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Sample records for cell thyroid carcinoma

  1. Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid

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    Sandoval, Mark Anthony S; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old man consulted for a non-toxic thyroid nodule of 2 years’ duration. Fine needle aspiration revealed cell findings consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. He eventually underwent total thyroidectomy. Microscopic examination revealed histologic features of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He received radioactive iodine therapy and suppressive levothyroxine treatment. Post-therapy whole body iodine-131 scan revealed thyroid tissue remnants limited to the anterior neck. Fo...

  2. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  3. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

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    Lee, Jae Seo [Chonnam National Univ. School of Dentistry, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

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    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  5. Nonconventional papillary thyroid carcinomas with pleomorphic tumor giant cells: a diagnostic pitfall with anaplastic carcinoma.

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    Hommell-Fontaine, Juliette; Borda, Angela; Ragage, Florence; Berger, Nicole; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam

    2010-06-01

    The presence of pleomorphic tumor giant cells in thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin is always worrisome for the pathologist as they first of all refer to anaplastic carcinoma, one of the most aggressive human malignancies. However, non-anaplastic pleomorphic giant cells are well described in other thyroid diseases, most often benign. In this paper, we describe four cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying pleomorphic tumor giant cells with features that differ from those of anaplastic carcinoma. Pleomorphic giant cells were admixed with the underlying thyroid carcinoma and constituted from 5% to 25% of the tumor. Cytologically, they had an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with large and irregular nuclei. Compared to pleomorphic giant cells of anaplastic carcinoma, they reproduced the growth pattern of the underlying carcinoma, had a low mitotic index without necrosis or inflammation, and were reactive with thyroglobulin and thyroid-specific transcription factor-1 and strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. After 16-84 months of follow-up, patients are relapse-free and still alive. These cases show that pleomorphic tumor giant cells arising in papillary thyroid carcinomas do not always represent dedifferentiation and progression to anaplastic carcinoma. Distinction among these processes is critical as their treatment and prognosis are very different.

  6. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

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    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  7. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  8. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  9. Synchronous Hurthle Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Carcinoma in a Patient with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: A Rare Case Report

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    Narayanan O. Navya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the most common autoimmune thyroid disease, is due to destruction of the thyroid gland by autoantibodies. Various types of thyroid malignancies may arise in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Follicular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, lymphomas, medullary carcinomas and hurthle cell neoplasms may develop in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We present a rare case report of a 35-year-old female who presented with hypothyroidism of a two-year duration. A diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made for which she was under treatment. Due to the recent increase in size of the thyroid, a fine needle aspiration cytology was done. A preoperative diagnosis of Hurthle cell neoplasm was made based on fine needle aspiration cytology findings. The total thyroidectomy specimen revealed Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with synchronous papillary carcinoma and Hurthle cell carcinoma, which is a very rare occurrence.

  10. High prevalence of BRAF gene mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid tumor cell lines.

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    Xu, Xiulong; Quiros, Roderick M; Gattuso, Paolo; Ain, Kenneth B; Prinz, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAP kinase pathway mediates the cellular response to extracellular signals that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mutation of the RAS proto-oncogene occurs in various thyroid neoplasms such as papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), follicular thyroid adenomas and carcinomas. A second genetic alteration frequently involved in PTC is RET/PTC rearrangements. Recent studies have shown that BRAF, which is a downstream signaling molecule of RET and RAS, is frequently mutated in melanomas. This study tests whether BRAF is also mutated in thyroid tumors and cell lines. We analyzed BRAF gene mutation at codon 599 in thyroid tumors using mutant-allele-specific PCR and in 10 thyroid tumor cell lines by DNA sequencing of the PCR-amplified exon 15. We found that BRAF was mutated in 8 of 10 thyroid tumor cell lines, including 2 of 2 papillary carcinoma cell lines, 4 of 5 anaplastic carcinoma cell lines, 1 of 2 follicular carcinoma cell lines, and 1 follicular adenoma cell line. BRAF mutation at codon 599 was detected in 21 of 56 PTC (38%) but not in 18 follicular adenomas and 6 goiters. BRAF mutation occurred in PTC at a significantly higher frequency in male patients than in female patients. To test whether BRAF mutation may cooperate with RET/PTC rearrangements in the oncogenesis of PTC, we tested whether BRAF-mutated PTCs were also positive for RET/PTC rearrangements. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to evaluate RET/PTC rearrangements by using two different anti-RET antibodies. Surprisingly, we found that a large number of BRAF-mutated PTCs (8 of 21) also expressed RET, indicating that the RET proto-oncogene is rearranged in these BRAF-mutated PTCs. These observations suggest that mutated BRAF gene may cooperate with RET/PTC to induce the oncogenesis of PTC.

  11. A Patient with Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Intermingled with Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma that Remains Alive more than 8 Years after Diagnosis

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    Jung, Tae Sik; Oh, Young Lyun; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare tumor with a highly aggressive clinical course. We report here on a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid who remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis. A 56-year-old man presented with a hoarse voice and a rapidly progressing mass on the right side of the thyroid gland. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy without neck lymph node dissection. Histopathologic findings revealed primary squamou...

  12. Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene

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    Haberkom, U. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, A.; Jiang, S.; Morr, I.; Mahmut, M. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na{sup 125}I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future

  13. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid with Multiple Cervical Lymph Node Involvement Accompanying Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

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    Ceyran, A. Bahar; Şenol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Cinel, Z. Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  14. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

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    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid ... About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary carcinoma type. It is more common in women than in men. It may occur in childhood, but is most often seen ...

  15. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  16. Management of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Arslanoğlu, Seçil; Eren, Erdem; Özkul, Yılmaz; Ciğer, Ejder; Kopar, Aylin; Önal, Kazım; Etit, Demet; Tütüncü, G Yazgı

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; and the association between clinicopathological parameters and thyroid gland invasion. Medical records of 75 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent total laryngectomy with thyroidectomy were reviewed, retrospectively. Preoperative computed tomography scans, clinical and operative findings, and histopathological data of the specimens were evaluated. There were 73 male and two female patients with an age range of 41-88 years (mean 60.4 years). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 62 (82.7 %) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 13 patients (17.3 %). Four patients had histopathologically proven thyroid gland invasion (5.3 %). In three patients, thyroid gland involvement was by means of direct invasion. Thyroid gland invasion was significantly correlated with thyroid cartilage invasion. Therefore, prophylactic thyroidectomy should not be a part of the treatment policy for these tumors.

  17. Coexistence of subacute thyroiditis and renal cell carcinoma: a paraneoplastic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Algün, Ekrem; ALICI, Süleyman; Topal, Cevat; Ugras, Serdar; Erkoç, Reha; Sakarya, M.Emin; Özbey, Nese

    2003-01-01

    RENAL CELL CARCINOMA IS CHARACTERIZED by varied manifestations, which include unusual metastatic sites and paraneoplastic and vascular syndromes. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with high fever, weight loss, palpitations and a tender goitre. We suggest that, in this patient, subacute thyroiditis manifested as a paraneoplastic syndrome of renal cell carcinoma.

  18. Collision tumours, squamous cell carcinoma of larynx, papillary thyroid carcinoma, metastatic lymphatic node. Clinical Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the opening of the stoma. Papillary carcinoma compromises peritiroideo deep surgical limits and mucous upper right margin. Squamous cell carcinoma committed focally vocal cord left. Foci of vascular and perineural invasion papillary carcinoma. Two papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph nodes perilaringeos. Right middle yugulocarotidea 2-Chain: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate (9.3 cm.) And tissue extension adipose periganglionar and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of two lymph nodes (macro metastasis with capsule intact). 3-Chain yugulocarotidea middle and lower left: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate in (7.2 cm.) And metastatic squamous cell carcinoma four lymph nodes (macro metastases with capsule intact). In two of said nodes simultaneously both tumor metastases is observed. Starts radiation therapy (65Gy) weekly concurrent CDDP, after which there is no evidence of tumor. Six months later, treatment is performed with ablative doses of iodine 131 scintigraphy showed that the remaining thyroid nodular captante in glandular bed. The patient progresses with lung and liver metastases died at 10 months after surgery. Although the literature we found other cases of tumors in collision, we have not found a case with two metastatic tumors in a single node with these histologist

  19. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid with Multiple Cervical Lymph Node Involvement Accompanying Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bahar Ceyran; Serkan Şenol; Barış Bayraktar; Şeyma Özkanlı; Z. Leyla Cinel; Abdullah Aydın

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac ar...

  20. Primary Thyroid-Like Follicular Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Emerging Entity

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    S. Malde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney is a rare but newly emerging histological variant of renal cell carcinoma RCC, with only nine cases reported in the literature to date. We present a further case of this unique condition, discuss the workup and typical histological findings, and review the literature regarding this rare histological variant.

  1. Synchronous sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and small-cell carcinoma of lung: A rare entity

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    Manigreeva Krishnatreya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and small-cell carcinoma of the lung is a rare phenomenon and both these tumors are characterized by poor treatment outcome and prognosis. A 45-year-old woman presented with a progressive swelling in front and side of the neck of 3-month duration without any pulmonary symptoms. The tumor of the lung was an incidental finding on routine chest radiological examination. The diagnosis of synchronous primary cancers of the thyroid and the lung were made after cytopathological examination of both the lesions. We report here a case of loco-regional sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid associated with limited stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung and its therapeutic challenges.

  2. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

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    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  3. mTOR Inhibition Promotes TTF1-Dependent Redifferentiation and Restores Iodine Uptake in Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Heinhuis, B.; Gerrits, D.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Schweppe, R.E.; Haugen, B.R.; Boerman, O.C.; Smit, J.W.A.; Netea, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Concept: Redifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma cells has the potential to increase the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy in treatment-refractory, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (TC), leading to an improved disease outcome. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell fate af

  4. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Emad Kandil; Mohamed Abdel Khalek; Haytham Alabbas; Philip Daroca; Tina Thethi; Paul Friedlander; Ryan Leblanc; Obai Abdullah; Bernard Jaffe; Byron Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black ...

  5. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

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    V S Medvedev; P. A. Isayev; Ilyin, A. A.; D. Yu. Semin; V. V. Polkin; D. N. Derbugov; S. V. Vasilkov

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  6. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

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    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  7. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A;

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  8. TRAP1 regulates cell cycle and apoptosis in thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Notarangelo, Tiziana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Lamacchia, Olga; Sisinni, Lorenza; Spagnoletti, Girolamo; Toti, Paolo; Santoro, Angela; Storto, Giovanni; Bufo, Pantaleo; Cignarelli, Mauro; Esposito, Franca; Landriscina, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) molecular chaperone upregulated in several human malignancies and involved in protection from apoptosis and drug resistance, cell cycle progression, cell metabolism and quality control of specific client proteins. TRAP1 role in thyroid carcinoma (TC), still unaddressed at present, was investigated by analyzing its expression in a cohort of 86 human TCs and evaluating its involvement in cancer cell survival and proliferation in vitro Indeed, TRAP1 levels progressively increased from normal peritumoral thyroid gland, to papillary TCs (PTCs), follicular variants of PTCs (FV-PTCs) and poorly differentiated TCs (PDTCs). By contrast, anaplastic thyroid tumors exhibited a dual pattern, the majority being characterized by high TRAP1 levels, while a small subgroup completely negative. Consistently with a potential involvement of TRAP1 in thyroid carcinogenesis, TRAP1 silencing resulted in increased sensitivity to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, inhibition of cell cycle progression and attenuation of ERK signaling. Noteworthy, the inhibition of TRAP1 ATPase activity by pharmacological agents resulted in attenuation of cell proliferation, inhibition of ERK signaling and reversion of drug resistance. These data suggest that TRAP1 inhibition may be regarded as potential strategy to target specific features of human TCs, i.e., cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. PMID:27422900

  9. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  10. Functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes in Hurthle cell thyroid neoplasm - an association of GPX1 polymorphism and recurrent Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma

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    Krhin Blaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC.

  11. Functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes in Hurthle cell thyroid neoplasm - an association of GPX1 polymorphism and recurrent Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krhin Blaz; Goricar Katja; Gazic Barbara; Dolzan Vita; Besic Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1) are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC).

  12. Inhibition effects of parathyroid hormone on human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong Ni; Qinjiang Liu; Shihong Ma; Ruihui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the study was to investigate the ef ects of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hor-mone receptor monoclonal antibody on in vitro growth and proliferation of human medul ary thyroid carcinoma celllines. Methods:The medul ary thyroid carcinoma cellline was cultured in vitro, with parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibody treatment intervention, the growth of the cells was observed under an inverted contrast micro-scope, the MTT assay was used to detect the cellgrowth inhibition rate. Results:Under the inverted contrast microscope, the cells changed significantly, the parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibodies can ef ectively inhibit the proliferation of medul ary thyroid cancer cells in a time and dose dependent. When parathyroid hormone concentra-tion reached a concentration of 2.0μmol/L, the parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibody reached a concentration of 1.0μmol/L, the cellgrowth was most significantly inhibited (P<0.05). Conclusion:Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone receptor monoclonal antibody were able to inhibit the proliferation of medul ary thyroid carcinoma cells and signifi-cantly reduce the proliferation index.

  13. Computer assisted detection and analysis of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in histological images

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    Kim, Edward; Baloch, Zubair; Kim, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The number of new cases of thyroid cancer are dramatically increasing as incidences of this cancer have more than doubled since the early 1970s. Tall cell variant (TCV-PTC) papillary thyroid carcinoma is one type of thyroid cancer that is more aggressive and usually associated with higher local recurrence and distant metastasis. This variant can be identified through visual characteristics of cells in histological images. Thus, we created a fully automatic algorithm that is able to segment cells using a multi-stage approach. Our method learns the statistical characteristics of nuclei and cells during the segmentation process and utilizes this information for a more accurate result. Furthermore, we are able to analyze the detected regions and extract characteristic cell data that can be used to assist in clinical diagnosis.

  14. FOLLICULAR CELL CARCINOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND IN THREE CAPTIVE AGED RACCOON DOGS (NYCTEREUTES PROCYONOIDES).

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    Kido, Nobuhide; Itagaki, Iori; Ono, Kaori; Omiya, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Rei

    2015-12-01

    The clinical and histologic features of thyroid carcinoma in raccoon dogs have not been previously reported. Three of four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) over 8 yr of age at the Nogeyama Zoological Gardens developed thyroid follicular cell carcinomas that were detected at necropsy. The affected raccoon dogs were rescued from the wild and were housed at the Nogeyama Zoological Gardens for 8 yr 8 mo, 8 yr 10 mo, and 10 yr 3 mo, respectively. Although all of them appeared lethargic and developed partial alopecia or desquamation of their skin, they did not display any other specific clinical signs associated with a thyroid lesion. Serum thyroid hormone values were examined in two of the affected raccoon dogs and the average and standard deviation values (free-thyroxin [FT4]: 0.078 ± 0.077 pM/L and 0.062 ± 0.0039 pM/L; free-triiodothyronine [FT3]: 3.261 ± 0.765 pM/L and 3.407 ± 0.919 pM/L) were lower than the reference range (FT4: 0.141 ± 0.117 pM/L; FT3: 5.139 ± 2.412 pM/L) derived from a clinically normal raccoon dog. On necropsy, the thyroid lobes were markedly enlarged bilaterally. Histopathologically, the neoplastic cells in the thyroid gland appeared round or oval and columnar or cuboidal with minimal heteromorphism. Moreover, mostly small (but occasionally large) follicles were identified, and the neoplastic cells had infiltrated into the surrounding capsule and blood vessels. The histopathologic features of the thyroid tumors in the raccoon dogs revealed that the tumors were derived from follicular cells.

  15. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

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    Dehghani Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration. Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned. The slides were sent for second opinion. After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed. Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks. Conclusion Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

  16. Thyroid metastasis as initial presentation of clear cell renal carcinoma

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    César Pablo Ramírez-Plaza

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The possibility of finding of an incidental metastatic tumor in the thyroid gland from a previous unknown and non-diganosed primary (as CCRC in our case was is rare and account only for less than 1% of malignancies. Nonetheless, the thyroid gland is a frequent site of metastasis and the presence of “de novo” thyroid nodules in oncologic patients must be always considered and studied.

  17. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

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    Chiofalo Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

  18. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  19. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as a collision tumor of the neck: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Xiang-Yan; Fang, Ning; Chen, Wei-Lun; Yu, Hong; Zhu,Wei

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old male presented with a rapidly expanding mass on the right side of the neck and progressive hoarseness. An electronic laryngoscopy and a computed tomography scan were performed, and the patient was subsequently diagnosed with tumors of the larynx and the thyroid gland. An en bloc near-total thyroidectomy combined with a total laryngectomy was performed. The final pathological analysis revealed a collision tumor that was derived from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and a papil...

  20. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  1. Composite Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Columnar Cell Variant of Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconet, Sarah; Bosq, Jacques; Hartl, Dana; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Al-Ghuzlan, Abir

    2016-06-01

    Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid and columnar cell variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PCT) are uncommon neoplasms. We report the first case of composite MEC and columnar cell variant of PCT. An 86-year-old man consulted for a 47-mm thyroid nodule, cytologically compatible with PCT. Total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis, with support of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, was mixed primary carcinoma of the thyroid, associating an MEC component with predominantly columnar cell variant of PCT. Sixteen months after surgery and external beam radiation therapy, the patient was free of recurrence or distant metastasis. This case report offers an opportunity to highlight the potential pitfalls concerning the interpretation of mucin histochemistry in thyroid tumors. PMID:26755714

  2. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

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    Rotiroti Domenicoantonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio. Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. Results A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 μM, 7 fold at 100 μM. When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 μM and earlier exposure time (24 h. Conclusion These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours.

  3. CT-scan prediction of thyroid cartilage invasion for early laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Dana M; Landry, Guillaume; Bidault, François; Hans, Stéphane; Julieron, Morbize; Mamelle, Gérard; Janot, François; Brasnu, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    Treatment choice for laryngeal cancer may be influenced by the diagnosis of thyroid cartilage invasion on preoperative computed tomography (CT). Our objective was to determine the predictive value of CT for thyroid cartilage invasion in early- to mid-stage laryngeal cancer. Retrospective study (1992-2008) of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with open partial laryngectomy and resection of at least part of the thyroid cartilage. Previous laser surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and second primaries were excluded. CT prediction of thyroid cartilage invasion was determined by specialized radiologists. Tumor characteristics and pathologic thyroid cartilage invasion were compared to the radiologic assessment. 236 patients were treated by vertical (20 %), supracricoid (67 %) or supraglottic partial laryngectomy (13 %) for tumors staged cT1 (26 %), cT2 (55 %), and cT3 (19 %). The thyroid cartilage was invaded on pathology in 19 cases (8 %). CT's sensitivity was 10.5 %, specificity 94 %, positive predictive value 13 %, and negative predictive value 92 %. CT correctly predicted thyroid cartilage invasion in only two cases for an overall accuracy of 87 %. Among the false-positive CT's, tumors involving the anterior commissure were significantly over-represented (61.5 % vs. 27 %, p = .004). Tumors with decreased vocal fold (VF) mobility were significantly over-represented in the group of false-negatives (41 vs. 13 %, p = .0035). Preoperative CT was not effective in predicting thyroid cartilage invasion in these early- to mid-stage lesions, overestimating cartilage invasion for AC lesions and underestimating invasion for lesions with decreased VF mobility.

  4. Metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

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    Mitra Niafar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 4% of thyroid carcinoma and originates from parafollicular cells, secreting calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA. Conventional radiographic modalities such as Computerized Tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, and Ultrasonography (U/S, are used for detecting recurrences following total thyroidectomy. However, metastatic disease frequently escapes detection by the above modalities, even when its presence is suggested by persistently elevated serum calcitonin levels. In this paper, we report a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 40 year-old woman who had whole body octreotide scintigraphy to evaluate and detect the origin of calcitonin and CEA secretion.

  5. siRNA targeting RBP2 inhibits expression, proliferation, tumorigenicity and invasion in thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, LING-LING; MAN, DONG-MEI; Wang, Tian; ZHANG, GUO-AN; Cui, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In order to estimate the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2) on the proliferation, expression, invasion, migration and tumorigenicity abilities of papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cells, siRNA targeting RBP2 (RBP2-siRNA) and negative control siRNA were transfected into K1 cells. The mRNA levels of RBP2 in the transfected cells were estimated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the protein levels of...

  6. Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vijayraj S.; Abhishek Vijayakumar; Neelamma Natikar

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma wh...

  7. Dedifferentiation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-133 is enhanced by {sup 131}I pretreatment

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    Feng Fang; Wang Hui, E-mail: wanghuishanghai@hotmail.com; Fu Hongliang; Wu Shuqi; Ye Zhiyi; Chen Suyun; Li Jianing

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) usually has a high iodine uptake. However, dedifferentiation of DTC with decreased or no radioiodine ({sup 131}I) uptake is observed in clinical practice, with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of {sup 131}I radiation on radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and the expression of thyroid-specific molecules. Methods: FTC-133 cells were treated with {sup 131}I, the dosage dictated by methylthiazol tetrazolium test results and preliminary experiments. The experimental cell group was incubated with {sup 131}I for 48 h and then cultured for 3 months in {sup 131}I-free medium. The control group was set without {sup 131}I. Primary cells were defined as the blank group. Following treatment, RAIU was measured with a gamma counter as the counts/cell number. Na{sup +}/I{sup -} symporter (NIS), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were detected by Western blotting and radioimmunoassay, and their mRNAs were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: RAIU of FTC-133 cells decreased gradually after coincubation with {sup 131}I and did not recover even if {sup 131}I was removed. The relative RAIU of the control and experimental groups was 0.567 and 0.182, respectively, a statistically significant difference (P<.01). Expression of NIS, TSHR, TPO and Tg decreased in the experimental group to a statistically significant degree compared to that of controls (P<.05). Conclusion: Changes in the mRNA levels were in accordance with the expression of thyroid-specific proteins. Thus, FTC-133 cells undergo dedifferentiation during long-term culture in vitro, and {sup 131}I may promote this progress.

  8. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Kwon, Kye Won; Kim, Sang Wook [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Youn, In Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT) is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  9. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid gland with local recurrence: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja yoon Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCT is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It is difficult to diagnose PSCCT in its early stage because of its rarity and lack of typical imaging findings. We experienced an elderly woman with PSCCT confirmed by surgery. Although preoperative fine-needle aspiration revealed no malignancy, surgical resection was performed because the ultrasonogram showed diffuse microcalcifications, which suggested malignancy, and clinically, the mass grew rapidly to compress the trachea. Local tumor recurrence was noted at 3 months after surgery. Surgical resection or repeat biopsy should be considered if a cytologically benign thyroid mass shows imaging or clinical features of malignancy.

  10. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Carcinoma Mimic Hürthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasm

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    Chutintorn Sriphrapradang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA can cause misdiagnosis of cytomorphological findings between parathyroid and thyroid lesions. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a palpable neck mass on the right thyroid lobe. FNA cytology was reported as intrathyroidal lymphoid hyperplasia. After 5 years, repeated FNA was done on the enlarged nodule with result of Hürthle cell lesion. Prior to right lobectomy, laboratories revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH. Careful history taking revealed chronic knee pain and ossifying fibroma at the maxilla. Ultrasonography showed a 2.8 cm mass inferior to right thyroid lobe. Pathology from en bloc resection was parathyroid carcinoma and immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for PTH. Genetic analysis found somatic mutation of CDC73 gene in exon1 (c.70delG which caused premature stop codon in amino acid 26 (p.Glu24Lysfs2*. The final diagnosis was hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Conclusions. FNA cytology of parathyroid can mimic thyroid lesion. It is important to consider and correlate the entire information from clinical history, laboratory, imaging, and FNA.

  11. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I131 therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH. PMID:27656301

  12. Palliative radiation in primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid: A rare case report

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    Sushmita Ghoshal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. Until date, only around 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Primary treatment of the patient is radical surgery. With optimum treatment survival is not more than 6 months in this aggressive malignancy. However in our patient surgery it was not possible because of unresectability of the mass due to encroachment of major vessels. Hence, we have delivered radiotherapy alone, with which effective palliation could be achieved and patient is leading a good quality-of-life for last 1 year.

  13. C-cell-derived calcitonin-free neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid: the diagnostic importance of CGRP immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Tadao; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Eloy, Catarina; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    In the thyroid, primary neuroendocrine tumors encompass medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and, rarely, other tumors such as paragangliomas. MTCs are derived from C-cells and express calcitonin and neuroendocrine markers. Besides classic MTC, some reports have documented thyroid neuroendocrine tumors, which show no calcitonin expression and raise difficult diagnostic problems. A 76-year-old man presented with a mass in the left thyroid with neither serological calcitonin elevation nor familial history. A thorough clinico-laboratorial study did not disclose any other mass elsewhere. A left hemithyroidectomy was performed, and the histological examination revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma resembling a paraganglioma-like MTC displaying unequivocal signs of vascular invasion. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed reactivity for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), paired box gene 8 (PAX8), cytokeratins (AE1/AE3 and CK8/18), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and negativity for calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, TTF-2, thyroperoxidase, and thyroglobulin. In situ hybridization showed that the tumor cells lacked expression for calcitonin and thyroglobulin mRNA. Genetic analysis did not disclose any RET mutation. A diagnosis of C-cell-derived primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid without calcitonin expression was made, and the patient remains free of metastasis or recurrence 18 months after surgery. PMID:24599901

  14. Downregulation of LSD1 suppresses the proliferation, tumorigenicity and invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, LING-LING; MAN, DONG-MEI; Wang, Tian; ZHANG, GUO-AN; Cui, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) downregulation, induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, on the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of the papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cell line. The siRNA targeting LSD1 and scrambled non-targeting siRNA were each transfected into papillary thyroid carcinoma K1 cells. Downregulation of LSD1 mRNA and protein level was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative poly...

  15. Differential expression of cell cycle regulators in CDK5-dependent medullary thyroid carcinoma tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karine; Hillmann, Antje; Augustyn, Alexander; Plattner, Florian; Hai, Tao; Singh, Tanvir; Ramezani, Saleh; Sun, Xiankai; Pfragner, Roswitha; Minna, John D; Cote, Gilbert J; Chen, Herbert; Bibb, James A; Nwariaku, Fiemu E

    2015-05-20

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer of thyroid C-cells, for which few treatment options are available. We have recently reported a role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in MTC pathogenesis. We have generated a mouse model, in which MTC proliferation is induced upon conditional overexpression of the CDK5 activator, p25, in C-cells, and arrested by interrupting p25 overexpression. Here, we identify genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in proliferating versus arrested benign mouse MTC. We find that downstream target genes of the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein, including genes encoding cell cycle regulators such as CDKs, cyclins and CDK inhibitors, are significantly upregulated in malignant mouse tumors in a CDK5-dependent manner. Reducing CDK5 activity in human MTC cells down-regulated these cell cycle regulators suggesting that CDK5 activity is critical for cell cycle progression and MTC proliferation. Finally, the same set of cell cycle proteins was consistently overexpressed in human sporadic MTC but not in hereditary MTC. Together these findings suggest that aberrant CDK5 activity precedes cell cycle initiation and thus may function as a tumor-promoting factor facilitating cell cycle protein expression in MTC. Targeting aberrant CDK5 or its downstream effectors may be a strategy to halt MTC tumorigenesis. PMID:25900242

  16. Thyroid c-cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra L; Styer, Eloise L; Stobaeus, Janeen K; Norton, Terry M

    2002-12-01

    A 3-yr-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was submitted with dysphagia, weight loss, and tetraparesis. A palpable mass was found on the ventral neck. Histologic examination revealed replacement of the thyroid gland by a highly cellular, expansile, and infiltrative mass composed of lobules of polygonal cells separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Examination of ultrathin sections revealed tumor cells with few to many dense-core neuroendocrine granules, approximately 100-200 nm in diameter, and stromal amyloid. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for neuron-specific enolase. Only rare cells had positive immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin. Findings are consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor of C-cell origin. This is the first report of a C-cell carcinoma in a hedgehog. PMID:12564541

  17. Renal cell carcinoma and synchronous thyroid metastasis with neoplastic thrombosis of the internal jugular vein: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Deliu-Victor; Brescia, Antonio; Nordio, Andrea; Spinelli, Matteo Giulio; Melegari, Sara; Cozzi, Gabriele; Andrioli, Massimiliano; Salvatori, Pietro

    2011-12-01

    A case of thyroid metastasis of a renal clear cell carcinoma is presented. The fine-needle aspiration cytology pointed out the primary tumor origin. The patient underwent robot-assisted radical nephrectomy and contextual thyroidectomy. During the operative procedure, a neoplastic thrombus extending from the thyroid metastasis and protruding into the internal jugular vein was found. As a result, thrombectomy and ligation of the internal jugular vein were required. In cases of single synchronous thyroid metastases form RCC, radical surgery should be advisable. Robotic approach allows to associate major surgery procedures, as nephrectomy, with radical metastasectomy.

  18. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid metastases are rarely seen in clinical practice but should be considered particularly in patients with a history of non-thyroidal malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common tumor to metastasize to the thyroid gland and may present many years after a nephrectomy. Thus, patients require a long-term follow-up and, physicians should have a high index of suspicion particularly in patients with benign disorders of the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroglobulin immunohistochemical staining are considered the most effective methods for diagnosis. Surgical treatment of solitary thyroid metastases is recommended and prolongs survival. Adjuvant medical treatment may also be useful in specific situations. We present the unusual case of a relative young patient with goiter who presented with an intrathyroidal metastasis of RCC. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 58-60

  19. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26365817

  20. Difference of the Nuclear Green Light Intensity between Papillary Carcinoma Cells Showing Clear Nuclei and Non-neoplastic Follicular Epithelia in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyekyung; Baek, Tae Hwa; Park, Meeja; Lee, Seung Yun; Son, Hyun Jin; Kang, Dong Wook; Kim, Joo Heon; Kim, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background There is subjective disagreement regarding nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, using digital instruments, we were able to quantify many ambiguous pathologic features and use numeric data to express our findings. Methods We examined 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas. For each case, we selected representative cancer cells showing clear nuclei and surrounding non-neoplastic follicular epithelial cells and evaluated objective values of green light intensity (GLI) for quantitative analysis of nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results From 16,274 GLI values from 600 cancer cell nuclei and 13,752 GLI values from 596 non-neoplastic follicular epithelial nuclei, we found a high correlation of 94.9% between GLI and clear nuclei. GLI between the cancer group showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia was statistically significant. The overall average level of GLI in the cancer group was over two times higher than the non-neoplastic group despite a wide range of GLI. On a polygonal line graph, there was a fluctuating unique difference between both the cancer and non-neoplastic groups in each patient, which was comparable to the microscopic findings. Conclusions Nuclear GLI could be a useful factor for discriminating between carcinoma cells showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia in papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27550048

  1. Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland with Synchronous Benign and Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor. The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

  2. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer. PMID:20032400

  3. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer.

  4. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Yoo; Yohanan Kim; Alfred Simental; Jared C. Inman

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  5. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  6. Biodistribution of BPA in a thyroid undifferentiated carcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Viaggi, M.; Kreimann, E.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A. [Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    BPA uptake was studied both in vitro and in vivo. A significant greater uptake by a thyroid undifferentiated human carcinoma cell line (ARO) was found when compared to normal bovine and human adenoma cells. When the ARO cells were transplanted into nude mice BPA uptake by the tumor was 4 times greater than normal thyroid and 8 times greater than blood. These results open the possibility of applying BNCT to the treatment of thyroid undifferentiated carcinoma. (author)

  7. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”

  8. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Takahashi, Satoru; Maeda, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Fujii, Masahiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato [Department of Urology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”.

  9. Thyroid carcinomas of Belarussian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma increases significantly following exposure to ionizing irradiation. However, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumorigenesis at the molecular and chromosomal levels have not been identified. In order to gain some indication of the processes affecting the thyroid epithelium, cytogenetic and molecular genetic investigations were performed on childhood thyroid carcinomas that developed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarussia, and on secondary thyroid tumours that developed after radiotherapy. At the cytogenetic level, the radiation-induced tumours were shown to have an increased frequency of translocations, multiple and complex chromosome aberrations, and novel breakpoints for structural chromosome aberrations. At the molecular level, different alterations of the RET protooncogene were detected in 65% of the Belarussian tumours. (orig.)

  10. Spindle cell carcinoma of the tongue combined with double primary cancer of the thyroid gland: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) is referred to as a variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It is also known as "sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma" because it consists of normal squamous carcinoma cells with spindle-shaped cells that appear similar to a sarcoma. The term, "second primary tumor" (SPT) or "double primary tumor", is proposed for a second tumor that develops independently from the first. SPTs can present as either synchronous or metachronous lesions. Synchronous SPTs are defined as tumors occurring simultaneously or within 6 months after the first tumor. The patient in this case, whose primary tumor was in the tongue, was diagnosed with SpCC with metastases to both neck lymph nodes. This case also exhibited a second primary cancer as a synchronous lesion in the thyroid gland, which is uncommon. All carcinomas, both in the tongue and thyroid gland, were removed surgically, and especially in the tongue, an anterolateral thigh free flap was performed successfully to replace the defect. PMID:27595090

  11. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Thyroid Gland and Pancreas Showing Uptake on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Gowri L; Schembri, Geoffrey Paul; Samra, Jaswinder; Roach, Paul; Hsiao, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Ga DOTATATE PET/CT is an imaging technique used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. We report a case of 66-year-old woman with a history of surgically removed renal cell carcinoma who presented for a DOTATATE PET/CT scan to characterize a newly diagnosed pancreatic lesion. DOTATATE-avid lesions were identified in the thyroid gland and pancreas. Subsequent biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma at both sites. It is important to be aware that tumors other than neuroendocrine tumors may also show uptake on DOTATATE PET/CT scan. A biopsy may be required if lesions are identified at atypical sites. PMID:27055137

  12. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland

  13. In vitro identification and characterization of CD133(pos cancer stem-like cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent publications suggest that neoplastic initiation and growth are dependent on a small subset of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC is a very aggressive solid tumor with poor prognosis, characterized by high dedifferentiation. The existence of CSCs might account for the heterogeneity of ATC lesions. CD133 has been identified as a stem cell marker for normal and cancerous tissues, although its biological function remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ATC cell lines ARO, KAT-4, KAT-18 and FRO were analyzed for CD133 expression. Flow cytometry showed CD133(pos cells only in ARO and KAT-4 (64+/-9% and 57+/-12%, respectively. These data were confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. ARO and KAT-4 were also positive for fetal marker oncofetal fibronectin and negative for thyrocyte-specific differentiating markers thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase and sodium/iodide symporter. Sorted ARO/CD133(pos cells exhibited higher proliferation, self-renewal, colony-forming ability in comparison with ARO/CD133(neg. Furthermore, ARO/CD133(pos showed levels of thyroid transcription factor TTF-1 similar to the fetal thyroid cell line TAD-2, while the expression in ARO/CD133(neg was negligible. The expression of the stem cell marker OCT-4 detected by RT-PCR and flow cytometry was markedly higher in ARO/CD133(pos in comparison to ARO/CD133(neg cells. The stem cell markers c-KIT and THY-1 were negative. Sensitivity to chemotherapy agents was investigated, showing remarkable resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in ARO/CD133(pos when compared with ARO/CD133(neg cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe CD133(pos cells in ATC cell lines. ARO/CD133(pos cells exhibit stem cell-like features--such as high proliferation, self-renewal ability, expression of OCT-4--and are characterized by higher resistance to chemotherapy. The simultaneous positivity for thyroid specific factor TTF-1 and onfFN suggest

  14. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bo Mi; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Soo Jin; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Yang Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum

    2014-09-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is uncommon in children and constitutes 0.5% to 3% of all pediatric malignancies. Few studies have reported imaging findings of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas. We report 3 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas in children. Among the 3 patients, the youngest was a 7-year-old girl. In the current report, we describe 2 cases of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and 1 case of pediatric diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The ultrasonographic features and diagnostic procedures in these pediatric patients are similar to those in adults.

