosynthesis has been proposed. We investigated cytosolic PrP biogenesis and effect on cell viability in primary neuronal cultures from different mouse brain regions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mild proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of an untranslocated form of cytosolic PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, but not in cerebellar granules. A cyclopeptolide that interferes with the correct insertion of the PrP signal sequence into the translocon increased the amount of untranslocated PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, and induced its synthesis in cerebellar neurons. Untranslocated PrP boosted the resistance of cortical and hippocampal neurons to apoptotic insults but had no effect on cerebellar cells. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate cell type-dependent differences in the efficiency of PrP translocation, and argue that cytosolic PrP targeting might serve a physiological neuroprotective function.

  9. Cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity between interstitial (type I) and basement membrane (type IV) collagens

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to homologous type I collagen that cross-reacts with type IV collagen. Mice immunized with native or denatured type I collagens and challenged with these same antigens or native type IV collagen develop a peak DTH response on day 7. Challenge with denatured type IV collagen or collagenase-treated type IV collagen failed to elicit DTH in type I collagen-sensitized mice. Type I collagen-sensitized spleen cells adoptively t...

  10. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  11. Muse Cells, a New Type of Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived from Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Ru-Zhi; Li, Di; Cheng, Sai; Yang, Yu-Hua; Tian, Ting; Pan, Xiao-Ru

    2016-04-01

    A new type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that expresses stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3) and the mesenchymal cell marker CD105 are known as multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells. Studies have shown that stem cells in suspension cultures are more likely to generate embryoid body-like stem cell spheres and maintain an undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency. We separated Muse cells derived from human dermal fibroblasts by long-term trypsin incubation (LTT) through suspension cultures in methylcellulose. The Muse cells obtained expressed several pluripotency markers, including Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, and SSEA-3, and could differentiate in vitro into cells of the three germ layers, such as hepatocytes (endodermal), neural cells (ectodermal) and adipocytes, and osteocytes (mesodermal cells). These cells showed a low level of DNA methylation and a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio. Our study provides an innovative and exciting platform for exploring the potential cell-based therapy of various human diseases using Muse cells as well as their great possibility for regenerative medicine. PMID:27055628

  12. Common and cell type-specific responses of human cells to mitochondrial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In yeast, mitochondrial dysfunction activates a specific pathway, termed retrograde regulation, which alters the expression of specific nuclear genes and results in increased replicative life span. In mammalian cells, the specific nuclear genes induced in response to loss of mitochondrial function are less well defined. This study characterizes responses in nuclear gene expression to loss of mitochondrial DNA sequences in three different human cell types: T143B, an osteosarcoma-derived cell line; ARPE19, a retinal pigment epithelium cell line; and GMO6225, a fibroblast cell population from an individual with Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS). Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure gene expression of a selection of glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial, peroxisomal, extracellular matrix, stress response, and regulatory genes. Gene expression changes that were common to all three cell types included up-regulation of GCK (glucokinase), CS (citrate synthase), HOX1 (heme oxygenase 1), CKMT2 (mitochondrial creatine kinase 2), MYC (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog), and WRN (Werner syndrome helicase), and down-regulation of FBP1 (fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase 1) and COL4A1 (collagen, type IV, alpha 1). RNA interference experiments show that induction of MYC is important in ρ0 cells for the up-regulation of glycolysis. In addition, a variety of cell type-specific gene changes was detected and most likely depended upon the differentiated functions of the individual cell types. These expression changes may help explain the response of different tissues to the loss of mitochondrial function due to aging or disease

  13. Increased Th22 cells are independently associated with Th17 cells in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinyu; Zheng, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Shi, Yun; Gu, Yong; Chen, Heng; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is perceived as an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. However, the number of inflammatory T cells in blood, as well as the relative importance of each cell type is unclear. Forty-two patients with T1D and 30 controls were enrolled. Circulating primary CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells were quantified with 5-color flow cytometry. Serum IL-22 and IL-17 levels were examined by ELISA. Serum autoantibodies were measured by radio-binding assays, using (35)S-labeled glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65), protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (IA-2), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8). Th17-Th22 and Tc1-Tc17 were significantly elevated in patients with T1D compared to control subjects, while there were no significant differences in Th1 cells. The levels of these T cells in different stages of T1D were investigated. Th22 cells showed a positive correlation with Th17 cells in T1D patients. However, we did not find any correlation between IL-17 and IL-22 in sera. Autoantibodies were not significantly different between patients with early T1D and those who have had it for a longer duration. This study indicates that Th22 may contribute to the pathogenesis of T1D. Blockade of Th22 cells might be of clinical profit in T1D patients. PMID:23928796

  14. Scandinavian Emigration to Australia and New Zealand Project. Proceedings of a Symposium (Turku, Finland, February 17-19, 1982). Migration Studies C7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, Olavi, Ed.

    These proceedings of a 1982 symposium on Scandinavian emigration in Australia include presentations on three general topics: field work conducted in Australia and New Zealand in 1980-82; research progress; and Australian immigration policy. The presentors and their papers are: (1) Hans Norman, "The Emigration to America from the Nordic countries";…

  15. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells improves type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lisha; Li, Furong; Gao, Feng; Yang, Yali; Liu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Pingping; Li, Yulin

    2016-05-01

    Bone-marrow-derived stem cells can regenerate pancreatic tissue in a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) form the main part of bone marrow. We show that the intrapancreatic transplantation of MSCs elevates serum insulin and C-peptide, while decreasing blood glucose. MSCs engrafted into the damaged rat pancreas become distributed into the blood vessels, acini, ducts, and islets. Renascent islets, islet-like clusters, and a small number of MSCs expressing insulin protein have been observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Intrapancreatic transplantation of MSCs triggers a series of molecular and cellular events, including differentiation towards the pancreas directly and the provision of a niche to start endogenous pancreatic regeneration, which ameliorates hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia caused by streptozotocin. These data establish the many roles of MSCs in the restoration of the function of an injured organ. PMID:26650464

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  17. Islet transplantation versus stem cells for the cell therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, G; Montanucci, P; Calafiore, R

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic islet cell transplantation has represented the mainstay of cell therapy for the potential, final cure of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), along the past two decades. Unfortunately, the restricted availability of cadaveric human donor pancreases coupled with heavy side effects of the recipient's general immunosuppression, have severely crippled progress of this approach into clinical trials. Only a few excellence centers, worldwide, have thus far accrued still quite marginal clinical success. In an attempt to overcome the limits of islet transplantation new technologies for use of several stem cell lineages are being under investigation, with initial experimental evidence of success. Essentially, the actual lines of research involve attempts to either activate native endogenous stem cells that replace diseased/dead cells, by a cell regeneration process, or condition other stem cells to acquire the functional properties of the targeted cells to be substituted (i.e., beta-cell-like elements associated with insulin secretory competence). A wide array of stem cells may fulfill this task, from embryonic (whose use still faces strong ethical barriers), to adult, to induced pluripotent stem cells. Mesenchymal adult stem cells, retrievable from many different sites, including adipose tissue, bone marrow and post-partum umbilical cord Wharton Jelly, seem to couple plastic to immunoregulatory properties that might greatly help progress for the disease cure. PMID:26398188

  18. Continuous endurance-type exercise training does not modulate satellite cell content in obese type 2 diabetes patients

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex; Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Van Loon, Luc,

    2011-01-01

    Endurance-type exercise training represents a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the effects of prolonged continuous, endurance-type exercise on muscle fiber characteristics remain equivocal. Fifteen obese male type 2 diabetes patients (61 ± 6 years) participated in a 6-month continuous, endurance-type exercise program. Muscle biopsies were collected before, and after 2 and 6 months of intervention. Muscle fiber type–specific composition, size, and satellite cell (SC) and myon...

  19. Implications of epigenetic variability within a cell population for cell type classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eTabansky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose a new approach to defining nerve ‘cell types’ in reaction to recent advances in single cell analysis. Among cells previously thought to be equivalent, considerable differences in global gene expression and biased tendencies among differing developmental fates have been demonstrated within multiple lineages. The model of classifying cells into distinct types thus has to be revised to account for this intrinsic variability. A ‘cell type’ could be a group of cells that possess similar, but not necessarily identical properties, variable within a spectrum of epigenetic adjustments that permit its developmental path toward a specific function to be achieved. Thus, the definition of a cell type is becoming more similar to the definition of a species: sharing essential properties with other members of its group, but permitting a certain amount of deviation in aspects that do not seriously impact function. This approach accommodates, even embraces the spectrum of natural variation found in various cell populations and consequently avoids the fallacy of false equivalence. For example, developing neurons will react to their microenvironments with epigenetic changes resulting in slight changes in gene expression and morphology. Addressing the new questions implied here will have significant implications for developmental neurobiology.

  20. [Changes of heart function after different cell type stem cell transplantation in chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhongcai; Chen, Mao; Deng, Juelin; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Rao, Li; Yang, Qing; Huang, Dejia

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of introcoronary cell infusion into nonischemic heart failure (HF) heart and whether different types of stem cell transplantation would affect heart function to a similar degree. Japanese white ears rabbits were used as HF models by intravenous injection adriamycin. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells(BMCs), bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs), skeletal myoblasts (SMs) or culture medium were infused into coronary arteries respectively by occluding the root of ascending aorta. The mortality during and 4 weeks after the procedure the mortality was 7.1% and 16.7% respectively. After 4 weeks, the ejection fraction (EF) in BMCs group had significant improvement (P 0.05). In sham group,the left ventricular endostolic diameter (LVED) had significant enlargement (P 0.05). Immunofluorescence revealed de novo expression of cardiac troponin I in BMCs and MSCs groups, cardiac troponin I was not detected in SMs group. In conclusions, intracoronary cell transplantation could provide effective cell delivery into dilated cardiomyopathy hearts and could be a useful strategy for treating CHF, BMCs cell transplantation may be the first choice in all the above cell types. PMID:17228727

  1. Disappointed and Disgruntled: A Study of the Return in the 1990s of Czech Emigrants from the Communist Era

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpor, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2002), s. 789-808. ISSN 0038-0288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : Czech history * 20th century * Czech emigration Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.113, year: 2002

  2. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems

  3. The transcription factor GATA3 controls cell fate and maintenance of type 2 innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyler, Thomas; Klose, Christoph S.N.; Souabni, Abdallah; Turqueti-Neves, Adriana; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Rawlins, Emma L.; Voehringer, David; Busslinger, Meinrad; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside at mucosal surfaces and control immunity to intestinal infections. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) produce cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 and are required for immune defense against helminth infections and are involved in the pathogenesis of airway hyperreactivity. Here, we have investigated the role of the transcription factor GATA3 for ILC2 differentiation and maintenance. We showed that ILC2 and their lineage-specified bone marrow precursor (ILC2P)...

  4. Cell Stress Induces Upregulation of Osteopontin via the ERK Pathway in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kato; Takafumi Okura; Chizuru Hamada; Seigo Miyoshi; Hitoshi Katayama; Jitsuo Higaki; Ryoji Ito

    2014-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, migration and tissue fibrosis. In human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and murine bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, OPN is upregulated in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II). However, the mechanism of OPN induction in AEC II is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism of OPN induction in AEC II and elucidate the functions of OPN in AEC II and lung ...

  5. Automatic Classification of Human Epithelial Type 2 Cell Indirect Immunofluorescence Images using Cell Pyramid Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Wiliem, Arnold; Sanderson, Conrad; Wong, Yongkang; Hobson, Peter; Minchin, Rodney F.; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel system for automatic classification of images obtained from Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) pathology tests on Human Epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cells using the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) protocol. The IIF protocol on HEp-2 cells has been the hallmark method to identify the presence of ANAs, due to its high sensitivity and the large range of antigens that can be detected. However, it suffers from numerous shortcomings, such as being subjective as well as time and...

  6. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection drives spontaneous proliferation of natural killer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Philip J; Hirschkorn, Dale F.; DeVita, Deborah A.; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Murphy, Eedward L

    2010-01-01

    Most human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected subjects remain asymptomatic throughout their lives, with a few individuals developing HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukemia. Lymphocytes from about half of HTLV-1 infected subjects spontaneously proliferate in vitro, and how this phenomenon relates to symptomatic disease outcome and viral burden is poorly understood. Spontaneous proliferation was measured in lymphocyte subsets, an...

  7. The Concept of the Self in Explaining Post-1989 Bulgarian Physicians’ Emigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaniya BEKYAROVA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the methodological and empirical efforts for exploring and understanding the emigration of Bulgarian physicians, after 1989. The study applies a biographical approach through a conceptual framework, which utilizes concepts from social theory and social anthropology. Using in-depth interviewing as the main research tool, complemented by a secondary data gathering technique, the study offers an explanation of the migration decision as generated in a conflict of the migrant’s understanding of his/her self and of the desired relation of the self to society on one hand and the migrant’s understanding of his/her society on the other. The concept of the self (self-identity, self-consciousness proves effective in explaining the migration decision.

  8. Emigration and Schooling among Second-Generation Mexican-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S; Torr, Berna M

    2008-09-01

    In this Research Note, we investigate the prevalence and patterns of second-generation Mexican-American children's migration to and return from Mexico during childhood and consider the consequences of this migration for their schooling. Around one in ten second-generation Mexican-American children live in Mexico for some of their childhood. Strong patterns of return to the U.S. through childhood argue for their being considered as part of the Mexican-American second generation even when in Mexico. Their rates of school enrollment in Mexico are much lower than for second-generation Mexican-American children remaining in the U.S. and cannot be explained by their weakly negative selection into emigration. We conclude that country of residence is a far more important determinant of schooling outcome than is migrant status in that country. PMID:20485536

  9. The Macrophage Galactose-Type C-Type Lectin (MGL Modulates Regulatory T Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Grazia Zizzari

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are physiologically designed to prevent autoimmune disease and maintain self-tolerance. In tumour microenvironments, their presence is related to a poor prognosis, and they influence the therapeutic outcome due to their capacity to suppress the immune response by cell-cell contact and to release immunosuppressive cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that Treg immunosuppressive activity can be modulated by the cross-linking between the CD45RA expressed by Tregs and the C-type lectin MGL. This specific interaction strongly decreases the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, restoring the proliferative capacity of co-cultured T lymphocytes. This effect can be attributed to changes in CD45RA and TCR signalling through the inhibition of Lck and inactivation of Zap-70, an increase in the Foxp3 methylation status and, ultimately, the reduced production of suppressive cytokines. These results indicate a role of MGL as an immunomodulator within the tumour microenvironment interfering with Treg functions, suggesting its possible use in the design of anticancer vaccines.

  10. β-cell replacement sources for type 1 diabetes: a focus on pancreatic ductal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corritore, Elisa; Lee, Yong-Syu; Sokal, Etienne M; Lysy, Philippe A

    2016-08-01

    Thorough research on the capacity of human islet transplantation to cure type 1 diabetes led to the achievement of 3- to 5-year-long insulin independence in nearly half of transplanted patients. Yet, translation of this technique to clinical routine is limited by organ shortage and the need for long-term immunosuppression, restricting its use to adults with unstable disease. The production of new bona fide β cells in vitro was thus investigated and finally achieved with human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Besides ethical concerns about the use of human embryos, studies are now evaluating the possibility of circumventing the spontaneous tumor formation associated with transplantation of PSCs. These issues fueled the search for cell candidates for β-cell engineering with safe profiles for clinical translation. In vivo studies revealed the regeneration capacity of the exocrine pancreas after injury that depends at least partially on facultative progenitors in the ductal compartment. These stimulated subpopulations of pancreatic ductal cells (PDCs) underwent β-cell transdifferentiation through reactivation of embryonic signaling pathways. In vitro models for expansion and differentiation of purified PDCs toward insulin-producing cells were described using cocktails of growth factors, extracellular-matrix proteins and transcription factor overexpression. In this review, we will describe the latest findings in pancreatic β-cell mass regeneration due to adult ductal progenitor cells. We will further describe recent advances in human PDC transdifferentiation to insulin-producing cells with potential for clinical translational studies. PMID:27540464

  11. The literature of Slovenian political emigrants in Argentina after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Uršula Geršak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War many political emigrants escaped from Slovenia to Argentina, among them leaders and soldiers of the home guard (belogardisti, sympathizers of the fascist forces, opponents of communism and their families, who were persecuted by the Yugoslav socialist regime. Among them were many intellectuals and artists, typically of right-wing political conviction and of Christian faith. In Argentina, they founded a hermetic community that kept the Slovenian language and traditional values, and hoped that one day they could return. People in the former Yugoslavia knew nothing about them or their activities or indeed about events after the war from the point of view of the Other. This paper reviews the historical circumstances that led to the emigration, the organization of the émigré community and their cultural life in Argentina, their literature, mainly novels and their ensconcement in another time and space, which is the time and space of memory and an idealized homeland. They were culturally very active and wrote mostly in Slovenian. It was not until the second generation and after Slovenia‘s independence when they published several works in Spanish. Mostly they wrote historical novels, memoirs, dealing with unhealed wounds years after the Second World War, exile, life in refugee camps, post-war killings. Many of the works are ideologically laden, moralistic and idealizing life in Slovenia before the War. Due to their close community, literary works are often subject to some kind of ‚(self censorship‘. Nevertheless, after Slovenia‘s independence, albeit with a delay, some of their works, because of their aesthetic and cultural values have become part of the national literatary canon and school textbooks.

  12. Stem cell approaches for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan T; Lewis, Jennifer; Cooney, Austin; Chan, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by near total absence of pancreatic b cells. Current treatments consisting of insulin injections and islet transplantation are clinically unsatisfactory. In order to develop a cure for type 1 diabetes, we must find a way to reverse autoimmunity, which underlies b cell destruction, as well as an effective strategy to generate new b cells. This article reviews the different approaches that are being taken to produce new b cells. Much emphasis has been placed on selecting the right non-b cell population, either in vivo or in vitro, as the starting material. Different cell types, including adult stem cells, other types of progenitor cells in situ, and even differentiated cell populations, as well as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, will require different methods for islet and b cell induction. We discussed the pros and cons of the different strategies that are being used to re-invent the pancreatic b cell. PMID:20801414

  13. Shape Optimization of ‘S’ Type Load Cell Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. S. M. Ghanvat; Prof. H. G. Patil

    2012-01-01

    In this work 'S' type load cell is considered for shape optimization by using finite element method. The shape optimization is carried out to minimize the weight of 'S' type load cell without exceeding allowable strain. The intention of the work is to create the geometry of ‘S’ type load cell to find out the optimum solution. FEM software ANSYS is used for shape optimization of ‘S’ type load cell. If the stress

  14. The statistical geometry of transcriptome divergence in cell-type evolution and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Cong; Forrest, Alistair R R; Wagner, Günter P; Clevers, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In evolution, body plan complexity increases due to an increase in the number of individualized cell types. Yet, there is very little understanding of the mechanisms that produce this form of organismal complexity. One model for the origin of novel cell types is the sister cell-type model. According

  15. Alveolar epithelial type II cells induce T cell tolerance to specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Bernice; Hansen, Søren; Evans, Kathy; Heath, John K; Wright, Jo Rae

    2008-01-01

    The lungs face the immunologic challenge of rapidly eliminating inhaled pathogens while maintaining tolerance to innocuous Ags. A break in this immune homeostasis may result in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or asthma. The observation that alveolar epithelial type II cells (Ty...

  16. Evidence for Differential Glycosylation of Trophoblast Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Pang, Poh-Choo; Cohen, Marie E; Longtine, Mark S; Schust, Danny J; Haslam, Stuart M; Blois, Sandra M; Dell, Anne; Clark, Gary F

    2016-06-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), with a layer of cytotrophoblasts (CTB) positioned just beneath the STB. STB in normal term pregnancies is exposed to maternal immune cells in the placental intervillous space. Extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) invade the decidua and spiral arteries, where they act in conjunction with natural killer (NK) cells to convert the spiral arteries into flaccid conduits for maternal blood that support a 3-4 fold increase in the rate of maternal blood flow into the placental intervillous space. The functional roles of these distinct trophoblast subtypes during pregnancy suggested that they could be differentially glycosylated. Glycomic analysis of these trophoblasts has revealed the expression of elevated levels of biantennary N-glycans in STB and CTB, with the majority of them bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycans terminated with polylactosamine extensions were also detected at low levels. A subset of the N-glycans linked to these trophoblasts were sialylated, primarily with terminal NeuAcα2-3Gal sequences. EVT were decorated with the same N-glycans as STB and CTB, except in different proportions. The level of bisecting type N-glycans was reduced, but the level of N-glycans decorated with polylactosamine sequences were substantially elevated compared with the other types of trophoblasts. The level of triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans was also elevated in EVT. The sialylated N-glycans derived from EVT were completely susceptible to an α2-3 specific neuraminidase (sialidase S). The possibility exists that the N-glycans associated with these different trophoblast subpopulations could act as functional groups. These potential relationships will be considered. PMID:26929217

  17. Galvanic Cell Type Sensor for Soil Moisture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Pramod; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2015-07-21

    Here we report the first potentiometric sensor for soil moisture analysis by bringing in the concept of Galvanic cells wherein the redox energies of Al and conducting polyaniline are exploited to design a battery type sensor. The sensor consists of only simple architectural components, and as such they are inexpensive and lightweight, making it suitable for on-site analysis. The sensing mechanism is proved to be identical to a battery type discharge reaction wherein polyaniline redox energy changes from the conducting to the nonconducting state with a resulting voltage shift in the presence of soil moisture. Unlike the state of the art soil moisture sensors, a signal derived from the proposed moisture sensor is probe size independent, as it is potentiometric in nature and, hence, can be fabricated in any shape or size and can provide a consistent output signal under the strong aberration conditions often encountered in soil moisture analysis. The sensor is regenerable by treating with 1 M HCl and can be used for multiple analysis with little read out hysteresis. Further, a portable sensor is fabricated which can provide warning signals to the end user when the moisture levels in the soil go below critically low levels, thereby functioning as a smart device. As the sensor is inexpensive, portable, and potentiometric, it opens up avenues for developing effective and energy efficient irrigation strategies, understanding the heat and water transfer at the atmosphere-land interface, understanding soil mechanics, forecasting the risk of natural calamities, and so on. PMID:26098202

  18. Secretion of mucus proteinase inhibitor and elafin by Clara cell and type II pneumocyte cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M; Silva, A; Marsden, M E; Ryle, A P

    1993-02-01

    The regulation of proteinases secreted by neutrophils is very important for the prevention of tissue injury. We recently described the isolation of elafin from bronchial secretions, a new elastase-specific inhibitor that is also found in the skin of patients with psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the secretion of elafin and mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI), another inhibitor showing sequence similarity with elafin, in two lung carcinoma cell lines, NCI-H322 and A549, which have features of Clara cells and type II alveolar cells, respectively. The results presented show that the two inhibitors are produced when the cells are cultured either in serum-free or in serum-containing media. MPI was detected immunologically as a unique molecule of M(r) 14 kD, in accordance with previous studies. Conversely, one or two elafin-immunoreactive species were detected depending on the cell line: a 12- to 14-kD species was observed in the A549 cell line, regardless of the culture conditions, whereas in the NCI-H322 cell line we detected a 6-kD species in serum-containing (10% fetal calf serum) conditions and a 12- to 14-kD species in serum-free conditions. The 12- to 14-kD molecule probably represents an active precursor of elafin. Whether the cleavage of the 12- to 14-kD precursor giving rise to the elafin molecule is of any physiologic significance is not known. In showing for the first time that MPI and elafin (and its precursor) are secreted by the A549 cell line, this report implicates the type II alveolar cell in the defense of the peripheral lung against the neutrophil elastase secreted during inflammation. PMID:8427705

  19. Functional Proteomics Screen Enables Enrichment of Distinct Cell Types from Human Pancreatic Islets

    OpenAIRE

    Revital Sharivkin; Walker, Michael D.; Yoav Soen

    2015-01-01

    The current world-wide epidemic of diabetes has prompted attempts to generate new sources of insulin-producing cells for cell replacement therapy. An inherent challenge in many of these strategies is the lack of cell-surface markers permitting isolation and characterization of specific cell types from differentiating stem cell populations. Here we introduce an iterative proteomics procedure allowing tag-free isolation of cell types based on their function. Our method detects and associates sp...

  20. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aml Mohamed Nada Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods: This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results: Red cell distribution width (RDW was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008. It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7% than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035. Mean platelet volume (MPV was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238. RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion: RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in

  1. IL-25 simultaneously elicits distinct populations of innate lymphoid cells and multipotent progenitor type 2 (MPPtype2) cells

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz, Steven A.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Ziegler, Carly G. K.; Kim, Brian S.; Brestoff, Jonathan R.; Peterson, Lance W.; Wherry, E. John; Goldrath, Ananda W; Bhandoola, Avinash; Artis, David

    2013-01-01

    The predominantly epithelial cell–derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) can promote CD4+ Th2 cell–dependent immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair at barrier surfaces through the induction of multiple innate immune cell populations. IL-25 and IL-33 were previously shown to elicit four innate cell populations, named natural helper cells, nuocytes, innate type 2 helper cells, and multipotent progenitor type 2 (MPPtype2) cells, now collectively termed group 2...

  2. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  3. Internalisation of engineered nanoparticles into mammalian cells in vitro: influence of cell type and particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular internalisation of industrial engineered nanoparticles is undesired and a reason for concern. Here we investigated and compared the ability of seven different mammalian cell cultures in vitro to incorporate six kinds of engineered nanoparticles, focussing on the role of cell type and particle properties in particle uptake. Uptake was examined using light and electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for particle element identification. Flow cytometry was applied for semi-quantitative analyses of particle uptake and for exploring the influence on uptake by the phagocytosis inhibitor Cytochalasin D (CytoD). All particles studied were found to enter each kind of cultured cells. Yet, particles were never found within cell nuclei. The presence of the respective particles within the cells was confirmed by EDX. Live-cell imaging revealed the time-dependent process of internalisation of technical nanoparticles, which was exemplified by tungsten carbide particle uptake into the human skin cells, HaCaT. Particles were found to co-localise with lysosomal structures within the cells. The incorporated nanoparticles changed the cellular granularity, as measured by flow cytometry, already after 3 h of exposure in a particle specific manner. By correlating particle properties with flow cytometry data, only the primary particle size was found to be a weakly influential property for particle uptake. CytoD, an inhibitor of actin filaments and therewith of phagocytosis, significantly inhibited the internalisation of particle uptake in only two of the seven investigated cell cultures. Our study, therefore, supports the notion that nanoparticles can enter mammalian cells quickly and easily, irrespective of the phagocytic ability of the cells.

  4. Trophic significance of solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa depends on cell type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja

    2006-01-01

    With the use of five different isolates of Phaeocystis globosa solitary cells from the North Sea, we conducted experiments to reveal whether grazing and development of the nauplii of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis varies in response to the cell type. Two P. globosa strains representing n...... of mesoflagellates. Our results suggest that grazing loss and trophic transfer efficiency might be overestimated when solitary cells are treated as a single functional group with regard to their trophic position....... nonflagellated cells were ingested at intermediate to high rates and resulted in high survival and development, comparable to the Rhodomonas sp. control. In contrast, the response to three mesoflagellate strains was highly variable. Feeding on two of these strains was avoided, whereas the third strain was...... ingested; however, the mesoflagellates induced poor survival and development regardless of the feeding response. These observations differ from previous results, which generally demonstrate microzooplankton feeding on Phaeocystis. The morphological characterization of strains, together with mixture...

  5. Lineage relationship of prostate cancer cell types based on gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ware Carol B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate tumor heterogeneity is a major factor in disease management. Heterogeneity could be due to multiple cancer cell types with distinct gene expression. Of clinical importance is the so-called cancer stem cell type. Cell type-specific transcriptomes are used to examine lineage relationship among cancer cell types and their expression similarity to normal cell types including stem/progenitor cells. Methods Transcriptomes were determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis for the following cell types. Putative prostate progenitor cell populations were characterized and isolated by expression of the membrane transporter ABCG2. Stem cells were represented by embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cells. The cancer cell types were Gleason pattern 3 (glandular histomorphology and pattern 4 (aglandular sorted from primary tumors, cultured prostate cancer cell lines originally established from metastatic lesions, xenografts LuCaP 35 (adenocarcinoma phenotype and LuCaP 49 (neuroendocrine/small cell carcinoma grown in mice. No detectable gene expression differences were detected among serial passages of the LuCaP xenografts. Results Based on transcriptomes, the different cancer cell types could be clustered into a luminal-like grouping and a non-luminal-like (also not basal-like grouping. The non-luminal-like types showed expression more similar to that of stem/progenitor cells than the luminal-like types. However, none showed expression of stem cell genes known to maintain stemness. Conclusions Non-luminal-like types are all representatives of aggressive disease, and this could be attributed to the similarity in overall gene expression to stem and progenitor cell types.

