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Sample records for cell thyroid carcinoma

  1. Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony S; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old man consulted for a non-toxic thyroid nodule of 2 years’ duration. Fine needle aspiration revealed cell findings consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. He eventually underwent total thyroidectomy. Microscopic examination revealed histologic features of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He received radioactive iodine therapy and suppressive levothyroxine treatment. Post-therapy whole body iodine-131 scan revealed thyroid tissue remnants limited to the anterior neck. Fo...

  2. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  3. [Thyroid's metastasis of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanelli, Giovanni; Aimoni, Claudia; Marchetti, Elisabetta; Geminiani, Matteo; Pastore, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 58 years old man, affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, who underwent left tonsillectomy with bilateral neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. After a 6 months period, the patient began to suffer from dysphonia, dysphagia and loss of weight: a painless neoformation was detected at the right lobe of the tyhroid, resulted a metastasis of the tonsillar neoplasm. The search for intranodular thyroglobulin was negative; the patient underwent thyroidectomy which showed a massive infiltration of the right cricothyroid space, cricoid and thyroid wing cartilage necrosis and intralaryngeal tumor infiltration. The authors describe the thyroid metastasis treatment, present an up-to-date review of the literature and suggest a thyroid careful clinical evaluation in every patient with a previous history of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:16229323

  4. A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Geun; Yang, Youngro; Kim, Kwang Sik; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lee, Ji Shin; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Daeho

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland from distant cancer is rare, and, in some cases, is a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. A 77-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 1 month previously. He had undergone a right nephrectomy owing to renal cell carcinoma 14 years previously. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a few atypical follicular cells with nuclear atypia. Under a tentative diagnosis of papillary thyroid ...

  5. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thyroid from functionally cured cancer cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a very unusual occurrence of a metastatic squamous carcinoma to thyroid gland from a treated squamous cell carcinoma cervix 12 years before with no recurrence at the primary site. The case also has an additional complexity of rapid progression of the metastatic thyroid carcinoma to wide spread dissemination to lungs and bones while on concurrent chemo radio therapy confirming the aggressiveness of the entity

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

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    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  7. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to thyroid tumor: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Medas, Fabio; Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Lai, Maria Letizia; Tuveri, Massimiliano; Pisano, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Metastatic neoplasms to the thyroid gland are rare in clinical practice. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent site of origin of thyroid metastases and represents 12 to 34% of all secondary thyroid tumors. Tumor-to-tumor metastases, in which a thyroid neoplasm is the recipient of a metastasis, are exceedingly rare. We report a case of clear cell renal carcinoma metastatic to a follicular adenoma. This is the tenth case of renal cell carcinoma metastasis to thyroid tumor...

  8. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  9. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  10. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid 23 Years After Nephrectomy ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Carrie Valdez; M Katayoon Rezaei; Fredrick Hendricks; Stanley M. Knoll

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon form of human cancer, with an outstanding overall cure rate. This excellent prognosis is based on the fact that well over 99% of thyroid cancers are primary tumors. Metastatic cancer to the thyroid remains very rare. We report a case of clear cell renal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland 23 years after nephrectomy.

  11. Thyroid Metastasis in Pyramidal Lobe from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid metastasis is rare. The most common primary malignancy of thyroid metastasis worldwide is known to be renal cell carcinoma, but the most common primary malignancy in South Korea is breast cancer. Many studies have reported that primary renal cell carcinoma is almost unilateral and thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is a nearly ipsilateral, single lesion. We report a case of pyramidal lobe metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.

  12. Thyroid Metastasis in Pyramidal Lobe from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyung Seok; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Sang Su [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Soo Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Thyroid metastasis is rare. The most common primary malignancy of thyroid metastasis worldwide is known to be renal cell carcinoma, but the most common primary malignancy in South Korea is breast cancer. Many studies have reported that primary renal cell carcinoma is almost unilateral and thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is a nearly ipsilateral, single lesion. We report a case of pyramidal lobe metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.

  13. Synchronous Hurthle Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Carcinoma in a Patient with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: A Rare Case Report

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    Narayanan O. Navya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the most common autoimmune thyroid disease, is due to destruction of the thyroid gland by autoantibodies. Various types of thyroid malignancies may arise in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Follicular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, lymphomas, medullary carcinomas and hurthle cell neoplasms may develop in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We present a rare case report of a 35-year-old female who presented with hypothyroidism of a two-year duration. A diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made for which she was under treatment. Due to the recent increase in size of the thyroid, a fine needle aspiration cytology was done. A preoperative diagnosis of Hurthle cell neoplasm was made based on fine needle aspiration cytology findings. The total thyroidectomy specimen revealed Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with synchronous papillary carcinoma and Hurthle cell carcinoma, which is a very rare occurrence.

  14. Clear cell variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone value: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Gelincik, Ibrahim; Demirtas, Levent; Isik, Arda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clear cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone value are very rare, but clear cell changes are described in most reported cases of thyroidal lesions. Case presentation In this report, we describe the case of a 50-year-old Caucasian woman with a normal thyroid-stimulating hormone level who underwent surgery to treat a multi-nodular goiter. The pathology was a clear cell variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. The tumor was 1cm in diameter and c...

  15. Unusual Granular Cell Tumor of the Trachea Coexisting With Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Masquerading as Tracheal Invasion of Recurred Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This was an extremely rare case of unusual granular cell tumor of the trachea coexisting with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. We initially misdiagnosed this patient as having tracheal invasion from recurrent thyroid carcinoma even after a computed tomography scan and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of granular cell tumor of the trachea occurring simultaneously with papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27149467

  16. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases

  17. Report of a Rare Case of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Borzouei; S. Mahmoodi; A.H. Moaddab; A.R. Salim Bahrami

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common well-differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Only in few cases of PTC entity of renal cell carcinoma has been observed in patients affected with PTC. Case Report: In this study we report a case of sporadic PTC and renal cell carcinoma in a 63 year-old woman. Conclusion: After surgery the patient was hospitalized for 1 month in ICU section. 3 months after being discharged from the hospital, she was still in a good condition and is u...

  18. A Patient with Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Intermingled with Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma that Remains Alive more than 8 Years after Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Tae Sik; Oh, Young Lyun; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare tumor with a highly aggressive clinical course. We report here on a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid who remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis. A 56-year-old man presented with a hoarse voice and a rapidly progressing mass on the right side of the thyroid gland. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy without neck lymph node dissection. Histopathologic findings revealed primary squamou...

  19. Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na125I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future studies

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma.

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    Ceyran, A Bahar; Senol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Ozkanlı, Seyma; Cinel, Z Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  1. Metastasis from renal cell carcinoma to thyroid presenting as rapidly growing neck mass

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    Afshin Mohammadi; Seyed Babak Mosavi Toomatari; Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is commonly known as the “internist's tumor” because of its unpredictable behavior. Metastasis to the thyroid gland is rarely found in clinical practice. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a rare case of non-thyroid malignancies NTM from renal cell carcinoma 1.5 years after radical nephrectomy in a 58-year-old man with a rapidly growing neck mass. DISCUSSION: Malignant melanoma, breast carcinoma, lung, and skin cancer are the most common sources of ...

  2. Inhibition of carcinoma formation and of vascular invasion in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid clonogens by unirradiated thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative transplantation techniques have been employed to study radiogenic cancer initiation frequency and cell interactions during promotion/progression in grafted clonogenic rat thyroid epithelial cells. The graft recipients were surgically thyroidectomized. Radiogenic initiation is a common cellular event; one of ∼ 32 surviving 5-Gy-irradiated thyroid clonogens gave rise to cancer in grafts initially containing ∼ 11 clonogens per transplantation site. The efficiency of promotion/progression is inversely related to grafted irradiated cell number. As the number of transplanted surviving irradiated clonogens was increased progressively from ∼ 11 to ∼ 720 clonogens per graft site, the carcinoma frequency per grafted clonogen progressively decreased to one per ∼ 920. Addition of unirradiated thyroid cells to the transplant inocula further suppressed promotion/progression of radiation-initiated thyroid clonogens. Furthermore, the probability of vascular invasion, a reflection of metastatic potential in carcinomas which arose from irradiated grafted thyroid clonogens, was reduced by addition of unirradiated thyroid cells to the transplant inocula. Assays of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) titers in the sera of thyroidectomized rats 44 weeks after transplantation of clonogenic thyroid cells indicate that the suppression of neoplastic promotion/progression observed with increased numbers of cells per graft site is due at least in part to feed-back inhibition of TSH production by thyroid hormone of graft origin. (author)

  3. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  4. Coexistence of subacute thyroiditis and renal cell carcinoma: a paraneoplastic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Algün, Ekrem; ALICI, Süleyman; Topal, Cevat; Ugras, Serdar; Erkoç, Reha; Sakarya, M.Emin; Özbey, Nese

    2003-01-01

    RENAL CELL CARCINOMA IS CHARACTERIZED by varied manifestations, which include unusual metastatic sites and paraneoplastic and vascular syndromes. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with high fever, weight loss, palpitations and a tender goitre. We suggest that, in this patient, subacute thyroiditis manifested as a paraneoplastic syndrome of renal cell carcinoma.

  5. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis of Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-il; Lee, Jong Jin; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    A 69-year-old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed, and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  6. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  7. Collision tumours, squamous cell carcinoma of larynx, papillary thyroid carcinoma, metastatic lymphatic node. Clinical Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the opening of the stoma. Papillary carcinoma compromises peritiroideo deep surgical limits and mucous upper right margin. Squamous cell carcinoma committed focally vocal cord left. Foci of vascular and perineural invasion papillary carcinoma. Two papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph nodes perilaringeos. Right middle yugulocarotidea 2-Chain: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate (9.3 cm.) And tissue extension adipose periganglionar and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of two lymph nodes (macro metastasis with capsule intact). 3-Chain yugulocarotidea middle and lower left: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate in (7.2 cm.) And metastatic squamous cell carcinoma four lymph nodes (macro metastases with capsule intact). In two of said nodes simultaneously both tumor metastases is observed. Starts radiation therapy (65Gy) weekly concurrent CDDP, after which there is no evidence of tumor. Six months later, treatment is performed with ablative doses of iodine 131 scintigraphy showed that the remaining thyroid nodular captante in glandular bed. The patient progresses with lung and liver metastases died at 10 months after surgery. Although the literature we found other cases of tumors in collision, we have not found a case with two metastatic tumors in a single node with these histologist

  8. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid with Multiple Cervical Lymph Node Involvement Accompanying Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bahar Ceyran; Serkan Şenol; Barış Bayraktar; Şeyma Özkanlı; Z. Leyla Cinel; Abdullah Aydın

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac ar...

  9. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

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    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  10. Synchronous sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and small-cell carcinoma of lung: A rare entity

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    Manigreeva Krishnatreya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and small-cell carcinoma of the lung is a rare phenomenon and both these tumors are characterized by poor treatment outcome and prognosis. A 45-year-old woman presented with a progressive swelling in front and side of the neck of 3-month duration without any pulmonary symptoms. The tumor of the lung was an incidental finding on routine chest radiological examination. The diagnosis of synchronous primary cancers of the thyroid and the lung were made after cytopathological examination of both the lesions. We report here a case of loco-regional sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid associated with limited stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung and its therapeutic challenges.

  11. mTOR Inhibition Promotes TTF1-Dependent Redifferentiation and Restores Iodine Uptake in Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Heinhuis, B.; Gerrits, D.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Schweppe, R.E.; Haugen, B.R.; Boerman, O.C.; Smit, J.W.A.; Netea, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Concept: Redifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma cells has the potential to increase the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy in treatment-refractory, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (TC), leading to an improved disease outcome. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell fate af

  12. Weightlessness induced apoptosis in normal thyroid cells and papillary thyroid carcinoma cells via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossmehl, Peter; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Cogoli, Augusto; Infanger, Manfred; Curcio, Francesco; Schönberger, Johann; Eilles, Christoph; Bauer, Johann; Pickenhahn, Holger; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Paul, Martin; Grimm, Daniela

    2003-09-01

    Apoptosis plays a pivotal role in development, tissue homeostasis, cancer, immune defense, and response to weightlessness. It can be initiated by external signals via death receptors, but may also emerge from mitochondria. We exposed mitochondria-rich thyroid carcinoma cells (ONCO-DG1 cell line) and normal thyroid cells (HTU-5) to conditions of simulated microgravity. After 24 h, 10% of the cancer cells had entered a Fas-dependent apoptotic pathway, but destruction and redistribution of mitochondria, microtubuli disruption, and caspase-3 activation were also detected, demonstrating the activation of extrinsic as well as intrinsic pathways. Furthermore, ONCO-DG1 cells grown on the clinostat showed elevated amounts of Bax, but reduced quantities of bcl-2. In addition, signs of apoptosis became detectable, as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP digoxigenin nick end labeling, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and 85-kDa apoptosis-related cleavage fragments. These fragments resulted from enhanced 116-kDa poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity and apoptosis. Apoptosis was also detected in normal HTU-5 cells, as demonstrated by electron microscopy, activation of caspase-3, increases in Fas and Bax, and elevation of 85-kDa apoptosis-related cleavage fragments resulting from enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Gravitational unloading affects the mitochondria and thereby may trigger apoptosis in thyroid cells subjected to weightlessness by clinorotation. PMID:12933692

  13. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Kandil; Mohamed Abdel Khalek; Haytham Alabbas; Philip Daroca; Tina Thethi; Paul Friedlander; Ryan Leblanc; Obai Abdullah; Bernard Jaffe; Byron Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black ...

  14. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural history and the clinical findings in 227 patients with thyroid carcinoma are described and the etiology discussed. The need for uniform pathologic classification and staging is emphasized. (Auth.)

  15. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    V S Medvedev; P. A. Isayev; Ilyin, A. A.; D. Yu. Semin; V. V. Polkin; D. N. Derbugov; S. V. Vasilkov

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  16. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

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    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A;

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  18. TRAP1 regulates cell cycle and apoptosis in thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Notarangelo, Tiziana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Lamacchia, Olga; Sisinni, Lorenza; Spagnoletti, Girolamo; Toti, Paolo; Santoro, Angela; Storto, Giovanni; Bufo, Pantaleo; Cignarelli, Mauro; Esposito, Franca; Landriscina, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) molecular chaperone upregulated in several human malignancies and involved in protection from apoptosis and drug resistance, cell cycle progression, cell metabolism and quality control of specific client proteins. TRAP1 role in thyroid carcinoma (TC), still unaddressed at present, was investigated by analyzing its expression in a cohort of 86 human TCs and evaluating its involvement in cancer cell survival and proliferation in vitro Indeed, TRAP1 levels progressively increased from normal peritumoral thyroid gland, to papillary TCs (PTCs), follicular variants of PTCs (FV-PTCs) and poorly differentiated TCs (PDTCs). By contrast, anaplastic thyroid tumors exhibited a dual pattern, the majority being characterized by high TRAP1 levels, while a small subgroup completely negative. Consistently with a potential involvement of TRAP1 in thyroid carcinogenesis, TRAP1 silencing resulted in increased sensitivity to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, inhibition of cell cycle progression and attenuation of ERK signaling. Noteworthy, the inhibition of TRAP1 ATPase activity by pharmacological agents resulted in attenuation of cell proliferation, inhibition of ERK signaling and reversion of drug resistance. These data suggest that TRAP1 inhibition may be regarded as potential strategy to target specific features of human TCs, i.e., cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. PMID:27422900

  19. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference is made to the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule, reaffirming the concepts of algorithm study, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures and cost-effectiveness. Stressing once again the place of cytology and the concept of selecting patients for surgery, surgical tactics in front of the thyroid nodule and the need for probate multidisciplinary study and treatment of this pathology. Briefly discusses the most controversial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, the sine qua non of the pathologist in the operating room in thyroid surgery and the value of the quantification of nuclear DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors (Author)

  20. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  1. Functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes in Hurthle cell thyroid neoplasm - an association of GPX1 polymorphism and recurrent Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krhin Blaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC.

  2. Inhibition effects of parathyroid hormone on human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong Ni; Qinjiang Liu; Shihong Ma; Ruihui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the study was to investigate the ef ects of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hor-mone receptor monoclonal antibody on in vitro growth and proliferation of human medul ary thyroid carcinoma celllines. Methods:The medul ary thyroid carcinoma cellline was cultured in vitro, with parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibody treatment intervention, the growth of the cells was observed under an inverted contrast micro-scope, the MTT assay was used to detect the cellgrowth inhibition rate. Results:Under the inverted contrast microscope, the cells changed significantly, the parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibodies can ef ectively inhibit the proliferation of medul ary thyroid cancer cells in a time and dose dependent. When parathyroid hormone concentra-tion reached a concentration of 2.0μmol/L, the parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibody reached a concentration of 1.0μmol/L, the cellgrowth was most significantly inhibited (P<0.05). Conclusion:Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibody were able to inhibit the proliferation of medul ary thyroid carcinoma cells and signifi-cantly reduce the proliferation index.

  3. BRAF-Activated Long Noncoding RNA Modulates Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Proliferation through Regulating Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Lixin; Chu, Haidi; Hu, Jinchen; Ning, Jinyao; Li, Baoyuan; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The importance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis has recently been demonstrated. However, the role of lncRNAs in development of thyroid cancer remains largely unknown. Materials and Methods Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, expression of three lncRNAs, including BRAF-activated long noncoding RNA (BANCR), papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility candidate 3 (PTCSC3), and noncoding RNA associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and growth arrest (NAMA), was investigated in the current study. Results Of the three lncRNAs (BANCR, PTCSC3, and NAMA), expression of BANCR was significantly up-regulated while PTCSC3 and NAMA were significantly down-regulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) compared to that in normal tissue. BANCR-knockdown in a PTC-derived cell line (IHH-4) resulted in significant suppression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). BANCR-knockdown also led to inhibition of cell growth and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through down-regulation of cyclin D1. In addition, BANCR was enriched by polycomb enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and silencing BANCR led to decreased chromatin recruitment of EZH2, which resulted significantly reduced expression of TSHR. Conclusion These findings indicate that BANCR may contribute to the tumorigenesis of PTC through regulation of cyclin D1 and TSHR. PMID:26323637

  4. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration. Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned. The slides were sent for second opinion. After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed. Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks. Conclusion Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

  5. Thyroid metastasis as initial presentation of clear cell renal carcinoma

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    César Pablo Ramírez-Plaza

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The possibility of finding of an incidental metastatic tumor in the thyroid gland from a previous unknown and non-diganosed primary (as CCRC in our case was is rare and account only for less than 1% of malignancies. Nonetheless, the thyroid gland is a frequent site of metastasis and the presence of “de novo” thyroid nodules in oncologic patients must be always considered and studied.

  6. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiofalo Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

  7. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  8. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as a collision tumor of the neck: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Xiang-Yan; Fang, Ning; Chen, Wei-Lun; Yu, Hong; Zhu,Wei

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old male presented with a rapidly expanding mass on the right side of the neck and progressive hoarseness. An electronic laryngoscopy and a computed tomography scan were performed, and the patient was subsequently diagnosed with tumors of the larynx and the thyroid gland. An en bloc near-total thyroidectomy combined with a total laryngectomy was performed. The final pathological analysis revealed a collision tumor that was derived from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and a papil...

  9. Composite Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Columnar Cell Variant of Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconet, Sarah; Bosq, Jacques; Hartl, Dana; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Al-Ghuzlan, Abir

    2016-06-01

    Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid and columnar cell variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PCT) are uncommon neoplasms. We report the first case of composite MEC and columnar cell variant of PCT. An 86-year-old man consulted for a 47-mm thyroid nodule, cytologically compatible with PCT. Total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis, with support of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, was mixed primary carcinoma of the thyroid, associating an MEC component with predominantly columnar cell variant of PCT. Sixteen months after surgery and external beam radiation therapy, the patient was free of recurrence or distant metastasis. This case report offers an opportunity to highlight the potential pitfalls concerning the interpretation of mucin histochemistry in thyroid tumors. PMID:26755714

  10. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotiroti Domenicoantonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio. Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. Results A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 μM, 7 fold at 100 μM. When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 μM and earlier exposure time (24 h. Conclusion These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/ 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio). Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 μM, 7 fold at 100 μM). When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 μM) and earlier exposure time (24 h). These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free) for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours

  12. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    OpenAIRE

    Ja yoon Jang; Kye won Kwon; Sang wook Kim; Inyoung Youn

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT) is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested m...

  13. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Introduction of v-Ha-ras oncogene induces differentiation of cultured human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an endocrine tumor of the thyroid C cells that expresses high levels of the neuroendocrine peptide hormone calcitonin. During tumor progression in the host, there is an apparent loss of differentiation in MTC cells that involves a consistent decrease in calcitonin content of the tumor cells associated with decreased expression of the calcitonin gene and/or changes in a mRNA alternative-processing pattern away from that characteristic of the parent thyroid C cell. The authors now report that introduction of the viral Harvey ras (v-Ha-ras) oncogene into cultured human MTC cells can reverse such changes in gene expression and can induce endocrine differentiation of the tumor cells. The expression of v-Ha-ras is associated with decreased cellular proliferation and DNA synthesis. There is a marked increase in the number of cytoplasmic secretory granules that are a classic feature of differentiated thyroid C cells. v-Ha-ras expression induces increased expression of the calcitonin gene and the processing of the primary gene transcript is shifted to favor calcitonin mRNA rather than calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA production. These studies with cultured human MTC cells provide a model system to study the role of Ha-ras and related genes in neuroendocrine differentiation. The findings suggest an important approach for identifying genes in solid tumors whose altered expression may play a role in the impaired maturational capacity characteristic of cancer cells during tumor progression

  15. Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of carcinomas arising from thyroid epithelial follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, M A; Bongarzone, I; Borello, M G; Greco, A; Pilotti, S; Sozzi, G

    1996-05-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular analyses of thyroid tumors have indicated that these neoplasms represent a good model for analyzing human epithelial cell multistep carcinogenesis. They comprise, in fact, a broad spectrum of lesions with different phenotypes and variable biological and clinical behavior. Molecular analysis has detected specific genetic alterations in the different types of thyroid tumors. In particular, the well-differentiated carcinomas of the papillary type are characterized by activation of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), RET and NTRK1 proto-oncogenes. Cytogenetic analysis of these tumors has contributed to defining the chromosomal mechanisms leading to RTK oncogenic activation. In the majority of cases, intrachromosomal inversions of chromosome 10 and chromosome 1 led to the formation of RET-derived and NTRK1-derived oncogenes, respectively. Interestingly, molecular analysis of these oncogenes revealed their nature of chimeric fusion proteins all sharing the tyrosine kinase (TK) domains of the respective proto-oncogenes. Moreover, the sequencing of the oncogenic rearrangements led to the identification of a breakpoint cluster region in both RTK proto-oncogenes. Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with papillary carcinomas and RET activation has been suggested to be related to this event. Conversely, RAS point mutations are frequently observed in tumors with follicular histology and have been associated with metastatic dissemination. Iodide-deficient areas seem to provide a higher frequency of RAS positive follicular carcinomas. Finally, a high prevalence of TPS3 point mutations has been detected only in undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinomas and found to correlate inversely with 8CL2 expression. All of these findings are contributing to the definition of genetic and environmental factors relevant for the pathogenesis of thyroid tumors. Moreover, the characterization of specific genetic lesions could provide significant molecular

  16. siRNA targeting RBP2 inhibits expression, proliferation, tumorigenicity and invasion in thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, LING-LING; MAN, DONG-MEI; Wang, Tian; ZHANG, GUO-AN; Cui, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In order to estimate the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2) on the proliferation, expression, invasion, migration and tumorigenicity abilities of papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cells, siRNA targeting RBP2 (RBP2-siRNA) and negative control siRNA were transfected into K1 cells. The mRNA levels of RBP2 in the transfected cells were estimated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the protein levels of...

  17. Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vijayraj S.; Abhishek Vijayakumar; Neelamma Natikar

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma wh...

  18. Mutations of TSHR and TP53 Genes in an Aggressive Clear Cell Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guo-Xia; Mody, Kokila; Wang, Zhuo; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Nikiforova, Marina N; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2015-12-01

    Clear cell follicular carcinoma is a rare type of thyroid cancer and some with aggressive biological behavior. The cytoplasmic clearing of the neoplastic cells has been attributed to the accumulation of various substances, such as glycogen, lipid, mucin, and thyroglobulin, or distension of mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the characteristic appearance of the cell cytoplasm and the biological behavior remain unknown. We report here a case of aggressive clear cell follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with molecular profile using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) that presented as a metastatic tumor in a woman with a history of breast carcinoma. The NGS data revealed the coexisting of a well-characterized loss-of-function TP53 R248Q mutation and a putative gain-of-function mutation of TSHR L272V, which was suggested by the overexpression of thyroglobulin and SLC5A5 (NIS) genes in this tumor. TP53 mutations are usually related with dedifferentiation, progression, and metastasis of thyroid carcinomas. Identification of TP53 R248Q in this tumor correlated with its aggressive clinical behavior. Gain-of-function mutation of TSHR can overstimulate the thyroid follicular cells as the elevated level of TSH does and might have contributed to the development of clear cell morphology in this tumor. This report represents the first case of clear cell follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with NGS analysis and more molecular characterization is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis and provide more prognosis-relevant information for this uncommon variant of thyroid carcinomas. PMID:26260781

  19. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Kwon, Kye Won; Kim, Sang Wook [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Youn, In Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT) is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja yoon Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  1. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Carcinoma Mimic Hürthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutintorn Sriphrapradang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA can cause misdiagnosis of cytomorphological findings between parathyroid and thyroid lesions. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a palpable neck mass on the right thyroid lobe. FNA cytology was reported as intrathyroidal lymphoid hyperplasia. After 5 years, repeated FNA was done on the enlarged nodule with result of Hürthle cell lesion. Prior to right lobectomy, laboratories revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH. Careful history taking revealed chronic knee pain and ossifying fibroma at the maxilla. Ultrasonography showed a 2.8 cm mass inferior to right thyroid lobe. Pathology from en bloc resection was parathyroid carcinoma and immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for PTH. Genetic analysis found somatic mutation of CDC73 gene in exon1 (c.70delG which caused premature stop codon in amino acid 26 (p.Glu24Lysfs2*. The final diagnosis was hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Conclusions. FNA cytology of parathyroid can mimic thyroid lesion. It is important to consider and correlate the entire information from clinical history, laboratory, imaging, and FNA.

  2. Palliative radiation in primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Ghoshal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. Until date, only around 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Primary treatment of the patient is radical surgery. With optimum treatment survival is not more than 6 months in this aggressive malignancy. However in our patient surgery it was not possible because of unresectability of the mass due to encroachment of major vessels. Hence, we have delivered radiotherapy alone, with which effective palliation could be achieved and patient is leading a good quality-of-life for last 1 year.

  3. Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukata, Shuji; Tamai, Hajime; Matsubayashi, Sunao; Nagai, Keisuke; Hirota, Yoshihiko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Katayama, Shoichi; Kuma, Kanji; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1987-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a nodule in the thyroid gland. /sup 131/I scintigraphy of the gland showed a hot nodule. Histology of the resected thyroid revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma. Although a thyroid carcinoma with a hot nodule seen on the radioiodine isotope scan is a very rare occurrence, it is clinically very important because it may indicate a thyroid malignancy.

  4. Downregulation of LSD1 suppresses the proliferation, tumorigenicity and invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, LING-LING; MAN, DONG-MEI; Wang, Tian; ZHANG, GUO-AN; Cui, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) downregulation, induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, on the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of the papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cell line. The siRNA targeting LSD1 and scrambled non-targeting siRNA were each transfected into papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cells. Downregulation of LSD1 mRNA and protein level was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative poly...

  5. Thyroid c-cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra L; Styer, Eloise L; Stobaeus, Janeen K; Norton, Terry M

    2002-12-01

    A 3-yr-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was submitted with dysphagia, weight loss, and tetraparesis. A palpable mass was found on the ventral neck. Histologic examination revealed replacement of the thyroid gland by a highly cellular, expansile, and infiltrative mass composed of lobules of polygonal cells separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Examination of ultrathin sections revealed tumor cells with few to many dense-core neuroendocrine granules, approximately 100-200 nm in diameter, and stromal amyloid. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for neuron-specific enolase. Only rare cells had positive immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin. Findings are consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor of C-cell origin. This is the first report of a C-cell carcinoma in a hedgehog. PMID:12564541

  6. Treatment of patients with Huerthle cell thyroid carcinoma using [Lu-177-DOTAO, Tyr3]octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Huerthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) is a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Although radioiodine (I-131) is given for ablation of the thyroid remnant to enable serum thyroglobulin levels for follow-up, it is rarely used for the treatment of residual or metastatic disease, related to the Huerthle cell tumour's poor capacity of taking up radioiodine. Since thyroid tumour cells express somatostatin receptors, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using radiopharmaceuticals such as [Lu-177-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (Lu-177-octreotate) has been proposed as a potential treatment option. Materials and Methods: 15 patients with pathology proven HCTC treated with Lu-177-octreotate between January 2000 and April 2012 were studied. CT or MRI scans were analysed using SWOG criteria for response outcome. Thyroglobulin levels were analysed and a decrease of more than 50% was considered as a significant biochemical response. All patients had received radioiodine to ablate the thyroid remnant. Six patients received an additional treatment dose of I-131 (total cumulative dose range: 0.7 to 14.8 GBq I-131). Results: Acute side effects such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and hair loss were present during 22%, 2%, 8% and 27% of all administrations respectively. WHO grade 3 bone marrow toxicity for both platelets and leukocytes was present in 2% of all treatment cycles. No long-term side effects such as myelodysplasia or kidney failure were found during a median follow-up of 25 months (range 2-119 months). Twelve patients received the intended cumulative dose (22.2-29.6 GBq) of Lu-177-octreotate whereas 3 did not, due to persisting thrombocytopenia, concomitant cardiac atrial fibrillation, or to the diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma as a second primary tumour. In 11 out of the 12 remaining patients sufficient follow-up data were available for evaluation. Four (36%) patients had a partial response (PR) at 3 months after the last treatment

  7. Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland with Synchronous Benign and Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor. The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

  8. miR-101 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting Rac1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIN, XIAOJIE; GUAN, HONGYU; LI, HAI; LIU, LIEHUA; LIU, JUAN; WEI, GUOHONG; HUANG, ZHIMIN; LIAO, ZHIHONG; LI, YANBING

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression. However, it remains necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in PTC via targeting of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). The results showed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in PTC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Restoration of miR-101 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation in the K1 PTC cell line. Moreover, algorithm-based and experimental strategies verified Rac1 as a direct target of miR-101 in the K1 cell line. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-101 inhibited PTC growth via the downregulation of Rac1 expression, providing a better understanding of miRNA-modulated signaling networks for future cancer therapeutics. PMID:24649082

  9. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer. PMID:20032400

  10. Simulated weightlessness changes the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanger, Manfred; Kossmehl, Peter; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Bauer, Johann; Kossmehl-Zorn, Stephanie; Cogoli, Augusto; Curcio, Francesco; Oksche, Alexander; Wehland, Markus; Kreutz, Reinhold; Paul, Martin; Grimm, Daniela

    2006-05-01

    Studies of astronauts, experimental animals, and cells have shown that, after spaceflights, the function of the thyroid is altered by low-gravity conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein synthesis of papillary thyroid cancer cells grown under zero g. We investigated alterations of ONCO-DG 1 cells exposed to simulated microgravity on a three-dimensional random-positioning machine (clinostat) for 30 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 120 h (n=6, each group). ONCO-DG 1 cells grown under microgravity exhibited early alterations of the cytoskeleton and formed multicellular spheroids. The cytoskeleton was disintegrated, and nuclei showed morphological signs of apoptosis after 30 min. At this time, vimentin was increased. Vimentin and cytokeratin were highly disorganized, and microtubules (alpha-tubulin) did not display their typical radial array. After 48 h, the cytoskeletal changes were nearly reversed. The formation of multicellular spheroids continued. In parallel, the accumulation of ECM components, such as collagen types I and III, fibronectin, chondroitin sulfate, osteopontin, and CD44, increased. The levels of both transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta(1)) and TGF-beta receptor type II proteins were elevated from 24 h until 120 h clinorotation. Gene expression of TGF-beta(1) was clearly enhanced during culture under zero g. The amount of E-cadherin was enhanced time-dependently. We suggest that simulated weightlessness rapidly affects the cytoskeleton of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells and increases the amount of ECM proteins in a time-dependent manner. PMID:16432709

  11. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Yoo; Yohanan Kim; Alfred Simental; Jared C. Inman

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  12. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  13. Ursolic acid from Trailliaedoxa gracilis induces apoptosis in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiriano-Moser, Victor; Svejda, Bernhard; Li, Zeng-Xia; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Ingolic, Elisabeth; Höger, Harald; Siegl, Veronika; Meier-Allard, Nathalie; Sadjak, Anton; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2015-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the C‑cells of the thyroid and is not sensitive to radiation or chemotherapy. Therefore, surgical removal of the tumor tissue in its entirety is the only curative treatment for MTC. The present study aimed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of extracts of Trailliaedoxa gracilis (TG; WW Smith & Forrest), a plant from the province of Sichuan, China, and of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpen present in TG, on the MTC‑SK MTC cell line. A total of 13 TG fractions and UA were examined in vitro for their effects on cell morphology, cell number, proliferation and rates of apoptosis. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nuclear factor‑κB essential modifier (NEMO) was performed to delineate the role of the apoptotic pathway following treatment with UA. TG and UA were examined in vivo in xenotransplanted MTC‑bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice. The TG fractions exhibited antiproliferative effects, with inhibition of mitochondrial activity in the tumor cells at concentrations, which caused no impairment of the normal control cells. The apoptotic rates of the MTC‑SK cells treated with the TG fractions and UA were determined, in which no marked tumor inhibition was observed in the treated MTC‑mice, and no change in the expression of NEMO was detected in the treated MTC‑SK cells. The observation of early‑onset activation of caspase 8 suggested that the responsible factor was linked to NEMO, an anti‑apoptotic protein. However, no differences in the mRNA transcription levels of NEMO were detected in MTC‑SK cells treated with UA, suggesting that this protein was not associated with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway. PMID:26151624

  14. CT manifestations of lymph node metastasis of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to study the CT manifestations of metastatic lymph node of thyroid carcinoma. Methods: CT appearances of metastatic lymph node of thyroid carcinoma proved by surgery and pathology in 108 patients were reviewed. Results: Of these 108 cases, metastatic lymph node were located at superior and middle internal jugular chain (n = 76), inferior internal jugular chain and super clavicular region (n = 86), tracheoesophageal groove (n = 52), and superior mediastinum (n = 17). Of 84 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients, the attenuation of metastatic lymph nodes were similar to that of normal thyroid gland (n = 16), with cystic formations, (n = 24), intra-cystic high attenuation papillary-like nodules (n = 18), and fine granular calcifications (n = 11). Of 24 follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, and clear cell carcinoma patients, 17 cases had significant homogeneous or heterogeneous enhanced nodes, and the attenuation was the same as primary or recurrent thyroid tumors. Conclusion: For thyroid carcinoma, the most common locations of metastatic lymph nodes were internal jugular chain, tracheoesophageal groove, and superior mediastinum regions. Marked enhancement similar to normal thyroid gland, cystic formations with intra-cystic high attenuation papillary-like nodules, and fine discrete granular calcifications were the characteristic manifestations of metastatic lymph node of papillary carcinoma. Marked homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration and the same attenuation as the primary or recurrent thyroid tumor were found in follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, and clear cell carcinoma metastases

  15. Strontium is a biased agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma 6-23 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie; Worm, Jesper; Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard;

    2012-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)-specific allosteric modulator cinacalcet has revolutionized the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, its application is limited to patients with end-stage renal disease because of hypocalcemic side effects...... CaSR is poorly understood, the objective of the present study was to investigate biased signaling of CaSR by using rat medullary thyroid carcinoma 6-23 cells as a model of thyroid parafollicular C-cells. By doing concentration-response experiments we focused on the ability of two well known Ca...

  16. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”

  17. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Takahashi, Satoru; Maeda, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Fujii, Masahiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato [Department of Urology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”.

  18. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland

  19. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Thyroid Gland and Pancreas Showing Uptake on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Gowri L; Schembri, Geoffrey Paul; Samra, Jaswinder; Roach, Paul; Hsiao, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Ga DOTATATE PET/CT is an imaging technique used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. We report a case of 66-year-old woman with a history of surgically removed renal cell carcinoma who presented for a DOTATATE PET/CT scan to characterize a newly diagnosed pancreatic lesion. DOTATATE-avid lesions were identified in the thyroid gland and pancreas. Subsequent biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma at both sites. It is important to be aware that tumors other than neuroendocrine tumors may also show uptake on DOTATATE PET/CT scan. A biopsy may be required if lesions are identified at atypical sites. PMID:27055137

  20. Thyroid carcinomas of Belarussian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma increases significantly following exposure to ionizing irradiation. However, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumorigenesis at the molecular and chromosomal levels have not been identified. In order to gain some indication of the processes affecting the thyroid epithelium, cytogenetic and molecular genetic investigations were performed on childhood thyroid carcinomas that developed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarussia, and on secondary thyroid tumours that developed after radiotherapy. At the cytogenetic level, the radiation-induced tumours were shown to have an increased frequency of translocations, multiple and complex chromosome aberrations, and novel breakpoints for structural chromosome aberrations. At the molecular level, different alterations of the RET protooncogene were detected in 65% of the Belarussian tumours. (orig.)

  1. In vitro identification and characterization of CD133(pos cancer stem-like cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent publications suggest that neoplastic initiation and growth are dependent on a small subset of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC is a very aggressive solid tumor with poor prognosis, characterized by high dedifferentiation. The existence of CSCs might account for the heterogeneity of ATC lesions. CD133 has been identified as a stem cell marker for normal and cancerous tissues, although its biological function remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ATC cell lines ARO, KAT-4, KAT-18 and FRO were analyzed for CD133 expression. Flow cytometry showed CD133(pos cells only in ARO and KAT-4 (64+/-9% and 57+/-12%, respectively. These data were confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. ARO and KAT-4 were also positive for fetal marker oncofetal fibronectin and negative for thyrocyte-specific differentiating markers thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase and sodium/iodide symporter. Sorted ARO/CD133(pos cells exhibited higher proliferation, self-renewal, colony-forming ability in comparison with ARO/CD133(neg. Furthermore, ARO/CD133(pos showed levels of thyroid transcription factor TTF-1 similar to the fetal thyroid cell line TAD-2, while the expression in ARO/CD133(neg was negligible. The expression of the stem cell marker OCT-4 detected by RT-PCR and flow cytometry was markedly higher in ARO/CD133(pos in comparison to ARO/CD133(neg cells. The stem cell markers c-KIT and THY-1 were negative. Sensitivity to chemotherapy agents was investigated, showing remarkable resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in ARO/CD133(pos when compared with ARO/CD133(neg cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe CD133(pos cells in ATC cell lines. ARO/CD133(pos cells exhibit stem cell-like features--such as high proliferation, self-renewal ability, expression of OCT-4--and are characterized by higher resistance to chemotherapy. The simultaneous positivity for thyroid specific factor TTF-1 and onfFN suggest

  2. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani Mehdi; Omidvari Shapour; Daneshbod Yahya; Daneshbod Khosrow; Negahban Shahrzad

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report Thi...

  3. CT diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the CT appearances of thyroid carcinoma and its cervical metastatic lymphadenopathy, as well as to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of tumor invasion of adjacent structures. Methods: CT findings of surgery and pathology proved thyroid carcinoma in 52 patients were analyzed. Results: All of the primary tumor were heterogeneous in density, 32 tumors (82.5%) were ill-defined. Fine granular calcifications were revealed in 11 primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in 5 cases. Cystic formation with intracystic high density papillary-like nodules were found in 4 primary tumors and metastatic lymphadenopathy in 5 cases. Trachea, esophagus and carotic artery invasion were proved by surgery in 22, 21 and 10 cases respectively. Serrated inner wall and tumor nodule protrusion into tracheal lumen were the definite signs of trachea invasion. Use tumor encasement over 1/2 of the circumference of esophagus and 1/3 of the circumference of carotid artery as the diagnostic criterion of invasion, sensitivity was 71.4%, 100.0% specificity was 96.3%, 95.2% respectively. Conclusion: Fine granular calcification and cystic formation with high attenuation intracystic papillary-like nodules were characteristic manifestations of primary thyroid carcinoma (especially papillary carcinoma) and its metastatic lymphadenopathy as well. Contrast enhanced CT scan is helpful in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma and the delineation of tumor extent, which is very important in surgical planning

  4. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with MTC should be checked for certain other tumors, especially pheochromocytoma. ... Treatment involves surgery to remove the thyroid gland and surrounding ... and experienced with the operation required. Chemotherapy ...

  5. Overexpression of NDRG2 Increases Iodine Uptake and Inhibits Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Growth In Situ and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Anqi; Wang, Chengguo; Sun, Jiachen; Gao, Jianjun; Tao, Liang; Du, Xilin; Zhao, Huadong; Yang, Jiandong; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon and highly aggressive tumor of the neuroendocrine system, which derives from the neuroendocrine C cells of the thyroid gland. Except for surgical resection, there are not very many effective systemic treatment options for MTC. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) had a significantly lower expression in MTC compared with normal thyroid tissue. However, the function of NDRG2 in MTC oncogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that overexpression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of TT cells (human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells) in vitro and suppressed the development of MTC in a nude mouse xenograft model. Further analysis revealed that NDRG2 arrested the cell cycle G0/G1 phase progression and induced TT cell apoptosis. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression may mediate the antiproliferative effect by reducing cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein levels. We also found aberrant NDRG2-mitigated TT cell migration and invasion in vitro. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and radionuclide treatment is a promising therapy for MTC. Our current data revealed that NDRG2 overexpression enhanced NIS level in TT cells and increased their iodine uptake in vitro. Furthermore, (99m)TcO4(-) radionuclide imaging of the xenograft tumors indicated that NDRG2 could promote NIS-mediated radionuclide transport. In conclusion, the present study suggested that NDRG2 is a critical molecule in the regulation of MTC biological behavior and a potential promoter in radioactive iodine therapy. PMID:26802650

  6. Acute airway failure secondary to thyroid metastasis from renal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lastilla Gaetano; Gurrado Angela; Lissidini Germana; Testini Mario; Ianora Amato; Fiorella Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondary involvement of the thyroid gland by malignant metastases is uncommon. Acute respiratory crisis due to infiltration of the upper airways is a recognised complication of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma or thyroid lymphoma. Renal cell carcinoma is a tumour that metastasizes diffusely and in an unpredictable manner. Case presentation We report a case of a 73-year-old man with a painful neck mass, dyspnoea, stridor and dysphonia that was evaluated in emergency. A right r...