  15. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani Mehdi; Omidvari Shapour; Daneshbod Yahya; Daneshbod Khosrow; Negahban Shahrzad

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report Thi...

  16. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  17. Overexpression of NDRG2 Increases Iodine Uptake and Inhibits Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Growth In Situ and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Anqi; Wang, Chengguo; Sun, Jiachen; Gao, Jianjun; Tao, Liang; Du, Xilin; Zhao, Huadong; Yang, Jiandong; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon and highly aggressive tumor of the neuroendocrine system, which derives from the neuroendocrine C cells of the thyroid gland. Except for surgical resection, there are not very many effective systemic treatment options for MTC. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) had a significantly lower expression in MTC compared with normal thyroid tissue. However, the function of NDRG2 in MTC oncogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that overexpression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of TT cells (human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells) in vitro and suppressed the development of MTC in a nude mouse xenograft model. Further analysis revealed that NDRG2 arrested the cell cycle G0/G1 phase progression and induced TT cell apoptosis. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression may mediate the antiproliferative effect by reducing cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein levels. We also found aberrant NDRG2-mitigated TT cell migration and invasion in vitro. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and radionuclide treatment is a promising therapy for MTC. Our current data revealed that NDRG2 overexpression enhanced NIS level in TT cells and increased their iodine uptake in vitro. Furthermore, (99m)TcO4(-) radionuclide imaging of the xenograft tumors indicated that NDRG2 could promote NIS-mediated radionuclide transport. In conclusion, the present study suggested that NDRG2 is a critical molecule in the regulation of MTC biological behavior and a potential promoter in radioactive iodine therapy. PMID:26802650

  18. Human medullary thyroid carcinoma: cell cultures and xenotransplants in nude mice. Immunocytochemistry and calcitonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, G; Lothaire, P; Vico, P; Dumont, P; Libert, A; Degeyter, M; Larsimont, D; Saigo, P E; Body, J J; Atassi, G

    1989-12-01

    Occult primary and recurrent medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) detected only by elevated calcitonin levels in the peripheral blood, generally after pentagastrin-test stimulation, are difficult to localize. Some new imaging procedures with radionuclide tracers or radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen seem to bring some potentially therapeutic benefits. We report our results with cell cultures and xenotransplants of human MTC with the intention of establishing reproducible models in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures secrete calcitonin at up to 1200 pg/ml for periods ranging from 3 to 13 weeks. Immunocytochemistry detects cytoplasmic granules positive for calcitonin in polygonal epithelioid cells with dendritic processes. Xenotransplants in nude mice fare better in the subcutaneous axilla than in the subrenal capsule assay. In the former location the tumor-take is good and calcitonin is detected in the blood of the tumor-bearing animals, at levels ranging from 286 to more than 20,000 pg/ml. These models would be potentially usable as targets for radionuclide tracers and/or radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies. PMID:2689238

  19. Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Tiroides: A Propósito de un Caso Primary squamous cell thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de células escamosas de tiroides (CCET es un tumor infrecuente y agresivo. Su etiología es incierta. Ante la presencia de carcinoma escamoso en la glándula tiroides debe excluirse la posibilidad de infiltración de un tumor originado en una estructura adyacente o de metástasis de otros carcinomas. El tratamiento de elección es la cirugía radical. La mayoría de los pacientes fallecen antes del año debido a progresión local de la enfermedad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con una masa tiroidea, con diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma escamoso (con inmunohistoquímca negativa para tiroglobulina, TTF1 y calcitonina y positiva para p63 y citok5. Los estudios clínicos, endoscópicos y radiológicos excluyeron otros sitios de origen de carcinoma escamoso. Fue tratado con quimio y radioterapia, falleciendo por progresión local luego de 9 meses.Primary squamous cell thyroid carcinoma (PSCTC is a rare and aggressive tumor of uncertain origin. When squamous carcinoma is diagnosed, it is mandatory to exclude the possibility of primary tumor arising from an adjacent structure or representing metastases from a primary growth elsewhere. Aggressive surgical resection is the treatment of choice. However, the prognosis is poor, with a median survival of less than a year. Death is usually secondary to progression of local disease. We report a case of a patient presenting with a thyroid mass; biopsy was consistent with squamous cell carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry tumor cells were negative for TTF1, thyroglobulin and calcitonin. Cancer cells were positive for p63 and citok5. Extensive workup excluded the possibility of extrathyroid origin. The patient was treated with chemoradiotherapy; he died 9 months later due to local progression.

  20. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (Pcarcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 mRNA. Our findings support the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the development of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  1. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  2. C-cell hyperplasia accompanying thyroid diseases other than medullary carcinoma: an immunocytochemical study by means of antibodies to calcitonin and somatostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopsi, L; Di Palma, S; Ferrari, C; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Rilke, F

    1991-05-01

    Eighteen normal thyroid glands and unaffected thyroid tissue adjacent to 37 follicular cell-derived benign and malignant tumors and to ten thyroid metastases were studied immunocytochemically with calcitonin (CT) and prosomatostatin/somatostatin (SMS) antibodies. CT- and SMS-immunoreactive cells were found in 100% of cases, though with ample variations in number. Most but not all SMS-immunoreactive cells also contained CT. Diffuse and/or nodular C-cell hyperplasia was seen in 30% of pathological thyroid glands; in concomitance with follicular adenomas, the mean C-cell number more than doubled that found in normal glands. Furthermore the proportion of SMS-immunoreactive C-cells increased from about 1% of CT-immunoreactive cells in normal adult thyroid glands to 2.5% in follicular adenomas, 3% in follicular carcinomas, 4.6% in papillary carcinomas, and 5.7% in metastases. The findings suggest that C-cell hyperplasia may be causally related to pathologic disorders affecting follicular cells. Furthermore, the demonstration that the intrathyroidal SMS cell mass is readily affected by alterations of the follicular structure of the gland suggests a possible regulatory role of SMS in the thyroidal microenvironment.

  3. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E;

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  4. Patterns of expression of cell cycle/apoptosis genes along the spectrum of thyroid carcinoma progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Saltman; B. Singh; C.V. Hedvat; V.B. Wreesmann; R. Ghossein

    2006-01-01

    Background. Genetic screening studies suggest that genetic changes underlie progression from well differentiated, to anoplastic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent cell cycle/apoptosis regulators contribute to cancer progression. Methods. Tissue microarrarys (TMAs)

  5. Processing of pro-CGRP in a rat medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line transfected with protease inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Teit Eliot; Schifter, S; Vogel, Charlotte Katrine;

    1991-01-01

    A rat medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line, CA77, was used to study the effect of a series of biosynthesized protease inhibitors on the proteolytic cleavage of the endogenously synthesized pro-CGRP. This cell line efficiently converted the pro-CGRP to mature CGRP as assessed by chromatography of...... could be measured in the CA77 cells transfected with plasmids encoding the three serine protease inhibitors. CA77 cells were also transfected with two constructs encoding chimeric proteins consisting of cystatin C and the precursor for neuropeptide Y. Release experiments using 8-bromo c......AMP as the secretagogue showed that the chimer was co-released with CGRP. However, no effect of this chimer upon pro-CGRP processing could be detected. It is concluded that the processing of pro-CGRP in the CA77 cell line was very efficient and that four different protease inhibitors and two cystatin C/NPY chimers...

  6. Cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) is overexpressed in thyroid carcinoma and maintains tumor cell growth: A potential link to the BRAFV600E mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Kerstin; Drucker, Elisabeth; Oliver, Scott; Winkler, Juliane; Eiteneuer, Eva; Herpel, Esther; Breuhahn, Kai; Singer, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is among the most common malignant endocrine neoplasms with a rising incidence. Genetic alterations occurring in thyroid cancer frequently affect the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK-pathway such as the oncogenic, kinase-activating BRAF(V600E) mutation. Nuclear transport receptors including importins and exportins represent an important part of the nuclear transport machinery providing nucleo-cytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules. The role of nuclear transport receptors in the development and progression of thyroid carcinomas is largely unknown. Here, we studied the expression and function of the exportin cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) in thyroid carcinogenesis and its link to the BRAF(V600E) mutation. By using immunohistochemistry (IHC) we found significantly increased IHC scores of CAS in primary papillary (PTC) and medullary (MTC), but not in follicular (FTC) thyroid carcinoma compared to non-tumorous (NT) thyroid tissue. Interestingly, metastases of the aforementioned subtypes including FTC showed a strong CAS positivity. Among PTCs we observed that CAS immunoreactivity was significantly higher in the tumors harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Furthermore, depletion of CAS by RNAi in the BRAF(V600E)-positive PTC cell line B-CPAP led to reduced tumor cell growth measured by crystal violet assays. This phenotype could be attributed to reduced proliferation and increased cell death as assayed by BrdU ELISAs and immunoblotting for PARP-cleavage, respectively. Finally, we found additive effects of CAS siRNA and vemurafenib treatment in B-CPAP cells. Collectively, these data suggest that CAS overexpression in thyroid carcinoma depends on the subtype and the disease stage. Our findings also indicate that CAS maintains PTC cell proliferation and survival. Targeting CAS could represent a potential therapeutic approach particularly in combination with BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E)-positive tumors. PMID:26892809

  7. Acute airway failure secondary to thyroid metastasis from renal carcinoma

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    Lastilla Gaetano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary involvement of the thyroid gland by malignant metastases is uncommon. Acute respiratory crisis due to infiltration of the upper airways is a recognised complication of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma or thyroid lymphoma. Renal cell carcinoma is a tumour that metastasizes diffusely and in an unpredictable manner. Case presentation We report a case of a 73-year-old man with a painful neck mass, dyspnoea, stridor and dysphonia that was evaluated in emergency. A right radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma was performed 8 years previously. An emergency endotracheal intubation was followed by total thyroidectomy. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion A literature review regarding emergency treatment for acute respiratory compromise resulting from secondary thyroid tumours was undertaken. Only two cases of metastatic colon cancer and one case of metastatic meningioma requiring emergency thyroidectomy for acute respiratory failure are reported in the literature. This appears to be the first case of emergency surgery performed for acute respiratory compromise due to thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.

  8. CEP-701 and CEP-751 inhibit constitutively activated RET tyrosine kinase activity and block medullary thyroid carcinoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Christopher J; Park, Jong-In; Rosen, Mark; Dionne, Craig; Ruggeri, Bruce; Jones-Bolin, Susan; Denmeade, Samuel R; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2003-09-01

    All of the cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) express the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. In essentially all of the hereditary cases and approximately 40% of the sporadic cases of MTC, the RET kinase is constitutively activated by mutation. This suggests that RET may be an effective therapeutic target for treatment of MTC. We show that the indolocarbazole derivatives, CEP-701 and CEP-751, inhibit RET in MTC cells. These compounds effectively inhibit RET phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations <100 nM in 0.5% serum and at somewhat higher concentrations in the presence of 16% serum. They also blocked the growth of these MTC cells in culture. CEP-751 and its prodrug, CEP-2563, also inhibited tumor growth in MTC cell xenografts. These results show that inhibiting RET can block the growth of MTC cells and may have a therapeutic benefit in MTC.

  9. Characterization and vectorization of siRNA targeting RET/PTC1 in human papillary thyroid carcinoma cells

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    Massade L.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available RET/PTC1 fusion oncogene is the most common genetic alteration identified to date in thyroid papillary carcinomas (PTC and represents a good target for small interfering RNA (siRNA. Our aim was: i to target the RET/PTC1 oncogene by siRNAs, ii to assess the knockdown effects on cell growth and cell cycle regulation and iii to vectorize it in order to protect it from degradation. Methods. Human cell lines expressing RET/PTC1 were transfected by siRNA RET/PTC1, inhibition of the oncogene expression was assessed by qRT-PCR and by Western blot. Conjugation of siRNA RET/PTC1 to squalene was performed by coupling it to squalene. In vivo studies are performed in nude mice. Conclusion. In this short communication, we report the main published results obtained during last years.

  10. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses

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    Lee, Jun Won; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Chang, Suk Ki; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Rho, Young-Soo; Jin Cho, Sung; Kim, Keon Ha (Depts. of Radiology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Pathology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-04-15

    Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy. Purpose: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses. Material and Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm. Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%). Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

  11. Activating BRAF Mutations Detected in Mixed Hürthle Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Report of an Unusual Case and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Sara; Choucair, Mahmoud; Nasrallah, Mona; Wadi, Lara; Jabbour, Mark N; Nassif, Samer

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinomas, the occurrence of collision tumors in the thyroid remains a rare event. We present the case of a 69-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of painful neck swelling. Imaging revealed a large right hemithyroid mass and a left hemithyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration of the lesions and subsequent total thyroidectomy revealed a Hürthle cell carcinoma in the right lobe and bilateral multicentric papillary carcinoma foci, including 2 foci with a classical pattern and 1 encapsulated follicular variant in the isthmus. BRAF gene mutation analysis revealed V600E gene mutation in the classical variants of papillary carcinoma and in the Hürthle cell carcinoma. The focus of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in the isthmus and a sample from normal thyroid tissue did not harbor BRAF mutations. This case is remarkable in being an unusual report of a follicular Hürthle cell carcinoma harboring the BRAF V600E mutation and occurring in collision with multifocal papillary carcinoma. Documentation of such cases is important as it helps better understand the pathogenesis, clinical behavior, and radiologic findings of such rare lesions and to determine the optimal treatment modalities. PMID:27006301

  12. Activating BRAF Mutations Detected in Mixed Hürthle Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Report of an Unusual Case and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Sara; Choucair, Mahmoud; Nasrallah, Mona; Wadi, Lara; Jabbour, Mark N; Nassif, Samer

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinomas, the occurrence of collision tumors in the thyroid remains a rare event. We present the case of a 69-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of painful neck swelling. Imaging revealed a large right hemithyroid mass and a left hemithyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration of the lesions and subsequent total thyroidectomy revealed a Hürthle cell carcinoma in the right lobe and bilateral multicentric papillary carcinoma foci, including 2 foci with a classical pattern and 1 encapsulated follicular variant in the isthmus. BRAF gene mutation analysis revealed V600E gene mutation in the classical variants of papillary carcinoma and in the Hürthle cell carcinoma. The focus of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in the isthmus and a sample from normal thyroid tissue did not harbor BRAF mutations. This case is remarkable in being an unusual report of a follicular Hürthle cell carcinoma harboring the BRAF V600E mutation and occurring in collision with multifocal papillary carcinoma. Documentation of such cases is important as it helps better understand the pathogenesis, clinical behavior, and radiologic findings of such rare lesions and to determine the optimal treatment modalities.

  13. The effect of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin alone or in combination with paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an hsp90 inhibitor, alone or in combination with paclitaxel on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) was evaluated. In 8505C and CAL62 cells, after treatment of 17-AAG, cell viability decreased, and the percentage of dead cells increased. 17-AAG did not cause cleavage of caspase-3 protein, and change expression of IAPs. Pretreatment of z-VAD-fmk did not alter cell viability and the percentage of dead cells. In 17-AAG-treated cells, knockdown of p53 rescued growth inhibition, while cycloheximide attenuated cell death. When cells were treated with both 17-AAG and paclitaxel, all of the combination index values were higher than 1, indicating antagonism between 17-AAG and paclitaxel. In 17-AAG- and paclitaxel-treated cells, compared with paclitaxel alone-treated cells, the protein levels of hsp90, hsp70, and hsc70 increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that 17-AAG induces non-apoptotic cell death requiring de novo protein synthesis in ATC cells. Moreover, these results demonstrate that 17-AAG antagonizes paclitaxel with concomitant alterations in hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. PMID:25096912

  14. Combined analysis of circulating epithelial cells and serum thyroglobulin for distinguishing disease status of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Chih; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Hsu, Hsung-Ling; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun; Chen, Yi-An; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Jen-Der

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for about 80% of the cases in thyroid cancer. Routine surveillance by serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and medical imaging is the current practice to monitor disease progression of the patients. Whether enumeration of circulating epithelial cells (CECs) helps to define disease status of PTC patients was investigated. CECs were enriched from the peripheral blood of the healthy control subjects (G1, n = 17) and the patients at disease-free status (G2, n = 26) or with distant metastasis (G3, n = 22). The number of CECs expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy analyses. The medium number of EpCAM+-CECs was 6 (interquartile range 1-11), 12 (interquartile range 7-16) and 91 (interquartile range 31-206) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. EpCAM+-CEC counts were significantly higher in G3 than in G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). The medium number of TSHR+-CECs was 9 (interquartile range 3-13), 16 (interquartile range 10-24) and 100 (interquartile range 31-226) cells/ml of blood for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The TSHR+-CEC counts also distinguished G3 from G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 (p < 0.05). With an appropriate cut off value of CEC count, the disease status for 97.9% (47/48) of the cases was clearly defined. Notably, the metastatic disease for all patients in G3 (22/22) was revealed by combined analysis of serum Tg and CEC. This study implicates that CEC testing can supplement the current standard methods for monitoring disease status of PTC. PMID:26684026

  15. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma

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    Martin Schlumberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered.

  16. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : diagnostic and therapeutic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying-ying

    2006-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has favorable prognosis with high cure rate under treatment of thyroidectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, therapeutic efficiency decreases when dedifferentiation occurs. One of the purposes in this study is to use pharmaceuticals intervention to promote t

  17. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : nuclear medicine studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Ronald B.T.

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of choice in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), subdivided into papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, is (near-)total thyroidectomy. This is routinely followed by the administration of radioiodine (RaI)-131 (131I) to destroy any remaining benign or maligna

  18. Genetic alterations in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC).It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer. PMID:22654560

  19. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and (99m)TcO4 (-) thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  20. Issues related to radioactive iodine ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma undergoing thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common malignant tumor of thyroid gland, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma and the mixed type. Treatment methods include surgery, radioactive iodine treatment and endocrine treatment, in which radioactive iodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma is an important part of the treatment or procedure. With the ongoing research and exploration of radiation treatment, the recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone assisted in radioactive iodine ablation of thyroid remnants, radioactive iodine to remove a lot of residual thyroid tissue, the radioactive iodine dose selection and other aspects of knowledge and practice are constantly updated. This paper summarizes recent progess in the radioactive iodine ablation. (authors)

  1. Nonpalpable thyroid carcinoma: clinical controversies on preoperative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Angelo; Nicolini, Andrea; Casara, Dario; Rubello, Domenico; Rosa Pelizzo, Maria

    2003-06-01

    This article emphasizes some controversies concerning the preoperative selection of nonpalpable thyroid tumors. The prevalence of occult thyroid carcinoma in surgical series (1.8-10%) is not higher than in autopsy thyroid series (2.7-24%). The prevalence of occult thyroid carcinoma in thyroid glands examined in the same institution by ultrasound, for a clinical thyroid abnormality or for investigation of other neck structures without clinically evident or suspected thyroid disease, varies from 3% to 8% and is very similar independent of the fact that a thyroid abnormality is or is not the indication for ultrasonography. These data suggest that the presence of a thyroid disease is not a risk factor for harboring an occult thyroid carcinoma (except for C-cell hyperplasia in the rare case of MEN 2 syndromes). As it is not cost effective to examine all the nonpalpable lesions with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) guided by ultrasounds, it is necessary to define to which extent ultrasound is useful in selecting those lesions to be examined cytologically by FNA. The use of ultrasound to select these lesions is very controversial. Ultrasound-guided cytologic diagnosis of nonpalpable nodules is not as accurate as in the case of palpable nodules. Sampling of material adequate for cytologic analysis depends on the lesion size; it is 64% for a 0.7-cm lesion and it increases to 86.7% for a mean size of 1.1 cm. For the diagnosis of occult thyroid carcinomas (limit for dividing thyroid nodules in probably innocuous or potentially dangerous categories and because the cytologic diagnosis of nodules of this size is sufficiently reliable. For the smaller incidentally discovered thyroid nodules following ultrasound, physicians should discuss with the patient whether and when to perform an ultrasound-guided FNA considering the patient's data (risk factors, age, health state, etc.), the natural history of a small thyroid carcinoma, as well as the accuracy of ultrasound and ultrasound

  2. The Roles of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Marker PRRX1 and miR-146b-5p in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Asioli, Sofia; Yu, Xiao-Min; Harrison, April D.; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma represents the most common thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid carcinomas that invade locally or metastasize are associated with a poor prognosis. We found that, during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), papillary thyroid carcinoma cells acquired increased cancer stem cell-like features and the transcription factor paired-related homeobox protein 1 (...

  3. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Cheek Masses

    OpenAIRE

    KIM Dong-Wook; Hah, J. Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration a...

  4. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics of human non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: characterization of eight cell line models and review of the literature on clinical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell lines are often poorly characterized from a genetic point of view, reducing their usefulness as tumor models. Our purpose was to assess the genetic background of eight commonly used human thyroid carcinoma models and to compare the findings with those reported for primary tumors of the gland. We used chromosome banding analysis and comparative genomic hybridization to profile eight non-medullary thyroid carcinoma cell lines of papillary (TPC-1, FB2, K1 and B-CPAP), follicular (XTC-1) or anaplastic origin (8505C, C643 and HTH74). To assess the representativeness of the findings, we additionally performed a thorough review of cytogenetic (n = 125) and DNA copy number information (n = 270) available in the literature on clinical samples of thyroid carcinoma. The detailed characterization of chromosomal markers specific for each cell line revealed two cases of mistaken identities: FB2 was shown to derive from TPC-1 cells, whereas K1 cells have their origin in cell line GLAG-66. All cellular models displayed genomic aberrations of varying complexity, and recurrent gains at 5p, 5q, 8q, and 20q (6/7 cell lines) and losses at 8p, 13q, 18q, and Xp (4/7 cell lines) were seen. Importantly, the genomic profiles were compatible with those of the respective primary tumors, as seen in the meta-analysis of the existing literature data. We provide the genomic background of seven independent thyroid carcinoma models representative of the clinical tumors of the corresponding histotypes, and highlight regions of recurrent aberrations that may guide future studies aimed at identifying target genes. Our findings further support the importance of routinely performing cytogenetic studies on cell lines, to detect cross-contamination mishaps such as those identified here

  5. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics of human non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: characterization of eight cell line models and review of the literature on clinical samples

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    Rocha Ana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are often poorly characterized from a genetic point of view, reducing their usefulness as tumor models. Our purpose was to assess the genetic background of eight commonly used human thyroid carcinoma models and to compare the findings with those reported for primary tumors of the gland. Methods We used chromosome banding analysis and comparative genomic hybridization to profile eight non-medullary thyroid carcinoma cell lines of papillary (TPC-1, FB2, K1 and B-CPAP, follicular (XTC-1 or anaplastic origin (8505C, C643 and HTH74. To assess the representativeness of the findings, we additionally performed a thorough review of cytogenetic (n = 125 and DNA copy number information (n = 270 available in the literature on clinical samples of thyroid carcinoma. Results The detailed characterization of chromosomal markers specific for each cell line revealed two cases of mistaken identities: FB2 was shown to derive from TPC-1 cells, whereas K1 cells have their origin in cell line GLAG-66. All cellular models displayed genomic aberrations of varying complexity, and recurrent gains at 5p, 5q, 8q, and 20q (6/7 cell lines and losses at 8p, 13q, 18q, and Xp (4/7 cell lines were seen. Importantly, the genomic profiles were compatible with those of the respective primary tumors, as seen in the meta-analysis of the existing literature data. Conclusion We provide the genomic background of seven independent thyroid carcinoma models representative of the clinical tumors of the corresponding histotypes, and highlight regions of recurrent aberrations that may guide future studies aimed at identifying target genes. Our findings further support the importance of routinely performing cytogenetic studies on cell lines, to detect cross-contamination mishaps such as those identified here.

  6. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.)

  7. Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma with papillary carcinoma of thyreoglossal duct

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    Čizmić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Simultaneous presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma in thyroidal gland with papillary carcinoma association in thyroglossal duct is quite rare. The questions like where the original site of primary process, is where metastasis is, what the cause of coexisting of these diseasesis present a diagnostic dilemma. Case report. We presented a case of a 53-year old female patient, with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and symptoms of subclinical hypothyreosis and nodal changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland, according to clinical investigation. Morphological examination of thyroidal gland, ultrasound examination and scintigraphy with technetium (Tc confirmed the existence of nonhomogenic tissue with parenchyma nodular changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland that weakly bonded Tc. Fine needle biopsy in nodal changes, with cytological analyses showed no evidence of atypical thyreocites. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the increased values of anti-microsomal antibodies, the high levels of thyreogobulin 117 ng/ml and TSH 6.29 μIU/ml. The operation near by the nodular change in the right lobe of thyroidal gland revealed pyramidal lobe spread in the thyroglossal duct. Total thyroidectomia was done with the elimination of thyroglossal duct. Final patohystological findings showed papillary carcinoma in the nodal changes pT2, N0 and in the thyroglossal duct with the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the residual parenchyme of the thyroid gland. After the surgery the whole body scintigraphy with iodine 131 (131I did not reveal accumulation of 131I in the body, while the fixation in the neck was 1%. After that, the patient was treated with thyroxin with suppressionsubstitution doses. Conclusion. Abnormality in embrional development of thyroidal tissue might be the source of thyroidal carcinoma or the way of spreading of metastasis of primary thyroidal carcinoma from thyroid

  8. Coexistence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Thyroid MALT Lymphoma in a Patient With Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Clinical Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guohua; Ji, Ting; Hu, Shuang; Liu, Bin; Kuang, Anren

    2015-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid neoplasias; however, primary thyroid gland lymphoma (PTL) is uncommon and their simultaneous occurrence is very rare.Herein, we reported a 25-year-old female patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), who developed a small goiter with a palpable 1.2-cm nodule in the right lobe. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy revealed atypical follicular epithelial cells and lymphoid cells in a background of lymphocytic thyroiditis. A total thyroidectomy was performed. The pathology showed multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma, concomitant thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy and radioactive iodine ablation treatment. Nowadays the thyroglobulin of the patient is undetectable, without recurrences at 2 years of follow-up.It is concluded that the PTC and MALT lymphoma can exist concomitantly, especially in patients with HT. For the diagnostic workup and optional management of this rare coexistence, a multidisciplinary approach and close surveillance are needed.

  9. The effects of human TSH receptor gene transfection on iodide uptake and thyroid-specific gene expression in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of iodide uptake and the expression of thyroid-specific genes in poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) cells after transfection of human TSH receptor (hTSHR) gene in vitro. Methods: The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid PcDNA3.1/hTSHR-cDNA was transformed into DH5a bacterial for amplification and then the recombinant plasmid was extracted. The recombinant was identified with PCR amplifying, restriction enzyme digestion analysis and DNA sequencing. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/hTSHR was transfected into FTC-133 cell line by lipofectin method in vitro. Immunofluorescence, iodide uptake studies and real time-PCR were applied to detect target protein expression. Statistical analysis was performed with t-test using SPSS 13.0 software. Results: Kpn I and Xba I restriction enzyme digestion, PCR amplifying and DNA sequencing confirmed that pcDNA3.1/hTSHR was successfully constructed. After transfection of the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/hTSHR-cDNA and the stimulation of hTSH, the tumor cells displayed the expression of hTSHR protein at cell surface and cytoplasm. The iodine uptake in pcDNA3.1/hTSHR transfected cells was 2.9 times higher than that of control(pcDNA3.1(+) transfected cells) group(t = 28.63, P<0.01). The expression of TSHR, NIS, TPO and Tg (mRNA levels) in pcDNA3.1/hTSHR transfected cells were also significantly elevated by 1.74 (t =5.959, P<0.01), 7.2 (t =3.807, P<0.05), 2.88 (t=4.769, P<0.01) and 2.67 times (t=6.388, P<0.01) respectively compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that iodide uptake may be reactivated by hTSHR receptor gene transfection in poorly differentiated FTC cell. (authors)

  10. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : treatment and clinical consequences of therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoftijzer, Hendrieke Catherijn

    2011-01-01

    The first chapters of this thesis describe the treatment of radioiodine non-avid thyroid carcinoma with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib. The remainder of the thesis describes the clinical consequences of the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

  11. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial– mesenchymal transition. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (P<0.0001) and all showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for CDH1 (P=0.026). Expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 mRNA varied in a normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and

  12. Treatment and outcome of 32 patients with distant metastases of Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma: a single-institution experience

    OpenAIRE

    Besic, Nikola; Schwarzbartl-Pevec, Andreja; Vidergar-Kralj, Barbara; Crnic, Tea; Gazic, Barbara; Marolt Music, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that patients with Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) have a poor prognosis. Furthermore, distant metastases represent the most frequent cause of thyroid cancer-related death of patients with HCTC. The aim of this study was to report the treatment and outcomes of patients with distant metastases. Methods Altogether 108 patients were treated for HCTC from 1972 to 2011 in our tertiary center and 32 patients (19 females, 13 males; median age 64.5 years) had...

  13. Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a neck branchial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Fiore Agnese

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid gland derives from one median anlage at the base of the tongue, and from the two fourth branchial pouches. A number of anomalies may occur during their migration. These can be in form of ectopic tissues, which are frequently found along the course of thyroglossal duct and rarely in other sites, many of these may develop same diseases as the thyroid gland. Case presentation A 36-years-old female presented with a 3 month history of left side neck mass. The mass disappeared following aspiration of brown colored fluid, which on cytological examination showed cells with nuclear irregularities that warranted the resection of the lesion. The histology demonstrated a thyroid papillary carcinoma arising within the branchial cyst. Thereafter, the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with central lymph nodes dissection. Histology showed a multifocal papillary carcinoma with central lymph nodes metastases. Only four cases of primary thyroid carcinomas in neck branchial cyst have been described so far. Conclusion In a lateral cystic neck mass, although rare, occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue and presence of a papillary thyroid carcinoma should be kept in mind.

  14. cAMP-synthesis in a medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line: response to adrenergic agents and prostaglandines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, P R; Goretzki, P E; Keck, E

    1999-01-01

    Calcitonin secretion by C-cells is mediated through intracellular 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcium signaling. Calcitonin release stimulation tests may take advantage of both signaling cascades in screening for medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). To elucidate the regulation of the adenylyl cyclase system we have determined cAMP levels of a calcitonin-expressing MTC cell line (RG) after exposure to adrenergic agents and prostaglandines. In early passages (20-30) cAMP concentrations were significantly elevated in RG cells after exposure to beta-adrenergic agents and prostaglandines E1 and E2. In advanced passages (60-80) the beta-adrenergic response was no longer detectable and adrenergic receptors were uncoupled from the adenylyl cyclase complex; while the effect of prostaglandines E1 and E2 remained unaffected. Preincubation with dexamethasone, in a process requiring protein new synthesis, re-established the adrenergic response in later passages, indicating that RG cells dedifferentiated in culture over time. Our in vitro findings suggest that MTC cell dedifferentiation may be accompanied by adrenergic receptor-uncoupling from the adenylate cyclase system and that this process may be reversed by dexamethasone incubation.

  15. Mixed Medullary-Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid

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    Maasumeh Tohidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon tumor that consists of both follicular and parafollicular cells. Case. We report a 43-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration suggested a diagnosis of high grade anaplastic carcinoma that has been associated with papillary features. Total thyroidectomy was done in which histopathological examination showed diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for chromogranin, calcitonin, and thyroglobulin in tumoral cells. Conclusion. Mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor. Diagnosis of these tumors with fine needle aspiration is very difficult and may lead to misdiagnosis. It is necessary to correlate the cytological finding with serum calcitonin and thyroglobulin. Also immunostaining for calcitonin and thyroglobulin confirms diagnosis.

  16. miR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun, E-mail: mjgugonglihos@yeah.net

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC. - Highlights: • miR-204-5p expression is downregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. • miR-204-5p suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in PTC cells. • miR-204-5p suppresses IGFBP5 expression by direct binding to the 3′-UTR. • IGFBP5 overexpression reverses the effects of miR-204-5p.

  17. miR-4295 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma via CDKN1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Mingchen; Geng, Yiwei [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, Peng [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Xi, Ying [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Wei, Sidong [Liver Transplantation Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Liuxing; Fan, Qingxia [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Ma, Wang, E-mail: doctormawang@126.com [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-4295 promotes ATC cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene CDKN1A. In ATC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-4295, while miR-4295 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-4295 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of ATC cells, whereas miR-4295 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-4295 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of CDKN1A, and western blotting showed that miR-4295 suppressed the expression of CDKN1A at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A and promotes proliferation and invasion of ATC cell lines. Thus, miR-4295 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ATC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-4295 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 targets 3′UTR of CDKN1A in ATC cells. • miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A in ATC cells.

  18. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ria, Roberto; Simeon, Vittorio; Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-05-17

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches.This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications.

  19. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Malignancies of the Thyroid and in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max; Thomassen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG-PET......-PET/CT in malignancies of the thyroid gland and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma....

  20. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on sodium/iodide symporter expression, radioiodine uptake and gene expression profiles in a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwanjeong [Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jellabuk-do 570-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Ri [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Nam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jae-Gol [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June-Key [Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-774 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Meyoung-Kon [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jerrykim@korea.ac.kr

    2006-10-15

    The plasma membrane glycoprotein sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is crucial for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and mediates the iodide uptake of thyrocytes. It has been shown that retinoic acid (RA) alters NIS gene expression in thyroid carcinoma lines and stimulates their iodide uptake. Here, we generated an ARO human thyroidal cancer cell line that expresses the NIS gene (ARO-NIS) and found that its baseline {sup 125}I uptake was threefold higher than that of its parental ARO cells. However, a 1-{mu}M all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) treatment significantly increased this {sup 125}I uptake up to approximately {approx}6.5-fold on Day 3. tRA also elevated NIS mRNA expression in ARO-NIS cells, with peaks of expression being observed on Day 3. To investigate the underlying genomic mechanisms involved in these tRA-induced phenotypic changes, we subjected tRA-treated and untreated ARO-NIS cells to cDNA microarray analysis. Of 1152, genes spotted onto the microarray membrane, 18 were up-regulated (z ratio>2.0) and 33 were down-regulated (z ratio<-2.0) in ARO-NIS cells after 3 days of tRA treatment. More specifically, tRA increased the expression of BCL3, CSRP3, v-fos, and CDK5 genes and decreased the expression of the FGF12 and IGFBP6 genes. Thus, tRA treatment of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells stably expressing the NIS gene significantly elevates their NIS-mediated radioiodine uptake and alters the expression of many genes involved in cell growth and cellular differentiation. Therefore, tRA treatment and NIS gene transfection are potential tools for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.

  1. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  2. MiR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC.