  6. Amiloride-sensitive channels in type I fungiform taste cells in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clapp Tod R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste buds are the sensory organs of taste perception. Three types of taste cells have been described. Type I cells have voltage-gated outward currents, but lack voltage-gated inward currents. These cells have been presumed to play only a support role in the taste bud. Type II cells have voltage-gated Na+ and K+ current, and the receptors and transduction machinery for bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Type III cells have voltage-gated Na+, K+, and Ca2+ currents, and make prominent synapses with afferent nerve fibers. Na+ salt transduction in part involves amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs. In rodents, these channels are located in taste cells of fungiform papillae on the anterior part of the tongue innervated by the chorda tympani nerve. However, the taste cell type that expresses ENaCs is not known. This study used whole cell recordings of single fungiform taste cells of transgenic mice expressing GFP in Type II taste cells to identify the taste cells responding to amiloride. We also used immunocytochemistry to further define and compare cell types in fungiform and circumvallate taste buds of these mice. Results Taste cell types were identified by their response to depolarizing voltage steps and their presence or absence of GFP fluorescence. TRPM5-GFP taste cells expressed large voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents, but lacked voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, as expected from previous studies. Approximately half of the unlabeled cells had similar membrane properties, suggesting they comprise a separate population of Type II cells. The other half expressed voltage-gated outward currents only, typical of Type I cells. A single taste cell had voltage-gated Ca2+ current characteristic of Type III cells. Responses to amiloride occurred only in cells that lacked voltage-gated inward currents. Immunocytochemistry showed that fungiform taste buds have significantly fewer Type II cells expressing PLC signalling

  7. Development of K+ and Na+ conductances in rodent postnatal semicircular canal type I hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gang Q.; Meredith, Frances L.; Rennie, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The rodent vestibular system is immature at birth. During the first postnatal week, vestibular type I and type II hair cells start to acquire their characteristic morphology and afferent innervation. We have studied postnatal changes in the membrane properties of type I hair cells acutely isolated from the semicircular canals (SCC) of gerbils and rats using whole cell patch clamp and report for the first time developmental changes in ionic conductances in these cells. At postnatal day (P) 5 i...

  8. Type IV collagen stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and inhibits apoptosis through an autocrine loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer shows a highly aggressive and infiltrative growth pattern and is characterized by an abundant tumor stroma known to interact with the cancer cells, and to influence tumor growth and drug resistance. Cancer cells actively take part in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, which then become deposited into the tumor stroma. Type IV collagen, an important component of the basement membrane, is highly expressed by pancreatic cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, the cellular effects of type IV collagen produced by the cancer cells were characterized. The expression of type IV collagen and its integrin receptors were examined in vivo in human pancreatic cancer tissue. The cellular effects of type IV collagen were studied in pancreatic cancer cell lines by reducing type IV collagen expression through RNA interference and by functional receptor blocking of integrins and their binding-sites on the type IV collagen molecule. We show that type IV collagen is expressed close to the cancer cells in vivo, forming basement membrane like structures on the cancer cell surface that colocalize with the integrin receptors. Furthermore, the interaction between type IV collagen produced by the cancer cell, and integrins on the surface of the cancer cells, are important for continuous cancer cell growth, maintenance of a migratory phenotype, and for avoiding apoptosis. We show that type IV collagen provides essential cell survival signals to the pancreatic cancer cells through an autocrine loop

  9. Internationally recruited nurses from India and the Philippines in the United Kingdom: the decision to emigrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maben Jill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom has recruited nurses from countries with a reported surplus in their nursing workforce, such as India and the Philippines. However, little is known about the decision to emigrate made by nurses from these countries. One theory suggests that individuals weigh the benefits and costs of migration: the push and pull factors. This paper challenges the restricted economic focus of this predominant theory and compares the diverse motivations of nurses from different countries as well as those of nurses with previous migratory experience and first-time migrants. Methods This research was undertaken in a National Health Service acute trust in London by means of a qualitative interpretative approach. Data were collected through face-to-face longitudinal and cross-sectional interviews with internationally recruited nurses from India (n = 6 and the Philippines (n = 15; and analysis of their narratives was used to generate data about their expectations and experiences. Data were analysed by means of a framework approach that allowed for intra-case and cross-case analysis. Results From an individual perspective, nurses in this study reported economic reasons as the main trigger for migration in the first instance. Yet this doesn't entirely explain the decision to move from previous migratory destinations (e.g. Saudi Arabia where economic needs are already fulfilled. In these cases migration is influenced by professional and social aspirations that highlight the influence of the cultural environment – specifically some religious and gender-related issues. Family support and support from migratory networks in the country of origin and destination were also important elements conducive to and supportive of migration. Nurses from India report coming to the United Kingdom to stay, while Filipina nurses come as temporary migrants sending remittances to support their families in the Philippines. Conclusion This study shows

  10. Environmental correlates of temporary emigration for female Weddell seals and consequences for recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Glenn E.; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.; Kendall, William

    2014-01-01

    In colonial-breeding species, prebreeders often emigrate temporarily from natal reproductive colonies then subsequently return for one or more years before producing young. Variation in attendance–nonattendance patterns can have implications for subsequent recruitment. We used open robust-design multistate models and 28 years of encounter data for prebreeding female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii [Lesson]) to evaluate hypotheses about (1) the relationships of temporary emigration (TE) probabilities to environmental and population size covariates and (2) motivations for attendance and consequences of nonattendance for subsequent probability of recruitment to the breeding population. TE probabilities were density dependent (βˆBPOP = 0.66,  = 0.17; estimated effects [β] and standard errors of population size in the previous year) and increased when the fast-ice edge was distant from the breeding colonies (βˆDIST = 0.75,  = 0.04; estimated effects and standard errors of distance to the sea-ice edge in the current year on TE probability in the current year) and were strongly age and state dependent. These results suggest that trade-offs between potential benefits and costs of colony attendance vary annually and might influence motivation to attend colonies. Recruitment probabilities were greatest for seals that consistently attended colonies in two or more years (e.g.,  = 0.56, SD = 0.17) and lowest for seals that never or inconsistently attended prior to recruitment (e.g.,  = 0.32, SD = 0.15), where denotes the mean recruitment probability (over all years) for 10-year-old seals for the specified prebreeder state. In colonial-breeding seabirds, repeated colony attendance increases subsequent probability of recruitment to the adult breeding population; our results suggest similar implications for a marine mammal and are consistent with the hypothesis that prebreeders were motivated to attend reproductive colonies to gain reproductive skills or

  11. Sex-differences in lung cancer cell-types? An epidemiologic study in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Luke; Kabir, Zubair; Connolly, Gregrory N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses the epidemiological pattern of lung cancer cell-types in Ireland, with identification of any underlying gender variations. Methods: Lung cancer incidence data, including the major cell-types: squamous-cell-carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), small-cell-lung-carcinoma (SCLC) and large-cell-carcinoma (LCC) were obtained from the national cancer registry (1994–2000), together with individual characteristics, such as age, gender, smoking status, and the year of di...

  12. Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway.

  13. Isolation of alveolar epithelial type II progenitor cells from adult human lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Hegab, Ahmed E.; He, Mei; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Takashi; Kato, Hidemasa; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2010-01-01

    Resident stem/progenitor cells in the lung are important for tissue homeostasis and repair. However, a progenitor population for alveolar type II (ATII) cells in adult human lungs has not been identified. The aim of this study is to isolate progenitor cells from adult human lungs with the ability to differentiate into ATII cells. We isolated colony-forming cells that had the capability for self-renewal and the potential to generate ATII cells in vitro. These undifferentiated progenitor cells ...

  14. Oxygen sensing in neuroendocrine cells and other cell types: pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Zachary; Millhorn, David E

    2003-01-01

    A steady supply of oxygen is an absolute requirement for mammalian cells to maintain normal cellular functions. To answer the challenge that oxygen deprivation represents, mammals have evolved specialized cell types that can sense changes in oxygen tension and alter gene expression to enhance oxygen delivery to hypoxic areas. These oxygensensing cells are rare and difficult to study in vivo. As a result, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have become a vital in vitro model system for deciphering the molecular events that confer the hypoxia-resistant and oxygen-sensing phenotypes. Research over the last few years has revealed that the hypoxia response in PC12 cells involves the interactions of several signal transduction pathways (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases, Akt, SAPKs, and MAPKs) and transcription factors (HIFs, CREB, and c-fos/junB). This review summarizes the current understanding of the role these signal transduction pathways and transcription factors play in determining the hypoxic response. PMID:14739486

  15. CD4+ type II NKT cells mediate ICOS and programmed death-1-dependent regulation of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Nadir; Korpos, Eva; Gupta, Shashank;

    2012-01-01

    exhibited a memory phenotype including high ICOS expression, increased cytokine production, and limited display of NK cell markers, compared with double-negative 24aß NKT cells. Blocking of ICOS or the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 pathway was shown to abolish the regulation that occurred......Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that results from T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic ß cells. CD1d-restricted NKT lymphocytes have the ability to regulate immunity, including autoimmunity. We previously demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells, which carry...... diverse TCRs, prevented T1D in the NOD mouse model for the human disease. In this study, we show that CD4(+) 24aß type II NKT cells, but not CD4/CD8 double-negative NKT cells, were sufficient to downregulate diabetogenic CD4(+) BDC2.5 NOD T cells in adoptive transfer experiments. CD4(+) 24aß NKT cells...

  16. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhen eQiao; Marc eLibault

    2013-01-01

    Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i....

  17. Concise Review: Methods and Cell Types Used to Generate Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hibaoui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21, is the most common viable chromosomal disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births. Its phenotypic characteristics include intellectual impairment and several other developmental abnormalities, for the majority of which the pathogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Several models have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which the extra copy of chromosome 21 leads to the DS phenotype. In the last five years, several laboratories have been successful in reprogramming patient cells carrying the trisomy 21 anomaly into induced pluripotent stem cells, i.e., T21-iPSCs. In this review, we summarize the different T21-iPSCs that have been generated with a particular interest in the technical procedures and the somatic cell types used for the reprogramming.

  18. Expression weighted cell type enrichments reveal genetic and cellular nature of major brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Gerald Skene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment (EWCE method that uses single cell transcriptomes to generate the probability distribution associated with a gene list having an average level of expression within a cell type. Following validation, we applied EWCE to human genetic data from cases of epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Autism, Intellectual Disability, Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and anxiety disorders. Genetic susceptibility primarily affected microglia in Alzheimer’s and Multiple Sclerosis; was shared between interneurons and pyramidal neurons in Autism and Schizophrenia; while intellectual disabilities and epilepsy were attributable to a range of cell-types, with the strongest enrichment in interneurons. We hypothesised that the primary cell type pathology could trigger secondary changes in other cell types and these could be detected by applying EWCE to transcriptome data from diseased tissue. In Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease we find evidence of pathological changes in all of the major brain cell types. These findings give novel insight into the cellular origins and progression in common brain disorders. The methods can be applied to any tissue and disorder and have applications in validating mouse models.

  19. Computational and experimental single cell biology techniques for the definition of cell type heterogeneity, interplay and intracellular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vargas Roditi, Laura; Claassen, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Novel technological developments enable single cell population profiling with respect to their spatial and molecular setup. These include single cell sequencing, flow cytometry and multiparametric imaging approaches and open unprecedented possibilities to learn about the heterogeneity, dynamics and interplay of the different cell types which constitute tissues and multicellular organisms. Statistical and dynamic systems theory approaches have been applied to quantitatively describe a variety of cellular processes, such as transcription and cell signaling. Machine learning approaches have been developed to define cell types, their mutual relationships, and differentiation hierarchies shaping heterogeneous cell populations, yielding insights into topics such as, for example, immune cell differentiation and tumor cell type composition. This combination of experimental and computational advances has opened perspectives towards learning predictive multi-scale models of heterogeneous cell populations. PMID:25461506

  20. Derivation of rigorous conditions for high cell-type diversity by algebraic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Anai, Hirokazu; Horimoto, Katsuhisa

    2007-01-01

    The development of a multicellular organism is a dynamic process. Starting with one or a few cells, the organism develops into different types of cells with distinct functions. We have constructed a simple model by considering the cell number increase and the cell-type order conservation, and have assessed conditions for cell-type diversity. This model is based on a stochastic Lindenmayer system with cell-to-cell interactions for three types of cells. In the present model, we have successfully derived complex but rigorous algebraic relations between the proliferation and transition rates for cell-type diversity by using a symbolic method: quantifier elimination (QE). Surprisingly, three modes for the proliferation and transition rates have emerged for large ratios of the initial cells to the developed cells. The three modes have revealed that the equality between the development rates for the highest cell-type diversity is reduced during the development process of multicellular organisms. Furthermore, we have found that the highest cell-type diversity originates from order conservation. PMID:17293029

  1. Delayed Workforce Entry and High Emigration Rates for Recent Canadian Radiation Oncology Graduates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Shaun K., E-mail: shaun.loewen@cancercare.mb.ca [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Halperin, Ross; Lefresne, Shilo [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stuckless, Teri [Dr H. Bliss Murphy Cancer Centre, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Brundage, Michael [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the employment status and location of recent Canadian radiation oncology (RO) graduates and to identify current workforce entry trends. Methods and Materials: A fill-in-the-blank spreadsheet was distributed to all RO program directors in December 2013 and June 2014, requesting the employment status and location of their graduates over the last 3 years. Visa trainee graduates were excluded. Results: Response rate from program directors was 100% for both survey administrations. Of 101 graduates identified, 99 (98%) had known employment status and location. In the December survey, 5 2013 graduates (16%), 17 2012 graduates (59%), and 18 2011 graduates (75%) had permanent staff employment. Six months later, 5 2014 graduates (29%), 15 2013 graduates (48%), 24 2012 graduates (83%), and 21 2011 graduates (88%) had secured staff positions. Fellowships and temporary locums were common for those without staff employment. The proportion of graduates with staff positions abroad increased from 22% to 26% 6 months later. Conclusions: Workforce entry for most RO graduates was delayed but showed steady improvement with longer time after graduation. High emigration rates for jobs abroad signify domestic employment challenges for newly certified, Canadian-trained radiation oncologists. Coordination on a national level is required to address and regulate radiation oncologist supply and demand disequilibrium in Canada.

  2. The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilleke, G

    1995-01-01

    This study of emigration from Sri Lanka is introduced by a brief review of the situation during the colonial period and an overview of recent migration experience. The second section of the paper deals with data collection and sources for labor migration, political migration, and estimates of total net migration. The third section looks at economic and demographic trends in terms of the growth of the economy, population growth and social well-being, the growth of the labor force, unemployment, the structure of the work force, internal migration and access to agricultural lands, and income distribution and poverty. The sociocultural setting is then explored by considering exposure to the international environment, ethnicity and cultural affinity, the formation of information and job placement networks, the supportive role of the family, and the impact of success and failure. Moving on the influence of the political setting, the paper then discusses the government policy of foreign employment promotion as well as the influence of political developments on migration. In conclusion, the paper notes that future demand for domestic service workers will likely increase, and that Sri Lanka will continue to have a surplus of workers to fill this demand until the end of the 1990s, when a tightening domestic labor market and increased real wages will ease the push for migration. Political factors will continue to favor migration, however, unless a liberal democratic regime becomes the governing force in Sri Lanka. PMID:12347013

  3. [Recall of traumatic life events at the time of national socialism in (former) Jewish emigrants and concentration camp prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, A; Schmitt, E

    1998-04-01

    Semi-structured interviews with 248 (former) Jewish emigrants and extermination camp survivors in Germany and three destination countries of Jewish emigration (Argentina, Israel, United States) indicate that reminiscence of traumatic experiences suffered from National Socialist Germany occurs in numerous daily contexts. In later life, traumatic memories do not only occur spontaneously and unexpectedly; moreover, they are an essential part of the people's frame of reference for questions about personal identity, perceptions of social relationships, society and societal development, and coping with specific themes. Following a pilot study on subjective reconstruction of the life course in (former) Jewish emigrants and extermination camp survivors, different phases of post-holocaust development are distinguished. Self-ratings for intensity of traumatic reminiscence for these phases of personal development support the hypothesis that traumatic reminiscence increased in old age. People highly differ in coping with stressful reminiscence. Some study participants react with depression, anxiety, feelings of survivor guilt, and withdrawal from social relationships. Others, however, are highly engaged in social relationships, especially with the following generations. They want to give a contribution to the educational work of their society and to prevent discrimination, racism, and xenophobia. PMID:9610507

  4. p-type MWT. Integrated Cell and Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tool, C.J.J.; Kossen, E.J.; Bennett, I.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    A major issue of concern in MWT (metal wrap-through) solar cells is the increased leakage current at reversed bias voltage through the vias compared. At ECN we have been working on reducing this leakage current to levels comparable to H-pattern cells. In this study we present the results of this work. We further show the benefit of a combined cell and module design for MWT solar cells. At the cell level, MWT production costs per wafer are comparable with H-pattern while the cell output increases. At the module level this design results in a further increase of the power output.

  5. p-Type MWT. Integrated cell and module technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tool, C.J.J.; Kossen, E.J.; Bennett, I.J.

    2013-10-15

    A major issue of concern in MWT solar cells is the increased leakage current at reversed bias voltage through the vias compared. At ECN we have been working on reducing this leakage current to levels comparable to H-pattern cells. In this study we present the results of this work. We further show the benefit of a combined cell and module design for MWT solar cells. At the cell level, MWT production costs per wafer are comparable with H-pattern while the cell output increases. At the module level this design results in a further increase of the power output.

  6. Implementation of additional cell types for transformation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our experience with 10T1/2 cells, the cell line generally used for such experiments, indicates that these cells are not suitable for our studies. We have recently made arrangements to obtain two additional cell lines recently developed by G.W. Barendsen. One of these, the NBCH-3 cell line, was derived from a clone which developed spontaneously in a primary cell culture of tissues from a newborn Chinese hamster. The assay procedure to be used with this cell line is the same as that for the C3H 10T1/2 cells; however, clonal development and morphology are considerably clearer. In addition, another cell line, denoted WAGR-2, was also derived in Barendsen's laboratory from the tissues of a newborn Wistar rat. The origin of the cells is again uncertain, but the procedures used for determining transformation frequencies with this cell line are essentially the same as for C3H 10T1/2 cells. Use of one or both of these new cell systems for our transformation experiments should not only increase the capabilities of the studies, but their use should make the assay both more accurate and simpler to perform

  7. Tumor Budding Cells, Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-type Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EvaKaramitopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is one of the most lethal cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Moreover, PDAC escapes early detection and resists treatment. Multiple combinations of genetic alterations are known to occur in PDAC including mutational activation of KRAS, inactivation of p16/CDKN2A and SMAD4 (DPC4 and dysregulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling. Through their interaction with WNT pathway, the downstream molecules of these pathways have been implicated in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs, small populations of which have been identified in PDAC, and EMT-type cells play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. EMT may be histologically represented by the presence of tumor budding which is described as the occurrence of single tumor cells or small clusters (<5 of dedifferentiated cells at the invasive front of gastrointestinal (including colorectal, oesophageal, gastric and ampullary carcinomas and is linked to poor prognosis. Tumor budding has recently been shown to occur frequently in PDAC and to be associated with adverse clinicopathological features and decreased disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this review is to present a short overview on the morphological and molecular aspects that underline the relationship between tumor budding cells, CSCs and EMT-type cells in PDAC.

  8. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases. PMID:25528359

  9. Cell-type specific light-mediated transcript regulation in the multicellular alga Volvox carteri

    OpenAIRE

    Kianianmomeni, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri makes use of none less than 13 photoreceptors, which are mostly expressed in a cell-type specific manner. This gives reason to believe that trasncriptome pattern of each cell type could change differentially in response to environmental light. Here, the cell-type specific changes of various transcripts from different pathways in response to blue, red and far-red light were analyzed. Results In response to different light qualities, distin...

  10. Identification of major cell types in paraffin sections of bovine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Pessa-Morikawa Tiina; Ekman Anna; Niku Mikael; Iivanainen Antti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of cell types in bovine tissue sections is complicated by the limited availability of anti-bovine antibodies, and by antigen retrieval treatments required for formalin-fixed tissue samples. We have evaluated an antibody and lectin panel for identifying major cell types in paraffin-embedded bovine tissue sections, and report optimized pretreatments for these markers. Results We selected 31 useful antibodies and lectins which can be used to identify cell types...

  11. Defining Characteristics of Types I and II Apoptotic Cells in Response to TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Özören

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I cells have been defined to be independent of mitochondria for the induction of Fas death receptormediated apoptosis, whereas Type II cells are mitochondria-dependent. Knock-out studies in mice show that thymocytes are Type I and liver cells are Type II. We have previously shown that primary human hepatocytes and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells behave like Type II cells because TRAIL-induced apoptosis can be blocked by the caspase 9 inhibitor, Z-LEHD-FMK. On the other hand, caspase 9 inhibition does not allow survival of TRAIL-treated SW480 colon cancer cells, which is predicted for Type I cells. Investigating the differences in TRAIL-induced apoptotic pathways in HCT116 and SW480 cells revealed that although FADD, BID, and procaspase 3 protein levels are higher in SW480 cells, and although procaspase 8 and FLIP processing is more efficient at the TRAIL-DISC of SW480 cells, BID, procaspase 3, XIAP, and PARP cleavages occur more rapidly in HCT116, despite the higher levels of BCL-2 and HSP70. Cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm is more efficient in HCT116 cells. These results suggest BID cleavage as a possible limiting factor in the involvement of mitochondria in TRAIL-induced cell death. Thus, regulation of BID cleavage may define if a cell is mitochondria-dependent or -independent in response to TRAIL death receptor-induced apoptosis.

  12. Induction of chromosome aberrations in two lines of cultured cells using different types of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of chromosome aberrations has been investigated in two lines of cultured cells for different types of radiation. The obtained results are compared with information on induction of cell reproductive death and malignant transformation. (Auth.)

  13. Scientists Say They've Created New Type of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientists Say They've Created New Type of Stem Cells Carrying just one copy of human DNA instead ... HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they have created embryonic stem cells with just one copy of human DNA instead ...

  14. Can widely used cell type markers predict the suitability of immortalized or primary mammary epithelial cell models?

    OpenAIRE

    Ontsouka, Edgar; Bertschi, Janique Sabina; Huang, Xiao; Lüthi, Michael; Müller, Stefan Jürg; Albrecht, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mammary cell cultures are convenient tools for in vitro studies of mammary gland biology. However, the heterogeneity of mammary cell types, e.g., glandular milk secretory epithelial or myoepithelial cells, often complicates the interpretation of cell-based data. The present study was undertaken to determine the relevance of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells isolated from American Holstein (bMECUS) or Swiss Holstein-Friesian (bMECCH) cows, and of primary bovine mammary alv...

  15. Can widely used cell type markers predict the suitability of immortalized or primary mammary epithelial cell models?

    OpenAIRE

    Ontsouka, Edgar Corneille; Bertschi, Janique Sabina; Huang, Xiao; Lüthi, Michael; Müller, Stefan; Albrecht, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Background Mammary cell cultures are convenient tools for in vitro studies of mammary gland biology. However, the heterogeneity of mammary cell types, e.g., glandular milk secretory epithelial or myoepithelial cells, often complicates the interpretation of cell-based data. The present study was undertaken to determine the relevance of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells isolated from American Holstein (bMECUS) or Swiss Holstein–Friesian (bMECCH) cows, and of primary bovine mammary alveola...

  16. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James T Taylor; Xiang-Bin Zeng; Jonathan E Pottle; Kevin Lee; Alun R Wang; Stephenie G Yi; Jennifer A S Scruggs; Suresh S Sikka; Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells,free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear;however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel isminimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers.

  17. Jamming dynamics of stretch-induced surfactant release by alveolar type II cells

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Arnab; Arold, Stephen P.; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Suki, Béla

    2011-01-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar epithelial type II cells is vital for the reduction of interfacial surface tension, thus preventing lung collapse. To study secretion dynamics, rat alveolar epithelial type II cells were cultured on elastic membranes and cyclically stretched. The amounts of phosphatidylcholine, the primary lipid component of surfactant, inside and outside the cells, were measured using radiolabeled choline. During and immediately after stretch, cells secreted less...

  18. Cell-Type Specific Four-Component Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Aberle; Katrin Franke; Elke Rist; Karin Benz; Burkhard Schlosshauer

    2014-01-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin) to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel), an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appr...

  19. GATA-3 in Human T Cell Helper Type 2 Development

    OpenAIRE

    Skapenko, Alla; Leipe, Jan; Niesner, Uwe; Devriendt, Koen; Beetz, Rolf; Radbruch, Andreas; Kalden, Joachim R.; Lipsky, Peter E; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    The delineation of the in vivo role of GATA-3 in human T cell differentiation is a critical step in the understanding of molecular mechanisms directing human immune responses. We examined T cell differentiation and T cell–mediated effector functions in individuals lacking one functional GATA-3 allele. CD4 T cells from GATA-3+/− individuals expressed significantly reduced levels of GATA-3, associated with markedly decreased T helper cell (Th)2 frequencies in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Th2 ce...

  20. Immune polarization by hookworms: taking cues from T helper type 2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Meera G; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    Cellular and molecular investigation of parasitic helminth infections has greatly accelerated the understanding of type 2 immune responses. However, there remains considerable debate regarding the specific leucocytes that kill parasites and whether these mechanisms are distinct from those responsible for tissue repair. Herein, we chronicle discoveries over the past decade highlighting current paradigms in type 2 immunity with a particular emphasis upon how CD4(+) T helper type 2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages coordinately control helminth-induced parasitism. Primarily, this review will draw from studies of the murine nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which bears important similarities to the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Given that one or more hookworm species currently infect millions of individuals across the globe, we propose that vaccine and/or pharmaceutical-based cure strategies targeting these affected human populations should incorporate the conceptual advances outlined herein. PMID:26928141

  1. Type I collagen inhibits differentiation and promotes a stem cell-like phenotype in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, S. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human colorectal cancer is caused by mutations and is thought to be maintained by a population of cancer stem cells. Further phenotypic changes occurring at the invasive edge suggest that colon cancer cells are also regulated by their microenvironment. Type I collagen, a promoter of the malignant phenotype in pancreatic carcinoma cells, is highly expressed at the invasive front of human colorectal cancer. Methods: This study investigates the role of type I collagen in specifying t...

  2. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing

  3. Melanopsin Ganglion Cells Are the Most Resistant Retinal Ganglion Cell Type to Axonal Injury in the Rat Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; SARGOY, ALLISON; Rodriguez, Allen R.; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    We report that the most common retinal ganglion cell type that remains after optic nerve transection is the M1 melanopsin ganglion cell. M1 ganglion cells are members of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell population that mediates non-image-forming vision, comprising ∼2.5% of all ganglion cells in the rat retina. In the present study, M1 ganglion cells comprised 1.7±1%, 28±14%, 55±13% and 82±8% of the surviving ganglion cells 7, 14, 21 and 60 days after optic nerve transect...

  4. Isolation and characterization of alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanhuan; Quan, Yuan; Yan, Qing; Peng, Xinmiao; Mao, Zhengmei; Wetsel, Rick A; Wang, Dachun

    2014-06-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to regenerate distal lung epithelia damaged by injuries or diseases requires development of safe and efficient methodologies that direct ESC differentiation into transplantable distal lung epithelial progenitors. Time-consuming culture procedure and low differentiation efficiency are major problems that are associated with conventional differentiation approaches via embryoid body formation. The use of a growth factor cocktail or a lung-specific cell-conditioned medium to enrich definitive endoderm for efficient differentiation of mouse ESCs (mESC) into alveolar epithelial progenitor type II cells (ATIICs) has been reported, but not yet successful for generating a homogenous population of ATIICs for tissue regeneration purpose, and it remains unclear whether or not those mESC-derived ATIICs possess normal biological functions. Here, we report a novel method using a genetically modified mESC line harboring an ATIIC-specific neomycin(R) transgene in Rosa 26 locus. We showed that ATIICs can be efficiently differentiated from mESCs as early as day 7 by culturing them directly on Matrigel-coated plates in DMEM containing 15% knockout serum replacement. With this culture condition, the genetically modified mESCs can be selectively differentiated into a homogenous population (>99%) of ATIICs. Importantly, the mESC-derived ATIICs (mESC-ATIICs) exhibited typical lamellar bodies and expressed surfactant protein A, B, and C as normal control ATIICs. When cultured with an air-liquid-interface culture system in Small Airway Epithelial Cell Growth Medium, the mESC-ATIICs can be induced to secrete surfactant proteins after being treated with dibutyryl cAMP+dexamethasone. These mESC-ATIICs can synthesize and secrete surfactant lipid in response to secretagogue, demonstrating active surfactant metabolism in mESC-ATIICs as that seen in normal control ATIICs. In addition, we demonstrated that the selected mESC-ATIICs can be maintained on Matrigel

  5. A Possible Anticancer Agent, Type III Interferon, Activates Cell Death Pathways and Produces Antitumor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Tagawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently identified interleukin-28 and -29 belong to a novel type III interferon (IFN family, which could have distinct biological properties from type I and II IFNs. Type I IFNs, IFN-α/β, have been clinically applied for treating a certain kind of malignancies for over 30 years, but a wide range of the adverse effects hampered the further clinical applications. Type III IFNs, IFN-λs, have similar signaling pathways as IFN-α/β and inhibits proliferation of tumor cells through cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Restricted patterns of type III IFN receptor expression in contrast to ubiquitously expressed IFN-α/β receptors suggest that type III IFNs have limited cytotoxicity to normal cells and can be a possible anticancer agent. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the IFN-λs-mediated tumor cell death and discuss the functional difference between type I and III IFNs.