  7. Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Tiroides: A Propósito de un Caso Primary squamous cell thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de células escamosas de tiroides (CCET es un tumor infrecuente y agresivo. Su etiología es incierta. Ante la presencia de carcinoma escamoso en la glándula tiroides debe excluirse la posibilidad de infiltración de un tumor originado en una estructura adyacente o de metástasis de otros carcinomas. El tratamiento de elección es la cirugía radical. La mayoría de los pacientes fallecen antes del año debido a progresión local de la enfermedad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con una masa tiroidea, con diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma escamoso (con inmunohistoquímca negativa para tiroglobulina, TTF1 y calcitonina y positiva para p63 y citok5. Los estudios clínicos, endoscópicos y radiológicos excluyeron otros sitios de origen de carcinoma escamoso. Fue tratado con quimio y radioterapia, falleciendo por progresión local luego de 9 meses.Primary squamous cell thyroid carcinoma (PSCTC is a rare and aggressive tumor of uncertain origin. When squamous carcinoma is diagnosed, it is mandatory to exclude the possibility of primary tumor arising from an adjacent structure or representing metastases from a primary growth elsewhere. Aggressive surgical resection is the treatment of choice. However, the prognosis is poor, with a median survival of less than a year. Death is usually secondary to progression of local disease. We report a case of a patient presenting with a thyroid mass; biopsy was consistent with squamous cell carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry tumor cells were negative for TTF1, thyroglobulin and calcitonin. Cancer cells were positive for p63 and citok5. Extensive workup excluded the possibility of extrathyroid origin. The patient was treated with chemoradiotherapy; he died 9 months later due to local progression.

  8. REGγ is a strong candidate for the regulation of cell cycle, proliferation and the invasion by poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M; Gan, L.; G.S. Ren

    2012-01-01

    REGγ is a proteasome activator that facilitates the degradation of small peptides. Abnormally high expression of REGγ has been observed in thyroid carcinomas. The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of REGγ in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). For this purpose, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced to down-regulate the level of REGγ in the PDTC cell line SW579. Down-regulation of REGγ at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed b...

  9. Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in Treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya A; Sandeep Bansal; Amit Shankar; Gupta, Ashok K.; Rijuneeta Gupta; Amanjit Bal

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic ...

  10. The co-occurrence of an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with a thyroid carcinoma is highly suggestive of a DICER1 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, Emeline; Descotes, Françoise; Mauduit, Claire; Decaussin, Myriam; Guyetant, Serge; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan

    2016-05-01

    The DICER1 gene encodes an endoribonuclease involved in the production of mature microRNAs which regulates gene expression through several mechanisms. Carriers of germline DICER1 mutations are predisposed to a rare cancer syndrome, the DICER1 syndrome. Pleuropulmonary blastoma is the most frequent lesion seen in this syndrome. Thyroid abnormalities are also a common finding, essentially concerning multinodular goiter. However, differentiated thyroid carcinoma is infrequently seen in such pedigrees. In addition to germline DICER1 mutations, specific somatic mutations have been identified in the DICER1 RNase IIIb catalytic domain in several tumor types, including ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. We report two cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma associated with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and with a heterozygous DICER1 gene mutation, occurring in two unrelated young girls without pleuropulmonary blastoma. Both thyroid carcinomas showed an E1813 mutation in exon 25 while the ovarian tumors harboured a somatic mutation in E1705 in exon 24 and a D1709 mutation in exon 25. Our observations confirm that the occurrence of an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with a thyroid carcinoma is highly suggestive of a DICER1 syndrome. We contend that the possibility of a relationship between sporadic thyroid carcinoma in young patients and somatic DICER1 gene mutation needs further investigation. PMID:26983701

  11. Effects of tamoxifen and somatostatin analogue on growth of human medullary, follicular, and papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines: tissue culture and nude mouse xenograft studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C J; Marvin, M; Krekun, S; Koschitzky, T; Karp, F; Benson, M; Feind, C R

    1990-12-01

    The knowledge that (1) the normal thyroid contains somatostatin, (2) polypeptide growth factors influence thyroid cell function, and (3) thyroid cells contain steroid hormone receptors prompted us to add somatostatin analogue No. 201-995 (SMS) (5 ng/ml) and/or tamoxifen citrate (TAM) (5 mumol/L) to 7-day monolayer cultures (50,000 cells/well) of three separate human thyroid carcinoma cell lines: DR081 (medullary), WR082 (follicular), and NPA'87 (papillary). Results, tabulated as cell numbers/well (X10(5) on day 7, revealed that TAM inhibited growth of medullary and follicular cells and that TAM plus SMS inhibited growth of papillary cells. In vivo studies of subcutaneous tumor cell xenografts in nude mice have documented that TAM (5 mg subcutaneous pellet) significantly inhibits the growth of medullary implants. Flow cytometric DNA studies of medullary cell cultures demonstrated a reduced G2 + M phase with TAM treatment. For papillary cell implants, TAM plus SMS (5 micrograms subcutaneously, twice daily) did not suppress tumor growth. All three cell lines were negative for estrogen receptor; addition of estradiol (5 ng/ml) to medullary cell cultures neither stimulated replication nor reversed the inhibitory effects of TAM in vitro. We conclude that (1) TAM slowed the growth of a cell line of human medullary carcinoma, both in vitro and in vivo; (2) this effect was not reversed by estradiol; (3) TAM plus SMS inhibited replication of a papillary carcinoma cell line in vitro, but not in vivo; and (4) TAM alone and TAM plus SMS inhibited replication of cultures of a human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line. TAM and SMS may be useful in treatment of some human thyroid carcinomas. PMID:1978945

  12. miR-101 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting Rac1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaojie; Guan, Hongyu; Li, Hai; Liu, Liehua; LIU, JUAN; Wei, Guohong; Huang, Zhimin; Liao, Zhihong; Li, Yanbing

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression. However, it remains necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in PTC via targeting of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). The results showed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in PTC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Restoration of miR-...

  13. The clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in the thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is the top ranking among endocrine carcinoma worldwide. Many imaging modalities have been applied in diagnosing, characterization of the biological behaviors and predicting the outcomes of various thyroid carcinoma. Over the years, 18F-FDG PET/CT has been largely used to identify undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells in thyroid carcinoma patients with or without 131I avid lesion. The purpose of this mini-review was to update the clinical role and positive impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in various thyroid carcinoma patients. (authors)

  14. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E;

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  15. Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid surgeons are becoming increasingly more aware of a histologically distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma whose classification falls between well-differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas with respect to both cell differentiation and clinical behavior. This subtype of tumors has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma, based on its characteristic cell groupings. Although the differentiation of insular carcinoma from other thyroid carcinomas has important prognostic and therapeutic significance, relatively little about insular carcinoma has been published in the otolaryngology literature. In this article, we discuss a case of insular carcinoma of thyroid presenting with concurrent distant metastasis to skull, lung, ribs, and inguinal region with review of the literature. We conclude that insular thyroid carcinoma warrants aggressive management with total thyroidectomy and excision of accessible giant lesion followed by radioactive iodine ablation of any remaining thyroid tissue.

  16. Children thyroid carcinoma and Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nuclear medicine diagnostic department of Kaunas Medical University Clinics 22 children (6-16 years of age), ill with thyroid carcinoma were examined. Bas ing on the data of Kaunas Medical University Clinic the incidence of children thyroid carcinoma did not increase after Chernobyl accident. Ratio of boys and girls was 4.5:1. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was detected in 15 (68.2%)children, mixed carcinoma - 4 (18.2%), nondiferenciated -3 (13.6%) children. First stage of cancer was detected only in one patient (4.5%), second -16 (72.7%), third - 3 (13.6%), fourth stage - 2 (9.1%) patients. (author)

  17. Cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) is overexpressed in thyroid carcinoma and maintains tumor cell growth: A potential link to the BRAFV600E mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Kerstin; Drucker, Elisabeth; Oliver, Scott; Winkler, Juliane; Eiteneuer, Eva; Herpel, Esther; Breuhahn, Kai; Singer, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is among the most common malignant endocrine neoplasms with a rising incidence. Genetic alterations occurring in thyroid cancer frequently affect the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK-pathway such as the oncogenic, kinase-activating BRAF(V600E) mutation. Nuclear transport receptors including importins and exportins represent an important part of the nuclear transport machinery providing nucleo-cytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules. The role of nuclear transport receptors in the development and progression of thyroid carcinomas is largely unknown. Here, we studied the expression and function of the exportin cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) in thyroid carcinogenesis and its link to the BRAF(V600E) mutation. By using immunohistochemistry (IHC) we found significantly increased IHC scores of CAS in primary papillary (PTC) and medullary (MTC), but not in follicular (FTC) thyroid carcinoma compared to non-tumorous (NT) thyroid tissue. Interestingly, metastases of the aforementioned subtypes including FTC showed a strong CAS positivity. Among PTCs we observed that CAS immunoreactivity was significantly higher in the tumors harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Furthermore, depletion of CAS by RNAi in the BRAF(V600E)-positive PTC cell line B-CPAP led to reduced tumor cell growth measured by crystal violet assays. This phenotype could be attributed to reduced proliferation and increased cell death as assayed by BrdU ELISAs and immunoblotting for PARP-cleavage, respectively. Finally, we found additive effects of CAS siRNA and vemurafenib treatment in B-CPAP cells. Collectively, these data suggest that CAS overexpression in thyroid carcinoma depends on the subtype and the disease stage. Our findings also indicate that CAS maintains PTC cell proliferation and survival. Targeting CAS could represent a potential therapeutic approach particularly in combination with BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E)-positive tumors. PMID:26892809

  18. Acute airway failure secondary to thyroid metastasis from renal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastilla Gaetano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary involvement of the thyroid gland by malignant metastases is uncommon. Acute respiratory crisis due to infiltration of the upper airways is a recognised complication of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma or thyroid lymphoma. Renal cell carcinoma is a tumour that metastasizes diffusely and in an unpredictable manner. Case presentation We report a case of a 73-year-old man with a painful neck mass, dyspnoea, stridor and dysphonia that was evaluated in emergency. A right radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma was performed 8 years previously. An emergency endotracheal intubation was followed by total thyroidectomy. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion A literature review regarding emergency treatment for acute respiratory compromise resulting from secondary thyroid tumours was undertaken. Only two cases of metastatic colon cancer and one case of metastatic meningioma requiring emergency thyroidectomy for acute respiratory failure are reported in the literature. This appears to be the first case of emergency surgery performed for acute respiratory compromise due to thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.

  19. Characterization and vectorization of siRNA targeting RET/PTC1 in human papillary thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massade L.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available RET/PTC1 fusion oncogene is the most common genetic alteration identified to date in thyroid papillary carcinomas (PTC and represents a good target for small interfering RNA (siRNA. Our aim was: i to target the RET/PTC1 oncogene by siRNAs, ii to assess the knockdown effects on cell growth and cell cycle regulation and iii to vectorize it in order to protect it from degradation. Methods. Human cell lines expressing RET/PTC1 were transfected by siRNA RET/PTC1, inhibition of the oncogene expression was assessed by qRT-PCR and by Western blot. Conjugation of siRNA RET/PTC1 to squalene was performed by coupling it to squalene. In vivo studies are performed in nude mice. Conclusion. In this short communication, we report the main published results obtained during last years.

  20. Activating BRAF Mutations Detected in Mixed Hürthle Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Report of an Unusual Case and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Sara; Choucair, Mahmoud; Nasrallah, Mona; Wadi, Lara; Jabbour, Mark N; Nassif, Samer

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinomas, the occurrence of collision tumors in the thyroid remains a rare event. We present the case of a 69-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of painful neck swelling. Imaging revealed a large right hemithyroid mass and a left hemithyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration of the lesions and subsequent total thyroidectomy revealed a Hürthle cell carcinoma in the right lobe and bilateral multicentric papillary carcinoma foci, including 2 foci with a classical pattern and 1 encapsulated follicular variant in the isthmus. BRAF gene mutation analysis revealed V600E gene mutation in the classical variants of papillary carcinoma and in the Hürthle cell carcinoma. The focus of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in the isthmus and a sample from normal thyroid tissue did not harbor BRAF mutations. This case is remarkable in being an unusual report of a follicular Hürthle cell carcinoma harboring the BRAF V600E mutation and occurring in collision with multifocal papillary carcinoma. Documentation of such cases is important as it helps better understand the pathogenesis, clinical behavior, and radiologic findings of such rare lesions and to determine the optimal treatment modalities. PMID:27006301

  1. The effect of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin alone or in combination with paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an hsp90 inhibitor, alone or in combination with paclitaxel on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) was evaluated. In 8505C and CAL62 cells, after treatment of 17-AAG, cell viability decreased, and the percentage of dead cells increased. 17-AAG did not cause cleavage of caspase-3 protein, and change expression of IAPs. Pretreatment of z-VAD-fmk did not alter cell viability and the percentage of dead cells. In 17-AAG-treated cells, knockdown of p53 rescued growth inhibition, while cycloheximide attenuated cell death. When cells were treated with both 17-AAG and paclitaxel, all of the combination index values were higher than 1, indicating antagonism between 17-AAG and paclitaxel. In 17-AAG- and paclitaxel-treated cells, compared with paclitaxel alone-treated cells, the protein levels of hsp90, hsp70, and hsc70 increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that 17-AAG induces non-apoptotic cell death requiring de novo protein synthesis in ATC cells. Moreover, these results demonstrate that 17-AAG antagonizes paclitaxel with concomitant alterations in hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. PMID:25096912

  2. Combined analysis of circulating epithelial cells and serum thyroglobulin for distinguishing disease status of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Hsu, Hsung-Ling; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun; Chen, Yi-An; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jen-Der

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for about 80% of the cases in thyroid cancer. Routine surveillance by serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and medical imaging is the current practice to monitor disease progression of the patients. Whether enumeration of circulating epithelial cells (CECs) helps to define disease status of PTC patients was investigated. CECs were enriched from the peripheral blood of the healthy control subjects (G1, n = 17) and the patients at disease-free status (G2, n = 26) or with distant metastasis (G3, n = 22). The number of CECs expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. The medium number of EpCAM+-CECs was 6 (interquartile range 1-11), 12 (interquartile range 7-16) and 91 (interquartile range 31-206) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. EpCAM+-CEC counts were significantly higher in G3 than in G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). The medium number of TSHR+-CECs was 9 (interquartile range 3-13), 16 (interquartile range 10-24) and 100 (interquartile range 31-226) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The TSHR+-CEC counts also distinguished G3 from G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). With an appropriate cut off value of CEC count, the disease status for 97.9% (47/48) of the cases was clearly defined. Notably, the metastatic disease for all patients in G3 (22/22) was revealed by combined analysis of serum Tg and CEC. This study implicates that CEC testing can supplement the current standard methods for monitoring disease status of PTC. PMID:26684026

  3. Core I gene is overexpressed in Hürthle and non-Hürthle cell microfollicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the steps involved in the initiation and progression of Hürthle (oncocytic, oxyphilic) cell carcinomas of the thyroid remain unknown. Using differential display and semiquantitative RT-PCR we found, among other alterations, overexpression of the gene encoding the Core I subunit of the complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in a follicular carcinoma composed of Hürthle cells. Similar high levels of Core I gene expression were detected in nine follicular carcinomas (seven with Hürthle cell features), in seven microfollicular adenomas (one with Hürthle cell features) and in one micro/macrofollicular adenoma, in contrast to a lower/normal expression in nine papillary carcinomas (three with Hürthle cell features) and five macrofollicular adenomas (one of which displaying Hürthle cell features). No significative correlation was found between Core I overexpression and the proliferative activity of the lesions. We conclude that Core I overexpression in thyroid tumours is not associated with malignancy, Hürthle cells or proliferative activity. The pathogenetic mechanism linking Core I overexpression to the microfollicular pattern of growth of thyroid tumours remains to be clarified

  4. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : diagnostic and therapeutic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying-ying

    2006-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has favorable prognosis with high cure rate under treatment of thyroidectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, therapeutic efficiency decreases when dedifferentiation occurs. One of the purposes in this study is to use pharmaceuticals intervention to promote t

  5. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schlumberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered.

  6. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma: nuclear medicine studies

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, Ronald B.T.

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of choice in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), subdivided into papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, is (near-)total thyroidectomy. This is routinely followed by the administration of radioiodine (RaI)-131 (131I) to destroy any remaining benign or malignant thyroid tissue, so-called ablation. This thesis has addressed some important clinical questions, related to the application of conventional (131I) and experimental therapies with radionuclides i...

  7. Leptomeningeal metastases from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an extremely aggressive neoplasm that accounts for 1-3% of all thyroid cancers. ' Most patients have metastatic disease at presentation and die in a short period of time, often with uncontrolled local disease. We report a case of anaplastic thyroid cancer characterised by good response to initial treatment both locally and in distant metastases, and the subsequent development of refractory metastatic disease in an unusual site, the leptomeninges

  8. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : nuclear medicine studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Ronald B.T.

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of choice in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), subdivided into papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, is (near-)total thyroidectomy. This is routinely followed by the administration of radioiodine (RaI)-131 (131I) to destroy any remaining benign or maligna

  9. REGγ is a strong candidate for the regulation of cell cycle, proliferation and the invasion by poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REGγ is a proteasome activator that facilitates the degradation of small peptides. Abnormally high expression of REGγ has been observed in thyroid carcinomas. The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of REGγ in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). For this purpose, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced to down-regulate the level of REGγ in the PDTC cell line SW579. Down-regulation of REGγ at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. FACS analysis revealed cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition, the MTT assay showed inhibition of cell proliferation, and the Transwell assay showed restricted cell invasion. Furthermore, the expression of the p21 protein was increased, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein decreased, and the expression of the p27 protein was unchanged as shown by Western blot analyses. REGγ plays a critical role in the cell cycle, proliferation and invasion of SW579 cells. The alteration of p21 and PCNA proteins related to the down-regulation of REGγ suggests that p21 and PCNA participate in the process of REGγ regulation of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Thus, targeting REGγ has a therapeutic potential in the management of PDTC patients

  10. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and (99m)TcO4 (-) thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  11. Nonpalpable thyroid carcinoma: clinical controversies on preoperative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Angelo; Nicolini, Andrea; Casara, Dario; Rubello, Domenico; Rosa Pelizzo, Maria

    2003-06-01

    This article emphasizes some controversies concerning the preoperative selection of nonpalpable thyroid tumors. The prevalence of occult thyroid carcinoma in surgical series (1.8-10%) is not higher than in autopsy thyroid series (2.7-24%). The prevalence of occult thyroid carcinoma in thyroid glands examined in the same institution by ultrasound, for a clinical thyroid abnormality or for investigation of other neck structures without clinically evident or suspected thyroid disease, varies from 3% to 8% and is very similar independent of the fact that a thyroid abnormality is or is not the indication for ultrasonography. These data suggest that the presence of a thyroid disease is not a risk factor for harboring an occult thyroid carcinoma (except for C-cell hyperplasia in the rare case of MEN 2 syndromes). As it is not cost effective to examine all the nonpalpable lesions with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) guided by ultrasounds, it is necessary to define to which extent ultrasound is useful in selecting those lesions to be examined cytologically by FNA. The use of ultrasound to select these lesions is very controversial. Ultrasound-guided cytologic diagnosis of nonpalpable nodules is not as accurate as in the case of palpable nodules. Sampling of material adequate for cytologic analysis depends on the lesion size; it is 64% for a 0.7-cm lesion and it increases to 86.7% for a mean size of 1.1 cm. For the diagnosis of occult thyroid carcinomas (limit for dividing thyroid nodules in probably innocuous or potentially dangerous categories and because the cytologic diagnosis of nodules of this size is sufficiently reliable. For the smaller incidentally discovered thyroid nodules following ultrasound, physicians should discuss with the patient whether and when to perform an ultrasound-guided FNA considering the patient's data (risk factors, age, health state, etc.), the natural history of a small thyroid carcinoma, as well as the accuracy of ultrasound and ultrasound

  12. The Roles of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Marker PRRX1 and miR-146b-5p in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Asioli, Sofia; Yu, Xiao-Min; Harrison, April D.; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma represents the most common thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid carcinomas that invade locally or metastasize are associated with a poor prognosis. We found that, during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), papillary thyroid carcinoma cells acquired increased cancer stem cell-like features and the transcription factor paired-related homeobox protein 1 (...

  13. Issues related to radioactive iodine ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma undergoing thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common malignant tumor of thyroid gland, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma and the mixed type. Treatment methods include surgery, radioactive iodine treatment and endocrine treatment, in which radioactive iodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma is an important part of the treatment or procedure. With the ongoing research and exploration of radiation treatment, the recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone assisted in radioactive iodine ablation of thyroid remnants, radioactive iodine to remove a lot of residual thyroid tissue, the radioactive iodine dose selection and other aspects of knowledge and practice are constantly updated. This paper summarizes recent progess in the radioactive iodine ablation. (authors)

  14. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics of human non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: characterization of eight cell line models and review of the literature on clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Ana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are often poorly characterized from a genetic point of view, reducing their usefulness as tumor models. Our purpose was to assess the genetic background of eight commonly used human thyroid carcinoma models and to compare the findings with those reported for primary tumors of the gland. Methods We used chromosome banding analysis and comparative genomic hybridization to profile eight non-medullary thyroid carcinoma cell lines of papillary (TPC-1, FB2, K1 and B-CPAP, follicular (XTC-1 or anaplastic origin (8505C, C643 and HTH74. To assess the representativeness of the findings, we additionally performed a thorough review of cytogenetic (n = 125 and DNA copy number information (n = 270 available in the literature on clinical samples of thyroid carcinoma. Results The detailed characterization of chromosomal markers specific for each cell line revealed two cases of mistaken identities: FB2 was shown to derive from TPC-1 cells, whereas K1 cells have their origin in cell line GLAG-66. All cellular models displayed genomic aberrations of varying complexity, and recurrent gains at 5p, 5q, 8q, and 20q (6/7 cell lines and losses at 8p, 13q, 18q, and Xp (4/7 cell lines were seen. Importantly, the genomic profiles were compatible with those of the respective primary tumors, as seen in the meta-analysis of the existing literature data. Conclusion We provide the genomic background of seven independent thyroid carcinoma models representative of the clinical tumors of the corresponding histotypes, and highlight regions of recurrent aberrations that may guide future studies aimed at identifying target genes. Our findings further support the importance of routinely performing cytogenetic studies on cell lines, to detect cross-contamination mishaps such as those identified here.

  15. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics of human non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: characterization of eight cell line models and review of the literature on clinical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell lines are often poorly characterized from a genetic point of view, reducing their usefulness as tumor models. Our purpose was to assess the genetic background of eight commonly used human thyroid carcinoma models and to compare the findings with those reported for primary tumors of the gland. We used chromosome banding analysis and comparative genomic hybridization to profile eight non-medullary thyroid carcinoma cell lines of papillary (TPC-1, FB2, K1 and B-CPAP), follicular (XTC-1) or anaplastic origin (8505C, C643 and HTH74). To assess the representativeness of the findings, we additionally performed a thorough review of cytogenetic (n = 125) and DNA copy number information (n = 270) available in the literature on clinical samples of thyroid carcinoma. The detailed characterization of chromosomal markers specific for each cell line revealed two cases of mistaken identities: FB2 was shown to derive from TPC-1 cells, whereas K1 cells have their origin in cell line GLAG-66. All cellular models displayed genomic aberrations of varying complexity, and recurrent gains at 5p, 5q, 8q, and 20q (6/7 cell lines) and losses at 8p, 13q, 18q, and Xp (4/7 cell lines) were seen. Importantly, the genomic profiles were compatible with those of the respective primary tumors, as seen in the meta-analysis of the existing literature data. We provide the genomic background of seven independent thyroid carcinoma models representative of the clinical tumors of the corresponding histotypes, and highlight regions of recurrent aberrations that may guide future studies aimed at identifying target genes. Our findings further support the importance of routinely performing cytogenetic studies on cell lines, to detect cross-contamination mishaps such as those identified here

  16. Primary Ureteral Thyroid Transcription Factor 1-Positive Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Andrés Martin; Hamedani, Farid Saei; Meeks, Joshua James; Wu, Shoujin

    2015-09-01

    Upper urinary tract neoplasms comprise only 5% of urinary malignancies overall, the overwhelming majority showing an urothelial histology. Nonurothelial lesions represent 1.9% of upper tract neoplasms, and small cell carcinomas (SmCCs) only account for a minute fraction of them, with few cases reported in the literature to date. In the genitourinary tract, these lesions are most frequently found in the urinary bladder, where they tend to show a mixed histology with a characteristic small cell neuroendocrine component that is positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 immunostains. Urinary SmCCs are almost invariably aggressive, with a propensity to infiltrate surrounding tissues and vascular structures. Unfortunately, clinical stage at presentation is often advanced, with early dissemination to lymph nodes or distant organs in a significant proportion of patients. For the most part, prognosis is dismal and can be predicted by the pathologic stage at diagnosis. Recently, new chemotherapeutic regimens have shown some potential benefit for the treatment of urinary SmCC, albeit not achieving curative results. Here we present the case of a 71-year-old male patient with a history of treated bladder urothelial carcinoma that presented with subacute flank pain and was diagnosed with a primary pure SmCC of the ureter. Besides the usual neuroendocrine immunomarkers, this tumor showed intense positivity for TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor-1), a phenomenon that has been described for extrapulmonary SmCC of other locations. PMID:26162396

  17. The effects of human TSH receptor gene transfection on iodide uptake and thyroid-specific gene expression in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of iodide uptake and the expression of thyroid-specific genes in poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) cells after transfection of human TSH receptor (hTSHR) gene in vitro. Methods: The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid PcDNA3.1/hTSHR-cDNA was transformed into DH5a bacterial for amplification and then the recombinant plasmid was extracted. The recombinant was identified with PCR amplifying, restriction enzyme digestion analysis and DNA sequencing. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/hTSHR was transfected into FTC-133 cell line by lipofectin method in vitro. Immunofluorescence, iodide uptake studies and real time-PCR were applied to detect target protein expression. Statistical analysis was performed with t-test using SPSS 13.0 software. Results: Kpn I and Xba I restriction enzyme digestion, PCR amplifying and DNA sequencing confirmed that pcDNA3.1/hTSHR was successfully constructed. After transfection of the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/hTSHR-cDNA and the stimulation of hTSH, the tumor cells displayed the expression of hTSHR protein at cell surface and cytoplasm. The iodine uptake in pcDNA3.1/hTSHR transfected cells was 2.9 times higher than that of control(pcDNA3.1(+) transfected cells) group(t = 28.63, P<0.01). The expression of TSHR, NIS, TPO and Tg (mRNA levels) in pcDNA3.1/hTSHR transfected cells were also significantly elevated by 1.74 (t =5.959, P<0.01), 7.2 (t =3.807, P<0.05), 2.88 (t=4.769, P<0.01) and 2.67 times (t=6.388, P<0.01) respectively compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that iodide uptake may be reactivated by hTSHR receptor gene transfection in poorly differentiated FTC cell. (authors)

  18. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Cheek Masses

    OpenAIRE

    KIM Dong-Wook; Hah, J. Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration a...

  19. Ultrasonographic Findings of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Comparison with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, Bum-soo; Jung, So-Lyung; Lee, Jung-Whee; Yang, Po-Sung; Kang, Bong-Joo; Lim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Jee-Young; Whang, In-Yong; Kwon, Heuk-Sang; Jung, Chan-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as compared to findings for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Materials and Methods The study included 21 cases of MTC that were surgically diagnosed between 2002 and 2007 and 114 cases of PTC that were diagnosed in 2007. Two radiologists reached a consensus in the evaluation of the US findings. The US findings were classified as recommended by the Thyroid Study Group of the ...

  20. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.)

  1. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in thyroid carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, N; Resch, J; Cowen, R L; von Wasielewski, R.; Hoang-Vu, C; West, C M; Williams, K.J.; Brabant, G

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is upregulated by hypoxia and oncogenic signalling in many solid tumours. Its regulation and function in thyroid carcinomas are unknown. We evaluated the regulation of HIF-1α and target gene expression in primary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid carcinoma cell lines (BcPAP, WRO, FTC-133 and 8505c). HIF-1α was not detectable in normal tissue but was expressed in thyroid carcinomas. Dedifferentiated anaplastic tumours (ATCs) exhibited high levels of nuclear HI...

  2. Treatment and outcome of 32 patients with distant metastases of Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma: a single-institution experience

    OpenAIRE

    Besic, Nikola; Schwarzbartl-Pevec, Andreja; Vidergar-Kralj, Barbara; Crnic, Tea; Gazic, Barbara; Marolt Music, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that patients with Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) have a poor prognosis. Furthermore, distant metastases represent the most frequent cause of thyroid cancer-related death of patients with HCTC. The aim of this study was to report the treatment and outcomes of patients with distant metastases. Methods Altogether 108 patients were treated for HCTC from 1972 to 2011 in our tertiary center and 32 patients (19 females, 13 males; median age 64.5 years) had...

  3. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial– mesenchymal transition. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (P<0.0001) and all showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for CDH1 (P=0.026). Expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 mRNA varied in a normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and

  4. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : treatment and clinical consequences of therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoftijzer, Hendrieke Catherijn

    2011-01-01

    The first chapters of this thesis describe the treatment of radioiodine non-avid thyroid carcinoma with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib. The remainder of the thesis describes the clinical consequences of the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a neck branchial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Fiore Agnese

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid gland derives from one median anlage at the base of the tongue, and from the two fourth branchial pouches. A number of anomalies may occur during their migration. These can be in form of ectopic tissues, which are frequently found along the course of thyroglossal duct and rarely in other sites, many of these may develop same diseases as the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 36-years-old female presented with a 3 month history of left side neck mass. The mass disappeared following aspiration of brown colored fluid, which on cytological examination showed cells with nuclear irregularities that warranted the resection of the lesion. The histology demonstrated a thyroid papillary carcinoma arising within the branchial cyst. Thereafter, the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with central lymph nodes dissection. Histology showed a multifocal papillary carcinoma with central lymph nodes metastases. Only four cases of primary thyroid carcinomas in neck branchial cyst have been described so far. Conclusion In a lateral cystic neck mass, although rare, occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue and presence of a papillary thyroid carcinoma should be kept in mind.

  6. miR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun, E-mail: mjgugonglihos@yeah.net

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC. - Highlights: • miR-204-5p expression is downregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. • miR-204-5p suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in PTC cells. • miR-204-5p suppresses IGFBP5 expression by direct binding to the 3′-UTR. • IGFBP5 overexpression reverses the effects of miR-204-5p.

  7. miR-4295 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma via CDKN1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Mingchen; Geng, Yiwei [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, Peng [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Xi, Ying [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Wei, Sidong [Liver Transplantation Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Liuxing; Fan, Qingxia [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Ma, Wang, E-mail: doctormawang@126.com [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-4295 promotes ATC cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene CDKN1A. In ATC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-4295, while miR-4295 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-4295 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of ATC cells, whereas miR-4295 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-4295 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of CDKN1A, and western blotting showed that miR-4295 suppressed the expression of CDKN1A at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A and promotes proliferation and invasion of ATC cell lines. Thus, miR-4295 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ATC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-4295 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 targets 3′UTR of CDKN1A in ATC cells. • miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A in ATC cells.

  8. miR-4295 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma via CDKN1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-4295 promotes ATC cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene CDKN1A. In ATC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-4295, while miR-4295 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-4295 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of ATC cells, whereas miR-4295 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-4295 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of CDKN1A, and western blotting showed that miR-4295 suppressed the expression of CDKN1A at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A and promotes proliferation and invasion of ATC cell lines. Thus, miR-4295 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ATC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-4295 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 targets 3′UTR of CDKN1A in ATC cells. • miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A in ATC cells

  9. Mixed Medullary-Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasumeh Tohidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon tumor that consists of both follicular and parafollicular cells. Case. We report a 43-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration suggested a diagnosis of high grade anaplastic carcinoma that has been associated with papillary features. Total thyroidectomy was done in which histopathological examination showed diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for chromogranin, calcitonin, and thyroglobulin in tumoral cells. Conclusion. Mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor. Diagnosis of these tumors with fine needle aspiration is very difficult and may lead to misdiagnosis. It is necessary to correlate the cytological finding with serum calcitonin and thyroglobulin. Also immunostaining for calcitonin and thyroglobulin confirms diagnosis.

  10. The Cytoplasmic Domain of proEGF Negatively Regulates Motility and Elastinolytic Activity in Thyroid Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Glogowska

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular domains of the membrane-anchoring regions of some precursors of epidermal growth factor (EGF family members have intrinsic biologic activities. We have determined the role of the human proEGF cytoplasmic domain (proEGFcyt as part of the proEGF transmembrane-anchored region (proEGFctF in the regulation of motility and elastinolytic invasion in human thyroid cancer cells. We found proEGFctF to act as a negative regulator of motility and elastin matrix penetration and the presence of proEGFcyt or proEGF22.23 resulted in a similar reduction in motility and elastinolytic migration. This activity was counteracted by EGF-induced activation of EGF receptor signaling. Decreased elastinolytic migratory activity in the presence of proEGFctF and proEGFcyt/proEGF22.23 coincided with decreased secretion of elastinolytic procathepsin L. The presence of proEGFctF and proEGFcyt/proEGF22.23 coincided with the specific transcriptional up-regulation of t-SNARE member SNAP25. Treatment with siRNA-SNAP25 resulted in motility and elastin migration being restored to normal levels. Epidermal growth factor treatment down-regulated SNAP25 protein by activating EGF receptor-mediated proteasomal degradation of SNAP25. These data provide first evidence for an important function of the cytoplasmic domain of the human proEGF transmembrane region as a novel suppressor of motility and cathepsin L-mediated elastinolytic invasion in human thyroid carcinoma cells and suggest important clinical implications for EGF-expressing tumors.

  11. Coexistence of resistance to thyroid hormone and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igata, Motoyuki; Tsuruzoe, Kaku; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Seiya; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Miyamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones. RTH is majorly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a rare case of RTH with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hormonal abnormality. She had elevated serum thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels. Genetic analysis of THRB identified a missense mutation, P452L, leading to a diagnosis of RTH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor and lymph nodes enabled the cytological diagnosis of PTC with lymph node metastases. Total thyroidectomy and neck lymph nodes dissection were performed. Following surgery, thyroxine replacement (≥500 μg) was necessary to avoid the symptoms of hypothyroidism and to maintain her TSH levels within the same range as before the operation. During the follow-up, basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were around 6 ng/ml and TSH-stimulated Tg levels were between 12 and 20 ng/ml. Up to present, the patient has had no recurrence of PTC. This indicates that these Tg values are consistent with a biochemical incomplete response or an indeterminate response. There is no consensus regarding the management of thyroid carcinoma in patients with RTH, but aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (RAI) and TSH suppression therapy are recommended. Learning points There are only a few cases reporting the coexistence of RTH and thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, our case would be the first case presenting one with lymph node metastases. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. When total thyroidectomy is performed in

  12. Thyroid carcinomas induced by Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear station accident is the unprecedented catastrophic accident in human nuclear industry with a large of quantity of radioactive nucleons resulting in contamination in many countries of the northern Hemisphere. After almost 20 years studying, it is approved that Belarus is the most serious affected country by the accident. Especially thyroid carcinomas in the people exposed to radioactive fall-out is considered to be the only one late radiation effect. RET gene in the happening of thyroid carcinomas is being paid close attention at present

  13. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

  15. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

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    RishengMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  16. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...

  17. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland

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    Reyhan Ersoy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

  18. CT features of small thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the CT findings of small thyroid carcinoma. Methods: The CT findings of 40 patients with histology-proven small thyroid carcinoma (diameter, 1.0 to 2.0 cm) were retrospectively reviewed. Results: (1) The single lesion was detected in 38 cases and two lesions in bilateral thyroid in 2 cases. Two cases were combined with contralateral nodular goiter and 1 case with contralateral thyroid adenoma. (2) Eight lesions showed smooth edge and complete envelope. Thirty-four lesions demonstrated foggy edge and incomplete envelope, but they didn't invade the surrounding soft tissues and important organs. (3) The density of' all lesions were homogeneous or comparatively homogeneous without obvious hemorrhage or necrosis area on non-enhanced CT. Thirty lesions showed varied shape calcifications, with granular calcifications in 20 lesions being the most common. Irregular nodular, eggshell-like or mulberry-like calcifications were also detected. (4) Forty-one lesions showed marked enhancement on post-contrast CT and the amplitude of enhanced CT value was greater than 40 HU (range, 90 to 140 HU). Thirty-eight lesions exhibited homogeneous enhancement, and other 3 lesions showed marked enhancement center with a ring-like low density edge and manifested as a characteristic damascene-like appearance. (5) Enlarged cervical lymph nodes were found in 24 cases (60.0%), which displayed solid, cystic-solid or cystic appearances on non- enhanced CT. They showed markedly homogeneous, irregular ring or wall-node enhancement on post-contrast CT. In 8 cases there were granular, nodular or eggshell-like calcifications within the enlarged lymph nodes. Conclusion: A solid thyroid nodule with granular calcification, incomplete envelope and marked enhancement, accompanied with enlarged lymph nodes with calcification, cystic degeneration and obviously enhanced solid part are the relatively characteristic CT features of small thyroid carcinoma. (authors)

  19. Efficacy of lentiviral-mediated transfection of hTSHR in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Dedifferentiated thyroid cancer is often incurable because it does not respond to radioiodine. This study aimed to investigate iodide uptake and the expressions of thyroid-specific molecules after the transfection of human thyrotropin receptor (hTSHR) gene in poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancer cell line (FTC-133). Methods: pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP-lentivirus and pGC-FU-GFP-lentivirus were added into FTC-133 cells respectively. The parental cells were defined as the blank group. Cells transduced with pGC-FU-GFP and pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP were defined as the control group and experimental group respectively. The efficiency of transfection was observed under a fluorescence microscope. 125I uptake by FTC-133 was analyzed by measuring the radioactivity. Real time-PCR, western blotting and radioimmunoassay were applied to detect the expressions of mRNAs and proteins of Na+/I− symporter (NIS), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in FTC-133. Results: The green fluorescence was present in 80% of the transduced cells under fluorescence microscope. The iodine uptake of cells transduced with pGC-FU-TSHR-GFP was 3.3 times higher than that in the other two groups (P < 0.01). NIS, TSHR, TPO and Tg had been significantly up-regulated in the experimental group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01) and the blank group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The hTSHR transfection in FTC-133 improved the expression of thyroid-specific molecules including TSHR, NIS, TPO and Tg and radioiodide uptake

  20. Post surgical management protocol for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The objectives of a management protocol for thyroid carcinoma are to increase five and 10 year survival rate and to give the patients a long uncomplicated life. Certain prognostic factors determine the outcome of the disease. These factors generally help in selection of high risk group that require more aggressive treatment and follow up from the low risk group that are managed in a more conservative way. The different factors that determine prognosis are: the age of the patient, gender, tumour size, presence of extra thyroid extension, distant metastasis, histologic grading of the tumor, tumor staging, family history and oncogenicity, time of treatment after initial diagnosis etc. (Author)

  1. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla

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    Caliaperoumal Santhosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the oral region is very rare and accounts for less than 1% of oral malignant tumors. Breast, lung, kidney, adrenal, gastro intestinal tract and prostates are most common primary tumors from which metastasis to oral region occur frequently. Metastasis from thyroid gland is extremely rare to oral region. We present an unusual case of metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla. The significance of this report is that the secondary lesion was the only symptom of the primary tumor and helped us in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  2. Vitamin D Arrests Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Growth and Induces p27 Dephosphorylation and Accumulation through PTEN/Akt-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wei LIU; Asa, Sylvia L.; Fantus, I. George; Walfish, Paul G.; Ezzat, Shereen

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol vitamin D3 (VD) and its noncalciomimetic analog EB1089 on thyroid carcinoma cell growth. VD and EB1089 exhibited anti-proliferative effects in a dose-dependent manner as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation and MIB-1 immunolabeling. VD or EB1089 resulted in similar G1-phase arrest. Neither apoptosis nor differentiation was affected. VD and EB1089 induced increased nuclear protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibi...

  3. Induction of ROS-independent DNA damage by curcumin leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Gao, Yanyan; Bao, Jiandong; Guan, Haixia; Lu, Rongrong; Yu, Huixin; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Previously we found that curcumin, the active constituent of dietary spice turmeric, showed potent inhibitory effects on the cell growth of thyroid cancer cells. However, the detailed anti-cancer mechanism of curcumin is still unknown. In this study, we have reported that curcumin induces significant DNA damage in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the upregulated phosphorylation of H2A.X at Ser139, which was further confirmed by the long tails in the comet assay and the increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells. Subsequently, curcumin treatment caused a significant accumulation of cells at the G2/M phase that eventually resulted in a caspase-dependent apoptosis in BCPAP cells. DNA agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that curcumin-induced DNA damage in BCPAP cells was independent of DNA conformational change. Pretreatment with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers failed to block the phosphorylation of H2A.X, suggesting the non-involvement of ROS in curcumin-mediated DNA damage. Interestingly, ATM/ATR activation by curcumin induced phosphorylation of Chk2 (Thr68) followed by that of Cdc25C (Ser216) and Cdc2 (Tyr15), and Cyclin B1 accumulation. In addition, the ATM-specific inhibitor KU-55933 reversed curcumin-induced phosphorylation of H2A.X. These results collectively show that curcumin treatment induced the DNA damage response via triggering an ATM-activated Chk2-Cdc25C-Cdc2 signaling pathway. These observations provide novel mechanisms and potential targets for the better understanding of the anti-cancer mechanisms of curcumin. PMID:26442630

  4. Microvessel Density in Thyroid Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Gang(薛刚); YAO Zhenxiang(姚榛祥)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between angiogenesis and development, metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Methods:48 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 5 cases of thyroid adenoma were studied.Density of microvessels of the tumors were identified by immunohistochemical staining in formalin -fixed and paraffin-embedded sections with anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody, and counted microscopically (×200).Results :The mean value of MVD in tumors>2cm in diameter was (174.92±72.63)/field, while that in tumors≤2cm was ( 117.40± 39.95)/field ( t = 3.3298, P = 0.0026).The number of microvessels was also significantly different in respect to the histotype of the thyroid carcinomas, such as papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma(FTC)and medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC) ( F = 14. 95, P = 0. 0001), but not significantly different in respect to patients'age nor sex ( P>0.05). Conclusions:By studying microvessel density (MVD) of thyroid arcinomas and correlated with their clinical features and biological behaviors, it is concluded that ngiogenesis is important in tumor growth and metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinomas. Measures to combat angiogenesis may be beneficial in the treatment for thyroid carcinomas.