  3. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

  4. Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Kim, Youn Wha

    2010-12-01

    Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) has been implicated in several fundamental signal transduction pathways that control cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. RKIP is reduced in a variety of human carcinomas, but RKIP expression in thyroid carcinomas has not been analyzed at the protein level. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of RKIP in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Immunostaining for RKIP was performed on 104 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma (40 papillary, 29 follicular, 11 medullary, 11 poorly differentiated, and 13 anaplastic carcinomas) and 26 cases of nodal metastatic tumor (17 papillary, 4 medullary, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas). Normal thyroid tissue and all cases of follicular, papillary, and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for RKIP. With the exception of one case, poorly differentiated carcinomas also revealed strong RKIP expression. In contrast, RKIP expression was completely absent in all anaplastic carcinomas. The transition zone from the differentiated carcinoma component (strong RKIP expression) to the anaplastic carcinoma component (no RKIP expression) demonstrated a completely opposite pattern of RKIP immunoreactivity. This reduction of RKIP expression in anaplastic carcinoma was statistically significant (P carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic RKIP immunoreactivity, in contrast, in metastatic anaplastic carcinomas, RKIP expression was completely absent. RKIP expression is significantly reduced in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as compared to other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of RKIP action in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the mandibule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdag, T; Bilgen, C; Ceryan, K

    1999-01-01

    A case of metastatic papillary carcinoma to the mandible is presented. Though relatively rare, metastatic tumours of the mandible should be included in the differential diagnosis of the tumours in the parotid region. For the primary site; being in the cervicofacial region, the thyroid gland must be considered by the head and neck surgeon.

  6. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  7. Immunocytochemical localization and identification of members of the pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-fold family in human thyroid C cells and medullary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopsi, L; Pilotti, S; Rilke, F

    1990-09-10

    An increasing number of regulatory peptides not coded by the calcitonin genes are known to occur in the thyroid C cells. We have now carried out light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical analyses on specimens of normal human thyroids and medullary carcinomas to establish the occurrence of members of the PP-PYY-NPY family in the C cell system. By means of site-directed immunocytochemistry we provide the first evidence that a molecule closely related to proNPY is present in normal and pathologic C cells, and is co-stored with calcitonin in the cytoplasmic dense-core granules. Preliminary observations also suggest that high levels of expression of NPY-gene products help to define a subset of tumours with a less aggressive behaviour.

  8. CT features of small thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the CT findings of small thyroid carcinoma. Methods: The CT findings of 40 patients with histology-proven small thyroid carcinoma (diameter, 1.0 to 2.0 cm) were retrospectively reviewed. Results: (1) The single lesion was detected in 38 cases and two lesions in bilateral thyroid in 2 cases. Two cases were combined with contralateral nodular goiter and 1 case with contralateral thyroid adenoma. (2) Eight lesions showed smooth edge and complete envelope. Thirty-four lesions demonstrated foggy edge and incomplete envelope, but they didn't invade the surrounding soft tissues and important organs. (3) The density of' all lesions were homogeneous or comparatively homogeneous without obvious hemorrhage or necrosis area on non-enhanced CT. Thirty lesions showed varied shape calcifications, with granular calcifications in 20 lesions being the most common. Irregular nodular, eggshell-like or mulberry-like calcifications were also detected. (4) Forty-one lesions showed marked enhancement on post-contrast CT and the amplitude of enhanced CT value was greater than 40 HU (range, 90 to 140 HU). Thirty-eight lesions exhibited homogeneous enhancement, and other 3 lesions showed marked enhancement center with a ring-like low density edge and manifested as a characteristic damascene-like appearance. (5) Enlarged cervical lymph nodes were found in 24 cases (60.0%), which displayed solid, cystic-solid or cystic appearances on non- enhanced CT. They showed markedly homogeneous, irregular ring or wall-node enhancement on post-contrast CT. In 8 cases there were granular, nodular or eggshell-like calcifications within the enlarged lymph nodes. Conclusion: A solid thyroid nodule with granular calcification, incomplete envelope and marked enhancement, accompanied with enlarged lymph nodes with calcification, cystic degeneration and obviously enhanced solid part are the relatively characteristic CT features of small thyroid carcinoma. (authors)

  9. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliaperoumal Santhosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the oral region is very rare and accounts for less than 1% of oral malignant tumors. Breast, lung, kidney, adrenal, gastro intestinal tract and prostates are most common primary tumors from which metastasis to oral region occur frequently. Metastasis from thyroid gland is extremely rare to oral region. We present an unusual case of metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla. The significance of this report is that the secondary lesion was the only symptom of the primary tumor and helped us in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  10. Post surgical management protocol for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The objectives of a management protocol for thyroid carcinoma are to increase five and 10 year survival rate and to give the patients a long uncomplicated life. Certain prognostic factors determine the outcome of the disease. These factors generally help in selection of high risk group that require more aggressive treatment and follow up from the low risk group that are managed in a more conservative way. The different factors that determine prognosis are: the age of the patient, gender, tumour size, presence of extra thyroid extension, distant metastasis, histologic grading of the tumor, tumor staging, family history and oncogenicity, time of treatment after initial diagnosis etc. (Author)

  11. Efficacy of lentiviral-mediated transfection of hTSHR in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Dedifferentiated thyroid cancer is often incurable because it does not respond to radioiodine. This study aimed to investigate iodide uptake and the expressions of thyroid-specific molecules after the transfection of human thyrotropin receptor (hTSHR) gene in poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancer cell line (FTC-133). Methods: pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP-lentivirus and pGC-FU-GFP-lentivirus were added into FTC-133 cells respectively. The parental cells were defined as the blank group. Cells transduced with pGC-FU-GFP and pGC-FU-hTSHR-GFP were defined as the control group and experimental group respectively. The efficiency of transfection was observed under a fluorescence microscope. 125I uptake by FTC-133 was analyzed by measuring the radioactivity. Real time-PCR, western blotting and radioimmunoassay were applied to detect the expressions of mRNAs and proteins of Na+/I− symporter (NIS), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in FTC-133. Results: The green fluorescence was present in 80% of the transduced cells under fluorescence microscope. The iodine uptake of cells transduced with pGC-FU-TSHR-GFP was 3.3 times higher than that in the other two groups (P < 0.01). NIS, TSHR, TPO and Tg had been significantly up-regulated in the experimental group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01) and the blank group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The hTSHR transfection in FTC-133 improved the expression of thyroid-specific molecules including TSHR, NIS, TPO and Tg and radioiodide uptake

  12. Invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma infiltrating trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although follicular thyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, up to 20% of the patients are threatened by potential complications resulting from infiltrating tumor growth into surrounding tissues. Case report. A 66- year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic examination showed a 8 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a cold nodule. CT scan and tracheoscopy showed tracheal infiltration without tracheal obstruction. An extended total thyroidectomy was done, with the left jugular vein, strap muscles and tracheal 2 cm long circular resection. The pathologist confirmed invasive follicular thyroid cancer. After the surgery the patient was treated with radioiodine therapy and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of the thyroid hormone and serum thyroglobulin level every six months, as well as the further tests (chest xray, ultrasound of the neck and a whole body scintigraphy were done. After more than three years the patient had no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of the tracheal infiltrating thyroid cancer with circular tracheal resection and terminoterminal anastomosis followed by radioiodine therapy should be considered the treatment of choice.

  13. Cribriform-Morular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar AKKAYA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This subtype is commonly reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, cases not associated with polyposis have also been reported. The differential diagnosis of this entity from other aggressive thyroid neoplasms is important. A 29-year old man presented with a solitary mass in the left thyroid lobe underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. After diagnosis, colonoscopy revealed a normal colon without polyposis. Herein, we report a case not associated with polyposis and discuss with the literature.

  14. Microvessel Density in Thyroid Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Gang(薛刚); YAO Zhenxiang(姚榛祥)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between angiogenesis and development, metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Methods:48 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 5 cases of thyroid adenoma were studied.Density of microvessels of the tumors were identified by immunohistochemical staining in formalin -fixed and paraffin-embedded sections with anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody, and counted microscopically (×200).Results :The mean value of MVD in tumors>2cm in diameter was (174.92±72.63)/field, while that in tumors≤2cm was ( 117.40± 39.95)/field ( t = 3.3298, P = 0.0026).The number of microvessels was also significantly different in respect to the histotype of the thyroid carcinomas, such as papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma(FTC)and medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC) ( F = 14. 95, P = 0. 0001), but not significantly different in respect to patients'age nor sex ( P>0.05). Conclusions:By studying microvessel density (MVD) of thyroid arcinomas and correlated with their clinical features and biological behaviors, it is concluded that ngiogenesis is important in tumor growth and metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinomas. Measures to combat angiogenesis may be beneficial in the treatment for thyroid carcinomas.

  15. Does radioiodine therapy have disadvantageous effects in non-iodine accumulating differentiated thyroid carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, J; Eustatia-Rutten, CFA; Stokkel, M; Links, TP; Diamant, M; Romijn, JA; Smit, JWA; van der Velde, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma without radioiodine accumulation has not been considered harmful, increased thyrotrophin levels during thyroxine withdrawal without the benefit of radiotoxicity as well as the selection of de-differentiated cells may have di

  16. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...... in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent...

  17. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease

  18. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  19. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  20. The Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Larrain, Carolina; Buehler, Darya; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer progression may provide targets for more effective treatment of aggressive thyroid cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major pathologic mechanism in tumor progression and is linked to the acquisition of stem-like properties of cancer cells. We examined expression of ZEB1 which activates EMT by binding to the E-box elements in the E-cadherin promoter, and expression of E-cadherin in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues in a tissue microarray (TMA) which included 127 neoplasms and 10 normal thyroid specimens. Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA, n=32), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC, n=28), and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC, n=57) all expressed E-cadherin and were mostly negative for ZEB1 while most anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC, n=10) were negative for E-cadherin, but positive for ZEB1. A validation set of 10 whole sections of ATCs showed 90% of cases positive for ZEB1 and all cases were negative for E-cadherin. Analysis of three cell lines (normal thyroid, NTHY-OR13-1; PTC, TPC-1 and ATC, THJ-21T) showed that the ATC cell line expressed the highest levels of ZEB1 while the normal thyroid cell line expressed the highest levels of E-Cadherin. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that Smad7 mRNA was significantly higher in ATC than in any other group (p<0.05). These results indicate that ATCs show evidence of EMT including decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of ZEB1 compared to well differentiated thyroid carcinomas and that increased expression of Smad7 may be associated with thyroid tumor progression. PMID:24126800

  1. Misdiagnosed ectopic thyroid carcinoma:report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌玲; 周水洪; 汪审清; 王丽君

    2004-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is a congenital disease caused by abnormal migration of thyroid in the embryonic stage. Malignant ectopic thyroid tissue is often misdiagnosed as a cyst of the thyroglossal duct. We treated 2 patients with papillary carcinoma in the anterior midline of the neck from May 1985 to Detober 2002.

  2. Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. McDonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whether or not the familial form of papillary thyroid carcinoma is more aggressive than the sporadic form of the disease remains controversial. Methods. To explore this question and whether or not increased aggressiveness is more apparent in families with multiple affected members, we performed a chi square by trend analysis on our patients clinical and pathologic data comparing: first degree families with three or more affected members versus first degree families with two affected members versus sporadic cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results. No statistically significant trends were seen for any presenting surgical pathology parameter, age at presentation, length of follow-up or gender distribution. The familial groups exhibited significant trends for higher rates of reoperation (P=0.05 and/or requiring additional radioactive iodine therapy (P=0.03, distant metastases (P=0.003 and deaths (P=0.01. These aggressive features were most apparent in certain families with three or more affected members. Conclusions. Using the chi square by trend analysis, a significant trend was seen for the familial form of papillary thyroid cancer to possess more aggressive features than the sporadic disease. Prompt recognition of the familial nature of the disease may provide earlier diagnosis and treatment in similarly affected family members.

  3. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi Atmaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs also within Graves′ thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves′ disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  4. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Kim, Dong Wook [Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Masan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    Diffuse sclerosing papillary carcinoma (DSPC) is a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but it shows more aggressive clinical course and a poorer prognosis than the other types of PTC. Most PTCs show a focal nodular pattern in the thyroid on the imaging modalities, but DSPC reveals a diffuse infiltrating configuration in the thyroid without any focal nodular lesion. To our knowledge, there are scant radiological reports of diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this report, we present the case of a patient with DSPC who showed the characteristic findings on sonography and computed tomography.

  5. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  6. The management of thyroid carcinoma invading the larynx or trachea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, J.; Stephen, A.E.; Marres, H.A.M.; Gaissert, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To describe the controversies in the management of thyroid carcinoma invading the airway. STUDY DESIGN: Contemporary review of literature; level of evidence: 5. RESULTS: Invasion of the larynx or trachea by thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and often identified at the time of oper

  7. Clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma(FNMTC).Methods Clinical data of 66 FNMTC cases of 32pedigrees was retrospectively analyzed,compared with that of 182 control cases taken randomly from the patients with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma(SPTC),who

  8. OCTREOTIDE FOR MEDULLARY-THYROID CARCINOMA ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMID, WM; DULLAART, RPF

    1992-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma associated diarrhoea can be disabling. A 75-yr-old man with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and refractory diarrhoea is described. Subcutaneous administration of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, 100-mu-g thrice daily, resulted in a sustained improvement in di

  9. Targeted therapy: a new hope for thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Francesco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Lastoria, Secondo; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Caponigro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid carcinomas are rare and heterogeneous diseases representing less than 1% of all malignancies. The majority of thyroid carcinomas are differentiated entities (papillary and folliculary carcinomas) and are characterized by good prognosis and good response to surgery and radioiodine therapy. Nevertheless, about 10% of differentiated carcinomas recur and become resistant to all therapies. Anaplastic and medullary cancers are rare subtypes of thyroid cancer not suitable for radioiodine therapy. A small percentage of differentiated and all the anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas often recur after primary treatments and are no longer suitable for other therapies. In the last years, several advances have been made in the field of molecular biology and tumorigenesis mechanisms of thyroid carcinomas. Starting from these issues, the targeted therapy may be employed as a new option. The MAP-Kinase pathway has been found often dysregulated in thyroid carcinomas and several upstream signals have been recognized as responsible for this feature. RET/PTC mutations are often discovered both in papillary and in medullary carcinomas, while B-RAF mutation is typical of papillary and anaplastic histologies. Also mTOR disruptions and VEGFR pathway disruption are common features in all advanced thyroid cancers. Some angiogenesis inhibitors and a number of RET/PTC pathway blocking agents are yet present in the clinical armamentarium. Vandetanib, cabozatinib and sorafenib have reached clinical use. A number of other biological compounds have been tested in phase II and III trials. Understanding the biology of thyroid cancers may help us to design a well shaped targeted therapy.

  10. The Immune Interplay between Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Muhanna

    Full Text Available A high prevalence of thyroid papillary cancer was reported in hepatitis-C-virus (HCV positive patients. However, the mechanistic role of hepatic-fibrosis in thyroid malignancy progressions is still unclear.We aimed to study the immune-modulatory interactions between thyroid papillary carcinoma and hepatic-fibrosis.Hepatic-fibrosis was induced in nude-nu-male mice by intra-peritoneal administration of carbon-tetrachloride. To induce thyroid-tumor, a thyroid papillary carcinoma cell line (NPA was injected subcutaneously in the backs. Fibrotic profile was estimated by α-smooth-muscle-actin (αSMA expression in liver tissue extracts using western-blots and RT-PCR. Intra-hepatic NK cells were isolated and stained for NK activity (CD107a by flow cytometry. Liver histopathology (H&E staining, thyroid tumor mass and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and free-T4 levels were also assessed.Ex-vivo: NPA cells were co-cultured with intra-hepatic NK cells isolated from fibrotic mice with/without the tumor were analyzed for CFSE-proliferations. Both tumor groups (with/without hepatic-fibrosis excreted higher serum free T4 levels. Hepatic-fibrosis increased tumor weight and size and serum free-T4 levels. In addition, tumor induction increased liver injury (both hepatic-fibrosis, necro-inflammation and serum ALT levels. In addition, tumor-bearing animals with hepatic-fibrosis had increased NK activity. NPA tumor-bearing animals increased fibrosis in spite of increased NK activity; probably due to a direct effect through increased serum free-T4 excretions. Serum VEGF levels were significantly increased in the fibrotic- bearing tumor groups compared to the non-fibrotic groups. In-vitro, NK cells from fibrotic tumor-bearing animals reduced proliferation of NPA cells. This decrease is attributed to increase NK cells activity in the fibrotic animals with the NPA tumors.Our results propose that NK cells although were

  11. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: Debate at rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Sonkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is the most common well-differentiated cancer of the thyroid and is one of the fastest growing group of cancers probably because of the increased use of ultrasound (HRUSG in the evaluation of the thyroid in recent years. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE and OVID database search was performed to collect information on papillary thyroid carcinoma. Recently published consensus guidelines were also used as an additional resource. Conclusions: The controversy regarding the extent of thyroidectomy in patients of PTC is relatively settled, with total thyoidectomy being the preferred approach with nodules> 1.5 cm in size. Lymph node (LN metastases do not seem to affect the overall survival, but they do increase the recurrence rate. It is worthwhile to offer LN dissection at initial surgery if LNs are ultrasonologically diagnosed to harbor malignancy. In experts hands, the rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism is negligible in a neck dissection in initial surgery and remains negligible if carried out in a redo or completion scenario.

  12. Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwudi Onyeaghana Okani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not common. This case study reports a 50-year-old female with a 10-year history of a huge goiter, which was essentially symptom-free until about 3 months prior to presentation when the patient started complaining of neck pain, dysphagia, productive cough, and cold intolerance. Physical examination revealed focal cystic and tender area in the multinodular swelling and associated cervical lymphadenopathy on the left side of the neck. The serum thyroid stimulating hormone was high, sub-normal T3, and the T4 was low. The fine needle aspiration cytology yielded 10 ml of aspirate of pus admixed with altered blood which on microscopy showed a few suspicious follicular epithelial cells with open nuclei admixed with mainly neutrophil polymorphs, siderophages, and foam cells in a hemorrhagic background. The patient had an incision biopsy that showed areas displaying PTC and HT.

  13. Soft tissue invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is common and clinical presentation can vary from minimal to extensive locoregional involvement. Although PTC is generally considered the most benign among all thyroid carcinomas, it may present with local invasion with poor prognosis. Our retrospective study involved 3267 PTC patients undergoing regular follow-up at Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan. Among them, 269 were PTC cases with ETE, having tumors greater than 1 cm in size and treated with total or complete thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection for which the follow-up period was over 10 years. The mean age of 269 cases was 46.8 ± 15.1 (range 11-83 years) years. The number of females was 204 (75.8 %). Patients were categorized into minimal ETE (175 cases) and extensive ETE (94 cases) groups according to surgical findings and pathological reports. Mean follow-up period was 13.3 ± 5.5 (range 0.2-29.3) years, during which 28 (10.4 %) patients died of thyroid cancer; and 63 (23.4 %) of all-cause mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that age, gender, extensive ETE, and lymph node metastasis had a statistically significant effect on thyroid cancer mortality. Survival rates were significantly different between minimal ETE and extensive ETE groups (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, perithyroidal soft tissue involvement by PTC is an important factor that determines patient prognosis and a closer follow-up and more aggressive treatment is necessary for patients who are old, male, extensive ETE, and with lymph node involvement. PMID:27154220

  14. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  15. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome.

  16. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  17. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  18. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  19. Ultrasonographic Findings of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Comparison with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, Bum Soo; Jung, So Lyung [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as compared to findings for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 21 cases of MTC that were surgically diagnosed between 2002 and 2007 and 114 cases of PTC that were diagnosed in 2007. Two radiologists reached a consensus in the evaluation of the US findings. The US findings were classified as recommended by the Thyroid Study Group of the Korean Society of Neuroradiology and Head and Neck Radiology (KSNHNR) and each nodule was identified as suspicious malignant, indeterminate or probably benign. The findings of medullary and papillary carcinomas were compared with use of the chi-squared test. The common US findings for MTCs were solid internal content (91%), an ovoid to round shape (57%), marked hypoechogenicity (52%) and calcifications (52%). Among the 21 cases of MTC nodules, 17 (81%) were classified as suspicious malignant nodules. The mean size (longest diameter) of MTC nodules was 19 {+-}13.9 mm and the mean size (longest diameter) of PTC nodules was 11 {+-} 7.4 mm; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). An ovoid to round shape was more prevalent for MTC lesions than for PTC lesions (p < 0.05). The US criteria for suspicious malignant nodules as recommended by the Thyroid Study Group of the KSNHNR correspond to most MTC cases. The US findings for MTC are not greatly different from PTC except for the prevalence of an ovoid to round shape.

  20. In vitro culture of human thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for establishing primary cultures of human thyroid tissue are described. Tissues removed surgically from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC), follicular adenoma (FA), or hyperthyroidism were grown in culture. In addition, normal cells were separated from the margins of excised tumors and were also cultured. For each gram of thyroid tissue cultured, more than 1 x 105 cells attached to culture dishes. A mixture of 2.5 % fetal bovine serum supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, transferrin, glycl-1-histidyl-L-lysine acetate, somatostatin and epidermal growth factor was added to nutrient media containing equal parts of Ham's F-12 and minimum essential medium (αMEM). Complete medium selectively supported epithelial cell growth while restricting fibroblast cell growth, especially during the first two weeks of the primary culture. Cells were stimulated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and produced raised levels of cAMP and thyroid hormone (T3). Culture conditions that affected the response of cells to X-rays were identified. During the culture period, first and second passage cells were compared for differences in their radiosensitivities. In all cases, cells showed differences in their responses to radiation depending on the cell passage number. However, results of replicate experiments of first passage cells that were exposed to X-rays showed good agreement between experiments. This technique makes it possible to quantitate the effects of chemical and physical cytotoxic agents on proliferating human thyroid epithelial cells. (author)

  1. Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwudi Onyeaghana Okani; Benjamin Otene; Terhemba Nyaga; Joseph Ngbea; Agaba Eke; Felix Edegbe; Daniel Anyiam

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not...

  2. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  3. Warthin-Like Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Paliogiannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18 mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymph node involvement was made. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and central neck lymphadenectomy without complications. Histopathological examination suggested a Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, with all the removed lymph nodes being free of disease. The patient subsequently underwent iodine ablative therapy and she remains free of disease one year after surgery. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is a recently described variant of papillary thyroid cancer that is frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morphologically, it resembles Warthin tumors of the salivary glands, with T and B lymphocytes infiltrating the stalks of papillae lined with oncocytic cells. Surgical and postoperative management is identical to that of classic differentiated thyroid cancer, while prognosis seems to be favourable.

  4. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: outcome and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid has been described as a rapidly progressive disease. We assessed the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma at our institution. Materials and Methods: Between 1975 and 1995, 37 patients were seen and treated at our institution with pathologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Patients ranged in age from 49 to 97 years old (median 73 years) and females were represented in a 2:1 ratio. Many patients had history of prior benign thyroid disease (17) or low grade malignancy (6). Other medical illnesses were frequently present in these patients, including 5 with diabetes, 1 scleroderma, 1 sarcoidosis and 1 polycythemia vera. 12 patients had metastatic disease at presentation. 26 patients had locally advanced (T4) disease. The time from diagnosis to treatment was never longer than 1 month. Management was most often with biopsy only (22 patients) and local irradiation (34 patients, median dose 52.5 Gy). 15 patients had primary surgical resection, one of which had negative surgical margins. 11 patients received chemotherapy, 9 with Adriamycin-based regimens. Follow-up ranged from 4 months to 11 years, with a mean of 11 months. Results: 26 patients had a local response, either partial or complete, to their treatment regimen. However, systemic disease was an important cause of failure. 9 patients (24%) survived at least one year from diagnosis; 3 (8%) survived beyond two years. The development of metastases occurred quickly in originally localized disease, at a median of 2 months. Metastases occurred most commonly in the lung (11 of 14 cases), but also occured in brain (2), liver (1), bone (1) and pericardium (1). Performance status, sex, metastatic disease, hyperfractionation, treatment modalities, RT dose, age and response to treatment were assessed as prognostic factors for survival. On univariate analysis, age over 70 (p=.004) and failure to attain a complete response to

  5. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor SNX5422 has a synergistic activity with histone deacetylase inhibitors in induction of death of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitor SNX5422 alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors PXD101, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and trichostatin A (TSA) on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells was investigated. In 8505C and CAL62 cells, SNX5422 caused cell death with concomitant changes in the expression of hsp90 client proteins. After treatment of both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with treatment of SNX5422 alone, cell viability was diminished, whereas inhibition rate and cytotoxic activity were enhanced. All of the combination index values were lower than 1.0, suggesting the synergism between SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA in induction of cell death. In cells treated with both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with cells treated with SNX5422 alone, the protein levels of Akt, phospho-4EBP1, phospho-S6 K, and survivin were diminished, while those of γH2AX, acetyl. histone H3, acetyl. histone H4, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3 were enhanced. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SNX5422 has a cytotoxic activity in conjunction with alterations in the expression of hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. Moreover, SNX5422 synergizes with HDAC inhibitors in induction of cytotoxicity accompanied by the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and survivin, and the overexpression of DNA damage-related proteins in ATC cells. PMID:26219406

  6. RAS AND p53 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN THYROID CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible interaction between the ras and p53 genes over-expression in thyroid carcinoma, and whether there is a correlation between the ras and p53 over-expression and clinicopathological criteria. Methods: Eighty patients with thyroid lesions were examined for expression of ras and p53 genes by the labeled streptavidin biotin peroxidase (LSAB) method. Of these patients, 54 were diagnosed (average age: 39.9± 15.9 years) with malignant lesions. Of those included in the study, 31 has papillary carcinoma, 13 had follicular carcinoma, 7 had medullary carcinoma, 3 had undifferentiated carcinoma and 19 were stratified to stage I, 28 to stage II, 2 to stage III and 5 to stage IV according to TNM staging system. Twenty-six benign nodular thyroid disorders were studied as control. Results: Positive immunostain results for ras and p53 genes were statistically significant between thyroid carcinomas and benign disorders (90.7% vs 23%, 55.5% vs 30.7%, P<0.05). Both p53 and ras overexpressions coexisted in 30 thyroid carcinomas, and of these, 3 died and 5 had recurrences within 4 years. Conclusions: Activation of ras gene and inactivation of p53 gene were cooperatively associated in thyroid tumorigenesis. The concurrent overexpressions of ras and p53 could result in a poor prognosis.

  7. THE ASSOCIATION OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID-CARCINOMA WITH INSULAR OR ANAPLASTIC THYROID-CARCINOMA - EVIDENCE FOR DEDIFFERENTIATION IN TUMOR PROGRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Bernard F.A.M.; FREEMAN, JL; TSANG, RW; ASA, SL

    1993-01-01

    The sequence of tumorigenesis in the thyroid is unclear. It has been proposed that anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid develop by dedifferentiation in pre-existing differentiated carcinomas. We reviewed all anaplastic and insular (poorly differentiated) thyroid carcinomas in a consultation practice

  8. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R. N.; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D. V.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1)...

  9. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of thyroid - a mimicker of medullary carcinoma at fine needle aspiration cytology: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of extra medullary plasmacytoma (EMP of thyroid gland in a 60 year old male, occurring against a background of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis is reported. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC initially done as an outpatient procedure, showed atypical epithelial cells on a background of amyloid. Considering these findings we gave a diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. Histology of the total thyroidectomy specimen showed an extensive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells against a background of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, with a bizarre Hurthle cell change. Immunohistochemistry on the histology sections confirmed the diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma of thyroid against a background of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis.

  10. Interleukin-1beta can mediate growth arrest and differentiation via the leukemia inhibitory factor/JAK/STAT pathway in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-In; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2005-02-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can induce several cellular signal transduction pathways. Here, we show that IL-1beta can induce cell cycle arrest and differentiation in the human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line, TT. IL-1beta induces cell cycle arrest accompanied by morphological changes and expression of the neuroendocrine marker calcitonin. These changes are blocked by the MEK1/2 specific inhibitor U0126, indicating that MEK1/2 is essential for IL-1beta signaling in TT cells. IL-1beta induces expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and activation of STAT3 via the MEK/ERK pathway. This activation of STAT3 could be abrogated by treatment with anti-LIF neutralizing antibody or anti-gp130 blocking antibody, indicating that induction of LIF expression is sufficient and essential for STAT3 activation by IL-1beta. In addition to activation of the LIF/JAK/STAT pathway, IL-1beta also induced an MEK/ERK-mediated intracellular cell-autonomous signaling pathway that is independently sufficient for growth arrest and differentiation. Thus, IL-1beta activates the MEK/ERK pathway to induce growth arrest and differentiation in MTC cells via dual independent signaling mechanisms, the cell-extrinsic LIF/JAK/STAT pathway, and the cell-intrinsic autonomous signaling pathway.

  11. Role of receptor activity modifying protein 1 in function of the calcium sensing receptor in the human TT thyroid carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Desai

    Full Text Available The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+ and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs, specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has

  12. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler; Parangi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient m...

  13. Upregulation of glucosylceramide synthase protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; SONG Ying-hua; LIN Xiao-yan; WANG Qiang-xiu; ZHANG Hua-wei; XU Jia-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) can reduce ceramide levels and help cells escape ceramide-induced apoptosis,thus leading to multidrug resistance (MDR).However,its expression and clinical significance in thyroid neoplasms still remain unclear.We aimed to elucidate the expression of GCS and explore its correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs).Methods We retrospectively investigated GCS protein expression level in tissue specimens obtained from 108 consecutive PTC patients by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.Results GCS was weakly positive or negative in normal follicular cells,but it was frequently overexpressed in PTC cells.GCS overexpression was associated with primary tumor size,local infiltration,lymph node metastasis,and local recurrence,but not associated with gender,age,pathological variants,tumor multifocality,tumor stage or distant metastasis.Western blotting also showed that GCS protein levels were much higher in PTCs' tissues than in normal thyroid tissues.Conclusion GCS was upregulated in PTCs and might be an independent factor affecting prognosis.

  14. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Denmark, 1996–2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regional as well as national series show an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer largely small size papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Prognostic scoring systems have been developed, but these do not take into account the rapidly changing case mix, and adjustments may be required...

  15. Clinical and molecular studies on differentiated thyroid carcinoma management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulrahman Hareedy, Randa Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes clinical and fundamental studies addressing clinical challenges in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The diagnosis of DTC is hampered by the fact that although the incidence is low thyroid nodules are prevalent. In this thesis, the diagnostic value of a pote

  16. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Toru; Yamada, Hiroya

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the 1970's, a preoperative diagnostic technique for thyroid follicular carcinoma has long been awaited. Many markers that distinguish follicular carcinomas from adenomas have been reported; however, most of them have not been confirmed to be beneficial for clinical use. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a relatively new family of peptides that bears the three-loop trefoil domain. Several groups have reported that the suppression of TFF3 mRNA expression is related to malignant characteristics of thyroid follicular cell-derived tumors and the expression level of TFF3 mRNA is the most promising indicator for diagnosing follicular carcinoma. Development of TFF3-based diagnostic methods is now ongoing and it may not be long before thyroid follicular carcinoma can be diagnosed preoperatively using an aspirated sample from the tumor.

  17. Systemic paraneoplastic vasculitis secondary to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerouaz, N; Alaoui, M; Raiss, M; Hassam, B; Senouci, K

    2016-08-01

    Systemic vasculitis secondary to thyroid carcinomas is exceptional. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with systemic vasculitis involving leucocytoclastic cutaneous vasculitis and renal disorders secondary to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Her symptoms resolved completely after total thyroidectomy. Other causes of vasculitis were excluded. To our knowledge, this is only the second case reported of systemic vasculitis associated with PTC in a paraneoplastic manner. PMID:27416971

  18. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  19. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong; QI Ji-ping; WANG Ying-wei; SONG Yue-jia; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid neoplasm, which shares some histologic features with thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC). Clinically, it is frequently misdiagnosed as papillary carcinoma, even for some experienced pathologists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HTT is variant of TPC or HTT is an independent entity of thyroid neoplasm.Methods The expression of CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1 and MIB-1 was detected by immunohistochemical staining in 12 cases of hyalinizing trabecular tumor and 20 cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Results Two of the 12 HTT samples were positive or focally positive for CK19. Four of the 12 samples of HTT presented positive to galectin-3; 3 were stained strongly and the other one was focally positive. None of the 12 samples of HTT was positive for HBME-1. Five in 12 HTT samples were stained in nucleus for MIB-1. Almost all the 20 cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma were intensely stained for CK19, galectin-3 and HBME-1. Fifteen in 20 cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma showed nuclear staining for MIB-1.Conclusions HTT is an independent thyroid neoplasm, not a variant of TPC. This study could help in the differential diagnosis of HTT from TPC. CK19, galectin-3 and HBME-1 are adequate to identify HTT and TPC, but MIB-1 does not play an important role in discrimination between HTT and TPC.

  20. Comparison of Clinical and Ultrasonographic Features of Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Hui-Min Niu; Qiong Wu; Jiong Zhou; Yu-Xin Jiang; Xiao Yang; Jian-Chu Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:The clinical behavior and management of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) are very different from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).By comparing the clinical and ultrasonographic features between the two tumors,we proposed to provide more possibilities for recognizing PDTC before treatment.Methods:The data of 13 PDTCs and 39 age-and gender-matched PTCs in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between December 2003 and September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.The clinical and ultrasonic features between the two groups were compared.Results:The frequencies of family history of carcinoma,complication with other thyroid lesions,lymph node metastases,recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries,and distant metastases were higher in PDTCs (30.8%,61.6%,69.2%,23.1%,and 46.2%,respectively) than those in PTCs (2.6%,23.1%,25.6%,2.6%,and 2.6%,respectively) (P < 0.05).The mortality rate of PDTCs was greatly higher than PTCs (P < 0.01).Conventional ultrasound showed that the size of PDTCs was larger than that of PTCs (3.l ± 1.9 cm vs.1.7 ± 1.0 cm).Clear margins and rich and/or irregular blood flow were found in 92.3% of PDTCs,which differed substantially from PTCs (51.7% and 53.8%,respectively) (P < 0.05).Conclusions:PDTC is more aggressive and its mortality rate is higher than PTCs.Accordingly,more attention should be given to suspicious thyroid cancer nodules that show large size,regular shape,and rich blood flow signals on ultrasound to exclude the possibility of PDTCs.

  1. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1 the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2 robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  2. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izkhakov, Elena; Somjen, Dalia; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Aizic, Asaf; Fliss, Dan M; Limor, Rona; Stern, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, Pthyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Expression of the RET/PTC fusion gene as a marker for papillary carcinoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirtschafter, A; Schmidt, R; Rosen, D;

    1997-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland with autoimmune etiology. Patients afflicted with Hashimoto's have a higher risk of thyroid malignancies such as papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated the frequency of papillary thyroid carcinoma...... specific genes in patients diagnosed with Hashimoto's disease. The newly identified oncogenes RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 provide useful and specific markers of the early stages of papillary carcinoma as they are highly specific for malignant cells. Using a sensitive and specific reverse transcriptase......-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, we found messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for the RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 oncogenes in 95% of the Hashimoto's patients studied. All Hashimoto's patients presenting without histopathologic evidence of papillary thyroid cancer showed molecular genetic evidence of cancer...

  4. Sonographic and cytopathologic correlation of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Shin, Jung Hee; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Oh, Young Lyun; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Ko, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer and constitutes more than 70% of thyroid malignancies. Although TNM staging is the most widely used parameter for determination of therapeutic plans, recent studies have suggested that different histopathologic variants of PTC can also have different clinical courses and patient prognoses. Sonographic criteria for PTC are well established and include a taller-than-wide shape, an irregular margin, microcalcifications, and marked hypoechogenicity. The role of sonography has expanded to enable the characterization of PTC variants based on their sonographic features. Tall cell and diffuse sclerosing variants appear to have more aggressive clinical courses with unfavorable prognoses, whereas the more recently described cribriform-morular and Warthin-like variants have relatively indolent clinical courses. The prognoses of patients with follicular, solid, columnar cell, and oncocytic variants are still controversial and may be similar to the prognosis of conventional PTC. Understanding the sonographic characteristics of PTC variants with clinicopathologic correlation may be helpful for suggesting an appropriate treatment plan.