  6. Infectivity of wild-type rubella virus in fibrochondrocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Figueiredo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the rapid growth of the rubella virus in samples of a primary fibrochondrocyte cell culture with the development of a cytopathic effect (CPE, in response to infection by the rubella virus. The cells were isolated from the meniscus joint of a rabbit after enzymatic extraction and incubated at 37°C with a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. A total of six clinical samples from urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were inoculated in the fibrochondrocyte and the cell lines of the African green monkey kidney - ATCC CCL-81 (Vero. The fibrochondrocyte cell showed CPE after 24 hours and virus growth was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Nested PCR. The cells inoculated with samples were examined by phase contrast microscopy and showed characteristic rounding, along with bipolar and multipolar cells. The infection curve increased during the five days of observation, showing that the titers in fibrochondrocyte cells were then higher than those observed in Vero cell lines.

  7. Diversity of epithelial stem cell types in adult lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  8. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer.

  9. Comparison of Standard and Heart-pacer Type 3rd Electrodes in Design Variable Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Nine packs of sealed aerospace nickel cadmium cells were put on life test in February 1979. Each 5 cell pack contained one cell with a standard sensor signal electrode and one cell with a new heart pacer sensor signal electrode. Testing was discontinued in May 1983 and the signal electrode performance data was studied. It was found that the heart pacer electrode generally provided a greater voltage swing over a cycle; that both types of electrodes lost significant sensitivity during life, and that both types of electrodes show great signal variation from cell to cell.

  10. Relationships between Cargo, Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cell Type for Uptake of Non-Covalent Complexes into Live Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea-Anneliese Keller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modulating signaling pathways for research and therapy requires either suppression or expression of selected genes or internalization of proteins such as enzymes, antibodies, nucleotide binding proteins or substrates including nucleoside phosphates and enzyme inhibitors. Peptides, proteins and nucleotides are transported by fusing or conjugating them to cell penetrating peptides or by formation of non-covalent complexes. The latter is often preferred because of easy handling, uptake efficiency and auto-release of cargo into the live cell. In our studies complexes are formed with labeled or readily detectable cargoes for qualitative and quantitative estimation of their internalization. Properties and behavior of adhesion and suspension vertebrate cells as well as the protozoa Leishmania tarentolae are investigated with respect to proteolytic activity, uptake efficiency, intracellular localization and cytotoxicity. Our results show that peptide stability to membrane-bound, secreted or intracellular proteases varies between different CPPs and that the suitability of individual CPPs for a particular cargo in complex formation by non-covalent interactions requires detailed studies. Cells vary in their sensitivity to increasing concentrations of CPPs. Thus, most cells can be efficiently transduced with peptides, proteins and nucleotides with intracellular concentrations in the low micromole range. For each cargo, cell type and CPP the optimal conditions must be determined separately.

  11. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Jane Barkla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples was used to identify 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR. Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na and Cl ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggest large alterations in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  12. Transcriptome atlas of eight liver cell types uncovers effects of histidine catabolites on rat liver regeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. F. Chang; J. Y. Fan; F. C. Zhang; J. Ma; C. S. Xu

    2010-12-01

    Eight liver cell types were isolated using the methods of Percoll density gradient centrifugation and immunomagnetic beads to explore effects of histidine catabolites on rat liver regeneration. Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect the expression profiles of genes associated with metabolism of histidine and its catabolites for the above-mentioned eight liver cell types, and bioinformatic and systems biology approaches were employed to analyse the relationship between above genes and rat liver regeneration. The results showed that the urocanic acid (UA) was degraded from histidine in Kupffer cells, acts on Kupffer cells itself and dendritic cells to generate immune suppression by autocrine and paracrine modes. Hepatocytes, biliary epithelia cells, oval cells and dendritic cells can convert histidine to histamine, which can promote sinusoidal endothelial cells proliferation by GsM pathway, and promote the proliferation of hepatocytes and biliary epithelia cells by GqM pathway.

  13. A host-parasite model for a two-type cell population

    CERN Document Server

    Alsmeyer, Gerold

    2012-01-01

    A host-parasite model is considered for a population of cells that can be of two types, A or B, and exhibits unilateral reproduction: while a B-cell always splits into two cells of the same type, the two daughter cells of an A-cell can be of any type. The random mechanism that describes how parasites within a cell multiply and are then shared into the daughter cells is allowed to depend on the hosting mother cell as well as its daughter cells. Focusing on the subpopulation of A-cells and its parasites, the model differs from the single-type model recently studied by Bansaye (2008) in that the sharing mechanism may be biased towards one of the two types. Main results are concerned with the nonextinctive case and provide information on the behavior, as $n\\to\\infty$, of the number A-parasites in generation n and the relative proportion of A- and B-cells in this generation which host a given number of parasites. As in (Bansaye,2008), proofs will make use of a so-called random cell line which, when conditioned to ...

  14. Secretory activity and cell cycle alteration of alveolar type II cells in the early and late phase after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Type II cells and the surfactant system have been proposed to play a central role in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. We analyzed the secretory function and proliferation parameters of alveolar type II cells in the early (until 24 h) and late phase (1-5 weeks) after irradiation (RT) in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Type II cells were isolated from rats according to the method of Dobbs. Stimulation of secretion was induced with terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for a 2-h period. Determination of secretion was performed using 3H-labeled phosphatidylcholine. For the early-phase analysis, freshly isolated and adherent type II cells were irradiated in vitro with 9-21 Gy (stepwise increase of 3 Gy). Secretion stimulation was initiated 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after RT. For late-phase analysis, type II cells were isolated 1-5 weeks after 18 Gy whole lung or sham RT. Each experiment was repeated at least fivefold. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle distribution and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index. Results: During the early-phase (in vitro) analysis, we found a normal stimulation of surfactant secretion in irradiated, as well as unirradiated, cells. No change in basal secretion and no dose effect were seen. During the late phase, 1-5 weeks after whole lung RT, we observed enhanced secretory activity for all secretagogues and a small increase in basal secretion in Weeks 3 and 4 (pneumonitis phase) compared with controls. The total number of isolated type II cells, as well as the rate of viable cells, decreased after the second post-RT week. Cell cycle alterations suggesting an irreversible G2/M block occurred in the second post-RT week and did not resolve during the observation period. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index of type II cells from irradiated rats did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion: In contrast to literature data, we observed no direct effect

  15. Magnetically modified microbial cells: A new type of magnetic adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivo Safarik; Mirka Safarikova

    2007-01-01

    Microbial cells, either in free or immobilized form, can be used for the preconcentration or removal of metal ions, organic and inorganic xenobiotics or biologically active compounds. Magnetic modification of these cells enables to prepare magnetic adsorbents that can be easily manipulated in difficult-to-handle samples, such as suspensions, in the presence of external magnetic field. In this review, typical examples of magnetic modifications of microbial cells are presented, as well as their possible applications for the separation of organic xenobiotics and heavy metal ions.

  16. Chondrocytes expressing intracellular collagen type II enter the cell cycle and co-express collagen type I in monolayer culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekari, Adel; Luginbuehl, Reto; Hofstetter, Willy; Egli, Rainer J

    2014-11-01

    For autologous chondrocyte transplantation, articular chondrocytes are harvested from cartilage tissue and expanded in vitro in monolayer culture. We aimed to characterize with a cellular resolution the synthesis of collagen type II (COL2) and collagen type I (COL1) during expansion in order to further understand why these cells lose the potential to form cartilage tissue when re-introduced into a microenvironment that supports chondrogenesis. During expansion for six passages, levels of transcripts encoding COL2 decreased to COL2/COL1-double positive phenotype during expansion, and the COL2 positive cells were able to enter the cell cycle. While the fraction of COL2 positive cells decreased from 70% to 95%. In parallel to the decrease of the fraction of COL2 positive cells, the cells' potential to form cartilage-like tissue in pellet cultures steadily decreased. Intracellular staining for COL2 enables for characterization of chondrocyte lineage cells in more detail with a cellular resolution, and it may allow predicting the effectiveness of expanded chondrocytes to form cartilage-like tissue. PMID:25043137

  17. Intratracheal transplantation of alveolar type II cells reverses bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Mollar, Anna; Nácher, María; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Closa, Daniel; Xaubet, Antoni; Bulbena, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    [Rationale]: Transplantation of stem cells has been proposed as a strategy for repair of lung fibrosis. Nevertheless, many studies have yielded controversial results that currently limit the potential use of these cells as an efficient treatment. Alveolar type II cells are the progenitor cells of the pulmonary epithelium and usually proliferate after epithelial cell injury. During lung fibrosis, however, the altered regeneration process leads to uncontrolled fibroblast proliferation. [Objecti...

  18. Pancreatic alpha cell mass in European subjects with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Henquin, J. C.; Rahier, J

    2011-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Type 2 diabetes is a bi-hormonal disease characterised by relative hypoinsulinaemia and hyperglucagonaemia with elevated blood glucose levels. Besides pancreatic beta cell defects, a low number of beta cells (low beta cell mass) may contribute to the insufficient secretion of insulin. In this study our aim was to determine whether the alpha cell mass is also altered. Methods Using a point counting method, we measured the ratio of alpha to beta cell areas in pancreas samples ob...

  19. Type 5 phosphodiesterase expression is a critical determinant of the endothelial cell angiogenic phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Li; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Alvarez, Diego F.; Strada, Samuel J.; Stevens, Troy

    2008-01-01

    Type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors increase endothelial cell cGMP and promote angiogenesis. However, not all endothelial cell phenotypes express PDE5. Indeed, whereas conduit endothelial cells express PDE5, microvascular endothelial cells do not express this enzyme, and they are rapidly angiogenic. These findings bring into question whether PDE5 activity is a critical determinant of the endothelial cell angiogenic potential. To address this question, human full-length PDE5A1 was stabl...

  20. A Minimally Invasive Method for Retrieving Single Adherent Cells of Different Types from Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Zeng; Aida Mohammadreza; Weimin Gao; Saeed Merza; Dean Smith; Laimonas Kelbauskas; Deirdre R. Meldrum

    2014-01-01

    The field of single-cell analysis has gained a significant momentum over the last decade. Separation and isolation of individual cells is an indispensable step in almost all currently available single-cell analysis technologies. However, stress levels introduced by such manipulations remain largely unstudied. We present a method for minimally invasive retrieval of selected individual adherent cells of different types from cell cultures. The method is based on a combination of mechanical (shea...

  1. Output of Neurogliaform Cells to Various Neuron Types in the Human and Rat Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Oláh, Szabolcs; Komlósi, Gergely; Szabadics, János; Varga, Csaba; Tóth, Éva; Barzó, Pál; Tamás, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    Neurogliaform cells in the rat elicit combined GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses on cortical pyramidal cells and establish electrical synapses with various interneuron types. However, the involvement of GABAB receptors in postsynaptic effects of neurogliaform cells on other GABAergic interneurons is not clear. We measured the postsynaptic effects of neurogliaform cells in vitro applying simultaneous whole-cell recordings in human and rat cortex. Single action potentials...

  2. Secondary prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus: stopping immune destruction and promoting ß-cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.B. Couri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from a cell-mediated autoimmune attack against pancreatic ß-cells. Traditional treatments involve numerous daily insulin dosages/injections and rigorous glucose control. Many efforts toward the identification of ß-cell precursors have been made not only with the aim of understanding the physiology of islet regeneration, but also as an alternative way to produce ß-cells to be used in protocols of islet transplantation. In this review, we summarize the most recent studies related to precursor cells implicated in the regeneration process. These include embryonic stem cells, pancreas-derived multipotent precursors, pancreatic ductal cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hepatic oval cells, and mature ß-cells. There is controversial evidence of the potential of these cell sources to regenerate ß-cell mass in diabetic patients. However, clinical trials using embryonic stem cells, umbilical cord blood or adult bone marrow stem cells are under way. The results of various immunosuppressive regimens aiming at blocking autoimmunity against pancreatic ß-cells and promoting ß-cell preservation are also analyzed. Most of these regimens provide transient and partial effect on insulin requirements, but new regimens are beginning to be tested. Our own clinical trial combines a high dose immunosuppression with mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Multifactorial treatment increases endothelial progenitor cells in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, H; Jacobsen, P Karl; Lajer, Marianne;

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) augment vascular repair and neovascularisation. Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced EPC and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is reduced by multifactorial intervention. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate in type 2 diabetic patients...... whether the numbers of EPC derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is influenced by a multifactorial treatment strategy....

  4. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K;

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  5. Dynamics of dye release from nanocarriers of different types in model cell membranes and living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkacheva T. N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the dynamics of lipophilic content release from nanocarriers of different types, organic molecular ensembles and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs in vitro experiments. Methods. Two-channel ratiometric fluorescence detection method based on Forster Resonance Energy Transfer, fluorescent spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy have been used. Results. It has been found that the profiles of lipophilic dyes release from organic nanocarriers (PC liposomes and SDS micelles and inorganic ones (GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs are well fitted by the first-order reaction kinetics in both model cell membranes and living cells (rat hepatocytes. The dye release constants (K and half-lives (t1/2 were analyzed. Conclusions. GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs have been shown to provide faster lipophilic content release in model cell membranes as compared to PC liposomes. Negatively charged or lipophilic compounds added into nanocarriers can decrease the rate of lipophilic dyes release. Specific interaction of GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs with rat hepatocytes has been observed.

  6. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Li; Jinxi He; Jun Wei; Cho, William C.; Xiaoming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local e...

  7. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  8. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells-new members of the "type 2 franchise" that mediate allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2012-05-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are members of an ILC family, which contains NK cells and Rorγt(+) ILCs, the latter including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and ILCs producing IL-17 and IL-22. ILC2s are dedicated to the production of IL-5 and IL-13 and, as such, ILC2s provide an early and important source of type 2 cytokines critical for helminth expulsion in the gut. Several studies have also demonstrated a role for ILC2s in airway inflammation. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Klein Wolterink et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 1106-1116] show that ILC2s are instrumental in several models of experimental asthma where they significantly contribute to production of IL-5 and IL-13, key cytokines in airway inflammation. This study sheds light over the relative contribution of ILC2s versus T helper type 2 cells (Th2) in type 2 mediated allergen-specific inflammation in the airways as discussed in this commentary. PMID:22539283

  9. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes. PMID:26904817

  10. Type I interferons directly inhibit regulatory T cells to allow optimal antiviral T cell responses during acute LCMV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Shivani; Koch, Meghan A.; Pepper, Marion; Campbell, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cells play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity but can also impair clearance of foreign pathogens. Paradoxically, signals known to promote T reg cell function are abundant during infection and could inappropriately enhance T reg cell activity. How T reg cell function is restrained during infection to allow the generation of effective antiviral responses remains largely unclear. We demonstrate that the potent antiviral type I interferons (IFNs) directly inhibit co...

  11. Functional proteomics screen enables enrichment of distinct cell types from human pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Sharivkin

    Full Text Available The current world-wide epidemic of diabetes has prompted attempts to generate new sources of insulin-producing cells for cell replacement therapy. An inherent challenge in many of these strategies is the lack of cell-surface markers permitting isolation and characterization of specific cell types from differentiating stem cell populations. Here we introduce an iterative proteomics procedure allowing tag-free isolation of cell types based on their function. Our method detects and associates specific cell-surface markers with particular cell functionality by coupling cell capture on antibody arrays with immunofluorescent labeling. Using this approach in an iterative manner, we discovered marker combinations capable of enriching for discrete pancreatic cell subtypes from human islets of Langerhans: insulin-producing beta cells (CD9high/CD56+, glucagon-producing alpha cells (CD9-/CD56+ and trypsin-producing acinar cells (CD9-/CD56-. This strategy may assist future beta cell research and the development of diagnostic tools for diabetes. It can also be applied more generally for function-based purification of desired cell types from other limited and heterogeneous biological samples.

  12. Sparse PCA corrects for cell type heterogeneity in epigenome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Elior; Zaitlen, Noah; Baran, Yael; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Galanter, Joshua; Oh, Sam; Burchard, Esteban G; Eskin, Eleazar; Zou, James; Halperin, Eran

    2016-05-01

    In epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), different methylation profiles of distinct cell types may lead to false discoveries. We introduce ReFACTor, a method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and designed for the correction of cell type heterogeneity in EWAS. ReFACTor does not require knowledge of cell counts, and it provides improved estimates of cell type composition, resulting in improved power and control for false positives in EWAS. Corresponding software is available at http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/~heran/cozygene/software/refactor.html. PMID:27018579

  13. Life history evolution and the origin of multicellularity: the case of different types of cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aleskerov, Fuad; Tverskoy, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The problem of unicellular-multicellular transition is one of the main issues that is discussing in evolutionary biology. In [1] the fitness of a colony of cells is considered in terms of its two basic components, viability and fecundity. Intrinsic trade-off function of each cell defines a type of cell. We elaborate models providing in [1]. Assuming that all intrinsic trade-off functions are linear, we construct a model with different cell types and show that the differentiation of these type...

  14. Cancer type-dependent genetic interactions between cancer driver alterations indicate plasticity of epistasis across cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Solip; Lehner, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Cancers, like many diseases, are normally caused by combinations of genetic alterations rather than by changes affecting single genes. It is well established that the genetic alterations that drive cancer often interact epistatically, having greater or weaker consequences in combination than expected from their individual effects. In a stringent statistical analysis of data from > 3,000 tumors, we find that the co-occurrence and mutual exclusivity relationships between cancer driver alterations change quite extensively in different types of cancer. This cannot be accounted for by variation in tumor heterogeneity or unrecognized cancer subtypes. Rather, it suggests that how genomic alterations interact cooperatively or partially redundantly to driver cancer changes in different types of cancers. This re-wiring of epistasis across cell types is likely to be a basic feature of genetic architecture, with important implications for understanding the evolution of multicellularity and human genetic diseases. In addition, if this plasticity of epistasis across cell types is also true for synthetic lethal interactions, a synthetic lethal strategy to kill cancer cells may frequently work in one type of cancer but prove ineffective in another. PMID:26227665

  15. Mast cells control insulitis and increase Treg cells to confer protection against STZ-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Daniela; Yaochite, Juliana N U; Rocha, Fernanda A; Toso, Vanina D; Malmegrim, Kelen C R; Ramos, Simone G; Jamur, Maria C; Oliver, Constance; Camara, Niels O; Andrade, Marcus V M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Silva, João S

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative alterations in mast cell numbers in pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) have been reported to be associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) progression, but their potential role during T1D remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of mast cells in T1D induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) treatments, using two strains of mast cell-deficient mice (W/W(v) or Wsh/Wsh) and the adoptive transfer of mast cells. Mast cell deficient mice developed severe insulitis and accelerated hyperglycemia, with 100% of mice becoming diabetic compared to their littermates. In parallel, these diabetic mice had decreased numbers of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the PLNs. Additionally, mast cell deficiency caused a significant reduction in IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6 expression in the pancreatic tissue. Interestingly, IL-6-deficient mice are more susceptible to T1D associated with reduced Treg-cell numbers in the PLNs, but mast cell transfer from wild-type mice induced protection to T1D in these mice. Finally, mast cell adoptive transfer prior to MLD-STZ administration conferred resistance to T1D, promoted increased Treg cells, and decreased IL-17-producing T cells in the PLNs. Taken together, our results indicate that mast cells are implicated in resistance to STZ-induced T1D via an immunological tolerance mechanism mediated by Treg cells. PMID:26234742

  16. Sequence and chromatin determinants of cell-type-specific transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvey, Aaron; Agius, Phaedra; Noble, William Stafford; Leslie, Christina

    2012-09-01

    Gene regulatory programs in distinct cell types are maintained in large part through the cell-type-specific binding of transcription factors (TFs). The determinants of TF binding include direct DNA sequence preferences, DNA sequence preferences of cofactors, and the local cell-dependent chromatin context. To explore the contribution of DNA sequence signal, histone modifications, and DNase accessibility to cell-type-specific binding, we analyzed 286 ChIP-seq experiments performed by the ENCODE Consortium. This analysis included experiments for 67 transcriptional regulators, 15 of which were profiled in both the GM12878 (lymphoblastoid) and K562 (erythroleukemic) human hematopoietic cell lines. To model TF-bound regions, we trained support vector machines (SVMs) that use flexible k-mer patterns to capture DNA sequence signals more accurately than traditional motif approaches. In addition, we trained SVM spatial chromatin signatures to model local histone modifications and DNase accessibility, obtaining significantly more accurate TF occupancy predictions than simpler approaches. Consistent with previous studies, we find that DNase accessibility can explain cell-line-specific binding for many factors. However, we also find that of the 10 factors with prominent cell-type-specific binding patterns, four display distinct cell-type-specific DNA sequence preferences according to our models. Moreover, for two factors we identify cell-specific binding sites that are accessible in both cell types but bound only in one. For these sites, cell-type-specific sequence models, rather than DNase accessibility, are better able to explain differential binding. Our results suggest that using a single motif for each TF and filtering for chromatin accessible loci is not always sufficient to accurately account for cell-type-specific binding profiles. PMID:22955984

  17. Alveolar Type II cell transplantation restores pulmonary surfactant protein levels in lung fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Xaubet, Antoni; Peinado, Victor; Serrano-Mollar, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Alveolar Type II cell transplantation has been proposed as a cell therapy for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Its long-term benefits include repair of lung fibrosis, but its success partly depends on the restoration of lung homeostasis. Our aim was to evaluate surfactant protein restoration after alveolar Type II cell transplantation in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Methods Lung fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation o...

  18. Plug-and-Play Genetic Access to Drosophila Cell Types Using Exchangeable Exon Cassettes

    OpenAIRE

    Fengqiu Diao; Holly Ironfield; Haojiang Luan; Feici Diao; William C. Shropshire; John Ewer; Elizabeth Marr; Christopher J. Potter; Matthias Landgraf; Benjamin H. White

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded effectors are important tools for probing cellular function in living animals, but improved methods for directing their expression to specific cell types are required. Here, we introduce a simple, versatile method for achieving cell-type-specific expression of transgenes that leverages the untapped potential of “coding introns” (i.e., introns between coding exons). Our method couples the expression of a transgene to that of a native gene expressed in the cells of interest ...

  19. Mechanical stress is communicated between different cell types to elicit matrix remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, M. A.; Tschumperlin, D. J.; Kamm, R.D.; Drazen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Tissue remodeling often reflects alterations in local mechanical conditions and manifests as an integrated response among the different cell types that share, and thus cooperatively manage, an extracellular matrix. Here we examine how two different cell types, one that undergoes the stress and the other that primarily remodels the matrix, might communicate a mechanical stress by using airway cells as a representative in vitro system. Normal stress is imposed on bro...

  20. Type I Alveolar Epithelial Cells Mount Innate Immune Responses during Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Kazuko; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Cao, Yuxia; Ramirez, Maria I.; Jones, Matthew R.; Quinton, Lee J.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia results from bacteria in the alveoli. The alveolar epithelium consists of type II cells, which secrete surfactant and associated proteins, and type I cells, which constitute 95% of the surface area and met anatomic and structural needs. Other than constitutively expressed surfactant proteins, it is unknown whether alveolar epithelial cells have distinct roles in innate immunity. Since innate immunity gene induction depends on NF-κB RelA (also known as p65) during pneumonia, we gener...

  1. EBUS-TBNA gives adequate tissue information on cell type in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, MKY; Lam, D; IP, M; Ho, J.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In formulating systemic treatment in patients with advanced stage lung cancer, it is now considered imperative to know the cell type such as squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma as chemotherapeutic agents would be tailored to treat different cell types. In the authors’ centre, the adoption of using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) as the firstline treatment has been the treatment of choice in patients shown to have a...

  2. Cre Reporter System To Monitor the Translocation of Type III Secreted Proteins into Host Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Gabriel; Hofreuter, Dirk; Galán, Jorge E.

    2006-01-01

    Central to the study of type III secretion systems is the availability of reporter systems to monitor bacterial protein translocation into host cells. We report here the development of a bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase-based system to monitor the translocation of bacterial proteins into mammalian cells. Bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase fused to the secretion and translocation signals of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium of the type III secreted protein SopE was secreted in a type III s...

  3. Do post-translational beta cell protein modifications trigger type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Brorsson, Caroline Anna;

    2013-01-01

    forms capable of specifically triggering beta cell destruction. In other immune-mediated diseases, autoantigens targeted by the immune system have undergone post-translational modification (PTM), thereby creating tissue-specific neo-epitopes. In a similar manner, PTM of beta cell proteins might create......Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease characterised by specific T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Yet, except for insulin, no beta cell-specific antigens have been discovered. This may imply that the autoantigens in type 1 diabetes exist in modified...... beta cell-specific neo-epitopes. We suggest that the current paradigm of type 1 diabetes as a classical autoimmune disease should be reconsidered since the immune response may not be directed against native beta cell proteins. A modified model for the pathogenetic events taking place in islets leading...

  4. Collagen Type I Improves the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Definitive Endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn; Møller, Jonas Bech;

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to generate all cell types in the body and can potentially provide an unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as diabetes. Current differentiation protocols of human embryonic stem cells towards insulin...... producing beta cells focus on soluble molecules whereas the impact of cell-matrix interactions has been mainly unattended. In this study almost 500 different extracellular matrix protein combinations were screened to systemically identify extracellular matrix proteins that influence differentiation of human...

  5. List of gene variants developed for cancer cells from nine tissue types

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a comprehensive list of genetic variants for each of the types of cells that comprise what is known as the NCI-60 cell line collection. This new list adds depth to the most frequently studied human tumor cell lines in cancer

  6. Quantitative analysis of cell-type specific gene expression in the green alga Volvox carteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallmann Armin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multicellular alga Volvox carteri possesses only two cell types: mortal, motile somatic cells and potentially immortal, immotile reproductive cells. It is therefore an attractive model system for studying how cell-autonomous cytodifferentiation is programmed within a genome. Moreover, there are ongoing genome projects both in Volvox carteri and in the closely related unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, gene sequencing is only the beginning. To identify cell-type specific expression and to determine relative expression rates, we evaluate the potential of real-time RT-PCR for quantifying gene transcript levels. Results Here we analyze a diversified pool of 39 target genes by real-time RT-PCR for each cell type. This gene pool contains previously known genes with unknown localization of cellular expression, 28 novel genes which are described in this study for the first time, and a few known, cell-type specific genes as a control. The respective gene products are, for instance, part of photosynthesis, cellular regulation, stress response, or transport processes. We provide expression data for all these genes. Conclusion The results show that quantitative real-time RT-PCR is a favorable approach to analyze cell-type specific gene expression in Volvox, which can be extended to a much larger number of genes or to developmental or metabolic mutants. Our expression data also provide a basis for a detailed analysis of individual, previously unknown, cell-type specifically expressed genes.

  7. Dopamine D1 receptor expression is bipolar cell type-specific in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshi, Pershang; Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena; Krolewski, David M; Walker, Paul D; Ichinose, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    In the retina, dopamine is a key molecule for daytime vision. Dopamine is released by retinal dopaminergic amacrine cells and transmits signaling either by conventional synaptic or by volume transmission. By means of volume transmission, dopamine modulates all layers of retinal neurons; however, it is not well understood how dopamine modulates visual signaling pathways in bipolar cells. Here we analyzed Drd1a-tdTomato BAC transgenic mice and found that the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is expressed in retinal bipolar cells in a type-dependent manner. Strong tdTomato fluorescence was detected in the inner nuclear layer and localized to type 1, 3b, and 4 OFF bipolar cells and type 5-2, XBC, 6, and 7 ON bipolar cells. In contrast, type 2, 3a, 5-1, 9, and rod bipolar cells did not express Drd1a-tdTomato. Other interneurons were also found to express tdTomato including horizontal cells and a subset (25%) of AII amacrine cells. Diverse visual processing pathways, such as color or motion-coded pathways, are thought to be initiated in retinal bipolar cells. Our results indicate that dopamine sculpts bipolar cell performance in a type-dependent manner to facilitate daytime vision. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2059-2079, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587737

  8. Alveolar type II cells possess the capability of initiating lung tumor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuwen Lin

    Full Text Available Identifying cells of tumor origin is a fundamental question in tumor biology. Answers to this central question will not only advance our understanding of tumor initiation and progression but also have important therapeutic implications. In this study, we aimed to uncover the cells of origin of lung adenocarcinoma, a major subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. To this end, we developed new mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma that enabled selective manipulation of gene activity in surfactant associated protein C (SPC-expressing cells, including alveolar type II cells and bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs that reside at the bronchioalveolar duct junction (BADJ. Our findings showed that activation of oncogenic Kras alone or in combination with the removal of the tumor suppressor p53 in SPC⁺ cells resulted in development of alveolar tumors. Similarly, sustained EGF signaling in SPC⁺ cells led to alveolar tumors. By contrast, BASCs failed to proliferate or produce tumors under these conditions. Importantly, in a mouse strain in which Kras/p53 activity was selectively altered in type II cells but not BASCs, alveolar tumors developed while BADJs retained normal architecture. These results confirm and extend previous findings and support a model in which lung adenocarcinoma can initiate in alveolar type II cells. Our results establish the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which lung cancer initiates and progresses in a specific lung cell type.