  5. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease

  6. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  7. Stunning effects in radioiodine therapy of thyroid carcinoma. Existence, clinical effects and ways out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioiodine therapy for malignant thyroid disease, the pre-therapeutically administered iodine-131-dose can reduce the potential of thyroid or thyroid carcinoma cells to absorb the following therapeutic iodine-131-dose, possibly leading to its failure. This so called stunning effect is controversially discussed in the scientific community. Here we summarize and evaluate publications with regard to the existence and the effects of stunning as well as possible countermeasures. (orig.)

  8. The Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Larrain, Carolina; Buehler, Darya; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer progression may provide targets for more effective treatment of aggressive thyroid cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major pathologic mechanism in tumor progression and is linked to the acquisition of stem-like properties of cancer cells. We examined expression of ZEB1 which activates EMT by binding to the E-box elements in the E-cadherin promoter, and expression of E-cadherin in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues in a tissue microarray (TMA) which included 127 neoplasms and 10 normal thyroid specimens. Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA, n=32), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC, n=28), and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC, n=57) all expressed E-cadherin and were mostly negative for ZEB1 while most anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC, n=10) were negative for E-cadherin, but positive for ZEB1. A validation set of 10 whole sections of ATCs showed 90% of cases positive for ZEB1 and all cases were negative for E-cadherin. Analysis of three cell lines (normal thyroid, NTHY-OR13-1; PTC, TPC-1 and ATC, THJ-21T) showed that the ATC cell line expressed the highest levels of ZEB1 while the normal thyroid cell line expressed the highest levels of E-Cadherin. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that Smad7 mRNA was significantly higher in ATC than in any other group (p<0.05). These results indicate that ATCs show evidence of EMT including decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of ZEB1 compared to well differentiated thyroid carcinomas and that increased expression of Smad7 may be associated with thyroid tumor progression. PMID:24126800

  9. Preoperative Subclinical Hyperthyroidism in Patients With Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Dongbin; Sohn, Jin Ho; Jeon, Jae Han; Park, Junesik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous studies have reported the effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system, osteoporosis, and metabolic syndrome. However, there are few studies examining the relationships between subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between preoperative subclinical hyperthyroidism and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in terms of thyroid-stimulatin...

  10. Misdiagnosed ectopic thyroid carcinoma:report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌玲; 周水洪; 汪审清; 王丽君

    2004-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is a congenital disease caused by abnormal migration of thyroid in the embryonic stage. Malignant ectopic thyroid tissue is often misdiagnosed as a cyst of the thyroglossal duct. We treated 2 patients with papillary carcinoma in the anterior midline of the neck from May 1985 to Detober 2002.

  11. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Henao Giraldo, Ricardo;

    2012-01-01

    follicular carcinoma (FC). Comparison of carcinoma and adenoma with normal thyroid revealed 150 and 107 differentially expressed miRNAs. Most miRNAs were down-regulated and especially miR-199b-5p and miR-144 which were essentially lost in the carcinomas. Integration of the changed miRNAs with differentially...... expressed mRNAs demonstrated an enrichment of seed-sites among up-regulated transcripts encoding proteins implicated in thyroid tumourigenesis. This was substantiated by the demonstration that pre-miR-199b reduced proliferation when added to cultured follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. The down-regulated mi......RNAs in FC exhibited a substantial similarity with down-regulated miRNAs in anaplastic carcinoma and by gene set enrichment analysis, we observed a significant identity between target mRNAs in FC and transcripts up-regulated in anaplastic carcinoma. To examine the diagnostic potential of miRNA expression...

  12. Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. McDonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whether or not the familial form of papillary thyroid carcinoma is more aggressive than the sporadic form of the disease remains controversial. Methods. To explore this question and whether or not increased aggressiveness is more apparent in families with multiple affected members, we performed a chi square by trend analysis on our patients clinical and pathologic data comparing: first degree families with three or more affected members versus first degree families with two affected members versus sporadic cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results. No statistically significant trends were seen for any presenting surgical pathology parameter, age at presentation, length of follow-up or gender distribution. The familial groups exhibited significant trends for higher rates of reoperation (P=0.05 and/or requiring additional radioactive iodine therapy (P=0.03, distant metastases (P=0.003 and deaths (P=0.01. These aggressive features were most apparent in certain families with three or more affected members. Conclusions. Using the chi square by trend analysis, a significant trend was seen for the familial form of papillary thyroid cancer to possess more aggressive features than the sporadic disease. Prompt recognition of the familial nature of the disease may provide earlier diagnosis and treatment in similarly affected family members.

  13. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  14. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi Atmaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs also within Graves′ thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves′ disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  15. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  16. Clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma(FNMTC).Methods Clinical data of 66 FNMTC cases of 32pedigrees was retrospectively analyzed,compared with that of 182 control cases taken randomly from the patients with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma(SPTC),who

  17. The management of thyroid carcinoma invading the larynx or trachea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, J.; Stephen, A.E.; Marres, H.A.M.; Gaissert, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To describe the controversies in the management of thyroid carcinoma invading the airway. STUDY DESIGN: Contemporary review of literature; level of evidence: 5. RESULTS: Invasion of the larynx or trachea by thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and often identified at the time of oper

  18. OCTREOTIDE FOR MEDULLARY-THYROID CARCINOMA ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMID, WM; DULLAART, RPF

    1992-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma associated diarrhoea can be disabling. A 75-yr-old man with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and refractory diarrhoea is described. Subcutaneous administration of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, 100-mu-g thrice daily, resulted in a sustained improvement in di

  19. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek; Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk; Sylwia Kuźniarz-Rymarz; Małgorzata Kieć-Klimczak; Anna Skalniak; Anna Sowa-Staszczak; Filip Gołkowski; Marta Kostecka-Matyja; Dorota Pach

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about die...

  20. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  1. Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwudi Onyeaghana Okani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not common. This case study reports a 50-year-old female with a 10-year history of a huge goiter, which was essentially symptom-free until about 3 months prior to presentation when the patient started complaining of neck pain, dysphagia, productive cough, and cold intolerance. Physical examination revealed focal cystic and tender area in the multinodular swelling and associated cervical lymphadenopathy on the left side of the neck. The serum thyroid stimulating hormone was high, sub-normal T3, and the T4 was low. The fine needle aspiration cytology yielded 10 ml of aspirate of pus admixed with altered blood which on microscopy showed a few suspicious follicular epithelial cells with open nuclei admixed with mainly neutrophil polymorphs, siderophages, and foam cells in a hemorrhagic background. The patient had an incision biopsy that showed areas displaying PTC and HT.

  2. The molecular biological characteristics of childhood thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used molecular biology to study mutation and expression of key oncogenes in childhood thyroid carcinomas from Belarus and Ukraine. All cases were histologically verified by two or more pathologists including at least one from the CIS and one from the EU. We chose to study six genes which have been shown to be involved in thyroid carcinogenesis in adults: ret. Ha, Ki and N ras genes, p53 and the TSH receptor. Expression of the ret oncogene, which has been shown to be activated by translocation in a proportion of papillary carcinomas has been studied by two independent methods. The first, used by the Cambridge group uses RT-PCR to identify the expression of the tyrosine kinase domain of the gene; as the gene is normally silent in follicular cells, this approach allows demonstration of activation of ret, but does not identify the particular translocation involved. The second approach, used by the Naples group, also uses RT-PCR, but amplifies across the breakpoint of each of the three translocations already identified to provide information on the proportion of tumors which express the individual translocations of this gene. Mutations in the TSH receptor, a key modulator of thyroid follicular growth have been sought by the Brussels group using SSCP and direct sequencing. The Munich group have analyzed the samples for presence of mutation in p53, which is believed to play a role in genetic instability which is a features of carcinomas derived from may different tissues. Mutations in the common sites of the ras oncogenes have been studied by the Cambridge group. Analysis of 26 papillary carcinomas so far studied has shown that mutations in the TSH receptor and in p53 do not play a significant role in the genesis of the tumours studied. The proportion of tumours showing ret expression does not differ significantly from that found in a control non exposed population from the UK. However, the pathological study shows that nearly all the increased number of thyroid

  3. Soft tissue invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is common and clinical presentation can vary from minimal to extensive locoregional involvement. Although PTC is generally considered the most benign among all thyroid carcinomas, it may present with local invasion with poor prognosis. Our retrospective study involved 3267 PTC patients undergoing regular follow-up at Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan. Among them, 269 were PTC cases with ETE, having tumors greater than 1 cm in size and treated with total or complete thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection for which the follow-up period was over 10 years. The mean age of 269 cases was 46.8 ± 15.1 (range 11-83 years) years. The number of females was 204 (75.8 %). Patients were categorized into minimal ETE (175 cases) and extensive ETE (94 cases) groups according to surgical findings and pathological reports. Mean follow-up period was 13.3 ± 5.5 (range 0.2-29.3) years, during which 28 (10.4 %) patients died of thyroid cancer; and 63 (23.4 %) of all-cause mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that age, gender, extensive ETE, and lymph node metastasis had a statistically significant effect on thyroid cancer mortality. Survival rates were significantly different between minimal ETE and extensive ETE groups (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, perithyroidal soft tissue involvement by PTC is an important factor that determines patient prognosis and a closer follow-up and more aggressive treatment is necessary for patients who are old, male, extensive ETE, and with lymph node involvement. PMID:27154220

  4. Thyroid metastases in renal cell cancer: two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-thyroid cancers rarely metastasize to the thyroid gland. Metastases can be divided into those with clinical expression and those identified at necropsy. Symptom producing thyroid metastases are usually due to a primary renal cell cancer. We report two cases of thyroid metastasis of a clear cell renal carcinoma. In the first case, an 82-year-old woman presented with an enlarged thyroid metastasis and identification of recurrent renal cell carcinoma which had been treated by radiotherapy 24 years earlier. After radiotherapy for a concomitant pulmonary metastasis, the patient is in good general health with no signs of recurrence. In the second case, increased thyroid volume led to signs of compression in a 71-year-old-man. The pathology report after left lobular thyroidectomy suggested trabecular adenoma or metastasis of a clear-cell primary tumour. Abdominal CT-scan revealed a 3.5 cm tumour found to be a clear-cell renal carcinoma at nephrectomy. Another osteolytic metastasis to the femur was also observed three months after surgery. The patient is in good health 15 months after the initial diagnosis. The significance of thyroid metastasis of renal cell carcinoma would vary according to the different cases reported in the literature with survival ranging from 32 months to 3-7 years after surgical exeresis. Prognosis would thus not appear to be as poor as for thyroid metastasis from other primary tumours. (authors). 24 refs

  5. Thyroid carcinoma. A descriptive retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid carcinoma (TC) is not very frequent among all cancer. Its course is slow and is high potentially curable. Our aim was to analyse the characteristics in patients with TC. A retrospective analysis on 171 patients, with an average age of 41.1. (± 14.6), who asked for TC to our service between the years 2000-2004, was performed. From case histories it was evaluated: anamnesis, diagnostic image, histopathology and evolution. Tumours were grouped for size and TNM (tumor-nodule-metastasis) in stage (S). A simulated serum thyroglobulin level >2 ng/ml and positive image with 131I or another nuclear marker were considered as positive for residual TC. In the totality of the analyzed patients 88% were female, 62% below 45 years old, and in 77% the thyroid function was normal. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) was diagnostic in 78%. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 96%. The 63% was SI; 14% SII; 19% SIII and 4% SIV. During follow-up, we observed that 90% of patients with Tg between 2 and 10 had evidence of residual TC, and 100% with Tg > 10 ng/ml, whereas 18% of those whose simulated Tg < 2 presented positive image. There was not found significant correlation with pathologic antecedents or relevant image signs. In conclusion: TCP was the most frequent carcinoma in women, in patients younger than 45 years and in those who have euthyroid function. A simulated serum thyroglobulin level was a good indicator for residual TC, but bailed to select those patients who were disease free. (author)

  6. Thyroid carcinoma - experience at Jinnah postgraduate medical centre Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and types of thyroid carcinoma with respect to age and sex groups. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Pathology, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah postgraduate medical centre Karachi. A total of 998 thyroid lesions over a period of 05 years, from July 2000 to June 2005 were reviewed. H and E slides were studied to determine the types and frequencies of malignant lesions of thyroid. Special stains were performed whenever required. Results: A total of 998 thyroid lesions were reviewed, of which 153 were found to be malignant. Papillary carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion with a frequency of 90.2% followed by 4.5% medullary carcinoma, 2% follicular carcinoma, 2% undifferentiated carcinoma and 0.7% each of mixed medullary and papillary carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Females were predominant 82.4% as compared to males 17.6% with female to male ratio 4.7:1. Maximum number of the patients were seen in fourth decade of life followed by third and second decades. Conclusion: The commonest malignant thyroid lesion was papillary carcinoma. Thyroid cancer was more common in females. Patients of papillary, medullary and follicular carcinomas were found in third and fourth decades of life while poorly and undifferentiated carcinomas were diagnosed from fifth to seventh decades of life. (author)

  7. In vitro culture of human thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for establishing primary cultures of human thyroid tissue are described. Tissues removed surgically from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC), follicular adenoma (FA), or hyperthyroidism were grown in culture. In addition, normal cells were separated from the margins of excised tumors and were also cultured. For each gram of thyroid tissue cultured, more than 1 x 105 cells attached to culture dishes. A mixture of 2.5 % fetal bovine serum supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, transferrin, glycl-1-histidyl-L-lysine acetate, somatostatin and epidermal growth factor was added to nutrient media containing equal parts of Ham's F-12 and minimum essential medium (αMEM). Complete medium selectively supported epithelial cell growth while restricting fibroblast cell growth, especially during the first two weeks of the primary culture. Cells were stimulated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and produced raised levels of cAMP and thyroid hormone (T3). Culture conditions that affected the response of cells to X-rays were identified. During the culture period, first and second passage cells were compared for differences in their radiosensitivities. In all cases, cells showed differences in their responses to radiation depending on the cell passage number. However, results of replicate experiments of first passage cells that were exposed to X-rays showed good agreement between experiments. This technique makes it possible to quantitate the effects of chemical and physical cytotoxic agents on proliferating human thyroid epithelial cells. (author)

  8. Esophageal recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz de Nova, Jose Luis; Dworzynska, Agnieszka; Lorente-Poch, Leyre; Sancho, Juan Jose; Sitges-Serra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastasizes to the regional lymph nodes and to the lungs, liver and bones. Only one case of recurrence of MTC involving the upper gastrointestinal tract has been reported so far. We describe the case of a 38-year-old woman with MTC, who developed an upper esophageal submucosal recurrence after two previous local recurrences treated surgically and one ethanol injection. After resection of the right lateral esophageal wall, calcitonin dropped by 60% and showed a doubling time >1 year. We cannot rule out the role of deep ethanol injection in the involvement of the cervical esophagus wall. PMID:26645011

  9. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  10. Prognostic variables of papillary thyroid carcinomas with local invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the significance of the extrathyroid extension (ETE) of papillary thyroid carcinoma at the time of diagnosis and the prognostic variables of patients, we retrospectively reviewed 1,013 thyroid cancer patients. Of the 741 papillary thyroid cancer patients, 466 (62.9%) were categorized in clinical stage I and 114 (15.4%) were categorized in clinical stage III. Of the 114 patients in clinical stage III, 81 were female (mean age 44.4±15.7 years) and 33 were male (mean age 46.9±18.1 years). Of the clinical stage III patients, 104 patients received post-operative radioactive iodide (131I) therapy while 22 patients received external radiotherapy in the neck and upper mediastinum area post-operatively. In the study, age, gender, 131I accumulated dose, post-operative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, and survival rate were demonstrated to be statistically significant in the groups with no recurrence and recurrence after treatment. The average follow-up period of these patients was 6.0 years. During this follow-up period, 11 patients expired. Eight died of thyroid cancer (7.0%) and 3 died of intercurrent diseases including asthma, renal cell carcinoma and propranolol overdose. Four of the 8 patients (50%) died of airway obstruction due to cancer cell invasion. Another 4 died of distant metastases, including 2 patients with skull metastases and brain invasion. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 0.981 and 0.956 in clinical stage I and 0.923 and 0.843 in clinical stage III, respectively. In conclusion, the survival rate of the ETE of papillary thyroid cancer was lower when compared with stage I, especially in older male patients with higher post-operative serum Tg levels. (author)

  11. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  12. Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwudi Onyeaghana Okani; Benjamin Otene; Terhemba Nyaga; Joseph Ngbea; Agaba Eke; Felix Edegbe; Daniel Anyiam

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not...

  13. Warthin-Like Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Paliogiannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18 mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymph node involvement was made. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and central neck lymphadenectomy without complications. Histopathological examination suggested a Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, with all the removed lymph nodes being free of disease. The patient subsequently underwent iodine ablative therapy and she remains free of disease one year after surgery. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is a recently described variant of papillary thyroid cancer that is frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morphologically, it resembles Warthin tumors of the salivary glands, with T and B lymphocytes infiltrating the stalks of papillae lined with oncocytic cells. Surgical and postoperative management is identical to that of classic differentiated thyroid cancer, while prognosis seems to be favourable.

  14. Diagnosis and management of carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a frequent finding but engender concern primarily because of a large size or, occasionally, as a manifestation of a carcinoma. Needle biopsy permits a definite diagnosis in the majority of cases. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma is treated by surgery, the extent of which would be based on the gross evidence of the extent of the disease, the histologic features of the lesion, the patient's age and overall medical status, and the need to avoid postoperative complications. The appropriate care after surgery is also based on the individual patient. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is best treated by total thyroidectomy with cervical lymph node dissection on the side of a palpable nodule. Serum calcitonin determinations provide diagnostic and some prognostic data. Anaplastic carcinoma is usually best treated by radiation therapy. The outlook is good for most thyroid carcinoma recognized reasonably early

  15. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor SNX5422 has a synergistic activity with histone deacetylase inhibitors in induction of death of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitor SNX5422 alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors PXD101, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and trichostatin A (TSA) on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells was investigated. In 8505C and CAL62 cells, SNX5422 caused cell death with concomitant changes in the expression of hsp90 client proteins. After treatment of both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with treatment of SNX5422 alone, cell viability was diminished, whereas inhibition rate and cytotoxic activity were enhanced. All of the combination index values were lower than 1.0, suggesting the synergism between SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA in induction of cell death. In cells treated with both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with cells treated with SNX5422 alone, the protein levels of Akt, phospho-4EBP1, phospho-S6 K, and survivin were diminished, while those of γH2AX, acetyl. histone H3, acetyl. histone H4, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3 were enhanced. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SNX5422 has a cytotoxic activity in conjunction with alterations in the expression of hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. Moreover, SNX5422 synergizes with HDAC inhibitors in induction of cytotoxicity accompanied by the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and survivin, and the overexpression of DNA damage-related proteins in ATC cells. PMID:26219406

  16. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R. N.; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D. V.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1)...

  17. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: outcome and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid has been described as a rapidly progressive disease. We assessed the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma at our institution. Materials and Methods: Between 1975 and 1995, 37 patients were seen and treated at our institution with pathologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Patients ranged in age from 49 to 97 years old (median 73 years) and females were represented in a 2:1 ratio. Many patients had history of prior benign thyroid disease (17) or low grade malignancy (6). Other medical illnesses were frequently present in these patients, including 5 with diabetes, 1 scleroderma, 1 sarcoidosis and 1 polycythemia vera. 12 patients had metastatic disease at presentation. 26 patients had locally advanced (T4) disease. The time from diagnosis to treatment was never longer than 1 month. Management was most often with biopsy only (22 patients) and local irradiation (34 patients, median dose 52.5 Gy). 15 patients had primary surgical resection, one of which had negative surgical margins. 11 patients received chemotherapy, 9 with Adriamycin-based regimens. Follow-up ranged from 4 months to 11 years, with a mean of 11 months. Results: 26 patients had a local response, either partial or complete, to their treatment regimen. However, systemic disease was an important cause of failure. 9 patients (24%) survived at least one year from diagnosis; 3 (8%) survived beyond two years. The development of metastases occurred quickly in originally localized disease, at a median of 2 months. Metastases occurred most commonly in the lung (11 of 14 cases), but also occured in brain (2), liver (1), bone (1) and pericardium (1). Performance status, sex, metastatic disease, hyperfractionation, treatment modalities, RT dose, age and response to treatment were assessed as prognostic factors for survival. On univariate analysis, age over 70 (p=.004) and failure to attain a complete response to

  18. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izkhakov, Elena; Somjen, Dalia; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Aizic, Asaf; Fliss, Dan M; Limor, Rona; Stern, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, PVDR between Ca/N thyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma. PMID:26907966

  19. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of thyroid - a mimicker of medullary carcinoma at fine needle aspiration cytology: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of extra medullary plasmacytoma (EMP of thyroid gland in a 60 year old male, occurring against a background of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis is reported. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC initially done as an outpatient procedure, showed atypical epithelial cells on a background of amyloid. Considering these findings we gave a diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. Histology of the total thyroidectomy specimen showed an extensive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells against a background of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, with a bizarre Hurthle cell change. Immunohistochemistry on the histology sections confirmed the diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma of thyroid against a background of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis.

  20. Role of receptor activity modifying protein 1 in function of the calcium sensing receptor in the human TT thyroid carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Desai

    Full Text Available The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+ and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs, specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has

  1. THE ASSOCIATION OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID-CARCINOMA WITH INSULAR OR ANAPLASTIC THYROID-CARCINOMA - EVIDENCE FOR DEDIFFERENTIATION IN TUMOR PROGRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Bernard F.A.M.; FREEMAN, JL; TSANG, RW; ASA, SL

    1993-01-01

    The sequence of tumorigenesis in the thyroid is unclear. It has been proposed that anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid develop by dedifferentiation in pre-existing differentiated carcinomas. We reviewed all anaplastic and insular (poorly differentiated) thyroid carcinomas in a consultation practice

  2. Intradural extramedullary metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Akhavan, Ali; Mehrabaniyan, Mohammad Reza; Jarahi, Mohammadreza; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Although spinal metastasis is a common finding in malignancies, however intradural extramedullary metastasis is very rare. This paper presents a 71-year-old woman, known case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid with intradural extramedullary metastasis in thoracic spine.

  3. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler; Parangi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient m...

  4. Upregulation of glucosylceramide synthase protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; SONG Ying-hua; LIN Xiao-yan; WANG Qiang-xiu; ZHANG Hua-wei; XU Jia-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) can reduce ceramide levels and help cells escape ceramide-induced apoptosis,thus leading to multidrug resistance (MDR).However,its expression and clinical significance in thyroid neoplasms still remain unclear.We aimed to elucidate the expression of GCS and explore its correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs).Methods We retrospectively investigated GCS protein expression level in tissue specimens obtained from 108 consecutive PTC patients by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.Results GCS was weakly positive or negative in normal follicular cells,but it was frequently overexpressed in PTC cells.GCS overexpression was associated with primary tumor size,local infiltration,lymph node metastasis,and local recurrence,but not associated with gender,age,pathological variants,tumor multifocality,tumor stage or distant metastasis.Western blotting also showed that GCS protein levels were much higher in PTCs' tissues than in normal thyroid tissues.Conclusion GCS was upregulated in PTCs and might be an independent factor affecting prognosis.

  5. Decreasc of lodine uptake capability and pertinent genes expressions in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cell line cultures after 131I lrradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma might become less differentiated (de-differentiation) after radioactive iodine therapy. This study was to investigate the in vitro changes of capability of uptaking iodine and gene expression of sodium-iodine symporter (NIS), TSH receptor, TPO and Tg of FTC-133 cell line culture after 131I irradiation. Methods: 131I as NaI at different dosages (5, 10, 15, 20, 25μCi) were added to FIC-133 cell line cultures. After 12h, the iodine-uptaking capability was determined respectively. A most optimal dosage (with maximal effect) was established. FIC-133 cell line was cultured with this optimal dosage up to 48h. The capability of 131I uptaking, the NIS, TSHR, TPO (with western blot) and Tg (with RIA) contents of the culture were examined at 6, 12, 24 and 48h respectively. Also, the location of the proteins was examined with immunoflurorescence and the genes expressions of the proteins (mRNA) were examined with RT-PCR. Results: After 131I irradiation, the capability of iodine-uptaking (cpm/min) of FTC-133 cell line culture decreased significantly (P131I irradiation could decrese the capability of iodine-uptaking the contents of protein as well as the gene expressions of NIS, TSHR, TRO and Tg of FTC-133 cell line cultures as the result of de-differentiation of the cancer cells. (authors)

  6. Radioiodine therapy for papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine (131I) therapy is used in patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma for ablation of thyroid remnants and for treatment of persistent or recurrent disease. It should be used selectively, i.e. only in those patients for whom a clinical benefit may be expected. (orig.)

  7. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  8. Systemic paraneoplastic vasculitis secondary to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerouaz, N; Alaoui, M; Raiss, M; Hassam, B; Senouci, K

    2016-08-01

    Systemic vasculitis secondary to thyroid carcinomas is exceptional. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with systemic vasculitis involving leucocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis and renal disorders secondary to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Her symptoms resolved completely after total thyroidectomy. Other causes of vasculitis were excluded. To our knowledge, this is only the second case reported of systemic vasculitis associated with PTC in a paraneoplastic manner. PMID:27416971

  9. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong; QI Ji-ping; WANG Ying-wei; SONG Yue-jia; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid neoplasm, which shares some histologic features with thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC). Clinically, it is frequently misdiagnosed as papillary carcinoma, even for some experienced pathologists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HTT is variant of TPC or HTT is an independent entity of thyroid neoplasm.Methods The expression of CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1 and MIB-1 was detected by immunohistochemical staining in 12 cases of hyalinizing trabecular tumor and 20 cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Results Two of the 12 HTT samples were positive or focally positive for CK19. Four of the 12 samples of HTT presented positive to galectin-3; 3 were stained strongly and the other one was focally positive. None of the 12 samples of HTT was positive for HBME-1. Five in 12 HTT samples were stained in nucleus for MIB-1. Almost all the 20 cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma were intensely stained for CK19, galectin-3 and HBME-1. Fifteen in 20 cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma showed nuclear staining for MIB-1.Conclusions HTT is an independent thyroid neoplasm, not a variant of TPC. This study could help in the differential diagnosis of HTT from TPC. CK19, galectin-3 and HBME-1 are adequate to identify HTT and TPC, but MIB-1 does not play an important role in discrimination between HTT and TPC.

  10. Management of thyroid carcinoma with radioactive 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of radioactive 131I in the management of patients with well differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. Methods and Materials: Between 1965 and 1995, a total of 117 patients with well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid underwent either lobectomy or thyroidectomy followed by 100-150 mCi of 131I. Results: With a median follow-up of 8 years, only four patients (3%) developed a recurrence of their disease. The 5-year actuarial survival was 97% with a 10-year survival of 91%. There were no severe side effects noted after 131I therapy. Conclusions: Radioactive 131I is a safe and effective procedure for the majority of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We currently recommend that all patients undergo a subtotal or total thyroidectomy followed by 131I thyroid scanning approximately 4 weeks after surgery. If the thyroid scan shows no residual uptake and all disease is confined to the thyroid, we recommend following patients with annual thyroid scans and serum thyroglobulin levels. If there is any residual uptake detected in the neck or if the tumor extends beyond the thyroid, we recommend routine thyroid ablation of 100-150 mCi of radioactive 131I

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  12. MiR-34a targets GAS1 to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma via PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yanfei; Qin, Huadong [Department of Fourth Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 148 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150086 (China); Cui, Yunfu, E-mail: yfma77@126.com [Department of First Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 148 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •MiR-34a is up- and GAS1 is down-regulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma. •GAS1 is a direct target for miR-34a. •MiR-34a promotes PTC cells proliferation and inhibits apoptosis through PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are fundamental regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and are implicated in tumorigenesis of many cancers. MiR-34a is best known as a tumor suppressor through repression of growth factors and oncogenes. Growth arrest specific1 (GAS1) protein is a tumor suppressor that inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through inhibition of RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Both miR-34a and GAS1 are frequently down-regulated in various tumors. However, it has been reported that while GAS1 is down-regulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), miR-34a is up-regulated in this specific type of cancer, although their potential roles in PTC tumorigenesis have not been examined to date. A computational search revealed that miR-34a putatively binds to the 3′-UTR of GAS1 gene. In the present study, we confirmed previous findings that miR-34a is up-regulated and GAS1 down-regulated in PTC tissues. Further studies indicated that GAS1 is directly targeted by miR-34a. Overexpression of miR-34a promoted PTC cell proliferation and colony formation and inhibited apoptosis, whereas knockdown of miR-34a showed the opposite effects. Silencing of GAS1 had similar growth-promoting effects as overexpression of miR-34a. Furthermore, miR-34a overexpression led to activation of PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway in PTC cells, and depletion of Akt reversed the pro-growth, anti-apoptotic effects of miR-34a. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-34a regulates GAS1 expression to promote proliferation and suppress apoptosis in PTC cells via PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. MiR-34a functions as an oncogene in PTC.

  13. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1 the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2 robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  14. The role of Inositol Phosphoglycan as a possible mediator of the radiation effects on undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In our laboratory we demonstrated that the Inositol Phosphoglycan (IPG) inhibits thyroperoxidase (TPO) activity and other oxidoreductases in normal bovine thyroid gland cultures, thus increasing the H2O2 levels. On the other hand, when a cell is irradiated, damage is caused either by an increase of free radicals (H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or by the direct ionization of molecules, depending on the radiation quality. With the purpose to establish if the IPG participates in damage mechanisms by radiation, UTC cells of the tumoral line (ARO) in proliferation, were exposed to high and low LET radiation: gamma, neutrons, He and 7 Li nucleus (the lasts ones produced through Boron Neutron Capture Reaction). In each group, the total physical absorbed doses were 3 and 8 Gy (Ra-3 reactor neutrons flux = 7.5 109 n/cm2 s). The results show a significant increase in the IPG activity in cells irradiated with gamma and neutrons in comparison with control cultures (p2O2 levels (p<0.01). These results suggest that the inhibition of oxidoreductases by IPG would produce an increase in peroxides which would add to the ROS produced by low LET radiation strengthening the damage along with cell viability decrease

  15. Unveiling a novel biomarker panel for diagnosis and classification of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricharttanakul, N Monique; Saharat, Kittirat; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common human endocrine malignancy with increasing global incidence. Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) are well-differentiated thyroid cancers (WDTC) accounting for 95% of all thyroid cancer cases, with survival rates of almost 100% when diagnosed early. Since PTC and FTC have different modes of metastasis, they require different treatment strategies. Standard diagnosis by fine needle aspiration with cytopathological examination can be inaccurate in approximately 10-30% of all cases and difficult to definitively classify as WDTC. Currently, there is no single or panel of biomarkers available for thyroid cancer diagnosis and classification. This study identified novel biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis and classification using proteomics, which may be translated into a biomarker panel for clinical application. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential biomarkers in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines, and the biomarkers were validated in five PTC and five FTC tissues, with their adjacent normal tissues from Thai patients. Eight biomarkers could distinguish PTC from normal tissues, namely enolase 1, triose phosphate isomerase, cathepsin D, annexin A2, cofilin 1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), copine 1 and heat shock protein 27 kDa (HSP27). These biomarkers can also discriminate FTC from normal tissues, except for annexin A2. On the contrary, annexin A2, cofilin 1, PCNA and HSP27 can be used to classify the types of WDTC. These findings have potential for use as a novel multi-marker panel for more accurate diagnosis and classification to better guide physicians on thyroid cancer treatment. Moreover, our results suggest the involvement of proteins in cell growth and proliferation, and the p53 pathway in the carcinogenesis of WDTC, which may lead to targeted therapy for thyroid cancer. PMID:26782318

  16. Required therapeutic dose of 131I for thyroid ablation after surgery for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. After operation for carcinoma of the thyroid gland a lot of patients are treated with radioactive iodine for ablation of the residual thyroid parenchyma. Aim: to determine the appropriate dose of radioactive iodine for ablation of the residual thyroid parenchyma in patients operated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Materials and methods: the study includes 316 patients who underwent a whole-body scan (WBS) scintigraphy with 131I. From 2009 to 2012 year 632 images were taken. Patients range from 21 to 78 years old. The scan was performed on a dual-headed gamma camera Siemens after an oral reception of a diagnostic dose 131I (2 mCi). The remnants of thyroid parenchyma were registered in 67 of the patients. 39 patients with registered remnants of thyroid parenchyma and slightly elevated thyroglobulin (TG) values who took therapeutic dose 131I (80-100 mCi) underwent a WBS scintigraphy with 131I and did not display remnants of thyroid parenchyma or extra thyroid accumulation of the radio nucleotide. 23 patients with several remnants of thyroid parenchyma and elevated values of TG who underwent a WBS scintigraphy with 131I eight to ten months after reception of the first dose therapeutic iodine (80-100 mCi) displayed persisting remnants of thyroid parenchyma. They were treated with a second dose of 131I (50-100 mCi). In 5 patients with high values of TG besides the thyroid remnants 3 of the patients displayed an extra thyroid accumulation in the lungs and 2 of them displayed an extra-thyroid fixation in the thoracic vertebras in addition to the fixation in the lungs. These 5 patients were treated twice with 131I, but still displayed the remnants of thyroid parenchyma and extra thyroid fixation. That group was treated with a third dose of 131I (30-50 mCi) and no remnants of thyroid parenchyma and extra-thyroid fixation of the radio nucleotide were visualized on the control WBS scintigraphy. Conclusion: in the majority of the patients

  17. Carcinoma papilar tiroideo variante esclerosante difuso Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL D'Addino

    2012-06-01

    cervical lump. No relevant previous medical or family history. On ultrasound, thyroid nodule, heterogeneous thyroid. A fine needle aspiration of a regional node was reported as adenocarcinoma and that of the thyroid nodule as a colloid cyst. Right radical neck dissection was performed. The intra-operatory biopsy revealed thyroid carcinoma; therefore, left neck dissection and total thyroidectomy were undertaken. Histopathology reported "diffuse sclerosing papillary carcinoma with metastasis to 5 of 6 right perithyroid lymph nodes and to 7 of 9 cervical lymph nodes, 4 on the right and 3 on the left. Stage: I, T3-N1b-M0". The patient received 3 doses of iodine 131 as well as external radiotherapy due to mediastinal mass. Follow-up at 6 months (to present reveals he remains disease free. Thyroid gland enlargement and an increased prevalence of nodules is observed in subjects with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Insulin and TSH are growth factors for thyroid cells, and TSH levels are higher in people with metabolic syndrome, present in this patient. Conclusion: The diffuse sclerosing carcinoma is a rare tumour of uncertain origin, with aggressive behavior, early extrathyroid invasion and distant metastasis. No financial conflicts of interest exist.

  18. RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Massimo; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2006-11-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently associated with RET gene rearrangements that generate the so-called RET/PTC oncogenes. In this review, we examine the data about the mechanisms of thyroid cell transformation, activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and modulation of gene expression induced by RET/PTC. These findings have advanced our understanding of the processes underlying PTC formation and provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to this disease. PMID:17062879

  19. Thyroid scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PET scan Skin nodules Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma Toxic nodular goiter ... Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid Tests Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  20. Expression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清怀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance.Methods Seventy-four patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated in our department from January 2009 to January 2011were selected as the observation group,and 28 patients with nodular goiter were selected as the control group.Expression of TSH receptor in the two groups were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results The positive rate of TSH receptor expression in the observation group was55.4 (41/74) ,significantly lower than that of the control

  1. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader; Sujata S Kumbhar; Huddedar AD; Wasim GM Khatib

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional) and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell ca...

  2. Multicentricidade no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Salles Chagas

    2009-02-01

    , complications, histopathological analysis and invasion of the contralateral lobe were analyzed. Patients' ages varied from 17 to 89; the most frequent histopathological pattern was the classical papillary carcinoma (18 cases, followed by follicular carcinoma (6; the follicular variant of the papillary carcinoma (2 and the Hürthle cell carcinoma (1. Twenty-one patients underwent full thyroidectomies, from 15 to 30 days after the first intervention. RESULTS: the contralateral lobe analysis was negative for carcinoma in 16 (76.5% and positive in the other 5 (23.8% patients. The complications observed were temporary dysphonia (3 cases and hypoparathyroidism (2 cases, one permanent. CONCLUSIONS: total thyroidectomy is important in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, because there is a high contralateral spread rate (23.8%. It is a procedure without mortality, which bears few complications.

  3. Aurora kinases are expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and their inhibition suppresses in vitro growth and tumorigenicity of the MTC derived cell line TT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aurora kinase family members, Aurora-A, -B and -C, are involved in the regulation of mitosis, and alterations in their expression are associated with cell malignant transformation. To date no information on the expression of these proteins in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are available. We here investigated the expression of the Aurora kinases in human MTC tissues and their potential use as therapeutic targets. The expression of the Aurora kinases in 26 MTC tissues at different TNM stages was analyzed at the mRNA level by quantitative RT-PCR. We then evaluated the effects of the Aurora kinase inhibitor MK-0457 on the MTC derived TT cell line proliferation, apoptosis, soft agar colony formation, cell cycle and ploidy. The results showed the absence of correlation between tumor tissue levels of any Aurora kinase and tumor stage indicating the lack of prognostic value for these proteins. Treatment with MK-0457 inhibited TT cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner with IC50 = 49.8 ± 6.6 nM, as well as Aurora kinases phosphorylation of substrates relevant to the mitotic progression. Time-lapse experiments demonstrated that MK-0457-treated cells entered mitosis but were unable to complete it. Cytofluorimetric analysis confirmed that MK-0457 induced accumulation of cells with ≥ 4N DNA content without inducing apoptosis. Finally, MK-0457 prevented the capability of the TT cells to form colonies in soft agar. We demonstrate that Aurora kinases inhibition hampered growth and tumorigenicity of TT cells, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for MTC treatment

  4. Aurora kinases are expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC and their inhibition suppresses in vitro growth and tumorigenicity of the MTC derived cell line TT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrone Stefania

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aurora kinase family members, Aurora-A, -B and -C, are involved in the regulation of mitosis, and alterations in their expression are associated with cell malignant transformation. To date no information on the expression of these proteins in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC are available. We here investigated the expression of the Aurora kinases in human MTC tissues and their potential use as therapeutic targets. Methods The expression of the Aurora kinases in 26 MTC tissues at different TNM stages was analyzed at the mRNA level by quantitative RT-PCR. We then evaluated the effects of the Aurora kinase inhibitor MK-0457 on the MTC derived TT cell line proliferation, apoptosis, soft agar colony formation, cell cycle and ploidy. Results The results showed the absence of correlation between tumor tissue levels of any Aurora kinase and tumor stage indicating the lack of prognostic value for these proteins. Treatment with MK-0457 inhibited TT cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner with IC50 = 49.8 ± 6.6 nM, as well as Aurora kinases phosphorylation of substrates relevant to the mitotic progression. Time-lapse experiments demonstrated that MK-0457-treated cells entered mitosis but were unable to complete it. Cytofluorimetric analysis confirmed that MK-0457 induced accumulation of cells with ≥ 4N DNA content without inducing apoptosis. Finally, MK-0457 prevented the capability of the TT cells to form colonies in soft agar. Conclusions We demonstrate that Aurora kinases inhibition hampered growth and tumorigenicity of TT cells, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for MTC treatment.

  5. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine. Review of the literature discloses that more anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid develop in patients without a history of prior radiation than in individuals who have received radiation. We report our recent experience with two patients who demonstrated the sequence of well-differentiated followed by anaplastic thyroid cancer subsequent to radiation and review the question

  6. Thyroid carcinoma, cataract and hearing loss in a patient after irradiation for facial hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case of a patient irradiated on the right side of the face for a large hemangioma during early childhood is reported. This patient suffers from sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and a cataract of the right eye, and she underwent surgery for Hurtle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. The literature discussing radiation-induced hearing loss is reviewed. (author)

  7. Novel germline variants identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane transporter TIMM44 and their role in predisposition to oncocytic thyroid carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Bonora, E; C Evangelisti; Bonichon, F; Tallini, G.; Romeo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Familial Non-Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (fNMTC) represents 3–7% of all thyroid tumours and is associated with some of the highest familial risks among all cancers, with an inheritance pattern compatible with an autosomal dominant model with reduced penetrance. We previously mapped a predisposing locus, TCO (Thyroid tumour with Cell Oxyphilia) on chromosome 19p13.2, for a particular form of thyroid tumour characterised by cells with an abnormal proliferation of mitochondria (oxyphilic or onco...

  8. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, D S; LiVolsi, V. A.; Sanders, M M

    1982-01-01

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine? Review of the literature discloses that mor...

  9. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Graves' Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hee Young; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy has been used as a treatment option for Graves' disease, and it has been widely accepted to be safe. On the other hand, some evidence suggests that RAI therapy is possibly associated with a small increased risk of thyroid cancer. Herein, we report a rare case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) associated with Graves' disease, following RAI treatment. A 42-year-old woman had been diagnosed with Graves' disease and although she was treated with an antithyroid...

  10. Treatment of thyroid carcinoma as a problem of internal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of gallium-67 as a radiopharmaceutical for the detection of carcinoma of the thyroid gland is investigated. Gallium-67 does not accumulate in a benign goitre. In combination with iodide and pertechnetate scintigraphy of the thyroid, the application of gallium-67 is important for the detection of malignancy in large goitres. To increase the efficiency of iodine-131 therapy, a low-iodine diet and intensive diuresis during four days preceding administration of radioactive iodide is recommended

  11. Computed tomography of thyroid carcinoma with intrathoracic extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight cases of the thyroid carcinoma with intrathoracic extension were evaluated by CT. They consisted of 4 primary, and 2 recurrent thyroid carcinoma after palliative operation and another 2 mediastinal lymph nodes metastases after total thyroidectomy. Invasion to the trachea was correctly diagnosed in 5 of 6 cases. There were one false positive and one false negative case. The false negative case showed smooth compression deformity of the trachea by solid recurrent tumor. And the false positive case was a metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes which contained large cystic change and showed marked compression of the trachea. Involvement of large vessels, including the common carotid artery, internal jugular vein and innominate vein, were correctly diagnosed in all 5 cases. One recurrent tumor had esophageal invasion by thyroid carcinoma which could not be diagnosed preoperatively. The air filled esophagus did not show any deformity. (author)

  12. The expression and significance of hTERT and P53 in thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and P53 in thyroid carcinoma and its relationship with development and prognosis of the carcinoma. Methods Totally 90 cases of thyroid specimens (60 thyroid carcinomas,10 thyroid adenomas,10 goitres and 10 normal thyroid tissues) were studied by SP immunohistochemical method. Results Positive immunoreactivity of hTERT and P53 was higher in thyroid carcinoma (P<0.05). The positive rates of hTERT and P53 were higher in und...