  5. Required therapeutic dose of 131I for thyroid ablation after surgery for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. After operation for carcinoma of the thyroid gland a lot of patients are treated with radioactive iodine for ablation of the residual thyroid parenchyma. Aim: to determine the appropriate dose of radioactive iodine for ablation of the residual thyroid parenchyma in patients operated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Materials and methods: the study includes 316 patients who underwent a whole-body scan (WBS) scintigraphy with 131I. From 2009 to 2012 year 632 images were taken. Patients range from 21 to 78 years old. The scan was performed on a dual-headed gamma camera Siemens after an oral reception of a diagnostic dose 131I (2 mCi). The remnants of thyroid parenchyma were registered in 67 of the patients. 39 patients with registered remnants of thyroid parenchyma and slightly elevated thyroglobulin (TG) values who took therapeutic dose 131I (80-100 mCi) underwent a WBS scintigraphy with 131I and did not display remnants of thyroid parenchyma or extra thyroid accumulation of the radio nucleotide. 23 patients with several remnants of thyroid parenchyma and elevated values of TG who underwent a WBS scintigraphy with 131I eight to ten months after reception of the first dose therapeutic iodine (80-100 mCi) displayed persisting remnants of thyroid parenchyma. They were treated with a second dose of 131I (50-100 mCi). In 5 patients with high values of TG besides the thyroid remnants 3 of the patients displayed an extra thyroid accumulation in the lungs and 2 of them displayed an extra-thyroid fixation in the thoracic vertebras in addition to the fixation in the lungs. These 5 patients were treated twice with 131I, but still displayed the remnants of thyroid parenchyma and extra thyroid fixation. That group was treated with a third dose of 131I (30-50 mCi) and no remnants of thyroid parenchyma and extra-thyroid fixation of the radio nucleotide were visualized on the control WBS scintigraphy. Conclusion: in the majority of the patients

  6. MiR-34a targets GAS1 to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma via PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yanfei; Qin, Huadong [Department of Fourth Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 148 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150086 (China); Cui, Yunfu, E-mail: yfma77@126.com [Department of First Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 148 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •MiR-34a is up- and GAS1 is down-regulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma. •GAS1 is a direct target for miR-34a. •MiR-34a promotes PTC cells proliferation and inhibits apoptosis through PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are fundamental regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and are implicated in tumorigenesis of many cancers. MiR-34a is best known as a tumor suppressor through repression of growth factors and oncogenes. Growth arrest specific1 (GAS1) protein is a tumor suppressor that inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through inhibition of RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Both miR-34a and GAS1 are frequently down-regulated in various tumors. However, it has been reported that while GAS1 is down-regulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), miR-34a is up-regulated in this specific type of cancer, although their potential roles in PTC tumorigenesis have not been examined to date. A computational search revealed that miR-34a putatively binds to the 3′-UTR of GAS1 gene. In the present study, we confirmed previous findings that miR-34a is up-regulated and GAS1 down-regulated in PTC tissues. Further studies indicated that GAS1 is directly targeted by miR-34a. Overexpression of miR-34a promoted PTC cell proliferation and colony formation and inhibited apoptosis, whereas knockdown of miR-34a showed the opposite effects. Silencing of GAS1 had similar growth-promoting effects as overexpression of miR-34a. Furthermore, miR-34a overexpression led to activation of PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway in PTC cells, and depletion of Akt reversed the pro-growth, anti-apoptotic effects of miR-34a. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-34a regulates GAS1 expression to promote proliferation and suppress apoptosis in PTC cells via PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. MiR-34a functions as an oncogene in PTC.

  7. [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the larynx, trachea and thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczyński, M; Piotrowski, S

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe rarely occurred carcinoma adenoides cysticum located in the larynx, trachea and thyroid. Epidemiology, clinical course and medical therapy was demonstrated. In reported case concerning 65-year old woman early bilateral paresis of vocal folds was observed as results of the perineural infiltration. That caused sudden laryngeal dyspnea. It is important to pay attention on local extensiveness of neoplasm. Besides changes in larynx, neoplastic infiltration was found in trachea, preesophageal tissues and right lobe of thyroid. For above reasons there is no possible to exclude thyroid as a primary tumor of carcinoma adenoides cysticum.

  8. Carcinoma papilar tiroideo variante esclerosante difuso Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL D'Addino

    2012-06-01

    cervical lump. No relevant previous medical or family history. On ultrasound, thyroid nodule, heterogeneous thyroid. A fine needle aspiration of a regional node was reported as adenocarcinoma and that of the thyroid nodule as a colloid cyst. Right radical neck dissection was performed. The intra-operatory biopsy revealed thyroid carcinoma; therefore, left neck dissection and total thyroidectomy were undertaken. Histopathology reported "diffuse sclerosing papillary carcinoma with metastasis to 5 of 6 right perithyroid lymph nodes and to 7 of 9 cervical lymph nodes, 4 on the right and 3 on the left. Stage: I, T3-N1b-M0". The patient received 3 doses of iodine 131 as well as external radiotherapy due to mediastinal mass. Follow-up at 6 months (to present reveals he remains disease free. Thyroid gland enlargement and an increased prevalence of nodules is observed in subjects with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Insulin and TSH are growth factors for thyroid cells, and TSH levels are higher in people with metabolic syndrome, present in this patient. Conclusion: The diffuse sclerosing carcinoma is a rare tumour of uncertain origin, with aggressive behavior, early extrathyroid invasion and distant metastasis. No financial conflicts of interest exist.

  9. The role of Inositol Phosphoglycan as a possible mediator of the radiation effects on undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In our laboratory we demonstrated that the Inositol Phosphoglycan (IPG) inhibits thyroperoxidase (TPO) activity and other oxidoreductases in normal bovine thyroid gland cultures, thus increasing the H2O2 levels. On the other hand, when a cell is irradiated, damage is caused either by an increase of free radicals (H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or by the direct ionization of molecules, depending on the radiation quality. With the purpose to establish if the IPG participates in damage mechanisms by radiation, UTC cells of the tumoral line (ARO) in proliferation, were exposed to high and low LET radiation: gamma, neutrons, He and 7 Li nucleus (the lasts ones produced through Boron Neutron Capture Reaction). In each group, the total physical absorbed doses were 3 and 8 Gy (Ra-3 reactor neutrons flux = 7.5 109 n/cm2 s). The results show a significant increase in the IPG activity in cells irradiated with gamma and neutrons in comparison with control cultures (p2O2 levels (p<0.01). These results suggest that the inhibition of oxidoreductases by IPG would produce an increase in peroxides which would add to the ROS produced by low LET radiation strengthening the damage along with cell viability decrease

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  11. Diffuse sclerosing variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma: diagnostic challenges occur with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chin; Chen, Wen-Chung; Peng, Shu-Ling; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Diffuse sclerosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPTC) is a relatively rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with distinct histological features, radiological characteristics, and biological aggressiveness. Compared with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, DSPTC is characterized by scattered microscopic tumor islands, diffuse fibrosis, calcification, and abundant lymphocytic aggregation. A preoperative diagnosis is challenging in the absence of nodules and scanty fine needle aspiration cytology samples. We describe a unique DSPTC patient, an 18-year-old woman who presented with a neck mass that grew slowly for 2 years. The palpable neck mass was nontender, well defined, firm, and unmovable. Laboratory studies showed normal thyroid function and positive autoimmune markers: antithyroglobulin antibody = 1:1600 and antimicrosomal antibody = 1:1600. A neck ultrasound showed diffusely prominent microcalcifications with one small vague nodule. Hashimoto's thyroiditis with an accompanying malignancy was suspected. Based on the result of intraoperative pathology reports, the patient was given a total thyroidectomy. Lymph node dissection and histological analysis revealed bilateral DSPTC in addition to lymphocytic thyroiditis in nonmalignant areas of the thyroid. Clinical and histological diagnostic challenges usually occur when DSPTC presents with a diffuse thyroid enlargement, dispersed microscopic tumor islands (frequently without mass formation), extensive fibrosis, and abundant lymphocytic infiltration mimicking thyroiditis.

  12. RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Massimo; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2006-11-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently associated with RET gene rearrangements that generate the so-called RET/PTC oncogenes. In this review, we examine the data about the mechanisms of thyroid cell transformation, activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and modulation of gene expression induced by RET/PTC. These findings have advanced our understanding of the processes underlying PTC formation and provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to this disease. PMID:17062879

  13. RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Massimo; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2006-11-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently associated with RET gene rearrangements that generate the so-called RET/PTC oncogenes. In this review, we examine the data about the mechanisms of thyroid cell transformation, activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and modulation of gene expression induced by RET/PTC. These findings have advanced our understanding of the processes underlying PTC formation and provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to this disease.

  14. Thyroid scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PET scan Skin nodules Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma Toxic nodular goiter ... Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid Tests Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  15. Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Jørgensen, K E;

    1998-01-01

    carcinomas. The analyses were based on cause-specific and crude survival. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor size, presence of distant metastases, histology (papillary contra follicular type), extrathyroidal invasion, necrosis in primary tumor, and p53 expression were significant prognostic...... prognostic indicator, which might be of value in the treatment planning in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas....

  16. Expression of cell cycle bio-markers and telomere length in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study between radiation-associated and spontaneous cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achille, M.; Boukheris, H.; Caillou, B.; Talbot, M.; De Vathaire, F.; Sabatier, L.; Desmaze, C.; Schlumberger, M.; Soria, J.C. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DSV/DRR/Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Villejuif (France)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: Radiation exposure during childhood is the only well-established risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To better define the biologic profile of radiation-induced and sporadic PTC, we compared in these two groups of PTC the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and telomere length. Methods: Cell cycle markers (cyclin A, B1, D1, E, and Ki67) were evaluated on 100 PTC specimens (26 radiation-induced and 74 sporadic PTCs). The expression of cell cycle regulators was studied using immunohistochemistry; telomere length heterogeneity was studied using in situ hybridization in a subset of 16 formalin-fixed samples (8 radiation-induced and 8 sporadic PTCs). Results: At multivariate analysis, only cytoplasmic cyclin E staining was over expressed in sporadic cases (P = 0.006). The other cell cycle markers and telomere length did not differ significantly between sporadic PTC and radiation-induced PTC. Conclusions: These markers cannot be used to differentiate radiation-induced from sporadic PTCs. (authors)

  17. Expression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清怀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance.Methods Seventy-four patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated in our department from January 2009 to January 2011were selected as the observation group,and 28 patients with nodular goiter were selected as the control group.Expression of TSH receptor in the two groups were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results The positive rate of TSH receptor expression in the observation group was55.4 (41/74) ,significantly lower than that of the control

  18. Multicentricidade no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Salles Chagas

    2009-02-01

    , complications, histopathological analysis and invasion of the contralateral lobe were analyzed. Patients' ages varied from 17 to 89; the most frequent histopathological pattern was the classical papillary carcinoma (18 cases, followed by follicular carcinoma (6; the follicular variant of the papillary carcinoma (2 and the Hürthle cell carcinoma (1. Twenty-one patients underwent full thyroidectomies, from 15 to 30 days after the first intervention. RESULTS: the contralateral lobe analysis was negative for carcinoma in 16 (76.5% and positive in the other 5 (23.8% patients. The complications observed were temporary dysphonia (3 cases and hypoparathyroidism (2 cases, one permanent. CONCLUSIONS: total thyroidectomy is important in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, because there is a high contralateral spread rate (23.8%. It is a procedure without mortality, which bears few complications.

  19. Aurora kinases are expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC and their inhibition suppresses in vitro growth and tumorigenicity of the MTC derived cell line TT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrone Stefania

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aurora kinase family members, Aurora-A, -B and -C, are involved in the regulation of mitosis, and alterations in their expression are associated with cell malignant transformation. To date no information on the expression of these proteins in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC are available. We here investigated the expression of the Aurora kinases in human MTC tissues and their potential use as therapeutic targets. Methods The expression of the Aurora kinases in 26 MTC tissues at different TNM stages was analyzed at the mRNA level by quantitative RT-PCR. We then evaluated the effects of the Aurora kinase inhibitor MK-0457 on the MTC derived TT cell line proliferation, apoptosis, soft agar colony formation, cell cycle and ploidy. Results The results showed the absence of correlation between tumor tissue levels of any Aurora kinase and tumor stage indicating the lack of prognostic value for these proteins. Treatment with MK-0457 inhibited TT cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner with IC50 = 49.8 ± 6.6 nM, as well as Aurora kinases phosphorylation of substrates relevant to the mitotic progression. Time-lapse experiments demonstrated that MK-0457-treated cells entered mitosis but were unable to complete it. Cytofluorimetric analysis confirmed that MK-0457 induced accumulation of cells with ≥ 4N DNA content without inducing apoptosis. Finally, MK-0457 prevented the capability of the TT cells to form colonies in soft agar. Conclusions We demonstrate that Aurora kinases inhibition hampered growth and tumorigenicity of TT cells, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for MTC treatment.

  20. Management of the Patient with Aggressive and Resistant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftari, Rame; Topçiu, Valdete; Nura, Adem; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent type of thyroid cancer and was considered the most benign of all thyroid carcinomas, with a low risk of distant metastases. However, there are some variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma that have affinity to spread in many organs, such as: lymph nodes, lungs and bones. Aim: The aim of this study was presentation of a case with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, very persistent and resistant in treatment with I 131. Material and results: A man 56 years old were diagnosed with papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. He underwent a surgical removal of the tumor and right lobe of thyroid gland. With histopathology examination, were confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma pT4. Two weeks later he underwent total thyroidectomy and was treated with 100 mCi of J 131. Six months later, the value of thyroglobulin was found elevated above upper measured limits (more than 500 ng/ml). Patient underwent surgical removal of 10 metastatic lymph nodes in the left side of the neck and has been treated with 145 mCi of radioiodine I 131. The examination after 5 months shows elevation of thyroglobulin, more than 20000 ng/ml and focally uptake of J 131 in the left lung. Patient was treated once again with 150 mCi radioiodine J 131. Whole body scintigraphy was registered focal uptake of radioiodine in the middle of the left collarbone. After a month, patient refers the enlargement of the lymph node in the right side of the neck. Currently patient is being treated with kinase inhibitor drug sorafenib and ibandronate. We have identified first positive response in treatment. Enlarged lymph node in the neck was reduced and the patient began feeling better. Conclusion: This study suggests that some subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma appear to have more aggressive biological course. Subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma such as diffuse sclerosing carcinoma, tall cell or columnar cell and insular variants, appears to

  1. A promoter polymorphism in human interleukin-32 modulates its expression and influences the risk and the outcome of epithelial cell-derived thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Theo S; Costantini, Irene; Heinhuis, Bas; Huijbers, Angelique; Semango, George; Kusters, Benno; Netea, Mihai G; Hermus, Ad R M M; Smit, Jan W A; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea-Maier, Romana T

    2013-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is an intracellular proinflammatory mediator that strongly modulates the inflammatory reaction. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of IL-32 in the pathogenesis of malignancies. We aimed to assess whether a known germ-line polymorphism in the IL32 promoter modulates IL-32 expression, and whether it influences susceptibility and/or outcome of epithelial cell-derived thyroid carcinoma (TC). In this study, IL32 genotype was assessed in 139 TC patients and 138 healthy controls and was correlated with TC susceptibility and clinical outcome. Furthermore, IL-32 messenger RNA expression and protein were assessed in TC tissues and functional consequences of genetic variants of IL32 were studied in a model of human primary immune cells. Results demonstrate substantial IL-32 expression in TC tumor tissue. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary immune cells revealed 2-fold higher expression of IL-32γ, but not IL-32β, in cells homozygous for the ancient T allele. Furthermore, production of LPS-induced cytokines was increased in cells bearing this T allele. Genetic analysis revealed that the ancient T allele was overrepresented in TC patients with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.71 (1.06-2.75). In addition, the cumulative radioactive iodine (RAI) dose received after total thyroidectomy was significantly higher in TC patients bearing the ancient T allele. In conclusion, individuals bearing genetic variants of IL32 that lead to an increased IL-32γ gene expression and higher production of proinflammatory cytokines have higher risk for developing epithelial cell-derived TC. Subsequently, they require higher dosages of RAI to achieve successful tumor remission. These data suggest an important role of IL-32 in the pathogenesis of TC.

  2. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, D S; LiVolsi, V. A.; Sanders, M M

    1982-01-01

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine? Review of the literature discloses that mor...

  3. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Graves' Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hee Young; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy has been used as a treatment option for Graves' disease, and it has been widely accepted to be safe. On the other hand, some evidence suggests that RAI therapy is possibly associated with a small increased risk of thyroid cancer. Herein, we report a rare case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) associated with Graves' disease, following RAI treatment. A 42-year-old woman had been diagnosed with Graves' disease and although she was treated with an antithyroid...

  4. A Case of Patella Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ji; Choi, Woo Hee; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kang, Chang Suk [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    A 73-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of progressive left knee pain for two months. He had a history of total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection due to papillary thyroid carcinoma three months ago. MRI images revealed a solid mass in the left patella. A solid mass demonstrated low signal on T1 weighed image, and high signal on T2 weighed image. And whole body bone scan showed focal photon defect in same lesion of left patella. The histologic result of left knee lesion was adenocarcinoma, consistent with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although patellar metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, when knee pain and radiologic abnormality are noted, differential diagnosis of metastasis is necessary.

  5. The expression and significance of hTERT and P53 in thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and P53 in thyroid carcinoma and its relationship with development and prognosis of the carcinoma. Methods Totally 90 cases of thyroid specimens (60 thyroid carcinomas,10 thyroid adenomas,10 goitres and 10 normal thyroid tissues) were studied by SP immunohistochemical method. Results Positive immunoreactivity of hTERT and P53 was higher in thyroid carcinoma (P<0.05). The positive rates of hTERT and P53 were higher in und...

  6. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  7. Minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas: prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Gustav; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Mu, Ninni; Larsson, Catharina; Lundgren, Catharina Ihre; Juhlin, C Christofer; Höög, Anders; Zedenius, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Although minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (MI-FTC) is regarded as an indolent tumour, treatment strategies remain controversial. Our aim was to investigate the outcome for patients with MI-FTC and to identify prognostic parameters to facilitate adequate treatment and follow-up. This retrospective follow-up study involved all cases of MI-FTC operated at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1986 and 2009. Outcome was analysed using death from MI-FTC as endpoint. Fifty-eight patients (41 women and 17 men) with MI-FTC were identified. The median follow-up time was 140 (range 21-308) months. Vascular invasion was observed in 36 cases and was associated with larger tumour size [median 40 (20-76) compared with 24 (10-80) mm for patients with capsular invasion only (P = 0.001)] and older patients [54 (20-92) vs. 44 (11-77) years; P = 0.019]. Patients with vascular invasion were more often treated with thyroidectomy (21/36 compared to 7/22 with capsular invasion only; P = 0.045). Five patients died from metastatic disease of FTC after a median follow-up of 114 (range 41-193) months; all were older than 50 years (51-72) at the time of the initial surgery; vascular invasion was present in all tumours and all but one were treated with thyroidectomy. Univariate analysis identified combined capsular and vascular invasion (P = 0.034), age at surgery ≥50 years (P = 0.023) and male gender (P = 0.005) as related to risk of death from MI-FTC. MI-FTC should not be considered a purely indolent disease. Age at diagnosis and the existence of combined capsular and vascular invasion were identified as important prognostic factors. PMID:26858184

  8. Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Ragazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features.

  9. Diagnostic value of CD-10 marker in differentiating of papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of CD10 in accordance with clinical and histological features of thyroid lesions could be used as both diagnostic and prognostic tool, which consequently influence the management and their prognosis for survival of patients with thyroid neoplasms especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The aim of this study was to determine its expression in PTC and different benign thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with definitive pathologic diagnosis of different benign thyroid lesions and PTC were retrieved. Immunostained sections of each slides was performed using immunohistochemistry methods and expression of CD10 was compared in two groups of benign thyroid lesions and PTC. Results: From selected cases 134 sections studied in two groups of PTC (n = 67 and benign thyroid lesions (n = 67. CD10 were immunohistochemically positive in 29.9% of PTC cases, but in none of the thyroid benign lesions (0% (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that due to the higher expression of CD10 in PTC than benign thyroid lesions it might be used for differentiating mentioned lesions. But for using it as a diagnostic tool further studies with larger sample size and determination of its sensitivity, specificity and cut-off point is necessary.

  10. Predictive value of antithyroglobulin antibody on recurrence or metastasis following ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of serum thyroglobulin(Tg)and antithyroglobulin antibody(Tg Ab)in differentiated thyroid carcinoma complicated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after thyroid ablation.Methods Serum Tg and Tg Ab levels and the status of illness in 154differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with coexistent Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and confirmed pathology after surgery followed by remnant ablation were performed during three years follow up.Tg and Tg Ab levels were assessed

  11. Transcriptional Profile of Ki-Ras-Induced Transformation of Thyroid Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visconti, Roberta; Federico, Antonella; Coppola, Valeria;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, an increasing number of experiments has provided compelling evidence for a casual role of Ras protein mutations, resulting in their constitutive activation, in thyroid carcinogenesis. However, despite the clear involvement of Ras proteins in thyroid carcinogenesis, the...... in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tumor samples, our results, therefore, providing a new molecular profile of the genes involved in thyroid neoplastic transformation....

  12. Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane Subhadra V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity. We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland. The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profile are reported. The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review. Case presentation A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis. Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract. The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections. The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the independent origin of these two primary tumors. Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned. Conclusion Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge. Metastasis from distant organs and contiguous primary tumors should be excluded. The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment. Treatment for collision tumors depends upon the combination of primary tumors involved and each component of the combination should be treated like an independent primary. The reporting of similar cases with longer follow-up will help define the

  13. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : A polygenic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, TP; van Tol, KM; te Meerman, GJ; de Vries, EGE

    2001-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is a rare disease and until recently was considered to be sporadic. However, increasing evidence has been found for a genetic basis of this disease. In approximately 5% of patients the differentiated thyroid cancer is dominantly inherited. Several families with differen

  14. Computed Tomography Features of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: Comparison with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Geun; Choi, Yoon Jung; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the computed tomography (CT) features of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) as compared to those of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to identify the characteristic imaging features of FTC. The following CT features were analyzed to compare FTCs (n = 17) and PTCs (n = 27): size, shape, margin, internal composition, calcification, enhancement homogeniety, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node (LN) metastasis and the density and degree of enhancement (qualitatively and quantitatively). There were no significant differences between the patients with FTCs and those with PTCs with respect to age and gender, and the internal composition, calcification and enhancement homogeneity of the tumor. However, the FTCs tend to show a larger size (32 mm vs. 15 mm: respectively, p < 0.001), a round to oval shape (52.9% vs. 14.8% respectively, p = 0.001), a well-defined smooth margin (58.8% vs. 14.8% respectively, p = 0.009), less extrathyroidal extension (11.8% vs. 51.9% respectively, p= 0.007) and less LN metastasis (0% vs. 29.6% respectively, p = 0.016) compared to that of the PTCs. Furthermore, the FTCs showed significantly stronger enhancement in the early phase (146.4{+-}42.4 vs. 98.5{+-}38.2 respectively, p < 0.001) and a greater decrement of the late enhancement (-44.6{+-}25.2 vs. -18.7{+-}27.9 respectively, p = 0.003) compared to that of the PTCs. FTCs had a tendency to be observed on neck CT as well-defined, smooth, round to oval nodules with strong early enhancement and a definite decrement of late enhancement as compared to the PTCs

  15. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  16. Fine-needle aspiration study of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma: Rare cytological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral Mokhtari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (CPTC is a variant of papillary carcinoma that has many mimickers in cytological grounds. Aim: To study the cytomorphologic features of CPTC and compare them to those of other cystic thyroid lesions using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. We also aimed to identify the cytomorphologic features that distinguish CPTC from other cystic thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three cases of CPTC were included in the study. The cytomorphologic features of these cases were analyzed. The FNA smears of other thyroid lesions with cystic changes (300 colloid goiters, 290 adenomatoid nodules, 11 follicular neoplasms, and 9 hurtle cell neoplasm were also studied. Results: The smears in CPTC revealed isolated follicular cells, small groups of cells with scalloped margins, cell swirls, small clusters with a cartwheel pattern, papillary clusters, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, sticky colloid, intracellular colloids, psammoma bodies, multinucleated giant cells, and foamy and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Small groups of cells with scalloped borders, cellular swirls, and small clusters with a cartwheel pattern were seen in CPTC, but not in other cystic lesions. Interestingly, mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were seen in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively, but not in other cystic lesions. Conclusion: Mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were observed in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively. Similar finding have not been previously reported in the literature.

  17. Surgical experience in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, JW; van Tol, KM; Rouwe, CW; Piers, DA; Plukker, JTA

    2003-01-01

    Background: The optimal surgical treatment in children with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma remains an important point of discussion. In this study, we evaluated our surgical experience and reviewed the literature accordingly to identify the most adequate treatment. Methods: We retrospectively

  18. Gene-expression Classifier in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Krogdahl, Annelise;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No reliable biomarker for metastatic potential in the risk stratification of papillary thyroid carcinoma exists. We aimed to develop a gene-expression classifier for metastatic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide expression analyses were used. Development cohort: freshly...

  19. Molecular genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma: multistep tumorigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms underlying the multistep process of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) development is at present largely unknown. About 60% of all MTCs occur as sporadic cancer and the remaining 40% occur as familial cancer. Activation of RET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, initiates hereditary M

  20. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  1. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as a Predominantly Cystic Mass on Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Ah Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hyun [Gangnam MizMedi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most medullary thyroid carcinomas show suspicious malignant features such as hypoechogenicity, a spiculated margin and/or intranodular calcifications, which are well known features of papillary carcinoma. We report here on a case of medullary carcinoma that was seen as a predominantly cystic thyroid mass on ultrasonography. This type of case is not common in the literature and we discuss the way to diagnose a medullary thyroid carcinoma

  2. Management of patients with thyroid carcinoma: Application of thallium-201 scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.D.; Anderson, J.H.; Wartofsky, L.; Mong, D.P.; Jelinek, J.J. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Thyroid carcinoma has the ability to concentrate radioiodine, an attribute that can be used both for detection of thyroid cells and for treatment. Unfortunately, however, radioiodine uptake is not observed in all patients and a radioiodine scan requires that the patient be rendered hypothyroid for 4-6 wk. In the present study, we analyzed the utility of thallium-201 scanning and the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of thyroid cancer. Nineteen patients with thyroid cancer had a total of 24 radioiodine scans, 33 thallium scans, and 10 MRI examinations. Of the 19 patients in the study, 17 had differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In these 17 cases, all paired studies were concordant for the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 10) of disease. However, in one case (Patient 10), the {sup 201}Tl studies showed far more extensive disease than was observed on the {sup 131}I scan. Thyroid cancer was also detected on seven MRI studies. In summary, thallium and MRI scans are adjunctive techniques to radioiodine scanning that can either confirm the presence of neck bed activity, residual disease or metastatic cancer and may delineate tumor deposits not detected by radioiodine scanning. Thallium may be capable of detecting tumor deposits even while a patient remains euthyroid.

  3. Immunocytochemical localization and identification of prosomatostatin gene products in medullary carcinoma of human thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopsi, L; Ferrari, C; Pilotti, S; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Fossati, G; Rilke, F

    1990-08-01

    Thirty-three cases of histologically proven calcitonin-positive medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied immunocytochemically for the occurrence of prosomatostatin-related peptides. Positive cells, identified with a panel of antisera raised against four different regions of the prosomatostatin molecule, were found in 100% of the tumors. Most but not all somatostatin-positive cells were also immunoreactive for calcitonin. Notably, seven patients harboring somatostatin-rich tumors revealed a more favorable clinical course. The results (1) indicate that somatostatin production is a universal concomitant of thyroid medullary carcinoma, (2) suggest that these cells are likely to produce a somatostatin precursor molecule similar to mammalian prosomatostatin, and (3) imply that somatostatin-reactive cells may have as yet unknown roles in these tumors, possibly in the realm of paracrine and autocrine regulation of cell growth.

  4. Genomic Landscape of poorly Differentiated and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Ghossein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are aggressive thyroid tumors associated with a high mortality rate of 38-57 % and almost 100 % respectively. Several recent studies utilizing next generation sequencing techniques have shed lights on the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, providing evidence to support a stepwise tumoral progression from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated, and finally to anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. While BRAF (V600E) and RAS mutations remain the main drivers in aggressive thyroid carcinoma, PDTC and ATC gains additional mutations, e.g., TERT promoter mutation, TP53 mutation, as well as frequent alterations in PIK3CA-PTEN-AKT-mTOR pathway, SWI-SNF complex, histomethyltransferases, and mismatch repair genes. RAS-mutated PDTCs are commonly associated with a histologic phenotype defined by Turin proposal, high frequency of distant metastasis, high thyroid differentiation score, and a RAS-like gene expression profile, whereas BRAF-mutated PDTCs are usually defined solely by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria with a propensity for nodal metastasis and are less differentiated with a BRAF-like expression signature. Such demarcation is largely lost in ATC which is characterized by genomic complexity, heavy mutation burden, and profound undifferentiation. Additionally, several molecular events, e.g., EIF1AX mutation, mutation burden, and chromosome 1q gain in PDTCs, as well as EIF1AX mutation, chromosome 13q loss, and 20q gains in ATCs, may serve as adverse prognostic markers predicting poor clinical outcome. PMID:27372303

  5. Thyroid carcinoma: The experience at the Oncology Centre in Nicosia, Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carcinoma of the thyroid is usually of follicular cell origin. Four distinct histologic types of follicular cell-derived cancers (FCDC) are recognized. The majority of cases are papillary, with its major sub-type being the follicular variant (FVPTC). The other histological types are follicular, oxyphilic or Hurthle cell, and anaplastic. Each tumour type differs substantially in its initial mode of spread and subsequent pattern of recurrence and metastatic involvement. Although thyroid nodules are extremely common but clinically recognized thyroid carcinomas constitute less than 1% of all human malignant tumours. The annual incidence of thyroid cancer varies worldwide from 0.5 to 10 per 100000 population. In Cyprus, in the year 2000, there were 41 registered cases of newly diagnosed thyroid carcinoma (medullary excluded) in the Cancer Archive. This is an incidence of 5.6 per 100000. A Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center (BOCOC) was established in 1998 and very soon became the referral hospital for oncological patients in Cyprus. The thyroid clinic of the center was also established in that year which in collaboration with the NM department of the Nicosia General Hospital provided follow-up services to thyroid cancer patients. The Nuclear Medicine Department of the BOCOC was established on 1 July 2001 and since then the radioiodine therapy and follow-up thyroid carcinoma patients is done in this center. The patients are referred to the clinic after surgery and confirmed diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer. A total of 34 patients (5 males 29 females, age range 20-79 years) of thyroid carcinoma (medullary excluded) visited the clinic between July 2001 and July 2003. The histopathological form was 32 papillary and 2 follicular thyroid carcinoma. Of the 32 papillary 2 were metastatic, 4 papillary with follicular elements, 1 with papillary at the isthmus and follicular in right lobe and 1 papillary in the thyroglossal cyst. Preoperative diagnosis in most of the patients was

  6. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid with paranasal sinus metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Madan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors that metastasize to paranasal sinus (PNS are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported worldwide. Of these, thyroid malignancies contribute 8%. We discuss here a patient aged 45 years with PNS mets from follicular variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid who had undergone surgery and radioiodine ablation. He presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis 2 years after local treatment. CT scan of PNS showed a large heterogeneously enhancing mass lesion in PNS, which on further evaluation was found to be consistent with metastases from primary thyroid cancer. He was given palliative radiotherapy to the metastatic lesion. Patient was alive after eighteen months of radiotherapy but there was no response to radiotherapy on imaging. To conclude PNS metastases from thyroid cancer are rare. But it should be always kept in mind in symptomatic patients. Also, patients with PNS mets can have a long disease free survival after palliative radiotherapy.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nikhil [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: nikhil_ms26@yahoo.co.in; Kakar, Arun K. [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Chowdhury, Veena [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Gulati, Praveen [MR Centre, A-23 Green Park, New Delhi (India); Shankar, L. Ravi [Department of Radioiodine Uptake and Imaging, Institute of Nucler Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Timarpur, New Delhi (India); Vindal, Anubhav [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid.

  8. Volcanoes and carcinoma of the thyroid: a possible association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, T M; Ng, W L; Gibson, J B

    1981-01-01

    Environmental factors contributing to incidences of thyroid carcinoma are re-evaluated and emphasized in this study. Thyroid cancers appear to occur independent of endemic goiter, based on epidemiologic and histologic evidence. While environmental factors appear to be important, the specific etiologic agent has not yet been identified or suggested. The number of thyroid cancer incidences available from cancer registries are analyzed in an attempt to identify a specific environmental carcinogenic agent. The presence of active volcanoes that produce abundant lava is found to be the common denominator of Iceland and Hawaii, where the incidence of thyroid cancer is outstandingly high. Comparison with other areas with active volcanoes is made. The presence of a carcinogenic agent in the lava is postulated and its possible mode of action on humans through fish products is hypothesized.

  9. Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, Eren; Gurbuz, Yesim; Tarkun, Ilhan; Canturk, Zeynep; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2014-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are two distinct types of thyroid carcinoma with considerable difference in terms of cellular origin, histopathological appearance, clinical course and prevalence. The histogenetic origin and possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid are still unclear. The most widely accepted hypotheses considering co-occurrence of MTC and PTC are stem cell theory, collision effect theory and hostage theory. Herein we describe two rare cases of mixed medullary-papillary thyroid carcinoma with co-occurrence of MTC and PTC which developed with concomitant MEN 2A and different sites of lymph node metastasis in the first patient, while with atypical clinical presentation in the second patient. In conclusion, co-expression of thyroglobulin, synaptophysin and chromogranin by the papillary component of mixed tumor seems to support stem cell theory in our first case, whereas positive staining for calcitonin but not for thyroglobulin in the medullary component of the tumor along with separation of these two tumors from each other by a normal thyroid tissue seem to indicates the likelihood of collision effect theory in our second case.