  9. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Kadhim, Munira

    2016-01-01

    An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. To investigate GI induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes, human fibroblast cells, and human mammary epithelial cells to high energy protons and Fe ions. In addition, we also investigated GI in bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice, by analyzing cell survival and chromosome aberrations in the cells after multiple cell divisions. Results analyzed so far from the experiments indicated different sensitivities to charged particles between CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mouse strains, suggesting that there are two main types of response to irradiation: 1) responses associated with survival of damaged cells and 2) responses associated with the induction of non-clonal chromosomal instability in the surviving progeny of stem cells. Previously, we reported that the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions. Our results with different cell types demonstrated different RBE values between different cell types and between early and late chromosomal damages. This study also attempts to offer an explanation for the varying RBE values for different cancer types.

  10. Large-scale in silico modeling of metabolic interactions between cell types in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Schramm, Gunnar; Bordbar, Aarash; Schellenberger, Jan; Andersen, Michael P; Cheng, Jeffrey K; Patel, Nilam; Yee, Alex; Lewis, Randall A; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-12-01

    Metabolic interactions between multiple cell types are difficult to model using existing approaches. Here we present a workflow that integrates gene expression data, proteomics data and literature-based manual curation to model human metabolism within and between different types of cells. Transport reactions are used to account for the transfer of metabolites between models of different cell types via the interstitial fluid. We apply the method to create models of brain energy metabolism that recapitulate metabolic interactions between astrocytes and various neuron types relevant to Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of the models identifies genes and pathways that may explain observed experimental phenomena, including the differential effects of the disease on cell types and regions of the brain. Constraint-based modeling can thus contribute to the study and analysis of multicellular metabolic processes in the human tissue microenvironment and provide detailed mechanistic insight into high-throughput data analysis. PMID:21102456

  11. Membrane potential and ion transport in lung epithelial type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alveolar type II pneumocyte is critically important to the function and maintenance of pulmonary epithelium. To investigate the nature of the response of type II cells to membrane injury, and describe a possible mechanism by which these cells regulate surfactant secretion, the membrane potential of isolated rabbit type II cells was characterized. This evaluation was accomplished by measurements of the accumulation of the membrane potential probes: [3H]triphenylmethylphosphonium ([3H]TPMP+), rubidium 86, and the fluorescent dye DiOC5. A compartmental analysis of probe uptake into mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and non-membrane potential dependent stores was made through the use of selective membrane depolarizations with carbonycyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). These techniques and population analysis with flow cytometry, permitted the accurate evaluation of type II cell membrane potential under control conditions and under conditions which stimulated cell activity. Further analysis of ion transport by cells exposed to radiation or adrenergic stimulation revealed a common increase in Na+/K+ ATPase activity, and an increase in sodium influx across the plasma membrane. This sodium influx was found to be a critical step in the initiation of surfactant secretion. It is concluded that radiation exposure as well as other pulmonary toxicants can directly affect the membrane potential and ionic regulation of type II cells. Ion transport, particularly of sodium, plays an important role in the regulation of type II cell function

  12. Type I and Type II Interferon Coordinately Regulate Suppressive Dendritic Cell Fate and Function during Viral Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cameron R.; Champhekar, Ameya; Tullius, Michael V.; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Zhen, Anjie; de la Fuente, Justin Rafael; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Elsaesser, Heidi; Snell, Laura M.; Wilson, Elizabeth B.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Kitchen, Scott G.; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Bensinger, Steven J.; Smale, Stephen T.; Brooks, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent viral infections are simultaneously associated with chronic inflammation and highly potent immunosuppressive programs mediated by IL-10 and PDL1 that attenuate antiviral T cell responses. Inhibiting these suppressive signals enhances T cell function to control persistent infection; yet, the underlying signals and mechanisms that program immunosuppressive cell fates and functions are not well understood. Herein, we use lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection (LCMV) to demonstrate that the induction and functional programming of immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs) during viral persistence are separable mechanisms programmed by factors primarily considered pro-inflammatory. IFNγ first induces the de novo development of naive monocytes into DCs with immunosuppressive potential. Type I interferon (IFN-I) then directly targets these newly generated DCs to program their potent T cell immunosuppressive functions while simultaneously inhibiting conventional DCs with T cell stimulating capacity. These mechanisms of monocyte conversion are constant throughout persistent infection, establishing a system to continuously interpret and shape the immunologic environment. MyD88 signaling was required for the differentiation of suppressive DCs, whereas inhibition of stimulatory DCs was dependent on MAVS signaling, demonstrating a bifurcation in the pathogen recognition pathways that promote distinct elements of IFN-I mediated immunosuppression. Further, a similar suppressive DC origin and differentiation was also observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, HIV infection and cancer. Ultimately, targeting the underlying mechanisms that induce immunosuppression could simultaneously prevent multiple suppressive signals to further restore T cell function and control persistent infections. PMID:26808628

  13. Typing of murine cell-surface antigens by cellular radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labelled Protein A was used for detecting antigen-antibody complexes on gultaraldehyde fixed cells attached to microtiter plates. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for revealing H-2 private and public specificities as well as Ia and Lyt antigens. As plates may be kept for months, several reactivities can be tested in one step on a large panel rendering a regular supply of animals unnecessary. (Auth.)

  14. Peripheral giant cell fibroma: A rare type of gingival overgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Monali; Rathod, Chaitali V.; Shah, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a rare benign tumor in a 21-year-old female was referred to the department of Periodontics, regarding areas of gingival enlargement affecting both the maxilla and mandible on the right side. She was not having any systemic and family history. Surgical excision of the lesions was carried out under local anesthetic. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell fibroma. The condition responded to surgical excision and appears to have limited grow...

  15. Cell Type Related Differences in Staining with Pentameric Thiophene Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur; Bäck, Marcus; Magnusson, Karin; Vilas Jain, Mayur; Rafat, Mehrdad; Ghavami, Saeid; Nilsson, Peter R.; Los, Marek Jan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent compounds capable of staining cells selectively without affecting their viability are gaining importance in biology and medicine. Recently, a new family of optical dyes, denoted luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), has emerged as an interesting class of highly emissive molecules for studying various biological phenomena. Properly functionalized LCOs have been utilized for selective identification of disease-associated protein aggregates and for selective detection of dis...

  16. Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Rizzo; Laura Zambonin; Cristina Angeloni; Emanuela Leoncini; Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega; Cecilia Prata; Diana Fiorentini; Silvana Hrelia

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms unde...

  17. Expression and function of aquaporin-1 in hyperoxia-exposed alveolar epithelial type II cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, QIU-YUE; Fu, Jian-Hua(Department of Physics, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China); XUE, XIN-DONG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate water transport dysfunction in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII), which were exposed to hyperoxia, and to investigate the mechanism of pulmonary edema resulting from hyperoxic lung injury. The lung cells of newborn rats were isolated for primary cell culture and divided into control and experimental groups. The control and experimental group cells were placed into a normoxic incubator (oxygen volume fraction, 0.21) or hyperoxic incubator...

  18. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Regulates Expression of Surfactant Protein in Alveolar Type II Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yoko; Ahmad, Aftab; Kewley, Emily; Mason, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar type II (ATII) cells cultured at an air–liquid (A/L) interface maintain differentiation, but they lose these properties when they are submerged. Others showed that an oxygen tension gradient develops in the culture medium as ATII cells consume oxygen. Therefore, we wondered whether hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling could explain differences in the phenotypes of ATII cells cultured under A/L interface or submerged conditions. ATII cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley ra...

  19. Differentiation of cancer cell type and phenotype using quantum dot-gold nanoparticle sensor arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Rana, Subinoy; Jiang, Ying; Guo, Lin; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate rapid and efficient sensing of mammalian cell types and states using nanoparticle-based sensor arrays. These arrays are comprised of cationic quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that interact with cell surfaces to generate distinguishable fluorescence responses based on cell surface signatures. The use of QDs as the recognition elements as well as the signal transducers presents the potential for direct visualization of selective cell surface interactions. Notably...

  20. Renal Type A Intercalated Cells Contain Albumin in Organelles with Aldosterone-Regulated Abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells i...

  1. Regulation of expression driven by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type I long terminal repeats in pluripotential human embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human pluripotential embryonic teratocarcinoma cells differentially expressed gene activity controlled by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeats (LTRs) when differentiation was induced by the morphogen all-trans retinoic acid. The alterations occurred after commitment and before the appearance of the multiple cell types characteristic of these pluripotential cells. After commitment, gene activity controlled by the HIV-1 LTR markedly increased, whereas that controlled by the HTLV-I LTR decreased. Steady-state mRNA levels and nuclear run-on transcription indicated that the increased HIV-1-directed activity during differentiation occurred posttranscriptionally, whereas the decreased HTLV-I activity was at the transcriptional level. Phorbol esters did not cause commitment but strongly enhanced expression by both viral LTRs at the transcriptional level. Differentiating cells gradually lost the ability to respond to phorbol ester stimulation. Experiments with a deletion mutant of the HIV-1 LTR suggested that this was due to imposition of negative regulation during differentiation that was not reversed by phorbol ester induction. Cycloheximide, with or without phorbol ester, slightly stimulated HIV-1-directed activity at the transcriptional level and massively increased the amounts of steady-state mRNA by posttranscriptional superinduction. It appeared, however, that new nuclear protein synthesis was required for maximal transcriptional stimulation by phorbol esters. Thus, changing cellular regulatory mechanisms influenced human retrovirus expression during human embryonic cell differentiation

  2. T-type calcium channel expression in cultured human neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianjie Wen; Shiyuan Xu; Lingling Wang; Hua Liang; Chengxiang Yang; Hanbing Wang; Hongzhen Liu

    2011-01-01

    Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) have similar structures and functions as neural cells and have been frequently used for cell culture studies of neural cell functions. Previous studies have revealed Land N-type calcium channels in SH-SY5Y cells. However, the distribution of the low -voltage activated calcium channel (namely called T-type calcium channel, including Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3) in SH-SY5Y cells remains poorly understood. The present study detected mRNA and protein expression of the T-type calcium channel (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3) in cultured SH-SY5Y cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Results revealed mRNA and protein expression from all three T-type calcium channel subtypes in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover,Cav3.1 was the predominant T-type calcium channel subtype in SH-SY5Y cells.

  3. CTen: a web-based platform for identifying enriched cell types from heterogeneous microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker Jason E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpreting in vivo sampled microarray data is often complicated by changes in the cell population demographics. To put gene expression into its proper biological context, it is necessary to distinguish differential gene transcription from artificial gene expression induced by changes in the cellular demographics. Results CTen (cell type enrichment is a web-based analytical tool which uses our highly expressed, cell specific (HECS gene database to identify enriched cell types in heterogeneous microarray data. The web interface is designed for differential expression and gene clustering studies, and the enrichment results are presented as heatmaps or downloadable text files. Conclusions In this work, we use an independent, cell-specific gene expression data set to assess CTen's performance in accurately identifying the appropriate cell type and provide insight into the suggested level of enrichment to optimally minimize the number of false discoveries. We show that CTen, when applied to microarray data developed from infected lung tissue, can correctly identify the cell signatures of key lymphocytes in a highly heterogeneous environment and compare its performance to another popular bioinformatics tool. Furthermore, we discuss the strong implications cell type enrichment has in the design of effective microarray workflow strategies and show that, by combining CTen with gene expression clustering, we may be able to determine the relative changes in the number of key cell types. CTen is available at http://www.influenza-x.org/~jshoemaker/cten/

  4. Cellulose synthesis in two secondary cell wall processes in a single cell type

    OpenAIRE

    Mendu, Venugopal; Stork, Jozsef; Harris, Darby; DeBolt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that constrains internal turgor pressure yet extends in a regulated and organized manner to allow the cell to acquire shape. The primary load-bearing macromolecule of a plant cell wall is cellulose, which forms crystalline microfibrils that are organized with respect to a cell's function and shape requirements. A primary cell wall is deposited during expansion whereas secondary cell wall is synthesized post expansion during differentiation. A complex form of...

  5. Oxidative Stress Biology and Cell Injury During Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Maiese, Kenneth; Morhan, Simona Daniela; Chong, Zhao Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects approximately 170 million individuals worldwide and is expected to alter the lives of at least 366 million individuals within a future span of 25 years. Of even greater concern is the premise that these projections are underestimated since they assume obesity levels will remain constant. Type 1 insulin-dependent DM accounts for only 5-10 percent of all diabetics but represents a highly significant health concern, since this disorder begins early in life and lead...

  6. The asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins is stem cell-type dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Mary Rose; DeVeale, Brian; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-05-13

    Asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins (DPs) during mitosis has been linked in yeast and bacteria to the protection of one cell from aging. Recent evidence suggests that stem cells may use a similar mechanism; however, to date there is no in vivo evidence demonstrating this effect in healthy adult stem cells. We report that stem cells in larval (neuroblast) and adult (female germline and intestinal stem cell) Drosophila melanogaster asymmetrically segregate DPs, such as proteins with the difficult-to-degrade and age-associated 2,4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) modification. Surprisingly, of the cells analyzed only the intestinal stem cell protects itself by segregating HNE to differentiating progeny, whereas the neuroblast and germline stem cells retain HNE during division. This led us to suggest that chronological life span, and not cell type, determines the amount of DPs a cell receives during division. Furthermore, we reveal a role for both niche-dependent and -independent mechanisms of asymmetric DP division. PMID:23649805

  7. Sensing of cell death by myeloid C-type lectin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Molecules associated with dead or dying cells can be detected by receptors on macrophages and dendritic cells. Signals from these receptors impact myeloid cell function and play a role in determining whether death is silent or proinflammatory, tolerogenic or immunogenic. Prominent among myeloid receptors detecting dead cells are C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Signals from these receptors variably induce endocytosis of cell corpses, corpse degradation, retrieval of dead cell-associated antigens and/or modulation of immune responses. The sensing of tissue damage by myeloid CLRs complements detection of pathogens in immunity and represents an ancient response aimed at restoring tissue homeostasis. PMID:23332826

  8. Differentiation of cancer cell type and phenotype using quantum dot-gold nanoparticle sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Rana, Subinoy; Jiang, Ying; Guo, Lin; Rotello, Vincent M

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate rapid and efficient sensing of mammalian cell types and states using nanoparticle-based sensor arrays. These arrays are comprised of cationic quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that interact with cell surfaces to generate distinguishable fluorescence responses based on cell surface signatures. The use of QDs as the recognition elements as well as the signal transducers presents the potential for direct visualization of selective cell surface interactions. Notably, this sensor is unbiased, precluding the requirement of pre-knowledge of cell state biomarkers and thus providing a general approach for phenotypic profiling of cell states, with additional potential for imaging applications. PMID:23022266

  9. Relationship between Various Chinese Medicine Types and T-cell Subsets in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常廷民; 李秀敏; 赵习德

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between various Chinese medicine(CM) types and T-cell subsets(CD4~+ and CD8~+) in the colonic mucous membranes of patients with ulcerative colitis(UC).Methods: Fifty UC patients were enrolled,after differentiation into four types by CM syndromes,i.e.,the internal heat-damp accumulation type(IHDA),the qi-stagnancy with blood stasis type(QSBS),the Pi(脾)-Shen(肾) yang-deficiency type(PSYD) and the yin-blood deficiency type(YBD).From every patient,3-5 pieces of intest...

  10. Adenovirus vectors targeting distinct cell types in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigard, J Harry; Cashman, Siobhan M; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Gene therapy for a number of retinal diseases necessitates efficient transduction of photoreceptor cells. Whereas adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 (Ad5) does not transduce photoreceptors efficiently, previous studies have demonstrated improved photoreceptor transduction by Ad5 pseudotyped with Ad35 (Ad5/F35) or Ad37 (Ad5/F37) fiber or by the deletion of the RGD domain in the Ad5 penton base (Ad5DeltaRGD). However, each of these constructs contained a different transgene cassette, preventing the evaluation of the relative performance of these vectors, an important consideration before the use of these vectors in the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate these vectors in the retina and to attempt photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Methods. Three Ad5-based vectors containing the same expression cassette were generated and injected into the subretinal space of adult mice. Eyes were analyzed for green fluorescence protein expression in flat-mounts, cross-sections, quantitative RT-PCR, and a modified stereological technique. A 257-bp fragment derived from the mouse opsin promoter was analyzed in the context of photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Results. Each virus tested efficiently transduced the retinal pigment epithelium. The authors found no evidence that Ad5/F35 or Ad5/F37 transduced photoreceptors. Instead, they found that Ad5/F37 transduced Müller cells. Robust photoreceptor transduction by Ad5DeltaRGD was detected. Photoreceptor-specific transgene expression from the 257-bp mouse opsin promoter in the context of Ad5DeltaRGD vectors was found. Conclusions. Adenovirus vectors may be designed with tropism to distinct cell populations. Robust photoreceptor-specific transgene expression can be achieved in the context of Ad5DeltaRGD vectors. PMID:19892875

  11. Curcumin as a double-edged sword for stem cells: dose, time and cell type-specific responses to curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    Attari, Fatemeh; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Aligholi, Hadi; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Gorji, Ali; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Khaksarian, Mojtaba; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of curcumin which includes its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer chemo-preventive properties have been identified. Little information is available regarding the optimal dose and treatment periods of curcumin on the proliferation rate of different sources of stem cells. Methods In this study, the effect of various concentrations of curcumin on the survival and proliferation of two types of outstanding stem cells which includes bone marrow stem cells (B...

  12. Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salopiata, Florian; Depner, Sofia; Wäsch, Marvin; Böhm, Martin E.; Mücke, Oliver; Plass, Christoph; Lehmann, Wolf D.; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, with its most prevalent form non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is commonly treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from chemotherapy-induced anemia, which can be treated with erythropoietin (EPO). However, studies have indicated that EPO not only promotes erythropoiesis in hematopoietic cells, but may also enhance survival of NSCLC cells. Here, we verified that the NSCLC cell line H838 expresses functional erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) and that treatment with EPO reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis. To pinpoint differences in EPO-induced survival signaling in erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, colony forming unit-erythroid) and H838 cells, we combined mathematical modeling with a method for feature selection, the L1 regularization. Utilizing an example model and simulated data, we demonstrated that this approach enables the accurate identification and quantification of cell type-specific parameters. We applied our strategy to quantitative time-resolved data of EPO-induced JAK/STAT signaling generated by quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in CFU-E and H838 cells as well as H838 cells overexpressing human EPOR (H838-HA-hEPOR). The established parsimonious mathematical model was able to simultaneously describe the data sets of CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. Seven cell type-specific parameters were identified that included for example parameters for nuclear translocation of STAT5 and target gene induction. Cell type-specific differences in target gene induction were experimentally validated by qRT-PCR experiments. The systematic identification of pathway differences and sensitivities of EPOR signaling in CFU-E and H838 cells revealed potential targets for intervention to selectively inhibit EPO-induced signaling in the tumor cells but leave the responses in erythroid

  13. Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Ruth; Steiert, Bernhard; Salopiata, Florian; Depner, Sofia; Raue, Andreas; Iwamoto, Nao; Schelker, Max; Hass, Helge; Wäsch, Marvin; Böhm, Martin E; Mücke, Oliver; Lipka, Daniel B; Plass, Christoph; Lehmann, Wolf D; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Schilling, Marcel; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer, with its most prevalent form non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is commonly treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from chemotherapy-induced anemia, which can be treated with erythropoietin (EPO). However, studies have indicated that EPO not only promotes erythropoiesis in hematopoietic cells, but may also enhance survival of NSCLC cells. Here, we verified that the NSCLC cell line H838 expresses functional erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) and that treatment with EPO reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis. To pinpoint differences in EPO-induced survival signaling in erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, colony forming unit-erythroid) and H838 cells, we combined mathematical modeling with a method for feature selection, the L1 regularization. Utilizing an example model and simulated data, we demonstrated that this approach enables the accurate identification and quantification of cell type-specific parameters. We applied our strategy to quantitative time-resolved data of EPO-induced JAK/STAT signaling generated by quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in CFU-E and H838 cells as well as H838 cells overexpressing human EPOR (H838-HA-hEPOR). The established parsimonious mathematical model was able to simultaneously describe the data sets of CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. Seven cell type-specific parameters were identified that included for example parameters for nuclear translocation of STAT5 and target gene induction. Cell type-specific differences in target gene induction were experimentally validated by qRT-PCR experiments. The systematic identification of pathway differences and sensitivities of EPOR signaling in CFU-E and H838 cells revealed potential targets for intervention to selectively inhibit EPO-induced signaling in the tumor cells but leave the responses in erythroid

  14. Experimental radiation pneumonitis. Corticosteroids increase the replicative activity of alveolar type 2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corticosteroid administration during radiation pneumonitis in mice markedly improves the physiologic abnormalities and decreases mortality, an effect that has been attributed to the stimulation of surfactant synthesis and secretion by type 2 alveolar epithelial cells. In the present experiments we explored the effects of corticosteroids on the replicative activity of type 2 cells of lethally irradiated lungs at the height of the radiation reaction. The labeling index of type 2 cells of irradiated mice was increased threefold above that of sham-irradiated controls. Corticosteroids given continuously from 10 weeks after thoracic irradiation further increased the type 2 cell labeling index another threefold above that of irradiated untreated mice. The enhanced reproductive activity of type 2 cells following thoracic irradiation is seen as a protective response that is augmented by corticosteroids, whose effect may be both to improve the physiology of the alveolar surface and to maintain the population of alveolar epithelial cells. The bearing of this result on the controversial role of the type 2 cell as a target in radiation pneumonitis is discussed

  15. Enhanced immunoregulation of mesenchymal stem cells by IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells in collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Yeon; Im, Keon-Il; Lee, Eun-Sol; Kim, Nayoun; Nam, Young-Sun; Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties and have potential, however, there have been conflicting reports regarding their effects in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which causes inflammation and destruction of the joints. Through a comparative analysis of regulatory T (Treg) and IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, we hypothesized that Tr1 cells enhance the immunoregulatory functions of MSCs, and that a combinatorial approach to cell therapy may exert synergistic immunomodulatory effects in an experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A combination of MSCs and Tr1 cells prevented the development of destructive arthritis compared to single cell therapy. These therapeutic effects were associated with an increase in type II collagen (CII)-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells and inhibition of CII-specific CD4+IL-17+ T cells. We observed that Tr1 cells produce high levels of IL-10-dependent interferon (IFN)-β, which induces toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 expression in MSCs. Moreover, induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by TLR3 involved an autocrine IFN-β that was dependent on STAT1 signaling. Furthermore, we observed that production of IFN-β and IL-10 in Tr1 cells synergistically induces IDO in MSCs through the STAT1 pathway. These findings suggest co-administration of MSCs and Tr1 cells to be a novel therapeutic modality for clinical autoimmune diseases. PMID:27246365

  16. Cancer cell sensitivity to bortezomib is associated with survivin expression and p53 status but not cancer cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanan-Khan Asher A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is known playing a role in drug resistance. However, its role in bortezomib-mediated inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis is unclear. There are conflicting reports for the effect of bortezomib on survivin expression, which lacks of a plausible explanation. Methods: In this study, we tested cancer cells with both p53 wild type and mutant/null background for the relationship of bortezomib resistance with survivin expression and p53 status using MTT assay, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, western blots and RNAi technology. Results We found that cancer cells with wild type p53 show a low level expression of survivin and are sensitive to treatment with bortezomib, while cancer cells with a mutant or null p53 show a high level expression of survivin and are resistant to bortezomib-mediated apoptosis induction. However, silencing of survivin expression utilizing survivin mRNA-specific siRNA/shRNA in p53 mutant or null cells sensitized cancer cells to bortezomib mediated apoptosis induction, suggesting a role for survivin in bortezomib resistance. We further noted that modulation of survivin expression by bortezomib is dependent on p53 status but independent of cancer cell types. In cancer cells with mutated p53 or p53 null, bortezomib appears to induce survivin expression, while in cancer cells with wild type p53, bortezomib downregulates or shows no significant effect on survivin expression, which is dependent on the drug concentration, cell line and exposure time. Conclusions Our findings, for the first time, unify the current inconsistent findings for bortezomib treatment and survivin expression, and linked the effect of bortezomib on survivin expression, apoptosis induction and bortezomib resistance in the relationship with p53 status, which is independent of cancer cell types. Further mechanistic studies along with this line may impact the optimal clinical application of bortezomib in

  17. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis

  18. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  19. Altered insulin receptor signalling and β-cell cycle dynamics in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Folli

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, reduced β-cell mass, and hyperglucagonemia are consistent features in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We used pancreas and islets from humans with T2DM to examine the regulation of insulin signaling and cell-cycle control of islet cells. We observed reduced β-cell mass and increased α-cell mass in the Type 2 diabetic pancreas. Confocal microscopy, real-time PCR and western blotting analyses revealed increased expression of PCNA and down-regulation of p27-Kip1 and altered expression of insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate-2 and phosphorylated BAD. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined a mouse model of insulin resistance in β-cells--which also exhibits reduced β-cell mass, the β-cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO. Freshly isolated islets and β-cell lines derived from βIRKO mice exhibited poor cell-cycle progression, nuclear restriction of FoxO1 and reduced expression of cell-cycle proteins favoring growth arrest. Re-expression of insulin receptors in βIRKO β-cells reversed the defects and promoted cell cycle progression and proliferation implying a role for insulin-signaling in β-cell growth. These data provide evidence that human β- and α-cells can enter the cell-cycle, but proliferation of β-cells in T2DM fails due to G1-to-S phase arrest secondary to defective insulin signaling. Activation of insulin signaling, FoxO1 and proteins in β-cell-cycle progression are attractive therapeutic targets to enhance β-cell regeneration in the treatment of T2DM.

  20. Fuel cell separator plate with bellows-type sealing flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, George A.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel cell separator includes a rectangular flat plate having two unitary upper sealing flanges respectively comprising opposite marginal edges of the plate folded upwardly and back on themselves and two lower sealing flanges respectively comprising the other two marginal edges of the plate folded downwardly and back on themselves. Each of the sealing flanges includes a flat wall spaced from the plate and substantially parallel thereto and two accordion-pleated side walls, one of which interconnects the flat wall with the plate and the other of which stops just short of the plate, these side walls affording resilient compressibility to the sealing flange in a directiongenerally normal to the plane of the plate. Four corner members close the ends of the sealing flanges. An additional resiliently compressible reinforcing member may be inserted in the passages formed by each of the sealing flanges with the plate.

  1. PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

  2. Role of a mixed type, moderate intensity exercise programme after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, S.; Davies, P.; Parker, T; Bashford, J; Green, A.; D. Jenkins

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation on functional capacity, and to determine the role of a mixed type, moderate intensity exercise programme in the recovery of patients after intensive cancer treatment.

  3. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan); Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Irimura, Tatsuro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Feldmann, Heinz [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Takada, Ayato, E-mail: atakada@czc.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  4. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. → Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. → Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. → C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. → Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  5. Cell-surface serglycin promotes adhesion of myeloma cells to collagen type I and affects the expression of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliris, Antonis; Labropoulou, Vassiliki T; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Aletras, Alexios; Karamanos, Nikos K; Theocharis, Achilleas D

    2013-05-01

    Serglycin (SG) is mainly expressed by hematopoetic cells as an intracellular proteoglycan. Multiple myeloma cells constitutively secrete SG, which is also localized on the cell surface in some cell lines. In this study, SG isolated from myeloma cells was found to interact with collagen type I (Col I), which is a major bone matrix component. Notably, myeloma cells positive for cell-surface SG (csSG) adhered significantly to Col I, compared to cells lacking csSG. Removal of csSG by treatment of the cells with chondroitinase ABC or blocking of csSG by an SG-specific polyclonal antibody significantly reduced the adhesion of myeloma cells to Col I. Significant up-regulation of expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein levels was observed when culturing csSG-positive myeloma cells on Col I-coated dishes or in the presence of soluble Col I. MMP-9 and MMP-2 were also expressed in increased amounts by myeloma cells in the bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma. Our data indicate that csSG of myeloma cells affects key functional properties, such as adhesion to Col I and the expression of MMPs, and imply that csSG may serve as a potential prognostic factor and/or target for pharmacological interventions in multiple myeloma. PMID:23387827

  6. Cell-Type-Specific Profiling of Gene Expression and Chromatin Binding without Cell Isolation: Assaying RNA Pol II Occupancy in Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Southall, Tony D.; Gold, Katrina S.; Egger, Boris; Davidson, Catherine M.; Caygill, Elizabeth E.; Marshall, Owen J.; Brand, Andrea H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell-type-specific transcriptional profiling often requires the isolation of specific cell types from complex tissues. We have developed “TaDa,” a technique that enables cell-specific profiling without cell isolation. TaDa permits genome-wide profiling of DNA- or chromatin-binding proteins without cell sorting, fixation, or affinity purification. The method is simple, sensitive, highly reproducible, and transferable to any model system. We show that TaDa can be used to identify transc...

  7. The p53 Protein Does Not Facilitate Adenovirus Type 5 Replication in Normal Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chahal, Jasdave S.; Flint, S J

    2013-01-01

    Although several adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) proteins prevent deleterious consequences of activation of p53, it has been reported that viral replication proceeds more efficiently when human tumor cells produce wild-type compared to mutant p53. We have now exploited RNA interference and lentiviral vectors to achieve essentially complete knockdown of p53 in normal human cells: no effects on the kinetics or efficiency of viral gene expression or production of infectious particles were observed.