  13. Unusual bone metastasis from follicular carcinoma thyroid: presenting as a primary bone malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Varshney

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osseous metastasis in patients of thyroid carcinoma is not very common, and appendicular skeleton is very rare. Bone metastasis represents a complication, especially of follicular thyroid carcinoma and severely reduces the quality of life causing pain, and fractures. Diagnosis is typically done by correlating clinical suspicion with imaging. Occult clinical presentations usually delay the detection and management of patients with bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. There is limited information about the clinical presentations and prognosis of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis. We hereby present a case report of right arm swelling diagnosed as metastatic carcinoma having metastasis from thyroid primary.

  14. Minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas: prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Gustav; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Mu, Ninni; Larsson, Catharina; Lundgren, Catharina Ihre; Juhlin, C Christofer; Höög, Anders; Zedenius, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Although minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (MI-FTC) is regarded as an indolent tumour, treatment strategies remain controversial. Our aim was to investigate the outcome for patients with MI-FTC and to identify prognostic parameters to facilitate adequate treatment and follow-up. This retrospective follow-up study involved all cases of MI-FTC operated at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1986 and 2009. Outcome was analysed using death from MI-FTC as endpoint. Fifty-eight patients (41 women and 17 men) with MI-FTC were identified. The median follow-up time was 140 (range 21-308) months. Vascular invasion was observed in 36 cases and was associated with larger tumour size [median 40 (20-76) compared with 24 (10-80) mm for patients with capsular invasion only (P = 0.001)] and older patients [54 (20-92) vs. 44 (11-77) years; P = 0.019]. Patients with vascular invasion were more often treated with thyroidectomy (21/36 compared to 7/22 with capsular invasion only; P = 0.045). Five patients died from metastatic disease of FTC after a median follow-up of 114 (range 41-193) months; all were older than 50 years (51-72) at the time of the initial surgery; vascular invasion was present in all tumours and all but one were treated with thyroidectomy. Univariate analysis identified combined capsular and vascular invasion (P = 0.034), age at surgery ≥50 years (P = 0.023) and male gender (P = 0.005) as related to risk of death from MI-FTC. MI-FTC should not be considered a purely indolent disease. Age at diagnosis and the existence of combined capsular and vascular invasion were identified as important prognostic factors. PMID:26858184

  15. Cricotracheal resection for laryngeal invasion by thyroid carcinoma: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisod, Benoît; Monnier, Philippe; Simon, Christian; Sandu, Kishore

    2014-08-01

    Invasion of the laryngeal framework by thyroid carcinoma requires specific surgical techniques and carries a higher rate of complications that deserve to be highlighted. We reviewed our data from 1995 to 2012 and found six patients with laryngotracheal invasion by thyroid carcinoma. All underwent total thyroidectomy and single-stage cricotracheal resection, plus anterolateral neck dissection. Three had airway obstruction that necessitated prior endoscopic debulking. None of the patients needed a tracheotomy. There were four cases of papillary carcinoma, and two cases of undifferentiated carcinoma. One patient died of complications of the procedure (anastomotic dehiscence and tracheo-innominate artery fistula). Another died 2 months after the procedure from local recurrence and aspiration pneumonia. One case presented recurrence at 15 months, which was managed by re-excision and adjuvant radiotherapy; after 26 months of follow-up, he has no evidence of locoregional recurrence. The three other patients are alive without evidence of disease at 6, 18 and 41 months, respectively. Cricotracheal resection for subglottic invasion by thyroid carcinoma is an effective procedure, but carries significant risks of complications. This could be attributed to the devascularisation of the tracheal wall due to the simultaneous neck dissection, sacrifice of the strap muscles or of a patch of oesophageal muscle layer. We advocate a sternocleidomastoid flap to cover the anastomosis. Cricotracheal resection for subglottic invasion can be curative with good functional outcomes, even for the advanced stages of thyroid cancer. Endoscopic debulking of the airway prior to the procedure avoids tracheotomy. PMID:24129693

  16. Predictive value of antithyroglobulin antibody on recurrence or metastasis following ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of serum thyroglobulin(Tg)and antithyroglobulin antibody(Tg Ab)in differentiated thyroid carcinoma complicated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after thyroid ablation.Methods Serum Tg and Tg Ab levels and the status of illness in 154differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with coexistent Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and confirmed pathology after surgery followed by remnant ablation were performed during three years follow up.Tg and Tg Ab levels were assessed

  17. PSMA Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Opening a New Horizon in Management of Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taywade, Sameer Kamalakar; Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type 2 transmembrane protein highly expressed in prostate cancer cells. We present the case of a 50-year-old man with metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, with rising thyroglobulin level and negative whole-body radioiodine scan after total thyroidectomy. Considering the limited treatment options available, it was decided to perform Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scan. It revealed intense radiotracer uptake in mediastinal and left supraclavicular lymph nodes, brain metastases, bilateral lung nodules, and skeletal sites. Patient also underwent F-FDG PET/CT. It demonstrated similar findings; however, the number of lesions detected in brain was less compared with Ga-PSMA PET/CT. PMID:26914556

  18. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  19. Benign oral pathology as a cause of false positive 131I uptake in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present three thyroidectomised patients with a history of thyroid carcinoma who had non-metastatic 131I uptake due to benign oral pathology. A salivary gland study suggested impaired function but no obstruction was demonstrated on a sialogram. The symptoms resolved on antibiotic therapy and a subsequent 131I study was normal. A subsequent thallium study demonstrated physiological tracer distribution. A 35-year-old female with papillary cell carcinoma of the thyroid demonstrated a focus of uptake on the right hemi-mandible following both a diagnostic and a therapeutic dose of 131I. This area was tender and an OPG confirmed an area of liquefaction at this site. A 53-year-old female with medullary cell carcinoma of the thyroid demonstrated a focus of uptake in the right side of the maxilla following a diagnostic administration of 131I. An OPG confirmed an area of liquefaction around the apex of the right upper centre. These three cases illustrate salivary gland and dental inflammation as causes of false positive 131I uptake. It is important to differentiate non-metastatic 131I uptake from that due to functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma in order to avoid inappropriate treatment with large additional doses of 131I. As in these patients, clinical assessment and the use of anatomical imaging or other isotopes such as thallium or technetium can be helpful in ruling out a mistaken diagnosis of metastasis

  20. Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane Subhadra V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity. We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland. The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profile are reported. The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review. Case presentation A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis. Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract. The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections. The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the independent origin of these two primary tumors. Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned. Conclusion Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge. Metastasis from distant organs and contiguous primary tumors should be excluded. The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment. Treatment for collision tumors depends upon the combination of primary tumors involved and each component of the combination should be treated like an independent primary. The reporting of similar cases with longer follow-up will help define the

  1. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : A polygenic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, TP; van Tol, KM; te Meerman, GJ; de Vries, EGE

    2001-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is a rare disease and until recently was considered to be sporadic. However, increasing evidence has been found for a genetic basis of this disease. In approximately 5% of patients the differentiated thyroid cancer is dominantly inherited. Several families with differen

  2. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-12-16

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  3. Impact of TNM classification categories on thyroid gland carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, P.; Vlček, P.; Jirsa, Ladislav; Personová, K.

    Glasgow : BioScientifica, 2006. s. 938-938. ISSN 1470-3947. [European Congress of Endocrinology incorporating the British Endocrine Societies /8./. 01.04.2006-05.04.2006, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : TNM * thyroid carcinoma * tumor size * misclassification Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  4. Molecular genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma: multistep tumorigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms underlying the multistep process of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) development is at present largely unknown. About 60% of all MTCs occur as sporadic cancer and the remaining 40% occur as familial cancer. Activation of RET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, initiates hereditary M

  5. Gene-expression Classifier in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No reliable biomarker for metastatic potential in the risk stratification of papillary thyroid carcinoma exists. We aimed to develop a gene-expression classifier for metastatic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide expression analyses were used. Development cohort: freshly...

  6. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  7. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as a Predominantly Cystic Mass on Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Ah Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hyun [Gangnam MizMedi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most medullary thyroid carcinomas show suspicious malignant features such as hypoechogenicity, a spiculated margin and/or intranodular calcifications, which are well known features of papillary carcinoma. We report here on a case of medullary carcinoma that was seen as a predominantly cystic thyroid mass on ultrasonography. This type of case is not common in the literature and we discuss the way to diagnose a medullary thyroid carcinoma

  8. Management of patients with thyroid carcinoma: Application of thallium-201 scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.D.; Anderson, J.H.; Wartofsky, L.; Mong, D.P.; Jelinek, J.J. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Thyroid carcinoma has the ability to concentrate radioiodine, an attribute that can be used both for detection of thyroid cells and for treatment. Unfortunately, however, radioiodine uptake is not observed in all patients and a radioiodine scan requires that the patient be rendered hypothyroid for 4-6 wk. In the present study, we analyzed the utility of thallium-201 scanning and the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of thyroid cancer. Nineteen patients with thyroid cancer had a total of 24 radioiodine scans, 33 thallium scans, and 10 MRI examinations. Of the 19 patients in the study, 17 had differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In these 17 cases, all paired studies were concordant for the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 10) of disease. However, in one case (Patient 10), the {sup 201}Tl studies showed far more extensive disease than was observed on the {sup 131}I scan. Thyroid cancer was also detected on seven MRI studies. In summary, thallium and MRI scans are adjunctive techniques to radioiodine scanning that can either confirm the presence of neck bed activity, residual disease or metastatic cancer and may delineate tumor deposits not detected by radioiodine scanning. Thallium may be capable of detecting tumor deposits even while a patient remains euthyroid.

  9. Thyroid carcinoma: The experience at the Oncology Centre in Nicosia, Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carcinoma of the thyroid is usually of follicular cell origin. Four distinct histologic types of follicular cell-derived cancers (FCDC) are recognized. The majority of cases are papillary, with its major sub-type being the follicular variant (FVPTC). The other histological types are follicular, oxyphilic or Hurthle cell, and anaplastic. Each tumour type differs substantially in its initial mode of spread and subsequent pattern of recurrence and metastatic involvement. Although thyroid nodules are extremely common but clinically recognized thyroid carcinomas constitute less than 1% of all human malignant tumours. The annual incidence of thyroid cancer varies worldwide from 0.5 to 10 per 100000 population. In Cyprus, in the year 2000, there were 41 registered cases of newly diagnosed thyroid carcinoma (medullary excluded) in the Cancer Archive. This is an incidence of 5.6 per 100000. A Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center (BOCOC) was established in 1998 and very soon became the referral hospital for oncological patients in Cyprus. The thyroid clinic of the center was also established in that year which in collaboration with the NM department of the Nicosia General Hospital provided follow-up services to thyroid cancer patients. The Nuclear Medicine Department of the BOCOC was established on 1 July 2001 and since then the radioiodine therapy and follow-up thyroid carcinoma patients is done in this center. The patients are referred to the clinic after surgery and confirmed diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer. A total of 34 patients (5 males 29 females, age range 20-79 years) of thyroid carcinoma (medullary excluded) visited the clinic between July 2001 and July 2003. The histopathological form was 32 papillary and 2 follicular thyroid carcinoma. Of the 32 papillary 2 were metastatic, 4 papillary with follicular elements, 1 with papillary at the isthmus and follicular in right lobe and 1 papillary in the thyroglossal cyst. Preoperative diagnosis in most of the patients was

  10. Mutual regulation of TGF-β1, TβRII and ErbB receptors expression in human thyroid carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of EGF and TGF-β1 in thyroid cancer is still not clearly defined. TGF-β1 inhibited the cellular growth and migration of follicular (FTC-133) and papillary (B-CPAP) thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Co-treatments of TGF-β1 and EGF inhibited proliferation in both cell lines, but displayed opposite effect on their migratory capability, leading to inhibition in B-CPAP and promotion in FTC-133 cells, by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR expressions were evaluated in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Both positivity (51.7% and 60.0% and 80.0% in FA and PTC and FTC) and overexpression (60.0%, 77.7% and 75.0% in FA, PTC and FTC) of EGFR mRNA correlates with the aggressive tumor behavior. The moderate overexpression of TGF-β1 and TβRII mRNA in PTC tissues (61.5% and 62.5%, respectively), counteracted their high overexpression in FTC tissues (100% and 100%, respectively), while EGFR overexpression was similar in both carcinomas. Papillary carcinomas were positive to E-cadherin expression, while the follicular carcinomas lose E-cadherin staining. Our findings of TGF-β1/TβRII and EGFR overexpressions together with a loss of E-cadherin observed in human follicular thyroid carcinomas, and of increased migration ability MAPK-dependent after EGF/TGF-β1 treatments in the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line, reinforced the hypothesis of a cross-talk between EGF and TGF-β1 systems in follicular thyroid carcinomas phenotype. - Highlights: • We reinforce the hypothesis of a cross talk between EGF and TGF-β1 in follicular thyroid carcinoma. • Increased migration MAPK-dependent is observed after EGF+TGF-β1 treatment in follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. • EGF and TGF-β1 caused opposite effect on the migratory ability in B-CPAP and in FTC-133 cells. • TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR are overexpressed in follicular thyroid carcinoma

  11. Mutual regulation of TGF-β1, TβRII and ErbB receptors expression in human thyroid carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincione, Gabriella, E-mail: g.mincione@unich.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Center of Excellence on Aging, Ce.S.I., ‘G. d' Annunzio’ University Foundation, Chieti (Italy); Tarantelli, Chiara [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Vianale, Giovina [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Center of Excellence on Aging, Ce.S.I., ‘G. d' Annunzio’ University Foundation, Chieti (Italy); Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Cotellese, Roberto [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Unit of General and Laparoscopic Surgery, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy); Francomano, Franco [Unit of General and Laparoscopic Surgery, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy); Di Nicola, Marta; Costantini, Erica [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Cichella, Annadomenica [Unit of General and Laparoscopic Surgery, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy); Muraro, Raffaella [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Center of Excellence on Aging, Ce.S.I., ‘G. d' Annunzio’ University Foundation, Chieti (Italy)

    2014-09-10

    The role of EGF and TGF-β1 in thyroid cancer is still not clearly defined. TGF-β1 inhibited the cellular growth and migration of follicular (FTC-133) and papillary (B-CPAP) thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Co-treatments of TGF-β1 and EGF inhibited proliferation in both cell lines, but displayed opposite effect on their migratory capability, leading to inhibition in B-CPAP and promotion in FTC-133 cells, by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR expressions were evaluated in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Both positivity (51.7% and 60.0% and 80.0% in FA and PTC and FTC) and overexpression (60.0%, 77.7% and 75.0% in FA, PTC and FTC) of EGFR mRNA correlates with the aggressive tumor behavior. The moderate overexpression of TGF-β1 and TβRII mRNA in PTC tissues (61.5% and 62.5%, respectively), counteracted their high overexpression in FTC tissues (100% and 100%, respectively), while EGFR overexpression was similar in both carcinomas. Papillary carcinomas were positive to E-cadherin expression, while the follicular carcinomas lose E-cadherin staining. Our findings of TGF-β1/TβRII and EGFR overexpressions together with a loss of E-cadherin observed in human follicular thyroid carcinomas, and of increased migration ability MAPK-dependent after EGF/TGF-β1 treatments in the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line, reinforced the hypothesis of a cross-talk between EGF and TGF-β1 systems in follicular thyroid carcinomas phenotype. - Highlights: • We reinforce the hypothesis of a cross talk between EGF and TGF-β1 in follicular thyroid carcinoma. • Increased migration MAPK-dependent is observed after EGF+TGF-β1 treatment in follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. • EGF and TGF-β1 caused opposite effect on the migratory ability in B-CPAP and in FTC-133 cells. • TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR are overexpressed in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Genomic Landscape of poorly Differentiated and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Ghossein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are aggressive thyroid tumors associated with a high mortality rate of 38-57 % and almost 100 % respectively. Several recent studies utilizing next generation sequencing techniques have shed lights on the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, providing evidence to support a stepwise tumoral progression from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated, and finally to anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. While BRAF (V600E) and RAS mutations remain the main drivers in aggressive thyroid carcinoma, PDTC and ATC gains additional mutations, e.g., TERT promoter mutation, TP53 mutation, as well as frequent alterations in PIK3CA-PTEN-AKT-mTOR pathway, SWI-SNF complex, histomethyltransferases, and mismatch repair genes. RAS-mutated PDTCs are commonly associated with a histologic phenotype defined by Turin proposal, high frequency of distant metastasis, high thyroid differentiation score, and a RAS-like gene expression profile, whereas BRAF-mutated PDTCs are usually defined solely by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria with a propensity for nodal metastasis and are less differentiated with a BRAF-like expression signature. Such demarcation is largely lost in ATC which is characterized by genomic complexity, heavy mutation burden, and profound undifferentiation. Additionally, several molecular events, e.g., EIF1AX mutation, mutation burden, and chromosome 1q gain in PDTCs, as well as EIF1AX mutation, chromosome 13q loss, and 20q gains in ATCs, may serve as adverse prognostic markers predicting poor clinical outcome. PMID:27372303

  13. "MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HBME-1 USEFULNESS IN DIFFERENTIATION OF BENIGN NEOPLASM AND DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available HBME-l is an antimesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on microvilli of mesothelial cells. The antibody is only relatively specific for mesothelium and is used in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma within the context of an appropriate immuno-histochemical panel. HBME-l has also been reported to strongly and uniformly stain papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid while benign disorders have been usually negative. We studied the immunoreactivity of HBME-l in 90 cases of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. We found strong positive staining in the majority of papillary carcinomas (28/31, in some of follicular carcinomas (4/6,and in a few follicular adenomas (2/17. Negative staining was found in oxyphilic cell adenoma (0/4, nodular goiter (0/13 and undifferentiated carcinoma. The results suggest that monoclonal antibody HBME-l is useful in differentiating papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from benign lesions, especially in more differentiated lesions. Strong and generalized immunoreactivity for HBME-l in a follicular lesion should raise the suspicion of malignancy, but negative staining specially in poorly differentiated lesion does not rule out malignancy.

  14. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid with paranasal sinus metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Madan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors that metastasize to paranasal sinus (PNS are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported worldwide. Of these, thyroid malignancies contribute 8%. We discuss here a patient aged 45 years with PNS mets from follicular variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid who had undergone surgery and radioiodine ablation. He presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis 2 years after local treatment. CT scan of PNS showed a large heterogeneously enhancing mass lesion in PNS, which on further evaluation was found to be consistent with metastases from primary thyroid cancer. He was given palliative radiotherapy to the metastatic lesion. Patient was alive after eighteen months of radiotherapy but there was no response to radiotherapy on imaging. To conclude PNS metastases from thyroid cancer are rare. But it should be always kept in mind in symptomatic patients. Also, patients with PNS mets can have a long disease free survival after palliative radiotherapy.

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nikhil [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: nikhil_ms26@yahoo.co.in; Kakar, Arun K. [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Chowdhury, Veena [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Gulati, Praveen [MR Centre, A-23 Green Park, New Delhi (India); Shankar, L. Ravi [Department of Radioiodine Uptake and Imaging, Institute of Nucler Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Timarpur, New Delhi (India); Vindal, Anubhav [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid.

  16. Expression Patterns of Glucose Transporter-1 Gene and Thyroid Specific Genes in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) gene and those of major thyroid-specific genes were examined in papillary carcinoma tissues, and the expressions of these genes were compared with cancer differentiation grades. Twenty-four human papillary carcinoma tissues were included in this study. The expressions of Glut-1- and thyroid-specific genes [sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor and pendrin] were analyzed by RT-PCR. Expression levels were expressed as ratios versus the expression of beta-actin. Pathologic differentiation of papillary carcinoma was classified into a relatively well-differentiated group (n=13) and relatively less differentiated group (n=11). Glut-1 gene expression was significantly higher in the less differentiated group (0.66±0.04) than in the well-differentiated group (0.59±0.07). The expression levels of the NIS, PD and TG genes were significantly higher in the well-differentiated group (NIS: 0.67±0.20, PD: 0.65±0.21, TG: 0.74±0.16) than in the less differentiated group (NIS: 0.36±0.05, PD: 0.49±0.08, TG: 0.60±0.11), respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between Glut-1 and NIS expression, and positive correlations were found between NIS and TG, and between NIS and PD. The NIS, PD and TG genes were highly expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereas the Glut-1 gene was highly expressed in less differentiated thyroid carcinomas. These findings provide a molecular rationale for the management of papillary carcinoma, especially in the selection of FDG PET or radioiodine whole-body scan and I-131-based therapy

  17. Expression Patterns of Glucose Transporter-1 Gene and Thyroid Specific Genes in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungeun; Chung, Junekey; Min Haesook and others

    2014-06-15

    The expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) gene and those of major thyroid-specific genes were examined in papillary carcinoma tissues, and the expressions of these genes were compared with cancer differentiation grades. Twenty-four human papillary carcinoma tissues were included in this study. The expressions of Glut-1- and thyroid-specific genes [sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor and pendrin] were analyzed by RT-PCR. Expression levels were expressed as ratios versus the expression of beta-actin. Pathologic differentiation of papillary carcinoma was classified into a relatively well-differentiated group (n=13) and relatively less differentiated group (n=11). Glut-1 gene expression was significantly higher in the less differentiated group (0.66±0.04) than in the well-differentiated group (0.59±0.07). The expression levels of the NIS, PD and TG genes were significantly higher in the well-differentiated group (NIS: 0.67±0.20, PD: 0.65±0.21, TG: 0.74±0.16) than in the less differentiated group (NIS: 0.36±0.05, PD: 0.49±0.08, TG: 0.60±0.11), respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between Glut-1 and NIS expression, and positive correlations were found between NIS and TG, and between NIS and PD. The NIS, PD and TG genes were highly expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereas the Glut-1 gene was highly expressed in less differentiated thyroid carcinomas. These findings provide a molecular rationale for the management of papillary carcinoma, especially in the selection of FDG PET or radioiodine whole-body scan and I-131-based therapy.

  18. ["Incidental" thyroid carcinoma among patients in surgical treatment for nontumors thyroid desease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaĭ, O P; Larin, O S; Cheren'ko, S M; Sheptukha, S A; Smoliar, V A; Zolotar'ov, P O

    2012-07-01

    Incidence of unexpected diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma among operations on benign thyroid surgical diseases (nodular goiter and Graves' disease) was studied in 608 patients within 2008-2009 years in specialized clinic of endocrine surgery. In 56 (9.2%) patients the "incidental" thyroid carcinoma including 43 (77%) - papillary microcarcinoma were diagnosed in histological investigations. In 10 (18%) patients which were performed within the first postoperative week. Repeated surgery demonstrates increased risk of complication (damage of parathyroid glands, recurrent laryngeal nerves and other anatomic structures of neck) considering less favoring conditions for secondary operations, it is worth to implement wider indications to frozen section, radical primary operation (total thyroidectomy at multi-nodular bilateral goiter and Graves' disease), and also maximal complete examination prior to surgery. PMID:23033769

  19. The Roles of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Marker PRRX1 and miR-146b-5p in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Asioli, Sofia; Yu, Xiao-Min; Harrison, April D.; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma represents the most common thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid carcinomas that invade locally or metastasize are associated with a poor prognosis. We found that, during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), papillary thyroid carcinoma cells acquired increased cancer stem cell-like features and the transcription factor paired-related homeobox protein 1 (PRRX1; alias PRX-1), a newly identified EMT inducer, was markedly up-regulated. miR-146b-5p was also transiently up-regulated during EMT, and in siRNA experiments miR-146b-5p had an inhibitory role on cell proliferation and invasion during TGF-β1–induced EMT. We conclude that papillary thyroid carcinoma tumor cells exhibit increased cancer stem cell-like features during TGF-β1–induced EMT, that miR-146b-5p has a role in cell proliferation and invasion, and that PRRX1 plays an important role in papillary thyroid carcinoma EMT and disease progression. PMID:24946010

  20. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  1. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  2. Plasma levels of osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jabar Lotfi; Mohammad Taghikhani; Marjan Zarif Yeganeh; Sara Sheikholeslami; Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent malignant tumor of the endocrine system in human body and accounts for nearly 1% of all cancers. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the third frequent of thyroid cancer and accounts about 5-8% of thyroid cancer. Osteocalcin, known as a Bone Gamma-carboxyglutamic Acid-containing Protein (BGLAP), is the most non collagenous protein. Retinol binding proteins are the family of proteins that have diverse actions but mainly transport retinol in human b...

  3. Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

  4. The prevalence and distribution of Th17 and Tc17 cells in patients with thyroid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqin; Ma, Shoubao; Wei, Yan; Wu, Yan; Yu, Xiao; Liu, Haiyan

    2014-11-01

    Both Th17 and Tc17 cells have been found in various tumors and may play important roles in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. However, the prevalence and distribution of Th17 and Tc17 cells in thyroid tumors are still unclear. In the current study, we examined the percentages of Th17 and Tc17 cells in the peripheral blood of 31 thyroid adenoma and 11 thyroid carcinoma patients. The serum IL-17 levels were also examined and their associations with Th17 and Tc17 cells were evaluated. Moreover, the presence of Th17 cells was detected in both thyroid adenoma and carcinoma patients. Our results showed that compared with healthy individuals, patients with thyroid tumors had a higher proportion of Th17 and lower proportion of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood. The serum concentration of IL-17 was significantly increased in patients with thyroid tumors and it was correlated with the percent of Th17 cells. Furthermore, the number of Th17 cells was significantly increased in the tumors of the patients. Th17 and Tc17 cells were negatively correlated with the tumor size. There was no significant difference between thyroid adenoma and carcinoma patients. These results indicate that Th17 cells may contribute to thyroid tumor pathogenesis. PMID:25068436

  5. Plasma levels of osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar Lotfi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: According to difference between plasma levels of osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 in patients suffered of medullary thyroid carcinoma comparison with normal subjects, it can be said that, probably medullary thyroid carcinoma has effect on bone and adipose tissue metabolism, so osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 hormones have potential to be used for confirmation of diagnosis or following treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Oral TRH stimulation of the thyroid in patients with thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma high serum TSH-levels enhance 131J-uptake in thyroid remnant and/or metastases. An effective increase of TSH could be achieved by oral administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) even after a short T4/T3-withdrawal period so that we recommend a TRH-stimulation in all patients before a diagnostic or therapeutic 131J-application. Adverse reactions to TRH are infrequent and usually shorttimed so that-in contrast to TSH-stimulation - TRH can be given to outpatients without any risk. (orig.)

  7. A Case Report Demonstrating How the Clinical Presentation of the Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Can Mimic Benign Riedel’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 44-year-old female presented with a two-month history of a neck mass, sore throat, hoarseness, and intermittent dysphagia. Examination revealed a “woody” hard swelling arising from the right lobe of the thyroid. Clinically this was felt to be classical Riedel’s thyroiditis (RT. Thyroid ultrasound showed a diffusely enlarged, low echogenicity thyroid with a multinodular goitre. An abnormal nodule extending across the isthmus was noted. Following a nondiagnostic fine needle aspiration, an open core biopsy was performed. This showed dense sclerotic fibrosis punctuated by nodular mononuclear inflammatory cells, which obscured follicular epithelial cells consistent with a fibrosing thyroiditis (Riedel’s thyroiditis. A biopsy of pretracheal lymph nodes showed a sclerotic process throughout the lymph nodes and nests of epithelium bands with squamous differentiation obscured by a fibrous process. These findings raised the differential diagnosis of diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSV-PTC with metastasis to lymph nodes. A total thyroidectomy and pretracheal lymph node dissection were performed. The final histological diagnosis was DSV-PTC. When managing a patient with presumed RT it is important to consider malignancy in the differential. DSV-PTC is one of the more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer but with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment patients may have excellent outcomes.

  8. Practical management of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimal extent of surgery and postoperative management of patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) vary among countries and institutions. We assessed the practical management of WDTC in Korea by questionnaire and compared these results with those obtained in similar surveys of members of the Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgery (JSTS) and the International Association of Endocrine Surgeons (IAES). Questionnaires were sent by mail or e-mail to 266 members of the Korean Association of Endocrine Surgeons (KAES). Ninety members (33.8%) completed the questionnaire; their responses were compared with those of the JSTS and IAES surveys. Total thyroidectomy was more prevalent in the KAES and IAES than in the JSTS, irrespective of tumor size in the low-risk group. Patients with papillary microcarcinoma were more likely to undergo aggressive central compartment node dissection in the KAES than in the IAES or JSTS. Thyroid stimulating hormone suppression therapy was administered to a higher proportion of patients and for longer times in the KAES and IAES than in the JSTS. Postoperative radioactive iodine treatment was more prevalent in the KAES than in the JSTS. There were no differences between the KAES and the JSTS in the treatment of patients with locally advanced thyroid carcinoma. External irradiation and radioactive iodine treatment for recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma were favored more by the KAES than the IAES and JSTS. The actual practices of members of the KAES were almost similar to those of the IAES, but differed from those in Japan in some aspects. In general, however, members of the KAES favored more aggressive treatment of WDTC than did physicians in other countries. (author)

  9. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  10. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorook Na’ara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC.

  11. Multiple giant scalp metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehders Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of skin metastases are rare events in the course of a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC and usually indicate advanced tumor stages. The scalp is the most affected area of these metastases. Case presentation We present a case of a 76 year old Woman with multiple giant scalp metastases of a follicular carcinoma. These metastases had been resected and wounds had been closed with mesh graft. The 14-months follow up is presented. Conclusion We demonstrate another case with multicentric form. Because of its location and size a primary wound closure was not possible. A healing could be reached using vacuum therapy and mesh graft transplantation.

  12. Protocol for thyroid remnant ablation after recombinant TSH in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some countries, in order to perform rhTSH-aided thyroid remnant ablation (TRA) after surgery, it is generally necessary to confirm that thyroidectomy has been almost complete. Otherwise, the nuclear medicine specialist will not administer a high radioiodine dose because it might be hazardous due to the possibility of thyroid remnant actinic thyroiditis. Considering this, it would be necessary to use two rhTSH kits (one for diagnostic purposes and the other one to administer the 131I dose). In this study, we used an alternative protocol for TRA with the use of one kit of rhTSH in twenty patients diagnosed with low risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. All patients had negative titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Successful thyroid remnant ablation was confirmed with an undetectable rhTSH stimulated thyroglobulin level (< 1 ng/ml) in all 20 patients between 8 to 12 months after radioiodine administration. The use of this protocol combining scintigraphy with the subsequent administration of a therapeutic dose following the administration of one kit of rhTSH would avoid the need of using 2 kits to perform the ablation and would decrease the costs associated with its use while significantly enhancing the quality of life of patients with thyroid cancer. (authors)

  13. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

  14. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

  15. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  16. Metastatic cerebellar tumor of papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking cerebellar hemangioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ideguchi, Makoto; Nishizaki, Takafumi; Ikeda, Norio; Nakano, Shigeki; Okamura, Tomomi; Fujii, Natsumi; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Ikeda, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma generally (PTC) have a favorable prognosis. This metastasis is rare in the central nervous system. Brain metastasis has a relatively poor prognosis. We present a rare case of cerebellar metastasis, one that mimics a solid type cerebellar hemangioblastoma and because of which it was very hard to reach accurate preoperative diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis was challenging because of the similar imaging and histopathological findings for ...

  17. [Thyroid carcinoma: from diagnosis to therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Casà, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Romano, Giorgio; Marrazzo, Emilia; Buscemi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007 we performed 104 surgical operations for thyroid malignancies. Over the same period, 312 patients underwent surgery for benign lesions of the thyroid gland. The patients were subdivided on the basis of age bracket and gender and the distribution of cancer and benign nodules was evaluated. Feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography, scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration cytology were also evaluated. The incidence of thyroid cancer was 25% in all patients. Patients aged 71 had the highest rate of malignancies: 52% of patients under 30 years of age and 46% over 70 years. Males showed a higher incidence than females. The scintigraphic findings were an area of low uptake in 19 cases (47.5%), an irregular pattern in 12 patients (30%) and a high uptake in 9 cases (22.5%); in 3 of them (7.5%), cancer was in the contralateral lobe and in 2 cases (5%) the dimensions were 8 and 4 mm. Forty-three patients had a single hypoechoic nodule at ultrasonography (41.3%), 3 (3%) were found with hypoechoic nodules containing calcifications and 1 (0.9%) a single anechoic nodule. Fifty-six patients (53.9%) had multiple nodules and 1 (0.9%) was admitted for a latero-cervical lymph node. FNAC revealed 11 cases of fibronectin expression (14.4%): in particular, 3 patients (4%) had cancer in the contralateral lobe and 3 patients (4%) had tumours measuring less than 5 mm. Thyroid surgery is safe and the morbidity rate is about 2%. We observed only one lesion of recurrent nerve (0.5% of patients), temporary recurrent palsy in 2.8% of patients and transient hypocalcaemia in 6.7% of cases. PMID:19062491

  18. Somatostatin receptors and somatostatin content in medullary thyroid carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human medullary thyroid carcinomas from 19 patients were analyzed for their content in somatostatin (SRIF) receptors using receptor autoradiography with a SRIF-28 analogue and the SRIF octapeptide [Tyr3]-SMS 201-995 as iodinated radioligands. Four out of 19 cases were SRIF receptor positive with the SRIF octapeptide radioligand. These cases as well as four additional tumors were also positive with the SRIF-28 radioligand 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-SRIF-28. High affinity binding sites pharmacologically specific for bioactive SRIF analogues, specifically located on tumor tissue, were identified. In some cases the SRIF receptors were distributed in a non-homogeneous pattern, with labelling occurring preferentially in highly differentiated tumor regions. Numerous cases were shown to have a high tumoral SRIF content measured by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical technique. However, there was no correlation between SRIF receptor status and tumor levels of endogenous SRIF. No correlation was seen between the clinical outcome or the survival of the patients and their tumoral SRIF receptor content. Whereas some medullary thyroid carcinomas seem to be a target for SRIF, the SRIF function in these tumors remains unclear. SRIF receptors in a group of medullary thyroid carcinomas may be useful morphological marker of these tumors and of potential interest for their in vivo localization

  19. 伴鳞样成分的甲状腺间变性癌临床病理分析%Clinicopathologic Analysis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma with Squamoid Cell Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘毅; 孙保存

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨伴鳞样成分的甲状腺间变性癌(anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamoid cell component,ATC-SCC)的诊断、鉴别诊断及临床病理特征.方法:回顾性分析85例少见甲状腺肿瘤的临床病理资料,通过HE切片进行形态学观察,对5例ATC-SCC,6例甲状腺鳞状细胞癌(squamous cell carcinoma,SCC),8例甲状腺呈胸腺样分化癌(carcinoma showing thymus-like ele?ments,CASTLE)和2 例甲状腺降钙素阴性的神经内分泌肿瘤(calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid gland,CNNETT)进行9项免疫组织化学染色,包括Cytokeratin(CK)、Vimentin(VM)、Chromogranin A(CgA)、Synaptophysin(SYN)、CD117、CD5、Calcitonin(CT)、Thyroglobulin(TG)和Thyroid transcription factor-1(TTF-1),并对结果进行分析.结果:5例ATC-SCC中,男性2例,女性3例;年龄41~79岁,平均年龄53.2岁;肿物位于左腺叶3例,右腺叶2例.临床表现为无痛性颈部肿物.肿物通常体积较大,质地硬实,与周围组织粘连.镜下可见肿瘤组织由梭形细胞、多形性巨细胞、破骨样细胞和鳞状上皮样细胞以不同比例混合而成,并可见胞浆红染的横纹肌样细胞及大片坏死.免疫组织化学染色显示5例ATC-SCC的肿瘤细胞CK和VM均阳性.鳞状上皮样细胞为主要成分时需要与SCC、CASTLE和CNNETT进行鉴别.结论:ATC-SCC多见于老年人,女性较多见,生长迅速,常扩展至甲状腺外累犯颈部软组织,预后非常差,手术和放化疗相结合是治疗ATC-SCC的基本原则.%Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamoid cell component ( ATC-SCC ).Methods: The data of 85 cases with rare thyroid neoplasms were retrospectively analyzed.Morphological observation of the sections from all cases was conducted after H&E staining.Five cases of ATC-SCC, 6 cases of thyroid squamous cell carcinoma ( TSCC ), 8 cases of with thyroid carcinoma showing thymus

  20. Clinicopathological and Molecular Histochemical Review of Skull Base Metastasis from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma

  1. Coexistence of Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Carcinoma and Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Karbek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant lesion of a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC is an extremely rare entity. Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Diagnosis is commonly made after pathological examination of the surgical specimen. A 41-year-old male patient with a midline neck mass was initially diagnosed with a thyroglossal duct cyst and underwent a Sistrunks procedure. Histopathologic examination revealed a papillary thyroid car¬cinoma within the thyroglossal duct cyst. Ultrasound elastography of the thyroid gland was performed. We have detected a hypoechoic hypervascular thyroid nodule measuring 3 mm in diameter that appeared completely blue in B-mode ultrasonography, and hard tissue was visualized by elastosonography (ES. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. The final pathological finding showed papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland without cervical lymph node metastasis. When a thyroglossal duct cyst is excised using Sistrunk’s procedure and when the definitive hystological analysis depicts malignancy, the thyroid gland must be studied carefully with radiological examinations. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 127-8

  2. Differentiation between healthy thyroid remnants and tumor tissue after radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using in-vitro phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In many tumors, tumor growth and spread is triggered by changes in cell membrane metabolism, which can lead to systemic alterations in levels of phospholipids. The aim of this study was to differentiate between healthy remnants of thyroid tissue and residual/recurrent tumor tissue or metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma by measurement of plasma levels of various phospholipids. Phospholipid concentrations was measured by in-vitro phosphorus-31-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in blood samples from 30 patients with thyroid cancer, who had been rendered hypothyroid in preparation for diagnostic/therapeutic administration of iodine-131. All patients were already thyroidectomized. 131I-whole-body scintigraphy and measurements of thyroglobulin values in a 2-year-follow-up were used to distinguish between patients in remission, patients with only healthy thyroid remnants and patients with cancerous thyroid tissue and/or metastases. Significantly lower blood plasma levels of systemic sphingomyelin (0.33±0.06 vs. 0.46±0.03 (controls) mmol/l; p31P-MRS can be used to differentiate between the presence of tumor tissue, healthy remnants of thyroid tissue not requiring further treatment and remission in patients with thyroid cancer. In future, therefore, plasma 31P-MRS could be developed as an additional diagnostic tool for the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer. (author)

  3. TROP-2 immunohistochemistry: a highly accurate method in the differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Andrey; Sampatanukul, Pichet; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Keelawat, Somboon

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the novel immunohistochemical marker TROP-2 on thyroid specimens (226 tumours and 207 controls). Whole slide immunohistochemistry was performed and scored by automated digital image analysis. Non-neoplastic thyroid, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and medullary carcinomas were negative for TROP-2 immunostaining. The majority of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) specimens (94/114, 82.5%) were positive for TROP-2; however, the pattern of staining differed significantly between the histopathological variants. All papillary microcarcinomas (mPTC), PTC classic variant (PTC cv), and tall cell variant (PTC tcv) were TROP-2 positive, with mainly diffuse staining. In contrast, less than half of the PTC follicular variant specimens were positive for TROP-2, with only focal immunoreactivity. TROP-2 could identify PTC cv with 98.1% sensitivity and 97.5% specificity. ROC curve analysis found that the presence of >10% of TROP-2 positive cells in a tumour supported a diagnosis of PTC. The study of intratumoural heterogeneity showed that low-volume cytological samples of PTC cv could be adequately assessed by TROP-2 immunostaining. The TROP-2 H-score (intensity multiplied by proportion) was significantly associated with PTC variant and capsular invasion in encapsulated PTC follicular variant (pdisease, stage) parameters were correlated with TROP-2 expression. In conclusion, TROP-2 membranous staining is a very sensitive and specific marker for PTC cv, PTC tcv, and mPTC, with high overall specificity for PTC. PMID:27311870

  4. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Shafek Atta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner’s, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A.

  5. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ihab Shafek; AlQahtani, Fahd Nasser

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner's, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A. PMID:27087812

  6. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ihab Shafek; AlQahtani, Fahd Nasser

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner's, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A. PMID:27087812

  7. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  8. Utility of a novel triple marker (combination of thyroid transcription factor 1, Napsin A, and P40) in the subclassification of non-small cell lung carcinomas using fine-needle aspiration cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Li; Gurda, Grzegorz T; Geddes, Susan; Gabrielson, Edward; Askin, Frederic; Li, Qing Kay

    2016-08-01

    Personalized treatment of lung cancer requires an accurate subclassification of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) into adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), and other subtypes. In poorly differentiated tumors especially on small fine-needle aspirate specimens, the subclassification could be difficult in certain cases. Our previous study using resected tumor tissue has shown that the combination of commonly used individual markers (thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF-1], P40, and Napsin A) into a novel triple marker has high sensitivity and specificity in subclassification of NSCLC and also the advantage of using minimal tumor tissue. In this study, we further evaluated the utility of this novel triple marker using fine-needle aspirate cases. We included primary NSCLC, consisting of 37 SqCCs (primary, 35; metastasis, 2) and 50 ADCs (primary, 29; metastasis, 21), 12 metastatic ADCs of nonpulmonary primary, and 10 small cell lung carcinomas. The immunohistochemical patterns were semiquantitatively scored. In lung SqCCs and ADCs, the sensitivity and specificity of the triple marker were 100% and 97.1% and 86.0% and 100%, respectively. The triple marker showed no immunoreactivity in 12 metastatic nonpulmonary ADCs. In 10 small cell lung carcinomas, TTF-1 had focal positivity in 40% of cases. The limitations of the triple marker include staining of alveolar macrophages (by TTF-1 and Napsin A), basal layer of bronchial epithelial cells (by P40), and nonspecific cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1. Our study not only supports our previous finding using resected tumor specimens but also provides evidence that the triple marker can be used for cytological material and preserving tumor tissue for molecular testing. PMID:27045515

  9. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  10. Cardiac, choroidal and subcutaneous metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: to describe an unusual case of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with uncommon metastases at the left atrium, the pulmonary vessels, the right eye and a subcutaneous mass. Materials and methods: the patient record was reviewed retrospectively. We analysed clinical outcomes and thyroglobulin rate as well as imaging findings after radio-iodine therapy. Results: we report the case of 43-year-old woman operated in 1995 for multi-nodular goitre by total thyroidectomy. Histopathologic findings were typical of follicular thyroid carcinoma with vascular invasion. The patient was then lost of sight and consulted in 2000 for a neck swelling. She was operated again for lymphadenectomy with resection of two peri-jugular tumoral masses that deviate vascular axes. Histopathologic findings concluded for residual follicular thyroid carcinoma with insular component without lymph node metastasis. The initial chest CT revealed a macro-nodular lung miliairy and the whole body scan post 100 mCi Iodine-131 showed intense cervical uptake and multiple bilateral thoracic fixations. The evolution after 10 cures of Iodine-131 has been marked by a persistently high thyroglobulin levels superior to 800 ng/ml with disappearance of cervical uptake and the persistence of pulmonary fixations. Bone scintigraphy scan was negative. Later, the patient complained of a decreased visual acuity. The last whole body SPECT/CT scan revealed multiple fixations of I-131 located at the right eyeball, lungs, left atrium, liver, sacrum as well as an abdominal subcutaneous solid mass. MRI confirmed a right choroid metastasis. Conclusion: follicular thyroid carcinoma comprises 15% of all thyroid cancers and usually metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs and bone. Other rare sites of metastases are the brain, pituitary, maxilla, larynx, and thymus. Distant metastases of these sites, particularly choroidal are exceptional. Metastatic cardiac involvement occurs most often during

  11. Added value of SPECT/CT in addition to whole-body scintigraphy augmented with prone lateral views in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ATASAYAR N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to determine the impact of SPECT/CT performed in addition to whole-­‐body scintigraphy augmented with prone lateral views in patients with well-­‐differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 141 patients (87 female, 54 male, mean age 47 years) with well-­‐differentiated thyroid carcinoma (105 papillary, 31 follicular, 1 Hürthle cell and 4 poorly differentiated) treated with radioiodine therapy (1000-7400 MBq). P...