  10. Mutual regulation of TGF-β1, TβRII and ErbB receptors expression in human thyroid carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of EGF and TGF-β1 in thyroid cancer is still not clearly defined. TGF-β1 inhibited the cellular growth and migration of follicular (FTC-133) and papillary (B-CPAP) thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Co-treatments of TGF-β1 and EGF inhibited proliferation in both cell lines, but displayed opposite effect on their migratory capability, leading to inhibition in B-CPAP and promotion in FTC-133 cells, by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR expressions were evaluated in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Both positivity (51.7% and 60.0% and 80.0% in FA and PTC and FTC) and overexpression (60.0%, 77.7% and 75.0% in FA, PTC and FTC) of EGFR mRNA correlates with the aggressive tumor behavior. The moderate overexpression of TGF-β1 and TβRII mRNA in PTC tissues (61.5% and 62.5%, respectively), counteracted their high overexpression in FTC tissues (100% and 100%, respectively), while EGFR overexpression was similar in both carcinomas. Papillary carcinomas were positive to E-cadherin expression, while the follicular carcinomas lose E-cadherin staining. Our findings of TGF-β1/TβRII and EGFR overexpressions together with a loss of E-cadherin observed in human follicular thyroid carcinomas, and of increased migration ability MAPK-dependent after EGF/TGF-β1 treatments in the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line, reinforced the hypothesis of a cross-talk between EGF and TGF-β1 systems in follicular thyroid carcinomas phenotype. - Highlights: • We reinforce the hypothesis of a cross talk between EGF and TGF-β1 in follicular thyroid carcinoma. • Increased migration MAPK-dependent is observed after EGF+TGF-β1 treatment in follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. • EGF and TGF-β1 caused opposite effect on the migratory ability in B-CPAP and in FTC-133 cells. • TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR are overexpressed in follicular thyroid carcinoma

  11. Mutual regulation of TGF-β1, TβRII and ErbB receptors expression in human thyroid carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincione, Gabriella, E-mail: g.mincione@unich.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Center of Excellence on Aging, Ce.S.I., ‘G. d' Annunzio’ University Foundation, Chieti (Italy); Tarantelli, Chiara [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Vianale, Giovina [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Center of Excellence on Aging, Ce.S.I., ‘G. d' Annunzio’ University Foundation, Chieti (Italy); Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Cotellese, Roberto [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Unit of General and Laparoscopic Surgery, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy); Francomano, Franco [Unit of General and Laparoscopic Surgery, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy); Di Nicola, Marta; Costantini, Erica [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Cichella, Annadomenica [Unit of General and Laparoscopic Surgery, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti (Italy); Muraro, Raffaella [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ‘G. d' Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti (Italy); Center of Excellence on Aging, Ce.S.I., ‘G. d' Annunzio’ University Foundation, Chieti (Italy)

    2014-09-10

    The role of EGF and TGF-β1 in thyroid cancer is still not clearly defined. TGF-β1 inhibited the cellular growth and migration of follicular (FTC-133) and papillary (B-CPAP) thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Co-treatments of TGF-β1 and EGF inhibited proliferation in both cell lines, but displayed opposite effect on their migratory capability, leading to inhibition in B-CPAP and promotion in FTC-133 cells, by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR expressions were evaluated in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Both positivity (51.7% and 60.0% and 80.0% in FA and PTC and FTC) and overexpression (60.0%, 77.7% and 75.0% in FA, PTC and FTC) of EGFR mRNA correlates with the aggressive tumor behavior. The moderate overexpression of TGF-β1 and TβRII mRNA in PTC tissues (61.5% and 62.5%, respectively), counteracted their high overexpression in FTC tissues (100% and 100%, respectively), while EGFR overexpression was similar in both carcinomas. Papillary carcinomas were positive to E-cadherin expression, while the follicular carcinomas lose E-cadherin staining. Our findings of TGF-β1/TβRII and EGFR overexpressions together with a loss of E-cadherin observed in human follicular thyroid carcinomas, and of increased migration ability MAPK-dependent after EGF/TGF-β1 treatments in the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line, reinforced the hypothesis of a cross-talk between EGF and TGF-β1 systems in follicular thyroid carcinomas phenotype. - Highlights: • We reinforce the hypothesis of a cross talk between EGF and TGF-β1 in follicular thyroid carcinoma. • Increased migration MAPK-dependent is observed after EGF+TGF-β1 treatment in follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. • EGF and TGF-β1 caused opposite effect on the migratory ability in B-CPAP and in FTC-133 cells. • TGF-β1, TβRII and EGFR are overexpressed in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

  12. "MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HBME-1 USEFULNESS IN DIFFERENTIATION OF BENIGN NEOPLASM AND DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available HBME-l is an antimesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on microvilli of mesothelial cells. The antibody is only relatively specific for mesothelium and is used in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma within the context of an appropriate immuno-histochemical panel. HBME-l has also been reported to strongly and uniformly stain papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid while benign disorders have been usually negative. We studied the immunoreactivity of HBME-l in 90 cases of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. We found strong positive staining in the majority of papillary carcinomas (28/31, in some of follicular carcinomas (4/6,and in a few follicular adenomas (2/17. Negative staining was found in oxyphilic cell adenoma (0/4, nodular goiter (0/13 and undifferentiated carcinoma. The results suggest that monoclonal antibody HBME-l is useful in differentiating papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from benign lesions, especially in more differentiated lesions. Strong and generalized immunoreactivity for HBME-l in a follicular lesion should raise the suspicion of malignancy, but negative staining specially in poorly differentiated lesion does not rule out malignancy.

  13. Expression Patterns of Glucose Transporter-1 Gene and Thyroid Specific Genes in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) gene and those of major thyroid-specific genes were examined in papillary carcinoma tissues, and the expressions of these genes were compared with cancer differentiation grades. Twenty-four human papillary carcinoma tissues were included in this study. The expressions of Glut-1- and thyroid-specific genes [sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor and pendrin] were analyzed by RT-PCR. Expression levels were expressed as ratios versus the expression of beta-actin. Pathologic differentiation of papillary carcinoma was classified into a relatively well-differentiated group (n=13) and relatively less differentiated group (n=11). Glut-1 gene expression was significantly higher in the less differentiated group (0.66±0.04) than in the well-differentiated group (0.59±0.07). The expression levels of the NIS, PD and TG genes were significantly higher in the well-differentiated group (NIS: 0.67±0.20, PD: 0.65±0.21, TG: 0.74±0.16) than in the less differentiated group (NIS: 0.36±0.05, PD: 0.49±0.08, TG: 0.60±0.11), respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between Glut-1 and NIS expression, and positive correlations were found between NIS and TG, and between NIS and PD. The NIS, PD and TG genes were highly expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereas the Glut-1 gene was highly expressed in less differentiated thyroid carcinomas. These findings provide a molecular rationale for the management of papillary carcinoma, especially in the selection of FDG PET or radioiodine whole-body scan and I-131-based therapy

  14. Expression Patterns of Glucose Transporter-1 Gene and Thyroid Specific Genes in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungeun; Chung, Junekey; Min Haesook and others

    2014-06-15

    The expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) gene and those of major thyroid-specific genes were examined in papillary carcinoma tissues, and the expressions of these genes were compared with cancer differentiation grades. Twenty-four human papillary carcinoma tissues were included in this study. The expressions of Glut-1- and thyroid-specific genes [sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor and pendrin] were analyzed by RT-PCR. Expression levels were expressed as ratios versus the expression of beta-actin. Pathologic differentiation of papillary carcinoma was classified into a relatively well-differentiated group (n=13) and relatively less differentiated group (n=11). Glut-1 gene expression was significantly higher in the less differentiated group (0.66±0.04) than in the well-differentiated group (0.59±0.07). The expression levels of the NIS, PD and TG genes were significantly higher in the well-differentiated group (NIS: 0.67±0.20, PD: 0.65±0.21, TG: 0.74±0.16) than in the less differentiated group (NIS: 0.36±0.05, PD: 0.49±0.08, TG: 0.60±0.11), respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between Glut-1 and NIS expression, and positive correlations were found between NIS and TG, and between NIS and PD. The NIS, PD and TG genes were highly expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereas the Glut-1 gene was highly expressed in less differentiated thyroid carcinomas. These findings provide a molecular rationale for the management of papillary carcinoma, especially in the selection of FDG PET or radioiodine whole-body scan and I-131-based therapy.

  15. Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the tumorigenesis of canine thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, M; Kool, M M J; Daminet, S; Ducatelle, R; Rutteman, G; Kooistra, H S; Galac, S; Mol, J A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on the genetic events leading to thyroid cancer in dogs is lacking. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway has an important role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma in dogs. ANIMALS: Fifty-nine dogs with thyroid carcinoma and 10 healthy controls. ME

  16. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed by calcitonin washout from a thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Umut; Gursoy, Alptekin; Ozdemir, Handan; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-07-01

    Serum calcitonin is a tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin washout evaluation is a new method used for suspicious thyroid nodules and lymph nodes. Limited clinical data are present about the efficacy of this method. A 61-year-old female patient with known Hashimoto's thyroditis and an 8-mm hypoechoic nodule was presented with one previously benign fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). On referral to our department, she had a moderately high-serum calcitonin level, and we repeated the FNAC that was reported as nondiagnostic. We performed FNAC for the third time together with calcitonin washout evaluation from the thyroid nodule. The FNAC was again nondiagnostic, but the calcitonin washout level from the thyroid nodule was 152.569 pg/mL. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin washout evaluation may be a useful method in the differential diagnosis of patients with thyroid nodules having moderately high-serum calcitonin levels.

  17. The analysis of biological characristics of CD82 mediated human thyroid carcinoma FTC-133 cells%CD82介导的人类甲状腺癌细胞株FTC-133的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈周浔; 周宏众; HenningDralle; CuongHoang-Vu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of tumor suppressor gene CD82 in the regulation of thyroid car-cinoma cell invasion/migration and its related molecular mechanisms.Methods: By using genetic engineering technology, the plasmid pCDNA3.1, which reconsturcted with the full length CD82 gene, was transfected into the thyroid carcinoma FTC-133 cells. By MTT and Transwell Assays, the proliferation rate and migration ability of these high expressed CD82 FTC-133 cells were compared with the wild-type cells FTC-133 cells.Results:24, 48, 72 hours after transfection, the transfected cells showed reduced proliferation rate (P>0.05) and signiifcant lower migration ability (P0.05);与野生型或者空质粒转染细胞相比,各转染细胞(clone 1、2、3)在转染后24、48及72 h的迁移能力明显减少(P<0.05).结论:CD82可以明显降低FTC-133细胞的增殖及侵袭能力,与甲状腺癌发展与进程密切相关.

  18. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  19. Multikinase inhibitors use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sina Jasim,1,* Levent Ozsari,2,* Mouhammed Amir Habra2 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally in this work Abstract: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence is increasing. Standard therapy for most patients with localized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC includes surgery, radioactive iodine, and thyroid hormone replacement. A minority of thyroid cancer patients requires systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Patients with metastatic DTC do not usually benefit from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this review, we describe newly developed small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs that are being actively tested and used in the management of advanced thyroid cancer. The use of TKIs as a form of molecular targeted therapy is evolving based on understanding of the pathways involved in DTC. Disrupting tumor vascular supply by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling is the most commonly used approach to treat advanced/metastatic DTC. Other mechanisms include targeting BRAF, MAPK/ERK kinase, or mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Although TKIs appear to have superior efficacy compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, they can cause substantial adverse effects; symptomatic management of adverse effects, dose adjustment, or cessation of therapy may be required. Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, progression-free survival, adverse effects, targeted therapy, sorafenib, lenvatinib

  20. Metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast to the thyroid gland diagnosed with fine needle aspiration: A case report with emphasis on morphologic and immunophenotypic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magers, Martin J; Dueber, Julie C; Lew, Madelyn; Pang, Judy C; Davenport, Robertson D

    2016-06-01

    Metastases to the thyroid are uncommon [thyroid fine needle aspirations (FNA)]. Of metastases to the thyroid, breast carcinoma is relatively common. The diagnosis of metastasis to the thyroid has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. To our knowledge, a morphologic and immunophenotypic comparison of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast and primary thyroid carcinomas has not been reported. Here, we report the case of a 37-year-old female with a history of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast (modified Bloom-Richardson grade 2; ER+, PgR+, HER2+) diagnosed 6 years prior. She developed hoarseness, prompting a CT scan. Multiple thyroid nodules were found, including a 1.5 cm hypoechoic, solid, irregularly-shaped nodule. On FNA, cells were arranged singly and in crowded groups, varied in size and degree of pleomorphism, and exhibited rare nuclear grooves, inconspicuous nucleoli, and rare intracytoplasmic lumina with no nuclear pseudoinclusions or colloid (Figs. 1A and B). These findings raised the differential of papillary thyroid carcinoma (Fig. 1C), follicular neoplasm (Fig. 1D), medullary carcinoma (Fig. 1E), parathyroid (Fig. 1F), and metastatic breast carcinoma. Immunostaining for GATA-3 (+), ER (+), PAX-8 (-), and TTF-1 (-) was consistent with metastatic breast carcinoma (Fig. 2). We conclude that metastatic breast carcinoma to the thyroid may morphologically mimic primary thyroid carcinoma on FNA; a panel of immunomarkers, such as GATA-3, hormonal marker(s), PAX-8, and TTF-1, may be useful in some cases. GATA-3 immunostaining for metastatic breast carcinoma was helpful in our case and has not been previously reported in a thyroid metastasis sampled by FNA. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:530-534. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  2. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma--an update of its clinicopathological features and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suja; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSVPTC) is an uncommon variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this review is to critically analyse the features of this entity. A search of the literature revealed 25 clinicopathological studies with in-depth analysis of features of DSVPTC. Overall, the prevalence of DSVPTC varies from 0.7-6.6% of all papillary thyroid carcinoma. Higher prevalence of DSVPTC was noted in paediatric patients and in patients affected by irradiation. DSVPTC tends to occur more frequently in women and in patients in the third decade of life. Macroscopically, DSVPTC can involve the thyroid gland extensively without forming a dominant mass. Microscopic examination of DSVPTC revealed extensive fibrosis, squamous metaplasia and numerous psammoma bodies. The latter pathological feature can aid in the pre-operative diagnosis of the entity by fine needle aspiration and ultrasound. Compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, DSVPTC had a higher incidence of lymph node metastases at presentation. Distant metastases were noted in approximately 5% of the cases. Patients with DSVPTC were recommended to be managed by aggressive treatment protocols. It is likely that as a result of this, the prognosis of the patients with DSVPTC was noted to be similar to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. Overall, cancer recurrence and cancer related mortality have been reported in 14% and 3%, respectively, of patients with DSVPTC. In immunohistochemical studies, DSVPTC showed different expression patterns of epithelial membrane antigen, galectin 3, cell adhesion molecules, p53 and p63 when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. On genetic analysis, the occurrence of BRAF and RAS mutations are uncommon events in DSVPTC and activation of RET/PTC rearrangements are common. To conclude, DSVPTC has different clinical, pathological and molecular profiles when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression between papillary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, L.M.; Helmke, S.M.; Hunsucker, S.W.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Chiang, S.A.; Heinz, D.E.; Shroyer, K.R.; Duncan, M.W.; Haugen, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand basic mechanisms of tumor development and identify potential new biomarkers, we have performed difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and peptide mass fingerprinting on pooled protein extracts from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) compared with matched nor

  4. ["Incidental" thyroid carcinoma among patients in surgical treatment for nontumors thyroid desease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaĭ, O P; Larin, O S; Cheren'ko, S M; Sheptukha, S A; Smoliar, V A; Zolotar'ov, P O

    2012-07-01

    Incidence of unexpected diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma among operations on benign thyroid surgical diseases (nodular goiter and Graves' disease) was studied in 608 patients within 2008-2009 years in specialized clinic of endocrine surgery. In 56 (9.2%) patients the "incidental" thyroid carcinoma including 43 (77%) - papillary microcarcinoma were diagnosed in histological investigations. In 10 (18%) patients which were performed within the first postoperative week. Repeated surgery demonstrates increased risk of complication (damage of parathyroid glands, recurrent laryngeal nerves and other anatomic structures of neck) considering less favoring conditions for secondary operations, it is worth to implement wider indications to frozen section, radical primary operation (total thyroidectomy at multi-nodular bilateral goiter and Graves' disease), and also maximal complete examination prior to surgery. PMID:23033769

  5. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  6. [A Case of Metachronous Multiple Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma with FAP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yusuke; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Azusa; Chika, Noriyasu; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Iwama, Takeo; Akagi, Kiwamu; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, the result of a germ line mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. FAP can be associated with various extracolonic lesions, including thyroid cancer, which frequently occurs in women. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman diagnosed as having FAP with multiple metachronous thyroid papillary carcinomas. She underwent left thyroidectomy at the age of 19 years without a diagnosis of FAP. Multiple polyps in her stomach were detected by medical examination and more than 100 polyps in the colon were found by colonoscopy. She was referred to our hospital after a diagnosis of non-profuse FAP. Multiple tumors with a maximum diameter of 10mm were detected in the right lobe of the thyroid gland during the preoperative examination. Papillary carcinoma was suspected based on fine-needle aspiration cytology. We performed a right thyroidectomy after prophylactic colectomy. Pathological findings revealed a cribriform-morula variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient remains well after 2 year 6 months with no recurrence.

  7. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  8. The Roles of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Marker PRRX1 and miR-146b-5p in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Asioli, Sofia; Yu, Xiao-Min; Harrison, April D.; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma represents the most common thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid carcinomas that invade locally or metastasize are associated with a poor prognosis. We found that, during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), papillary thyroid carcinoma cells acquired increased cancer stem cell-like features and the transcription factor paired-related homeobox protein 1 (PRRX1; alias PRX-1), a newly identified EMT inducer, was markedly up-regulated. miR-146b-5p was also transiently up-regulated during EMT, and in siRNA experiments miR-146b-5p had an inhibitory role on cell proliferation and invasion during TGF-β1–induced EMT. We conclude that papillary thyroid carcinoma tumor cells exhibit increased cancer stem cell-like features during TGF-β1–induced EMT, that miR-146b-5p has a role in cell proliferation and invasion, and that PRRX1 plays an important role in papillary thyroid carcinoma EMT and disease progression. PMID:24946010

  9. SPECTRUM OF THYROID CARCINOMAS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sepuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases. In the Indian subcontinent, thyroid carcinoma exhibits a varied disease profile and geographic differences in the pattern of cancer, the knowledge of which impacts a more favourable clinical outcome. The present study aims to profile Thyroid carcinoma in areas of age, gender, geographic domicile, morphology & clinical features and referral paradigm of cases in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, the tertiary referral hospital for coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS & MATERIALS The Retrospective Study 1988-2004 includes 188 patients who attended Department of Nuclear Medicine for pre & postoperative nuclear scan, thyroid carcinoma treatment protocol, whose clinical features, relevant laboratory data, histopathological reports & prognosis were analysed. RESULTS Papillary thyroid carcinoma was present in 79% and Follicular thyroid carcinoma in 19%, Anaplastic & Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in 2% of cases (n=188, male to female ratio 1:0.62. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest 59% of cases who were in their 3rd and 4th decades. West Godavari District had lowest at 5%. Clinical presentation of cases of Thyroid carcinoma as a Nodule (61% which was the most common form lead to maximum number of referrals (n=82 from the Department of Surgery, King George Hospital. CONCLUSION In coastal Andhra Pradesh, papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most dominant form. Women were more affected than men. Painless thyroid nodule was the most common clinical feature. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest number of cases and maximum referrals were from Department of Surgery.

  10. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  11. 细胞周期增殖指标在甲状腺乳头状癌中的诊断价值%Value of Proliferation Biomarkers of Cell Cycle in Diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史琳; 张安文; 赵时梅; 罗宇; 任传伟; 马新博; 杨燕初

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of minichromosome maintenance protein 7 ( MCM7 ) and Ki-67 proteins in the proliferation biomarkers of cell cycle in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma .Methods Immu-nohistochemical SP method was used to detect the expressions of MCM 7 and Ki-67 proteins in 40 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma,30 cases of thyroid adenoma ,30 cases of nodular goiter and 20 cases of normal thyroid tissue . Results The positive rates of MCM7 and Ki-67 expressions in papillary thyroid carcinoma were 100.00%(40/40) and 80.00%(32/40),respectively,which were significantly higher than those in thyroid adenoma ,nodular goiter and normal thyroid tissue(all P0.05).The expression of MCM7 protein had a positive correlation with the expression of Ki-67 protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue (r=0.551,P<0.05).Conclusion The high expressions of MCM7 and Ki-67 protein in the thyroid of patients with cell cycle disorder and abnormal cell proliferation may involve in the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma .The combined examination of MCM 7 and Ki-67 proteins may be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.MCM7 is superior to Ki-67 in evaluating the activity of cell proliferation of malignant thyroid tumor ,and it has certain significance on evaluating the proliferation of tumor cells .%目的:对比研究细胞周期增殖指标MCM7和Ki-67蛋白在人甲状腺乳头状癌中的诊断价值。方法应用免疫组织化学SP法对甲状腺乳头状癌40例、腺瘤30例、结节性甲状腺肿30例及正常甲状腺组织20例进行MCM7、Ki-67蛋白表达检测。结果 MCM7、Ki-67蛋白在乳头状癌中的阳性表达率为100.00%(40/40)、80.00%(32/40),均显著高于良性病变及正常组中的表达率( P均<0.01)。甲状腺乳头状癌组织MCM7阳性表达率高于Ki-67,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。乳头状癌中MCM7、Ki-67蛋白表达与患者的性别、

  12. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Report of Two Cases and a Brief Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aşık

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is well described, however, the association of non-medullary thyroid cancer and PHPT is less recognized. Herein, we report two patients with PHPT and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Although no definitive data showing increased prevalence of non-medullary thyroid cancer in patients with parathyroid adenomas, possible coexistence of these two conditions should be borne in mind in preoperative evaluation. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 12-4

  13. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  15. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  16. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorook Na’ara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC.

  17. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-28

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC.

  18. A Case Report Demonstrating How the Clinical Presentation of the Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Can Mimic Benign Riedel’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 44-year-old female presented with a two-month history of a neck mass, sore throat, hoarseness, and intermittent dysphagia. Examination revealed a “woody” hard swelling arising from the right lobe of the thyroid. Clinically this was felt to be classical Riedel’s thyroiditis (RT. Thyroid ultrasound showed a diffusely enlarged, low echogenicity thyroid with a multinodular goitre. An abnormal nodule extending across the isthmus was noted. Following a nondiagnostic fine needle aspiration, an open core biopsy was performed. This showed dense sclerotic fibrosis punctuated by nodular mononuclear inflammatory cells, which obscured follicular epithelial cells consistent with a fibrosing thyroiditis (Riedel’s thyroiditis. A biopsy of pretracheal lymph nodes showed a sclerotic process throughout the lymph nodes and nests of epithelium bands with squamous differentiation obscured by a fibrous process. These findings raised the differential diagnosis of diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSV-PTC with metastasis to lymph nodes. A total thyroidectomy and pretracheal lymph node dissection were performed. The final histological diagnosis was DSV-PTC. When managing a patient with presumed RT it is important to consider malignancy in the differential. DSV-PTC is one of the more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer but with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment patients may have excellent outcomes.

  19. Multiple giant scalp metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehders Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of skin metastases are rare events in the course of a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC and usually indicate advanced tumor stages. The scalp is the most affected area of these metastases. Case presentation We present a case of a 76 year old Woman with multiple giant scalp metastases of a follicular carcinoma. These metastases had been resected and wounds had been closed with mesh graft. The 14-months follow up is presented. Conclusion We demonstrate another case with multicentric form. Because of its location and size a primary wound closure was not possible. A healing could be reached using vacuum therapy and mesh graft transplantation.

  20. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

  1. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  2. [Clinical characteristics of the thyroid follicular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Tamez-Peréz, Héctor Eloy; Díaz de León-Gonzaléz, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Avila-Sanchéz, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: se ha identificado carcinoma folicular en 39 % de los pacientes con nódulos tiroideos cuya citología prequirúrgica ha indicado resultados indeterminados. El propósito de esta investigación fue conocer la prevalencia de esta entidad en un hospital de concentración. Métodos: se buscaron los reportes quirúrgicos con diagnóstico de carcinoma folicular. Se registró tamaño del tumor, sexo y edad del paciente, diagnósticos pre y posquirúrgico y patologías asociadas. Resultados: se diagnosticó carcinoma folicular en 35 pacientes: 30 mujeres (85 %) y cinco hombres (15 %). La edad en los hombres fue de 57 ± 6.6 y de 44 ± 16.9 en las mujeres. Los diagnósticos preoperatorios fueron carcinoma folicular en 14 (40 %), cáncer tiroideo en seis (17.1 %), adenoma folicular en cuatro (11.4 %), bocio en tres (8.5 %), nódulo tiroideo en tres (8.5 %); carcinoma papilar, tumor de tiroides, carcinoma poco diferenciado de tiroides, adenocarcinoma folicular bien diferenciado, cáncer medular en un paciente (2.8 %) cada uno. Las patologías asociadas fueron tiroiditis de Hashimoto y carcinoma papilar contralateral, con dos pacientes cada uno (5.6 %). Conclusiones: la edad de los pacientes y la presentación clínica del carcinoma folicular difirieron de las informadas en otras investigaciones.

  3. The prevalence and distribution of Th17 and Tc17 cells in patients with thyroid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqin; Ma, Shoubao; Wei, Yan; Wu, Yan; Yu, Xiao; Liu, Haiyan

    2014-11-01

    Both Th17 and Tc17 cells have been found in various tumors and may play important roles in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. However, the prevalence and distribution of Th17 and Tc17 cells in thyroid tumors are still unclear. In the current study, we examined the percentages of Th17 and Tc17 cells in the peripheral blood of 31 thyroid adenoma and 11 thyroid carcinoma patients. The serum IL-17 levels were also examined and their associations with Th17 and Tc17 cells were evaluated. Moreover, the presence of Th17 cells was detected in both thyroid adenoma and carcinoma patients. Our results showed that compared with healthy individuals, patients with thyroid tumors had a higher proportion of Th17 and lower proportion of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood. The serum concentration of IL-17 was significantly increased in patients with thyroid tumors and it was correlated with the percent of Th17 cells. Furthermore, the number of Th17 cells was significantly increased in the tumors of the patients. Th17 and Tc17 cells were negatively correlated with the tumor size. There was no significant difference between thyroid adenoma and carcinoma patients. These results indicate that Th17 cells may contribute to thyroid tumor pathogenesis. PMID:25068436

  4. Metastatic cerebellar tumor of papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking cerebellar hemangioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ideguchi, Makoto; Nishizaki, Takafumi; Ikeda, Norio; Nakano, Shigeki; Okamura, Tomomi; Fujii, Natsumi; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Ikeda, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma generally (PTC) have a favorable prognosis. This metastasis is rare in the central nervous system. Brain metastasis has a relatively poor prognosis. We present a rare case of cerebellar metastasis, one that mimics a solid type cerebellar hemangioblastoma and because of which it was very hard to reach accurate preoperative diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis was challenging because of the similar imaging and histopathological findings for ...

  5. [Thyroid carcinoma: from diagnosis to therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Casà, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Romano, Giorgio; Marrazzo, Emilia; Buscemi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007 we performed 104 surgical operations for thyroid malignancies. Over the same period, 312 patients underwent surgery for benign lesions of the thyroid gland. The patients were subdivided on the basis of age bracket and gender and the distribution of cancer and benign nodules was evaluated. Feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography, scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration cytology were also evaluated. The incidence of thyroid cancer was 25% in all patients. Patients aged 71 had the highest rate of malignancies: 52% of patients under 30 years of age and 46% over 70 years. Males showed a higher incidence than females. The scintigraphic findings were an area of low uptake in 19 cases (47.5%), an irregular pattern in 12 patients (30%) and a high uptake in 9 cases (22.5%); in 3 of them (7.5%), cancer was in the contralateral lobe and in 2 cases (5%) the dimensions were 8 and 4 mm. Forty-three patients had a single hypoechoic nodule at ultrasonography (41.3%), 3 (3%) were found with hypoechoic nodules containing calcifications and 1 (0.9%) a single anechoic nodule. Fifty-six patients (53.9%) had multiple nodules and 1 (0.9%) was admitted for a latero-cervical lymph node. FNAC revealed 11 cases of fibronectin expression (14.4%): in particular, 3 patients (4%) had cancer in the contralateral lobe and 3 patients (4%) had tumours measuring less than 5 mm. Thyroid surgery is safe and the morbidity rate is about 2%. We observed only one lesion of recurrent nerve (0.5% of patients), temporary recurrent palsy in 2.8% of patients and transient hypocalcaemia in 6.7% of cases. PMID:19062491

  6. Somatostatin receptors and somatostatin content in medullary thyroid carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human medullary thyroid carcinomas from 19 patients were analyzed for their content in somatostatin (SRIF) receptors using receptor autoradiography with a SRIF-28 analogue and the SRIF octapeptide [Tyr3]-SMS 201-995 as iodinated radioligands. Four out of 19 cases were SRIF receptor positive with the SRIF octapeptide radioligand. These cases as well as four additional tumors were also positive with the SRIF-28 radioligand 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-SRIF-28. High affinity binding sites pharmacologically specific for bioactive SRIF analogues, specifically located on tumor tissue, were identified. In some cases the SRIF receptors were distributed in a non-homogeneous pattern, with labelling occurring preferentially in highly differentiated tumor regions. Numerous cases were shown to have a high tumoral SRIF content measured by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical technique. However, there was no correlation between SRIF receptor status and tumor levels of endogenous SRIF. No correlation was seen between the clinical outcome or the survival of the patients and their tumoral SRIF receptor content. Whereas some medullary thyroid carcinomas seem to be a target for SRIF, the SRIF function in these tumors remains unclear. SRIF receptors in a group of medullary thyroid carcinomas may be useful morphological marker of these tumors and of potential interest for their in vivo localization

  7. Clinicopathological and Molecular Histochemical Review of Skull Base Metastasis from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma

  8. 伴鳞样成分的甲状腺间变性癌临床病理分析%Clinicopathologic Analysis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma with Squamoid Cell Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘毅; 孙保存

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨伴鳞样成分的甲状腺间变性癌(anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamoid cell component,ATC-SCC)的诊断、鉴别诊断及临床病理特征.方法:回顾性分析85例少见甲状腺肿瘤的临床病理资料,通过HE切片进行形态学观察,对5例ATC-SCC,6例甲状腺鳞状细胞癌(squamous cell carcinoma,SCC),8例甲状腺呈胸腺样分化癌(carcinoma showing thymus-like ele?ments,CASTLE)和2 例甲状腺降钙素阴性的神经内分泌肿瘤(calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid gland,CNNETT)进行9项免疫组织化学染色,包括Cytokeratin(CK)、Vimentin(VM)、Chromogranin A(CgA)、Synaptophysin(SYN)、CD117、CD5、Calcitonin(CT)、Thyroglobulin(TG)和Thyroid transcription factor-1(TTF-1),并对结果进行分析.结果:5例ATC-SCC中,男性2例,女性3例;年龄41~79岁,平均年龄53.2岁;肿物位于左腺叶3例,右腺叶2例.临床表现为无痛性颈部肿物.肿物通常体积较大,质地硬实,与周围组织粘连.镜下可见肿瘤组织由梭形细胞、多形性巨细胞、破骨样细胞和鳞状上皮样细胞以不同比例混合而成,并可见胞浆红染的横纹肌样细胞及大片坏死.免疫组织化学染色显示5例ATC-SCC的肿瘤细胞CK和VM均阳性.鳞状上皮样细胞为主要成分时需要与SCC、CASTLE和CNNETT进行鉴别.结论:ATC-SCC多见于老年人,女性较多见,生长迅速,常扩展至甲状腺外累犯颈部软组织,预后非常差,手术和放化疗相结合是治疗ATC-SCC的基本原则.%Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamoid cell component ( ATC-SCC ).Methods: The data of 85 cases with rare thyroid neoplasms were retrospectively analyzed.Morphological observation of the sections from all cases was conducted after H&E staining.Five cases of ATC-SCC, 6 cases of thyroid squamous cell carcinoma ( TSCC ), 8 cases of with thyroid carcinoma showing thymus

  9. Macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with extensive lymph node metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Min-kyung; Bae, Ja Seong; Oh, Woo Jin; Park, Gyeong Sin; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2014-09-01

    The macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare subtype of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and is usually characterized by an indolent clinical course. The tumors are prone to be misdiagnosed as benign due to their macrofollicular architecture and bland cytologic features. We report a rare case of the macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with extensive lymph node metastases. The patient was a 48-year-old female with a right thyroid nodule and multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the right neck. It was not possible to make a definitive diagnosis of malignancy on fine-needle aspiration cytology and intraoperative frozen section. She underwent total thyroidectomy with right modified radical neck dissection. The surgical specimen showed a 2.5 × 1.5 × 10 cm, well-circumscribed macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right lobe and multiple central and right lateral neck lymph node metastases. Molecular testing for BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS was all negative. We then reviewed the demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of 71 patients with the macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The cytologic or histopathologic diagnosis of macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be difficult. Extensive lymph node metastases caused by the macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma may occur even in the absence of capsular or lymphovascular invasion. This review will help to better understand the nature of the macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Differentiation between healthy thyroid remnants and tumor tissue after radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using in-vitro phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In many tumors, tumor growth and spread is triggered by changes in cell membrane metabolism, which can lead to systemic alterations in levels of phospholipids. The aim of this study was to differentiate between healthy remnants of thyroid tissue and residual/recurrent tumor tissue or metastases in patients with thyroid carcinoma by measurement of plasma levels of various phospholipids. Phospholipid concentrations was measured by in-vitro phosphorus-31-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in blood samples from 30 patients with thyroid cancer, who had been rendered hypothyroid in preparation for diagnostic/therapeutic administration of iodine-131. All patients were already thyroidectomized. 131I-whole-body scintigraphy and measurements of thyroglobulin values in a 2-year-follow-up were used to distinguish between patients in remission, patients with only healthy thyroid remnants and patients with cancerous thyroid tissue and/or metastases. Significantly lower blood plasma levels of systemic sphingomyelin (0.33±0.06 vs. 0.46±0.03 (controls) mmol/l; p31P-MRS can be used to differentiate between the presence of tumor tissue, healthy remnants of thyroid tissue not requiring further treatment and remission in patients with thyroid cancer. In future, therefore, plasma 31P-MRS could be developed as an additional diagnostic tool for the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer. (author)

  11. Unusual presentation of Warthin variant of Papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph nodal metastases in a patient of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Arun, B R

    2015-01-01

    Warthin-like Papillary thyroid carcinoma (WPTC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid, PTC which derives its name by closely resembling Warthin's tumor of salivary gland. Hallmark histological feature of this variant is papillary folding lined by oncocytic neoplastic cells with clear nuclei and nuclear pseudoinclusions, accompanied by prominent lymphocytic infiltrate in the papillary stalks. It is thought to be one of those differentiated thyroid cancers with favorable prognosis. We report a case of Graves' disease with a cold nodule harboring WPTC with initial presentation of lymph nodal metastases. It is important to identify this peculiar variant of PTC as 5 to 10% of them undergo dedifferentiation and 30% have the lymph nodal metastases and extra thyroidal extension.

  12. Comparison of 2 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of BRAF V600E mutation in malignant melanoma, pulmonary carcinoma, gastrointestinal carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routhier, Caitlin Ann; Mochel, Mark C; Lynch, Kerry; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Louis, David N; Hoang, Mai P

    2013-11-01

    BRAF mutation is seen in a variety of human neoplasms including cutaneous malignant melanoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and others. Currently, there are 2 commercially available monoclonal antibodies for the detection of BRAF V600E mutation; however, a full and practical comparison of their performance in various tumor types on an automated staining platform has not been done. We investigated their sensitivity and specificity in detecting the BRAF V600E mutation in a series of 152 tumors including 31 malignant melanomas, 25 lung carcinomas, 32 gastrointestinal carcinomas, 23 thyroid carcinomas, 35 gliomas, and 6 other malignancies. In this series, the concordance rate between immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mutational analyses was 97% (148/152) for VE1 and 88% (131/149) for anti-B-Raf. The sensitivity and specificity were 98% (60/61) and 97% (88/91) for monoclonal VE1 and 95% (58/61) and 83% (73/88) for anti-B-Raf, respectively. There were 4 cases with discordant IHC and mutational results for monoclonal VE1 in contrast to 18 cases for anti-B-Raf. Our studies showed that IHC with monoclonal VE1 has a better performance compared with anti-B-Raf in an automated staining platform and confirmed that clone VE1 provides excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting the BRAF V600E mutation in a variety of tumor types in a clinical setting.