  8. Congenic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Reverses Hyperglycemia in Experimental Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jurewicz, Mollie; Yang, Sunmi; Augello, Andrea; Jonathan G Godwin; Moore, Robert F.; Azzi, Jamil; Fiorina, Paolo; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Abdi, Reza

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A number of clinical trials are underway to test whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are effective in treating various diseases, including type 1 diabetes. Although this cell therapy holds great promise, the optimal source of MSCs has yet to be determined with respect to major histocompatibility complex matching. Here, we examine this question by testing the ability of congenic MSCs, obtained from the NOR mouse strain, to reverse recent-onset type 1 diabetes in NOD mice, as well a...

  9. Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Friends or Foes—Role in Airway Allergic Inflammation and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Pishdadian; Abdol-Reza Varasteh; Mojtaba Sankian

    2012-01-01

    Innate-like lymphocytes (ILLs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are two newly characterized families of lymphocytes with limited and no rearranged antigen receptors, respectively. These soldiers provide a first line of defense against foreign insults by triggering a prompt innate immune response and bridging the gap of innate and adaptive immunity. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs2) are newly identified members of the ILC family that play a key role in type 2 immune responses by prompt prod...

  10. Comparison Between Supervised and Unsupervised Classifications of Neuronal Cell Types: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Luis; McGarry, Laura M.; Robles Forcada, Víctor; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga Múgica, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In the study of neural circuits, it becomes essential to discern the different neuronal cell types that build the circuit. Traditionally, neuronal cell types have been classified using qualitative descriptors. More recently, several attempts have been made to classify neurons quantitatively, using unsupervised clustering methods. While useful, these algorithms do not take advantage of previous information known to the investigator, which could improve the classification task. For neocortical ...

  11. Effect of type III group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide on invasion of respiratory epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hulse, M L; Smith, S; Chi, E Y; Pham, A; Rubens, C E

    1993-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) capsular polysaccharide is an important virulence factor, and its role in invasion of cultured respiratory epithelial cells was investigated. A type III GBS clinical isolate, COH1, and asialo and unencapsulated isogenic transposon capsule mutants of it were compared in an in vitro invasion assay. The results demonstrated that capsule attenuated the invasion process. Invasion was not affected when the A549 epithelial cells were preincubated with purified type III GB...

  12. Direct conversion of C. elegans germ cells into specific neuron types

    OpenAIRE

    Tursun, Baris; Patel, Tulsi; Kratsios, Paschalis; Hobert, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The ability of transcription factors to directly reprogram the identity of cell types is usually restricted and is defined by cellular context. We show here that through ectopic expression of single C. elegans transcription factors, the identity of mitotic germ cells can be directly converted into that of specific neuron types (glutamatergic, cholinergic or GABAergic). This reprogramming event requires the removal of the histone chaperone LIN-53/RbAp48, a component of several histone remodeli...

  13. Rotavirus NSP4: Cell type-dependent transport kinetics to the exofacial plasma membrane and release from intact infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parr Rebecca D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus NSP4 localizes to multiple intracellular sites and is multifunctional, contributing to RV morphogenesis, replication and pathogenesis. One function of NSP4 is the induction of early secretory diarrhea by binding surface receptors to initiate signaling events. The aims of this study were to determine the transport kinetics of NSP4 to the exofacial plasma membrane (PM, the subsequent release from intact infected cells, and rebinding to naïve and/or neighboring cells in two cell types. Methods Transport kinetics was evaluated using surface-specific biotinylation/streptavidin pull-downs and exofacial exposure of NSP4 was confirmed by antibody binding to intact cells, and fluorescent resonant energy transfer. Transfected cells similarly were monitored to discern NSP4 movement in the absence of infection or other viral proteins. Endoglycosidase H digestions, preparation of CY3- or CY5- labeled F(ab2 fragments, confocal imaging, and determination of preferential polarized transport employed standard laboratory techniques. Mock-infected, mock-biotinylated and non-specific antibodies served as controls. Results Only full-length (FL, endoglycosidase-sensitive NSP4 was detected on the exofacial surface of two cell types, whereas the corresponding cell lysates showed multiple glycosylated forms. The C-terminus of FL NSP4 was detected on exofacial-membrane surfaces at different times in different cell types prior to its release into culture media. Transport to the PM was rapid and distinct yet FL NSP4 was secreted from both cell types at a time similar to the release of virus. NSP4-containing, clarified media from both cells bound surface molecules of naïve cells, and imaging showed secreted NSP4 from one or more infected cells bound neighboring cell membranes in culture. Preferential sorting to apical or basolateral membranes also was distinct in different polarized cells. Conclusions The intracellular transport of NSP4 to

  14. Gene expression profiles of hepatic cell-type specific marker genes in progression of liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiyuki Takahara; Mitsuo Takahashi; Hiroki Wagatsuma; Fumihiko Yokoya; Qing-Wei Zhang; Mutsuyo Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Aburatani; Norifumi Kawada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the gene expression profile data for the whole liver during development of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced hepatic fibrosis.METHODS: Marker genes were identified for different types of hepatic cells, including hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), Kupffer cells (including other inflammatory cells),and hepatocytes, using independent temporal DNA microarray data obtained from isolated hepatic cells.RESULTS: The cell-type analysis of gene expression gave several key results and led to formation of three hypotheses: (1) changes in the expression of HSCspecific marker genes during fibrosis were similar to gene expression data in in vitro cultured HSCs, suggesting a major role of the self-activating characteristics of HSCs in formation of fibrosis; (2) expression of mast cell-specific marker genes reached a peak during liver fibrosis,suggesting a possible role of mast cells in formation of fibrosis; and (3) abnormal expression of hepatocytespecific marker genes was found across several metabolic pathways during fibrosis, including sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and drug metabolism, suggesting a mechanistic relationship between these abnormalities and symptoms of liver fibrosis.CONCLUSION: Analysis of marker genes for specific hepatic cell types can identify the key aspects of fibrogenesis. Sequential activation of inflammatory cells and the self-supporting properties of HSCs play an important role in development of fibrosis.

  15. Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Shigemoto, Taeko; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine. PMID:24710542

  16. Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Dezawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine.

  17. Transcription factor co-localization patterns affect human cell type-specific gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dennis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular development requires the precise control of gene expression states. Transcription factors are involved in this regulatory process through their combinatorial binding with DNA. Information about transcription factor binding sites can help determine which combinations of factors work together to regulate a gene, but it is unclear how far the binding data from one cell type can inform about regulation in other cell types. Results By integrating data on co-localized transcription factor binding sites in the K562 cell line with expression data across 38 distinct hematopoietic cell types, we developed regression models to describe the relationship between the expression of target genes and the transcription factors that co-localize nearby. With K562 binding sites identifying the predictors, the proportion of expression explained by the models is statistically significant only for monocytic cells (p-valueFOS, TAF1 and YY1 to a sparsely studied gene LRIG2. We also find that the activity of a transcription factor may be different depending on the cell type and the identity of other co-localized factors. Conclusion Our approach shows that gene expression can be explained by a modest number of co-localized transcription factors, however, information on cell-type specific binding is crucial for understanding combinatorial gene regulation.

  18. Status of n-type solar cells for low-cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeber, A.W.; Naber, R.C.G.; Guillevin, N.; Barton, P.C.; Carr, A.J.; Oosterling - Saynova, D.S.; Burgers, A.R.; Geerligs, L.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    We have reached 18.6% efficiency on large area (243 cm{sup 2}) n-type crystalline silicon solar cells using conventional industrial processes like tube furnace diffusion and screen-printing. The 18.6% cell is a bifacial one with a boron emitter at the front side and a phosphorous back-surface-field (BSF). We have applied an industrially feasible boron/phosphorous co-diffusion process, and a simple wet-chemical oxidation process to passivate the highly-doped boron emitter. In this paper we will compare our results to those obtained by others. Another cell type discussed in the paper is an n-type cell with the junction at the rear. This cell has a screen-printed aluminium alloyed emitter, and the processing is comparable to conventional p-type cells. We have obtained an efficiency of 17.4% with this n-type cell. Possible improvements discussed in literature are presented as well.

  19. Nivolumab, an Anti-Programmed Cell Death-1 Antibody, Induces Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yuka; Ogawa, Osamu; Oyama, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), an immunoreceptor, is located on T cells and pro-B cells and interacts with its ligands to inhibit T cell activation and proliferation, thereby promoting immunological self-tolerance. Nivolumab, an anti-PD1 antibody, blocks PD-1 and can restore anticancer immune responses by abrogating PD-1 pathway-mediated T-cell inhibition. Autoimmune adverse events are expected with PD-1 therapy. Fulminant type 1 diabetes is the subtype of type 1 diabetes. The clinical feature is the extremely rapid progression of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. Here we describe a 66-year-old woman with advanced melanoma who was treated with nivolumab. After 4 months and six doses of the medicine, the patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of nausea and vomiting. The laboratory data showed ketonuria, hyperglycemia (531 mg/dl), high anion gap metabolic acidosis, HbA1c (7.3%), and absence of insulin-secreting capacity. These data are compatible with the criteria of fulminant type 1 diabetes. The patient was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis because of fulminant type 1 diabetes. The findings of this case indicated that nivolumab can cause fulminant type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis due to fulminant type 1 diabetes is potentially fatal condition. Thus, diabetic ketoacidosis due to fulminant type 1 diabetes should be considered in the differential diagnosis when patients treated with nivolumab complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27297738

  20. Interleukin-9 and T helper type 9 cells in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, F; Guggino, G; Ferrante, A; Cipriani, P; Giacomelli, R; Triolo, G

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-9 is a 28-30 kDa monomeric glycosylated polypeptide belonging to the IL-7/IL-9 family of proteins that bind to a composite receptor consisting of the private receptor IL-9R and the IL-2 receptor, gamma (IL-2RG), a common gamma subunit shared by the receptors of many different cytokines. The IL-9R is expressed widely and IL-9 impacts a number of effector cells, such as effector T cells, B cells, innate lymphoid cells, mast cells, polymorphonuclear cells, epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells, playing an important role in regulating inflammatory immunity. The critical role of IL-9 in promoting cellular and humoral immune responses makes it an important focus of potential therapeutic interventions. Recently, a defined subset of T helper type cells, Th9 cells, has been identified by the potent production of IL-9. The involvement of the Th9 cell subset has been described in many types of inflammatory diseases, namely atopic diseases, helminth infections, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis. In this review, we summarize the IL-9 biological activities, highlighting roles for IL-9 and Th9 cells in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, systemic vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. PMID:27159882

  1. PD-L1 expression in renal cell carcinoma clear cell type is related to unfavorable prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katia R. M. Leite; Reis, Sabrina T.; Junior, José Pontes; Zerati, Marcelo; Gomes, Daniel de Oliveira; Luiz H. Camara-Lopes; Srougi, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background PD-L1 is a glycoprotein from the family of T-cell co-stimulatory molecules that are constitutively expressed by macrophages. Aberrant expression of PD-L1 is observed in human cancers associated with inhibition of the tumor-directed T-cell immune response. There are few reports in the literature evaluating PD-L1 expression in association to prognosis specifically in renal cell cancer clear cell type (RCC-CC). Methods Immunohistochemistry using a PD-L1 polyclonal antibody was perform...

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells derived in vitro transdifferentiated insulin-producing cells: A new approach to treat type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Dave

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is largely related to an innate defect in the immune system culminating in a loss of self-tolerance and destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. Currently, there is no definitive cure for T1DM. Insulin injection does not mimic the precise regulation of β-cells on glucose homeostasis, leading long term to the development of complications. Stem cell therapy is a promising approach and specifically mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer a ...

  3. Regulation of the antibody response to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide by contrasuppressor T cells

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    A soluble membrane component of type III pneumococcal polysaccharide- coupled spleen cells (S3-SCSM) induces S3-specific suppressor T cells (Ts) in mice. These Ts can be detected only if mice are pretreated with cyclophosphamide (Cy) or if cells adherent to the lectin Vicia villosa are removed from the spleen cell population prior to transfer. The V. villosa-adherent spleen cells from mice injected with S3-SCSM could abrogate suppression mediated by Ts induced by S3-SCSM in Cy-treated mice. T...

  4. Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Rare Nasal-Type Case

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Sarıbacak Can; Harika Okutan; Ünsal Han

    2016-01-01

    Nasal type extranodal natural killer (NK) NK-cell/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a rare extranodal lymphoma of NK-cell or T-cell origin that most commonly affects immunocompetent middle-aged men of Asian or Native American descent [1]. The pathogenesis is not understood completely, but it is related in part to infection of the tumor cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) [2]. Around 6-7% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in Southeast Asia accounts for NKTCL. However, the incid...

  5. Expression of two types of acetylcholinesterase gene from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, in insect cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN-YAN SHANG; YA-MING SHAO; GUO-JUN LANG; GAN YUAN; ZHEN-HUA TANG; CHUAN-XI ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Complementary DNAs encoding two types of acetylcholinesterase(AChE)were isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The type 1 (Bmace1) and type 2 (Bmace2) ORFs are 2052 and 1917 bp in length, respectively. Both the complete ORFs of the Bmaces and Cterminal truncated forms were recombined into the Bacmid baculovirus vector under the control of the polyhedrin promoter and expressed in Trichoplusia ni (Tn-5B 1-4) cells. The resulting products exhibited AChE activity and glycosylation of the expressed proteins. An inhibition assay indicated that the ace2-type enzyme was more sensitive than the acel-type enzyme to inhibition by eserine and paraoxon.

  6. Amelioration of epidermolysis bullosa by transfer of wild-type bone marrow cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tolar, Jakub; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Riddle, Megan; McElmurry, Ron T; Osborn, Mark; Xia, Lily; Lund, Troy; Slattery, Catherine; Uitto, Jouni; Christiano, Angela M.; Wagner, John E.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    The recessive dystrophic form of epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a disorder of incurable skin fragility and blistering caused by mutations in the type VII collagen gene (Col7a1). The absence of type VII collagen production leads to the loss of adhesion at the basement membrane zone due to the absence of anchoring fibrils, which are composed of type VII collagen. We report that wild-type, congenic bone marrow cells homed to damaged skin, produced type VII collagen protein and anchoring fibrils...

  7. CT bronchus sign in malignant solitary pulmonary lesions: value in the prediction of cell type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the prevalence of patterns of CT bronchus sign in malignant solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs), according to their histologic cell types and with respect to size, location, and degree of cell differentiation. Computed tomography scans of 78 patients, in whom pathologically confirmed malignant SPLs with CT bronchus sign were present, were randomly selected and reviewed by two radiologists under consensus. All 78 were CT scans done using spiral technique with 10-mm collimation and 10-mm reconstruction intervals with enhancement, and 75 included additional high-resolution CT scans. Lesions were classified into four cell types as squamous cell carcinoma (n=24), small cell carcinoma (n=12), adenocarcinoma (n=23), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC; n=9), and others (n=12), into three degrees of differentiation, into three size groups, and according to location (central or peripheral). Patterns of CT bronchus sign were classified into abruptly obstructing (I), patent (II), displacing (III), or tapered narrowing (IV) types. The relationships between the patterns of CT bronchus sign and cell type and degree of cell differentiation were evaluated. Eighty patterns of CT bronchus sign were observed in 78 patients. According to cell type, squamous cell carcinoma showed most often type-I pattern (45.8%) but no type-II pattern, which was the most common pattern observed in BAC (77.8%) and adenocarcinoma (34.8%; p<0.01). Small cell carcinoma showed a varied distribution among the four patterns of CT bronchus sign. According to location, in central squamous cell carcinomas, type-I pattern was more common(55%; p<0.01). Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma showed more peripheral lesions and in both central and peripheral lesions, type-II pattern was significantly more common (100 and 66.7%; p<0.01). In SPLs with CT bronchus sign of obstructing pattern, especially if central location, squamous cell carcinoma should be suspected, whereas in

  8. Cytodiagnosis of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Mardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extranodal natural killer (NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/T is relatively rare, associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. Histopathological findings, immunohistochemical study, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization are essential for the diagnosis. There are a few case reports in the literature describing the cytological findings of these uncommon lymphomas. We herein describe cytological findings in two cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type presenting as lacrimal gland and/or nasal masses. Fine-needle aspiration smears revealed small to medium-sized lymphoid cells showing irregular nuclear outline, moderate amounts of light basophilic cytoplasm containing fine azurophilic granules in most of the cells. Some of these atypical lymphoid cells showed tongue-like projections of cytoplasm from one or both sides of the cells. Histopathological examination revealed typical angoicentric, angiodestructive growth pattern of these lymphomas.

  9. Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Friends or Foes—Role in Airway Allergic Inflammation and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Pishdadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate-like lymphocytes (ILLs and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are two newly characterized families of lymphocytes with limited and no rearranged antigen receptors, respectively. These soldiers provide a first line of defense against foreign insults by triggering a prompt innate immune response and bridging the gap of innate and adaptive immunity. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs2 are newly identified members of the ILC family that play a key role in type 2 immune responses by prompt production of type 2 cytokines (especially IL-5 and IL-13 in response to antigen-induced IL-25/33 and by recruiting type 2 “immune franchise.” Regarding the two different roles of type 2 cytokines, helminth expulsion and type 2-related diseases, here we review the latest advances in ILC2 biology and examine the pivotal role of resident ILCs2 in allergen-specific airway inflammation and asthma.

  10. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats;

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present study...

  11. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of...

  12. Evaluation of prenatal RHD typing strategies on cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.H.M. Grootkerk-Tax; A.A. Soussan; M. de Haas; P.A. Maaskant-van Wijk; C.E. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma led to the development of assays to predict the fetal D status with RHD-specific sequences. Few assays are designed in such a way that the fetus can be typed in RHD psi mothers and that RHD psi fetuses are correctly typed. Owing to

  13. Characteristics of dysfunction of islet β-cell in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延兵

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of the dysfunction of isletβ-cell in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was carried out on 352 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and 48 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and then blood samples were collected 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 minutes later to measure the

  14. Polymeric amorphous carbon as p-type window within amorphous silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, R.U.A.; Silva, S.R.P.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) has been shown to be intrinsically p-type, and polymeric a-C (PAC) possesses a wide Tauc band gap of 2.6 eV. We have replaced the p-type amorphous silicon carbide layer of a standard amorphous silicon solar cell with an intrinsic ultrathin layer of PAC. The thickness of the p

  15. Comparing Corn Types for Differences in Cell Wall Characteristics and p-Coumaroylation of Lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to compare cell wall characteristics, including levels of pCA and lignin in diverse corn (Zea mays L.) germplasm. Five different types of corn (Zea mays L.) germplasm (four commercial and Teosinte) were grown in the greenhouse in individual pots. For each corn type, replica...

  16. Inorganic p-Type Semiconductors: Their Applications and Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing global demand for energy and the harmful ecological impact of conventional energy sources, it is obvious that development of clean and renewable energy is a necessity. Since the Sun is our only external energy source, harnessing its energy, which is clean, non-hazardous and infinite, satisfies the main objectives of all alternative energy strategies. With attractive features, i.e., good performance, low-cost potential, simple processibility, a wide range of applications from portable power generation to power-windows, photoelectrochemical solar cells like dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs represent one of the promising methods for future large-scale power production directly from sunlight. While the sensitization of n-type semiconductors (n-SC has been intensively studied, the use of p-type semiconductor (p-SC, e.g., the sensitization of wide bandgap p-SC and hole transport materials with p-SC have also been attracting great attention. Recently, it has been proved that the p-type inorganic semiconductor as a charge selective material or a charge transport material in organometallic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs shows a significant impact on solar cell performance. Therefore the study of p-type semiconductors is important to rationally design efficient DSCs and PSCs. In this review, recent published works on p-type DSCs and PSCs incorporated with an inorganic p-type semiconductor and our perspectives on this topic are discussed.

  17. Can thymic epithelial cells be infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaysa Moreira-Ramos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is the cause of adult T cell leukaemias/lymphoma. Because thymic epithelial cells (TEC express recently defined receptors for the virus, it seemed conceivable that these cells might be a target for HTLV-1 infection. We developed an in vitro co-culture system comprising HTLV-1+-infected T cells and human TECs. Infected T cells did adhere to TECs and, after 24 h, the viral proteins gp46 and p19 were observed in TECs. After incubating TECs with culture supernatants from HTLV-1+-infected T cells, we detected gp46 on TEC membranes and the HTLV-1 tax gene integrated in the TEC genome. In conclusion, the human thymic epithelium can be infected in vitro by HTLV-1, not only via cell-cell contact, but also via exposure to virus-containing medium.

  18. Susceptibility of Rat-Derived Cells to Replication by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Keppler, Oliver T.; Yonemoto, Wesley; Welte, Frank J.; Patton, Kathryn S.; Iacovides, Demetris; Atchison, Robert E.; Ngo, Tuan; Hirschberg, David L.; Roberto F Speck; Goldsmith, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in developing a small animal model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease would greatly facilitate studies of transmission, pathogenesis, host immune responses, and antiviral strategies. In this study, we have explored the potential of rats as a susceptible host. In a single replication cycle, rat cell lines Rat2 and Nb2 produced infectious virus at levels 10- to 60-fold lower than those produced by human cells. Rat-derived cells supported substantial levels of early ...

  19. Ultrastructural characteristics of type A epithelioid cells during BCG-granulomatosis and treatment with lysosomotropic isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurupii, V A; Kozyaev, M A; Nadeev, A P

    2006-04-01

    We studied BCG-granulomas, their cellular composition, and ultrastructure of type A epithelioid cells in the liver of male BALB/c mice with spontaneous granulomatous inflammation. The animals received free isoniazid or isoniazid conjugated with lysosomotropic intracellularly prolonged matrix (dialdehyde dextran, molecular weight 65-75 kDa). Lysosomotropic isoniazid was accumulated in the vacuolar apparatus of epithelioid cells and produced a stimulatory effect on plastic processes in these cells. PMID:17152378

  20. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Sato; Masao Kataoka; Junya Hata; Hidenori Akaihata; Soichiro Ogawa; Yoshiyuki Kojima

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis ...

  1. A cell surface receptor complex for collagen type I recognizes the Arg- Gly-Asp sequence

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    To isolate collagen-binding cell surface proteins, detergent extracts of surface-iodinated MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells were chromatographed on affinity matrices of either type I collagen- Sepharose or Sepharose carrying a collagen-like triple-helical peptide. The peptide was designed to be triple helical and to contain the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp, which has been implicated as the cell attachment site of fibronectin, vitronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor, and is also present in ty...

  2. Immunohistochemical identification of type I procollagen in tumour cells of scirrhous adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    OpenAIRE

    Niitsu, Y; Ito, N.; Kohda, K; Owada, M.; Morita, K.; Sato, S.; Watanabe, N.; Kohgo, Y; Urushizaki, I.

    1988-01-01

    Human gastric carcinomas were tested for their immunohistochemical reactivity with anti-type I procollagen antiserum. In all specimens of scirrhous carcinomas, staining of the tumour cells was strongly positive, while in medullary carcinomas staining of the tumour cells was generally poor. These results suggest that the tumour cells in scirrhous carcinomas produce collagen in their stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5

  3. Cells that emerge from embryonic explants produce fibers of type IV collagen

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Double immunofluorescence staining experiments designed to examine the synthesis and deposition of collagen types I and IV in cultured explants of embryonic mouse lung revealed the presence of connective tissue-like fibers that were immunoreactive with anti-type IV collagen antibodies. This observation is contrary to the widely accepted belief that type IV collagen is found only in sheet-like arrangements beneath epithelia or as a sheath-like layer enveloping bundles of nerve or muscle cells....

  4. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Protein, NF2: An uncoventional cell cycle regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrami, Sarah; Kim, Richard; Gordon, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 protein (NF2) is an underappreciated tumor suppressor involved in a broad range of nervous system tumors. Inactivation of the NF2 gene leads to neurofibromatosis type 2, which is characterized by multiple benign nervous system tumors and mutations in the gene have been demonstrated in many other tumor types as well. All tumors, regardless of location or grade, lack a fundamental control over cell cycle progression. Historically, NF2 is an unconventional tumor suppress...

  5. Continuous crossbreeding of sake yeasts using growth selection systems for a-type and α-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Nobuo; Kaishima, Misato; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Honda, Shinya

    2016-12-01

    Sake yeasts belong to the budding yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have high fermentation activity and ethanol production. Although the traditional crossbreeding of sake yeasts is a time-consuming and inefficient process due to the low sporulation rates and spore viability of these strains, considerable effort has been devoted to the development of hybrid strains with superior brewing characteristics. In the present work, we describe a growth selection system for a- and α-type cells aimed at the crossbreeding of industrial yeasts, and performed hybridizations with sake yeast strains Kyokai No. 6, No. 7 and No. 9 to examine the feasibility of this approach. We successfully generated both a- and α-type strains from all parental strains, and acquired six types of hybrids by outcrossing. One of these hybrid strains was subjected to continuous crossbreeding, yielding the multi-hybrid strain, which inherited the genetic characteristics of Kyokai No. 6, No. 7 and No. 9. Notably, because all of the genetic modifications of the yeast cells were introduced using plasmids, these traits can be easily removed. The approach described here has the potential to markedly accelerate the crossbreeding of industrial yeast strains with desirable properties. PMID:27392493

  6. DMPD: The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defense. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17544561 The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defens...tml) (.csml) Show The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defense. PubmedID 1754...4561 Title The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host de

  7. Cell-type-specific neuroanatomy of cliques of autism-related genes in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eGrange

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two cliques of genes identified computationally for their high co-expression in the mouse brain according to the Allen Brain Atlas, and for their enrichment in genes related to autism spectrum disorder, have recently been shown to be highly co-expressed in the cerebellar cortex, compared to what could be expected by chance. Moreover, the expression of these cliques of genes is not homogeneous across the cerebellar cortex, and it has been noted that their expression pattern seems to highlight the granular layer. However, this observation was only made by eye, and recent advances in computational neuroanatomy allow to rank cell types in the mouse brain (characterized by their transcriptome profiles according to the similarity between their spatial density profiles and the expression profiles of the cliques. We establish by Monte Carlo simulation that with probability at least 99%, the expression profiles of the two cliques are more similar to the density profile of granule cells than 99% of the expression of cliques containing the same number of genes (Purkinje cells also score above 99% in one of the cliques. Thresholding the expression profiles shows that the signal is more intense in the granular layer. Finally, we work out pairs of cell types whose combined expression profiles are more similar to the expression profiles of the cliquesthan any single cell type. These pairs predominantly consist of one cortical pyramidal cell and one cerebellar cell (whichcan be either a granule cell or a Purkinje cell.

  8. Cell-type-specific neuroanatomy of cliques of autism-related genes in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal; Menashe, Idan; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two cliques of genes identified computationally for their high co-expression in the mouse brain according to the Allen Brain Atlas, and for their enrichment in genes related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have recently been shown to be highly co-expressed in the cerebellar cortex, compared to what could be expected by chance. Moreover, the expression of these cliques of genes is not homogeneous across the cerebellar cortex, and it has been noted that their expression pattern seems to highlight the granular layer. However, this observation was only made by eye, and recent advances in computational neuroanatomy allow to rank cell types in the mouse brain (characterized by their transcriptome profiles) according to the similarity between their spatial density profiles and the spatial expression profiles of the cliques. We establish by Monte Carlo simulation that with probability at least 99%, the expression profiles of the two cliques are more similar to the density profile of granule cells than 99% of the expression of cliques containing the same number of genes (Purkinje cells also score above 99% in one of the cliques). Thresholding the expression profiles shows that the signal is more intense in the granular layer. Finally, we work out pairs of cell types whose combined expression profiles are more similar to the expression profiles of the cliques than any single cell type. These pairs predominantly consist of one cortical pyramidal cell and one cerebellar cell (which can be either a granule cell or a Purkinje cell). PMID:26074809

  9. RNA interference-mediated silencing of speckle-type POZ protein promotes apoptosis of renal cell cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Guiling; Sun, Xiuju

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) gene on renal cell cancer (RCC) cells and to explore its possible mechanism. The A498 and ACHN RCC cells were transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA)-SPOP by lipofection methods. The silencing efficiency was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effects of SPOP silencing on cell apoptosis, cell viability, colony formation ability, cell migration ability, and chemosensitivity to Sorafenib were assessed by flow cytometry, an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, a trans-well migration assay, and a CCK-8 assay, respectively. Its effects on the expression of several cytokines were determined by a protein microarray. Relevant signaling pathways were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher; the cell viability, the colony formation, and migration ability were significantly decreased in the siRNA-SPOP group. The protein microarray screening showed that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the siRNA group was significantly decreased and that the expression of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05). The relevant signaling pathways were the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions pathway and extracellular matrix organization signal pathway. SPOP gene silencing induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, colony formation, and migration ability, and elevated the drug sensitivity in the RCC cells. A possible mechanism is that silencing SPOP induces the differential expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, which are related to the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions and extracellular

  10. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K; Rosenfeld, L; Murray, S C; Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Weiner, D; Henkin, J; Cines, D B

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...... endothelial cell cDNA library using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the DNA sequence of the receptor cloned from transformed human fibroblasts (Roldan et al, EMBO J 9:467, 1990). The size of the cDNA (approximately 1,054 base pairs, bp) and the presence of a...