  12. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, dermoid cyst and polycystic ovary syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Total body scintigraphy after the I-131 treatment for thyroid carcinoma is a routine procedure in staging. For smaller tumors uptake outside the neck is seldomly seen, usually benign and without clinical significance. However, a conscientious analysis of there accumulations can be relevant. A 33 year-old female presented in December 1998 with a T2N1M0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroidectomy, neck dissection and 50 mCi 1-131 treated her. The post-therapy scan was negative except for a small spot in the neck (thyroidremnant: 3.0 %). In September 1999 150 mCi was administered and the scan afterwards showed a focus median in the neck (thyroid remnant: 0.3 %) and a persistent hotspot in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen (figure). The thyreoglobuline was 3.8 μg/l (unchanged to the first I-131 therapy) during maximal TSH Stimulation (174 mu/l). Transvaginal ultrasound revealed an enlarged left ovary which was laparoscopical removed and appeared to be a dermoid cyst with hair- and skincomponents, respiratory epithelia and bone. Only after staining on thyreoglobuline thyroid tissue was demonstrated; there were no signs of malignancy. Six months later a 10 mCi I-131 scintigraphy was negative; thyreoglobuline was < 0.5 μg/l and TSH 161 mg/l suggesting no thyroid tissue was present in the Body. Her medical history showed a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). She received treatment for ovulation induction including clomiphene, HCG, FSH and LH. Her thyroid function was normal. After two miscarriages She gave birth to a daughter. Germ cells must been present since birth to form a dermoid cyst during life. In our patient, the dermoid cyst with benign thyroid cells was visualized only after the second I-131 therapy. We assume that the sensitivity of a scan after 50 mCi and 150 mCi I-131 is equal. Therefore, probably not the ovulation induction medication but the TSH stimulation for the I-131 therapy is the reason for the development of the dermoid cyst. That only

  13. Surgical Management of Bulky Mediastinal Metastases in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Adwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.

  14. The application of molecular nuclear medicine in imaging diagnosis and targeted treatment of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of endocrine system. Different pathological classifications of thyroid carcinoma differ greatly in biological behavior and prognosis. As a newly-emerging subject, molecular nuclear medicine has made rapid advances in both diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma. With the application of new imaging agents and devices such as SPECT/CT and PET/CT, molecular nuclear imaging can demonstrate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the alterations in specific molecules of thyroid cancer on cellular and molecular level. Meanwhile, it is capable of utilizing radiopharmaceuticals to target specifically to these molecules. Here we present a review on the latest progresses in this field. (authors)

  15. A retrospective analysis of clinical and pathological features of thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in patients from Qilu Hospital of Shandong University in last 7 years,and to explore the changes in disease spectrum.Methods Records of 772 patients with thyroid carcinoma,who underwent thyroidectomy and pathological examination,were

  16. Trace elemental analysis of adenoma and carcinoma thyroid by PIXE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Anjaneyulu, Ch.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Sundareswar, B.; Vijayan, V.

    2002-11-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of normal, adenoma and carcinoma thyroids using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, I, Hg and Pb were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of the elements Ca, Cu, Zn, As, I and Hg are found to be much lower in carcinoma thyroid than those in the normal thyroid while the concentration of the elements K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Sr in carcinoma thyroid are higher than the concentrations in normal thyroid. The lower and higher values of some of the elements in carcinoma thyroid may be attributed to some pathological factors.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney

  18. Acute myeloid leukemia following radioactive iodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Ankit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive iodine (RAI therapy plays an important role in the management of thyroid malignancies. Leukemia is a very rare complication of radioactive therapy. There are very few case reports with doses below 100 mCi causing leukemia. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated with 80 mCi RAI who later developed acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, all patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with RAI should undergo periodic hematological examinations irrespective of RAI dose.

  19. Acute myeloid leukemia following radioactive iodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Ankit; Premalata CS; Saini KV; Bapsy PP; Sajeevan KV; Tejinder Singh; Ullas Batra; Babu Govind; Lokanatha Dasappa; Suresh Atilli; Permeshwar R

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy plays an important role in the management of thyroid malignancies. Leukemia is a very rare complication of radioactive therapy. There are very few case reports with doses below 100 mCi causing leukemia. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated with 80 mCi RAI who later developed acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, all patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with RAI should undergo periodic hematological examinations irrespective of RAI dose.

  20. Endobronchial metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as hemoptysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwaha RAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial metastasis secondary to follicular thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of follicular thyroid cancer in 58-year-old male who presented with hemoptysis. Computed tomography of the chest revealed multiple lung metastases. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a fragile polypoid mass 5 cm distal to the vocal cords; biopsy taken from this mass revealed follicular thyroid carcinoma.

  1. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for “smart” small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanhua Li,1,2 Zuojun Hu,1 Henghui Yin,1 Yunjian Zhang,1 Xueling Huang,1 Shenming Wang,1 Wen Li2 1Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assay confirmed that complete triblock components were successfully synthesized with effective binding capacity of siRNA in this triblock nanocarrier. Cytotoxicity data indicated that conjugation of PEG significantly alleviated cytotoxicity when compared with unmodified PAMAM. PAMAM-PEG-cRGD exerted potent siRNA cellular internalization in which transfection efficiency measured by flow cytometry was up to 68% when the charge ratio (N/P ratio was 3.5. Ligand-receptor affinity together with electrostatic interaction should be involved in the nano-siRNA endocytosis mechanism and we then proved that attachment of cRGD enhanced cellular uptake via RGD-integrin recognition. Gene silencing was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and PAMAM-PEG-cRGD-siRNA complex downregulated the expression of hERG to 26.3% of the control value. Furthermore, gene knockdown of hERG elicited growth suppression as well as activated apoptosis by means of abolishing vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and triggering caspase-3 cascade in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Our study demonstrates that this novel triblock polymer, PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, exhibits negligible

  2. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Denmark, 1996–2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regional as well as national series show an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer largely small size papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Prognostic scoring systems have been developed, but these do not take into account the rapidly changing case mix, and adjustments may be required. The...... was possible to confirm age, metastases (distant and nodal), extrathyroidal extension, and tumor size as predictors of mortality, whereas only nodal metastases, extrathyroidal extension, and tumor size were predictors of recurrence. In analyses of older prognostic scoring systems, a significant.......5%, confirming the generally excellent survival. CONCLUSION: This national study provides further evidence that a favorable prognosis is to be expected for patients diagnosed with PTC. Also, it was possible to confirm age, metastases, extrathyroidal extension, and tumor size as predictors of mortality, whereas...

  3. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, E.J.; Paul, J.; Reed, N.S. (Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dyspnagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. (Author).

  4. Handling of ganglion in papillar carcinoma of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports in the literature present different concepts regarding the handling of the ganglion for the well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. From the tumor diagnosis, until the aspects presage of the same one, important controversies exist regarding the tumoral biology. The statistical analyses offer diverse conclusions that can support some or other postures. In the United States they are diagnosed 17.200 new cases of thyroid cancer annually, with an annual mortality of 1200 people. The varied behavior of this illness, makes that the points of view are multiple and it becomes necessary to have an own statistic at least as comparison point to suggest the handlings but chords to the population in study, because it is debated largely if the presence or not of the adenopatie they influence in the relapse and in the survival of these patients

  5. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dyspnagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. (Author)

  6. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junor, E J; Paul, J; Reed, N S

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dysphagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. PMID:1582515

  7. A Case of Primary Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the Thyroid Masquerading as Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Potentially More than a One Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S; Shaheen, M; Olson, G; Barry, M; Wu, J; Bocklage, T

    2016-09-01

    We present the second reported mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) apparently arising in the thyroid and propose a potential close relationship to ETV6-NTRK3 fusion papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient, a 36 year old woman, presented with a neck mass of 1 year's duration. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving most of the thyroid with enlarged regional lymph nodes. FNA biopsy yielded a diagnosis of "papillary thyroid carcinoma". Resection revealed a 4.5 cm infiltrative tumor. Final diagnosis was "papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) consistent with diffuse sclerosing variant" with positive lymph nodes (2+/4) and margins. Histologic features included mixed microcystic, solid, follicular and papillary architecture, prominent nucleoli, abundant nuclear grooves and rare nuclear pseudo-inclusions. Despite radioactive iodine, radiotherapy and multiagent chemotherapy, the patient progressed over 6 years with local recurrence and additional lymph node involvement finally developing widespread distant metastases. Prompted by the breast carcinoma-like histopathology of a metastasis, immunohistochemical staining was performed and revealed strong expression of GATA3 and mammaglobin with no reactivity for thyroglobulin or TTF-1. The original tumor was then tested and showed the same immunoprofile. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion consistent with a diagnosis of MASC. Our patient's clinical, imaging and morphologic features remarkably mimicked papillary thyroid carcinoma. At the molecular level, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in this patient involved exons reported in the rare "papillary thyroid carcinoma" with this translocation. Given the immunophenotype of this case, it is possible that at least some ETV6-NTRK3 fusion positive PTC are actually MASC masquerading as papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27075025

  8. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Akhtar; Ahmad Shamshad; Zaheer Sufian; Mansoor Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an aggressive tumor variant thought to arise predominantly from differentiation of clear cell carcinoma. A few reports of SRCC asso-ciated with non-clear cell tumors led to the presumption that SRCC may arise from any renal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of this is lacking. We report a case of a 70-year-old male patient, who presented with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was diagnosed to have SRCC after pathological examination...

  9. Quantitative evaluation of radiodine ablation of the thyroid in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have developed a novel method of quantitative analysis of post radioiodine ablation scans for differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid to enable an objective comparison of patients receiving recombinant TSH with those who have had withdrawal of thyroid hormone supplements. Reliance on visual estimation of the completeness of thyroid ablation can have errors related to observer variation and variation in the settings of the display. Traditionally a neck uptake of 2 (chi squared). Low values of minimum X2 correlate well with an absence of uptake in residual thyroid tissue. In areas with increased activity, comparison with the fitted curve is used to give a value in units of statistical error or standard deviation (S.D.). The method has been tested in a series of 36 consecutive patients following radioiodine ablation. The patients were divided visually into three groups: complete ablation (17), normal excretion into the oesophagus (7) and focal residual uptake in tumor or normal thyroid (12). In the complete ablation group the maximum variation from the fitted curve ranged from 2.0 to 4.1 S.Ds. (with a mean of 2.7 f 0.14 S.E.). In patients with a visible linear uptake in the oesophageal region the variation ranged from 3.0 - 4.5 S.Ds.. In those patients with focal uptake the variation ranged from 4.8 S.Ds. to 83 S.Ds.. This technique has proved to be a valuable method of quantitative thyroid ablation especially when there are equivocal areas of low focal uptake. The technique can be applied to equally to any situation where it is necessary to confirm that variation in uptake is within normal limits where the background activity changes, e.g. with the changing shape of an organ, or where it is difficult to define a 'normal' symmetrical region of interest. (author)

  10. Double primary bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jen-Hsun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Double primary bronchogenic carcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid are extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient who underwent surgical resection for these two cancers. Case presentation A 56-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of a cough with blood-tinged sputum. A slowly growing mass in the left lobe of the lung had been noted for about 1 year. He underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery of the left lower lobe and mediastinal lymph node dissection through an 8 cm utility incision. Pathology revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and the dissected lymph nodes were negative for malignancy. He also complained of a mass in his neck, which had grown slowly for over 5 years. A computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a left thyroid mass compressing the trachea towards the right side. There was no cervical lymphadenopathy. A left thyroid lobectomy was performed and pathology revealed a papillary carcinoma. Thus, he underwent a second operation to remove the right lobe of the thyroid. He underwent subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion In a review of the literature, it appears that there has only been one previously reported case of these two cancers, which was in Japan. The relationship between these two cancers is still unclear, and more case reports are required to determine this relationship.

  11. Comparative light- and electro microscopic characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    190 thyroid carcinomas in children aged up to 15 (154 cases) and adolescents aged 15 to 18 (36 cases) operated at the Institute's Clinic from 1986 to the 30th of June 1995, have been studied using light and electron microscopy. It has been found in 93.2% papillary, in 3.2% - medullary, in 1% - anaplastic carcinomas. A typical papillary carcinoma was revealed in 11.5%, follicular variant - in 39.0%, solid variant - in 28.1%, diffuse and sclerosing variant - in 3.8%. In cases of solid variant low-differentiated cells prevailed in the tumor, what manifested itself the most obviously by electron microscopic analysis. The thyroid carcinomas studied in children and adolescents of Ukraine are characterized by high invasive properties, that is confirmed by a high percentage (66.5%) of regional metastases

  12. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  13. The pathology of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied data on the sex and age distribution of 293 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children operated in Belarus between January 1990 and December 1994. We have also reviewed the histology of 134 cases and performed immunocytochemistry for calcitonin, thyroglobulin, ret, met and p53 and in situ hybridisation for thyroglobulin and calcitonin on a sample of these cases. We have compared the data derived from this series with those obtained from a similar series of 122 cases operated in Kiev, Ukraine over the same time period and those from 154 cases operated in England and Wales over a 30 year period. There was agreement on the diagnosis of malignancy in 132 of the 134 Belarussian cases (98%). In 2 of the cases there was no evidence of malignancy in the material seen in Cambridge, but not all the original pathological material was available for review. In 7 cases there was evidence of malignancy, but inadequate material to determine the subtype of malignancy. The papillary carcinomas were classified as of the classic type when they showed a papillary architecture and the nuclear features typical of adult papillary carcinoma, or of the solid follicular type as described in the series studied in England and Wales (1). Four were papillary micro carcinomas. The age and sex distribution of all cases from Belarus showed a markedly different pattern from that observed in England and Wales. In Belarus the peak was at age 9, while the England and Wales series showed a smooth rise in incidence with increasing age. Virtually all the cases from Belarus were papillary carcinoma (99%) compared with only 68% in England and Wales. In addition, there was a higher proportion of papillary carcinomas of the solid/follicular type (72% in Belarus, 35% in England and Wales). The frequency of this subtype did not change significantly with age in Belarus, whereas there was a relative decrease from 62% in the 0-9 year age group to 23% in the 10-14 year age group in England and Wales

  14. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cetta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement, suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1 for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2 for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP.

  15. Cranium Metastasis: An Unusual Presentation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Ayşe Kubat Üzüm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distant metastasis may be the initial sign of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in rare cases. In this instance, the treatment approach is usually individualized. Unlike most other cancers, local treatment of the primary tumor (total thyroidectomy is preferred as ablative surgery; so that radioactive iodine therapy should be more effective. Repeated doses of I-131 and radiotherapy for metastatic lesions may be needed. We report a female who presented with bone metastasis with fatal progression. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 71-4

  16. HABP2 G534E Variant in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

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    Jerneja Tomsic

    Full Text Available The main nonmedullary form of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC that accounts for 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies. Only 3-10% of PTC patients have a positive family history of PTC yet the familiality is one of the highest of all cancers as measured by case control studies. A handful of genes have been implicated accounting for a small fraction of this genetic predisposition. It was therefore of considerable interest that a mutation in the HABP2 gene was recently implicated in familial PTC. The present work was undertaken to examine the extent of HABP2 variant involvement in PTC. The HABP2 G534E variant (rs7080536 was genotyped in blood DNA from 179 PTC families (one affected individual per family, 1160 sporadic PTC cases and 1395 controls. RNA expression of HABP2 was tested by qPCR in RNA extracted from tumor and normal thyroid tissue from individuals that are homozygous wild-type or heterozygous for the variant. The variant was found to be present in 6.1% familial cases, 8.0% sporadic cases (2 individuals were homozygous for the variant and 8.7% controls. The variant did not segregate with PTC in one large and 6 smaller families in which it occurred. In keeping with data from the literature and databases the expression of HABP2 was highest in the liver, much lower in 3 other tested tissues (breast, kidney, brain but not found in thyroid. Given these results showing lack of any involvement we suggest that the putative role of variant HABP2 in PTC should be carefully scrutinized.

  17. Carcinoma of the Thyroid. Preoperative diagnostic and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By improving preoperative diagnosis and identification of important prognostic factors of thyroid carcinoma (TC) it might be possible to decrease the number of diagnostic surgical intervantions and to give patients with a confirmed TC a more adequate treatment. Preoperative diagnosis: consecutive series of 83 patients with scintigrams and of 203 patients with fine-needle aspiration (AC) with subsequently histologically confirmed TC were evaluated as well as 217 patients with confirmed benign thyroid disorders. The most common scintigraphic appearance was a solitary reduced uptake (70%). The sensitivity of AC for medullary and undifferentiated TC was 0.82-0.84, but it was for papillary (occult TC excluded) 0.58 and for follicular TC 0.42. A 'cold' nodule with also a decreased thallium-uptake is mostly a benign disorder, but with an increased uptake it might be a well-differentiated TC or a follicular adenoma. These could, however, be significantly separated by the thallium-elimination rate (p=0.0001). Prognostic factors: During 1955-1972, 262 patients with histologically verified TC were referred to the Department and 226 of these (86%) with a median follow-up of 11 years form the basis for prognostic multivariate analyses. According to these analyses, and when deaths in intercurrent disease were estimated, neither age at diagnosis nor sex were found to be important predictors of survival of TC. The following predictors were identified: for papillary TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule and marked cellular atypia; for follicular TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule, marked cellular atypia and distant metastases; for medullary TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule. (Author)

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  19. Mixed Medullary-follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangtao Ma; Liwei Yu; Jing Fu; Shan Wang; Ruyu Du; Zhirong Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mixed medullary-follicular carcinomas (MMFCs) are tumors of the thyroid that display morphological and immunohistochemical features of both medullary and follicular neoplasms. These tumors are rare and less than 40 cases have been described in the literature since the early 1980s.[1] The term medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma denotes a tumor which exhibits the features of a medullary carcinoma and shows positive expression of calcitonin on immunohistochemistry.

  20. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (CASTLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuying; Wang, Li; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xibiao; Li, Qiu

    2013-10-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare intrathyroidal neoplasm, probably arising from ectopic thymus or branchial pouch remnants. The tumor was first reported by Miyauchi et al. [1].The clinical and pathological features of this tumor were classified by Chan et al. [2] into 4 groups: ectopic hamartomatous thymoma, ectopic cervical thymoma, spindle ephithelial tumor with thymic-like differentiation (SETTLE), and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE). Recently, CASTLE has been designated as an independent clinicopathologic entity of thyroid tumors in the most recent edition of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of endocrine organs[3].To our knowledge, less than 100 cases of CASTLE have been reported in the literature, 45 cases of which (including one of the authors' patient) have been identified in China. We report a new case of this entity and suggest recommendations for diagnosis. PMID:23920320

  1. Surgery for lymph node metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Linda X; Moley, Jeffrey F

    2016-02-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy of the thyroid C cells that occurs in hereditary and sporadic clinical settings. Metastatic spread commonly occurs to cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes. MTC cells do not concentrate radioactive iodine and are not sensitive to hormonal manipulation, and therefore surgery is the most effective option for curative therapy, reduction in tumor burden, or effective palliation. In patients undergoing preventative surgery for hereditary MTC, central lymph node dissection should be considered if the calcitonin level is elevated. Preservation of parathyroid function in these young patients is of paramount importance. In patients with established primary tumors, systematic surgical removal of lymph node basins (compartmental dissection) should be guided by ultrasound mapping of lymph node metastases and level of serum calcitonin. A "berry-picking" approach is discouraged. Newly approved targeted molecular therapies offer wider treatment options for patients with progressive or metastatic disease. PMID:26539937

  2. Actual Incidence and Clinical Behaviour of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: An Institutional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela De Crea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma classically accounts for 10–32% of thyroid malignancies. We determined the incidence and the behaviour of follicular thyroid carcinoma in an endemic goitre area. A comparative analysis between minimally invasive and widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma was performed. The medical records of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy from October 1998 to April 2012 for thyroid malignancies were reviewed. Those who had a histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma were included. Among 5203 patients, 130 (2.5% were included. Distant metastases at presentation were observed in four patients. Sixty-six patients had a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and 64 a widely invasive follicular carcinoma. In 63 patients an oxyphilic variant was registered. Minimally/widely invasive ratio was 41/26 for usual follicular carcinoma and 25/38 for oxyphilic variant (P<0.05. Patients with widely invasive tumors had larger tumors (P<0.001 and more frequently oxyphilic variant (P<0.05 than those with minimally invasive tumours. No significant difference was found between widely invasive and minimally invasive tumors and between usual follicular carcinoma and oxyphilic variant regarding the recurrence rate (P=NS. The incidence of follicular thyroid carcinoma is much lower than classically retained. Aggressive treatment, including total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, should be proposed to all patients.

  3. Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were

  4. A case of minocycline-induced black thyroid associated with papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Kohei; Kumai, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Daizo; Yumoto, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    We report a rare case of black thyroid accompanied by papillary carcinoma in a patient with an extended history of minocycline treatment. A 78-year-old man was referred to our outpatient clinic with swelling in his neck. He had been taking minocycline for the previous 2 years and 7 months to treat chronic perianal pyoderma. Neck ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a 3.5 × 3.7 × 5.0-cm nodule in the left thyroid lobe, and fine-needle aspiration cytology identified it as a papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy and neck dissection. During the procedure, a distinct black discoloration of the thyroid parenchyma was observed. Histopathology confirmed both the black thyroid and the papillary carcinoma. Based on the thyroid gland's discoloration and the history of minocycline use, the patient was diagnosed with minocycline-induced black thyroid. He was symptom-free 20 months after surgery. PMID:26991226

  5. Thyroid Carcinoma with Pituitary Metastases: 2 Case Reports and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiying Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 2 patients with pituitary metastases from thyroid carcinoma—the first from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and the second from follicular thyroid carcinoma. The first patient, a 50-year-old lady, presented with 2-week history of hoarseness of voice, dysphagia, dyspnoea, and neck swelling. Imaging revealed metastatic thyroid cancer to lymph nodes and bone. Histology from surgery confirmed anaplastic thyroid cancer. She was found to have pituitary metastases postoperatively when she presented with nonvertiginous dizziness. She subsequently underwent radiotherapy and radioiodine treatment but passed away from complications. The second patient, a 65-year-old lady, presented with loss of appetite and weight with increased goitre size and dyspnoea. Surgery was performed in view of compressive symptoms and histology confirmed follicular thyroid carcinoma. Imaging revealed metastases to bone, lung, and pituitary. She also had panhypopituitarism with hyperprolactinemia and diabetes insipidus. She received radioiodine therapy but eventually passed away from complications.

  6. Second malignancies following the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To see the incidence of second cancers in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after being treated with radioiodine. Medical records of 814 (417 males, 397 females) patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka were reviewed. The purpose was to investigate the incidence of second cancer in these patients after radioiodine therapy. The age range of the patient population treated with radioiodine was 9 to 69 years. Doses of radioiodine given were in the range of 30 to 100mCi for ablation and 150 to 250mCi for treatment of metastasis. The median follow-up period was 93.7± 15 months. Eleven (1.35 %) of the 814 patients developed a second malignancy. Two patients (0.25%) developed chronic myelogenous leukemia within a latency period of 5 years and after receiving a cumulative dose of 600- 670mCi. The over all incidence of second malignancy in the form of solid tumors was 1.10%. Of the nine patients with solid tumors, there were two patients with renal cell carcinoma, three patients with parotid gland tumor, one patient with pancreatic cancer, one with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, one with carcinoid tumor and one with small cell carcinoma of the lungs. The mean latency period for development of these tumors was 6.92 ± 3.934 years and the mean cumulative dose received by all these patients was 537.25±120.55 mCi. Follow-up of a fairly large cohort of patients treated with radioiodine showed a low incidence of second neoplasm. No relation was observed between the cumulative dose received and the development of a second malignancy. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease, which may be associated with other malignancies. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of radioiodine therapy should be considered. (author)

  7. The indication for 131I-therapy in occult thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the normal population is several orders of magnitude higher than the incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer, and the recurrence rate or mortality is very low, even after conservative therapy. Therefore, occult papillary thyroid carcinoma has to be considered as distinct biologic entity. Therefore, we recommend no further surgery or ablation of the thyroid remnant with 131I for patients less than 40 years old with occult papillary carcinoma without metastases. In case of metastases, however, 131I-therapy should be performed after total thyroidectomy. All follicular thyroid carcinomas, regardless of their size, are to be treated by total thyroidectomy and 131I-therapy. All patients receive TSH-suppressive levothyroxine therapy and undergo regular follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... 300 PUVA treatments. What causes Merkel cell carcinoma? Scientists are still studying what causes this skin cancer. ...

  9. [Hormonal therapy in differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, G; Davì, M V; Petroziello, A; Sussi, P L

    1994-01-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) suppression therapy using thyroid hormone plays an important role in the management of patients thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid cancer. The rationale for TSH suppression is that differentiated thyroid cancer cells have TSH receptors and show increased adenylate cyclase activity following TSH exposure. L-thyroxine is used for long-term therapy. L-triiodothyronine is preferred when suppressive therapy must be discontinued for radioiodine scan, since its shorter half-life allows more rapid increases of TSH levels. The assessment of TSH suppression is still uncertain. The development of second and third TSH assay generations with progressive improvement in sensitivity has made the TRH test unnecessary and has raised the issue of the TSH level indicative of TSH suppression. In clinical practice TSH values below 0.1 mU/L are considered compatible with appropriate TSH suppression. Serum thyroglobulin is a reliable marker of metastatic disease after total surgical and radioiodine ablation of the thyroid gland and it is useful in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:7882445

  10. MIBI-SPECT in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma; MIBI-SPECT bei kalten Knoten zur Schilddruesenkarzinomdetektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Schicha, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-12-15

    The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m-MIBI in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma is presented. Tc-99m-MIBI is a lipophilic cation and a non-specific radiopharmaceutical for tumour imaging. It has become an important imaging technique for the assessment of hypofunctioning thyroid nodules because of its high negative predictive value excluding malignant thyroid tumours. After injection of Tc-99m-MIBI either a single-phase protocol with late planar and SPECT images about 1-2 h post injection or a double-phase protocol with early (about 15-30 min p.i.) and late images (about 2 h p.i.) were reported. Findings include a reduced, an isointense or an increased Tc-99m-MIBI accumulation in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the paranodular thyroid tissue and in comparison to pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. A 'Match' between pertechnetate and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy is a concordantly decreased uptake in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the normal thyroid gland. This finding has a negative predictive value of >97% to exclude differentiated thyroid cancer. A definite 'Mismatch' means a cold thyroid nodule on pertechnetate scintigraphy and an increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI in comparison to the MIBI-uptake of the paranodular thyroid tissue. The positive predictive value of this finding for malignancy varies between studies and is in the range of <10-65% (Cologne data: 19%) depending on the prevalence of malignant thyroid tumours in the patient population studied. An isointense uptake was not associated with thyroid malignancy according to 'Cologne' data. Further studies are desirable for better characterization of the method. (orig.)

  11. Toxoplasmic Lymphadenitis Mimicking a Metastatic Thyroid Carcinoma at 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 28-year-old woman underwent total thyroidectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe (pTx, pN1b). Subsequently a 131I-ablation (4.4 GBq) was performed. Four years later the patient presented increased thyroglobulin (Tg) serum levels (8.4 μg/l) during thyroxine treatment. Furthermore, enlarged hypoechoic and round-shaped bilateral cervical lymph nodes were detected at cervical ultrasonography (US). Based on laboratory and US findings suspicious for lymph nodal recurrence of thyroid carcinoma, the patient underwent an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to check for distant metastases (Fig. 1). The patient underwent a US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on an 18F-FDG-avid cervical lymph-node. The smears were hypercellulated and consisted of numerous small- to medium-sized lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and tingible body macrophages. The cytological diagnosis was consistent with that of reactive lymphadenitis. Serological test revealed elevated IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies with a very low IgG-avidity, indicating an acute toxoplasmosis. Serum Tg was then measured by using heterophilic antibody blocking tubes, as previously reported, and serum value dropped to 18F-FDG-PET/CT in oncological patients. Few reports have described toxoplasmic infection mimicking malignancy at 18F-FDG-PET/CT; these findings were found mainly in immunodepressive patients or with history of lymphoma. Conversely, we described here a case of toxoplasmosis inducing false-positive Tg measurement, neck US and 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma

  12. Bone marrow changes in patients with thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma 79 MRI bone marrow examinations and 48 bone marrow scintigraphies were recorded before or following radioiodine therapy, to study the extent of bone marrow expansion. The results of both methods were the same. In 34/79 investigations normal findings were seen, in 18 the bone marrow expanded to the middle third and in 26 to the distal third of the femur. One patient showed bone marrow expansion to the tibia. These results were compared with the following data: Histology of tumor, TNM-staging, time passed since thyroidectomy, accumulated doses of radioiodine therapy, results of 131I scintigraphy, hematological changes, thyroglobulin level, age and sex. No significant correlations were found between these and the bone marrow imaging results. Bone marrow changes in patients before radioiodine therapy were similar to those in patients treated with up to 48 GBq 131I. Blind biopsy of the posterior iliac crest in five patients showed slightly pathological reactive changes. In only 2/17 follow-up studies an increase of bone marrow expansion was seen. In 8 patients localized findings indicating malignant infiltration were observed. In 4/8 patients metastases of thyroid carcinoma were known or confirmed by pathological radioiodine uptake and in 2/8 metastatic involvement was assumed because of an increased thyroglobulin level. (orig.)

  13. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  14. Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Histological Type With Difficult Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent thyroid neoplasm and usually it is a non aggressive tumor; nevertheless, some histological variants such as the diffuse sclerosing variant are more aggressive producing locoregional invasion and distant metastasis. This specific variant challenges the pathological diagnosis since the architectural and cytological characteristics might be confusing, particularly regarding benign lesions such as the lymphocytic thyroiditis. We present a case report of a patient at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia with a lung metastasis from a diffuse sclerosing papillary thyroid carcinoma. The difficulties for diagnosis, for both clinical and pathology experts, are illustrated as well as their relevance for determining the biological course of the disease.

  15. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  16. Natural history, treatment, and course of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the course of papillary thyroid carcinoma in 269 patients managed at the University of Chicago, with an average follow-up period of 12 yr from the time of diagnosis. Patients were categorized by clinical class; I, with intrathyroidal disease; II, with cervical nodal metastases; III, with extrathyroidal invasion; and IV, with distant metastases. Half of the patients had a history of thyroid enlargement known, on the average, for over 3 yr. In 15% of patients given thyroid hormone, the mass decreased in size. The peak incidence of cancer was when subjects were between 20-40 yr of age. Tumors averaged 2.4 cm in size; 21.6% had tumor capsule invasion, and 46% of patients had multifocal tumors. Sixty-six percent of the patients had near-total or total thyroidectomy. The overall incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism was 8.4%, but the incidence was zero in 83 near-total or total thyroidectomies carried out by 1 surgeon. Twenty-five percent of the patients had continuing or recurrent disease, and 8.2% died from cancer. Deaths occurred largely in patients with class III or IV disease. Cervical lymph nodes were associated with increased recurrences, but not increased deaths. Extrathyroidal invasion carried an increased risk of 5.8-fold for death, and distant metastases increased this risk 47-fold. Age over 45 yr at diagnosis increased the risk of death 32-fold. Tumor size over 3 cm increased the risk of death 5.8-fold. Surgical treatment combining lobectomy plus at least contralateral subtotal thyroidectomy was associated, by Cox proportional hazard analysis, with decreased risk of death in patients with tumors larger than 1 cm and decreased risk of recurrence among all patients, including patients in classes I and II, compared to patients who underwent unilateral thyroid surgery or bilateral subtotal resections

  17. HBME-1, CD15 and p53 Protein Expression in Thyroid Carcinoma and their Significance in Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JionyingUu; JingpingYang; Songlin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the protein expression of HBME-1, CD15 and p53 in thyroid carcinoma and in bengin thyroid diseases and to evaluate their value in diagnosis of thyroid disease. METHODS Sixty-one cases of thyroid carcinoma and 27 cases of different kinds of benign thyroid diseases were studied by immunohistochemical methods.RFSUTLS All cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were positive for HBME- 1,35.7% positive for CD15 and only 14.3% positive for p53. Twentyseven cases of benign thyroid lesions were absolutely negative for p53,7.4% of which were CD15 positive and 25.9% of which were HBME-1 positive. CONCLUSION HBME-1 and CD15 may be helpful to assist differential diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid diseases.

  18. Ablative radioactive iodine therapy for apparently localized thyroid carcinoma. A decision analytic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J.B.; Kaplan, M.M.; Meyer, K.B.; Pauker, S.G. (Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Adjuvant therapy with ablative radioiodine after surgical resection of apparently localized thyroid carcinoma remains controversial because of the favorable prognosis of thyroid carcinoma and the risk of leukemia from the radioiodine. No controlled trials have been performed to examine this issue. We constructed a decision analytic model to examine whether patients with apparently localized thyroid carcinoma should receive radioiodine. Our analysis suggests that radioiodine modestly improves life expectancy by 2 to 15 months, depending on the patient's age and sex. This model predicts that the benefit of a reduction in the likelihood of recurrence outweighs the risk of leukemia from radioiodine.

  19. Imaging of metastases from a thyroid carcinoma using 111In pentetreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is little experience with imaging of thyroid carcinoma tissue by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Our case report describes an acromegalic patient, in whom 111In pentetreotide scintigraphy did not only demonstrate a receptor-positive pituitary tumor but also visualized metastases from a papillary thyroid carcinoma which had no correlate in radioiodine scintigraphy carried out under hypothyroid conditions. The possible role of this radiopharmaceutical in dedifferentiating thyroid carcinoma is discussed for its usefulness in tumor localisation and its predictive value for the outcome of an octreotide therapy. (orig.)

  20. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and BRAF V600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Ki; Woo, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Inhye; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is less associated with extrathyroidal extension (ETE), advanced tumor stage and lymph node (LN) metastasis. Other studies have suggested that concurrent CLT could antagonize PTC progression, even in BRAF-positive patients. Since the clinical significance of the BRAF mutation has been particularly associated with conventional PTC, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of CLT according to BRAF mutation status in conventional PTC patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3332 conventional PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central neck dissection at the Thyroid Cancer Center of Samsung Medical Center between January 2008 and June 2015. In this study, the prevalence of BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT (76.9% vs 86.6%). CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of ETE in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.662, P=0.023) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.027) conventional PTC patients. In addition, CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of CLNM in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.675, P=0.044) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.030) conventional PTC patients. In conclusion, BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT. However, CLT was an independent predictor for less aggressiveness in conventional PTC patients regardless of BRAF mutation status. PMID:26598713

  1. RET mutations in a large indian family with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a tumor arising from the para follicular (C cells of the thyroid gland and can occur either sporadically or as part of an inherited syndrome. A proportion of these cases carry an autosomal dominant mutation in the RET (REarranged during Transfection proto-oncogene. Screening for these mutations in the affected patients and the carriers ′′at risk′′ which includes the first-degree relatives is of utmost importance for early detection and prompt treatment including prophylactic thyroidectomy in cases that harbor these mutations. Results: This report presents details of screening and subsequent follow-up of a large Indian family, where the index case was found to carry p.Cys634Ser mutation involving exon 11 of the RET gene. These data are of value considering the paucity of information within the region in context of screening large families affected by these mutations.

  2. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously treated for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusa, Garba H; Kotze, Tessa; Brink, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Incidental papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases including Graves' disease is a known phenomenon. However, the management of these patients remains an issue of concern and controversy for those who care for them. We report a case of metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously treated for Graves' disease. The subject of this presentation is a 50-year-old lady who was diagnosed with Graves' disease at the age of 29, for which she had a subtotal thyroidectomy following failure of medical and radioactive iodine treatment. Three years later, the patient was referred to our nuclear medicine department with a clinical diagnosis of suspected metastatic lymph nodes presumably from a thyroid malignancy.She had an 123I diagnostic whole body scan that showed 123I avid areas in the thyroid bed as well as left cervical lymph nodes, which later turned out to be metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid on histology. She was treated with therapeutic doses of 131I. Follow-up radioactive iodine scans and serum thyroglobulin assays showed no evidence of malignant thyroid tissue. The occurrence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid after a subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease is hereby reported. The need for vigilance and regular follow-up in patients who receive all forms of treatment for benign thyroid diseases is emphasized. PMID:24705115

  3. Thyroid stem cells – danger or resource?

    OpenAIRE

    GIBELLI, B.; El-Fattah, AMA; Giugliano, G; PROH, M.; GROSSO, E.

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid gland has long since been known for its self-renewal ability, mainly in cases of hyperplastic disease such as goitre. Recently the amazing improvement in knowledge about stem cells has explained this potentiality. Some stem cell features and their clinical usefulness are summarized here, reviewing data from the literature: the proven presence of adult stem cells in thyroid tissue, either normal, goitrous or neoplastic, bring with it important implications regarding tissue regenera...

  4. Correlation of BRAFV600E mutation and clinical characteristics in coexistence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    运新伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of BRAFV600Emutation with papillary thyroid carcinoma and coexisting Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics was made in 50patients with PTC and coexisting HT(research group)and 150 PTC patients(control group)from March,2011to March,2012,regarding the difference in BRAFV600E mutation.Results In research group,the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting lymphatic metastasis was 88.9%,

  5. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the thyroid: A cytological dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantola, Chayanika; Kala, Sanjay; Athar, Mohd; Thakur, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) of the thyroid is a rare primary thyroid tumor arising in a background of Hashimoto's/lymphocytic thyroiditis and has been recently introduced in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of thyroid tumors. It is characterized by extensive sclerosis, squamous and glandular differentiation, and inflammatory infiltrate rich in eosinophil. Here, we are discussing the cytological features of this rare case in a 35-year-old female presented with thyroid swelling and lymph-node enlargement. PMID:27011441

  6. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the thyroid: A cytological dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayanika Pantola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE of the thyroid is a rare primary thyroid tumor arising in a background of Hashimoto′s/lymphocytic thyroiditis and has been recently introduced in the World Health Organization (WHO classification of thyroid tumors. It is characterized by extensive sclerosis, squamous and glandular differentiation, and inflammatory infiltrate rich in eosinophil. Here, we are discussing the cytological features of this rare case in a 35-year-old female presented with thyroid swelling and lymph-node enlargement.

  7. Oncologic Safety of Robot Thyroid Surgery for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparative Study of Robot versus Open Thyroid Surgery Using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Han, Minkyu; Lee, Yi Ho; Lee, Yu-mi; Song, Dong Eun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Suck Joon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of robot thyroid surgery compared to open thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We enrolled 722 patients with PTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) from January 2009 to December 2010. These patients were classified into open thyroid surgery (n = 610) or robot thyroid surgery (n = 112) groups. We verified the impact of robot thyroid surgery on clinical recurrence and ablation/control-stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels predictive of non-recurrence using weighted logistic regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Age, sex, thyroid weight, extent of CCND, and TNM were significantly different between the two groups (p robot groups (1.5% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.608). The proportion of patients with ablation sTg 0.05). Logistic regression with IPTW using the propensity scores estimated by adjusting all of the parameters demonstrated that robot thyroid surgery did not influence the clinical recurrence (OR; 0.784, 95% CI; 0.150–3.403, p = 0.750), ablation sTg (OR; 0.950, 95% CI; 0.361–2.399, p = 0.914), and control sTg levels (OR; 0.498, 95% CI; 0.190–1.189, p = 0.130). Robot thyroid surgery is comparable to open thyroid surgery with regard to oncologic safety in PTC patients. PMID:27285846

  8. Increased expression of PIN1 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1, encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threonine residues preceding proline (pSer/Thr-Pro motifs; in this way, it has an influence on protein interactions and intracellular localizations of proteins. The aim of the study were: 1 an assessment of PIN1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions; 2 the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC or tumour size, classified according to TNM classification of primary tumours (in case of PTC only; 3 the estimation of possible relationships between expression of the gene in question and patients' sex or age. Methods Seventy (70 tissue samples were analyzed: 32 cases of PTC, 7 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC, 7 cases of follicular adenoma (FA, and 24 cases of nodular goitre (NG. In real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, two-step RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System was employed. The PIN1 gene expression level was assessed, calculating the mean relative quantification rate (RQ rate increase for each sample. Results The level of PIN1 gene expression (compared to that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue was higher in PTC group than those in FA, MTC and/or NG groups, but the statistical significance was noted for difference between PTC and NG groups only. On the other hand, the differences of RQ rate value between different PTC variants were statistically insignificant. No correlations were found between RQ values and tumour size, as well as between RQ values and patients' sex or age in PTC group. Conclusions The PIN1 gene expression may have - in future - an important meaning in the diagnostics of PTC and in understanding its

  9. Iodide kinetics and experimental I-131 therapy in a xenotransplanted human sodium-iodide symporter-transfected human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Elst, van der J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Stokkel, M.; Heide, van der D.; Romijn, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of iodide is a prerequisite for radioiodide therapy in thyroid cancer. However, loss of iodide uptake is frequently observed in metastasized thyroid cancer, which may be explained by diminished expression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS). We studied whether transfection of hNIS int

  10. Ultrasonography findings of thyroid metastasis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the thyroid gland is one of the most vascular organs of the body, metastatic disease in the thyroid is encountered infrequently. However, at autopsy, the incidence rate of thyroid metastasis ranges from 1.25% to 24%. The primary sites are the kidney, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a rare case of a hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland. The patient had multiple palpable masses in the anterior and left lateral neck along the internal jugular chain on physical examination 9 months after the initial diagnosis of liver tumor. These masses were confirmed as metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasonography-guided 16-G core needle biopsy. We discuss the sonographic findings of thyroid metastasis and their use as an additional aid for differentiating between unknown primary tumor and thyroid metastasis.