  13. TROP-2 immunohistochemistry: a highly accurate method in the differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Andrey; Sampatanukul, Pichet; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Keelawat, Somboon

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the novel immunohistochemical marker TROP-2 on thyroid specimens (226 tumours and 207 controls). Whole slide immunohistochemistry was performed and scored by automated digital image analysis. Non-neoplastic thyroid, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and medullary carcinomas were negative for TROP-2 immunostaining. The majority of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) specimens (94/114, 82.5%) were positive for TROP-2; however, the pattern of staining differed significantly between the histopathological variants. All papillary microcarcinomas (mPTC), PTC classic variant (PTC cv), and tall cell variant (PTC tcv) were TROP-2 positive, with mainly diffuse staining. In contrast, less than half of the PTC follicular variant specimens were positive for TROP-2, with only focal immunoreactivity. TROP-2 could identify PTC cv with 98.1% sensitivity and 97.5% specificity. ROC curve analysis found that the presence of >10% of TROP-2 positive cells in a tumour supported a diagnosis of PTC. The study of intratumoural heterogeneity showed that low-volume cytological samples of PTC cv could be adequately assessed by TROP-2 immunostaining. The TROP-2 H-score (intensity multiplied by proportion) was significantly associated with PTC variant and capsular invasion in encapsulated PTC follicular variant (pdisease, stage) parameters were correlated with TROP-2 expression. In conclusion, TROP-2 membranous staining is a very sensitive and specific marker for PTC cv, PTC tcv, and mPTC, with high overall specificity for PTC. PMID:27311870

  14. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Shafek Atta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner’s, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A.

  15. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ihab Shafek; AlQahtani, Fahd Nasser

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner's, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A. PMID:27087812

  16. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  17. Osteoclastoma-like anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Leena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor that is partially or totally undifferentiated. The use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC to diagnose anaplastic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells, has been rarely reported. We report here a case of osteoclastoma - anaplastic carcinoma - that was diagnosed on cytology in a 58 year-old female patient, who presented with a progressively increasing swelling over the anterior aspect of the neck. Multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts are rarely seen in the giant cell variant of anaplastic carcinoma.

  18. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  19. Utility of a novel triple marker (combination of thyroid transcription factor 1, Napsin A, and P40) in the subclassification of non-small cell lung carcinomas using fine-needle aspiration cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Li; Gurda, Grzegorz T; Geddes, Susan; Gabrielson, Edward; Askin, Frederic; Li, Qing Kay

    2016-08-01

    Personalized treatment of lung cancer requires an accurate subclassification of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) into adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), and other subtypes. In poorly differentiated tumors especially on small fine-needle aspirate specimens, the subclassification could be difficult in certain cases. Our previous study using resected tumor tissue has shown that the combination of commonly used individual markers (thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF-1], P40, and Napsin A) into a novel triple marker has high sensitivity and specificity in subclassification of NSCLC and also the advantage of using minimal tumor tissue. In this study, we further evaluated the utility of this novel triple marker using fine-needle aspirate cases. We included primary NSCLC, consisting of 37 SqCCs (primary, 35; metastasis, 2) and 50 ADCs (primary, 29; metastasis, 21), 12 metastatic ADCs of nonpulmonary primary, and 10 small cell lung carcinomas. The immunohistochemical patterns were semiquantitatively scored. In lung SqCCs and ADCs, the sensitivity and specificity of the triple marker were 100% and 97.1% and 86.0% and 100%, respectively. The triple marker showed no immunoreactivity in 12 metastatic nonpulmonary ADCs. In 10 small cell lung carcinomas, TTF-1 had focal positivity in 40% of cases. The limitations of the triple marker include staining of alveolar macrophages (by TTF-1 and Napsin A), basal layer of bronchial epithelial cells (by P40), and nonspecific cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1. Our study not only supports our previous finding using resected tumor specimens but also provides evidence that the triple marker can be used for cytological material and preserving tumor tissue for molecular testing. PMID:27045515

  20. Surgical Management of Bulky Mediastinal Metastases in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Adwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.

  1. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, dermoid cyst and polycystic ovary syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Total body scintigraphy after the I-131 treatment for thyroid carcinoma is a routine procedure in staging. For smaller tumors uptake outside the neck is seldomly seen, usually benign and without clinical significance. However, a conscientious analysis of there accumulations can be relevant. A 33 year-old female presented in December 1998 with a T2N1M0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroidectomy, neck dissection and 50 mCi 1-131 treated her. The post-therapy scan was negative except for a small spot in the neck (thyroidremnant: 3.0 %). In September 1999 150 mCi was administered and the scan afterwards showed a focus median in the neck (thyroid remnant: 0.3 %) and a persistent hotspot in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen (figure). The thyreoglobuline was 3.8 μg/l (unchanged to the first I-131 therapy) during maximal TSH Stimulation (174 mu/l). Transvaginal ultrasound revealed an enlarged left ovary which was laparoscopical removed and appeared to be a dermoid cyst with hair- and skincomponents, respiratory epithelia and bone. Only after staining on thyreoglobuline thyroid tissue was demonstrated; there were no signs of malignancy. Six months later a 10 mCi I-131 scintigraphy was negative; thyreoglobuline was < 0.5 μg/l and TSH 161 mg/l suggesting no thyroid tissue was present in the Body. Her medical history showed a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). She received treatment for ovulation induction including clomiphene, HCG, FSH and LH. Her thyroid function was normal. After two miscarriages She gave birth to a daughter. Germ cells must been present since birth to form a dermoid cyst during life. In our patient, the dermoid cyst with benign thyroid cells was visualized only after the second I-131 therapy. We assume that the sensitivity of a scan after 50 mCi and 150 mCi I-131 is equal. Therefore, probably not the ovulation induction medication but the TSH stimulation for the I-131 therapy is the reason for the development of the dermoid cyst. That only

  2. Embolization in combination with radioiodine therapy for bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, KM; Hew, JM; Jager, PL; Vermey, A; Dullaart, RPF; Links, TP

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome for patients with bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma is worse compared to the overall prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of embolization with concomitant radioiodine treatment on the s

  3. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation : A case report with a good clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Marijke; Persoon, Adrienne C. M.; Plukker, John T. M.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Links, Thera P.

    2008-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare and highly malignant disease. Usually, this type of tumor is irresectable, and almost all patients die within 1 year after diagnosis. We present a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and good therapeutic outcome. A 76-year

  4. A retrospective analysis of clinical and pathological features of thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in patients from Qilu Hospital of Shandong University in last 7 years,and to explore the changes in disease spectrum.Methods Records of 772 patients with thyroid carcinoma,who underwent thyroidectomy and pathological examination,were

  5. Trace elemental analysis of adenoma and carcinoma thyroid by PIXE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Anjaneyulu, Ch.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Sundareswar, B.; Vijayan, V.

    2002-11-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of normal, adenoma and carcinoma thyroids using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, I, Hg and Pb were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of the elements Ca, Cu, Zn, As, I and Hg are found to be much lower in carcinoma thyroid than those in the normal thyroid while the concentration of the elements K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Sr in carcinoma thyroid are higher than the concentrations in normal thyroid. The lower and higher values of some of the elements in carcinoma thyroid may be attributed to some pathological factors.

  6. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying poorly differentiated features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Tadao; Celestino, Ricardo; Machado, José Carlos; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Vinagre, João; Eloy, Catarina; Benserai, Fátima; Lameche, Samia; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMVPTC) usually occurs in the setting of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) although it can rarely arise sporadically. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is a follicular cell-derived neoplasm with more aggressive behavior than well-differentiated carcinomas such as CMVPTC. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman without FAP history who presented a left neck mass and complained of back pain. Imagiological examinations revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid and multiple nodular lesions in the bone and lungs suggestive of metastases. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine. The tumor was composed of CMVPTC and PDTC components that shared the same somatic APC gene mutation (p.Cys520Tyr_fsX534). Besides this mutation, no CTNNB1, BRAF, N-RAS, and H-RAS gene mutations were detected in any of the 2 components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a sporadic CMVPTC with transformation into PDTC. Although the majority of CMVPTCs carry an indolent clinical outcome, the coexistence of poorly differentiated areas may justify the aggressiveness of the CMVPTC reported here. PMID:23349472

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia following radioactive iodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Ankit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive iodine (RAI therapy plays an important role in the management of thyroid malignancies. Leukemia is a very rare complication of radioactive therapy. There are very few case reports with doses below 100 mCi causing leukemia. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated with 80 mCi RAI who later developed acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, all patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with RAI should undergo periodic hematological examinations irrespective of RAI dose.

  8. Acute myeloid leukemia following radioactive iodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Ankit; Premalata CS; Saini KV; Bapsy PP; Sajeevan KV; Tejinder Singh; Ullas Batra; Babu Govind; Lokanatha Dasappa; Suresh Atilli; Permeshwar R

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy plays an important role in the management of thyroid malignancies. Leukemia is a very rare complication of radioactive therapy. There are very few case reports with doses below 100 mCi causing leukemia. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated with 80 mCi RAI who later developed acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, all patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with RAI should undergo periodic hematological examinations irrespective of RAI dose.

  9. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, E.J.; Paul, J.; Reed, N.S. (Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dyspnagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. (Author).

  10. A Case of Primary Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the Thyroid Masquerading as Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Potentially More than a One Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S; Shaheen, M; Olson, G; Barry, M; Wu, J; Bocklage, T

    2016-09-01

    We present the second reported mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) apparently arising in the thyroid and propose a potential close relationship to ETV6-NTRK3 fusion papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient, a 36 year old woman, presented with a neck mass of 1 year's duration. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving most of the thyroid with enlarged regional lymph nodes. FNA biopsy yielded a diagnosis of "papillary thyroid carcinoma". Resection revealed a 4.5 cm infiltrative tumor. Final diagnosis was "papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) consistent with diffuse sclerosing variant" with positive lymph nodes (2+/4) and margins. Histologic features included mixed microcystic, solid, follicular and papillary architecture, prominent nucleoli, abundant nuclear grooves and rare nuclear pseudo-inclusions. Despite radioactive iodine, radiotherapy and multiagent chemotherapy, the patient progressed over 6 years with local recurrence and additional lymph node involvement finally developing widespread distant metastases. Prompted by the breast carcinoma-like histopathology of a metastasis, immunohistochemical staining was performed and revealed strong expression of GATA3 and mammaglobin with no reactivity for thyroglobulin or TTF-1. The original tumor was then tested and showed the same immunoprofile. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion consistent with a diagnosis of MASC. Our patient's clinical, imaging and morphologic features remarkably mimicked papillary thyroid carcinoma. At the molecular level, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in this patient involved exons reported in the rare "papillary thyroid carcinoma" with this translocation. Given the immunophenotype of this case, it is possible that at least some ETV6-NTRK3 fusion positive PTC are actually MASC masquerading as papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27075025

  11. Cediranib Maleate With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  12. Double primary bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jen-Hsun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Double primary bronchogenic carcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid are extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient who underwent surgical resection for these two cancers. Case presentation A 56-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of a cough with blood-tinged sputum. A slowly growing mass in the left lobe of the lung had been noted for about 1 year. He underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery of the left lower lobe and mediastinal lymph node dissection through an 8 cm utility incision. Pathology revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and the dissected lymph nodes were negative for malignancy. He also complained of a mass in his neck, which had grown slowly for over 5 years. A computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a left thyroid mass compressing the trachea towards the right side. There was no cervical lymphadenopathy. A left thyroid lobectomy was performed and pathology revealed a papillary carcinoma. Thus, he underwent a second operation to remove the right lobe of the thyroid. He underwent subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion In a review of the literature, it appears that there has only been one previously reported case of these two cancers, which was in Japan. The relationship between these two cancers is still unclear, and more case reports are required to determine this relationship.

  13. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  14. The pathology of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied data on the sex and age distribution of 293 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children operated in Belarus between January 1990 and December 1994. We have also reviewed the histology of 134 cases and performed immunocytochemistry for calcitonin, thyroglobulin, ret, met and p53 and in situ hybridisation for thyroglobulin and calcitonin on a sample of these cases. We have compared the data derived from this series with those obtained from a similar series of 122 cases operated in Kiev, Ukraine over the same time period and those from 154 cases operated in England and Wales over a 30 year period. There was agreement on the diagnosis of malignancy in 132 of the 134 Belarussian cases (98%). In 2 of the cases there was no evidence of malignancy in the material seen in Cambridge, but not all the original pathological material was available for review. In 7 cases there was evidence of malignancy, but inadequate material to determine the subtype of malignancy. The papillary carcinomas were classified as of the classic type when they showed a papillary architecture and the nuclear features typical of adult papillary carcinoma, or of the solid follicular type as described in the series studied in England and Wales (1). Four were papillary micro carcinomas. The age and sex distribution of all cases from Belarus showed a markedly different pattern from that observed in England and Wales. In Belarus the peak was at age 9, while the England and Wales series showed a smooth rise in incidence with increasing age. Virtually all the cases from Belarus were papillary carcinoma (99%) compared with only 68% in England and Wales. In addition, there was a higher proportion of papillary carcinomas of the solid/follicular type (72% in Belarus, 35% in England and Wales). The frequency of this subtype did not change significantly with age in Belarus, whereas there was a relative decrease from 62% in the 0-9 year age group to 23% in the 10-14 year age group in England and Wales

  15. Comparative light- and electro microscopic characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents in Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    190 thyroid carcinomas in children aged up to 15 (154 cases) and adolescents aged 15 to 18 (36 cases) operated at the Institute's Clinic from 1986 to the 30th of June 1995, have been studied using light and electron microscopy. It has been found in 93.2% papillary, in 3.2% - medullary, in 1% - anaplastic carcinomas. A typical papillary carcinoma was revealed in 11.5%, follicular variant - in 39.0%, solid variant - in 28.1%, diffuse and sclerosing variant - in 3.8%. In cases of solid variant low-differentiated cells prevailed in the tumor, what manifested itself the most obviously by electron microscopic analysis. The thyroid carcinomas studied in children and adolescents of Ukraine are characterized by high invasive properties, that is confirmed by a high percentage (66.5%) of regional metastases

  16. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Children and Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the ultrasonography and pathology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pediatric and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with those of non-HT patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients who were surgically confirmed to have pediatric or adolescent PTC from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative ultrasonography and pathology features of PTC arising in HT and non-HT patients. Results. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was lobulated and enlarged, with many scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. Four of six non-HT patients had suspicious masses with calcifications. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC (DSVPTC) was found in three of five HT patients, but none in non-HT patients. Macroscopic or microscopic extrathyroidal extension was evident in all of the HT patients and four of the non-HT patients. Neck lymph node metastases were in all HT patients and five of non-HT patients. Conclusions. Three of five PTCs in pediatric and adolescent HT patients were DSVPTC, whereas all PTCs of the non-HT patients were classic type. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged with scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. All five HT cases had aggressive disease, including extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. PMID:26977145

  17. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

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    Francesco Cetta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement, suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1 for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2 for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP.

  18. Cranium Metastasis: An Unusual Presentation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Ayşe Kubat Üzüm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distant metastasis may be the initial sign of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in rare cases. In this instance, the treatment approach is usually individualized. Unlike most other cancers, local treatment of the primary tumor (total thyroidectomy is preferred as ablative surgery; so that radioactive iodine therapy should be more effective. Repeated doses of I-131 and radiotherapy for metastatic lesions may be needed. We report a female who presented with bone metastasis with fatal progression. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 71-4

  19. Carcinoma of the Thyroid. Preoperative diagnostic and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By improving preoperative diagnosis and identification of important prognostic factors of thyroid carcinoma (TC) it might be possible to decrease the number of diagnostic surgical intervantions and to give patients with a confirmed TC a more adequate treatment. Preoperative diagnosis: consecutive series of 83 patients with scintigrams and of 203 patients with fine-needle aspiration (AC) with subsequently histologically confirmed TC were evaluated as well as 217 patients with confirmed benign thyroid disorders. The most common scintigraphic appearance was a solitary reduced uptake (70%). The sensitivity of AC for medullary and undifferentiated TC was 0.82-0.84, but it was for papillary (occult TC excluded) 0.58 and for follicular TC 0.42. A 'cold' nodule with also a decreased thallium-uptake is mostly a benign disorder, but with an increased uptake it might be a well-differentiated TC or a follicular adenoma. These could, however, be significantly separated by the thallium-elimination rate (p=0.0001). Prognostic factors: During 1955-1972, 262 patients with histologically verified TC were referred to the Department and 226 of these (86%) with a median follow-up of 11 years form the basis for prognostic multivariate analyses. According to these analyses, and when deaths in intercurrent disease were estimated, neither age at diagnosis nor sex were found to be important predictors of survival of TC. The following predictors were identified: for papillary TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule and marked cellular atypia; for follicular TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule, marked cellular atypia and distant metastases; for medullary TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule. (Author)

  20. HABP2 G534E Variant in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

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    Jerneja Tomsic

    Full Text Available The main nonmedullary form of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC that accounts for 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies. Only 3-10% of PTC patients have a positive family history of PTC yet the familiality is one of the highest of all cancers as measured by case control studies. A handful of genes have been implicated accounting for a small fraction of this genetic predisposition. It was therefore of considerable interest that a mutation in the HABP2 gene was recently implicated in familial PTC. The present work was undertaken to examine the extent of HABP2 variant involvement in PTC. The HABP2 G534E variant (rs7080536 was genotyped in blood DNA from 179 PTC families (one affected individual per family, 1160 sporadic PTC cases and 1395 controls. RNA expression of HABP2 was tested by qPCR in RNA extracted from tumor and normal thyroid tissue from individuals that are homozygous wild-type or heterozygous for the variant. The variant was found to be present in 6.1% familial cases, 8.0% sporadic cases (2 individuals were homozygous for the variant and 8.7% controls. The variant did not segregate with PTC in one large and 6 smaller families in which it occurred. In keeping with data from the literature and databases the expression of HABP2 was highest in the liver, much lower in 3 other tested tissues (breast, kidney, brain but not found in thyroid. Given these results showing lack of any involvement we suggest that the putative role of variant HABP2 in PTC should be carefully scrutinized.

  1. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad-Reza; Amirtouri, Reza; Davati, Ali; Askari, Samaneh; Siadati, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), occurs mostly in women and sex hormones may play a role in the pathogenesis and clinical course. The objective of this study was to determine the status and prevalence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in PTC with regard to age, gender, tumor size and lymph node involvement. Methods: Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 92 tissue blocks of PTC for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in tumor cells. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine statistical difference using statistical software SPSS. Results: The mean age of patients was 39.32±1.7 years (range 13-80) with 79(85.9%) women and 13 (14.1%) men. Lymph node involvement was seen in 76.1% of patients. The average tumor size was 3.6±2.21 cm. The rate of ER and PR expression were 46.75% and 5.6%, respectively. ER expression for females was higher than males (P=0.014), but no relation was found between males and females in PR expression (P=0.7). Also there was no statistical difference between ER and PR expression with respect to age, lymph node involvement and tumor size. Conclusion: Our study showed higher ER expression in females than males with PTC. No relation was found between the expression of these receptors and age of presentation, lymph node involvement and tumor size. Further investigation is required to determine the prognostic importance of ER and PR in PTC.

  2. Mixed Medullary-follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangtao Ma; Liwei Yu; Jing Fu; Shan Wang; Ruyu Du; Zhirong Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mixed medullary-follicular carcinomas (MMFCs) are tumors of the thyroid that display morphological and immunohistochemical features of both medullary and follicular neoplasms. These tumors are rare and less than 40 cases have been described in the literature since the early 1980s.[1] The term medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma denotes a tumor which exhibits the features of a medullary carcinoma and shows positive expression of calcitonin on immunohistochemistry.

  3. Actual Incidence and Clinical Behaviour of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: An Institutional Experience

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    Carmela De Crea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma classically accounts for 10–32% of thyroid malignancies. We determined the incidence and the behaviour of follicular thyroid carcinoma in an endemic goitre area. A comparative analysis between minimally invasive and widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma was performed. The medical records of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy from October 1998 to April 2012 for thyroid malignancies were reviewed. Those who had a histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma were included. Among 5203 patients, 130 (2.5% were included. Distant metastases at presentation were observed in four patients. Sixty-six patients had a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and 64 a widely invasive follicular carcinoma. In 63 patients an oxyphilic variant was registered. Minimally/widely invasive ratio was 41/26 for usual follicular carcinoma and 25/38 for oxyphilic variant (P<0.05. Patients with widely invasive tumors had larger tumors (P<0.001 and more frequently oxyphilic variant (P<0.05 than those with minimally invasive tumours. No significant difference was found between widely invasive and minimally invasive tumors and between usual follicular carcinoma and oxyphilic variant regarding the recurrence rate (P=NS. The incidence of follicular thyroid carcinoma is much lower than classically retained. Aggressive treatment, including total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, should be proposed to all patients.

  4. A case of minocycline-induced black thyroid associated with papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Kohei; Kumai, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Daizo; Yumoto, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    We report a rare case of black thyroid accompanied by papillary carcinoma in a patient with an extended history of minocycline treatment. A 78-year-old man was referred to our outpatient clinic with swelling in his neck. He had been taking minocycline for the previous 2 years and 7 months to treat chronic perianal pyoderma. Neck ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a 3.5 × 3.7 × 5.0-cm nodule in the left thyroid lobe, and fine-needle aspiration cytology identified it as a papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy and neck dissection. During the procedure, a distinct black discoloration of the thyroid parenchyma was observed. Histopathology confirmed both the black thyroid and the papillary carcinoma. Based on the thyroid gland's discoloration and the history of minocycline use, the patient was diagnosed with minocycline-induced black thyroid. He was symptom-free 20 months after surgery. PMID:26991226

  5. Thyroid Carcinoma with Pituitary Metastases: 2 Case Reports and Literature Review

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    Weiying Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 2 patients with pituitary metastases from thyroid carcinoma—the first from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and the second from follicular thyroid carcinoma. The first patient, a 50-year-old lady, presented with 2-week history of hoarseness of voice, dysphagia, dyspnoea, and neck swelling. Imaging revealed metastatic thyroid cancer to lymph nodes and bone. Histology from surgery confirmed anaplastic thyroid cancer. She was found to have pituitary metastases postoperatively when she presented with nonvertiginous dizziness. She subsequently underwent radiotherapy and radioiodine treatment but passed away from complications. The second patient, a 65-year-old lady, presented with loss of appetite and weight with increased goitre size and dyspnoea. Surgery was performed in view of compressive symptoms and histology confirmed follicular thyroid carcinoma. Imaging revealed metastases to bone, lung, and pituitary. She also had panhypopituitarism with hyperprolactinemia and diabetes insipidus. She received radioiodine therapy but eventually passed away from complications.

  6. Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were

  7. Surgery for lymph node metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Linda X; Moley, Jeffrey F

    2016-02-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy of the thyroid C cells that occurs in hereditary and sporadic clinical settings. Metastatic spread commonly occurs to cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes. MTC cells do not concentrate radioactive iodine and are not sensitive to hormonal manipulation, and therefore surgery is the most effective option for curative therapy, reduction in tumor burden, or effective palliation. In patients undergoing preventative surgery for hereditary MTC, central lymph node dissection should be considered if the calcitonin level is elevated. Preservation of parathyroid function in these young patients is of paramount importance. In patients with established primary tumors, systematic surgical removal of lymph node basins (compartmental dissection) should be guided by ultrasound mapping of lymph node metastases and level of serum calcitonin. A "berry-picking" approach is discouraged. Newly approved targeted molecular therapies offer wider treatment options for patients with progressive or metastatic disease. PMID:26539937

  8. The indication for 131I-therapy in occult thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the normal population is several orders of magnitude higher than the incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer, and the recurrence rate or mortality is very low, even after conservative therapy. Therefore, occult papillary thyroid carcinoma has to be considered as distinct biologic entity. Therefore, we recommend no further surgery or ablation of the thyroid remnant with 131I for patients less than 40 years old with occult papillary carcinoma without metastases. In case of metastases, however, 131I-therapy should be performed after total thyroidectomy. All follicular thyroid carcinomas, regardless of their size, are to be treated by total thyroidectomy and 131I-therapy. All patients receive TSH-suppressive levothyroxine therapy and undergo regular follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Differential protein expression profiles of cyst fluid from papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid lesions.

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    Andrii Dinets

    Full Text Available Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC is a subgroup of PTC presenting a diagnostic challenge at fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. To further investigate this entity we aimed to characterize protein profiles of cyst fluids from cPTC and benign thyroid cystic lesions. In total, 20 cPTCs and 56 benign thyroid cystic lesions were studied. Profiling by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was performed on cyst fluids from a subset of cases after depletion, and selected proteins were further analyzed by Western blot (WB, immunohistochemistry (IHC and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total of 1,581 proteins were detected in cyst fluids, of which 841 were quantified in all samples using LC-MS/MS. Proteins with different expression levels between cPTCs and benign lesions were identified by univariate analysis (41 proteins and multivariate analysis (59 proteins in an orthogonal partial least squares model. WB analyses of cyst fluid and IHC on corresponding tissue samples confirmed a significant up-regulation of cytokeratin 19 (CK-19/CYFRA 21-1 and S100A13 in cPTC vs. benign lesions. These findings were further confirmed by ELISA in an extended material of non-depleted cyst fluids from cPTCs (n = 17 and benign lesions (n = 55 (p55 ng/ml for CK-19 resulted in 82% specificity and sensitivity. For S100A13 a cut-off at >230 pg/ml revealed a 94% sensitivity, but only 35% specificity. This is the first comprehensive catalogue of the protein content in fluid from thyroid cysts. The up-regulations of CK-19 and S100A13 suggest their possible use in FNAB based preoperative diagnostics of cystic thyroid lesions.

  10. Differential protein expression profiles of cyst fluid from papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinets, Andrii; Pernemalm, Maria; Kjellin, Hanna; Sviatoha, Vitalijs; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Larsson, Catharina; Lehtiö, Janne; Höög, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) is a subgroup of PTC presenting a diagnostic challenge at fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). To further investigate this entity we aimed to characterize protein profiles of cyst fluids from cPTC and benign thyroid cystic lesions. In total, 20 cPTCs and 56 benign thyroid cystic lesions were studied. Profiling by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on cyst fluids from a subset of cases after depletion, and selected proteins were further analyzed by Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,581 proteins were detected in cyst fluids, of which 841 were quantified in all samples using LC-MS/MS. Proteins with different expression levels between cPTCs and benign lesions were identified by univariate analysis (41 proteins) and multivariate analysis (59 proteins in an orthogonal partial least squares model). WB analyses of cyst fluid and IHC on corresponding tissue samples confirmed a significant up-regulation of cytokeratin 19 (CK-19/CYFRA 21-1) and S100A13 in cPTC vs. benign lesions. These findings were further confirmed by ELISA in an extended material of non-depleted cyst fluids from cPTCs (n = 17) and benign lesions (n = 55) (p55 ng/ml for CK-19 resulted in 82% specificity and sensitivity. For S100A13 a cut-off at >230 pg/ml revealed a 94% sensitivity, but only 35% specificity. This is the first comprehensive catalogue of the protein content in fluid from thyroid cysts. The up-regulations of CK-19 and S100A13 suggest their possible use in FNAB based preoperative diagnostics of cystic thyroid lesions. PMID:25978681

  11. MIBI-SPECT in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma; MIBI-SPECT bei kalten Knoten zur Schilddruesenkarzinomdetektion

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    Schmidt, M.; Schicha, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-12-15

    The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m-MIBI in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma is presented. Tc-99m-MIBI is a lipophilic cation and a non-specific radiopharmaceutical for tumour imaging. It has become an important imaging technique for the assessment of hypofunctioning thyroid nodules because of its high negative predictive value excluding malignant thyroid tumours. After injection of Tc-99m-MIBI either a single-phase protocol with late planar and SPECT images about 1-2 h post injection or a double-phase protocol with early (about 15-30 min p.i.) and late images (about 2 h p.i.) were reported. Findings include a reduced, an isointense or an increased Tc-99m-MIBI accumulation in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the paranodular thyroid tissue and in comparison to pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. A 'Match' between pertechnetate and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy is a concordantly decreased uptake in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the normal thyroid gland. This finding has a negative predictive value of >97% to exclude differentiated thyroid cancer. A definite 'Mismatch' means a cold thyroid nodule on pertechnetate scintigraphy and an increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI in comparison to the MIBI-uptake of the paranodular thyroid tissue. The positive predictive value of this finding for malignancy varies between studies and is in the range of <10-65% (Cologne data: 19%) depending on the prevalence of malignant thyroid tumours in the patient population studied. An isointense uptake was not associated with thyroid malignancy according to 'Cologne' data. Further studies are desirable for better characterization of the method. (orig.)

  12. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: an unusual cause of thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, David Owen; Anthony, Victoria Angharad; Jones, Keston; Stephens, Jeffrey W

    2015-05-06

    Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule is rare. A further complexity is added when interpretation of the histopathology itself is not straightforward. We describe a case of a 16-year-old girl presenting with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis, and a 4 cm thyroid mass. An ultrasound and thyroid uptake scan demonstrated a toxic adenoma. Owing to the nodule size, fine needle aspiration of the thyroid adenoma was performed, which showed findings consistent with toxic adenoma. However, in view of the size of the nodule, a hemithyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination of the thyroid revealed a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, and the patient underwent completion thyroidectomy. We report on the case and briefly review the available literature relating to the diagnostic challenge of this presentation.

  13. Toxoplasmic Lymphadenitis Mimicking a Metastatic Thyroid Carcinoma at 18F-FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 28-year-old woman underwent total thyroidectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe (pTx, pN1b). Subsequently a 131I-ablation (4.4 GBq) was performed. Four years later the patient presented increased thyroglobulin (Tg) serum levels (8.4 μg/l) during thyroxine treatment. Furthermore, enlarged hypoechoic and round-shaped bilateral cervical lymph nodes were detected at cervical ultrasonography (US). Based on laboratory and US findings suspicious for lymph nodal recurrence of thyroid carcinoma, the patient underwent an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to check for distant metastases (Fig. 1). The patient underwent a US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on an 18F-FDG-avid cervical lymph-node. The smears were hypercellulated and consisted of numerous small- to medium-sized lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and tingible body macrophages. The cytological diagnosis was consistent with that of reactive lymphadenitis. Serological test revealed elevated IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies with a very low IgG-avidity, indicating an acute toxoplasmosis. Serum Tg was then measured by using heterophilic antibody blocking tubes, as previously reported, and serum value dropped to 18F-FDG-PET/CT in oncological patients. Few reports have described toxoplasmic infection mimicking malignancy at 18F-FDG-PET/CT; these findings were found mainly in immunodepressive patients or with history of lymphoma. Conversely, we described here a case of toxoplasmosis inducing false-positive Tg measurement, neck US and 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma

  14. Bone marrow changes in patients with thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma 79 MRI bone marrow examinations and 48 bone marrow scintigraphies were recorded before or following radioiodine therapy, to study the extent of bone marrow expansion. The results of both methods were the same. In 34/79 investigations normal findings were seen, in 18 the bone marrow expanded to the middle third and in 26 to the distal third of the femur. One patient showed bone marrow expansion to the tibia. These results were compared with the following data: Histology of tumor, TNM-staging, time passed since thyroidectomy, accumulated doses of radioiodine therapy, results of 131I scintigraphy, hematological changes, thyroglobulin level, age and sex. No significant correlations were found between these and the bone marrow imaging results. Bone marrow changes in patients before radioiodine therapy were similar to those in patients treated with up to 48 GBq 131I. Blind biopsy of the posterior iliac crest in five patients showed slightly pathological reactive changes. In only 2/17 follow-up studies an increase of bone marrow expansion was seen. In 8 patients localized findings indicating malignant infiltration were observed. In 4/8 patients metastases of thyroid carcinoma were known or confirmed by pathological radioiodine uptake and in 2/8 metastatic involvement was assumed because of an increased thyroglobulin level. (orig.)

  15. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

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    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  16. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... 300 PUVA treatments. What causes Merkel cell carcinoma? Scientists are still studying what causes this skin cancer. ...

  17. HBME-1, CD15 and p53 Protein Expression in Thyroid Carcinoma and their Significance in Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JionyingUu; JingpingYang; Songlin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the protein expression of HBME-1, CD15 and p53 in thyroid carcinoma and in bengin thyroid diseases and to evaluate their value in diagnosis of thyroid disease. METHODS Sixty-one cases of thyroid carcinoma and 27 cases of different kinds of benign thyroid diseases were studied by immunohistochemical methods.RFSUTLS All cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were positive for HBME- 1,35.7% positive for CD15 and only 14.3% positive for p53. Twentyseven cases of benign thyroid lesions were absolutely negative for p53,7.4% of which were CD15 positive and 25.9% of which were HBME-1 positive. CONCLUSION HBME-1 and CD15 may be helpful to assist differential diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid diseases.

  18. Ablative radioactive iodine therapy for apparently localized thyroid carcinoma. A decision analytic perspective

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    Wong, J.B.; Kaplan, M.M.; Meyer, K.B.; Pauker, S.G. (Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Adjuvant therapy with ablative radioiodine after surgical resection of apparently localized thyroid carcinoma remains controversial because of the favorable prognosis of thyroid carcinoma and the risk of leukemia from the radioiodine. No controlled trials have been performed to examine this issue. We constructed a decision analytic model to examine whether patients with apparently localized thyroid carcinoma should receive radioiodine. Our analysis suggests that radioiodine modestly improves life expectancy by 2 to 15 months, depending on the patient's age and sex. This model predicts that the benefit of a reduction in the likelihood of recurrence outweighs the risk of leukemia from radioiodine.