  11. Performance of bifacial HIT solar cells on n-type silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Ye, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Ming-Bo

    2010-03-01

    The performance of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) / crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction is studied, and the effects of the emitter layer thickness, doping concentration, intrinsic layer thickness, back heavily-doped n layer, interface state and band offset on the optical and electrical performance of bifacial heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer (HIT) solar cells on ntype silicon substrates are discussed. It is found that the HIT solar cells on n-type substrates can obtain a higher conversion efficiency than those on p-type substrates by calculating the band diagrams and parameters of HIT solar cells.

  12. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera-Hernandez (Monica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  13. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  14. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Lu; B.Z. Doulabi; C. Huang; R.A. Bank; M.N. Helder

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  15. Comparison of clinical grade type 1 polarized and standard matured dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Donia, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    induction of type 1 effector T cells. Standard matured clinical grade DCs “sDCs” were compared with DCs matured with either of two type 1 polarizing maturation cocktails; the alpha-type-1 DCs “αDC1s” (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFN-α, Poly(I:C)) and “mDCs” (monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), IFN-γ) or a mixed cocktail...... – “mpDCs”, containing MPL, IFN-γ and PGE2. αDC1s and mDCs secreted IL-12 directly and following re-stimulation with CD40L-expressing cells and they mainly secreted the T effector cell attracting chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5 as opposed to sDCs that mainly secreted CCL22, known to attract regulatory T cells...

  16. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Yundong; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-02-01

    Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm2 could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  17. Calcium channels in chromaffin cells: focus on L and T types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantoni, A; Carabelli, V; Comunanza, V; Hoddah, H; Carbone, E

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav) are highly expressed in the adrenal chromaffin cells of mammalian species. Besides shaping action potential waveforms, they are directly involved in the excitation-secretion coupling underlying catecholamine release and, possibly, control other Ca2+-dependent events that originate near the membrane. These functions are shared by a number of Cav channel types (L, N, P/Q, R and T) which have different structure-function characteristics and whose degree of expression changes remarkably among mammalian species. Understanding precisely the functioning of each voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is a crucial task that helps clarifying the Ca2+-dependent mechanisms controlling exocytosis during physiological and pathological conditions. In this paper, we focus on classical and new roles that L- and T-type channels play in the control of chromaffin cell excitability and neurotransmitter release. Interestingly, L-type channels are shown to be implicated in the spontaneous autorhythmicity of chromaffin cells, while T-type channels, which are absent in adult chromaffin cells, are coupled with secretion and can be recruited following long-term beta-adrenergic stimulation or chronic hypoxia. This suggests that like other cells, adrenal chromaffin cells undergo effective remodelling of membrane ion channels and cell functioning during prolonged stress conditions. PMID:18021322

  18. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion by immunor (IM28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akoume Marie-Yvonne

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunor (IM28, an analog of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 by inhibiting reverse transcriptase. We assessed the ability of IM28 to inhibit the cell-cell fusion mediated by HIV envelope glycoprotein in an in vitro system. For this purpose, we co-cultured TF228.1.16, a T-cell line expressing stably HIV-1 glycoprotein envelopes, with an equal number of 293/CD4+, another T cell line expressing CD4, and with the SupT1 cell line with or without IM28. Results In the absence of IM28, TF228.1.16 fused with 293/CD4+, inducing numerous large syncytia. Syncytia appeared more rapidly when TF228.1.16 was co-cultured with SupT1 cells than when it was co-cultured with the 293/CD4+ cell line. IM28 (1.6 – 45 μg/ml completely inhibits cell-cell fusion. IM28 also prevented the development of new syncytia in infected cells and protected naive SupT1 cells from HIV-1 infection. Evaluation of 50% inhibitory dose (IC50 of IM28 revealed a decrease in HIV-1 replication with an IC50 of 22 mM and 50% cytotoxicity dose (CC50 as determined on MT2 cells was 75 mM giving a selectivity index of 3.4 Conclusions These findings suggest that IM28 exerts an inhibitory action on the env proteins that mediate cell-cell fusion between infected and healthy cells. They also suggest that IM28 interferes with biochemical processes to stop the progression of existing syncytia. This property may lead to the development of a new class of therapeutic drug.

  19. Reemigrace českých západních emigrantů v 90. letech 20. století z hlediska ekonomické sociologie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpor, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2005), s. 31-55. ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA403/03/0339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : migration studies * Czech Republic * Re-emigration Subject RIV: AO - Socio logy, Demography Impact factor: 0.113, year: 2005

  20. Laser-assisted Microdissection (LAM) as a Tool for Transcriptional Profiling of Individual Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez Rueda, Ana Marcela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schmidt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of developmental processes at the molecular level requires insights into transcriptional regulation, and thus the transcriptome, at the level of individual cell types. While the methods described here are generally applicable to a wide range of species and cell types, our research focuses on plant reproduction. Plant cultivation and seed production is of crucial importance for human and animal nutrition. A detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the formation of the reproductive lineage (germline) and ultimately of seeds is a precondition for the targeted manipulation of plant reproduction. In particular, the engineering of apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) into crop plants promises great improvements, as it leads to the formation of clonal seeds that are genetically identical to the mother plant. Consequently, the cell types of the female germline are of major importance for the understanding and engineering of apomixis. However, as the corresponding cells are deeply embedded within the floral tissues, they are very difficult to access for experimental analyses, including cell-type specific transcriptomics. To overcome this limitation, sections of individual cells can be isolated by laser-assisted microdissection (LAM). While LAM in combination with transcriptional profiling allows the identification of genes and pathways active in any cell type with high specificity, establishing a suitable protocol can be challenging. Specifically, the quality of RNA obtained after LAM can be compromised, especially when small, single cells are targeted. To circumvent this problem, we have established a workflow for LAM that reproducibly results in high RNA quality that is well suitable for transcriptomics, as exemplified here by the isolation of cells of the female germline in apomictic Boechera. In this protocol, procedures are described for tissue preparation and LAM, also with regard to RNA extraction and quality control

  1. Type III TGFβ receptor and Src direct hyaluronan-mediated invasive cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Patrick; Espiritu, Daniella; Barnett, Joey V; Camenisch, Todd D

    2015-03-01

    During embryogenesis, the epicardium undergoes proliferation, migration, and differentiation into several cardiac cell types which contribute to the coronary vessels. This process requires epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and directed cellular invasion. The Type III Transforming Growth Factor-beta Receptor (TGFβR3) is required for epicardial cell invasion and coronary vessel development. Using primary epicardial cells derived from Tgfbr3(+/+) and Tgfbr3(-/-) mouse embryos, high-molecular weight hyaluronan (HMWHA) stimulated cellular invasion and filamentous (f-actin) polymerization are detected in Tgfbr3(+/+) cells, but not in Tgfbr3(-/-) cells. Furthermore, HMWHA-stimulated cellular invasion and f-actin polymerization in Tgfbr3(+/+) epicardial cells are dependent on Src kinase. Src activation in HMWHA-stimulated Tgfbr3(-/-) epicardial cells is not detected in response to HMWHA. RhoA and Rac1 also fail to activate in response to HMWHA in Tgfbr3(-/-) cells. These events coincide with defective f-actin formation and deficient cellular invasion. Finally, a T841A activating substitution in TGFβR3 drives ligand-independent Src activation. Collectively, these data define a TGFβR3-Src-RhoA/Rac1 pathway that is essential for hyaluronan-directed cell invasion in epicardial cells. PMID:25499979

  2. Jamming dynamics of stretch-induced surfactant release by alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arnab; Arold, Stephen P; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Suki, Béla

    2012-03-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar epithelial type II cells is vital for the reduction of interfacial surface tension, thus preventing lung collapse. To study secretion dynamics, rat alveolar epithelial type II cells were cultured on elastic membranes and cyclically stretched. The amounts of phosphatidylcholine, the primary lipid component of surfactant, inside and outside the cells, were measured using radiolabeled choline. During and immediately after stretch, cells secreted less surfactant than unstretched cells; however, stretched cells secreted significantly more surfactant than unstretched cells after an extended lag period. We developed a model based on the hypothesis that stretching leads to jamming of surfactant traffic escaping the cell, similar to vehicular traffic jams. In the model, stretch increases surfactant transport from the interior to the exterior of the cell. This transport is mediated by a surface layer with a finite capacity due to the limited number of fusion pores through which secretion occurs. When the amount of surfactant in the surface layer approaches this capacity, interference among lamellar bodies carrying surfactant reduces the rate of secretion, effectively creating a jam. When the stretch stops, the jam takes an extended time to clear, and subsequently the amount of secreted surfactant increases. We solved the model analytically and show that its dynamics are consistent with experimental observations, implying that surfactant secretion is a fundamentally nonlinear process with memory representing collective behavior at the level of single cells. Our results thus highlight the importance of a jamming dynamics in stretch-induced cellular secretory processes. PMID:22033531

  3. Therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood cells for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binbin; Li, Xia; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells. However, to date, no conventional intervention has successfully treated the disease. The optimal therapeutic method for T1DM should effectively control the autoimmunity, restore immune homeostasis, preserve residual β-cells, reverse β-cell destruction, and protect the regenerated insulin-producing cells against re-attack. Umbilical cord blood is rich in regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and multiple types of stem cells that exhibit immunomodulating potential and hold promise in their ability to restore peripheral tolerance towards pancreatic islet β-cells through remodeling of immune responses and suppression of autoreactive T cells. Recently, reinfusion of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood has been proposed as a novel therapy for T1DM, with the advantages of no risk to the donors, minimal ethical concerns, a low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and easy accessibility. In this review, we revisit the role of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood-based applications for the treatment of T1DM. PMID:25799887

  4. Design optimization of bifacial HIT solar cells on p-type silicon substrates by simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.; Zhou, C.L.; Li, H.L.; Diao, H.W.; Wang, W.J. [Laboratory of Solar Cell Technology, Institute of Electrical Engineering, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells fabricated on p-type silicon substrates usually demonstrate inferior performance than those formed on n-type substrates. The influence of various structure parameters on the performance of the c-Si(p)-based bifacial HIT solar cell, i.e., the TCO/a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(i)/a-Si:H(p{sup +})/TCO solar cell, was investigated in detail by computer simulation using the AFORS-HET software. The work function of the transparent conductive oxide was found to be a key factor to affect the solar cell performance. Detailed influence mechanisms were analysed. Accordingly, the design optimization of the bifacial HIT solar cells on c-Si(p) substrates was provided. (author)

  5. Glutamine synthetase is a genetic determinant of cell type-specific glutamine independence in breast epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ni Kung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although significant variations in the metabolic profiles exist among different cells, little is understood in terms of genetic regulations of such cell type-specific metabolic phenotypes and nutrient requirements. While many cancer cells depend on exogenous glutamine for survival to justify the therapeutic targeting of glutamine metabolism, the mechanisms of glutamine dependence and likely response and resistance of such glutamine-targeting strategies among cancers are largely unknown. In this study, we have found a systematic variation in the glutamine dependence among breast tumor subtypes associated with mammary differentiation: basal- but not luminal-type breast cells are more glutamine-dependent and may be susceptible to glutamine-targeting therapeutics. Glutamine independence of luminal-type cells is associated mechanistically with lineage-specific expression of glutamine synthetase (GS. Luminal cells can also rescue basal cells in co-culture without glutamine, indicating a potential for glutamine symbiosis within breast ducts. The luminal-specific expression of GS is directly induced by GATA3 and represses glutaminase expression. Such distinct glutamine dependency and metabolic symbiosis is coupled with the acquisition of the GS and glutamine independence during the mammary differentiation program. Understanding the genetic circuitry governing distinct metabolic patterns is relevant to many symbiotic relationships among different cells and organisms. In addition, the ability of GS to predict patterns of glutamine metabolism and dependency among tumors is also crucial in the rational design and application of glutamine and other metabolic pathway targeted therapies.

  6. Human CD141+ DCs induce CD4+ T cells to produce type 2 cytokines1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun I; Becker, Christian; Metang, Patrick; Marches, Florentina; Wang, Yuanyuan; Toshiyuki, Hori; Banchereau, Jacques; Merad, Miriam; Palucka, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play the central role in the priming of naïve T cells and the differentiation of unique effector T cells. Here, using lung tissues and blood from both humans and humanized mice, we analyzed the response of human CD1c+ and CD141+ DC subsets to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). Specifically, we analyzed the type of CD4+ T cell immunity elicited by LAIV-exposed DCs. Both DC subsets induce proliferation of allogeneic naïve CD4+ T cells with capacity to secrete IFN-γ. However, CD141+ DCs are uniquely able to induce the differentiation of IL-4 and IL-13 producing CD4+ T cells. CD141+ DCs induce IL-4 and IL-13 secreting CD4+ T cells through OX40L. Thus, CD141+ DCs demonstrate remarkable plasticity in guiding adaptive immune responses. PMID:25246496

  7. Progress in low-cost n-type silicon solar cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerligs, L.J.; Romijn, G.; Burgers, A.R.; Guillevin, N.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Wang, Hongfang; Lang, Fang; Zhao, Wenchao; Li, Gaofei; Hu, Zhiyan; Xiong, Jingfeng [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., LTD, Baoding (China); Vlooswijk, A. [Tempress Systems, Vaassen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    This article will review our recent progress in development of high-efficiency cells on n-type monocrystalline Si wafers. With boron-doped front emitter, phosphorous BSF, and screen-printed metallisation, at this moment such cells reach an efficiency of over 19%. We describe recent results of processing with reduced front contact area, and improved BSF and improved rear surface passivation, which are key parameters that limit the cell efficiency. The improved processing leads to an efficiency of 20%. The cell process has also been adopted for fabrication of metal-wrap-through back-contact cells. Without the improved contact recombination and BSF, an MWT cell efficiency of 19.7% is reached, 0.3% higher than the corresponding 'standard' (non-back-contact) cells.

  8. Regulation of programmed cell death by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed

    2008-01-01

    numbers of reports suggest that PAI-1 also can regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in cancer cells and normal cells. A number of reports suggest that PAI-1 can inhibit PCD through its pro-adhesive/anti-proteolytic property whereas other reports suggest that PAI-1 induces PCD through its anti......-adhesive property.Furthermore,it has been suggested that PAI-1 can either induce or inhibit PCD though activation of cell signalling pathways.This review will focus on the regulation of programmed cell death by PAI-1 in both normal cells and cancer cells.......Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are associated with poor prognosis in cancer. An explanation to the elevated levels of PAI-1 could be a protective response to the increased proteolytic activity, caused by elevated levels of urokinase- type plasminogen activator (u...

  9. Factors that influence age of type 1 diabetes onset and beta cell function in children and adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Giannopoulou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether type 1 and type 2 diabetes associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence age of type 1 diabetes onset and residual beta cell function in children and adults with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In the second part, a pilot, non-randomized, controlled intervention trial is performed, in order to examine whether a single autologous cord blood infusion can change the natural course of metabolic and immune function in children type 1 diabetes. Di...

  10. Inherent ER stress in pancreatic islet β cells causes self-recognition by autoreactive T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marré, Meghan L; Profozich, Jennifer L; Coneybeer, Jorge T; Geng, Xuehui; Bertera, Suzanne; Ford, Michael J; Trucco, Massimo; Piganelli, Jon D

    2016-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic β cell destruction induced by islet reactive T cells that have escaped central tolerance. Many physiological and environmental triggers associated with T1D result in β cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dysfunction, increasing the potential for abnormal post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins. We hypothesized that β cell ER stress induced by environmental and physiological conditions generates abnormally-modified proteins for the T1D autoimmune response. To test this hypothesis we exposed the murine CD4(+) diabetogenic BDC2.5 T cell clone to murine islets in which ER stress had been induced chemically (Thapsigargin). The BDC2.5 T cell IFNγ response to these cells was significantly increased compared to non-treated islets. This β cell ER stress increased activity of the calcium (Ca(2+))-dependent PTM enzyme tissue transglutaminase 2 (Tgase2), which was necessary for full stress-dependent immunogenicity. Indeed, BDC2.5 T cells responded more strongly to their antigen after its modification by Tgase2. Finally, exposure of non-antigenic murine insulinomas to chemical ER stress in vitro or physiological ER stress in vivo caused increased ER stress and Tgase2 activity, culminating in higher BDC2.5 responses. Thus, β cell ER stress induced by chemical and physiological triggers leads to β cell immunogenicity through Ca(2+)-dependent PTM. These findings elucidate a mechanism of how β cell proteins are modified and become immunogenic, and reveal a novel opportunity for preventing β cell recognition by autoreactive T cells. PMID:27173406

  11. Renal-type clear cell carcinoma of the prostate: a diagnostic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Patne, Shashikant C. U.; Johri, Nidhi; Katiyar, Richa; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Uday Shankar

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old male presented with urinary symptoms. His serum prostate specific antigen level was 65.2 ng/ml. His radical prostatectomy specimen showed clear cell lesion reminiscent of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma along with acinar type of prostatic adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 4 + 4. The lesional clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, vimentin, and AMACR while negative for 34βE12, CK7, prostate specific antigen, and PAX8. The final diagnosis ...

  12. Effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on alveolar Type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological changes of rat alveolar type II (AT-II) cells were studied at 8 and 10 months following inhalation of 239PuO2 to elucidate the biological role of AT-II cells in the induction of lung tumours. TEM micrographs of random sections of lung were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using an automatic image analyser. Eighteen morphometric parameters were obtained according to stereological principles. The results showed that, following the inhalation of 239PuO2, AT-II cells became less differentiated and the metabolism of the pulmonary surfactant in AT-II cells was disturbed. (author)

  13. Effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological changes of rat alveolar type II (AT-II) cells were studied at 8 and 10 months following inhalation of 239PuO2 to elucidate the biological role of At-II cells in the induction of lung tumours. TEM micrographs of random sections of lung were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using an automatic image analyser. Eighteen morphometric parameters were obtained according to stereo logical principles. The results showed that, following the inhalation of 239PuO2, AT-II cells became less differentiated and the metabolism of the pulmonary surfactant in AT-II cells was disturbed

  14. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity by the T cell line specific to bacterial peptidoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A T cell line specific for the chemically well-defined peptidoglycan of bacterial cell wall, disaccharide tetrapeptide, was established from Lewis rats immunized with the antigen covalently linked to the autologous rat serum albumin. The antigen specificity was examined with various analogues or derivatives of the peptidoglycan. The cell line was reactive to analogues with the COOH-terminal D-amino acid, but least reactive to those with L-amino acid as COOH terminus. Transferring of the T cell line into X-irradiated normal Lewis rats induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in an antigen specific manner

  15. Beige Adipocytes are a Distinct Type of Thermogenic Fat Cell in Mouse and Human

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jun; Boström, Pontus; Sparks, Lauren M; Ye, Li; Choi, Jang Hyun; Giang, An-Hoa; Khandekar, Melin; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schaart, Gert; Huang, Kexin; Tu, Hua; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Hoeks, Joris; Enerbäck, Sven; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Brown fat defends against hypothermia and obesity through thermogenesis mediated by mitochondrial UCP1. Recent data suggest that there are two distinct types of brown fat: classical brown fat derived from a myf-5 cellular lineage and UCP1-positive cells that emerge in white fat from a non-myf-5 lineage. Here we report the cloning of “beige” cells from murine white fat depots. Beige cells resemble white fat cells in having extremely low basal expression of UCP1, but like classical brown fat, t...

  16. Cell cycle is disturbed in mucopolysaccharidosis type II fibroblasts, and can be improved by genistein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskot, Marta; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Węsierska, Magdalena; Bocheńska, Katarzyna; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are inherited metabolic diseases caused by mutations resulting in deficiency of one of enzymes involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These compounds accumulate in cells causing their dysfunctions. Genistein is a molecule previously found to both modify GAG metabolism and modulate cell cycle. Therefore, we investigated whether the cell cycle is affected in MPS cells and if genistein can influence this process. Fibroblasts derived from patients suffering from MPS types I, II, IIIA and IIIB, as well as normal human fibroblasts (the HDFa cell line) were investigated. MTT assay was used for determination of cell proliferation, and the cell cycle was analyzed by using the MUSE® Cell Analyzer. While effects of genistein on cell proliferation were similar in both normal and MPS fibroblasts, fractions of cells in the G0/G1 phase were higher, and number of cells entering the S and G2/M phases was considerably lower in MPS II fibroblasts relative to control cells. Somewhat similar tendency, though significantly less pronounced, could be noted in MPS I, but only at longer times of incubation. However, this was not observed in MPS IIIA and MPS IIIB fibroblasts. Genistein (5, 7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) was found to be able to partially correct the disturbances in the MPS II cell cycle, and to some extent in MPS I, at higher concentrations of this compound. The tendency to increase the fractions of cells entering the S and G2/M phases was also observed in MPS IIIA and IIIB fibroblasts treated with genistein. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that the cell cycle can be impaired in MPS cells. The finding that genistein can improve the MPS II (and to some extent also MPS I) cell cycle provides an input to our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound. PMID:27016302

  17. Pulmonary surfactant and its components inhibit secretion of phosphatidylcholine from cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells. Radioactive phosphatidylcholine has been used as a marker for surfactant secretion. The authors report findings that suggest that surfactant inhibits secretion of 3H-labeled phosphatidylcholine by cultured rat type II cells. The lipid components and the surfactant protein group of M/sub r/ 26,000-36,000 (SP 26-36) inhibit secretion to different extents. Surfactant lipids do not completely inhibit release; in concentrations of 100 μg/ml, lipids inhibit stimulated secretion by 40%. SP 26-36 inhibits release with an EC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 μg/ml, SP 26-36 inhibits basal secretion and reduces to basal levels secretion stimulated by terbutaline, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and the ionophore A23187. The inhibitory effect of SP 26-36 can be blocked by washing type II cells after adding SP 26-36, by heating the proteins to 1000C for 10 min, by adding antiserum specific to SP 26-36, or by incubating cells in the presence of 0.2 mM EGTA. SP 26-36 isolated from canine and human sources also inhibits phosphatidylcholine release from rat type II cells. Neither type I collagen nor serum apolipoprotein A-1 inhibits secretion. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that surfactant secretion is under feedback regulatory control

  18. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb

  19. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  20. Glucosylceramides are critical for cell-type differentiation and organogenesis, but not for cell viability in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msanne, Joseph; Chen, Ming; Luttgeharm, Kyle D; Bradley, Amanda M; Mays, Elizabeth S; Paper, Janet M; Boyle, Daniel L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Schrick, Kathrin; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-10-01

    Glucosylceramides (GlcCer), glucose-conjugated sphingolipids, are major components of the endomembrane system and plasma membrane in most eukaryotic cells. Yet the quantitative significance and cellular functions of GlcCer are not well characterized in plants and other multi-organ eukaryotes. To address this, we examined Arabidopsis lines that were lacking or deficient in GlcCer by insertional disruption or by RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of the single gene for GlcCer synthase (GCS, At2g19880), the enzyme that catalyzes GlcCer synthesis. Null mutants for GCS (designated 'gcs-1') were viable as seedlings, albeit strongly reduced in size, and failed to develop beyond the seedling stage. Heterozygous plants harboring the insertion allele exhibited reduced transmission through the male gametophyte. Undifferentiated calli generated from gcs-1 seedlings and lacking GlcCer proliferated in a manner similar to calli from wild-type plants. However, gcs-1 calli, in contrast to wild-type calli, were unable to develop organs on differentiation media. Consistent with a role for GlcCer in organ-specific cell differentiation, calli from gcs-1 mutants formed roots and leaves on media supplemented with the glucosylated sphingosine glucopsychosine, which was readily converted to GlcCer independent of GCS. Underlying these phenotypes, gcs-1 cells had altered Golgi morphology and fewer cisternae per Golgi apparatus relative to wild-type cells, indicative of protein trafficking defects. Despite seedling lethality in the null mutant, GCS RNAi suppression lines with ≤2% of wild-type GlcCer levels were viable and fertile. Collectively, these results indicate that GlcCer are essential for cell-type differentiation and organogenesis, and plant cells produce amounts of GlcCer in excess of that required for normal development. PMID:26313010

  1. Gata-3 Induces T Helper Cell Type 2 (Th2) Cytokine Expression and Chromatin Remodeling in Committed Th1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Jun; Takemoto, Naofumi; Kurata, Hirokazu; Kamogawa, Yumiko; Miyatake, Shoichiro; O'Garra, Anne; Arai, Naoko

    2000-01-01

    Committed T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 effector cells, resulting from chronic antigenic stimulation in interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-4, are implicated in the pathology of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Committed Th1 cells cannot be induced to change their cytokine profiles in response to antigenic stimulation and Th2 cytokine–inducing conditions. Here, we report that ectopic expression of GATA-3 induced Th2-specific cytokine expression not only in developing Th1 cells but also in otherwise i...