  11. Ultrasonography findings of thyroid metastasis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Noh Hyuck; Lim, Jae Hoon; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok; Kwon, Tae Jung [Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Although the thyroid gland is one of the most vascular organs of the body, metastatic disease in the thyroid is encountered infrequently. However, at autopsy, the incidence rate of thyroid metastasis ranges from 1.25% to 24%. The primary sites are the kidney, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a rare case of a hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland. The patient had multiple palpable masses in the anterior and left lateral neck along the internal jugular chain on physical examination 9 months after the initial diagnosis of liver tumor. These masses were confirmed as metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasonography-guided 16-G core needle biopsy. We discuss the sonographic findings of thyroid metastasis and their use as an additional aid for differentiating between unknown primary tumor and thyroid metastasis.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of Wnt signaling pathway gene SRY-related HMG-box 17 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-yi; HAN Chao; ZHENG Li-li; GUO Ming-zhou

    2012-01-01

    Background SRY-related HMG-box 17 (SOX17) encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate.Recently,it was considered as a tumor suppressor gene to inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in several malignancies.However,the function of SOX17 in thyroid cancer was unknown.Therefore,we investigated the epigenetic changes and the function of SOX17 in thyroid cancer.Methods The methylation status of the promoter region of SOX17 was detected using methylation-specific PCR in 63 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissue,10 normal thyroid tissue,and two thyroid cancer cell lines.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of SOX17 before and after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment in thyroid cancer cell lines.Expression of SOX17 and β-catenin were detected by immunohistochemistry in PTC and adjacent tissue.Luciferase reporter assay,colony formation,transfection,and Western blotting were employed to analyze the effect of SOX17 on thyroid cancer cell proliferation and the function of SOX17 in the Wnt signal pathway.Results Loss of SOX17 expression was correlated to the promoter region hypermethylation in thyroid cancer cell lines.Re-expression of SOX17 was found in TPC-1 cell line after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment.In primary thyroid cancer,60.3% (38/63) were methylated and 39.7% (25/63) unmethylated.But no methylation was found in noncancerous thyroid tissues.Methylation of SOX17 was associated reversely with β-catenin expression in the cytoplasm or nucleus significantly in the PTC (P <0.05).Colony formation was inhibited by re-expression of SOX17 in TPC-1 cells.SOX17 suppressed the Wnt signaling pathway and the HMG domain was essential for this effect.Conclusions SOX17 was frequently methylated in human PTC.Loss of SOX17 expression was induced by promoter region hypermethylation.SOX17 inhibited thyroid

  13. Pleomorphic (giant cell) carcinoma of the intestine. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Teglbjaerg, P S

    1989-01-01

    Pleomorphic (giant cell) carcinomas have been described in the lungs, thyroid, pancreas, and gallbladder. Two pleomorphic carcinomas of the small bowel and two of the large bowel are presented. On light microscopic study, the carcinomas were solid, without squamous or glandular differentiation. The...

  14. Choroidal Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Demonstrated on SPECT-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Nese; Reyhan, Mehmet; Yapar, Ali Fuat; Karatas, Muge

    2016-05-01

    We report a 68-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to choroid. The choroid metastasis was diagnosed with SPECT-CT and then was treated with high-dose radioactive iodine therapy. PMID:26825205

  15. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  16. A bone metastases model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in athymic nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), an aggressive form of thyroid cancer, represents less than 2% of all thyroid cancers. The survival of patients with ATC remains low especially when accompanied with bone metastasis. This study aims to establish a reproducible animal model of bone metastasis of ATC which may be useful for further research on novel treatment strategy. Eight 6-8 week old female athymic nude mice were randomly selected. ATC cell line ARO cells were injected into the left ventricular cavity of each mouse respectively. Each mouse was imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET/CT scanner after successful injection of [18F]-FDG under deep anesthesia. Pathological examination was carried out to confirm the bone metastases of ATC. Histopathology established ATC bone metastases in five nude mice’s tibia. Similarly, PET image displayed significantly increased radioactivity (P<0.01) in the established bone metastasis compared with the control normal tibia. Both micro-PET/CT and histomorphometric measurement confirmed the bone metastases model of ATC in nude mice by left ventricular cavity injection of ARO cell line. The bone metastases model of ATC will thus facilitate the understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the development of novel therapies.

  17. Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Jørgensen, K E;

    1998-01-01

    To identify clinical and histologic prognostic factors and to investigate whether immunohistochemical detection of p53 expression might contain prognostic information, a retrospective study of patient and tumor characteristics was performed in 225 cases of papillary and follicular thyroid...... carcinomas. The analyses were based on cause-specific and crude survival. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor size, presence of distant metastases, histology (papillary contra follicular type), extrathyroidal invasion, necrosis in primary tumor, and p53 expression were significant prognostic...... indicators. For 211 patients (96%) all information was available and Cox's proportional hazard model was applied. The authors found that age, distant metastases, necrosis in primary tumor, extrathyroidal invasion, and p53 expression were significant prognostic factors. Analyses of cause-specific and crude...

  18. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Molecular Signaling Pathways and Emerging Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC over the last 55 years has led to a good understanding of the genetic defects and altered molecular pathways associated with its development. Currently, with the use of genetic testing, patients at high risk for MTC can be identified before the disease develops and offered prophylactic treatment. In cases of localized neck disease, surgery can be curative. However, once MTC has spread beyond the neck, systemic therapy may be necessary. Conventional chemotherapy has been shown to be ineffective; however, multikinase inhibitors have shown promise in stabilizing disease, and this year will probably see the approval of a drug (Vandetanib for advanced unresectable or metastatic disease, which represents a new chapter in the history of MTC. In this paper, we explore newly understood molecular pathways and the most promising emerging therapies that may change the management of MTC.

  19. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Luchuan; Lv, Bin; Chen, Bo [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Guan, Ming [Department of General Surgery, Qihe People' s Hospital, Qihe, Shandong 251100 (China); Sun, Yongfeng [Department of General Surgery, Licheng District People' s Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250115 (China); Li, Haipeng [Department of General Surgery, Caoxian People' s Hospital, Caoxian, Shandong 274400 (China); Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Changyuan; He, Shan [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Zeng, Qingdong, E-mail: qingdz0201@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2015-07-10

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na{sup +}/I{sup −} symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells.

  20. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na+/I− symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells

  1. Somatic amplifications and deletions in genome of papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passon, Nadia; Bregant, Elisa; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Dima, Maria; Rosignolo, Francesca; Durante, Cosimo; Celano, Marilena; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Somatic gene copy number variation contributes to tumor progression. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, the presence of genomic imbalances was evaluated in a series of 27 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). To detect only somatic imbalances, for each sample, the reference DNA was from normal thyroid tissue of the same patient. The presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was also evaluated. Both amplifications and deletions showed an uneven distribution along the entire PTC cohort; amplifications were more frequent than deletions (mean values of 17.5 and 7.2, respectively). Number of aberration events was not even among samples, the majority of them occurring only in a small fraction of PTCs. Most frequent amplifications were detected at regions 2q35, 4q26, and 4q34.1, containing FN1, PDE5A, and GALNTL6 genes, respectively. Most frequent deletions occurred at regions 6q25.2, containing OPMR1 and IPCEF1 genes and 7q14.2, containing AOAH and ELMO1 genes. Amplification of FN1 and PDE5A genomic regions was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Frequency of amplifications and deletions was in relationship with clinical features and BRAF mutation status of tumor. In fact, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk classification, amplifications are more frequent in higher risk samples, while deletions tend to prevail in the lower risk tumors. Analysis of single aberrations according to the ATA risk grouping shows that amplifications containing PDE5A, GALNTL6, DHRS3, and DOCK9 genes are significantly more frequent in the intermediate/high risk group than in the low risk group. Thus, our data would indicate that analysis of somatic genome aberrations by CGH array can be useful to identify additional prognostic variables. PMID:25863487

  2. Metastatic Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Outcome On RAI-131 Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the variable grades of response of distant functioning thyroid metastases to serial radioactive iodine-131 therapy. One hundred fifty patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer, mainly to lung and bone, were assessed to evaluate the therapeutic response of metastatic lesions to serial RAI-131 therapy regarding the site of metastases (bone or lung), type of response achieved (complete, partial, stable disease or disease progression) and patient survival. Out of 1368 patients with DTC, 150 patients (10.9%) had functioning distant metastases. The peak age of onset was between 40-59 years, 99 patients (66%) were females compared to 51 males (34%). 77 patients (51.3%) had papillary type while 73 patients (48.7%) had follicular type. Lung was the commonest site of metastases (62 patients, 41.4%) followed by bone (38 patients, 25.3%), bone and lung (32 patients, 21.3%) and other sites (18 patients, 12%). Metastases were more common at initial presentation or detected after the first therapy dose (118 patients, 78.7%) than during follow-up (32 patients, 21.3%). 25 patients (16.6%) achieved complete response, 52 patients (34.7%) showed partial response, 52 patients (34.7%) were in stationary state, and 21 patients (14%) showed evidence of disease progression. The overall survival from the detection of metastases was 71% at 5 years and 63% at 10 years. Up to the present time, radioiodine is the only available effective systemic therapy to treat patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and for this reason, serial therapy doses are recommended for patient with metastatic DTC with favorable outcome and overall 5 and 10 year survival.

  3. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Cuevas, S.; Baena Ocampo, L. [Hospital de Oncologia (Mexico). Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery

    1995-12-01

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient`s pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author).

  4. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient's pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author)

  5. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid presenting with thyrotoxic induced impaired control of diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta, A; Burden, A C; Jones, G R; Nicol, N. T.

    1986-01-01

    We report a patient with pulmonary and bony metastases due to follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, occurring 12 years after the initial diagnosis. This was brought to light by worsening diabetic control due to thyrotoxicosis from functioning malignant thyroid tissue. Following radio-active iodine therapy, she remains well with good control of her diabetes.

  6. Long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle; de Bock, Truuske; Gansevoort, Ronald; Bakker, Stephan; Vredeveld, Eline; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; van der Horst, Iwan; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem; Plukker, John; Links, Thera P.; Lefrandt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to study the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Secondary aims were to evaluate all-cause mortality and explore the relation between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotropin) level and these outcome

  7. Negative predictive value of procalcitonin in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Kyung; Guéchot, Jérôme; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin (CT), the major biochemical marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is prone to in vitro instability and suffers from scarcity of clinical laboratory platforms. Procalcitonin (PCT), the precursor of CT, free of these shortcomings, has been reported as a potential MTC marker. The aim of this study was to assess the negative predictive value (NPV) of PCT as a first-line marker in MTC. 476 serum samples referred to our laboratory for CT measurements were analyzed for PCT. NPVs of PCT were assessed at 3 cut-offs (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 ng/mL) and the diagnosis of MTC was based on CT levels. PCT and CT levels were correlated (r=0.7554 for CT levels above 10 pg/mL, n=66). Accepting the CT cut-off based on the upper reference limit the NPV of PCT were 98.1% (0.05 ng/mL), 96.3% (0.10 ng/mL) and 95.4% (0.15 ng/mL) respectively. For a CT cut-off of 100 pg/mL the NPVs of PCT were 100% for all PCT thresholds. Serum PCT has a strong NPV and could be a good candidate for a first-line screening test to exclude MTC in patients with suspicious thyroid nodules or suggestive symptoms. Larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:26806393

  8. Video-Assisted Thyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Pio Lombardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The results of video-assisted thyroidectomy (VAT were evaluated in a large series of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially in terms of completeness of the surgical resection and short-to-medium term recurrence. Methods. The medical records of all patients who underwent video-assisted thyroidectomy for PTC between June 1998 and May 2009 were reviewed. Results. Three hundred fifty-nine patients were included. One hundred twenty-six patients underwent concomitant central neck node removal. Final histology showed 285 pT1, 26 pT2, and 48 pT3 PTC. Lymph node metastases were found in 27 cases. Follow-up was completed in 315 patients. Mean postoperative serum thyroglobulin level off levothyroxine was 5.4 ng/mL. Post operative ultrasonography showed no residual thyroid tissue in all the patients. Mean post-operative 131I uptake was 1.7%. One patient developed lateral neck recurrence. No other recurrence was observed.

  9. 18F-DOPA PET/CT in Orbital Metastasis From Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jean-Baptiste; Orré, Mathieu; Cazeau, Anne-Laure; Henriques de Figueiredo, Bénédicte; Godbert, Yann

    2016-06-01

    A 53-year-old-woman is being followed up for a sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma that was initially treated surgically. Nine years later, a progressive increase in calcitonin levels along with headaches was observed. An orbital metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed by performing an F-DOPA PET/CT. The orbital lesion was treated by an external beam radiation. Four months later, an MRI revealed a global morphological stability and a reduction in calcitonin levels. PMID:27055131

  10. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with sternal invasion. A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Quaratulain Sabih; Michael F. Spafford; Dietl, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with direct invasion of the sternum has not been previously reported. Only 4 cases of concomitant thyroidectomy and sternal resection and reconstruction for sternal metastases have been published. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 66-year-old female with a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and direct sternal invasion underwent total thyroidectomy and resection of the manubrium and both clavicular heads, and chest wall ...

  11. Interest of the SPECT-CT hybrid imaging in the management of thyroid differentiated carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Images merging, associating SPECT and CT, integers functional and anatomical data. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the SPECT contribution coupled to CT in our daily practice of the management thyroid differentiated carcinomas. Conclusions: SPECT/CT merging got by a hybrid system allows a better anatomical location and improves the diagnostic value of examination in the extension assessment of thyroid differentiated carcinomas. (N.C.)

  12. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, a diagnostic approach in fine needle aspiration: Review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shirish S Chandanwale; Harsh Kumar; Buch, Archana C.; Shruti S Vimal; Pinky Soraisham

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite well-defined cytology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in fine needle aspiration (FNA), diagnostic difficulties do exist while making decision in respect to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases. Aims: The aim of this study is to clarify diagnostic significance of various cytology features of PTC and to identify possible diagnostic pitfalls. Materials and Methods: FNA cytology (FNAC) features and clinical findings of 17 PTC cases diagnosed on histology were ...

  13. Anaplastic transformation of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma at shoulder mimicking soft tissue sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Kaushal; Mehar Chand Sharma; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Shishir Rastogi; Chander Shekhar Bal; Sunil Chumber

    2011-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fracture upper end of the left humerus after trivial trauma and aspiration cytology from the lytic lesion in the upper humerus seen on X-ray revealed a metastatic papillary carcinoma from the thyroid. Total thyroidectomy confirmed the papillary carcinoma thyroid. Post-operatively, she was given radioactive iodine (I-131) ablation therapy for 8 years and was asymptomatic during this period; however, for the last 1 year, she has been complaining of swelling in...

  14. The imunocytochemical advances in prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topical issues is the problem of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant metastasis. We offered the methods of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with the help of immunocytochemical detection of the cytokeratin 17 and thyroid peroxidase. With the purpose of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistibility the cytokeratin 17 is taped in punctates of primary papillary carcinomas. This approach allows predict response of metastases on radioiodine therapy to choose proper therapeutic approach

  15. Expression of Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1) in Lung Carcinomas and Its Correlations with Apoptosis and Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Bai; Hong Shen; Chunhui Zhou; Hao Wang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlations between the expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and apoptosis and angiogenesis in lung carcinomas.METHODS A 829 microarray of the paraffin tissue chips was constructed, which contained 196 lung carcinomas, 10 normal lung tissues, and 1 muscular tissue. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemical SP method were used to detect apoptosis and expression of TTF-1 and CD34 in different types of lung carcinomas. A Leica Q500 MC image analysis system was used to measure and calculate TTF-1 positive unit (PU), apoptotic index (AI) and microvessel density (MVD).RESULTS AI of lung small cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma were smaller than those of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.000). AI of lung carcinomas with lymph node metastases was smaller than that of those without (P = 0.039). AI of lung carcinomas in TNM stage I-W was smaller than that in stage Ⅰ (P = 0.008). The PU of the TTF-1 was negatively correlated with AI in small cell lung carcinoma (r = -0.752, P = 0.000). MVD of lung carcinomas without lymph node metastases was smaller than that of those with lymph node metastasis (P= 0.031). MVD of lung carcinomas in TNM stage Ⅰ was smaller than that in stage Ⅰ-Ⅳ (P -- 0.040). The PU of TTF-1 was positively correlated with MVD in lung adenocarcinoma (r = 0.708, P = 0.000).CONCLUSION There is a negative correlation between TTF-1 PU and AI in small cell lung carcinoma. TTF-1 PU and AI may be correlated with each other. There is a positive correlation between TTF-1 PU and MVD in lung adenocarcinoma. TTF-1 may induce the development of lung adenocarcinoma by inducing tumor angiogenesis.

  16. Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 (TGF-β1) Inhibits Tumorigenesis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Through ERK1/2-NFκkB-PUMA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Liu, Shan; Dong, Anbing; Mi, Xiufang; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting tumor growth. TGF-β1was found to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). We therefore tested our hypothesis that targeting TGF-β1 inhibits tumorigenesis of ATC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Effects of TGF-β1 stimulation or TGF-β1 inhibition by small interfering RNA (TGF-β1siRNA) on proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro was detected using siRNAs and inhibitors to examine the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. A subcutaneously implanted tumor model of 8505C cells in nude mice was used to assess the effects of TGF-β1 inhibition on tumorigenesis development. RESULTS TGF-β1siRNAs decreased proliferation and colony formation, and increased apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. TGF-β1siRNA inhibited phosphorylation ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and increased p65-dependant PUMA mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of p65 or PUMA by siRNA reduced TGF-β1siRNA-induced apoptosis, as well as caspase-3 and PARP activation. Upregulation of p65 or PUMA expression by TGF-β1siRNA requires pERK1/2 inhibition. TGF-β1 shRNA inhibited tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS Therapies targeting the TGF-β1 pathway may be more effective to prevent primary tumor formation. The ability of this therapy to decrease tumorigenesis may be related to ERK1/2/NF-κB/PUMA signaling. PMID:27356491

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison between CT features and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the CT imaging features and pathologic findings of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), as well as the CT appearances of Non-papillary thyroid carcinoma(N-PTC). Methods: CT features of 229 PTC, 42 PTMC and 36 N-PTC patients with 264, 57 and 41 lesions respectively were analyzed retrospectively, and comparison was made with the pathologic findings. All data were analyzed by X2 test. Results: (1) Of PTC lesions, 25.4% (67/264)of the lesions and 2.9% (24/828) of metastatic lymph nodes showed cystic changes. Cyst formation with intracystic high density papillary-like nodules were found in 31.3% (21/67)of the PTC lesions and 37.5% (9/24) of metastatic lymph nodes. The histologic appearances of these tumors demonstrated fibrous tissue forming the wall of cyst, and papillary-like tumor tissue. (2) 75.2% (112/149) of PTC and 33.3% (5/15) of PTMC showed multiple small granular and fine calcifications, and there was statiscally significant difference between the two (P0.05). However, the degree of enhancement in PTC lesions were less than that of N-PTC, 36.6% (94/257) of PTC and 54.1% (20/37)of N-PTC lesions showed significant enhancement, and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05). 75.1% of PTC (172/229) and 52.8% of (19/36)N-PTC had cervical lymph node metastases, with a propensity fbr PTC to have more VI region metastatic lymph nodes, 80.8% (139/172)vs 57.9% (11/19), which was statistically significant (both P<0.05). (4)Distant metastases to bone or lung were rare, but N-PTC (5/36) were more likely to produce distant metastases than PTC (5/229), and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion Multiple, small granular and fine calcifications were found more frequently in PTC than PTMC. Compared with N-PTC, the papillary-like mural nodules of PTC showed less enhancement on post-contrast CT and cervical lymph node metastases were more frequently

  18. Impaired DNA repair as assessed by the ''comet'' assay in patients developing thyroid carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A defective cellular response to DNA lesions induced be genotoxic agents may be associated to an increased cancer proneness. This has been clearly identified in some rare but extensively studied genetic diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Fanconi anemia (FA). In practical oncology, most patients receive genotoxic therapeutic agents and the presence of so far unidentified sensitive genotypes could account for an increased susceptibility to cancer in a subgroup of exposed patients. The thyroid gland of children is especially sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation. Evidence for risk is reported even at doses as low as 0.1 Gy, and the excess relative risk to develop a thyroid tumor following a radiation dose of 1 Gy in childhood is of 7.7 [l]. In order to determine if a defect in repair of DNA strand breaks could be involved, as an early step, in the development of secondary thyroid tumors after radiotherapy, we examined, using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE or 'comet'), the response to in vitro γ-rays exposure of lymphocytes of a small group of patients who developed thyroid carcinoma after radiotherapy for a primary tumor. Because of its practical advantages, the alkaline comet assay offers the opportunity to question the role of DNA strand beaks rejoining capacity of the individual in the radiation induced carcinogenesis of thyroid tumors. This preliminary study of a small group of patients with therapeutic irradiation at childhood for a primary tumor indicates that, at the time of blood sampling, lymphocytes of some of these patients demonstrated reduced rejoining capacity. These results suggest that the comet assay might help to distinguish a subgroup of individuals at risk for radiation induced genomic instability and encourage further investigation. (authors)

  19. Incidental papillary thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic findings in a series of 287 carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, Fabio; Jaconi, Marta; Delitala, Alberto; Garancini, Mattia; Maternini, Matteo; Bono, Francesca; Giani, Alessandro; Smith, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    The recent increase in the detection of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been influenced by the finding of incidental tumours. To this group, carcinomas measuring less than 1 cm (the so-called microcarcinomas) as well as those above 1 cm belong. Analyzing a case series from our own experience, this paper focuses on the current pre-operative diagnostic challenges that can lead to PTC incidental discovery. For this retrospective study, 287 patients with a PTC diagnosis were selected. For each, the following variables were analysed: sex, age, ultrasound (US) appearance, number of thyroid nodules, PTC size, PTC variants and presence of other associated pathology. Pre-operative fine needle aspiration (FNA) results were classified according to the five-tiered SIAPEC system. For 281 patients, the US-guided FNA results were available. Cytohistological correlation was evaluated in terms of FNA sensitivity and false negative rate. An incidental PTC was found in 45.2 % of patients. The majority of these were due to unsuccessful US detection of malignant nodules (103 cases); incorrect cytological diagnosis was responsible for the other 24 cases. The most powerful clinical confounding factors were: multinodular background versus single nodule presentations (p 2 cm) due to tumour heterogeneity. Although with limitations related to the tumour's intrinsic features and the thyroid background, US-guided FNA, especially if performed by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, is a powerful diagnostic tool for detecting malignant thyroid nodules. To the state of the art, we propose a practical clinical-pathological cut-off for this procedure, setting it at 5 mm. PMID:24997780

  20. Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma with concurrent thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbia Vittorio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Thyroglossal duct carcinoma is a very rare finding and its presentation is similar to that of a benign cyst, which is a relatively common developmental abnormality that may manifest as a midline, neck mass. In general the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is based on the pathologic examination of the mass, but needle aspiration cytology, ultrasound and computed tomography play a role in the differential diagnosis of malignancy. Case presentation A further case of thyroglossal duct carcinoma and concurrent thyroid carcinoma with locoregional lymph node metastases affecting a 40-year-old woman followed up for 4 years is presented and discussed. Conclusion Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment, but in case of carcinoma further surgery, that is, thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection, and treatment with radioactive iodine have to be considered according to the microscopic and clinical findings. Accurate pre-operative clinical and radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan surgical strategy.

  1. Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Tamaki, Yoshio; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Higuchi, Keiko; Sakaino, Kouji; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Shioya, Mariko [Gunma Cancer Center, Ota (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LY) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) of the thyroid gland are rare malignant tumors, and the initial symptoms of these diseases are very similar. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of the two diseases using computed tomographic (CT) scans in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis. Ten patients with LY and 10 with AC were analyzed. Differences in the CT findings of the two diseases were evaluated before treatment and statistically tested with either Student's t-test or the chi-square test. In the analysis of characteristics of CT imaging, the existence of calcification and necrosis, and heterogeneous tumor were dominant findings in AC, and there was a statistically significant difference in frequency between the two diseases (p<0.01). Calcification detected in AC was usually multiple and/or gross (mean size: {phi}8.2 mm). All lymphadenopathies were delineated as having the same homogeneous attenuation as the tumors in the thyroid gland in LY, but were shown as irregular rim enhancement in AC. The CT features of the two diseases are characteristic in terms of calcification, necrosis, and tumor composition. Evaluation by means of CT imaging is useful in distinguishing between LY and AC. (author)

  2. A two miRNA classifier differentiates follicular thyroid carcinomas from follicular thyroid adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtaś, Bartosz; Krajewska, Jolanta; Stobiecka, Ewa; Dralle, Henning; Musholt, Thomas; Hauptmann, Steffen; Lange, Dariusz; Hegedüs, László; Jarząb, Barbara; Krohn, Knut; Paschke, Ralf; Eszlinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The inherent diagnostic limitations of thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA), especially in the "indeterminate" category, can be partially overcome by molecular analyses. We aimed at the identification of miRNAs that could be used to improve the discrimination of indeterminate FNAs. miRNA expression profiling was performed for 17 follicular carcinomas (FTCs) and 8 follicular adenomas (FAs). The microarray results underwent cross-comparison using three additional microarray data sets. Candidate miRNAs were validated by qPCR in an independent set of 32 FTCs and 46 FAs. Sixty-eight differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. Thirteen miRNAs could be confirmed by cross comparison. A two-miRNA-classifier was established improving the diagnostic applicability and resulted in a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 49%. We present a classifier that has the potential to be successfully evaluated in cytology material for its capability to discriminate (mutation negative) indeterminate cytologies and thereby improving the pre-surgical diagnostics of thyroid nodules. PMID:25258301

  3. Expression of the RET/PTC fusion gene as a marker for papillary carcinoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirtschafter, A; Schmidt, R; Rosen, D;

    1997-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland with autoimmune etiology. Patients afflicted with Hashimoto's have a higher risk of thyroid malignancies such as papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated the frequency of papillary thyroid carcinoma......-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, we found messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for the RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 oncogenes in 95% of the Hashimoto's patients studied. All Hashimoto's patients presenting without histopathologic evidence of papillary thyroid cancer showed molecular genetic evidence of cancer. These...... data suggest that multiple, independent occult tumors exist in these patients at high frequency....

  4. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  7. Lack of in vitro constitutive activity for four previously reported TSH receptor mutations identified in patients with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and hot thyroid carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Ralf; Jaeschke, Holger; Mueller, Sandra; Eszlinger, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Constitutively activating mutations of the TSHR are the major cause for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. Re-examination of constitutive activity previously determined in CHO cell lines recently demonstrated the caveats for the in vitro determination of constitutive TSHR activity, which leads to false positive conclusions regarding the molecular origin of hyperthyroidism or hot thyroid carcinomas. Design: Mutations L677V and T620I identified in hot thyroid carc...

  8. CXCR4 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Miyauchi Akira; Takamura Yuuki; Hirokawa Mitsuyoshi; Kodama Rieko; Yasuoka Hironao; Sanke Tokio; Nakamura Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is a common step in the progression of cancer. Recent evidence suggests that tumor production of CXCR4 promotes lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also increase metastatic ability in human cancers. Methods Nitrite/nitrate levels and functional CXCR4 expression were assessed in K1 and B-CPAP papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 expression was also analyzed in primary hum...

  9. Radioiodine-induced changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofani, A.; Sciuto, R.; Cioffi, R.P.; Pasqualoni, R.; Rea, S.; Festa, A.; Maini, C.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Gandolfo, G.M.; Arista, M.C. [Department of Clinical Pathology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with thyroid carcinoma who received iodine-131 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Twenty thyroid cancer patients were entered in the study after total thyroidectomy: ten patients (group A) underwent whole-body scintigraphy with 185 MBq of {sup 131}I and the other ten (group B) received 3700 MBq of {sup 131}I therapy. All patients were in a hypothyroid state at the time of administration of {sup 131}I and started l-thyroxine 150 {mu}g/day 3 days after {sup 131}I administration. Free and bound triiodothyronine and thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid peroxidase/microsomal antibodies, white blood cell, lymphocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets were serially determined at baseline and at days 2, 7, 15, 30 and 60 after {sup 131}I administration. Twenty healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were used as a reference population for lymphocyte subset values. In group A only a reduction in NK cells at days 7 (P=0.043) and 15 (P=0.037) was observed. In group B, patients showed a delayed reduction in the total lymphocyte count at days 15, 30 and 60 (P=0.008, 0.004 and 0.018, respectively), and a decrease in B cells throughout the study (at days 7, 15, 30 and 60: P=0.006, 0.0017, 0.0017 and 0.0017 respectively). A transient decrease in NK cells was observed at days 15 (P=0.025) and 30 (P=0.008). Among T cells, the helper phenotype (CD4+) was mainly affected, resulting in a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at day 60 (P=0.046). Comparing the two groups, the numbers of B lymphocytes at day 30 (P=0.023) and NK cells at days 2 (P=0.037) and 30 (P=0.023) were significantly lower in group B. Neither group showed any clinical sign of immunosuppression during the follow-up period. In patients with thyroid cancer the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the effects of {sup 131}I administered for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes depends upon lymphocyte phenotype and {sup

  10. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  11. ret/PTC-1 expression alters the immunoprofile of thyroid follicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aherne Sinead

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hashimoto Thyroiditis (H.T. is a destructive autoimmune thyroid condition whose precise molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. ret/PTC-1 is a chimeric transcript which has been described in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD and thyroid neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to observe the immunogenic effect exposure to H.T. and control lymphocyte supernatant would have on normal (Nthy-ori and ret/PTC-1 (TPC-1 expressing thyroid cell line models. Results A 2 × 2 matrix comprising Nthy-ori and TPC-1 cell lines and H.T. and control lymphocyte supernatant was designed and utilised as follows; activated lymphocytic supernatant from a H.T. and normal control were co-cultured with a cell line derived from normal thyroid (Nthy-ori and also a cell line derived from a papillary thyroid carcinoma that endogenously expresses ret/PTC-1 (TPC-1. The co-cultures were harvested at 0, 6 and 18 hour time points. Gene expression analysis was performed on RNA extracted from thyrocytes using TaqMan® Immune profiling Low-Density Arrays (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA comprising gene expression markers for 93 immune related targets plus 3 endogenous controls. Stimulation of the normal thyroid cell line model with activated T cell supernatant from the H.T. donor yielded global up-regulation of immune targets when compared with control supernatant stimulation. In particular, a cohort of targets (granzyme B, CD3, CD25, CD152, CD45 associated with cytotoxic cell death; T cell receptor (TCR and T cell signaling were up-regulated in the normal cell line model. When the ret/PTC-1 expressing thyroid cell line was co-cultured with H.T. lymphocyte supernatant, in comparison to control supernatant stimulation, down-regulation of the same subset of immune targets was seen. Conclusion Co-culturing H.T. lymphocyte supernatant with a normal thyroid cell line model leads to over-expression of a subset of targets which could contribute to the pathogenesis of H

  12. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, a diagnostic approach in fine needle aspiration: Review of literature

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    Shirish S Chandanwale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite well-defined cytology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC in fine needle aspiration (FNA, diagnostic difficulties do exist while making decision in respect to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC cases. Aims: The aim of this study is to clarify diagnostic significance of various cytology features of PTC and to identify possible diagnostic pitfalls. Materials and Methods: FNA cytology (FNAC features and clinical findings of 17 PTC cases diagnosed on histology were retrieved. A retrospective review of these cases was performed. Results: The frequency and number of papillary formations, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions (INCI, and nuclear grooves (NG was more in PTC cases as compared to suggestive/suspicious of (S/O and rule out (R/O PTC cases. Cyst macrophages forming clusters were seen in six cases. Multinucleated giant cells (MGC were seen in seven cases. Large MGC with dense cytoplasm and more nuclei were seen in four PTC and one S/O PTC cases. Conclusion: FNAC features of PTC in FNA smears are neither constant nor specific. All the cytology features of PTC should be reported in proper context which allows endocrine specialist to treat and urgent histological verification.

  13. Results of Surgical Therapy in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Mihaela; Zosin, Ioana; Timar, Bogdan; Lazar, Fulger; Vlad, Adrian; Timar, Romulus; Cornianu, Marioara

    2016-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare form of malignancy, having an intermediate prognosis. Controversies exist regarding the best surgical approach. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome in a group of patients with MTC, diagnosed and followed up in a single care center. We performed a retrospective analysis of all the patients diagnosed with MTC in the Department of Endocrinology from the County Emergency Hospital Timisoara between 1992 and 2012. The study group included 19 patients, 6 men (31.6 %), mean age 41.2 ± 12.5 years (20-72 years). The preoperative diagnosis was based on the protocol for nodular thyroid disease. Total or near-total thyroidectomy was performed in 10 out of 16 patients who could be operated. Postoperative follow-up included repeated measurements of serum calcitonin and imaging investigations. Nine out of the total of 19 (47.3 %) patients had hereditary forms of MTC. Most of the cases (84.2 %) were submitted to surgery. The median duration of follow-up was 84 months. The pTNM staging indicated that the majority of the patients with hereditary MTC were diagnosed in an earlier stage. Disease remission was achieved in 7 cases (43.8 %). Four patients, all with sporadic forms, died. Survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were significantly higher (p = 0.048) in patients with hereditary MTC. An early diagnosis of MTC allows a better surgical approach and an improved survival rate. We support the general recommendation that modified radical neck dissection is not necessary for all the patients with MTC. PMID:27574350

  14. Recovery of NIS expression in thyroid cancer cells by overexpression of Pax8 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery of iodide uptake in thyroid cancer cells by means of obtaining the functional expression of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) represents an innovative strategy for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. However, the NIS gene expression alone is not always sufficient to restore radioiodine concentration ability in these tumour cells. In this study, the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ARO cells were stably transfected with a Pax8 gene expression vector. A quantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the thyroid specific gene expression in selected clones. The presence of NIS protein was detected by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence. A iodide uptake assay was also performed to verify the functional effect of NIS induction and differentiation switch. The clones overexpressing Pax8 showed the re-activation of several thyroid specific genes including NIS, Pendrin, Thyroglobulin, TPO and TTF1. In ARO-Pax8 clones NIS protein was also localized both in cell cytoplasm and membrane. Thus, the ability to uptake the radioiodine was partially restored, associated to a high rate of efflux. In addition, ARO cells expressing Pax8 presented a lower rate of cell growth. These finding demonstrate that induction of Pax8 expression may determine a re-differentiation of thyroid cancer cells, including a partial recovery of iodide uptake, fundamental requisite for a radioiodine-based therapeutic approach for thyroid tumours

  15. Recovery of NIS expression in thyroid cancer cells by overexpression of Pax8 gene

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    Gulino Alberto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery of iodide uptake in thyroid cancer cells by means of obtaining the functional expression of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS represents an innovative strategy for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. However, the NIS gene expression alone is not always sufficient to restore radioiodine concentration ability in these tumour cells. Methods In this study, the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ARO cells were stably transfected with a Pax8 gene expression vector. A quantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the thyroid specific gene expression in selected clones. The presence of NIS protein was detected by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence. A iodide uptake assay was also performed to verify the functional effect of NIS induction and differentiation switch. Results The clones overexpressing Pax8 showed the re-activation of several thyroid specific genes including NIS, Pendrin, Thyroglobulin, TPO and TTF1. In ARO-Pax8 clones NIS protein was also localized both in cell cytoplasm and membrane. Thus, the ability to uptake the radioiodine was partially restored, associated to a high rate of efflux. In addition, ARO cells expressing Pax8 presented a lower rate of cell growth. Conclusion These finding demonstrate that induction of Pax8 expression may determine a re-differentiation of thyroid cancer cells, including a partial recovery of iodide uptake, fundamental requisite for a radioiodine-based therapeutic approach for thyroid tumours.

  16. In Vivo 5FU-Exposed Human Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Contain a Chemoresistant CD133+Tumor-Initiating Cell Subset

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, L.; Feketeová, L.; Kozovská, Z.; Poturnajová, M.; Matusková, M.; Nencka, Radim; Babál, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2014), s. 520-532. ISSN 1050-7256 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cancer stem cells * thymidylate synthase * colorectal cancer Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.493, year: 2014

  17. Thyroid carcinoma with discharging sinus – a rarity: a case report

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    Harish K

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma with isolated involvement of skin is extremely rare. Presentation with a discharging sinus has not been reported. Case presentation This is a report of a 62 year old male patient with a long standing history of thyroid swelling which has metastasized to neck nodes and ulcerated over the midline resulting in a discharging sinus. Conclusion Extra thyroidal extension is seen in 4% to 16% of all well differentiated thyroid cancers. However there is only an isolated report of skin ulceration over the thyroid. This is a unique case where the ulceration resulted in a discharging sinus. Patient is alive after 2 years following successful therapy. Aggressive surgery is warranted for locally advanced thyroid cancer.

  18. Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma of the Kidney in a Young Patient with History of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK is a rare histological variant of renal cell carcinoma not currently included in the World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. Only 24 previous cases of TLFCK have been reported to date. We report a case of TLFCK in a 19-year-old woman with history of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This patient is the youngest with TLFCK to be reported to date and the first with history of lymphoblastic leukemia. The development of TLFCK in a young patient with history of lymphoblastic leukemia is interesting and suggests that genes involved in leukemogenesis may also be important for TLFCK pathogenesis. Recognition of TLFCK is important to distinguish it from other conditions that show thyroid-like features, as a misdiagnosis can result in adverse patient care.

  19. Palliative thyroidectomy in the setting of a metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secondary neoplasm of the thyroid gland is a distinctly uncommon cause of thyroid enlargement. These tumors mimic primary thyroid gland tumors and often lead to diagnostic difficulties. We report an interesting case of secondary thyroid tumor coexisting with a micropapillary carcinoma in an elderly male patient following a radical nephrectomy done 15 years prior for a renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Interestingly, the previously described coincidental association of thyroid and pancreatic metastases in a metastatic RCC was also noted in our patient as was demonstrated in the positron emission tomography-computed tomography which was done as part of the metastatic workup. This association needs to be further explored as also the role of palliative thyroidectomy in the setting of a metastatic RCC. The possibility of metastatic RCC should be kept as a differential during the course of the evaluation of clear cell renal tumor of the thyroid gland

  20. Toxoplasmic Lymphadenitis Mimicking a Metastatic Thyroid Carcinoma at {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Ceriani, Luca; Paone, Gaetano; Giovanella, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    A 28-year-old woman underwent total thyroidectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe (pTx, pN1b). Subsequently a {sup 131}I-ablation (4.4 GBq) was performed. Four years later the patient presented increased thyroglobulin (Tg) serum levels (8.4 μg/l) during thyroxine treatment. Furthermore, enlarged hypoechoic and round-shaped bilateral cervical lymph nodes were detected at cervical ultrasonography (US). Based on laboratory and US findings suspicious for lymph nodal recurrence of thyroid carcinoma, the patient underwent an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) to check for distant metastases (Fig. 1). The patient underwent a US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on an {sup 18}F-FDG-avid cervical lymph-node. The smears were hypercellulated and consisted of numerous small- to medium-sized lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and tingible body macrophages. The cytological diagnosis was consistent with that of reactive lymphadenitis. Serological test revealed elevated IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies with a very low IgG-avidity, indicating an acute toxoplasmosis. Serum Tg was then measured by using heterophilic antibody blocking tubes, as previously reported, and serum value dropped to <0.2 μg/l. It is well known that antibody interference may falsely increase serum Tg; in particular, increased anti-Toxoplasma antibodies likely interfered to the Tg measurement in our case. Additionally, activated granulocytes and macrophages may display significantly increased glucose consumption, giving false-positive results at {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in oncological patients. Few reports have described toxoplasmic infection mimicking malignancy at {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT; these findings were found mainly in immunodepressive patients or with history of lymphoma. Conversely, we described here a case of toxoplasmosis inducing false-positive Tg measurement, neck US and {sup 18}F

  1. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  2. Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenkova L.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc. carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses.

  3. Expression of the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) in xenotransplanted human thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Schröder - van der Elst, J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Romijn, J.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of iodide in thyroid epithelial cells is mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). The uptake of iodide is of vital importance for thyroid physiology and is a prerequisite for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. Loss of iodide uptake due to diminished expression of the human NIS (

  4. Papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1976 and 1987, 395 patients with kidney tumors were studied with radiological techniques and sonography. In 37 cases (9.4%) histopathology diagnosed pure papillary renal cell carcinoma. Analyzing the radiographic patterns of these neoplasms, the authors observed constantly diminished vascularity (100%) frequent calcifications (35.1%) and necrotic areas (51.3%). Such X-ray features are not specific: nevertheless, their coexistence is strongly suggestive of papillary renal cell cancer. No consistent US pattern was found; however, necrotic areas were easily demonstrated in most cases. It must be stressed how patients with papillary carcinoma experienced a longer post-operative survival; it has not yet been established whether such favorable behavior is due to low biological aggressiveness or to earlier diagnosis

  5. Ipsilateral synchronous renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, M. J.; Song, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 53-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hypercalcemia and a huge staghorn calculus in the opposite kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of left flank pain and intermittent fever which he had had for 2 months. Computerized tomography revealed a huge stone in...

  6. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Hernández Piñero; José Luis Rodríguez López; María de Lourdes Menéndez Villa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagn...

  7. Malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma that were diagnosed concurrently and treated simultaneously: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgun, Alpaslan; Tuncel, Tolga; Emirzeoglu, Levent; Celik, Serkan; Bilgi, Oguz; Haholu, Abdullah; Urhan, Muammer; Karagoz, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can be successfully treated when it is identified in its early stages, but the disease is associated with a poor prognosis when it is detected in an advanced stage. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a thyroid cancer that has a good prognosis. The present study reports a rare case of malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma that were diagnosed concurrently and treated simultaneously. The present patient was a 37-year-old male, in whom examination of a skin biopsy that was obtained from a lesion in the right retroauricular region revealed the lesion to be consistent with malignant melanoma. The patient underwent radical neck dissection upon the detection of malignant melanoma metastasis to the sentinel lymph node. Metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma were detected in four out of 38 lymph nodes. The patient was then diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma and underwent total thyroidectomy. The patient was administered with high-dose followed by moderate-dose interferon-α therapy for the treatment of malignant melanoma. The patient also received concurrent radioactive iodine therapy for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma, at the same time as the interferon therapy. The two primary tumors of the patient were treated successfully. During therapy, no serious side-effects were observed, with the exception of fever caused by high-dose interferon therapy. Malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma may occur concurrently, although this is rarely observed. The present study reports a rare case that demonstrates that the two tumors can be successfully treated simultaneously. PMID:25436010

  8. Therapeutic implications of thymic uptake of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of 38 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the period 1991-1996, who each received at least one therapy dose of iodine-131, was reviewed, looking in particular at those in whom anterior mediastinal uptake was demonstrated on scans taken 3 and 7 days post-therapy. Such activity was noted in ten patients. On the basis of clinical follow-up, thyroglobulin measurement and radiological and other scintigraphic imaging, in nine of the ten patients the anterior mediastinal activity was attributed to physiological thymic uptake. Of those nine, all were under 50 years of age; seven were considered disease free, one had residual disease in the neck and one had distant metastases. Physiological uptake by the thymus was more prominent on the 7-day scans and in patients with low tumour volumes. For appropriate patient management it is essential to recognise that physiological uptake of 131I by the thymus in patients under 50 years of age is a potential cause of false-positive therapy scans. (orig.)