  19. Ku70反义寡核苷酸增强甲状腺癌细胞的辐射敏感性%Ku70 antisense oligo-nucleotide enhances the radiosensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇金; 邹大进

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究DNA修复基因Ku70反义寡核苷酸(ASODN)对甲状腺癌细胞辐射敏感性的影响.方法 设计合成特异性靶向Ku70的ASODN,以不同浓度转染人甲状腺髓样癌细胞(TT),并设脂质体和正义寡核苷酸(SODN)对照组进行比较.采用Western印迹技术检测各组细胞中Ku70蛋白表达水平.利用不同剂量60 Co γ射线照射细胞后,细胞克隆形成实验检测细胞存活分数.CCK-8法、Annexin-V/PI染色法分析ASODN对细胞活力和细胞凋亡的影响.彗星电泳法比较γ射线照射后DNA双链断裂的修复效率.结果 转染ASODN各组细胞Ku70蛋白表达均较脂质体对照组、SODN组明显降低,并呈浓度依赖性;照射后细胞存活率降低(P<0.01),凋亡率显著增加(P<0.01),DNA双链断裂的修复效率降低(P<0.01).结论 ASODN能够特异性地下调甲状腺癌细胞Ku70的表达,抑制γ射线照射后细胞存活和DNA双链断裂修复,提高肿瘤细胞的辐射敏感性.%Objective To investigate the effect of Ku70 antisense oligonueleotide(ASODN) on the radiosensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cells.Methods Targeted ASODN of Ku70 was synthesized and transfected into human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell lines at different concentrations,with lipofectamine and sense oligonucleotides (SODN) as control groups.Western blotting was used to detect the expression level of Ku70 protein.Cell clonogenic assay was performed to determine the cell survival fraction after 60 Co γ ray radiation.CCK-8 assay and Annexin-V/PI staining were applied to evaluate the cell viability and apoptosis after radiation.The DNA repair efficiency for double-strand breaks (DSB) was evaluated by Comet assay.Results Compared with lipofectamine and SODN control groups,the expression of Ku70 protein in cells of ASODN group was obviously decreased.The cell survival was markedly inhibited by ASODN in a dose dependent manner and apoptosis rate significantly increased (P <0.01).The repair efficiency for

  20. The clinicopathologic differences in papillary thyroid carcinoma with or without co-existing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo-Hoon; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Jin Man; Koo, Bon Seok

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the clinicopathologic differences in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). We reviewed the medical records of 195 consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral central lymph node dissection from April 2008 to March 2010. The differences in clinicopathologic factors, such as age, gender, size of primary tumor, perithyroidal invasion, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and central lymph node (CLN) metastasis, were analyzed in PTC patients with or without CLT. Among 195 patients, 56 (28.7%) had co-existing CLT. Patients with CLT had the following characteristics as compared to patients without CLT: significantly younger, female predominance, smaller tumor size, and lower incidence of capsular invasion (p = 0.038, 0.006, 0.037, and 0.026, respectively). Also, patients with CLT (12.5%) had a significantly lower incidence of CLN metastases than patients without CLT (28.1%; p = 0.025) based on univariate analysis. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that younger age (p = 0.042, odds ratio = 1.033) and female gender (p = 0.012, odds ratio = 6.865) are independent clinical factors in patients with CLT compared to patients without CLT. CLT was shown to be commonly associated with PTC. Compared to patients with PTC without CLT, patients with CLT were younger with a female predominance, which are the most important and well-known prognostic variables for thyroid cancer mortality. PMID:21822854

  1. Tumour markers in germ cell tumours and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K.

    1988-02-01

    In patients with germ cell tumours of gonadal and extragonadal origin both markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) are madatory for diagnosis and control of treatment. In seminoma, we found preoperatively elevated levels of hCG(+hCG-..beta..) in 42/349 patients (12%) up to 1200 mlU/ml using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay (1. IRP hCG standard 75/537). Lactatedehydrogenase can be useful in marker negative patients. Serum levels reflect tumour burden even if not highly specific. Presently, placental alkaline phosphatase is under discussion for seminoma. However, commercial kits are not available. As a relatively high secretion of hCG/..beta../hCG was found in gestational trophoblastic diseases, this parameters may be useful for differential diagnosis in pregnancy. In the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma the determination of thyroglobulin (Tg) in combination with ultrasound of the thyroid and X-ray of the chest is sufficient. For Tg-determination thyroid hormone replacement therapy must be discontinued only in rare single cases with borderline levels, which need radioiodtesting additionally. Calcitonin is the most important marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin as screening test is necessary, if multiple endocrine adenomatosis or the familial forms are suspected. In single cases benefit came from new scintigraphic methods such as /sup 131/I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine or /sup 201/thallium-chloride.

  2. RET mutations in a large indian family with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a tumor arising from the para follicular (C cells of the thyroid gland and can occur either sporadically or as part of an inherited syndrome. A proportion of these cases carry an autosomal dominant mutation in the RET (REarranged during Transfection proto-oncogene. Screening for these mutations in the affected patients and the carriers ′′at risk′′ which includes the first-degree relatives is of utmost importance for early detection and prompt treatment including prophylactic thyroidectomy in cases that harbor these mutations. Results: This report presents details of screening and subsequent follow-up of a large Indian family, where the index case was found to carry p.Cys634Ser mutation involving exon 11 of the RET gene. These data are of value considering the paucity of information within the region in context of screening large families affected by these mutations.

  3. Correlation of BRAFV600E mutation and clinical characteristics in coexistence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    运新伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of BRAFV600Emutation with papillary thyroid carcinoma and coexisting Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical characteristics was made in 50patients with PTC and coexisting HT(research group)and 150 PTC patients(control group)from March,2011to March,2012,regarding the difference in BRAFV600E mutation.Results In research group,the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting lymphatic metastasis was 88.9%,

  4. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  5. Oncologic Safety of Robot Thyroid Surgery for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparative Study of Robot versus Open Thyroid Surgery Using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Han, Minkyu; Lee, Yi Ho; Lee, Yu-Mi; Song, Dong Eun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Suck Joon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of robot thyroid surgery compared to open thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We enrolled 722 patients with PTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) from January 2009 to December 2010. These patients were classified into open thyroid surgery (n = 610) or robot thyroid surgery (n = 112) groups. We verified the impact of robot thyroid surgery on clinical recurrence and ablation/control-stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels predictive of non-recurrence using weighted logistic regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Age, sex, thyroid weight, extent of CCND, and TNM were significantly different between the two groups (p robot groups (1.5% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.608). The proportion of patients with ablation sTg 0.05). Logistic regression with IPTW using the propensity scores estimated by adjusting all of the parameters demonstrated that robot thyroid surgery did not influence the clinical recurrence (OR; 0.784, 95% CI; 0.150-3.403, p = 0.750), ablation sTg (OR; 0.950, 95% CI; 0.361-2.399, p = 0.914), and control sTg levels (OR; 0.498, 95% CI; 0.190-1.189, p = 0.130). Robot thyroid surgery is comparable to open thyroid surgery with regard to oncologic safety in PTC patients.

  6. Oncologic Safety of Robot Thyroid Surgery for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparative Study of Robot versus Open Thyroid Surgery Using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Han, Minkyu; Lee, Yi Ho; Lee, Yu-mi; Song, Dong Eun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Suck Joon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of robot thyroid surgery compared to open thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We enrolled 722 patients with PTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) from January 2009 to December 2010. These patients were classified into open thyroid surgery (n = 610) or robot thyroid surgery (n = 112) groups. We verified the impact of robot thyroid surgery on clinical recurrence and ablation/control-stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels predictive of non-recurrence using weighted logistic regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Age, sex, thyroid weight, extent of CCND, and TNM were significantly different between the two groups (p robot groups (1.5% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.608). The proportion of patients with ablation sTg 0.05). Logistic regression with IPTW using the propensity scores estimated by adjusting all of the parameters demonstrated that robot thyroid surgery did not influence the clinical recurrence (OR; 0.784, 95% CI; 0.150–3.403, p = 0.750), ablation sTg (OR; 0.950, 95% CI; 0.361–2.399, p = 0.914), and control sTg levels (OR; 0.498, 95% CI; 0.190–1.189, p = 0.130). Robot thyroid surgery is comparable to open thyroid surgery with regard to oncologic safety in PTC patients. PMID:27285846

  7. Family of microRNA-146 Regulates RARβ in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Agnieszka Anna; Wójcicka, Anna; Kubiak, Anna; Kotlarek, Marta; Bakuła-Zalewska, Elwira; Koperski, Łukasz; Wiechno, Wiesław; Jażdżewski, Krystian

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid is a promising tool in adjuvant cancer therapies, including refractory thyroid cancer, and its biological role is mediated by the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ). However, expression of RARβ is lowered in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), contributing to promotion of tumor growth and inefficiency of retinoic acid and radioactive iodine treatment. The causes of aberrant RARB expression are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the culpable mechanisms include the action of microRNAs from the miR-146 family, previously identified as significantly upregulated in PTC tumors. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the expression of RARB as well as miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p in 48 PTC tumor/normal tissue pairs by Taqman assay to reveal that the expression of RARB was 3.28-fold decreased, and miR-146b-5p was 28.9-fold increased in PTC tumors. Direct interaction between miRs and RARB was determined in the luciferase assay and further confirmed in cell lines, where overexpression of miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p caused a 31% and 33% decrease in endogenous RARB mRNA levels. Inhibition of miR-146a and miR-146b resulted in 62.5% and 45.4% increase of RARB, respectively, and a concomitant decrease in proliferation rates of thyroid cancer cell lines, analyzed in xCELLigence system.We showed that two microRNAs of the miR-146 family directly regulate RARB. Inhibition of miRs resulted in restoration of RARB expression and decreased rates of proliferation of thyroid cancer cells. By restoring RARB levels, microRNA inhibitors may become part of an adjuvant therapy in thyroid cancer patients.

  8. Increased expression of PIN1 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1, encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threonine residues preceding proline (pSer/Thr-Pro motifs; in this way, it has an influence on protein interactions and intracellular localizations of proteins. The aim of the study were: 1 an assessment of PIN1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions; 2 the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC or tumour size, classified according to TNM classification of primary tumours (in case of PTC only; 3 the estimation of possible relationships between expression of the gene in question and patients' sex or age. Methods Seventy (70 tissue samples were analyzed: 32 cases of PTC, 7 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC, 7 cases of follicular adenoma (FA, and 24 cases of nodular goitre (NG. In real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, two-step RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System was employed. The PIN1 gene expression level was assessed, calculating the mean relative quantification rate (RQ rate increase for each sample. Results The level of PIN1 gene expression (compared to that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue was higher in PTC group than those in FA, MTC and/or NG groups, but the statistical significance was noted for difference between PTC and NG groups only. On the other hand, the differences of RQ rate value between different PTC variants were statistically insignificant. No correlations were found between RQ values and tumour size, as well as between RQ values and patients' sex or age in PTC group. Conclusions The PIN1 gene expression may have - in future - an important meaning in the diagnostics of PTC and in understanding its

  9. Mucinous Variant of Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillaci, Salvatore; Pitino, Antonio; Spairani, Cinzia; Ferrari, Mauro; Carlon, Eugenio; Cosimi, Maria Fabia

    2016-04-01

    The rare reports of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland have not provided enough evidence to support the recognition of these tumors as a distinct clinicopathologic entity or to understand their etiopathogenesis. We report the fourth case of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma displaying a minimally invasive tumor with diffuse expression of thyroglobulin, TTF-1, CD56, PAX-8, cytokeratins 7 and 19, in the absence of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 20, chromogranin, HBME-1, P63 expression, and BRAF gene mutation, in a 51-year-old woman who is alive without signs of disease 13 months after total thyroidectomy, bilateral neck dissection, and radioactive iodine. Herein, fine-needle aspiration cytology disclosed "worrisome" cytologic features consisting of large epithelial cells arranged in clusters or singularly, with high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, nuclear grooves and evident nucleoli which were shared by those of mucin-producing papillary thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, knowledge of the cytological and histopathological spectrum of this lesion is important to avoid misdiagnosis. The morphologic clues leading to the correct diagnosis of mucinous variant of follicular neoplasm have been correlated with the data of the literature, and the differential diagnosis is briefly discussed.

  10. Thyroid stem cells – danger or resource?

    OpenAIRE

    GIBELLI, B.; El-Fattah, AMA; Giugliano, G; PROH, M.; GROSSO, E.

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid gland has long since been known for its self-renewal ability, mainly in cases of hyperplastic disease such as goitre. Recently the amazing improvement in knowledge about stem cells has explained this potentiality. Some stem cell features and their clinical usefulness are summarized here, reviewing data from the literature: the proven presence of adult stem cells in thyroid tissue, either normal, goitrous or neoplastic, bring with it important implications regarding tissue regenera...

  11. Ultrasonography findings of thyroid metastasis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Noh Hyuck; Lim, Jae Hoon; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok; Kwon, Tae Jung [Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Although the thyroid gland is one of the most vascular organs of the body, metastatic disease in the thyroid is encountered infrequently. However, at autopsy, the incidence rate of thyroid metastasis ranges from 1.25% to 24%. The primary sites are the kidney, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a rare case of a hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland. The patient had multiple palpable masses in the anterior and left lateral neck along the internal jugular chain on physical examination 9 months after the initial diagnosis of liver tumor. These masses were confirmed as metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasonography-guided 16-G core needle biopsy. We discuss the sonographic findings of thyroid metastasis and their use as an additional aid for differentiating between unknown primary tumor and thyroid metastasis.

  12. Ultrasonography findings of thyroid metastasis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the thyroid gland is one of the most vascular organs of the body, metastatic disease in the thyroid is encountered infrequently. However, at autopsy, the incidence rate of thyroid metastasis ranges from 1.25% to 24%. The primary sites are the kidney, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a rare case of a hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland. The patient had multiple palpable masses in the anterior and left lateral neck along the internal jugular chain on physical examination 9 months after the initial diagnosis of liver tumor. These masses were confirmed as metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasonography-guided 16-G core needle biopsy. We discuss the sonographic findings of thyroid metastasis and their use as an additional aid for differentiating between unknown primary tumor and thyroid metastasis.

  13. [BRAF-STATUS OF PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMAS AND STRATEGY OF SURGICAL TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarashchenko, Yu N; Kovalenko, A E; Bolgov, M Yu; Guda, B B; Shelkovoy, E A; Nekrasov, K A; Mankovskaya, S; Kashuba, V I

    2015-06-01

    Analyzed the presence of BRAF V600E mutation in the focal thyroid gland in the preoperative diagnosis of papillary carcinoma (PC). Molecular genetic testing conducted on puncture aspirates from 26 patients before surgery. The diagnosis was verified according to the morphological investigations. Mutations in BRAF V600E detected only in patients with the thyroid PC. Thus, the definition of BRAF V600E mutation may be a marker in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid PC. Analyzed the presence of BRAF V600E mutation in the focal thyroid gland in the preoperative diagnosis of papillary carcinoma (PC). Molecular genetic testing conducted on puncture aspirates from 26 patients before surgery. The diagnosis was verified according to the morphological investigations. Mutations in BRAF V600E detected only in patients with the thyroid PC. Thus, the definition of BRAF V600E mutation may be a marker in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid PC.

  14. Evaluating the Degree of Conformity of Papillary Carcinoma and Follicular Carcinoma to the Reported Ultrasonographic Findings of Malignant Thyroid Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeh, Su Kyoung; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Yoen Soo [The Catholic Medial Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    We wanted to evaluate the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor. Between January 2003 and December 2004, fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 1,036 patients with palpable and nonpalpable thyroid lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings of patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 127) and follicular carcinomas (n 23) that were proven by operation or fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these nodules based on the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor: hypoechogenicity, a taller than wide orientation, a microlobulated or irregular margin, a thick hypoechoic rim (halo sign), microcalcification and cystic change. The echogenicity was hypoechoic in 72.4% (92/127) of the papillary carcinomas, but it was isoechoic in 65.2% (15/23) of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The nodule shape was tall or round in 74.1% of the papillary carcinomas, but it was flat in 72.7% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The tumor margin was microlobulated or irregular in 92.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in 60.9% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). A hypoechoic rim was seen in 26% of the papillary carcinomas (thin rim: 13.4%, thick rim: 12.6%) and in 86.6% of the follicular carcinomas (thin rim: 39.1%, thick rim: 47.8%, p < 0.001). Microcalcifications were demonstrated in 33.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in none of the cases of follicular carcinoma (p < 0.001). A solid mass without cystic change were seen in 98.4% of the papillary carcinomas and in 82.6% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The previously reported ultrasonography findings of malignant thyroid tumor are in conformity with most of the papillary carcinomas, but not with follicular carcinomas. The current ultrasonographic features for thyroid malignancy should be cautiously applied as the indication for

  15. Epigenetic regulation of Wnt signaling pathway gene SRY-related HMG-box 17 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-yi; HAN Chao; ZHENG Li-li; GUO Ming-zhou

    2012-01-01

    Background SRY-related HMG-box 17 (SOX17) encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate.Recently,it was considered as a tumor suppressor gene to inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in several malignancies.However,the function of SOX17 in thyroid cancer was unknown.Therefore,we investigated the epigenetic changes and the function of SOX17 in thyroid cancer.Methods The methylation status of the promoter region of SOX17 was detected using methylation-specific PCR in 63 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissue,10 normal thyroid tissue,and two thyroid cancer cell lines.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of SOX17 before and after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment in thyroid cancer cell lines.Expression of SOX17 and β-catenin were detected by immunohistochemistry in PTC and adjacent tissue.Luciferase reporter assay,colony formation,transfection,and Western blotting were employed to analyze the effect of SOX17 on thyroid cancer cell proliferation and the function of SOX17 in the Wnt signal pathway.Results Loss of SOX17 expression was correlated to the promoter region hypermethylation in thyroid cancer cell lines.Re-expression of SOX17 was found in TPC-1 cell line after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment.In primary thyroid cancer,60.3% (38/63) were methylated and 39.7% (25/63) unmethylated.But no methylation was found in noncancerous thyroid tissues.Methylation of SOX17 was associated reversely with β-catenin expression in the cytoplasm or nucleus significantly in the PTC (P <0.05).Colony formation was inhibited by re-expression of SOX17 in TPC-1 cells.SOX17 suppressed the Wnt signaling pathway and the HMG domain was essential for this effect.Conclusions SOX17 was frequently methylated in human PTC.Loss of SOX17 expression was induced by promoter region hypermethylation.SOX17 inhibited thyroid

  16. Choroidal Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Demonstrated on SPECT-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Nese; Reyhan, Mehmet; Yapar, Ali Fuat; Karatas, Muge

    2016-05-01

    We report a 68-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to choroid. The choroid metastasis was diagnosed with SPECT-CT and then was treated with high-dose radioactive iodine therapy. PMID:26825205

  17. A phase II trial of imatinib therapy for metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J. W. B.; Zonnenberg, B. A.; van Ufford-Mannesse, P. Quarles; de Vries, M. M.; Links, T. P.; Lips, C. J. M.; Voest, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Medullary thyroid carcinoma ( MTC) metastasizes early in its clinical course. No effective systemic therapy is available. Generally ( somatic or germline), mutations in the rearranged during transfection gene are considered essential in the pathogenesis of MTC. Objective: We investigated im

  18. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  19. Iodide kinetics and experimental I-131 therapy in a xenotransplanted human sodium-iodide symporter-transfected human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Elst, van der J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Stokkel, M.; Heide, van der D.; Romijn, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uptake of iodide is a prerequisite for radioiodide therapy in thyroid cancer. However, loss of iodide uptake is frequently observed in metastasized thyroid cancer, which may be explained by diminished expression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS). We studied whether transfection of hNIS int

  20. Surgical management of parapharyngeal lymph node metastasis of thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective study of 25 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-lei; XU Zhen-gang; WU Yue-huang; LIU Shao-yan; YU Yue

    2012-01-01

    Background Parapharyngeal lymph node (PPLN) metastasis from thyroid carcinoma is rare.We describe the clinical features,diagnosis,and surgical treatment of this condition.Methods Twenty-five patients with PPLN metastasis from thyroid carcinoma were treated at our institution from January 1999 to December 2010,including 22 patients with papillary carcinoma,two with medullary carcinoma,and one with follicular carcinoma.Of these,16 had a history of surgical treatment prior to PPLN metastasis.Of the nine patients without a history of surgical treatment,five had widespread cervical lymph node metastases and four had occult papillary thyroid carcinoma.PPLN metastasis was diagnosed by enhanced computed tomography in 22 cases.Results Resection of metastases was performed via a transcervical approach in 23 patients and a transmandibular approach in two patients.After a median follow-up time of 31 months (range:6-130 months),nine patients developed distant metastases,and six of these died of their disease.The 5-year survival rate was 63.8%.Conclusions PPLN metastasis from thyroid carcinoma may occur in patients:with previous neck dissection,with widespread metastases to cervical lymph nodes prior to initial treatment,and with occult thyroid carcinoma.Enhanced computed tomography is helpful for diagnosis in the first two presentations.Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for this disease.PPLN metastasis has a tendency to be associated with distant metastases and a poor prognosis.

  1. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Molecular Signaling Pathways and Emerging Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC over the last 55 years has led to a good understanding of the genetic defects and altered molecular pathways associated with its development. Currently, with the use of genetic testing, patients at high risk for MTC can be identified before the disease develops and offered prophylactic treatment. In cases of localized neck disease, surgery can be curative. However, once MTC has spread beyond the neck, systemic therapy may be necessary. Conventional chemotherapy has been shown to be ineffective; however, multikinase inhibitors have shown promise in stabilizing disease, and this year will probably see the approval of a drug (Vandetanib for advanced unresectable or metastatic disease, which represents a new chapter in the history of MTC. In this paper, we explore newly understood molecular pathways and the most promising emerging therapies that may change the management of MTC.

  2. A bone metastases model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in athymic nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), an aggressive form of thyroid cancer, represents less than 2% of all thyroid cancers. The survival of patients with ATC remains low especially when accompanied with bone metastasis. This study aims to establish a reproducible animal model of bone metastasis of ATC which may be useful for further research on novel treatment strategy. Eight 6-8 week old female athymic nude mice were randomly selected. ATC cell line ARO cells were injected into the left ventricular cavity of each mouse respectively. Each mouse was imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET/CT scanner after successful injection of [18F]-FDG under deep anesthesia. Pathological examination was carried out to confirm the bone metastases of ATC. Histopathology established ATC bone metastases in five nude mice’s tibia. Similarly, PET image displayed significantly increased radioactivity (P<0.01) in the established bone metastasis compared with the control normal tibia. Both micro-PET/CT and histomorphometric measurement confirmed the bone metastases model of ATC in nude mice by left ventricular cavity injection of ARO cell line. The bone metastases model of ATC will thus facilitate the understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the development of novel therapies.

  3. A case report of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Cuevas, S.; Baena Ocampo, L. [Hospital de Oncologia (Mexico). Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery

    1995-12-01

    This a report on a 19-year-old female who developed a low grade T2 N0 M0 mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland 3 years and 5 months after the post-operative treatment of 100 mCi of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The parotid tumour appeared during the patient`s pregnancy. There are few reports of salivary gland cancer developing after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma and it is hoped that this report may stimulate others to investigate this association further in order to clarify the risk of secondary malignancies after radioiodine therapy. (author).

  4. Follicular thyroid carcinoma with an unusual glomeruloid pattern of growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameselle-Teijeiro, J; Pardal, F; Eloy, C; Ruiz-Ponte, C.; Celestino, R; Castro, P.; Soares, P.; Sobrinho-Simões, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an uncommon thyroid tumor in a 56-year-old woman. The widely infiltrating, angioinvasive neoplasm, 5 cm in diameter, exhibited a peculiar architectural growth pattern characterized by follicles with round to oval epithelial tufts growing within, often supported by a fibrovascular core mimicking the renal glomerulus. Colloid-empty follicles, tubular or elongated, were lined by pseudostratified tall, columnar cells with clear cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval, with evenly distrib...

  5. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid presenting with thyrotoxic induced impaired control of diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta, A; Burden, A C; Jones, G R; Nicol, N. T.

    1986-01-01

    We report a patient with pulmonary and bony metastases due to follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, occurring 12 years after the initial diagnosis. This was brought to light by worsening diabetic control due to thyrotoxicosis from functioning malignant thyroid tissue. Following radio-active iodine therapy, she remains well with good control of her diabetes.

  6. Long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle; de Bock, Truuske; Gansevoort, Ronald; Bakker, Stephan; Vredeveld, Eline; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; van der Horst, Iwan; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem; Plukker, John; Links, Thera P.; Lefrandt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to study the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Secondary aims were to evaluate all-cause mortality and explore the relation between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotropin) level and these outcome

  7. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with sternal invasion. A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Quaratulain Sabih; Michael F. Spafford; Dietl, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with direct invasion of the sternum has not been previously reported. Only 4 cases of concomitant thyroidectomy and sternal resection and reconstruction for sternal metastases have been published. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 66-year-old female with a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and direct sternal invasion underwent total thyroidectomy and resection of the manubrium and both clavicular heads, and chest wall ...

  8. Anaplastic transformation of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma at shoulder mimicking soft tissue sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Kaushal; Mehar Chand Sharma; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Shishir Rastogi; Chander Shekhar Bal; Sunil Chumber

    2011-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fracture upper end of the left humerus after trivial trauma and aspiration cytology from the lytic lesion in the upper humerus seen on X-ray revealed a metastatic papillary carcinoma from the thyroid. Total thyroidectomy confirmed the papillary carcinoma thyroid. Post-operatively, she was given radioactive iodine (I-131) ablation therapy for 8 years and was asymptomatic during this period; however, for the last 1 year, she has been complaining of swelling in...

  9. Video-Assisted Thyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Pio Lombardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The results of video-assisted thyroidectomy (VAT were evaluated in a large series of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially in terms of completeness of the surgical resection and short-to-medium term recurrence. Methods. The medical records of all patients who underwent video-assisted thyroidectomy for PTC between June 1998 and May 2009 were reviewed. Results. Three hundred fifty-nine patients were included. One hundred twenty-six patients underwent concomitant central neck node removal. Final histology showed 285 pT1, 26 pT2, and 48 pT3 PTC. Lymph node metastases were found in 27 cases. Follow-up was completed in 315 patients. Mean postoperative serum thyroglobulin level off levothyroxine was 5.4 ng/mL. Post operative ultrasonography showed no residual thyroid tissue in all the patients. Mean post-operative 131I uptake was 1.7%. One patient developed lateral neck recurrence. No other recurrence was observed.

  10. Negative predictive value of procalcitonin in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Kyung; Guéchot, Jérôme; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin (CT), the major biochemical marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is prone to in vitro instability and suffers from scarcity of clinical laboratory platforms. Procalcitonin (PCT), the precursor of CT, free of these shortcomings, has been reported as a potential MTC marker. The aim of this study was to assess the negative predictive value (NPV) of PCT as a first-line marker in MTC. 476 serum samples referred to our laboratory for CT measurements were analyzed for PCT. NPVs of PCT were assessed at 3 cut-offs (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 ng/mL) and the diagnosis of MTC was based on CT levels. PCT and CT levels were correlated (r=0.7554 for CT levels above 10 pg/mL, n=66). Accepting the CT cut-off based on the upper reference limit the NPV of PCT were 98.1% (0.05 ng/mL), 96.3% (0.10 ng/mL) and 95.4% (0.15 ng/mL) respectively. For a CT cut-off of 100 pg/mL the NPVs of PCT were 100% for all PCT thresholds. Serum PCT has a strong NPV and could be a good candidate for a first-line screening test to exclude MTC in patients with suspicious thyroid nodules or suggestive symptoms. Larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:26806393

  11. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na+/I− symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells

  12. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Luchuan; Lv, Bin; Chen, Bo [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Guan, Ming [Department of General Surgery, Qihe People' s Hospital, Qihe, Shandong 251100 (China); Sun, Yongfeng [Department of General Surgery, Licheng District People' s Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250115 (China); Li, Haipeng [Department of General Surgery, Caoxian People' s Hospital, Caoxian, Shandong 274400 (China); Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Changyuan; He, Shan [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Zeng, Qingdong, E-mail: qingdz0201@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2015-07-10

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na{sup +}/I{sup −} symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells.

  13. Cervical Cord Compression as Initial Presentation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Goel, Ashish; Kumar, Kapil

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cord compression secondary to extension of a long standing papillary thyroid carcinoma as well as multiple cases of distal cord compression from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported. But cervical cord compression from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma has not been reported so far. Forty eight year old lady presented with progressive quadriparesis of 2 months duration. MRI of the cervical spine showed destructive lesion with soft tissue component in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of C4-C6 vertebrae with cord compression along with a large thyroid mass extending to retrosternal region likely malignant. USG guided FNAC & Biopsy of thyroid lesion was inconclusive. She underwent Preoperative Selective angioembolisation for vertebral metastasis followed by total thyroidectomy with cervical cord decompression, bone grafting and plating. HPE reported follicular variant of Papillary Thyroid carcinoma. Four weeks postoperatively she underwent radioiodine ablation by 263 mci of I 131. She then received palliative EBRT to cervical and dorsal spine 30 Gy/10 fractions. She is alive and neurologically stable at 6 months follow up. Papillary thyroid carcinoma has an excellent prognosis. Hence a prompt management of primary disease and aggressive approach to metastatic lesion may prolong survival and allow favorable prognosis. PMID:27651699

  14. Pleomorphic (giant cell) carcinoma of the intestine. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Teglbjaerg, P S

    1989-01-01

    Pleomorphic (giant cell) carcinomas have been described in the lungs, thyroid, pancreas, and gallbladder. Two pleomorphic carcinomas of the small bowel and two of the large bowel are presented. On light microscopic study, the carcinomas were solid, without squamous or glandular differentiation...

  15. Expression of Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1) in Lung Carcinomas and Its Correlations with Apoptosis and Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Bai; Hong Shen; Chunhui Zhou; Hao Wang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlations between the expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and apoptosis and angiogenesis in lung carcinomas.METHODS A 829 microarray of the paraffin tissue chips was constructed, which contained 196 lung carcinomas, 10 normal lung tissues, and 1 muscular tissue. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemical SP method were used to detect apoptosis and expression of TTF-1 and CD34 in different types of lung carcinomas. A Leica Q500 MC image analysis system was used to measure and calculate TTF-1 positive unit (PU), apoptotic index (AI) and microvessel density (MVD).RESULTS AI of lung small cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma were smaller than those of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.000). AI of lung carcinomas with lymph node metastases was smaller than that of those without (P = 0.039). AI of lung carcinomas in TNM stage I-W was smaller than that in stage Ⅰ (P = 0.008). The PU of the TTF-1 was negatively correlated with AI in small cell lung carcinoma (r = -0.752, P = 0.000). MVD of lung carcinomas without lymph node metastases was smaller than that of those with lymph node metastasis (P= 0.031). MVD of lung carcinomas in TNM stage Ⅰ was smaller than that in stage Ⅰ-Ⅳ (P -- 0.040). The PU of TTF-1 was positively correlated with MVD in lung adenocarcinoma (r = 0.708, P = 0.000).CONCLUSION There is a negative correlation between TTF-1 PU and AI in small cell lung carcinoma. TTF-1 PU and AI may be correlated with each other. There is a positive correlation between TTF-1 PU and MVD in lung adenocarcinoma. TTF-1 may induce the development of lung adenocarcinoma by inducing tumor angiogenesis.

  16. 甲状腺癌相关microRNA%Thyroid carcinoma related microRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靖; 钟警

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system, whereby papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma are the most common of the 4 pathological types. The mechanisms underlying the development of these neoplasias are still far from being completely elucidated. In recent years, several studies have found that microRNA expression differences exist in different pathological types of thyroid carcinoma, and that microRNAs may play an important role in the occurrence and development of thyroid carcinoma. Here we review the issue of microRNA as related to thyroid carcinoma.%甲状腺癌是内分泌系统最常见的恶性肿瘤,包括4种病理类型,其中以乳头状癌及滤泡状癌最为常见.甲状腺癌的发病机制目前尚未阐明.近年来,研究发现在不同甲状腺癌病理类型中存在microRNA表达差异,microRNA可能在甲状腺癌的发生、发展中具有重要作用.

  17. [Comparative rate of regional metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, N N; Evmenova, T D; Drozdova, D É

    2014-01-01

    The rate of metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid glands to the neck lymph nodes was studied in people of Kemerovo Region. The metastatic lesions of pretracheal lymph nodes (VI group) were detected in 49.5% patients with papillary carcinoma and 21.0% of patients with follicular cancer. Metastases in jungular lymph nodes were revealed in 37.3% patients with papillary carcinoma. It was noted that an extension of metastatic lesions of regional lymph nodes was observed in the case of primary tumour foci spread beyond borders of the capsula glandularis in patients with papillary carcinoma. There wasn't such a relation in a case of follicular cancer. Metastases in regional lymph nodes were detected more often (67.6%) in the case of papillary carcinoma in uncontaminated zone of the thyroid gland compared with other thyroid pathology (31.7%).

  18. Impaired DNA repair as assessed by the ''comet'' assay in patients developing thyroid carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A defective cellular response to DNA lesions induced be genotoxic agents may be associated to an increased cancer proneness. This has been clearly identified in some rare but extensively studied genetic diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Fanconi anemia (FA). In practical oncology, most patients receive genotoxic therapeutic agents and the presence of so far unidentified sensitive genotypes could account for an increased susceptibility to cancer in a subgroup of exposed patients. The thyroid gland of children is especially sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation. Evidence for risk is reported even at doses as low as 0.1 Gy, and the excess relative risk to develop a thyroid tumor following a radiation dose of 1 Gy in childhood is of 7.7 [l]. In order to determine if a defect in repair of DNA strand breaks could be involved, as an early step, in the development of secondary thyroid tumors after radiotherapy, we examined, using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE or 'comet'), the response to in vitro γ-rays exposure of lymphocytes of a small group of patients who developed thyroid carcinoma after radiotherapy for a primary tumor. Because of its practical advantages, the alkaline comet assay offers the opportunity to question the role of DNA strand beaks rejoining capacity of the individual in the radiation induced carcinogenesis of thyroid tumors. This preliminary study of a small group of patients with therapeutic irradiation at childhood for a primary tumor indicates that, at the time of blood sampling, lymphocytes of some of these patients demonstrated reduced rejoining capacity. These results suggest that the comet assay might help to distinguish a subgroup of individuals at risk for radiation induced genomic instability and encourage further investigation. (authors)

  19. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Iodine I 131 and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  20. Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 (TGF-β1) Inhibits Tumorigenesis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Through ERK1/2-NFκkB-PUMA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Liu, Shan; Dong, Anbing; Mi, Xiufang; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting tumor growth. TGF-β1was found to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). We therefore tested our hypothesis that targeting TGF-β1 inhibits tumorigenesis of ATC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Effects of TGF-β1 stimulation or TGF-β1 inhibition by small interfering RNA (TGF-β1siRNA) on proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro was detected using siRNAs and inhibitors to examine the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. A subcutaneously implanted tumor model of 8505C cells in nude mice was used to assess the effects of TGF-β1 inhibition on tumorigenesis development. RESULTS TGF-β1siRNAs decreased proliferation and colony formation, and increased apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. TGF-β1siRNA inhibited phosphorylation ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and increased p65-dependant PUMA mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of p65 or PUMA by siRNA reduced TGF-β1siRNA-induced apoptosis, as well as caspase-3 and PARP activation. Upregulation of p65 or PUMA expression by TGF-β1siRNA requires pERK1/2 inhibition. TGF-β1 shRNA inhibited tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS Therapies targeting the TGF-β1 pathway may be more effective to prevent primary tumor formation. The ability of this therapy to decrease tumorigenesis may be related to ERK1/2/NF-κB/PUMA signaling. PMID:27356491

  1. Reliability of a Tissue Microarray in Detecting Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 Protein in Lung Carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Bai; Hong Shen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the expression of the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in human normal adult type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells,embryonic pneumocytes and cancer cells of lung carcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes using a tissue microarray (TMA) along with paired conventional full sections.and to jnvestigate the reliability of tissue microarrays in detecting protein expression in lung carcinoma.METHODS A lung carcinoma TMA including 765 cores was constructed.TTF-1 protein expression in both TMA and paired conventional full sections were detected by yhe immunohistochemical SP method using a monoclonal antibody to TTF-1.A PU (Positive Unit) of TTF-1 protein was assessed quantitatively by the Leica Q500MC image analysis system with results from the paired conventional full sections as controls.RESULTS There was no signifcance between TMA and paired conven tional full sections in TTF-1 expression in difierent nuclei of the lung tissue.CONCLUSION TTF-1 protein expression in lung carcinoma detected by TMA was highly concordanl with that of paired full sections.TMA is a reliable method in detecting protein expression.

  2. Genetic Heterogeneity of HER2 Amplification and Telomere Shortening in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Caria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research is dedicated to understanding if sporadic and familial papillary thyroid carcinoma are distinct biological entities. We have previously demonstrated that familial papillary thyroid cancer (fPTC cells exhibit short relative telomere length (RTL in both blood and tissues and that these features may be associated with chromosome instability. Here, we investigated the frequency of HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 amplification, and other recently reported genetic alterations in sporadic PTC (sPTC and fPTC, and assessed correlations with RTL and BRAF mutational status. We analyzed HER2 gene amplification and the integrity of ALK, ETV6, RET, and BRAF genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization in isolated nuclei and paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections of 13 fPTC and 18 sPTC patients. We analyzed BRAFV600E mutation and RTL by qRT-PCR. Significant HER2 amplification (p = 0.0076, which was restricted to scattered groups of cells, was found in fPTC samples. HER2 amplification in fPTCs was invariably associated with BRAFV600E mutation. RTL was shorter in fPTCs than sPTCs (p < 0.001. No rearrangements of other tested genes were observed. These findings suggest that the association of HER2 amplification with BRAFV600E mutation and telomere shortening may represent a marker of tumor aggressiveness, and, in refractory thyroid cancer, may warrant exploration as a site for targeted therapy.