  2. Arachidonate metabolism increases as rat alveolar type II cells differentiate in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat type II alveolar epithelial cells are known to undergo morphological and functional changes when maintained in culture for several days. Having previously demonstrated that these cells can deacylate free arachidonic acid (AA) and metabolize it to products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, the present study was undertaken to determine whether in vitro differentiation was accompanied by alterations in the availability and metabolism of AA. We assessed the constitutive and ionophore A23187-induced deacylation and metabolism of endogenous AA, as well as the metabolism of exogenously supplied AA, in primary cultures of rat type II cells at days 2, 4, and 7 after isolation. Levels of free endogenous AA were increased at day 4, whereas eicosanoid synthesis, predominantly prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin, increased markedly only at day 7. A similar time course of augmentation of prostanoid release was seen in response to exogenous AA. Type II cells cultured on fibronectin, intended to hasten cell flattening and spreading, demonstrated accelerated increases in available free AA in response to A23187; cells cultured on basement membrane derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma, known to maintain the type II phenotype, exhibited diminished levels of available free AA. From these findings, we conclude that alterations in arachidonate metabolism are linked to alterations in cellular phenotype. The potentiation of eicosanoid synthesis accompanying in vitro differentiation suggests a possible role for the alveolar epithelium in the modulation of inflammation and fibrosis in the distal lung

  3. Can CD44 Be a Mediator of Cell Destruction? The Challenge of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag-Asherie, Nathalie; Sever, Dror; Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela; Weiss, Talya; Ginzberg, Ariel; Perles, Sharon; Weiss, Lola; Sebban, Lora Eshkar; Turley, Eva A; Okon, Elimelech; Raz, Itamar; Naor, David

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is a multi-functional receptor with multiple of isoforms engaged in modulation of cell trafficking and transmission of apoptotic signals. We have previously shown that injection of anti-CD44 antibody into NOD mice induced resistance to type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this communication we describe our efforts to understand the mechanism underlying this effect. We found that CD44-deficient NOD mice develop stronger resistance to T1D than wild-type littermates. This effect is not explained by the involvement of CD44 in cell migration, because CD44-deficient inflammatory cells surprisingly had greater invasive potential than the corresponding wild type cells, probably owing to molecular redundancy. We have previously reported and we show here again that CD44 expression and hyaluronic acid (HA, the principal ligand for CD44) accumulation are detected in pancreatic islets of diabetic NOD mice, but not of non-diabetic DBA/1 mice. Expression of CD44 on insulin-secreting β cells renders them susceptible to the autoimmune attack, and is associated with a diminution in β-cells function (e.g., less insulin production and/or insulin secretion) and possibly also with an enhanced apoptosis rate. The diabetes-supportive effect of CD44 expression on β cells was assessed by the TUNEL assay and further strengthened by functional assays exhibiting increased nitric oxide release, reduced insulin secretion after glucose stimulation and decreased insulin content in β cells. All these parameters could not be detected in CD44-deficient islets. We further suggest that HA-binding to CD44-expressing β cells is implicated in β-cell demise. Altogether, these data agree with the concept that CD44 is a receptor capable of modulating cell fate. This finding is important for other pathologies (e.g., cancer, neurodegenerative diseases) in which CD44 and HA appear to be implicated. PMID:26624007

  4. Establishment and evaluation of a stable cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  5. Viral infections in type 1 diabetes mellitus--why the β cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beeck, Anne Op; Eizirik, Decio L

    2016-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by progressive autoimmune-mediated loss of pancreatic β-cell mass via apoptosis. The onset of T1DM depends on environmental factors that interact with predisposing genes to induce an autoimmune assault against β cells. Epidemiological, clinical and pathology studies in humans support viral infection--particularly by enteroviruses (for example, coxsackievirus)--as an environmental trigger for the development of T1DM. Many candidate genes for T1DM, such as MDA5, PTPN2 and TYK2, regulate antiviral responses in both β cells and the immune system. Cellular permissiveness to viral infection is modulated by innate antiviral responses that vary among different tissues or cell types. Some data indicate that pancreatic islet α cells trigger a more efficient antiviral response to infection with diabetogenic viruses than do β cells, and so are able to eradicate viral infections without undergoing apoptosis. This difference could account for the varying ability of islet-cell subtypes to clear viral infections and explain why chronically infected pancreatic β cells, but not α cells, are targeted by an autoimmune response and killed during the development of T1DM. These issues and attempts to target viral infection as a preventive therapy for T1DM are discussed in the present Review. PMID:27020257

  6. Type 1 regulatory T cells: a new mechanism of peripheral immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hanyu; Zhang, Rong; Jin, Boquan; Chen, Lihua

    2015-09-01

    The lack of immune response to an antigen, a process known as immune tolerance, is essential for the preservation of immune homeostasis. To date, two mechanisms that drive immune tolerance have been described extensively: central tolerance and peripheral tolerance. Under the new nomenclature, thymus-derived regulatory T (tT(reg)) cells are the major mediators of central immune tolerance, whereas peripherally derived regulatory T (pT(reg)) cells function to regulate peripheral immune tolerance. A third type of T(reg) cells, termed iT(reg), represents only the in vitro-induced T(reg) cells(1). Depending on whether the cells stably express Foxp3, pT(reg), and iT(reg) cells may be divided into two subsets: the classical CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells and the CD4(+)Foxp3(-) type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells(2). This review focuses on the discovery, associated biomarkers, regulatory functions, methods of induction, association with disease, and clinical trials of Tr1 cells. PMID:26051475

  7. Sprouty genes prevent excessive FGF signalling in multiple cell types throughout development of the cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian; Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Echevarria, Diego; Martinez, Salvador; Basson, M. Albert

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and regulators of the FGF signalling pathway are expressed in several cell types within the cerebellum throughout its development. Although much is known about the function of this pathway during the establishment of the cerebellar territory during early embryogenesis, the role of this pathway during later developmental stages is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of sprouty genes (Spry1, Spry2 and Spry4), which encode feedback antagonists of FGF signalling, during cerebellar development in the mouse. Simultaneous deletion of more than one of these genes resulted in a number of defects, including mediolateral expansion of the cerebellar vermis, reduced thickness of the granule cell layer and abnormal foliation. Analysis of cerebellar development revealed that the anterior cerebellar neuroepithelium in the early embryonic cerebellum was expanded and that granule cell proliferation during late embryogenesis and early postnatal development was reduced. We show that the granule cell proliferation deficit correlated with reduced sonic hedgehog (SHH) expression and signalling. A reduction in Fgfr1 dosage during development rescued these defects, confirming that the abnormalities are due to excess FGF signalling. Our data indicate that sprouty acts both cell autonomously in granule cell precursors and non-cell autonomously to regulate granule cell number. Taken together, our data demonstrate that FGF signalling levels have to be tightly controlled throughout cerebellar development in order to maintain the normal development of multiple cell types. PMID:21693512

  8. Interleukin-1 exerts distinct actions on different cell types of the brain in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying An

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying An, Qun Chen, Ning QuanDepartment of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a critical neuroinflammatory mediator in the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-1 on inducing inflammation-related gene expression in three astrocyte, two microglial, and one brain endothelial cell line. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β is found to be produced by the two microglial cell lines constitutively, but these cells do not respond to IL-1β stimulation. The three astrocyte cell lines responded to IL-1ß stimulation by expressing MCP-1, CXCL-1, and VCAM-1, but different subtypes of astrocytes exhibited different expression profiles after IL-1β stimulation. The brain endothelial cells showed strongest response to IL-1β by producing MCP-1, CXCL-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA. The induction of endothelial COX-2 mRNA is shown to be mediated by p38 MAPK pathway, whereas the induction of other genes is mediated by the NF-κB pathway. These results demonstrate that IL-1 exerts distinct cell type-specific action in CNS cells and suggest that IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation is the result of the summation of multiple responses from different cell types in the CNS to IL-1.Keywords: astrocyte, microglia, endothelial cells, signal transduction pathways, gene expression 

  9. The evolutionary emergence of cell type-specific genes inferred from the gene expression analysis of Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Shan; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Hayakawa, Shiho; Osato, Naoki; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Ikeo, Kazuho; David, Charles N.; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Gojobori, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Cell lineages of cnidarians including Hydra represent the fundamental cell types of metazoans and provides us a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of cell type in the animal kingdom. Hydra contains epithelial cells as well as a multipotent interstitial cell (I-cell) that gives rise to nematocytes, nerve cells, gland cells, and germ-line cells. We used cDNA microarrays to identify cell type-specific genes by comparing gene expression in normal Hydra with animals lacking the I-cell lineage, so-called epithelial Hydra. We then performed in situ hybridization to localize expression to specific cell types. Eighty-six genes were shown to be expressed in specific cell types of the I-cell lineage. An additional 29 genes were expressed in epithelial cells and were down-regulated in epithelial animals lacking I-cells. Based on the above information, we constructed a database (http://hydra.lab.nig.ac.jp/hydra/), which describes the expression patterns of cell type-specific genes in Hydra. Most genes expressed specifically in either I-cells or epithelial cells have homologues in higher metazoans. By comparison, most nematocyte-specific genes and approximately half of the gland cell- and nerve cell-specific genes are unique to the cnidarian lineage. Because nematocytes, gland cells, and nerve cells appeared along with the emergence of cnidarians, this suggests that lineage-specific genes arose in cnidarians in conjunction with the evolution of new cell types required by the cnidarians. PMID:17766437

  10. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration

  11. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena, E-mail: e_cardenal@us.es; Gutiérrez, Gabriel, E-mail: ggpozo@us.es; Ramos-Morales, Francisco, E-mail: framos@us.es

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  12. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan induces apoptosis and autophagy in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozako, Tomohiro; Soeda, Shuhei; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Arima, Naomichi; Kuroki, Ayako; Hirata, Shinya; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Imakyure, Osamu; Tone, Nanako; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Soeda, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy that develops after long-term infection with human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1), requires new treatments. Drug repositioning, reuse of a drug previously approved for the treatment of another condition to treat ATL, offers the possibility of reduced time and risk. Among clinically available angiotensin II receptor blockers, telmisartan is well known for its unique ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, which plays various roles in lipid metabolism, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, telmisartan reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptotic cells via caspase activation in ex vivo peripheral blood monocytes from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) or via caspase-independent cell death in acute-type ATL, which has a poor prognosis. Telmisartan also induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines via caspase activation, whereas other angiotensin II receptor blockers did not induce cell death. Interestingly, telmisartan increased the LC3-II-enriched protein fraction, indicating autophagosome accumulation and autophagy. Thus, telmisartan simultaneously caused caspase activation and autophagy. A hypertension medication with antiproliferation effects on primary and leukemia cells is intriguing. Patients with an early diagnosis of ATL are generally monitored until the disease progresses; thus, suppression of progression from AC and indolent ATL to acute ATL is important. Our results suggest that telmisartan is highly effective against primary cells and leukemia cell lines in caspase-dependent and -independent manners, and its clinical use may suppress acute transformation and improve prognosis of patients with this mortal disease. This is the first report demonstrating a cell growth-inhibitory effect of telmisartan in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leukemia patients. PMID:27419050

  13. Diabetes-Enhanced Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production Promotes Apoptosis and the Loss of Retinal Microvascular Cells in Type 1 and Type 2 Models of Diabetic Retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Behl, Yugal; Krothapalli, Padmaja; Desta, Tesfahun; DiPiazza, Amanda; Roy, Sayon; Graves, Dana T.

    2008-01-01

    Retinal microvascular cell loss plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. To examine this further, type 1 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and type 2 Zucker diabetic fatty rats were treated by intravitreal injection of the tumor necrosis factor-specific inhibitor pegsunercept, and the impact was measured by analysis of retinal trypsin digests. For type 2 diabetic rats, the number of endothelial cells and pericytes positive for diabetes-enhanced activated caspase-3...

  14. Nitric Oxide Modulates the Temporal Properties of the Glutamate Response in Type 4 OFF Bipolar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Alex H.; Agurto, Adolfo; Valdés, Joaquín; Palacios, Adrián G.; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in retinal signal processing, but its cellular actions are only partly understood. An established source of retinal NO are NOACs, a group of nNOS-expressing amacrine cells which signal onto bipolar, other amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner plexiform layer. Here, we report that NO regulates glutamate responses in morphologically and electrophysiologically identified type 4 OFF cone bipolar cells through activation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase-cGMP-PKG pathway. The glutamate response of these cells consists of two components, a fast phasic current sensitive to kainate receptor agonists, and a secondary component with slow kinetics, inhibited by AMPA receptor antagonists. NO shortened the duration of the AMPA receptor-dependent component of the glutamate response, while the kainate receptor-dependent component remained unchanged. Application of 8-Br-cGMP mimicked this effect, while inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase or protein kinase G prevented it, supporting a mechanism involving a cGMP signaling pathway. Notably, perfusion with a NOS-inhibitor prolonged the duration of the glutamate response, while the NO precursor L-arginine shortened it, in agreement with a modulation by endogenous NO. Furthermore, NO accelerated the response recovery during repeated stimulation of type 4 cone bipolar cells, suggesting that the temporal response properties of this OFF bipolar cell type are regulated by NO. These results reveal a novel cellular mechanism of NO signaling in the retina, and represent the first functional evidence of NO modulating OFF cone bipolar cells. PMID:25463389

  15. Postnatal characterization of cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of wild type and reeler mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMartín-López

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is the most relevant chemosensory sense of the rodents. General odors are primarily detected by the main olfactory system while most pheromonal signals are received by the accessory olfactory system. The first relay in the brain occurs in the olfactory bulb, which is subdivided in the main and accessory olfactory bulb (MOB/AOB. Given that the cell generation time is different between AOB and MOB, and the cell characterization of AOB remains limited, the goal of this work was first, the definition of the layering of AOB/MOB and second, the establishment of cellular phenotypes in the AOB in a time window corresponding to the early postnatal development. Moreover, since reelin deficiency has been related to layering and olfactory learning deficits, those data were compared with reeler mice. Firstly, we compared the layering between AOB and MOB at early embryonic stages. Then, cell phenotypes were established using specific neuronal and glial markers as well as the reelin adaptor protein Dab1 to analyze differences in both genetic backgrounds. There was no apparent difference in the cell phenotypes among AOB and MOB or between wild type and reeler animals. However, it was outstanding a disruption in the granular cell layer of reeler with respect to wild type mice. In conclusion, the AOB in reelin deficient mice showed similar neuronal and glial cell types being only affected the layering of granular cells.

  16. Comparing n- and p-type polycrystalline silicon absorbers in thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated fine grained polycrystalline silicon thin films grown by direct chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates. More specifically, we analyze the influence of the doping type on the properties of this model polycrystalline silicon material. This includes an investigation of defect passivation and benchmarking of minority carrier properties. In our investigation, we use a variety of characterization techniques to probe the properties of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin films, including Fourier Transform Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance, Conductivity Activation, and Suns-Voc measurements. Amphoteric silicon dangling bond defects are identified as the most prominent defect type present in these layers. They are the primary recombination center in the relatively lowly doped polysilicon thin films at the heart of the current investigation. In contrast with the case of solar cells based on Czochralski silicon or multicrystalline silicon wafers, we conclude that no benefit is found to be associated with the use of n-type dopants over p-type dopants in the active absorber of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. - Highlights: • Comparison of n- and p-type absorbers for thin-film poly-Si solar cells • Extensive characterization of the investigated layers' characteristics • Literature review pertaining the use of n-type and p-type dopants in silicon

  17. Comparing n- and p-type polycrystalline silicon absorbers in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckers, J. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 94, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Bourgeois, E. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Jivanescu, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Abass, A. [Photonics Research Group (INTEC), Ghent University-imec, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Gestel, D.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, K.; Douhard, B. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); D' Haen, J.; Nesladek, M.; Manca, J. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Gordon, I.; Bender, H. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Mertens, R.; Poortmans, J. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 94, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-03-31

    We have investigated fine grained polycrystalline silicon thin films grown by direct chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates. More specifically, we analyze the influence of the doping type on the properties of this model polycrystalline silicon material. This includes an investigation of defect passivation and benchmarking of minority carrier properties. In our investigation, we use a variety of characterization techniques to probe the properties of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin films, including Fourier Transform Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance, Conductivity Activation, and Suns-Voc measurements. Amphoteric silicon dangling bond defects are identified as the most prominent defect type present in these layers. They are the primary recombination center in the relatively lowly doped polysilicon thin films at the heart of the current investigation. In contrast with the case of solar cells based on Czochralski silicon or multicrystalline silicon wafers, we conclude that no benefit is found to be associated with the use of n-type dopants over p-type dopants in the active absorber of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. - Highlights: • Comparison of n- and p-type absorbers for thin-film poly-Si solar cells • Extensive characterization of the investigated layers' characteristics • Literature review pertaining the use of n-type and p-type dopants in silicon.

  18. Antiaging Gene Klotho Attenuates Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Sun, Zhongjie

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis is the major cause of death of insulin-producing β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. We found that the Klotho gene is expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Interestingly, halplodeficiency of Klotho (KL(+/-)) exacerbated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (a model of T1DM), including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, diminished islet insulin storage, and increased apoptotic β-cells. Conversely, in vivo β-cell-specific expression of mouse Klotho gene (mKL) attenuated β-cell apoptosis and prevented STZ-induced diabetes. mKL promoted cell adhesion to collagen IV, increased FAK and Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited caspase 3 cleavage in cultured MIN6 β-cells. mKL abolished STZ- and TNFα-induced inhibition of FAK and Akt phosphorylation, caspase 3 cleavage, and β-cell apoptosis. These promoting effects of Klotho can be abolished by blocking integrin β1. Therefore, these cell-based studies indicated that Klotho protected β-cells by inhibiting β-cell apoptosis through activation of the integrin β1-FAK/Akt pathway, leading to inhibition of caspase 3 cleavage. In an autoimmune T1DM model (NOD), we showed that in vivo β-cell-specific expression of mKL improved glucose tolerance, attenuated β-cell apoptosis, enhanced insulin storage in β-cells, and increased plasma insulin levels. The beneficial effect of Klotho gene delivery is likely due to attenuation of T-cell infiltration in pancreatic islets in NOD mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that Klotho protected β-cells in T1DM via attenuating apoptosis. PMID:26340932

  19. Liver type I regulatory T cells suppress germinal center formation in HBV-tolerant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Yin, Wenwei; Sun, Rui; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2013-10-15

    The liver plays a critical role in inducing systemic immune tolerance, for example, during limiting hypersensitivity to food allergy and in rendering acceptance of allotransplant or even hepatotropic pathogens. We investigated the unknown mechanisms of liver tolerance by using an established hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, and found that these mice exhibited an antigen-specific tolerance toward peripheral HBsAg vaccination, showing unenlarged draining lymph node (DLN), lower number of germinal centers (GC), and inactivation of GC B cells and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Both in vivo and in vitro immune responses toward HBsAg were suppressed by mononuclear cells from HBV-carrier mice, which were CD4(+) Foxp3(-) type 1 regulatory T (Tr1)-like cells producing IL-10. Using recipient Rag1(-/-) mice, hepatic Tr1-like cells from day 7 of HBV-persistent mice acquired the ability to inhibit anti-HBV immunity 3 d earlier than splenic Tr1-like cells, implying that hepatic Tr1-like cells were generated before those in spleen. Kupffer cell depletion or IL-10 deficiency led to impairment of Tr1-like cell generation, along with breaking HBV persistence. The purified EGFP(+)CD4(+) T cells (containing Tr1-like cells) from HBV-carrier mice trafficked in higher numbers to DLN in recipient mice after HBsAg vaccination, and subsequently inactivated both Tfh cells and GC B cells via secreting IL-10, resulting in impaired GC formation and anti-HB antibody production. Thus, our results indicate Tr1-like cells migrate from the liver to the DLN and inhibit peripheral anti-HBV immunity by negatively regulating GC B cells and Tfh cells. PMID:24089450

  20. Prenatal induced chronic dietary hypothyroidism delays but does not block adult-type Leydig cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Teerds, Katja J

    2009-02-01

    Transient hypothyroidism induced by propyl-2-thiouracyl blocks postpartum Leydig cell development. In the present study, the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on the formation of this adult-type Leydig cell population were investigated, using a more physiological approach. Before mating, dams were put on a diet consisting of an iodide-poor feed supplemented with a low dose of perchlorate and, with their offspring, were kept on this diet until death. In the pups at day 12 postpartum, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were increased by 20-fold, whereas thyroxine and free tri-iodothyronine levels were severely depressed, confirming a hypothyroid condition. Adult-type progenitor Leydig cell formation and proliferation were reduced by 40-60% on days 16 and 28 postpartum. This was followed by increased Leydig cell proliferation at later ages, suggesting a possible slower developmental onset of the adult-type Leydig cell population under hypothyroid conditions. Testosterone levels were increased 2- to 10-fold in the hypothyroid animals between days 21 and 42 postpartum compared with the age-matched controls. Combined with the decreased presence of 5alpha-reductase, this implicates a lower production capacity of 5alpha-reduced androgens. In 84-day-old rats, after correction for body weight-to-testis weight ratio, plasma insulin-like factor-3 levels were 35% lower in the hypothyroid animals, suggestive of a reduced Leydig cell population. This is confirmed by a 37% reduction in the Sertoli cell-to-Leydig cell ratio in hypothyroid rats. In conclusion, we show that dietary-induced hypothyroidism delays but, unlike propyl-2-thiouracyl, does not block the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population. PMID:19033542

  1. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10-/CD13-/CD24hi/CD26+/CD38lo/CD44-/CD104-. This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. CD26+ cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types

  2. The regulated secretory pathway in CD4(+ T cells contributes to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 cell-to-cell spread at the virological synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Jolly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 at the virological synapse (VS is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4(+ T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and cell biology of primary CD4(+ T cells from normal individuals and patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and report that the HIV-1 VS displays a regulated secretion phenotype that shares features with polarized secretion at the T cell immunological synapse (IS. Cell-cell contact at the VS re-orientates the microtubule organizing center (MTOC and organelles within the HIV-1-infected T cell towards the engaged target T cell, concomitant with polarization of viral proteins. Directed secretion of proteins at the T cell IS requires specialized organelles termed secretory lysosomes (SL and we show that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env localizes with CTLA-4 and FasL in SL-related compartments and at the VS. Finally, CD4(+ T cells that are disabled for regulated secretion are less able to support productive cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread. We propose that HIV-1 hijacks the regulated secretory pathway of CD4(+ T cells to enhance its dissemination.

  3. Characterization of a synthetic peptide from type IV collagen that promotes melanoma cell adhesion, spreading, and motility

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The adhesion and motility of tumor cells on basement membranes is a central consideration in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Basement membrane type IV collagen directly promotes the adhesion and migration of various tumor cell types in vitro. Our previous studies demonstrated that tumor cells adhered and spread on surfaces coated with intact type IV collagen or either of the two major enzymatically purified domains of this protein. Only one of these major domains, the pepsin-generated maj...

  4. Growing tumors induce a local STING dependent Type I IFN response in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andzinski, Lisa; Spanier, Julia; Kasnitz, Nadine; Kröger, Andrea; Jin, Lei; Brinkmann, Melanie M; Kalinke, Ulrich; Weiss, Siegfried; Jablonska, Jadwiga; Lienenklaus, Stefan

    2016-09-15

    The importance of endogenous Type I IFNs in cancer immune surveillance is well established by now. Their role in polarization of tumor-associated neutrophilic granulocytes into anti-tumor effector cells has been recently demonstrated. Yet, the cellular source of Type I IFNs as well as the mode of induction is not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-β is induced by growing murine tumors. Induction is mainly mediated via STING-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting tumor derived DNA as trigger. Transcription factors IRF3 and IRF5 were activated under these conditions which is consistent with tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) being the major cellular source of IFN-β at the tumor site. Besides DCs, tumor cells themselves are induced to contribute to the production of IFN-β. Taken together, our data provide further information on immune surveillance by Type I IFNs and suggest novel potent cellular targets for future cancer therapy. PMID:27116225

  5. A new type quasi-solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Miao; YANG Lei; ZHOU Xiaowen; LIN Yuan; LI Xueping; FENG Shujing; XIAO Xurui

    2006-01-01

    A new type quasi-solid state electrolyte was prepared by solidifying liquid electrolytes containing organic solvents (such as mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC), 3-methoxypropinitrile (NMP) and N-methyl-oxazolidinone (NMO)) with comb-like molten salt type polymer,and was for the first time employed in dyesensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The optimal electrolyte composition was obtained by regulating the polymer content in the electrolytes and optimizing performance data of the electrolytes and assembled cells, yielding a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.58% (AM 1.5,100 mW.cm-2). Furthermore, the existence of this new type polymer in the electrolyte suppresses the evaporation of organic solvent and improves the stability of the cells.

  6. Development and application of a window-type environmental cell in high voltage electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A window-type environmental cell for a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) is developed. ► In situ HVEM image of Pd under an H2 gas pressure is obtained. ► The effect of the window materials on the resolution and contamination of the HVEM image is tested. -- Abstract: A close type of an environmental cell was developed for a high voltage electron microscope. Using this cell allowed an in situ observation of hydrogenation in Pd particles under H2 gas of 0.05 MPa at RT. Two types of window films, Tri-Acetyl-Cellulose (TAC) and Silicon Nitride (SiN), were used for testing the contamination on the sample, as well as the strength for pressure. We confirmed the hydrogenation in diffraction patterns and images, and additionally the image resolution of 0.19 nm was obtained by using a SiN film with a thickness of 17 nm

  7. Towards identifying host cell-type specific response patterns to bacterial endosymbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavrilovic, Srdjan

    view, available techniques have relied heavily on whole organ analyses that disregard specificities of individual cell types. To address this issue we aimed to develop a technology for comparative global analysis of mature mRNA and small RNA populations at the cell type specific level in the model...... plant Lotus japonicus. A powerful approach referred to here as Defined Expression and RNA Affinity co-Purification (DERAP) was developed to study gene expression and small RNA populations in the host roots during early phases of signal exchange at the cell-type level. As a basis for DERAP analysis of......, namely epidermis with elongating root hairs, inner cortex, endodermis, phloem and xylem, were characterized in L. japonicus. In combination with tagged forms of a Ribosomal surface Protein (RP) and the viral small RNA binding protein P19, these promoters were introduced into L. japonicus ecotype Gifu...

  8. C-type lectin receptors on dendritic cells and Langerhans cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figdor, C.G.; Kooyk, Y. van; Adema, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells and Langerhans cells are specialized for the recognition of pathogens and have a pivotal role in the control of immunity. As guardians of the immune system, they are present in essentially every organ and tissue, where they operate at the interface of innate and acquired immunity. Re

  9. Enhanced endogenous type I interferon cell-driven survival and inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis by Riluzole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), although effective in improving the survival of HIV-1-infected individuals, has not been able to reconstitute the adaptive immune response. We have described the use of novel chemical agents to restore T-cell survival/proliferation by inducing cytokine production. Due to its cationic amphiphilic structure, these molecules appear to enhance immune restoration. In this study, we investigated the action of Riluzole (2-amino-6-trifuromethoxybenzothiazole) in HIV-1 infection. Riluzole is able to increase (effective dose from 1 to 1000 nM) the cell-survival of T cells from HIV-1-infected patients and inhibit spontaneous apoptosis. The immunomodulatory effect of riluzole-sensitized cells was ascribed to endogenous type I interferon (IFN) derived from monocytes. Riluzole might be used for restoring the cell survival of immunocompromised patients and eliminating latent infected cells upon HIV-1 reactivation

  10. Stem cell therapy emerging as the key player in treating type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Thakkar, Umang G

    2016-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease causing progressive destruction of pancreatic β cells, ultimately resulting in loss of insulin secretion producing hyperglycemia usually affecting children. Replacement of damaged β cells by cell therapy can treat it. Currently available strategies are insulin replacement and islet/pancreas transplantation. Unfortunately these offer rescue for variable duration due to development of autoantibodies. For pancreas/islet transplantation a deceased donor is required and various shortfalls of treatment include quantum, cumbersome technique, immune rejection and limited availability of donors. Stem cell therapy with assistance of cellular reprogramming and β-cell regeneration can open up new therapeutic modalities. The present review describes the history and current knowledge of T1DM, evolution of cell therapies and different cellular therapies to cure this condition. PMID:27424148

  11. [Functional activity of lymphoblastoid cells infected by human adenovirus type 2 and Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povnitsa, O Iu; Diachenko, N S; Nosach, L N; Olevinskaia, Z M; Zhovnovataia, V L; Polishchuk, V N; Spivak, N Ia

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of the adenovirus (Ad) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on functional activity of lymphocytes, in particular, the production of alpha- and gamma-interferons, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in conditions of mono- or double infection of B- and T-phenotype (CEM) lymphoblastoid cells. It is shown, that Ad, EBV or both viruses induce high enough levels of interferon on both lines of cells and in control epithelial cells. The lymphoblastoid cells infected by viruses deep ability to synthesize alpha- and gamma-interferons under the influence of the corresponding inducers (Newcastle disease virus and hemagglutinine). Nevertheless, the levels of their formation are not high. Rather high parameters of activity of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were revealed during a day in the initial B95-8 cells and superinfected Ad after the effect of LPS of E. coli. Their activity in CEM cells also did not depend on the infection type. PMID:16018208

  12. NK cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells: partners in host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spits, Hergen; Bernink, Jochem H; Lanier, Lewis

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are effectors and regulators of innate immunity and tissue modeling and repair. Researchers have identified subsets of ILCs with differing functional activities, capacities to produce cytokines and transcription factors required for development and function. Natural killer (NK) cells represent the prototypical member of the ILC family. Together with ILC1s, NK cells constitute group 1 ILCs, which are characterized by their capacity to produce interferon-γ and their functional dependence on the transcription factor T-bet. NK cells and ILC1s are developmentally distinct but share so many features that they are difficult to distinguish, particularly under conditions of infection and inflammation. Here we review current knowledge of NK cells and the various ILC1 subsets. PMID:27328005

  13. Comparative Study on Cancer Cell Apoptosis between Gastric and Intestinal-type Human Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis of cancer cells between the gastric and intestinal-type human gastric carcinoma were compared in terms of the expression of oncogene MDM2 and CD68, the histological types, the infiltration depth, and lymph node metastasis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay was employed to stain apoptotic cells.Histochemical method(AB-PAS) was applied to stain mucus that is neutral or acidic in nature. Immunohistochemical method (SABC) was used to detect expression of MDM2 and CD6. The results showed that the mean apoptosis index (AI) of total 48 cases was 8.60±2.60. AI in the 30 intestinal type cases was significantly higher than that in the 18 gastric type cases (t=4.67, P<0.01). In the 30intestinal type cases, the spontaneous apoptosis index of MDM2 negative cases was significantly higher than that of the positive cases (t=7.16, P<0.01). And in the 18 gastric type cases, the same result was found. (t=11.39, P<0.01). The MDM2 positive ratio in gastric type cases was higher than that in intestinal type cases (x2=4.68, P<0.05). There is no significant difference in AI between cases of lymph node metastasis and non-metastasis cases in intestinal type cases (t=0.26, P>0.05). But in the gastric type cases, a significant difference existed (t=5.87, P<0.01). A significant difference in lymph node metastasis ratio was found between the two gastric carcinoma types (x2=4.48, P<0.05).The CD68 expression ratio in the 30 intestinal type cases was much lower than that in the 18 gastric type cases (t=4.29, P<0.01). AI of 25 MDM2-positive cases was much lower than that of the 23MDM2-negative cases (t=7.80, P<0.01). CD68 positive ratio in the 25 MDM2-negative cases was much lower than that in the 23 negative cases. The difference was statistically significant (t=10.90,P<0.01). Except for few cells scattering within the cancer nest, most CD68 positive cells infiltrated in the interstitium around the cancer

  14. Effect of exogenous surfactants on viability and DNA synthesis in A549, immortalized mouse type II and isolated rat alveolar type II cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mechanically ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, exogenous surfactant application has been demonstrated both to decrease DNA-synthesis but also and paradoxically to increase epithelial cell proliferation. However, the effect of exogenous surfactant has not been studied directly on alveolar type II cells (ATII cells, a key cell type responsible for alveolar function and repair. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two commercially available surfactant preparations on ATII cell viability and DNA synthesis. Methods Curosurf® and Alveofact® were applied to two ATII cell lines (human A549 and mouse iMATII cells and to primary rat ATII cells for periods of up to 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the redox indicator resazurin and DNA synthesis was measured using BrdU incorporation. Results Curosurf® resulted in slightly decreased cell viability in all cell culture models. However, DNA synthesis was increased in A549 and rat ATII cells but decreased in iMATII cells. Alveofact® exhibited the opposite effects on A549 cells and had very mild effects on the other two cell models. Conclusion This study showed that commercially available exogenous surfactants used to treat preterm infants with RDS can have profound effects on cell viability and DNA synthesis.

  15. Predicting cell types and genetic variations contributing to disease by combining GWAS and epigenetic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gerasimova

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are enriched in individuals suffering from a given disease. Most disease-associated SNPs fall into non-coding regions, so that it is not straightforward to infer phenotype or function; moreover, many SNPs are in tight genetic linkage, so that a SNP identified as associated with a particular disease may not itself be causal, but rather signify the presence of a linked SNP that is functionally relevant to disease pathogenesis. Here, we present an analysis method that takes advantage of the recent rapid accumulation of epigenomics data to address these problems for some SNPs. Using asthma as a prototypic example; we show that non-coding disease-associated SNPs are enriched in genomic regions that function as regulators of transcription, such as enhancers and promoters. Identifying enhancers based on the presence of the histone modification marks such as H3K4me1 in different cell types, we show that the location of enhancers is highly cell-type specific. We use these findings to predict which SNPs are likely to be directly contributing to disease based on their presence in regulatory regions, and in which cell types their effect is expected to be detectable. Moreover, we can also predict which cell types contribute to a disease based on overlap of the disease-associated SNPs with the locations of enhancers present in a given cell type. Finally, we suggest that it will be possible to re-analyze GWAS studies with much higher power by limiting the SNPs considered to those in coding or regulatory regions of cell types relevant to a given disease.