  9. Coexistence of parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: Experience of a single center

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    Ebubekir Gündeş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to describe experienceswith concurrent parathyroid adenoma and papillarythyroid carcinoma.Methods: Eight patients with concurrent parathyroid adenomaand papillary thyroid carcinoma were identifiedbetween 2005 and 2012, and their medical records werereviewed retrospectively.Results: Of the eight patients identified, two were maleand six were female; their mean age was 53.6 years.The mean serum calcium concentration was 11.7 mg/dL.Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations werehigh in all patients, with a mean concentration of 338 pg/mL. The most frequently used surgical technique was totalthyroidectomy plus parathyroid adenoma excision (n=6.The mean size of the thyroid carcinoma was 1.2 cm, andone case showed metastatic lymph nodes in the centralcompartment. The mean parathyroid adenoma size wasfound to be 2.1(0.6- 3.5 cm, according to the longest sizeof the adenom. Six patients (75% developed postoperativecomplications, including temporary symptomatic hypocalcemiain 4 patients (50%, hematoma developmentin 1 patient (12.5% and temporary vocal cord paralysis inone patient (12.5%.Conclusion: Thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenomaare rarely concomitant. Rarely hyperparathyroidismmay be accompanied with thyroid carcinomas so preoperativelythyroid gland should be properly examined. Thyroidwith parathyroid surgery are risk factors of recurrentlaryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism.Key words: Papillary thyroid cancer; parathyroid adenoma;thyroidectomy

  10. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  11. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules

  12. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachar, Gideon, E-mail: gidybahar@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Buda, Inon, E-mail: inonbuda@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cohen, Maya, E-mail: mayac@clalit.org.il [Department of Imaging, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hadar, Tuvia, E-mail: hadartuv@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hilly, Ohad, E-mail: ohadhilly@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schwartz, Nofrat, E-mail: nofrat@gmail.com [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Otolaryngology, Meir Hospital, Kefar Sabah, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Shpitzer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas-s@013net.net [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Segal, Karl, E-mail: segalk@clalit.org.il [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-11-01

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules.

  13. Transformation of p53-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic carcinoma of the liver following postoperative radioactive iodine-131 therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshita, Yumie; Takamura, Toshinari; Minato, Hiroshi; Misu, Hirofumi; Ando, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Tatsuya; IKEDA, HIROKO; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    Multiple liver metastases were incidentally detected in the lobe of the liver of an 81-year-old woman following total thyroidectomy and ablative radioactive iodine administration for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A biopsy specimen taken from the metastatic liver tumor was histologically diagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining for p53 was positive in both the primary tumor and liver biopsy specimens. We considered this to have been caused by anaplastic t...

  14. Thyroid adenomas and carcinomas following radiotherapy for a hemangioma during infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: A cohort study was performed to investigate the carcinogenic effect of treating skin hemangioma with ionizing radiation during early childhood. This paper presents the incidence of differentiated thyroid adenomas and carcinomas after radiotherapy in this cohort. Methods and materials: Of a total of 8307 patients treated for a skin hemangioma between 1940 and 1973 at the Institut Gustave-Roussy, 4767 were included in an incidence study, among whom 3795 had received radiotherapy. Seventy-three percent were less than 1-year-old at the time of treatment. External radiotherapy, Radium 226, Strontium 90, Yttrium 90, and Phosphorus 32 were used. The radiation dose received by the thyroid during radiotherapy, estimated in 3497 of the 3795 patients using specific software, was 41 mGy on average. Thyroid tumor cases were obtained by sending out a questionnaire, and were verified in pathological reports. Estimates of thyroid cancer specific incidence rates in the French population were obtained from the French cancer registry network. External and internal analyses were performed. Results: During an average follow-up of 35 years, 11 patients developed a differentiated thyroid carcinoma and 44 a thyroid adenoma. The incidence of thyroid adenoma was found to be higher among taller and heavier individuals. The incidence of both thyroid carcinoma and adenoma was higher among non-smoker patients. A significant dose-response relationship was found between the radiation dose received by thyroid and the risk of thyroid cancer (Excess Relative Risk per GY, ERR/Gy: 14.7, 95%CI: 1.6-62.9) and of adenoma (ERR/Gy: 5.7, 95%CI: 0.7-19.4). Conclusion: This study confirms that radiation treatment performed in the past for hemangioma during infancy increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma and adenoma. Patients treated with external radiotherapy or with Radium 226 applicators for hemangiomas have to be more specifically followed up because this is the subgroup in whom the

  15. Thyroid adenomas and carcinomas following radiotherapy for a hemangioma during infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study was performed to investigate the carcinogenic effect of treating skin hemangioma with ionizing radiation during early childhood. This paper presents the incidence of differentiated thyroid adenomas and carcinomas after radiotherapy in this cohort. This study confirms that radiation treatment performed in the past for hemangioma during infancy increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma and adenoma. Patients treated with external radiotherapy or with Radium 226 applicators for hemangiomas have to be more specifically followed up because this is the subgroup in whom the highest doses were received by the thyroid gland (more than 90% of the radiation doses were higher than 100 mGy). They are therefore more at risk of developing thyroid cancer

  16. Thyroid adenomas and carcinomas following radiotherapy for a hemangioma during infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, N.; Andriamboavonjy, T.; Paoletti, C.; Mousannif, A.; Shamsaldin, A.; Doyon, F.; Labbe, M.; Diallo, I.; Vathaire, F. de [INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dondon, M.G. [INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Robert, C. [Dermatology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Avril, M.F. [Dermatology, Hopital Cochin, Paris (France); Fragu, P.; Schlumberger, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Eschwege, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schvartz, C. [Reseau des registres des cancers, Francim, Toulouse (France)

    2012-07-01

    A cohort study was performed to investigate the carcinogenic effect of treating skin hemangioma with ionizing radiation during early childhood. This paper presents the incidence of differentiated thyroid adenomas and carcinomas after radiotherapy in this cohort. This study confirms that radiation treatment performed in the past for hemangioma during infancy increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma and adenoma. Patients treated with external radiotherapy or with Radium 226 applicators for hemangiomas have to be more specifically followed up because this is the subgroup in whom the highest doses were received by the thyroid gland (more than 90% of the radiation doses were higher than 100 mGy). They are therefore more at risk of developing thyroid cancer

  17. Relationship between prognostic score and thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) in papillary thyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical detection of TSH-R.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, K.; Inoue, H; Miki, H.; Masuda, E; Kitaichi, M; Komaki, K.; Uyama, T.; Monden, Y.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the expression of thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) in thyroid neoplasms (13 adenomas, 21 papillary carcinomas, two follicular carcinomas) and adjacent normal thyroid using the monoclonal antibody against human TSH-R and have also demonstrated a relationship between prognostic scores and the expression of TSH-R. Among the adenomas, eight showed an intensity similar to that of normal thyroid and five showed a higher intensity than normal. Two tumours exhibited heterogeneous dis...

  18. Genomic binding and regulation of gene expression by the thyroid carcinoma-associated PAX8-PPARG fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanxiao; Yu, Jingcheng; Lee, Chee; Xu, Bin; Sartor, Maureen A.; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    A chromosomal translocation results in production of an oncogenic PAX8-PPARG fusion protein (PPFP) in thyroid carcinomas. PAX8 is a thyroid transcription factor, and PPARG is a transcription factor that plays important roles in adipocytes and macrophages. PPFP retains the DNA binding domains of both proteins; however, the genomic binding sites of PPFP have not been identified, and only limited data exist to characterize gene expression in PPFP thyroid carcinomas. Therefore, the oncogenic func...

  19. Potential diagnostic utility of CD56 and claudin-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and solitary follicular thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The pathological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is usually easily achieved. However distinguishing the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) from other follicular thyroid lesions is an area of controversy. In this study we investigated the role of CD56 and claudin-1 in the discriminating the FVPCs from other solitary follicular patterned nodules. We also evaluated the application of these two markers in reclassifying the controversial cases of the well differentiated tumors of unknown malignant potential (WDTs-UMP). Materials and methods: The immunohistochemical expression of CD56 and claudin-1 was evaluated in 86 samples of thyroid lesions together with 10 samples of normal thyroid tissue. Thyroid lesions included: 29 PTCs [classic papillary carcinoma (n = 13) and FVPC (n = 16)], 47 solitary follicular patterned nodules [follicular adenomas (n = 12), hyperplastic nodules (n = 32) and follicular tumor of unknown malignant potential (n = 3)] and 10 WDTs-UMP. Results: The statistical analysis showed significantly different expressions of each of CD56 and claudin-1 in the FVPCs versus other solitary follicular patterned nodules. Claudin-1 sensitivity (100%) was higher than CD56 sensitivity (81.3%). However claudin-1 specificity (80.9%) was < CD56 specificity (89.4%). The combined use of CD56 and claudin-1 (claudin-1 +/CD56-) showed specificity (100%), positive predictive value (100%) and sensitivity (81.3%) in the differentiation between the FVPCs and other follicular nodules. In the light of this statistical outcome, 5/10 cases of WDTs-UMP expressing the (claudin-1 +/CD56-) panel could be rediagnosed as PTC. Conclusion: Combined utility of CD56 and claudin-1 is helpful in diagnosing the FVPC and its differentiation from other follicular patterned nodules. Application of these two markers may greatly aid in the reevaluation of the WDTs-UMP and interpretation of their expected behavior

  20. Cutaneous Metastasis of Medullary Carcinoma Thyroid Masquerading as Subcutaneous Nodules Anterior Chest and Mandibular Region

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Mannan; Jasmine Kaur; Jasleen Kaur; Sanjay Piplani; Harjot Kaur; Harleen Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis of underlying primary malignancies can present to dermatologist with chief complaints of cutaneous lesions. The underlying malignancy is generally diagnosed much later after a complete assessment of the concerned case. Medullary carcinoma thyroid (MCT) is a relatively uncommon primary neoplasia of the thyroid. Very few cases presenting as cutaneous metastases of MCT have been reported in the literature. Most of the cases which have been reported are of the papillary and t...

  1. Development of skin hypopigmentation in a patient with metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid treated with Sorafenib

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Zubair; Asghar, Ali; Ikram, Mubasher; Islam, Najmul

    2013-01-01

    Background Sorafenib can be considered as the effective option of treatment in patients with metastatic radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancers. The cutaneous manifestations of Sorafenib include rash, desquamation, hand foot skin reactions, pruritus, alopecia and erythema. We report the first case of hypopigmentation related to sorafenib therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a middle aged gentleman with metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid diagnosed in 2005. He w...

  2. Molecular mechanisms of medullary thyroid carcinoma, current approaches in diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Boikos, S. A.; Stratakis, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the most common cause of death among patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2. Dominant-activating mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have been shown to have a central role in the development of MEN 2 and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC): about half of sporadic MTCs are caused by somatic genetic changes of the RET oncogene. Inactivating mutations of the same gene lead to Hirschprung disease and other developmental def...

  3. Galectin-3 expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma in relation to tumor progression

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić Dubravka S.; Savin-Žegarac Svetlana B.; Petrović Ivana M.; Paunović Ivan R.; Tatić Svetislav B.; Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Galectin-3, a lectin with specificity for beta galactosides, is believed to be implicated in multiple biological processes through interactions with complementary glycoconjugates. Alterations in galectin-3 expression are observed in a variety of human tumors. In thyroid, this lectin has been found to be highly expressed in malignancies of epithelial origin. We analyzed galectin-3 expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An immunohistochemical study u...

  4. Various somatostatin receptor expression in thyroid gland carcinomas and carcinoids showed with scintigraphy with various somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the thyroid gland exprime somatostatin receptors in high density. OctreoScan is used for the diagnosis of SSTR positive tumors. OctreoScan is an 111In marked Octreotid-derivative. In this study the applicability of the various tracers for the diagnosis of carcinoids and thyroid gland carcinomas was tested. With planar scintigraphy the results was evaluated. (boteke)

  5. Significance of CK19, TPO, and HBME-1 expression for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zeming; Yu, Pan; Xiong, Yiquan; Zeng, Wen; Li, Xiaoyu; Maiaiti, Yusufu; Wang, Shuntao; Song, Haiping; Shi, Lan; Liu, Chunping; Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Ming, Jie; Dong, Fang; Ge, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the expression and significance of CK19, TPO, and HBME-1 in the differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and nonmalignant nodules. Methods: Tissue samples were obtained from 257 patients with PTC and 149 patients with nonmalignant thyroid specimens, and immunohistochemical staining for CK-19, TPO, and HBME-1 was performed. Results: The expression of CK-19, TPO, and HBME-1 was 96.3%, 12.0%, and 85.3%, respectively, for the PTC group. For nonmalignant ...

  6. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs. RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01 and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01 suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.

  7. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  8. The role of thyrotropin suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deasy, J

    2010-07-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the commonest endocrine malignancy. The majority of these are differentiated thyroid carcinomas, which have a good overall prognosis. Treatment includes surgical excision, radio-iodine ablation and long-term thyrotropin suppression. The degree and length of suppression required, as well as the potential side-effect remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the degree of thyrotropin suppression achieved in a cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A retrospective review was performed of a prospectively maintained database. All patients with a diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma between January 1998 and January 2008 were identified. Demographic data, pathological stage and the treatment that the patient received was documented. TSH and free T4 levels were identified at specific time points post-operatively. Eighty-eight patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were identified. Seventy patients (79.5%) were female. The mean age was 55, with a range of 18 to 79 years. The majority of patients underwent a total thyroidectomy (n=79; 89.7%) and of those 29 (32.9%) had an associated modified neck dissection. Accurate follow-up was available on forty-nine patients. TSH and free T4 were measured at 3 and 6 months, as well as at 1 and 2 years post-operatively. Adequate TSH suppression was taken at a level < 0.1 mU\\/L. The majority of patients (69.5%) had achieved adequate TSH suppression at 2 years. However, 65% of these same patients had a high free T4 at 2 years indicating a degree of hyperthyroidism. This study has demonstrated that TSH suppression is being adequately achieved in the majority of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, this must be carefully weighed against the potential detrimental side-effects of long-term sub-clinical hyperthyroidism.

  9. Neck circumference correlates with tumor size and lateral lymph node metastasis in men with small papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Sang Soo; Huh, Jung Eun; Lee, Byung Joo; Lee, Jin Choon; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Wang, Soo Geun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Obesity is correlated with numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer, but the clinical significance of obesity with regard to the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer remains unclear. Neck circumference is an index of upper-body adipose tissue distribution. Methods In total, 401 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) measuring ≤ 2 cm were included. Neck circumference was measured horizontally at the level just below the thyroid cartilage on preoperative neck c...

  10. Assessment of thyroid function in patients with laryngeal carcinoma treated surgically and with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 40 patients with laryngeal carcinoma after total laryngectomy and radiotherapy the triiodotyronine binding index, total thyroxine level, serum free thyroxine index were determined before, during and after treatment. At the same time thyroid iodine uptake was determined by the routine method. Surgical treatment as well as radiotherapy caused lowering of thyroid functions. These changes had a high tendency for return to normal values, not earlier, however, than 6 months after treatment. The authors stress that endocrine thyroid disturbances may have an important influence on delay of psychic rehabilitation and speech training in laryngectomized patients. (author)

  11. A Case of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma with de novo V804M RET Germline Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young Sik; Kwon, Hye Jung; Kim, Bu Kyung; Kwon, Su Kyoung; Park, Yo Han; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Sang Bong; Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Seong Keun; UCHINO, SHINYA

    2013-01-01

    Many cases of RET proto-oncogene mutations of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have been reported in Korea. However, MTC with V804M RET proto-oncogene germline mutations have not been reported in Korea. A 33-yr-old man was diagnosed with a 0.7-cm sized thyroid nodule. Laboratory testing revealed serum calcitonin was elevated. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection for the thyroid tumor. RET gene analysis was performed in both the index p...

  12. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (2015) Radiation Safety in the Treatment of Patients with Thyroid Diseases by Radioiodine 131 I: Practice Recommendations of the ...

  13. Cytologic Findings of Thyroid Carcinoma Showing Thymus-like Differentiation: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sunhee; Joo, Mee; Kim, Hanseong

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare carcinoma of the thyroid or adjacent soft tissue of the neck with a histologic resemblance to thymic epithelial tumors. Although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a central role in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, few reports about the cytologic findings of CASTLE have been found according to a review of literatures. We report cytologic findings of a case of CASTLE. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-month his...

  14. THE UNILATERAL BIG HOCKEY STICK INCISION FOR NECK DISSECTION IN THYROID CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝国; 刘伟; 顾晋

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and advantages of the unilateral big hockey stick incision in thyroid carcinoma. Method: Neck dissection using the unilateral big hockey stick incision was performed on 23 patients with thyroid carcinoma. Results: The big hockey stick incision results in a cosmetic scar which is barely visible and easily covered by hair or clothing, while it provides sufficient exposure of the operation field. A small area of marginal necrosis is occasionally seen at the apex of the skin flap due to preoperative radiotherapy. Conclusion: The unilateral big hockey stick incision has adequate surgical access, good healing of skin flaps, and a good cosmetic result.

  15. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  16. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  17. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: propedeutic evaluation in pediatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A 13 years old patient, female with report of previous thyroidectomy for 2 years, which anatomopathologic study of the surgical mass revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Posterior whole body scanning (WBS) with I-131 showed presence of the abnormal iodine uptake tissue localized in the cervical, hepatic and pulmonary regions. The patient remained for a large period without follow-up or specific therapy. During that period she developed palpable cervical nodules, with consequent return to the endocrinology service. She was submitted to a new scintilographic studies with I-131, realized in our institution where, first was studied the anterior cervical region, using the dosage of 0,100 mCl, in a Tomographic Digital Gamma-Camera, type Elscint, model SPX-6, pinhole collimator. The images showed a discrete diffuse raising of uptake in this region, without definition of high uptake focal areas. In the propedeutic follow-up a WBS with I-131 was realized (dosage of 0,5Ci), using the same equipment and a high-energy collimator. The images were acquired 48h after the oral administration of radioiodine, revealing presence of anomalous iodine uptake tissue in the anterior cervical region, lungs, cranium (parietal bones) and low abdomen. After 7 days, she was submitted to the radio-iodine-therapy in the dosage of 150 mCi, staying isolated in a therapeutic room until to reach values equal or lower than 1.11Gbq(30mCi). Therapeutic post-dosage WBS has not revealed new metastatic areas, even in high dosage. Now the patient is being following up, with planning for periodical dosages of thyroglobulin and news WBS with I-131, if necessary

  18. Ultrasonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinoma and their diagnostic values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Sheng; JIANG Yu-xin; LIU He; LI Wen-bo; OUYANG Yun-shu; ZHANG Bo; LI Peng; WANG Xue-lian; ZHANG Xiao-yan; LI Jian-chu

    2010-01-01

    Background Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignant tumour and usually difficult to diagnose with ultrasound. The aim of the study is to summarize the sonographic features of MTC and evaluate their diagnostic values.Methods We analyzed the sonographic features of 35 MTCs and 50 benign nodules with respect to nodular size,echogenecity, internal content, shape, height/width, border, peripheral halo, calcifications and colour flow pattern. The ratio of long to short axis, echogenecity, internal content and calcifications were also assessed in cervical lymph nodes.The differences in sonographic features between MTCs and benign nodules were analyzed with Chi square test. The diagnostic efficiency of each sonographic feature was determined.Results The main sonographic features of MTC were hypoechogenicity (including marked hypoechogenicity) (n=34,97%), internal solid content (n=29, 83%), taller than wide (n=34, 97%), well defined border (n=24, 69%),microcalcifications or macrocalcifications (n=23, 66%). The echogenicity, internal content, shape, peripheral halo and calcifications were significantly different between these two groups, while the tall/wide, border, and pednodular and intranodular vascularisation were not significantly different. Among all the individual sonographic features, irregular shape had the highest diagnostic efficiency with a sensitivity of 51% and specificity of 92%. The combination of marked hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, and irregular shape yielded a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 86%.Conclusions The typical sonographic features of MTC are hypoechogenicity, predominantly solid, irregularly shaped with intranodular micro- or macro-calcifications. The combination of multiple sonographic features is helpful, but not definitive, for the diagnosis of MTC.

  19. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  20. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  1. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a review on ethical considerations in treatment of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozhat, Zahra; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system and it accounts approximately 1%-3% of all human cancers. Among the three subtypes of thyroid cancers, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is the most common cause of death in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (MEN2A), MEN type 2B (MEN2B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Generally, MTC accounts for up to 10% of all types of thyroid cancers. It is one of the aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma which is manifested in childhood ages more than adults, and it comprises about 17% of all pediatric thyroid cancer. Like the other cancers, prevention of MTC is easier than its cure. In the recent decades (from 1993) the diagnosis of asymptomatic child carrying RET mutations in the affected families by MTC, has been provided by genetic screening, and prophylactic thyroidectomy is an efficacy therapeutic procedure. On the one hand, according to near the complete penetrance of the disease and its onset in the early years of life, it is required to accelerate the protection of at-risk children with relative affected by MTC and on the other hand, there are several obstructions to MTC treatment including: 1) the proband's refusal to disclose the RET mutation genetic testing results, 2) children's vulnerability because of their inability to participate in the informed consent, and 3) the existence of conflict between physicians and children's guardian. In this review article, the recommendations and ethical issues of MTC treatment in asymptomatic and at-risk children have been summarized. PMID:26974132

  2. Carcinoma of the thyroid with a mixed medullary and follicular pattern: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently encountered an unusual carcinoma of the thyroid gland with a predominantly medullary pattern admixed with areas of follicular differentiation. Both patterns prevailed at the primary site and in bilateral cervical lymph node metastases. The tumor cells were stained for calcitonin by indirect immunofluorescence technique and were found to contain dense-core granules by electron microscopy. Calcitonin was demonstrated in tumor homogenates by radioimmunoassay and was elevated in the serum. Immunofluorescence staining also revealed thyroglobulin in the neoplastic cells. Moreover, following total thyroidectomy, the cervical node metastases concentrated radioactive iodine (131I), and serum thyroglobulin was increased at one stage of the disease when measured by radioimmunoassay. These findings are discussed in the light of the dual embryonic derivation of the thyroid gland

  3. Biological dosimetry after a single treatment with 131 radioiodine for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M`Kacher, R.; Legal, J.D.; Schlumberger, M.; Beron-Gaillard, N.; Gaussen, A.; Parmentier, C.; Aubert, B. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1997-03-01

    To determine the cytogenetic and genotoxic risk associated with therapeutic exposure to {sup 131}I (3.7 GBq) in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, we estimated the dosimetric index that reflects the dose to the bone marrow on day 4 and at several time intervals after exposure over a period of 2 years. The dosimetric index is 2 to 4 times higher for the dose to the bone marrow than the results based on MIRD calculations, which are derived from individuals with normal thyroid function and normal metabolic activity. This study shows that chromosomal anomalies induced by radiation persist over long periods of time (2 years) and that a retrospective biological dosimetry can be established in patients exposed to ionizing radiations. Blood samples taken at 3 and 6 months and 1 and 2 years after administration of {sup 131}I demonstrated more reciprocal translocations than those taken at 4 days and the presence of the dicentrics without the `accompagnateur` fragment. Stem cells produce new lymphocytes to make-up for the loss after {sup 131}I treatment. Direct estimation of the dose using our dosimetric index will provide a more accurate quantification of the risk incurred by exposure to {sup 131}I which until now, has been based exclusively on approximate statistical calculations of cumulative {sup 131}I doses. (authors)

  4. Biological dosimetry after a single treatment with 131 radioiodine for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the cytogenetic and genotoxic risk associated with therapeutic exposure to 131I (3.7 GBq) in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, we estimated the dosimetric index that reflects the dose to the bone marrow on day 4 and at several time intervals after exposure over a period of 2 years. The dosimetric index is 2 to 4 times higher for the dose to the bone marrow than the results based on MIRD calculations, which are derived from individuals with normal thyroid function and normal metabolic activity. This study shows that chromosomal anomalies induced by radiation persist over long periods of time (2 years) and that a retrospective biological dosimetry can be established in patients exposed to ionizing radiations. Blood samples taken at 3 and 6 months and 1 and 2 years after administration of 131I demonstrated more reciprocal translocations than those taken at 4 days and the presence of the dicentrics without the 'accompagnateur' fragment. Stem cells produce new lymphocytes to make-up for the loss after 131I treatment. Direct estimation of the dose using our dosimetric index will provide a more accurate quantification of the risk incurred by exposure to 131I which until now, has been based exclusively on approximate statistical calculations of cumulative 131I doses. (authors)

  5. Carcinoma folicular de tireóide: estudo retrospectivo Follicular thyroid carcinoma: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergilius J. F. Araújo Filho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Abordar o diagnóstico, tratamento e evolução do carcinoma folicular da tireóide. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados de 38 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia por carcinoma folicular puro, num período de 10 anos no HC-FMUSP. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de três anos e três meses. Nove pacientes eram do sexo masculino (23,7% e 29 do sexo feminino (76,3%, com idades entre 19 e 87 anos (média=49,5. RESULTADOS: Em 17 (58,6% dos doentes, observou-se nódulo único à ultra-sonografia, e 23 (79,3% tinham nódulos frios à cintilografia. Sintomatologia esteve presente em 33 pacientes (86,8%. A punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF, realizada em 27 pacientes, revelou padrão folicular em 24 (88,9%, carcinoma papilífero em 2 (7,4% e bócio em 1 (3,7%. Tireoidectomia total foi o tratamento final em 34 pacientes e esvaziamento cervical foi realizado em três casos. Apenas 5 (13,1% obtiveram confirmação diagnóstica ao exame de congelação intra-operatória. Houve 2 (5,2% óbitos pela doença e 5 (13,1% pacientes apresentam-se vivos com doença. O aumento da tireoglobulina (TG correlacionou-se com o aparecimento de metástase em 100% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Concluímos que pacientes com carcinoma folicular de tireóide geralmente apresentam-se com nódulo único ou predominante ao primeiro exame, cuja PAAF é de padrão folicular. O exame de congelação raramente confirma o diagnóstico. Em nosso serviço, o tratamento de escolha é a tireoidectomia total, permitindo um seguimento mais adequado e confiável do paciente e prevenindo o crescimento de lesões subclínicas no lobo contralateral. A evolução geralmente é favorável.BACKGROUND: Unlike papillary carcinoma, there are limited data regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on 38 patients submitted to thyroidectomy for exclusive follicular carcinoma over a 10 years

  6. Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7±54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in 131I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3±9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5±3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to 131I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after 131I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after 131I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several 131I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that 131I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Prognostic impact of extent of vascular invasion in low-grade encapsulated follicular cell–derived thyroid carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 276 cases☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Laura; Tuttle, R. Michael; Ganly, Ian; Ghossein, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Summary Continuous controversy surrounds the predictive value of the degree of vascular invasion (VI) in low-grade encapsulated follicular cell–derived thyroid carcinomas (LGEFCs). Some guidelines advocate conservative therapy in LGEFCs with focal VI. There is therefore a need to assess the survival rates of LGEFC patients with various degrees of VI to better stratify patients for subsequent therapy. Furthermore, the prognostic effect of VI within the different histotypes of LGEFCs is not well known. A total of 276 patients with LGEFCs were subjected to a meticulous histopathologic analysis. They were classified as encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma, encapsulated follicular carcinoma (EFC), and encapsulated Hurthle cell carcinoma (EHCC). Of the 276 patients, 24 had extensive VI (EVI) (≥4 foci) and 28 displayed focal (thyroid carcinoma. Median follow-up was 6 years. All 14 tumors with adverse behavior harbored distant metastases (DMs), of which 9 had DMs at presentation. All 3 patients without EVI who had aggressive carcinomas harbored DMs at presentation. EVI was an independent predictor of poor recurrence-free survival. Excluding cases with DMs at presentation, only patients with EVI had recurrence, and all relapsed cases were EHCC. EVI is an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival in LGEFCs. EHCC with EVI has a particularly high risk of recurrence. When DMs are not found at presentation, patients with focal VI are at a very low risk of recurrence even if not treated with radioactive iodine. PMID:26482605

  8. Is outcome of differentiated thyroid carcinoma influenced by tumor stage at diagnosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.; Kremer, L.C.M.; Links, T.P.; Mulder, R.L.; Ronckers, C.M.; van Eck-Smit, B.L.; van Rijn, R.R.; Pal van der, H.J.H.; Tissing, W.J.E.; Janssens, G.O.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M.; Neggers, S.J.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E.J.; Peeters, R.P.; van Santen, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no international consensus on surveillance strategies for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. Ultrasonography could allow for early detection of DTC, however, its value is yet unclear since the prognosis of DTC is excellent. We address

  9. BRAF and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Lessons From Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Primary Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brendon; Dhingra, Jagdish K; Mahalingam, Meera

    2016-07-01

    The increased prevalence of BRAF mutations in thyroid carcinoma and primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM) hint that dysregulation of BRAF might contribute to the noted association between PCM and thyroid carcinoma. A recent study evaluating the rate of BRAFV600E mutations among patients who had been diagnosed with primary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and PCM showed that patients with either PCM or PTC were at an increased risk of developing the other as a second primary malignant neoplasm. Furthermore, the authors noted that samples from patients suffering from both malignancies exhibited a higher rate of incidence of the BRAFV600E mutation, compared with patients not suffering from both malignancies. These studies support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of these 2 malignancies might share a conserved molecular pattern associated with dysregulation of the BRAF protein. One mechanism through which BRAF might contribute to PCM and thyroid carcinoma progression is through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Specifically, the Snail/E-cadherin axis has been demonstrated as a pathway dysregulated by BRAF, leading to EMT in both malignancies. Our analysis focuses on the results of these recent investigations, and through a review of select molecules relevant to EMT, looks to provide a context by which to better understand the relevance and role of stromal-parenchymal signaling and the BRAF mutation in the pathogenesis of PTC and PCM. PMID:27145091

  10. Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma : The EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Tikk, Kaja; Fortner, Renee T.; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as); Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Argueelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandstrom, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Schmidt, Julie A.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Byrnes, Graham; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) is threefold more common in women than in men and, therefore, a role of female hormones in the etiology of differentiated TC has been suggested. We assessed these hypotheses in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among

  11. Medical evaluations of ionizing radiation effects during I131 therapy in patients after thyroid carcinoma surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study shows the para-clinical studies on a 39 years old patient who was operated on of a thyroid carcinoma and who, under the beirwaltes medical record (in use in our country), received in the post surgical stage, a Iodine-131 dose of about 2960 MBq (80 mCi) for ablation, having been noted subsequently her pregnancy condition. (author). 6 refs

  12. Increased Risk of Atrial Fibrillation After Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Schuurmans, Edwin P.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Groen, Bart; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Rienstra, Michiel; Links, Thera P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) have a favorable prognosis after treatment with thyroidectomy, radioiodine, and TSH suppression. However, treatment is associated with long-term cardiovascular toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an increas

  13. An unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism: multiple brown tumors and coexisting thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Y; Ince, S; Alagoz, E; Meric, C; Taslipinar, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a patient with a complex clinical picture of primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple destructive skeletal lesions suspicious of bone metastases and concomitant multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma with a metastatic central lymph node. He presented with progressively worsening right hip pain and restricted motion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple lytic lesions involving predominantly the right trochanter minor and the left inferior and posterior pubic rami. Biochemical tests were consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. Neck ultrasound and parathyroid scintigraphy revealed a single parathyroid adenoma and a thyroid nodule, preoperative cytology of which confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma, as did the final surgical specimen. Biochemical results, regarding hyperparathyroidism, declined to normal levels and his complaints gradually decreased after surgery. Postoperative whole body bone scintigraphy showed increased tracer uptakes at multiple sites, but they were proved to be metabolically inactive by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. PMID:27036887

  14. Isolated skeletal muscle metastatic deposit in a patient with micropapillary carcinoma thyroid identified by 18F FDG PET CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid is said to be low risk differentiated thyroid malignancy with excellent prognosis. We report the identification of an isolated FDG avid muscle deposit in a treated case of micropapillary carcinoma of the right lobe and widely invasive follicular carcinoma of the left lobe thyroid gland. Patient was found to have an elevated thyroglobulin level with negative iodine scan (TENIS syndrome) on follow up at 6 months. An 18F FDG PET CT (18 fluorine- fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography) whole body study revealed a solitary FDG avid deltoid muscle deposit which was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic papillary carcinoma. While follicular carcinoma is known to have distant metastases, this may be the first reported case of solitary skeletal metastases from micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid and probably the second reported skeletal muscle deposit from DTC detected on 18F FDG PET CT done following elevated thyroglobulin level and negative 131 iodine WB scan (TENIS). This case also assumes importance because it demonstrates possibility of metastases even from a micropapillary carcinoma in contrast to American Thyroid Association guidelines (2009) which suggests that micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid does not merit further treatment after a Total Thyroidectomy.

  15. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: Claudius-Regaud center's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From June 1971 to September 1989, 38 patients had been treated for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT). Four patients were excluded from the study, because they were rapidly lost of follow up. We have distinguished three groups: i) group 1 (infra-clinic tumor diagnosed at the time of family investigation): four cases treated by radical thyroidectomy and bilateral cervical evidement; ii) group 2 (bulky cervical tumor with metastatic spread): three patients treated with a palliative intent; iii) group 3 (bulky cervical tumor with metastatic spread): 27 patients treated by thyroidectomy (with cervical lymph mode dissection in 23 cases) and post-operative radiotherapy for 20 patients who had histopathologic invading nodes or a large extracapsular spreading. All patients from the group 1 are alive free of recurrence and the median follow up time is 35 months. In group 2: two patients died from the disease three and 10 months after initial therapy and one patient is alive with disease after 72 months of follow up. In group 3: median follow up time is 79 months. Ten patients (37%) had a local and locoregional failure (isolated nodal recurrence: three patients local and/or nodal relapse with metastatic failure: seven patients). For teen per cent of the irradiated patients relapsed in the target volume. Nine patients (33%) had a metastatic relapse without evidence of cervical recurrence. Median period of metastatic recurrence is 47 months. Specific survival and disease free survival of 65 and 45% at 5 years, 54 and 26% at 10 years respectively. From nine prognosis parameters considered, the post-therapy increasing of tumor markers (thyrocalcitonin and/or CE/A) had significant influence on disease free survival (P<0.02). Histological nodal status had no significant influence on actuarial metastatic rate, but 93% of metastatic patients were N+, and 65% of patients with N+ became M+. This study confirms that metastatic dissemination in patients with nodal invading is a

  16. Scintigraphic and ultrasonographic appearance in different tumor stages of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy is routinely used in evaluating thyroid nodules. Functioning nodules are reported to have a low probability of being malignant. Therefore cancer should appear hypofunctioning or 'cold' on scintiscan. The aim of the study was to compare the scinitgraphic pattern in different tumor stages of thyroid carcinoma. In addition, sonographic results are evaluated. In 151 patients with thyroid carcinoma 99mTc-pertechnetate scans were evaluated retrospectively by a visual inspection scoring method (A = no significant uptake to D = nodular uptake superior to normal thyroid tissue). Planar images were taken using a small field thyroid gamma camera. There were 52 patients with pT1 carcinoma (2 x follicular and 50 x papillary). The mean tumor size was 0.56 ± 0.26 cm. The scintigraphic results were A and B in 5.7 % (n = 6), C in 73 % (n = 38), D in 15.6 % (n = 8). Out of 40 patients with pT2 carcinoma, 34 had a papillary, 6 a follicular histology. Mean tumor size was 1.66 ± 0.49 cm. The scintiscan was A in 12.5 % (n = 5), B in 32.5 % (n = 13), C in 42.5 % (n = 17) and D in 12.5 % (n = 5). There were 11 patients with pT3 carcinoma (4 x papillary, 7 x follicular). The mean tumor size was 3.96 ± 0.88 cm in diameter. Scintiscan was A in 72.7 % (n = 8), C in 27.3 % (n = 3). Among 48 patients with pT4 carcinoma (2 x follicular, 1 x nondifferentiated, 45 x papillary), scan was A in 41.6 % (n = 20), B in 14.57 % (n = 7), C in 33.3 % (n = 16) and D in 10.4 % (n = 5). Mean tumor size was 2.16 ± 1.45 cm (7 carcinomas ≤ 1 cm, 23 x 1 - 2 cm, the remaining > 2 cm). Tumor size plays an important role in routinely used planar scintigraphy. Nodules greater than 2 cm in diameter tend to appear cold but microcarcinomas (≤ 1 cm) are often indifferent on scan. Therefore, planar 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is of little value in evaluating small thyroid nodules. In order to diagnose small thyroid nodules, ultrasonography and ultrasonographically guided FNAB should be

  17. Differential miRNA expression defines migration and reduced apoptosis in follicular thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, Bartosz; Ferraz, Carolina; Stokowy, Tomasz; Hauptmann, Steffen; Lange, Dariusz; Dralle, Henning; Musholt, Thomas; Jarzab, Barbara; Paschke, Ralf; Eszlinger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to identify microRNAs (miRs) characteristic for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and to define their role in tumorigenesis. A miR-microarray study was conducted to identify miRs differentially expressed between FTCs and their surrounding tissues. Selection was further reinforced by a literature review. Four miRs were selected and confirmed by RT-qPCR: miR-146b, -183, -221 were up-regulated, whereas miR-199b down-regulated in FTCs. The influence of these miRs on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and migration was studied in HTori and FTC-133 cells. Functional characterization suggests an impact of miR-183 and miR-146b in FTC development. Overexpression of both miRs significantly induces migration. Moreover, overexpression of miR-183 significantly represses apoptosis. MiR-199b and -221 do not have significant effects on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis or migration in HTori and FTC-133 cells. Our data suggest that miR-146b and miR-183 may influence FTC development through the induction of migration and apoptosis inhibition. PMID:24631480

  18. Difference between papillar y and follicular thyroid carcinoma outcomes:an experience from Egyptian institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engy M Aboelnaga; Rehab Allah Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) are classiifed into papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). DTCs are analyzed as a single group in clinical studies that investigated the prognostic factors and prognosis of these malignancies. However, the biological behaviors of these carcinomas signiifcantly differ. In the present study, we aimed to detect differences in the outcomes between PTC and FTC in Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt. Methods:A total of 558 patients with histologically proven thyroid carcinomas from January 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. hTe clinical and pathological data of patients were reviewed. Results:Large primary tumor size, lymph node involvement, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis were signiifcant poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in old PTC patients. Cox hazard analysis showed that the patient’s age, extra thyroid extension, and distant metastasis were the only independent prognostic factors. In FTC patients, only the distant metastasis and degree of tumor invasion were signiifcant poor prognostic factors in OS univariate analysis. However, these factors were nonsignificant in multivariate analysis. The 10-year OS rates were 97%and 89%for PTC and FTC, respectively (P=0.003). hTe 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.2%in PTC vs. 65%in FTC (P=0.179). Conclusion:hTe signiifcant prognostic factors vary between the two types of DTCs. hTerefore, PTC and FTC patients need to be analyzed and reported independently. PTC survival is widely and signiifcantly affected by age, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis. By contrast, these factors were nonsigniifcant in FTC, which showed poorer survival than PTC.

  19. Difference between papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma outcomes: an experience from Egyptian institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) are classified into papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). DTCs are analyzed as a single group in clinical studies that investigated the prognostic factors and prognosis of these malignancies. However, the biological behaviors of these carcinomas significantly differ. In the present study, we aimed to detect differences in the outcomes between PTC and FTC in Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt. A total of 558 patients with histologically proven thyroid carcinomas from January 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. The clinical and pathological data of patients were reviewed. Large primary tumor size, lymph node involvement, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis were significant poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in old PTC patients. Cox hazard analysis showed that the patient’s age, extra thyroid extension, and distant metastasis were the only independent prognostic factors. In FTC patients, only the distant metastasis and degree of tumor invasion were significant poor prognostic factors in OS univariate analysis. However, these factors were nonsignificant in multivariate analysis. The 10-year OS rates were 97% and 89% for PTC and FTC, respectively (P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.2% in PTC vs. 65% in FTC (P=0.179). The significant prognostic factors vary between the two types of DTCs. Therefore, PTC and FTC patients need to be analyzed and reported independently. PTC survival is widely and significantly affected by age, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis. By contrast, these factors were nonsignificant in FTC, which showed poorer survival than PTC

  20. Dosimetry in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (12-1402R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minguez, Pablo; Genolla, Jose; Celeiro, Jose Javier; Fombellida, Jose Cruz [Department of Medical Physics, Gurutzeta-Cruces Hospital, Gurutzeta plaza, 48903 Barakaldo (Spain); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gurutzeta-Cruces Hospital, Gurutzeta plaza, 48903 Barakaldo (Spain); Department of Medical Physics, Gurutzeta-Cruces Hospital, Gurutzeta plaza, 48903 Barakaldo (Spain); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gurutzeta-Cruces Hospital, Gurutzeta plaza, 48903 Barakaldo (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study has been to perform a dosimetric study in the treatments of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) performed in our center in order to find a dose-effect correlation. Methods: Thirty patients treated for DTC with 3700 MBq of {sup 131}I have been included in this study. For reasons of radiological protection all of them spent two nights as inpatients. Dose rate at 1 m from all patients was measured approximately 20 and 44 h after the administration of the radioiodine and a whole body scan in the gamma camera was performed approximately 1 week later. With those measurements and by using a model of two compartments the activities in thyroid bed remnants and in the whole body were calculated as a function of time. The integration of both activities yields the corresponding cumulated activities. Absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants and to the whole body can be calculated following the MIRDOSE method-that is, by multiplying the corresponding cumulated activities by the corresponding S factors. Results: The absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants calculated in this study fall into a very wide range (13-1161 Gy) and showed the highest correlation factors with the following parameters: the absorbed dose rate to thyroid bed remnants, the cumulated activity in thyroid bed remnants, and the maximum radioiodine uptake in thyroid bed remnants. The absorbed doses to the whole body range from 0.12 to 0.23 Gy. The ablation was successful in all patients, and in spite of the wide range of absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants obtained, no dose-effect correlation could be obtained. Conclusions: Facing DTC treatments from a dosimetric viewpoint in which a predosimetry to calculate the activity of {sup 131}I to be administered is performed is a subject difficult to handle. This statement is based on the fact that although a very wide range of absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants was obtained (including several absorbed doses well below some dose

  1. Synchronous parathyroid adenoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Iakovou, Ioannis P; Konstantinidis, Iordanis E; Chrisoulidou, Alexandra I; Doumas, Argyrios S

    2009-01-01

    A 51-year-old female patient presented with atypical chest pain, laryngo-oesophageal reflux, increased levels of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone. Ultrasonography showed a multinodular goiter with a prominent solid nodule in the lower left thyroid lobe and a solid hypoechoic nodule outside this area. Tc99m-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy was performed to investigate a primary hyperparathyroidism, revealing an area with increased uptake in the lower left thyroid lobe and another area w...

  2. Anaplastic transformation of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma at shoulder mimicking soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kaushal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman presented with fracture upper end of the left humerus after trivial trauma and aspiration cytology from the lytic lesion in the upper humerus seen on X-ray revealed a metastatic papillary carcinoma from the thyroid. Total thyroidectomy confirmed the papillary carcinoma thyroid. Post-operatively, she was given radioactive iodine (I-131 ablation therapy for 8 years and was asymptomatic during this period; however, for the last 1 year, she has been complaining of swelling in the shoulder, which did not respond to palliative radiotherapy and rapidly increased in size. Disarticulation of the shoulder joint was performed, which showed anaplastic carcinoma on histopathological examination. Anaplastic transformation of papillary carcinoma at the metastatic sites is well documented in the literature and is rare. However, the same has not been reported at the shoulder and from India before. Although soft tissue sarcomas are most common at this site, however, the possibility of anaplastic transformation should be kept in the differential diagnosis of rapidly enlarging painful mass in a known case of metastatic thyroid carcinoma to prevent misdiagnosis.

  3. Clinical study on radiofrequency combined with 131I therapy for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas%射频联合131I治疗失分化甲状腺癌的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengping Li; Qinjiang Liu; Feng Dong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore clinical efficiency of radio frequency combined with 131I therapy for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods:All patients have been treated by radiofrequency connected with 1311 in 29 cases of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma which performed radionuclide imaging and Ig array of blood serum before and after therapy, respectively. Results: There were 4 (4/29) positive cases of radionuclide imaging before treatment and 19 (19/29) cases 2 weeks after therapy, 25 (25/29) cases of overall efficacy and 15 (15/29) curative cases. Conclusion: Radiofrequency connected with 131I improve clinical efficacy of 131I treatment for dedifferentiated thyroid cancer of thyroid in view of higher absorbing 131I of thyroid cancerous cell.

  4. Solid variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid in a child with no history of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid variant is a rare and poorly characterized variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and comprises approximately 3% of PTCs. It is more common in children and has high propensity for extrathyroidal metastasis. It is seen in higher proportion in post-radiation PTCs and has been seen in more than one-third of post Chernobyl radiation induced PTCs in some studies. It usually presents with differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated carcinoma versus anaplastic versus medullary thyroid carcinoma versus metastasis from extrathyroidal malignancy on fine needle aspiration cytology. This report describes a case of solid variant of PTC in a child who had no history of radiation exposure and shows the importance to be given to histopathology when the pre-operative diagnosis is not clear. (author)

  5. Kinetic behaviour of radioiodines accumulating in recurrent thyroid carcinomas and their metastases and the role of substituted thyroid hormones during radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the kinetic behaviour of radioiodines accumulating in recurrent thyroid tumours or their metastases and the role of substituted thyroid hormones was examined in 2 groups of patients undergoing radioiodine treatment, one of which additionally received thyroid hormones, while no such treatment was carried out in the other one. Two computer-assisted, whole body scintiscan studies (days 2 and 4) were performed so as to permit quantitative evaluation of the region of interest. The effective half-lives derived from this this procedure were longer for the patients receiving no thyroid hormones, pointing to a more beneficial effect of radioiodine treatment in this group. This leads to the conclusion that in patients receiving radioiodine therapy in order to control the spread of thyroid carcinomas, thyroid hormones should not be substituted until the cessation of this treatment. (TRV)

  6. Proliferation and survival molecules implicated in the inhibition of BRAF pathway in thyroid cancer cells harbouring different genetic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid carcinomas show a high prevalence of mutations in the oncogene BRAF which are inversely associated with RAS or RET/PTC oncogenic activation. The possibility of using inhibitors on the BRAF pathway as became an interesting therapeutic approach. In thyroid cancer cells the target molecules, implicated on the cellular effects, mediated by inhibition of BRAF are not well established. In order to fill this lack of knowledge we studied the proliferation and survival pathways and associated molecules induced by BRAF inhibition in thyroid carcinoma cell lines harbouring distinct genetic backgrounds. Suppression of BRAF pathway in thyroid cancer cell lines (8505C, TPC1 and C643) was achieved using RNA interference (RNAi) for BRAF and the kinase inhibitor, sorafenib. Proliferation analysis was performed by BrdU incorporation and apoptosis was accessed by TUNEL assay. Levels of protein expression were analysed by western-blot. Both BRAF RNAi and sorafenib inhibited proliferation in all the cell lines independently of the genetic background, mostly in cells with BRAFV600E mutation. In BRAFV600E mutated cells inhibition of BRAF pathway lead to a decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 levels and an increase in p27Kip1. Specific inhibition of BRAF by RNAi in cells with BRAFV600E mutation had no effect on apoptosis. In the case of sorafenib treatment, cells harbouring BRAFV600E mutation showed increase levels of apoptosis due to a balance of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2. Our results in thyroid cancer cells, namely those harbouring BRAFV600Emutation showed that BRAF signalling pathway provides important proliferation signals. We have shown that in thyroid cancer cells sorafenib induces apoptosis by affecting Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in BRAFV600E mutated cells which was independent of BRAF. These results suggest that sorafenib may prove useful in the treatment of thyroid carcinomas, particularly those refractory to conventional treatment and harbouring BRAF

  7. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  8. Extrathyroidal Implantation of Thyroid Hyperplastic/neoplastic Cells after Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xi; Xie-qun Xu; Tao Hong; Bing-lu Li; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a case of the implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic tissue after endoscopic thyroidectomy and discuss this complication in aspects of prevalence, pathogenesis, protection, and therapies. Methods A systematic search of literature from the PubMed database was conducted for identifying eligible studies on implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells after endoscopic thyroid surgery. Results Overall, 5 reported cases on patients suffering from endoscopic thyroid surgery with implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells were included in the systematic review. Conclusions Unskilled surgeons, rough intraoperative surgical treatment, scarification or rupture of tumor, contamination of instruments, chimney effect, aerosolization of tumor cells may be associated with the implantation after endoscopic thyroidectomy. To minimize the risk of such complication, we should be more meticulous and strict the endoscopic surgery indications.

  9. Update on epidemiology classification, and management of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitham Gheriani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer represents approximately 0.5–1% of all human malignancy1. In the UK the incidence of thyroid cancer is 2-3 per 100,000 populations 2. In geographical areas of low iodine intake and in areas exposed to nuclear disasters the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher. Benign thyroid conditions are much more common. In the UK approximately 8 % of the population have nodular thyroid disease2. Nodular thyroid disease increases with age and is also more common in females and in geographical areas of low iodine intake. Primary thyroid malignancy can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first group, which generally have much better prognosis, are the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and Hürthle cell tumours. The second group includes the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma like medullary thyroid carcinoma and the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other rare tumours such as sarcomas, lymphomas and the extremely rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid should be included in the second group. Secondary or metastatic thyroid cancer can be from breast, lung, colon and kidney malignancies.

  10. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present five cases of renal cell carcinoma in children, describing its aspects on excretory urography, ultra-sonography and computerized tomography. The clinical, pathological and radiological features are compared with those of the literature. (author)

  11. Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mehdi Tazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion. Case Report: We report a case of a 41-year old man presented with a solid mass located in the left temporo-occipital region. The 3D computed tomography showed a large solid mass with high vascularity, skull erosion and supra-infratentorial epidural mass effect. After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI a suspect diagnosis of meningioma was made. The patient underwent surgery where a soft mass with transverse sinus invasion was encountered; the tumour was successfully resected employing microsurgical techniques. Histological examination revealed a thyroid follicular neoplasm with positive staining for follicular carcinoma in immunohistochemical analysis. Postoperatively levels of thyroid hormones were normal. Treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, patient receiving 6 courses of chemotherapy including paclitaxel. Conclusions: The present case emphasizes that although they are uncommon, dural metastasis can be mistaken for meningiomas. The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis. Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions.

  12. Expression and significance of ER and PR in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoming Zhang; Weihua Li; Xiaodong Zhao; Yanpeng Zhu; Huiwen Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between expressions of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and gender, age, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, capsular invasion and histological type of dif erentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods:Seventy cases of DTC who received surgery in our hospital (No. 401 Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Qingdao, China) between January 2008 and December 2011 were selected. Among them, 61 cases were papil ary carcinoma and 9 cases were fol icular carcinoma. Twenty cases were normal thyroid tissue adjacent to the tumor which was used as control. Immunohistochemical SP method was employed to detect the expression of ER and PR. Results:The positive rates of ER and PR in tumor tissues of DTC patients were 21.4%(15/70) and 31.4%(22/70), respectively, and no expression of ER or PR were founded in normal thyroid tissue (P0.05) of DTC patients. Conclusion:The expression levels of ER and PR in the tumor tissue of DTC patients were higher than those in the normal thyroid tissue nearby the tumor. Therefore, ER and PR expression might be clinical markers for DTC and its prognosis.

  13. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Malmlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats.

  14. Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma of the Kidney in a Patient with Skull and Meningeal Metastasis: A Unique Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Huang, Jiayu; Huang, Luke; Shi, Oumin; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Haige; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK) is an extremely rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma with close resemblance to the well-differentiated thyroid follicular neoplasms. TLFCK has not been included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification due to the limited data available. Only 27 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Herein, we report a unique case of TLFCK that presented as a striking skull and meningeal metastasis 5 years after the initial diagnosis; this is the first case of TLFCK with such a novel metastasis pattern. A 68-year-old woman was found to have a right renal lesion using computed tomography (CT) during her regular clinical follow-up visit for bladder cancer, but she exhibited no obvious clinical symptoms. The CT scan showed a 4.4-cm diameter, slightly lobulated soft tissue mass in the right lower kidney, the pathological findings of which showed a TLFCK. Five years later, the patient had progressed to skull and meningeal metastasis. Both the renal tumor and the metastasis lesion were composed almost entirely of follicles with a dense, colloid-like material that resembled thyroid follicular carcinoma. However, no lesion was found in the thyroid gland. The neoplastic epithelial cells were strongly immunoreactive for cytokeratin 7 (and vimentin but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin. This is the first reported case of TLFCK to consist of widespread metastases to the skull and meninges and provides evidence that this rare variant of renal cell carcinoma has uncertain malignant potential and can be more clinically aggressive than previously believed. PMID:27082575

  15. AHR over-expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical and molecular assessments in a series of Italian acromegalic patients with a long-term follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Mian

    Full Text Available Acromegaly reportedly carries an increased risk of malignant and benign thyroid tumors, with a prevalence of thyroid cancer of around 3-7%. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR interacting protein (AIP have been identified in familial forms of acromegaly. The molecular and endocrine relationships between follicular thyroid growth and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma have yet to be fully established. Our aim was to study the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC in acromegaly, focusing on the role of genetic events responsible for the onset of thyroid cancer.Germline mutations in the AIP gene were assessed in all patients; BRAF and H-N-K RAS status was analyzed by direct sequencing in thyroid specimens, while immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the protein expression of AIP and AHR. A set of PTCs unrelated to acromegaly was also studied.12 DTCs (10 papillary and 2 follicular carcinomas were identified in a cohort of 113 acromegalic patients. No differences in GH/IGF-1 levels or disease activity emerged between patients with and without DTC, but the former were older and more often female. BRAF V600E was found in 70% of the papillary thyroid cancers; there were no RAS mutations. AIP protein expression was similar in neoplastic and normal cells, while AHR protein was expressed more in PTCs carrying BRAF mutations than in normal tissue, irrespective of acromegaly status.The prevalence of DTC in acromegaly is around 11% and endocrinologists should bear this in mind, especially when examining elderly female patients with uninodular goiter. The DTC risk does not seem to correlate with GH/IGF-1 levels, while it may be associated with BRAF mutations and AHR over-expression. Genetic or epigenetic events probably play a part in promoting thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  17. Quadruple Cancers of Non-producing Multiple Myeloma, Cholangiocellular Carcinoma, and Two Different Thyroid Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kuroda, Junya; Sasaki, Nana; Kiyota, Miki; Tatekawa, Shotaro; Tsukamoto, Taku; Maegawa, Saori; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Yuji; Nagoshi, Hisao; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Horiike, Shigeo; Tando, So; Fushiki, Shinji; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with non-producing multiple myeloma (MM) with three additional concomitant solid tumors that were identified by postmortem autopsy. The disease was refractory to anti-MM therapy including bortezomib and lenalidomide, and he finally died of bacterial pneumonia with diffuse alveolar damage 8 months after the diagnosis. An autopsy revealed that he was also affected by three other solid cancers, cholangiocellular carcinoma, medullary thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer that were clinically asymptomatic and remained undiagnosed before death. A review of the literature suggests that primary quadruple cancers including MM are extremely rare. PMID:27150876

  18. 甲状腺癌中Tiam 1的表达及临床意义%Expression and clinical significance of Tiam 1 in thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化修

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨T淋巴瘤侵袭转移诱导因子1的表达与甲状腺癌侵袭转移的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学S-P法检测Tiam 1在89例甲状腺癌及其淋巴结转移癌的石蜡组织标本中的表达.结果 淋巴结转移癌组织中Tiam 1的表达显著高于甲状腺癌原发灶中的表达(P<0.05);伴发转移的甲状腺癌组织比未发生转移的甲状腺癌组织的Tiam 1表达明显增强(P<0.05);甲状腺髓样癌、未分化癌组织中Tiam 1的表达显著高于乳头状癌、滤泡癌中的表达(P<0.05);高临床分期(Ⅲ、Ⅳ期)甲状腺癌组织中的Tiam 1表达明显高于低临床分期(Ⅰ、Ⅱ期)中的表达(P<0.05).结论 Tiam 1 的表达与甲状腺癌的侵袭转移密切相关,提示Tiam 1 在甲状腺癌的侵袭转移中起重要作用.%[Objective]To investigate the expression of T lymphoma invasion and metastasis inducing factor 1 (Tiam 1) in tissues of thyroid carcinoma,and to analyze the relation between its expression and invasion and metastasis of thyroid carcinoma. [Methods]Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Tiam 1 expression in 89 Cases of primary tumor and metastatic lymph node of thyroid carcinoma. [Results]Tiam 1 expression Was significantly stronger in lymphatic metastasis in comparison with thyroid carcinoma(P<0.05);the positive expression of Tiam 1 in clinical stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ,as well as in tumor with metastasis,was higher than those in clinical stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ,as well as in tumor with non-metastasis (P<0.05),the expression of Tiam 1 in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma(UTC)was significantly higher than that in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma(PTC).[Conclusion]Overexpression of Tiam 1 is correlated with invasion and metastasis in thyroid carcinoma,Tiam l may play an important role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis of thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ash Gargya; Elizabeth Chua

    2012-01-01

    Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an und...

  20. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  1. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB/sup 131/I) after /sup 131/I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (/sup 131/I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each /sup 131/I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis.

  2. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (131I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB131I) after 131I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (131I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each 131I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis

  3. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in Denmark 1996-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    A rise in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in several countries, and the increase is only seen in the papillary type. Increased detection due to higher resolution ultrasound and fine needle aspiration has been proposed as the explanation, recent registry studies however question ...

  4. Aberrant Activation of Notch Signaling Inhibits PROX1 Activity to Enhance the Malignant Behavior of Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwon; Ramu, Swapnika; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Yang, Sara; Jung, Wonhyeuk; Choi, Inho; Lee, Sunju; Kim, Kyu Eui; Seong, Young Jin; Hong, Mingu; Daghlian, George; Kim, Daniel; Shin, Eugene; Seo, Jung In; Khatchadourian, Vicken; Zou, Mengchen; Li, Wei; De Filippo, Roger; Kokorowski, Paul; Chang, Andy; Kim, Steve; Bertoni, Ana; Furlanetto, Tania Weber; Shin, Sung; Li, Meng; Chen, Yibu; Wong, Alex; Koh, Chester; Geliebter, Jan; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although multiple studies have contributed to a better understanding of the genetic alterations underlying this frequently arising disease, the downstream molecular effectors that impact PTC pathogenesis remain to be further defined. Here, we report that the regulator of cell fate specification, PROX1, becomes inactivated in PTC through mRNA downregulation and cytoplasmic mislocalization. Expression studies in clinical specimens revealed that aberrantly activated NOTCH signaling promoted PROX1 downregulation and that cytoplasmic mislocalization significantly altered PROX1 protein stability. Importantly, restoration of PROX1 activity in thyroid carcinoma cells revealed that PROX1 not only enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling but also regulated several genes known to be associated with PTC, including thyroid cancer protein (TC)-1, SERPINA1, and FABP4. Furthermore, PROX1 reexpression suppressed the malignant phenotypes of thyroid carcinoma cells, such as proliferation, motility, adhesion, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and polyploidy. Moreover, animal xenograft studies demonstrated that restoration of PROX1 severely impeded tumor formation and suppressed the invasiveness and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of PTC cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that NOTCH-induced PROX1 inactivation significantly promotes the malignant behavior of thyroid carcinoma and suggest that PROX1 reactivation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate disease progression. PMID:26609053

  5. Somatic VHL gene alterations in MEN2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacak Karel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in RET are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2, an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma. Recent studies suggest a "second hit" mechanism resulting in amplification of mutant RET. Somatic VHL gene alterations are implicated in the pathogenesis of MEN2 pheochromocytomas. We hypothesized that somatic VHL gene alterations are also important in the pathogenesis of MEN2-associated MTC. Methods We analyzed 6 MTCs and 1 C-cell hyperplasia (CCH specimen from 7 patients with MEN2A and RET germline mutations in codons 609, 618, 620, or 634, using microdissection, microsatellite analysis, phosphorimage densitometry, and VHL mutation analysis. Results First, we searched for allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET by using the polymorphic markers D10S677, D10S1239, and RET on thyroid tissue from these patients. Evidence for RET amplification by this technique could be demonstrated in 3 of 6 MTCs. We then performed LOH analysis using D3S1038 and D3S1110 which map to the VHL gene locus at 3p25/26. VHL gene deletion was present in 3 MTCs. These 3 MTCs also had an allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET. Mutation analysis of the VHL gene showed a somatic frameshift mutation in 1 MTC that also demonstrated LOH at 3p25/26. In the 2 other MTCs with allelic imbalance of RET and somatic VHL gene deletion, no somatic VHL mutation could be detected. The CCH specimen did neither reveal RET imbalance nor somatic VHL gene alterations. Conclusion These data suggest that a RET germline mutation is necessary for development of CCH, that allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET may set off tumorigenesis, and that somatic VHL gene alterations may not play a major role in tumorigenesis of MEN2A-associated MTC.

  6. Somatic VHL gene alterations in MEN2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutations in RET are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma. Recent studies suggest a 'second hit' mechanism resulting in amplification of mutant RET. Somatic VHL gene alterations are implicated in the pathogenesis of MEN2 pheochromocytomas. We hypothesized that somatic VHL gene alterations are also important in the pathogenesis of MEN2-associated MTC. We analyzed 6 MTCs and 1 C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) specimen from 7 patients with MEN2A and RET germline mutations in codons 609, 618, 620, or 634, using microdissection, microsatellite analysis, phosphorimage densitometry, and VHL mutation analysis. First, we searched for allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET by using the polymorphic markers D10S677, D10S1239, and RET on thyroid tissue from these patients. Evidence for RET amplification by this technique could be demonstrated in 3 of 6 MTCs. We then performed LOH analysis using D3S1038 and D3S1110 which map to the VHL gene locus at 3p25/26. VHL gene deletion was present in 3 MTCs. These 3 MTCs also had an allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET. Mutation analysis of the VHL gene showed a somatic frameshift mutation in 1 MTC that also demonstrated LOH at 3p25/26. In the 2 other MTCs with allelic imbalance of RET and somatic VHL gene deletion, no somatic VHL mutation could be detected. The CCH specimen did neither reveal RET imbalance nor somatic VHL gene alterations. These data suggest that a RET germline mutation is necessary for development of CCH, that allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET may set off tumorigenesis, and that somatic VHL gene alterations may not play a major role in tumorigenesis of MEN2A-associated MTC

  7. Use of the gamma probe and of 99mTc-DMSA (V) in the identification of the neck recurrence of medullary carcinoma thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, a malignant neoplasm of para follicular C cells, represent about 5-10% of thyroid tumors. The symptoms are related to local invasion and hormonal secretion. The clinical course is variable, from indolent cases to extremely aggressive. Many radionuclide imaging have been described to locate metastasis of medullary cancer. Tl-201 and Tc-99m (V)DMS A showed to be useful in the evaluation o persistent elevated serum calcitonin levels. On the other hand, the use of the 131 I-Mibg, that is the isotope more used, has not been demonstrating efficiency in identifying metastasis. Our objective is to report a case of a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma in which the follow-up use DMS A(V) demonstrated a recurrence no identified for other methods. A 34-year-old man had a diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and has submitted a total thyroidectomy and neck lymph node dissection. He presented elevated serum calcitonin levels and DMS A(V) scintigraphy demonstrated focal area of pathologic uptake at the medline of the neck, but the surgical exploration was negative. He persisted with high calcitonin levels and it was used a new DMS A(V). On this occasion he was submitted to the radio-guided surgery that located the recurrence and it was confirmed with anatomo-pathologic exam. This case allowed to demonstrate that the use of radionuclide associated to the gamma-probe is promising, allowing a precise surgical approach. (author)

  8. CXCR4 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is a common step in the progression of cancer. Recent evidence suggests that tumor production of CXCR4 promotes lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also increase metastatic ability in human cancers. Nitrite/nitrate levels and functional CXCR4 expression were assessed in K1 and B-CPAP papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 expression was also analyzed in primary human PTC. The relationship between nitrotyrosine levels, which are a biomarker for peroxynitrate formation from NO in vivo, CXCR4 expression, and lymph node status was also analyzed. Production of nitrite/nitrate and functional CXCR4 expression in both cell lines was increased by treatment with the NO donor DETA NONOate. The NOS inhibitor L-NAME eliminated this increase. Positive CXCR4 immunostaining was observed in 60.7% (34/56) of PTCs. CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with nitrotyrosine levels and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. Our data indicate that NO stimulates CXCR4 expression in vitro. Formation of the NO biomarker nitrotyrosine was also correlated with CXCR4 expression and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. NO may induce lymph node metastasis via CXCR4 induction in papillary thyroid carcinoma

  9. Secretion of calcitonin and gastrin in rats with transplanted medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats transplanted with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MCT) were followed with radio-immuno assay of serum calcitonin (iCT) using antisera to human CT and I125 labelled calcitonin-M. From the 4th month after transplantation, serum from the tumour rats contained iCT in concentrations 8-10 fold higher than serum from the control rats. The tumour cells had retained their ability to react on pentagastrin and calcium injections with increased CT release. It was further shown that the tumour bearing rats had elevated basal gastrin concentrations in serum. While calcium injection lead to a rise in the serum gastrin concentration in the control group, the adverse effect was seen in the tumour bearing rats. The morphological features and the responsiveness of the rat tumour cells to physiological secretagogues make this tumour a suitable animal model for the study of interactions between CT and gastro-intestinal factors. It is suggested that the gastrin response to calcium might be of interest also in the diagnosis of human MCT. (author)

  10. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  11. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for invasive thyroid carcinoma in dogs: a retrospective analysis of survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen dogs with invasive thyroid carcinoma (WHO classification T2b or T3b) seen between January 1991 and October 1997 were treated by external beam Irradiation. Four once-weekly fractions of 9 gray of 4 MeV X-rays were administered. Four of the dogs died of progression of the primary disease and four from metastatic spread. Of the remaining dogs, three died of unrelated problems, although two were still alive at the time of the censor. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the survival time from first dose to death from either primary or metastatic disease gave a median survival time of 96 weeks (mean 85 weeks, range six to 247 weeks). Radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastatic disease at presentation had no prognostic value whereas crude growth rate was a highly significant factor. The present series Indicates that radiation therapy should be considered an important modality for the control of invasive thyroid carcinoma in the dog

  12. Seric thyroglobulin behavior in thyroid carcinoma patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid carcinomas, mainly the differentiated ones, for involving originally young patients and for showing relatively benign course, require a long term follow-up. So, every new available method that may be useful for the follow-up of these patients soon becomes very important. The advent of radioimmunoassay made the determination of thyroglobulin seric levels possible and this practice has been incorporated into medical routine in the past few years. The analysis of the results permit to conclude that the administration of 131I therapeutic dose to differentiated and medular thyroid carcinoma patients is followed by imediate and transitory rise in circulating thyroglobulin levels. It denotes immediate effect of the 131I that can be observed in a short period of time independently of L-T3 administration and endogen TSH levels. After this period the thyroglobulin is at least in a partial way, TSH-dependent. (author)

  13. FDG PET and alternative imaging in the management of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid are one of rare malignancies that is associated with excellent prognosis. Follow-up with regular thyroglobulin assay and 131I whole-body scan is capable of detecting residual or recurrent disease with great sensitivity and specificity. However, there is overwhelming evidence to suggest that this approach is not fail-safe due to increasing reports of false negative and false positive results, which may result in missed or unwarranted therapy with 131I. This article will review the current management of differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid and the possible causes of the reported inadequacy of thyroglobulin and 131I whole-body scan to detect residual or recurrent disease, and the increasing role of alternative imaging, particularly 18F-FDG PET in the management of this curable malignancy. (author)

  14. Bone scintigraphy in the follow-up of thyroid carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with bone metastases of papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas (n=23 and n=92, resp.) a retrospective study is conducted to find out whether the follow-up requires bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastases. Although there was no case of primary diagnosis of bone metastases established by bone scintigraphy, further bone focusses that had not been detected by I-131-whole body scintigraphy nor by whole body radiology were found in 24 patients by bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy is of no use if applied as a routine to follow-up tumor patients with papillary of follicular thyroid carcinomas, but it is necessary if clinical findings, tumor markers, I-131 scans or X-rays suggest the occurence of metastases. (orig./TRV)

  15. A multimodal approach to the treatment of bilateral choroidal metastases from thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cionini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year old man, affected by metastatic thyroid carcinoma, experienced a progressive bilateral visual impairment. Ophthalmic examination revealed the presence of a choroidal mass with an associated exudative retinal detachment in both eyes. Twelve years before, a diagnosis of metastatic thyroid carcinoma had been established and the patient had been subject to several therapeutic procedures. In May 2007, he received a radiotherapy treatment to the left eye with an episcleral plaque and bilateral bulbar injection of bevacizumab. The patient had a rapid and stable visual acuity recovery. Twenty months after treatment, the lesion treated with radiotherapy was still stable whereas the contra-lateral lesion had evolved and determined a vitreal hemorrhage.

  16. Simultaneous Development of Renal Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Urothelial Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Keng Chuang; Heng-Chang Chuang; Kwai-Fong Ng

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of multifocal urothelial carcinoma (UC) and ipsilateral renalcell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. We report a 67-year-old woman with multifocal, infiltratingurothelial carcinoma and unilateral renal cell carcinoma. She was referred to our departmentbecause of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy, computed tomography and retrogradepyelography studies revealed bladder, bilateral renal and ureter UC. She was treated withtransurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by bi...

  17. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Tongue Base Mimicking an Ectopic Thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Martellucci; Giulio Pagliuca; Marco De Vincentiis; Chiara Rosato; Ettore Scaini; Camilla Gallipoli; Andrea Gallo

    2013-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman with mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the tongue base came under our observation complaining of repeated episodes of haemoptysis. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the tongue base gives rise to a rather vague and aspecific symptomatology. Early symptoms include foreign body sensation in the oral cavity, undefined paraesthesia, and sialorrhoea. With the progression of disease, dysphagia, otalgia, and painful swallowing are usually referred. We report a case of mucoepidermoid car...

  18. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the parathyroid gland: A very rare occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Ofo, Enyinnaya; Mandavia, Rishi; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; Odell, Edward; Simo, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Metastases to the parathyroid gland are very uncommon. Although renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the head and neck region is well recognised, with a predilection for unpredictable metastasis to unusual sites such as the thyroid gland, nose, paranasal sinuses, and cranial bones, there are no reports of parathyroid gland involvement. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma metastasis to a parathyroid gland in a 69-year-old male who had been treate...

  19. Decreased uptake of therapeutic doses of iodine-131 after 185-MBq iodine-131 diagnostic imaging for thyroid remnants in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a prospective random study to assess possible thyroid stunning by a 185-MBq iodine-131 dose used to diagnose thyroid remnants. Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included after total or near-total thyroidectomy. They were randomly assigned to two groups. In group 0 (G0, 32 patients), iodine-123 administration only was used to diagnose thyroid remnants and/or metastasis, so that no thyroid stunning by 131I would occur. In group 1 (G1, 19 patients), diagnostic imaging was performed with 123I and 185 MBq 131I. 123I imaging was less sensitive than 131I imaging in identifying thyroid remnants in both groups (94%). Thyroid uptake of 123I was measured in both groups (at 2 h) and was not significantly different between the groups. Patients with thyroid remnants who remained in the study (28/32 in G0, 17/19 in G1) were treated with 370 MBq 131I, 5 weeks after treatment (mean time, range 12-84 days). In 12/17 G1 patients thyroid uptake measurement was repeated immediately before treatment. Uptake was equal to 1.97%±0.71% and significantly lower (P131I decreases thyroid uptake for several weeks after administration and can impair immediate subsequent 131I therapy; (2) 123I is slightly less sensitive than 131I in identifying thyroid remnants; and (3) the need to scan for thyroid remnants remains to be confirmed, since only 2/51 patients enrolled in this study were not treated with 131I. (orig.)

  20. Thyroid carcinoma in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1958 - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relation between radiation dose and incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma in A-bomb survivors exposed with large doses was studied by analyzing 82 cases in total consisting of those reported by Parker et al. from 1956 to 1971 and additional 19 cases lately occurred until 1976. Among them, 40 cases were clinically evident cancer confirmed histologically from clinical findings, and 42 cases were silent cancer confirmed by autopsy findings. The incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma during these 18 years rose along with the increase of radiation dose, and especially, this trend is marked in women. More noticeable dose-response was observed in clinically evident cancer. In a dose-response curve, it was observed that the incidence rate tends to rise higher with an increase of doses. However, in terms of statistics, a significantly higher incidence rate than that of a control group of 0 rad was first observed in the group of 50 - 100 rad. As far as the annual changes of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma are concerned, the group of over 100 rad still showed an increase of the incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma. By ages when patients were exposed to A-bomb, a group of those exposed under 30 years old showed an increase of the incidence rate since 1968 or 1969, while the group of those exposed at relatively higher ages recorded the high incidence rate already in 1958 and showed no remarkable increase afterwards. Also it was indicated that a noticeable influence given by A-bomb radiation appears after cancer age. By histological types, papillary type and papillary sclerosing type were often observed in clonically evident cancer and silent cancer, respectively. Papillary type was rather often seen in the group of over 100 rad. (Iwagami, H.)

  1. Detection of Plasma BRAFV600E Mutation Is Associated with Lung Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, In Joo; Lee, Byung Joo; Lee, Jin Choon; Kim, In Suk; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Won Jin; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Yong Ki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The BRAFV600E mutation represents a novel indicator of the progression and aggressiveness of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of free circulating mutant BRAFV600E in predicting the advanced disease of PTC. Materials and Methods Seventy seven matched tumor and plasma samples obtained from patients with both benign and PTC were analyzed for BRAFV600E mutation using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp real-time polymer...

  2. Comparison of three radiolabelled peptide analogues for CCK-2 receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Alida; De Jong, Marion; Nock, Berthold; Breeman, Wouter; Erion, Jack; Maina, Theodosia; Verdijsseldonck, Marion; De Herder, Wouter; Lugt, Aad; Kooij, Peter; Krenning, Eric

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in a high percentage of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Analogous to somatostatin receptors, CCK-2 receptors might be viable targets for radionuclide scintigraphy and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed, and some have been carried through into clinical studies. However, these studies are mostly limited and difficult to compare. The aim of this ...

  3. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S.; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial– mesenchymal transition. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of S...

  4. Comparison of three radiolabelled peptide analogues for CCK-2 receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in a high percentage of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Analogous to somatostatin receptors, CCK-2 receptors might be viable targets for radionuclide scintigraphy and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed, and some have been carried through into clinical studies. However, these studies are mostly limited and difficult to compare. The aim of this study was to ...

  5. Surgical options in the management of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goitre is a common every day problem but cancer of the thyroid is a comparatively rare disease. It constitutes only 1.3 % of all cancers seen at the Tata Memorial Hospital. The surgeon has a central role in the management of cancer of the thyroid. All other modalities of treatment, like radioiodine therapy follow his surgery and depend on the extent of surgery performed. It is therefore important that the surgeon has a clear cut policy of management. Although surgery is the prime mode of treatment, the extent of surgery has been a matter of debate. Additionally, what constitutes adequate surgical treatment itself is highly controversial. A policy for management based on the natural history, biological behaviour of the disease and the previous treatment methods is discussed

  6. Sensitivity to radiation of human normal, hyperthyroid, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of thyroid tissue removed surgically from 63 patients were cultured in vitro and X-irradiated to investigate the radiosensitivities of various types of thyroid epithelial cells. A total of 76 samples were obtained, including neoplastic cells from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) or follicular adenoma (FA), cells from hyperthyroidism (HY) patients, and normal cells from the surgical margins of PC and FA patients. Culturing of the cells was performed in a manner which has been shown to yield a predominance of epithelial cells. Results of colony formation assays indicated that cells from HY and FA patients were the least radiosensitive: when adjusted to the overall geometric mean plating efficiency of 5.5 %, the average mean lethal dose D0 was 97.6 cGy for HY cells, and 96.7 cGy and 94.3 cGy, respectively, for neoplastic and normal cells from FA patients. Cells from PC patients were more radiosensitive, normal cells having an adjusted average D0 of 85.0 cGy and PC cells a significantly (p = .001) lower average D0 of 74.4 cGy. After allowing for this variation by cell type, in vitro radiosensitivity was not significantly related to age at surgery (p = .82) or sex (p = .10). These results suggest that malignant thyroid cells may be especially radiosensitive. (author)

  7. A two miRNA classifier differentiates follicular thyroid carcinomas from follicular thyroid adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtaś, Bartosz; Krajewska, Jolanta;

    2015-01-01

    The inherent diagnostic limitations of thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA), especially in the "indeterminate" category, can be partially overcome by molecular analyses. We aimed at the identification of miRNAs that could be used to improve the discrimination of indeterminate FNAs. miRNA expression...

  8. Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

  9. Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as metastatic skin nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC metastasizes most commonly to the lungs and non-cranial bones. Skull and skin are uncommon sites and usually manifest well after the diagnosis of primary malignancy. Metastasis to skull and skin as the presenting feature of FTC is infrequently reported in the literature. Case presentation: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of thyroid nodule presented with the complaint of rapidly growing skull nodules which had been present for 3 years but were stable previously. She denied any fevers, chills, history of trauma, or weight loss. She denied any history of smoking or head and neck irradiation. On physical examination, she had two non-tender gray cystic lesions – one on her left temporal region and the other on the right parietal region. Biopsy was consistent with metastatic FTC. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated 7.1×3.8 cm and 3.7×4.5 cm fairly homogeneous, enhancing, relatively well-defined masses centered in the posterior and left anterior lateral calvarium with intracranial and extracranial extensions but without any vasogenic edema or mass effect on the brain. Thyroid ultrasound showed numerous nodules in both lobes. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Histopathological studies of the thyroid gland revealed a well-differentiated FTC in the left lobe. Then she underwent resection of the tumor in multiple stages. She did not have any recurrence of the FTC or metastases during the follow-up period and will be receiving radioactive iodine treatment. Conclusion: Bone and lung are the common sites of metastasis from FTC, but involvement of skull or skin is unusual, particularly as the presenting feature. Metastases from FTC should be in the differential of patients with new osteolytic hypervascular skull lesions or cutaneous lesions in head and neck area.

  10. Prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) comprises thyroid surgery, radioiodine treatment and L-thyroxine suppressive treatment. However, in the case of young patients the extent of surgery and the need for radioiodine treatment are questioned by some authors on the basis of the overall good prognosis in this group. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid cancer in patients in the first three decades of their life. The study included 274 patients who were younger than 28 years at the day of diagnosis of DTC and were observed for a mean time of 5 years. Uni- and multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for disease - free survival was performed with Cox's regression method. The actuarial survival rate was 100%, the 5 and 10-year actuarial disease free survival was 85% and 75%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis lymph node metastases, the extent of surgery and radioiodine therapy were estimated as statistically significant, independent prognostic factors for DTC relapse. Radical treatment of DTC more advanced than pT1NOMO should include total thyroidectomy and postoperative complementary radioiodine therapy. Such procedure is also justified in young patients, as it ensures a decrease of the risk of recurrence. (author)

  11. Dramatic response of follicular thyroid carcinoma with superior vena cava syndrome and tracheal obstruction to external-beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilford, M.R.; Chertow, B.S.; Lepanto, P.B.; Leidy, J.W. Jr. (Section of Endocrinology, Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, West Virginia (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We report a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma progressing to superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome and tracheal obstruction despite multiple doses of radioactive iodine therapy but subsequently responding dramatically to external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Although RT is not considered to be the treatment of choice for follicular carcinoma, RT in our patient produced unequivocal improvement of SVC syndrome and tracheal obstruction.

  12. Epigenetic modifications in human thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Faam, Bita; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Ghadiri, Ata; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy of the endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has steadily increased over the last decade. Over 95% of thyroid carcinoma is derived from follicular cells that have a spectrum of differentiation to the most invasive malignancy. The molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer remains to be clarified, although activating the RET, RAS and BRAF oncogenes have been well characterized. Increasing evidence from previous studies demonstrates tha...

  13. THE EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF P53 AND P21(WAF1/CIP1) IN THYROID CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Xiongwei; Ma Qingyong; Gao Yanfeng; Sun Xuejun; Liu Hao; Sheng Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression of P53 and P21 (WAF1/CIP1) in thyroid carcinomas and its relationship with development and prognosis of the carcinoma. Methods 90 cases of thyroid tissues (60 thyroid carcinomas, 10 thyroid adenomas, 10 goitres and 10 normal thyroid tissues) were studied by SP immunohistochemical method. Results Positive immunoreactivity of P53 and P21(WAF1/CIP1) was found only in thyroid carcinomas. The positive rate of the P53 and P21 is 53.3% and 41.7% respectively. The positive-staining rates of P53 were higher in cases of undifferentiated carcinomas, positive metastasis lymph nodes or in stage Ⅲ, Ⅳ than those in the cases of well-differentiated, no metastasis lymph nodes, or in stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ. In addition, the positive-staining of P21(WAF1/CIP1) were lower in cases of undifferentiated carcinomas, positive metastasis lymph nodes or stage Ⅲ, Ⅳ than that in the cases of well-differentiated, no metastasis lymph nodes or in stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ. The P21 (WAF1/CIP1) expression rate in the P53 positive group was lower than that in the P53 negative group (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of P21(WAF1/CIP1) protein in thyroid cancer is related to P53-depend pathway and P53-independent pathway, mainly the P53-depend pathway. Examination of expression of P53 and P21 (WAF1/ CIP1) proteins may be helpful to judge the thyroid cancers behavior and prognosis.

  14. Thyroid Regeneration: Characterization of Clear Cells After Partial Thyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozaki, Takashi; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Okamoto, Minoru; Nagashima, Kunio; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Hayase, Suguru; Murata, Tsubasa; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Hanson, Jeffrey; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Kakudo, Kennichi; Refetoff, Samuel; Kimura, Shioko

    2012-01-01

    Although having the capacity to grow in response to a stimulus that perturbs the pituitary-thyroid axis, the thyroid gland is considered not a regenerative organ. In this study, partial thyroidectomy (PTx) was used to produce a condition for thyroid regeneration. In the intact thyroid gland, the central areas of both lobes served as the proliferative centers where microfollicles, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive and/or C cells, were localized. Two weeks after PTx, the number of BrdU-posi...

  15. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  16. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  17. 甲状腺髓样癌与RET基因%Medullary thyroid carcinoma and RET proto-oncogene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军轶

    2010-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma originates from parafollicular cells. Its prognosis is worse than that of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgery is the best treatment for early stage diseases. In the past decade, dominant activating mutations in the RET pro-oncogene have been identified as the main cause of MTC. Mutation analysis of the RET proto-oncogene has been used in the early diagnosis, prophylactic surgery and targeted therapy of MTC.%甲状腺髓样癌(MTC)源于甲状腺滤泡旁细胞,预后较分化型甲状腺癌为差,早期手术是最为有效的治疗方法.近年发现RET基因突变是MTC的主要分子病因学基础,对RET基因突变的研究成果已经用于临床早期诊断、指导预防性外科干预以及生物靶向治疗等方面.

  18. Carcinoma papilífero da tireoide associado à tireoidite de Hashimoto: frequência e aspectos histopatológicos Papillary thyroid carcinoma associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis: frequency and histopathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cruz Camboim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma papilífero é o tipo mais comum de câncer da tireoide e a tireoidite de Hashimoto é a causa mais frequente de hipotireoidismo em áreas onde os níveis de iodo são adequados. Vários investigadores detectaram incidência aumentada de carcinoma papilífero da tireoide em pacientes com tireoidite de Hashimoto. Na rotina de diagnósticos histopatológicos há uma aparente associação entre as duas patologias. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre tireoidite de Hashimoto e carcinoma papilífero de tireoide, avaliando os aspectos histomorfológicos, quando concomitantes ou apresentando-se de forma isolada. MÉTODO: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo a partir dos dados do arquivo do Serviço de Patologia do Hospital Barão de Lucena, afiliado ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS (Recife-PE, incluindo 95 casos, entre 472 cirurgias de tireoide realizadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2005. RESULTADOS: Houve 35 casos (7,4% de tireoidite de Hashimoto, 48 (10,2% de carcinoma papilífero e 12 (2,5% de associação significativa (p INTRODUCTION: Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in areas where iodine levels are adequate. Several investigators have detected an increased incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In histopathological diagnosis routine, there is an apparent association between these two pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma, evaluating the histopathological aspects, when concomitantly present or isolated. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out with data from the archives of the Pathology Service at hospital Barão de Lucena, SUS (Recife-PE, Brazil, which included 95 cases amongst 472 thyroid surgeries performed from January 1995 through January 2005. RESULTS: There were 35 cases

  19. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  20. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.