  16. Paraquat-induced injury of type II alveolar cells. An in vitro model of oxidant injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, causes severe, often fatal lung damage. In vivo studies suggest the alveolar epithelial cells (types I and II) are specific targets of paraquat toxicity. This study used 51Cr-labeled type II cells to demonstrate that paraquat (10-5 M) resulted in type II cell injury in vitro, independent of interacting immune effector agents. With 51Cr release expressed as the cytotoxic index (Cl), type II cell injury was found to accelerate with increasing paraquat concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-4) M, and 10(-3) M, resulting in a Cl of 12.5 +/- 2.2, 22.8 +/- 1.8, and 35.1 +/- 1.9, respectively). Paraquat-induced cytotoxicity (10(-4) M, with a Cl of 22.8 +/- 1.8) was effectively reduced by catalase 1,100 U/ml (Cl 8.0 +/- 3.2, p less than 0.001), superoxide dismutase, 300 U/ml (Cl 17.4 +/- 1.7, p less than 0.05), alpha tocopherol, 10 micrograms/ml (Cl 17.8 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.05). Paraquat toxicity (10(-3) M) was potentiated in the presence of 95% O2 with an increase in Cl from 31.1 +/- 1.7 to 36.4 +/- 2.3 (p less than 0.05). Paraquat-induced type II cell injury was noted as early as 4 h incubation by electron microscopic evidence of swelling of mitochondrial cristae and dispersion of nuclear chromatin. Thus, this in vitro model indicates that paraquat-induced type II cell injury can be quantified, confirmed by morphologic ultrastructural changes, significantly reduced by antioxidants, and potentiated by hyperoxia

  17. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  18. Glycoprotein H of herpes simplex virus type 1 requires glycoprotein L for transport to the surfaces of insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, DF; Glazenburg, KL; Harmsen, MC; Tiran, A; Scheffer, AJ; Welling, GW; The, TH; WellingWester, S

    1997-01-01

    In mammalian cells, formation of heterooligomers consisting of the glycoproteins H and L (gH and gL) of herpes simplex virus type 1 is essential for the cell-to-cell spread of virions and for the penetration of virions into cells. We examined whether formation of gH1/gL1 heterooligomers and cell sur

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the β-Cell Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hoon Back

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency by β-cell failure. Even if the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of β-cell failure are still under investigation, recent increasing genetic, experimental, and clinical evidence indicate that hyperactivation of the unfolded protein response (UPR to counteract metabolic stresses is closely related to β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Signaling pathways of the UPR are “a double-edged sword” that can promote adaptation or apoptosis depending on the nature of the ER stress condition. In this paper, we summarized our current understanding of the mechanisms and components related to ER stress in the β-cell pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability, induced by various metabolic, genetic, and environmental factors, is the driving force of tumorigenesis. Radiation exposure from different types of radiation sources induces different types of DNA damages, increases mutation and chromosome aberration rates, and increases cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo experiments. The cell survival rates and frequency of chromosome aberrations depend on the genetic background and radiation sources. To further understand genomic instability induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblast cells, human mammary epithelial cells, and bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH and C57BL/6 mice to high energy protons and Fe ions, and collected chromosomes at different generations after exposure. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed with fluorescent in situ hybridization with whole chromosome specific probes.

  1. Cytotoxic effects of four aescin types on human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seweryn, Ewa; Gleńsk, Michal; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Ceremuga, Ireneusz; Wlodarczyk, Maciej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Four types of aescin that are available on the pharmaceutical market, beta-aescin crystalline, beta-aescin amorphous, beta-aescin sodium and aescin polysulfate, have been analyzed for their cytotoxic effects on human colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo) and doxorubicin-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (LoVo/Dx). Their cytotoxic activities were evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) and methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays. All four types of aescin exerted strong dose-dependent cytotoxicity to LoVo and, to a lesser degree, LoVo/Dx cell lines. The IC50 value for the LoVo/Dx cell line was higher, but still dose-dependent. Results from both assays demonstrated that p-aescin crystalline has the most cytotoxic activity toward human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. PMID:24689224

  2. Recent developments on low-cost industrial processing of n-type silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeber, A.W.; Burgers, A.R.; Guillevin, N.; Carr, A.J.; Barton, P.C.; Geerligs, L.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Jingfeng, Xiong; Gaofei, Li; Weipeng, Song; Haijiao, An; Zhiyan, Hu [Yingli Solar, 3399 Chaoyang North Street, Boading (China); Venema, P.R.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G. [Tempress Systems BV, Radeweg 31, 8171 Vaassen (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    We present the status of our process development of n-type silicon solar cells, and progress towards its industrial implementation. For cells with a so-called H-pattern front side metallization independently confirmed efficiencies for Cz wafers of 18.65% (239 cm{sup 2}) have been obtained, and since then, cells have already shown further improvement to more than 19%. To our knowledge these are the highest stable efficiencies obtained with industrial processing on 6 inch n-type wafers. We present an update of our process development, including efficiency improvements, transfer to 6 inch size, and key features of the current bifacial cells with H-pattern metallization. Results are illustrated with data from Yingli PANDA pilot production.

  3. Cancer-associated fibroblasts as another polarized cell type of the tumor microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartinAugsten

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor- or cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are one of the most abundant stromal cell types in different carcinomas and comprise a heterogeneous cell population. Classically, CAFs are assigned with pro-tumorigenic effects stimulating tumor growth and progression. More recent studies demonstrated also tumor-inhibitory effects of CAFs suggesting that tumor-residing fibroblasts exhibit a similar degree of plasticity as other stromal cell types. Reciprocal interactions with the tumor milieu and different sources of origin are emerging as two important factors underlying CAF heterogeneity. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of CAF biology and proposes to expand the term of cellular ´polarization´, previously introduced to describe different activation states of various immune cells, onto CAFs to reflect their phenotypic diversity.

  4. c-MYC responds to glucose deprivation in a cell-type-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S; Yin, X; Fang, X; Zheng, J; Li, L; Liu, X; Chu, L

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming supports cancer cells' demands for rapid proliferation and growth. Previous work shows that oncogenes, such as MYC, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), have a central role in driving metabolic reprogramming. A lot of metabolic enzymes, which are deregulated in most cancer cells, are the targets of these oncogenes. However, whether metabolic change affects these oncogenes is still unclear. Here we show that glucose deprivation (GD) affects c-MYC protein levels in a cell-type-dependent manner regardless of P53 mutation status. GD dephosphorylates and then decreases c-MYC protein stability through PI3K signaling pathway in HeLa cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Role of c-MYC in sensitivity of GD also varies with cell types. c-MYC-mediated glutamine metabolism partially improves the sensitivity of GD in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results reveal that the heterogeneity of cancer cells in response to metabolic stress should be considered in metabolic therapy for cancer. PMID:27551483

  5. Activation of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in S-type Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昱男; 戴若连; 毛玲; 夏远鹏; 姚玉芳; 杨雪; 胡波

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Sonic hedgehog(Shh) signaling pathway activation on S-type neuroblastoma(NB) cell lines and its role in NB tumorigenesis were investigated.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Shh pathway components- Patched1(PTCH1) and Gli1 in 40 human primary NB samples.Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to examine the protein expression and mRNA levels of PTCH1 and Gli1 in three kinds of S-type NB cell lines(SK-N-AS,SK-N-SH and SHEP1),respectively.Exogenous Shh was administrated to ...

  6. Measuring cell surface elasticity on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli wild type and dispersin mutant by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is pathogenic and produces severe diarrhea in humans. A mutant of EAEC that does not produce dispersin, a cell surface protein, is not pathogenic. It has been proposed that dispersin imparts a positive charge to the bacterial cell surface allowing the bacteria to colonize on the negatively charged intestinal mucosa. However, physical properties of the bacterial cell surface, such as rigidity, may be influenced by the presence of dispersin and may contribute to pathogenicity. Using the system developed in our laboratory for mounting and imaging bacterial cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM), in liquid, on gelatin coated mica surfaces, studies were initiated to measure cell surface elasticity. This was carried out in both wild type EAEC, that produces dispersin, and the mutant that does not produce dispersin. This was accomplished using AFM force-distance (FD) spectroscopy on the wild type and mutant grown in liquid or on solid medium. Images in liquid and in air of both the wild-type and mutant grown in liquid and on solid media are presented. This work represents an initial step in efforts to understand the pathogenic role of the dispersin protein in the wild-type bacteria

  7. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors and the output (transcription factors layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types.

  8. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Martin H; Yang, Jae-Seong; Serrano, Luis; Kiel, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors) and the output (transcription factors) layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types. PMID:24922536

  9. Type I Interferons as Regulators of Human Antigen Presenting Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gessani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs are pleiotropic cytokines, initially described for their antiviral activity. These cytokines exhibit a long record of clinical use in patients with some types of cancer, viral infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. It is now well established that IFN action mostly relies on their ability to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses. Work in recent years has begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which type I IFNs modify the immune response, and this is now recognized to be due to effects on multiple cell types, including monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs, NK cells, T and B lymphocytes. An ensemble of results from both animal models and in vitro studies emphasized the key role of type I IFNs in the development and function of DCs, suggesting the existence of a natural alliance between these cytokines and DCs in linking innate to adaptive immunity. The identification of IFN signatures in DCs and their dysregulation under pathological conditions will therefore be pivotal to decipher the complexity of this DC-IFN interaction and to better exploit the therapeutic potential of these cells.

  10. Participation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in the synthesis of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in rat alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, A; Zibellini, G; Ferrari, L; Magnanimi, L; Dottori, S; Lohninger, A; Carminati, P

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the role of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.21) in pulmonar type II pneumocyte, a lung cell responsible for the synthesis of surface active lipids. Adult type II pneumocytes were isolated from rat lung and purified by differential adherence. When these lung cells were incubated with radioactive palmitate, the percentage of radioactivity recovered into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major surface active lipid, was almost 60% with respect to total phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species. Cellular lysates from type II pneumocytes contained detectable amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity (1 nmol/min/mg). Most of the CPT activity found in these cells could be inhibited by incubating them for 60 min with 5 microM tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a specific and irreversible CPT inhibitor of the malonyl-CoA sensitive CPT isoform (CPT I). TDGA treatment of adult type II pneumocytes caused a significant reduction in the incorporation of radioactive palmitate into PC, though this effect did not seem to be specific for DPPC. TDGA affected the incorporation of radioactive palmitate at the sn2 rather than the sn1 position of the glycerol backbone of PC. The incorporation of radioactive palmitate into DPPC was also observed when these lung cells were incubated with palmitate-labeled palmitoyl-L-carnitine. Our data suggest that type II pneumocyte CPT may play an important role in remodelling PC fatty acid composition and hence DPPC synthesis. PMID:11330841

  11. Variable stretch pattern enhances surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Stephen P.; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2009-01-01

    Secretion of pulmonary surfactant that maintains low surface tension within the lung is primarily mediated by mechanical stretching of alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells. We have shown that guinea pigs ventilated with random variations in frequency and tidal volume had significantly larger pools of surfactant in the lung than animals ventilated in a monotonous manner. Here, we test the hypothesis that variable stretch patterns imparted on the AEII cells results in enhanced surfactant se...

  12. Targeting the hemangioblast with a novel cell type-specific enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Vera; Arede Natacha; Gardner Rui; Rodríguez-León Joaquín; Tavares Ana T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hemangioblasts are known as the common precursors for primitive hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. Their existence has been supported mainly by the observation that both cell types develop in close proximity and by in vitro differentiation and genetic studies. However, more compelling evidence will arise from tracking their cell fates using a lineage-specific marker. Results We report the identification of a hemangioblast-specific enhancer (Hb) located in the cis-regu...

  13. Functional Characterization of Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Wild-Type and Mutant Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Arash

    2014-01-01

    The retina extracts relevant features from the visual scene and transmits these features to the brain through separate pathways that will eventually result in the perception of sight. The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only retinal cell type to send an axonal projection to the brain. This indicates that the signals generated by the RGCs are the end result of retinal processing, and the features detected by the RGCs are all that will be transmitted to the brain about the visual environm...

  14. Conjugated polyelectrolyte hole transport layer for inverted-type perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyosung; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Kim, Hak-Beom; Jeong, Jaeki; Song, Seyeong; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite materials offer the potential for realization of low-cost and flexible next-generation solar cells fabricated by low-temperature solution processing. Although efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have dramatically improved up to 19% within the past 5 years, there is still considerable room for further improvement in device efficiency and stability through development of novel materials and device architectures. Here we demonstrate that inverted-type perov...

  15. Impact of cathepsins on the activation of proinsulin-reactive T cells in type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Autoantigenic peptides resulting from self-proteins such as proinsulin are important players in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Self-proteins can be processed by cathepsins (Cats) within endocytic compartments and loaded to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules for CD4+ T cell inspection. However, the processing and presentation of proinsulin by antigen-presenting cells (APC) in humans is only partially understood. Here we demonstrate that the processing...

  16. Regulatory T Cells Prevent Liver Fibrosis During HIV Type 1 Infection in a Humanized Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nunoya, Jun-ichi; Washburn, Michael L.; Kovalev, Grigoriy I; Su, Lishan

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease is associated with aberrant immune activation, and coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) exacerbates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of HIV-1 infection or host immune modulation in liver pathogenesis is not clearly defined. Here, we report that regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent liver immunopathogenesis during HIV-1 infection in a humanized mouse model. In the absence of Treg cells, HIV-1 infection induced liver fibros...

  17. Chemoselective tarantula toxins report voltage activation of wild-type ion channels in live cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tilleya, DC; Euma, KS; Fletcher-Taylor, S; Austina, DC; Dupré, C; Patrón, LA; Garcia, RL; Lam, K; Yarov-Yarovoy, V; Cohenc, BE; Sack, JT

    2014-01-01

    Electrically excitable cells, such as neurons, exhibit tremendous diversity in their firing patterns, a consequence of the complex collection of ion channels present in any specific cell. Although numerous methods are capable of measuring cellular electrical signals, understanding which types of ion channels give rise to these signals remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe exogenous probes which use a novel mechanism to report activity of voltage-gated channels. We have synthesize...

  18. Cell type-selective disease-association of genes under high regulatory load

    OpenAIRE

    Galhardo, Mafalda Sofia; Berninger, Philipp; Nguyen, Thanh Phuong; Sauter, Thomas; Sinkkonen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that disease-linked metabolic genes are often under combinatorial regulation. Using the genome-wide ChIP-Seq binding profiles for 93 transcription factors in nine different cell lines, we show that genes under high regulatory load are significantly enriched for disease-association across cell types. We find that transcription factor load correlates with the enhancer load of the genes and thereby allows the identification of genes under high regulatory load by epigenomic m...

  19. Cell type-specific interactions of transcription factors with a housekeeping promoter in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, G; Somma, M P; Lavia, P

    1993-01-01

    Mammalian housekeeping promoters represent a class of regulatory elements different from those of tissues-specific genes, lacking a TATA box and associated with CG-rich DNA. We have compared the organization of the housekeeping Htf9 promoter in different cell types by genomic footprinting. The sites of in vivo occupancy clearly reflected local combinations of tissue-specific and ubiquitous binding factors. The flexibility of the Htf9 promoter in acting as the target of cell-specific combinati...

  20. Childhood adversity and cell-mediated immunity in young adulthood: Does type and timing matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Erin C Dunn; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood adversity can have powerful effects on health over the life course. Persistent changes in cell-mediated immune function may be one pathway linking adverse childhood experiences with later disease risk. However, limited research has examined childhood adversity in relation to cell-mediated immune function, and in particular, immune response to latent viruses in adulthood. The present study investigated the association of two types of childhood adversity, socioeconomic disadvantage du...

  1. Adenovirus-mediated wild-type PTEN promoting glioma stem/progenitor cells autophagy activity

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Yao-dong; Zi-long WEI; Zhang, Quan-Bin; LOU Mei-qing; HUANG, QIANG

    2013-01-01

    Background PTEN is an anti-oncogene frequently inactivating in glioma. The previous study found that PTEN was closely related to cellular autophagy activity. The purpose of this paper is to study whether the inactivation of PTEN in glioma stem/progenitor cells (GSPCs) is correlative with the low autophagic activity in GSPCs. Methods Wild-type PTEN genes were transferred into GSPCs mediated by adenovirus. The autophagic activity in GSPCs before or after the introduction of wild-type PTEN was...

  2. Expression of adenovirus type 2 DNA polymerase in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, C J; Hay, R T

    1990-01-01

    Sequences encoding adenovirus type 2 DNA polymerase were placed under control of the polyhedrin promoter and inserted into the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus by homologous recombination. Insect cells infected with the recombinant virus produced substantial amounts of the adenovirus type 2 DNA polymerase protein which was functional in both DNA polymerase and replication initiation reactions. Thus, the baculovirus expression system can provide active adenovirus t...

  3. Common polysaccharide antigens from the cell envelope of Clostridium perfringens type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Dayalu, K I; Cherniak, R; Hatheway, C L

    1981-01-01

    Soluble antigens were obtained by extracting five serotype strains of Clostridium perfringens type A with water at 100 degrees C. The type-specific polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol, and the common antigens were recovered from the ethanol supernatants by concentration, dialysis, and lyophilization. Refluxing the water-extracted cell residues with 1% acetic acid followed by concentration, dialysis, and lyophilization gave additional common antigen fractions. A comprehensive, side-...

  4. Type 1 pilus-mediated bacterial invasion of bladder epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Juan J.; Mulvey, Matthew A.; Schilling, Joel D.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2000-01-01

    Most strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) encode filamentous adhesive organelles called type 1 pili. We have determined that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, mediates not only bacterial adherence, but also invasion of human bladder epithelial cells. In contrast, adherence mediated by another pilus adhesin, PapG, did not initiate bacterial internalization. FimH-mediated invasion required localized host actin reorganization, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activation and host...

  5. Bone Marrow Derived Adult Stem Cell Implantation: A Possible Permanent Treatment Modality for Type 2 Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. KAHLON; M.K. Manchanda; P. KANWAL

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic disease that exists in the world. Type 2Diabetes is the predominant type of diabetes. Management is basically limited to exercise, diet and oralhypoglycemic drugs before insulin therapy has to be instituted. But bone marrow derived stem cellimplantation into the islets has shown very encouraging results for diabetics.Methods: Bone marrow derived stem cells when implanted in the pancreas leads to regeneration ofinsulin producing Beta ...

  6. High power n-type metal-wrap-through cells and modules using industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillevin, N.; Heurtault, B.J.B.; Geerligs, L.J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Bennett, I.J.; Jansen, M.J.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Jianming, Wang; Ziqian, Wang; Jinye, Zhai; Zhiliang, Wan; Shuquan, Tian; Wenchao, Zhao; Zhiyan, Hu; Gaofei, Li; Bo, Yu; Jingfeng, Xiong [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co.,Ltd. 3399 North Chaoyang Avenue, Baoding (China)

    2013-10-15

    This paper reviews our recent progress in the development of metal wrap through (MWT) cells and modules, produced from n-type Czochralski silicon wafers. The use of n-type silicon as base material allows for high efficiencies: for front emitter-contacted industrial cells, efficiencies above 20% have been reported. N-type MWT (nMWT) cells produced by industrial process technologies allow even higher efficiency due to reduced front metal coverage. Based on the same industrial technology, the efficiency of the bifacial n-MWT cells exceeds the efficiency of the n-type front-and-rear contact and bifacial 'Pasha' technology (n-Pasha) by 0.1-0.2% absolute, with a maximum nMWT efficiency of 20.1% so far. Additionally, full back-contacting of the MWT cells in a module results in reduced cell to module (CTM) fill factor losses. In a direct 60-cell module performance comparison, the n-MWT module, based on integrated backfoil, produced 3% higher power output than the comparable tabbed front emitter-contacted n-Pasha module. Thanks to reduced resistive losses in copper circuitry on the backfoil compared to traditional tabs, the CTM FF loss of the MWT module was reduced by about 2.2%abs. compared to the tabbed front emitter contact module. A full-size module made using MWT cells of 19.6% average efficiency resulted in a power output close to 280W. Latest results of the development of the n-MWT technology at cell and module level are discussed in this paper, including a recent direct comparison run between n-MWT and n-Pasha cells and results of n-MWT cells from 140{mu}m thin mono-crystalline wafers, with only very slight loss (1% of Isc) for the thin cells. Also reverse characteristics and effects of reverse bias for extended time at cell and module level are reported, where we find a higher tolerance of MWT modules than tabbed front contact modules for hotspots.

  7. Stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus: a review of recent clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couri Carlos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising treatments for the near future. It is expected that this kind of therapy can ameliorate or even reverse some diseases. With regard to type 1 diabetes, studies analyzing the therapeutic effects of stem cells in humans began in 2003 in the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto - SP USP, Brazil, and since then other centers in different countries started to randomize patients in their clinical trials. Herein we summarize recent data about beta cell regeneration, different ways of immune intervention and what is being employed in type 1 diabetic patients with regard to stem cell repertoire to promote regeneration and/or preservation of beta cell mass. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT was a 7-year longitudinal study that demonstrated the importance of the intensive insulin therapy when compared to conventional treatment in the development of chronic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. This study also demonstrated another important issue: there is a reverse relationship between C-peptide levels (endogenous indicator of insulin secretion chronic complications - that is, the higher the C-peptide levels, the lower the incidence of nephropathy, retinopathy and hypoglycemia. From such data, beta cell preservation has become an additional target in the management of T1DM 1.

  8. Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, S.; Hoeoek, M.; Gay, R.E.; Magargal, W.W.; Reynertson, R.H.

    1986-03-05

    Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, (/sup 35/S)-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall.

  9. Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, [35S]-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall

  10. Preliminary study on Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of human oral epithelial cell in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao; Weibin Sun; Juan Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the functions and mechanisms of herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) while infecting human oral epithelial cells in vitro(being similar to the infection in vivo). Methods:An abundance of HSV-1 strains amplified in Vero cells were used to infect human oral epithelial cells. The culture supernatant was collected to infect Veto cells again. Morphology of HSV-1 was identified by inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope. Nucleic acid of the virus was detected by PCR. Results:The infected human oral epithelial cells didn't display an obvious cytopathic effect(CPE) under inverted microscope(while Veto cells which were infected by the culture supematant showed typical(CPE). The virus particles were not observed in the cytoplasm nor in nucleus of human oral epithelial cells, however under transmission electron microscope in the cytoplasm of Vero cells, the nucleic acid of HSV-1 could be detected in infected human oral epithelial cells, by PCR. Conclusion:HSV-1 can successfully infect human oral epithelial cells. This model may provide a useful approach for studying the pathogenesis of herpes virus-associated periodontal disease.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of normal human mammary cell type-specific miRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Lukas [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center; Inst. of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Biology Centre ASCR; Garbe, James C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Center; Stampfer, Martha R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Center; Futscher, Bernard W. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center and Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology

    2011-08-26

    Epigenetic mechanisms are important regulators of cell type–specific genes, including miRNAs. In order to identify cell type-specific miRNAs regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, we undertook a global analysis of miRNA expression and epigenetic states in three isogenic pairs of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human mammary fibroblasts (HMF), which represent two differentiated cell types typically present within a given organ, each with a distinct phenotype and a distinct epigenotype. While miRNA expression and epigenetic states showed strong interindividual concordance within a given cell type, almost 10% of the expressed miRNA showed a cell type–specific pattern of expression that was linked to the epigenetic state of their promoter. The tissue-specific miRNA genes were epigenetically repressed in nonexpressing cells by DNA methylation (38%) and H3K27me3 (58%), with only a small set of miRNAs (21%) showing a dual epigenetic repression where both DNA methylation and H3K27me3 were present at their promoters, such as MIR10A and MIR10B. Individual miRNA clusters of closely related miRNA gene families can each display cell type–specific repression by the same or complementary epigenetic mechanisms, such as the MIR200 family, and MIR205, where fibroblasts repress MIR200C/141 by DNA methylation, MIR200A/200B/429 by H3K27me3, and MIR205 by both DNA methylation and H3K27me3. Since deregulation of many of the epigenetically regulated miRNAs that we identified have been linked to disease processes such as cancer, it is predicted that compromise of the epigenetic control mechanisms is important for this process. Overall, these results highlight the importance of epigenetic regulation in the control of normal cell type–specific miRNA expression.

  12. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Emigração de uma colônia da formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele; Marcio Roberto Pie; Wilson Reis Filho

    2012-01-01

    Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.Emigração de uma colônia da form...

  13. RNA interference-mediated silencing of speckle-type POZ protein promotes apoptosis of renal cell cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoxia Liu, Guiling Sun, Xiuju Sun Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP gene on renal cell cancer (RCC cells and to explore its possible mechanism. The A498 and ACHN RCC cells were transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA-SPOP by lipofection methods. The silencing efficiency was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effects of SPOP silencing on cell apoptosis, cell viability, colony formation ability, cell migration ability, and chemosensitivity to Sorafenib were assessed by flow cytometry, an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, a trans-well migration assay, and a CCK-8 assay, respectively. Its effects on the expression of several cytokines were determined by a protein microarray. Relevant signaling pathways were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher; the cell viability, the colony formation, and migration ability were significantly decreased in the siRNA-SPOP group. The protein microarray screening showed that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the siRNA group was significantly decreased and that the expression of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05. The relevant signaling pathways were the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions pathway and extracellular matrix organization signal pathway. SPOP gene silencing induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, colony formation, and migration ability, and elevated the drug sensitivity in the RCC cells. A possible mechanism is that silencing SPOP induces the differential expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial

  14. Effects of ozone on phospholipid synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from adult rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated alveolar type II cells were exposed to ozone by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. After exposure, type II cells were further incubated in the presence of labeled substrates to assess the capacity to synthesize surfactant lipids. The incorporation of [Me-14C]choline into both total and disaturated phosphatidylcholines in inhibited to 50% of the control values under conditions that result in a diffusion of 0.4 microgram O3/18 cm2-dish per 2.5 h. The incorporation rates of [1-14C]palmitate, [1-14C]acetate, D[U-14C]glucose, and [1,3-3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholines are also lower after ozone exposure. Moreover, the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerols and phosphatidylethanolamines from these substrates is also inhibited by exposure of type II cells to ozone. These incorporation studies indicate that the effect of ozone is early in the biosynthetic pathway, probably at the step catalyzed by the enzyme glycerolphosphate acyltransferase. Determination of the activity of this enzyme after the ozone exposure shows that it is decreased, whereas the activity of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase is increased. The activity of choline phosphotransferase also appears to be decreased after exposure of type II cells to ozone, although this enzyme was less susceptible than glycerolphosphate acyltransferase. Studies with the sulfhydryl reagent 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) indicate a positive correlation between the effect of this compound on enzyme activities in sonicated type II cells and the sensitivity of these enzymes in intact cells to ozone. This suggests that the effect of ozone on the synthesis of surfactant lipids is at least partially exerted via oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase

  15. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  16. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masao; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC. PMID:26793589

  17. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Sato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC.

  18. Multiple effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid on ionic currents in rat isolated type I carotid body cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, C J; Peers, C

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) on the ionic currents of rat carotid body type I cells were investigated by use of whole-cell and outside-out patch clamp techniques.NDGA (5–50 μM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of whole-cell K+ currents at all activating test potentials (holding potential −70 mV). The time-course of the inhibition was also concentration-dependent and the effects of NDGA were only reversible following brief periods of e...

  19. Permeation and gating properties of the L-type calcium channel in mouse pancreatic beta cells

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Ba2+ currents through L-type Ca2+ channels were recorded from cell- attached patches on mouse pancreatic beta cells. In 10 mM Ba2+, single- channel currents were recorded at -70 mV, the beta cell resting membrane potential. This suggests that Ca2+ influx at negative membrane potentials may contribute to the resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration and thus to basal insulin release. Increasing external Ba2+ increased the single-channel current amplitude and shifted the current-voltage relation...

  20. Cytotoxic activity of labdane type diterpenes against human leukemic cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, K; Demetzos, C; Marsellos, M; Sotiriadou, R; Malamas, M; Kokkinopoulos, D

    1998-04-01

    Nine labdane type diterpenes isolated from the plant Cistus creticus subsp. creticus and from the resin "Ladano" which is excreted on the surface of the leaves and stems of this plant, were examined for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against 14 human leukemic cell lines. Compound 1, (13E)-labd-13-ene-8 alpha,15-diol, exhibited cytotoxic activity against 13 of the cell lines tested, while compound 2, (13E)-labd-7,13-dienol, was active only against HL60 cells. Further compound 1 was examined for its effect on the uptake of [3H]-thymidine as a marker of DNA synthesis. PMID:9581515