  3. Incidental papillary thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic findings in a series of 287 carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, Fabio; Jaconi, Marta; Delitala, Alberto; Garancini, Mattia; Maternini, Matteo; Bono, Francesca; Giani, Alessandro; Smith, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    The recent increase in the detection of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been influenced by the finding of incidental tumours. To this group, carcinomas measuring less than 1 cm (the so-called microcarcinomas) as well as those above 1 cm belong. Analyzing a case series from our own experience, this paper focuses on the current pre-operative diagnostic challenges that can lead to PTC incidental discovery. For this retrospective study, 287 patients with a PTC diagnosis were selected. For each, the following variables were analysed: sex, age, ultrasound (US) appearance, number of thyroid nodules, PTC size, PTC variants and presence of other associated pathology. Pre-operative fine needle aspiration (FNA) results were classified according to the five-tiered SIAPEC system. For 281 patients, the US-guided FNA results were available. Cytohistological correlation was evaluated in terms of FNA sensitivity and false negative rate. An incidental PTC was found in 45.2 % of patients. The majority of these were due to unsuccessful US detection of malignant nodules (103 cases); incorrect cytological diagnosis was responsible for the other 24 cases. The most powerful clinical confounding factors were: multinodular background versus single nodule presentations (p 2 cm) due to tumour heterogeneity. Although with limitations related to the tumour's intrinsic features and the thyroid background, US-guided FNA, especially if performed by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, is a powerful diagnostic tool for detecting malignant thyroid nodules. To the state of the art, we propose a practical clinical-pathological cut-off for this procedure, setting it at 5 mm. PMID:24997780

  4. Genomic evidence of reactive oxygen species elevation in papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin Wook; Park, Ji Yeon; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kwak, Sang Hyuk; Yu, Jihan; Chang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jo-Heon; Ha, Sang Yun; Paik, Eun Kyung; Lee, Woo Seung; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Ju Han

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed as a risk factor for the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). However, it has yet to be proven that the total levels of ROS are sufficiently increased to contribute to carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that if the ROS levels were increased in HT, ROS-related genes would also be differently expressed in PTC with HT. To find differentially expressed genes (DEGs) we analyzed data from the Cancer Genomic Atlas, gene expression data from RNA sequencing: 33 from normal thyroid tissue, 232 from PTC without HT, and 60 from PTC with HT. We prepared 402 ROS-related genes from three gene sets by genomic database searching. We also analyzed a public microarray data to validate our results. Thirty-three ROS related genes were up-regulated in PTC with HT, whereas there were only nine genes in PTC without HT (Chi-square p-value < 0.001). Mean log2 fold changes of up-regulated genes was 0.562 in HT group and 0.252 in PTC without HT group (t-test p-value = 0.001). In microarray data analysis, 12 of 32 ROS-related genes showed the same differential expression pattern with statistical significance. In gene ontology analysis, up-regulated ROS-related genes were related with ROS metabolism and apoptosis. Immune function-related and carcinogenesis-related gene sets were enriched only in HT group in Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Our results suggested that ROS levels may be increased in PTC with HT. Increased levels of ROS may contribute to PTC development in patients with HT.

  5. Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma with concurrent thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbia Vittorio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Thyroglossal duct carcinoma is a very rare finding and its presentation is similar to that of a benign cyst, which is a relatively common developmental abnormality that may manifest as a midline, neck mass. In general the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is based on the pathologic examination of the mass, but needle aspiration cytology, ultrasound and computed tomography play a role in the differential diagnosis of malignancy. Case presentation A further case of thyroglossal duct carcinoma and concurrent thyroid carcinoma with locoregional lymph node metastases affecting a 40-year-old woman followed up for 4 years is presented and discussed. Conclusion Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment, but in case of carcinoma further surgery, that is, thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection, and treatment with radioactive iodine have to be considered according to the microscopic and clinical findings. Accurate pre-operative clinical and radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan surgical strategy.

  6. A two miRNA classifier differentiates follicular thyroid carcinomas from follicular thyroid adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtaś, Bartosz; Krajewska, Jolanta; Stobiecka, Ewa; Dralle, Henning; Musholt, Thomas; Hauptmann, Steffen; Lange, Dariusz; Hegedüs, László; Jarząb, Barbara; Krohn, Knut; Paschke, Ralf; Eszlinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The inherent diagnostic limitations of thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA), especially in the "indeterminate" category, can be partially overcome by molecular analyses. We aimed at the identification of miRNAs that could be used to improve the discrimination of indeterminate FNAs. miRNA expression profiling was performed for 17 follicular carcinomas (FTCs) and 8 follicular adenomas (FAs). The microarray results underwent cross-comparison using three additional microarray data sets. Candidate miRNAs were validated by qPCR in an independent set of 32 FTCs and 46 FAs. Sixty-eight differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. Thirteen miRNAs could be confirmed by cross comparison. A two-miRNA-classifier was established improving the diagnostic applicability and resulted in a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 49%. We present a classifier that has the potential to be successfully evaluated in cytology material for its capability to discriminate (mutation negative) indeterminate cytologies and thereby improving the pre-surgical diagnostics of thyroid nodules. PMID:25258301

  7. Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Tamaki, Yoshio; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Higuchi, Keiko; Sakaino, Kouji; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Shioya, Mariko [Gunma Cancer Center, Ota (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LY) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) of the thyroid gland are rare malignant tumors, and the initial symptoms of these diseases are very similar. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of the two diseases using computed tomographic (CT) scans in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis. Ten patients with LY and 10 with AC were analyzed. Differences in the CT findings of the two diseases were evaluated before treatment and statistically tested with either Student's t-test or the chi-square test. In the analysis of characteristics of CT imaging, the existence of calcification and necrosis, and heterogeneous tumor were dominant findings in AC, and there was a statistically significant difference in frequency between the two diseases (p<0.01). Calcification detected in AC was usually multiple and/or gross (mean size: {phi}8.2 mm). All lymphadenopathies were delineated as having the same homogeneous attenuation as the tumors in the thyroid gland in LY, but were shown as irregular rim enhancement in AC. The CT features of the two diseases are characteristic in terms of calcification, necrosis, and tumor composition. Evaluation by means of CT imaging is useful in distinguishing between LY and AC. (author)

  8. Poorly differentiated forms of papillary thyroid carcinoma: distinctive entities or morphological patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Manzari, A; Marubini, E; Rilke, F

    1995-08-01

    The concept that poorly differentiated carcinomas (PDC) represent a group in an intermediate position in the spectrum of follicular cell-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland is currently well established. Because at the well-differentiated end of the spectrum there are two groups of entities with distinct biological characteristics, ie, the papillary carcinoma (PC) and the follicular carcinoma (FC), we examined the group represented by PCs to ascertain whether papillary carcinoma-related PDCs (pPDC) represent merely a histologic variant or a distinct pathologic entity. For this purpose 227 consecutive PCs were reclassified according to current criteria. The association between the presence of a tumoral pattern consistent with pPDC (response variable), and prognostic factors such as gender age, pTNM (predictive variables) was evaluated in terms of odds ratio statistics. One hundred eighty-three of 227 cases, defined as PCs met the World Health Organization criteria of the not otherwise specified (NOS) (79 cases), microcarcinoma (65 cases), encapsulated (4 cases) and follicular (35 cases) variants. Forty-four cases, defined as pPDCs, met those of the tall cell (39 cases), columnar cell PC (2 cases) and mixed tall cell-columnar cell PC (3 cases) variants. Statistical analyses of the two groups of patients showed a significant correlation between differentiation and age above 40 years, extrathyroid tumor extension and low ratio of regional nodal involvement at the onset of disease. More strikingly they also showed that morphology, ie, a tumoral pattern consistent with pPDC (differentiation), is the strongest predictor of biological behavior including recurrences and recurrence-related deaths that appear to occur five and twenty times more frequently in pPDCs than in PCs, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  10. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O.; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  11. Lack of in vitro constitutive activity for four previously reported TSH receptor mutations identified in patients with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and hot thyroid carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Ralf; Jaeschke, Holger; Mueller, Sandra; Eszlinger, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Constitutively activating mutations of the TSHR are the major cause for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. Re-examination of constitutive activity previously determined in CHO cell lines recently demonstrated the caveats for the in vitro determination of constitutive TSHR activity, which leads to false positive conclusions regarding the molecular origin of hyperthyroidism or hot thyroid carcinomas. Design: Mutations L677V and T620I identified in hot thyroid carc...

  12. Clinical pathological impacts of microRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma: A crucial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruścik, Anna; Lam, Alfred King-yin

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) deregulation is an important event in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The alternations of miRNAs could be measured at the cancer tissue or serum so that the clinical impacts of them in papillary thyroid carcinoma could be studied. Using the approach, miRNA deregulation was reported to be associated with pathological stages in papillary thyroid carcinoma as reflected by the differences in extent of extra-thyroidal invasion, size of the tumour as well as presence of lymph nodes metastases. The most common miRNAs involved in these processes are miRNA-146, miRNA-222 and miRNA-221. Also, miRNA-222 and miRNA-146b deregulation are commonly associated with cancer recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Additionally, miRNA-146, miRNA-222, and miRNA-221 are the top-regulated miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis confirmed by deep-sequencing and have their function studied in vitro. Targeting these subsets of miRNAs may be useful in management of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  13. [Brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma with acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a surgical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-01

    We report a rare case of brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma with intracerebral hemorrhage. A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden headache and monoplegia of the right upper limb 10 years after diagnosis of thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma. Despite the known metastatic lesions in the cervical lymph nodes and lungs, she had been well for 10 years since thyroidectomy, focal irradiation and internal radiation of 131I. CT demonstrated intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging showed marked signal heterogeneity. She underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset and the histological diagnosis was metastatic brain tumor of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the monoplegia was improved. Papillary thyroid carcinoma has a relatively benign course, and surgical removal of the brain metastasis is able to contribute to longer survival times for patients.

  14. Role of thallium-201 total-body scintigraphy in follow-up of thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Delprat, C.C.; Marcuse, H.R.; de Vijlder, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    To evaluate the reliability of total-body scintigraphy using (/sup 201/Tl)chloride in postoperative follow-up of thyroid carcinoma, this procedure was performed in 326 patients after total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. The results were compared with those of 131I scintigraphy and thyroglobulin assays. /sup 201/Tl total-body scintigraphy was found to have the greatest sensitivity (94%), whereas /sup 131/I scintigraphy had the highest specificity (99%). It is shown that /sup 201/Tl total-body scintigraphy is a useful procedure in follow-up of thyroid cancer, however, the combination of parameters provides the greatest reliability. In medullary thyroid carcinoma, which is usually /sup 131/I negative, /sup 201/Tl total-body scintigraphy can be of great value for the localization of metastases which are indicated by elevated serum levels of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen.

  15. Radioiodine-induced changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofani, A.; Sciuto, R.; Cioffi, R.P.; Pasqualoni, R.; Rea, S.; Festa, A.; Maini, C.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Gandolfo, G.M.; Arista, M.C. [Department of Clinical Pathology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with thyroid carcinoma who received iodine-131 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Twenty thyroid cancer patients were entered in the study after total thyroidectomy: ten patients (group A) underwent whole-body scintigraphy with 185 MBq of {sup 131}I and the other ten (group B) received 3700 MBq of {sup 131}I therapy. All patients were in a hypothyroid state at the time of administration of {sup 131}I and started l-thyroxine 150 {mu}g/day 3 days after {sup 131}I administration. Free and bound triiodothyronine and thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid peroxidase/microsomal antibodies, white blood cell, lymphocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets were serially determined at baseline and at days 2, 7, 15, 30 and 60 after {sup 131}I administration. Twenty healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were used as a reference population for lymphocyte subset values. In group A only a reduction in NK cells at days 7 (P=0.043) and 15 (P=0.037) was observed. In group B, patients showed a delayed reduction in the total lymphocyte count at days 15, 30 and 60 (P=0.008, 0.004 and 0.018, respectively), and a decrease in B cells throughout the study (at days 7, 15, 30 and 60: P=0.006, 0.0017, 0.0017 and 0.0017 respectively). A transient decrease in NK cells was observed at days 15 (P=0.025) and 30 (P=0.008). Among T cells, the helper phenotype (CD4+) was mainly affected, resulting in a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at day 60 (P=0.046). Comparing the two groups, the numbers of B lymphocytes at day 30 (P=0.023) and NK cells at days 2 (P=0.037) and 30 (P=0.023) were significantly lower in group B. Neither group showed any clinical sign of immunosuppression during the follow-up period. In patients with thyroid cancer the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the effects of {sup 131}I administered for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes depends upon lymphocyte phenotype and {sup

  16. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A. E-mail: aledagrosa@fibertel.com.ar; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm{sup 3} or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  19. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, a diagnostic approach in fine needle aspiration: Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish S Chandanwale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite well-defined cytology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC in fine needle aspiration (FNA, diagnostic difficulties do exist while making decision in respect to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC cases. Aims: The aim of this study is to clarify diagnostic significance of various cytology features of PTC and to identify possible diagnostic pitfalls. Materials and Methods: FNA cytology (FNAC features and clinical findings of 17 PTC cases diagnosed on histology were retrieved. A retrospective review of these cases was performed. Results: The frequency and number of papillary formations, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions (INCI, and nuclear grooves (NG was more in PTC cases as compared to suggestive/suspicious of (S/O and rule out (R/O PTC cases. Cyst macrophages forming clusters were seen in six cases. Multinucleated giant cells (MGC were seen in seven cases. Large MGC with dense cytoplasm and more nuclei were seen in four PTC and one S/O PTC cases. Conclusion: FNAC features of PTC in FNA smears are neither constant nor specific. All the cytology features of PTC should be reported in proper context which allows endocrine specialist to treat and urgent histological verification.

  20. Coefficient of variation of nuclear diameters as a prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; Kuo, S H; How, S W

    1991-12-01

    To determine whether the coefficient of variation (CV) of nuclear diameters can be used as a prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma, we reviewed fine needle aspiration smears with Riu's stain from 55 operated-on and pathologically verified cases with a median follow-up of 6.5 years. For each case we measured the nuclear diameters of 100 cancer cells by ocular micrometry and calculated the CV of the nuclear diameters. Then we correlated the CV with the clinical stage, recurrence and death. There was a positive correlation between the CV of the nuclear diameters and the clinical stage (r = .59, P less than .0001). Recurrent cases (n = 10) had a higher CV than did those without recurrence (n = 45) (18.04 +/- 4.1% [mean +/- SD] versus 13.2 +/- 2.7%, P less than .0005). All recurrent cases had a CV greater than 13%. The cases in which death occurred (n = 5) had a higher CV than did those with survival (n = 50) (20.1 +/- 4.9% versus 13.5 +/- 2.7%, P less than .0005). All cases in which death occurred had a CV greater than 15%. The extent of variation of nuclear diameters was one of the factors influencing prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. It offers a prognostic adjunct to standard clinical and histologic analysis.

  1. Results of Surgical Therapy in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Mihaela; Zosin, Ioana; Timar, Bogdan; Lazar, Fulger; Vlad, Adrian; Timar, Romulus; Cornianu, Marioara

    2016-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare form of malignancy, having an intermediate prognosis. Controversies exist regarding the best surgical approach. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome in a group of patients with MTC, diagnosed and followed up in a single care center. We performed a retrospective analysis of all the patients diagnosed with MTC in the Department of Endocrinology from the County Emergency Hospital Timisoara between 1992 and 2012. The study group included 19 patients, 6 men (31.6 %), mean age 41.2 ± 12.5 years (20-72 years). The preoperative diagnosis was based on the protocol for nodular thyroid disease. Total or near-total thyroidectomy was performed in 10 out of 16 patients who could be operated. Postoperative follow-up included repeated measurements of serum calcitonin and imaging investigations. Nine out of the total of 19 (47.3 %) patients had hereditary forms of MTC. Most of the cases (84.2 %) were submitted to surgery. The median duration of follow-up was 84 months. The pTNM staging indicated that the majority of the patients with hereditary MTC were diagnosed in an earlier stage. Disease remission was achieved in 7 cases (43.8 %). Four patients, all with sporadic forms, died. Survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were significantly higher (p = 0.048) in patients with hereditary MTC. An early diagnosis of MTC allows a better surgical approach and an improved survival rate. We support the general recommendation that modified radical neck dissection is not necessary for all the patients with MTC. PMID:27574350

  2. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Henao Giraldo, Ricardo;

    2012-01-01

    ) and follicular carcinoma (FC). Comparison of carcinoma and adenoma with normal thyroid revealed 150 and 107 differentially expressed miRNAs. Most miRNAs were down-regulated and especially miR-199b-5p and miR-144 which were essentially lost in the carcinomas. Integration of the changed miRNAs with differentially......RNAs in FC exhibited a substantial similarity with down-regulated miRNAs in anaplastic carcinoma and by gene set enrichment analysis, we observed a significant identity between target mRNAs in FC and transcripts up-regulated in anaplastic carcinoma. To examine the diagnostic potential of miRNA expression...

  3. Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma of the Kidney in a Young Patient with History of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK is a rare histological variant of renal cell carcinoma not currently included in the World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. Only 24 previous cases of TLFCK have been reported to date. We report a case of TLFCK in a 19-year-old woman with history of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This patient is the youngest with TLFCK to be reported to date and the first with history of lymphoblastic leukemia. The development of TLFCK in a young patient with history of lymphoblastic leukemia is interesting and suggests that genes involved in leukemogenesis may also be important for TLFCK pathogenesis. Recognition of TLFCK is important to distinguish it from other conditions that show thyroid-like features, as a misdiagnosis can result in adverse patient care.

  4. Toxoplasmic Lymphadenitis Mimicking a Metastatic Thyroid Carcinoma at {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Ceriani, Luca; Paone, Gaetano; Giovanella, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    A 28-year-old woman underwent total thyroidectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe (pTx, pN1b). Subsequently a {sup 131}I-ablation (4.4 GBq) was performed. Four years later the patient presented increased thyroglobulin (Tg) serum levels (8.4 μg/l) during thyroxine treatment. Furthermore, enlarged hypoechoic and round-shaped bilateral cervical lymph nodes were detected at cervical ultrasonography (US). Based on laboratory and US findings suspicious for lymph nodal recurrence of thyroid carcinoma, the patient underwent an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) to check for distant metastases (Fig. 1). The patient underwent a US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on an {sup 18}F-FDG-avid cervical lymph-node. The smears were hypercellulated and consisted of numerous small- to medium-sized lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and tingible body macrophages. The cytological diagnosis was consistent with that of reactive lymphadenitis. Serological test revealed elevated IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies with a very low IgG-avidity, indicating an acute toxoplasmosis. Serum Tg was then measured by using heterophilic antibody blocking tubes, as previously reported, and serum value dropped to <0.2 μg/l. It is well known that antibody interference may falsely increase serum Tg; in particular, increased anti-Toxoplasma antibodies likely interfered to the Tg measurement in our case. Additionally, activated granulocytes and macrophages may display significantly increased glucose consumption, giving false-positive results at {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in oncological patients. Few reports have described toxoplasmic infection mimicking malignancy at {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT; these findings were found mainly in immunodepressive patients or with history of lymphoma. Conversely, we described here a case of toxoplasmosis inducing false-positive Tg measurement, neck US and {sup 18}F

  5. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  6. Expression of the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) in xenotransplanted human thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.A.; Schröder - van der Elst, J.P.; Karperien, M.; Que, I.; Romijn, J.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of iodide in thyroid epithelial cells is mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). The uptake of iodide is of vital importance for thyroid physiology and is a prerequisite for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. Loss of iodide uptake due to diminished expression of the human NIS (

  7. Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenkova L.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc. carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses.

  8. [Echotomography and color-Doppler in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, G; Viceconti, N; Trinti, B

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland is used extensively in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma: it is easy and rapid to perform and widely available. Ultrasound enables easy identification of the image of disease foci within the gland, especially when high frequency probes (7.5-10 MHz) are used. Thyroid nodules are subdivided on the basis of their echostructure into hypoechoic solid, isoechoic solid, and hyperechoic solid, mixed, and liquid. In neoplastic pathologies, a hypoechoic echostructure is not pathognomonic of malignancy but must be regarded with suspicion, especially if it is an isolated nodule in a male patient and continues to grow during suppressive therapy. In fact, thyroid neoplasms evidence a hypoechoic echostructure in 60-70% of the cases, while a hyperechoic echostructure is present in only 2-4%. Only 15-25% of neoplasms appear as isoechoic nodules; a mixed echostructure is rarely (5-10% of the cases) seen. Color-Doppler patterns are classified into four types: I) nodules without internal or perinodular vascularization; II) nodules with vascularization confined to extranodular tissue; III) nodules with significant intra- and perinodular vascularization; IV) increased vascularization (or "thyroid inferno"). The vast majority of thyroid carcinoma (90%) presents type III vascularization. We therefore suggest the routine use of ultrasonography and color-Doppler studies in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis in a thyroidectomized patient with metastatic thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, M.; Tokuyama, T.; Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Kusuda, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1988-04-15

    An unusual case of iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis is documented in this article. The patient was a 64-year-old euthyroid man with acromegaly. He also had multiple follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas with a metastatic lesion in the lumbar vertebrae. After a total thyroidectomy, he became slightly hypothyroid, and the lumbar lesion began to incorporate /sup 131/I by scintigraphy. When an iodine-containing contrast medium happened to be injected, a transient increase of serum thyroid hormone level was observed. After complete thyroid ablation with 83 mCi of /sup 131/I, the oral administration of 100 mg of potassium iodide for 7 days induced a prominent increase of serum thyroid hormone level. These findings indicated that the metastatic thyroid carcinoma could produce excess thyroid hormone insofar as a sufficient amount of iodide was given. Although this is the first report of such a case, iodide-induced thyrotoxicosis may not be rare in patients with thyroid carcinomas because the Wolff-Chaikoff effect is thought to be lost, and the organic iodinating activity and lysosomal protease activity are well-preserved.

  10. Malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma that were diagnosed concurrently and treated simultaneously: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgun, Alpaslan; Tuncel, Tolga; Emirzeoglu, Levent; Celik, Serkan; Bilgi, Oguz; Haholu, Abdullah; Urhan, Muammer; Karagoz, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can be successfully treated when it is identified in its early stages, but the disease is associated with a poor prognosis when it is detected in an advanced stage. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a thyroid cancer that has a good prognosis. The present study reports a rare case of malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma that were diagnosed concurrently and treated simultaneously. The present patient was a 37-year-old male, in whom examination of a skin biopsy that was obtained from a lesion in the right retroauricular region revealed the lesion to be consistent with malignant melanoma. The patient underwent radical neck dissection upon the detection of malignant melanoma metastasis to the sentinel lymph node. Metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma were detected in four out of 38 lymph nodes. The patient was then diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma and underwent total thyroidectomy. The patient was administered with high-dose followed by moderate-dose interferon-α therapy for the treatment of malignant melanoma. The patient also received concurrent radioactive iodine therapy for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma, at the same time as the interferon therapy. The two primary tumors of the patient were treated successfully. During therapy, no serious side-effects were observed, with the exception of fever caused by high-dose interferon therapy. Malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma may occur concurrently, although this is rarely observed. The present study reports a rare case that demonstrates that the two tumors can be successfully treated simultaneously. PMID:25436010

  11. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules

  12. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachar, Gideon, E-mail: gidybahar@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Buda, Inon, E-mail: inonbuda@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cohen, Maya, E-mail: mayac@clalit.org.il [Department of Imaging, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hadar, Tuvia, E-mail: hadartuv@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hilly, Ohad, E-mail: ohadhilly@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schwartz, Nofrat, E-mail: nofrat@gmail.com [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Otolaryngology, Meir Hospital, Kefar Sabah, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Shpitzer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas-s@013net.net [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Segal, Karl, E-mail: segalk@clalit.org.il [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-11-01

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules.

  13. Coexistence of parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: Experience of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubekir Gündeş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to describe experienceswith concurrent parathyroid adenoma and papillarythyroid carcinoma.Methods: Eight patients with concurrent parathyroid adenomaand papillary thyroid carcinoma were identifiedbetween 2005 and 2012, and their medical records werereviewed retrospectively.Results: Of the eight patients identified, two were maleand six were female; their mean age was 53.6 years.The mean serum calcium concentration was 11.7 mg/dL.Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations werehigh in all patients, with a mean concentration of 338 pg/mL. The most frequently used surgical technique was totalthyroidectomy plus parathyroid adenoma excision (n=6.The mean size of the thyroid carcinoma was 1.2 cm, andone case showed metastatic lymph nodes in the centralcompartment. The mean parathyroid adenoma size wasfound to be 2.1(0.6- 3.5 cm, according to the longest sizeof the adenom. Six patients (75% developed postoperativecomplications, including temporary symptomatic hypocalcemiain 4 patients (50%, hematoma developmentin 1 patient (12.5% and temporary vocal cord paralysis inone patient (12.5%.Conclusion: Thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenomaare rarely concomitant. Rarely hyperparathyroidismmay be accompanied with thyroid carcinomas so preoperativelythyroid gland should be properly examined. Thyroidwith parathyroid surgery are risk factors of recurrentlaryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism.Key words: Papillary thyroid cancer; parathyroid adenoma;thyroidectomy

  14. Serum calprotectin: a new potential biomarker for thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabur, S; Korkmaz, H; Özkaya, M; Elboğa, U; Tarakçıoglu, M; Aksoy, N; Akarsu, E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum calprotectin levels and oxidative stress status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and the changes in their levels after total thyroidectomy. The study involved 30 patients with PTC and 30 healthy controls. Blood samples were obtained from the PTC patients before and 1 month after the operation. Preoperative and postoperative serum samples from PTC patients and healthy controls were analysed for calprotectin, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and lipid hydroperokside (LOOH). The preoperative calprotectin, TOS, OSI and LOOH levels of the patients with PTC were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (p < 0.001, for each). The levels of calprotectin decreased significantly in patients with PTC after the operation (p < 0.001), while TAS, TOS and OSI levels remained unchanged (p = 0.313, p = 0.085 and p = 0.163, respectively). Preoperative serum calprotectin levels were positively correlated with TOS, OSI and LOOH levels and negatively correlated with TAS levels in patients with PTC. In conclusion, serum calprotectin levels is increased in patients with PTC, and calprotectin is positively correlated with TOS and LOOH. Serum calprotectin levels is significantly decreased after total thyroidectomy.

  15. Transformation of p53-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic carcinoma of the liver following postoperative radioactive iodine-131 therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshita, Yumie; Takamura, Toshinari; Minato, Hiroshi; Misu, Hirofumi; Ando, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Tatsuya; IKEDA, HIROKO; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    Multiple liver metastases were incidentally detected in the lobe of the liver of an 81-year-old woman following total thyroidectomy and ablative radioactive iodine administration for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A biopsy specimen taken from the metastatic liver tumor was histologically diagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining for p53 was positive in both the primary tumor and liver biopsy specimens. We considered this to have been caused by anaplastic t...

  16. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvadip Chakrabarti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words - Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary, we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient.

  17. A novel panel of antibodies that segregates immunocytochemically poorly differentiated carcinoma from undifferentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Del Bo, R; Cattoretti, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1994-10-01

    The expression of bcl-2 and p53 was investigated by immunocytochemistry in combination with that of conventional structural and differentiation antigens on the archival material of 22 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) and 19 of poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) of the thyroid gland. The restriction of bcl-2 expression to PDC in comparison to UC was 84.2% versus 13.6% of cases, respectively, in contrast to an almost equal percentage of p53 expression in the two histologic types, that is, 52.6% and 54.5% of cases of PDC and UC, respectively. However, the pattern of distribution of p53-immunoreactive cells was definitely different, being restricted to areas showing active infiltrating growth in PDC and involving almost all tumor cells in UC. Furthermore, in the subset of cases of UC showing the residual presence of a differentiated component, a distinctive mutual exclusion of bcl-2 and p53 immunoreactivity was observed in the two components. The results suggest that the evaluation of bcl-2 expression may be usefully applied to the differentiation of PDC from UC, whereas all morphologic findings related to p53 expression are in keeping with a significant role of the deregulation of this gene in the mechanism of dedifferentiation and progression of the disease.

  18. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Hernández Piñero; José Luis Rodríguez López; María de Lourdes Menéndez Villa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagn...

  19. Thyroid adenomas and carcinomas following radiotherapy for a hemangioma during infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, N.; Andriamboavonjy, T.; Paoletti, C.; Mousannif, A.; Shamsaldin, A.; Doyon, F.; Labbe, M.; Diallo, I.; Vathaire, F. de [INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dondon, M.G. [INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Robert, C. [Dermatology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Avril, M.F. [Dermatology, Hopital Cochin, Paris (France); Fragu, P.; Schlumberger, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Eschwege, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schvartz, C. [Reseau des registres des cancers, Francim, Toulouse (France)

    2012-07-01

    A cohort study was performed to investigate the carcinogenic effect of treating skin hemangioma with ionizing radiation during early childhood. This paper presents the incidence of differentiated thyroid adenomas and carcinomas after radiotherapy in this cohort. This study confirms that radiation treatment performed in the past for hemangioma during infancy increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma and adenoma. Patients treated with external radiotherapy or with Radium 226 applicators for hemangiomas have to be more specifically followed up because this is the subgroup in whom the highest doses were received by the thyroid gland (more than 90% of the radiation doses were higher than 100 mGy). They are therefore more at risk of developing thyroid cancer

  20. Thyroid adenomas and carcinomas following radiotherapy for a hemangioma during infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study was performed to investigate the carcinogenic effect of treating skin hemangioma with ionizing radiation during early childhood. This paper presents the incidence of differentiated thyroid adenomas and carcinomas after radiotherapy in this cohort. This study confirms that radiation treatment performed in the past for hemangioma during infancy increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma and adenoma. Patients treated with external radiotherapy or with Radium 226 applicators for hemangiomas have to be more specifically followed up because this is the subgroup in whom the highest doses were received by the thyroid gland (more than 90% of the radiation doses were higher than 100 mGy). They are therefore more at risk of developing thyroid cancer

  1. Genomic binding and regulation of gene expression by the thyroid carcinoma-associated PAX8-PPARG fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanxiao; Yu, Jingcheng; Lee, Chee; Xu, Bin; Sartor, Maureen A.; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    A chromosomal translocation results in production of an oncogenic PAX8-PPARG fusion protein (PPFP) in thyroid carcinomas. PAX8 is a thyroid transcription factor, and PPARG is a transcription factor that plays important roles in adipocytes and macrophages. PPFP retains the DNA binding domains of both proteins; however, the genomic binding sites of PPFP have not been identified, and only limited data exist to characterize gene expression in PPFP thyroid carcinomas. Therefore, the oncogenic func...

  2. Potential diagnostic utility of CD56 and claudin-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and solitary follicular thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The pathological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is usually easily achieved. However distinguishing the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) from other follicular thyroid lesions is an area of controversy. In this study we investigated the role of CD56 and claudin-1 in the discriminating the FVPCs from other solitary follicular patterned nodules. We also evaluated the application of these two markers in reclassifying the controversial cases of the well differentiated tumors of unknown malignant potential (WDTs-UMP). Materials and methods: The immunohistochemical expression of CD56 and claudin-1 was evaluated in 86 samples of thyroid lesions together with 10 samples of normal thyroid tissue. Thyroid lesions included: 29 PTCs [classic papillary carcinoma (n = 13) and FVPC (n = 16)], 47 solitary follicular patterned nodules [follicular adenomas (n = 12), hyperplastic nodules (n = 32) and follicular tumor of unknown malignant potential (n = 3)] and 10 WDTs-UMP. Results: The statistical analysis showed significantly different expressions of each of CD56 and claudin-1 in the FVPCs versus other solitary follicular patterned nodules. Claudin-1 sensitivity (100%) was higher than CD56 sensitivity (81.3%). However claudin-1 specificity (80.9%) was < CD56 specificity (89.4%). The combined use of CD56 and claudin-1 (claudin-1 +/CD56-) showed specificity (100%), positive predictive value (100%) and sensitivity (81.3%) in the differentiation between the FVPCs and other follicular nodules. In the light of this statistical outcome, 5/10 cases of WDTs-UMP expressing the (claudin-1 +/CD56-) panel could be rediagnosed as PTC. Conclusion: Combined utility of CD56 and claudin-1 is helpful in diagnosing the FVPC and its differentiation from other follicular patterned nodules. Application of these two markers may greatly aid in the reevaluation of the WDTs-UMP and interpretation of their expected behavior

  3. Development of skin hypopigmentation in a patient with metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid treated with Sorafenib

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Zubair; Asghar, Ali; Ikram, Mubasher; Islam, Najmul

    2013-01-01

    Background Sorafenib can be considered as the effective option of treatment in patients with metastatic radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancers. The cutaneous manifestations of Sorafenib include rash, desquamation, hand foot skin reactions, pruritus, alopecia and erythema. We report the first case of hypopigmentation related to sorafenib therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a middle aged gentleman with metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid diagnosed in 2005. He w...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of medullary thyroid carcinoma, current approaches in diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Boikos, S. A.; Stratakis, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the most common cause of death among patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2. Dominant-activating mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have been shown to have a central role in the development of MEN 2 and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC): about half of sporadic MTCs are caused by somatic genetic changes of the RET oncogene. Inactivating mutations of the same gene lead to Hirschprung disease and other developmental def...

  5. Various somatostatin receptor expression in thyroid gland carcinomas and carcinoids showed with scintigraphy with various somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the thyroid gland exprime somatostatin receptors in high density. OctreoScan is used for the diagnosis of SSTR positive tumors. OctreoScan is an 111In marked Octreotid-derivative. In this study the applicability of the various tracers for the diagnosis of carcinoids and thyroid gland carcinomas was tested. With planar scintigraphy the results was evaluated. (boteke)

  6. Comparison of microarray expression profiles between follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas of the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Al-Mansouri, Zuhoor; Baghallab, Ibtisam; Bagatian, Nadia; Subhi, Ohoud; Karim, Sajjad; Al-Aradati, Hosam; Al-Mutawa, Abdulmonem; Johary, Adel; Meccawy, Abdulrahman A; Al-Ghamdi, Khalid; Al-Hamour, Osman Abdel; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad Hussain; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah

    2015-01-01

    Background Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and follicular adenoma (FA) are histologically closely related tumors and differential diagnosis remains challenging. RNA expression profiling is an established method to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying the histopathology of diseases. Methods BRAF mutational status was established by direct sequencing the hotspot region of exon 15 in six FVPTCs and seven FAs. Whole-transcript arrays were employed to generate expressi...

  7. Heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma does not influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma on preoperative ultrasound staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herh, Sun Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Sung, Ji Min; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneous echogenicity and micro-nodulations of diffuse thyroid disease on ultrasonography (US) might influence the diagnostic performance of pre-operative US staging, especially the detection of multi-focality. This study was designed to determine whether heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma influences the diagnostic performance of US in the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Between December 2010 and April 2011, 811 patients underwent pre-operative staging US for papillary thyroid carcinoma and surgery. Twelve radiologists performed the pre-operative US for T and N staging. Underlying parenchymal echogenicity and unilateral and bilateral multi-focality of the thyroid nodules were also evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the underlying echogenicity of the thyroid gland. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of US with respect to underlying echogenicity, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated and compared between the two groups. Among the 811 patients included, US revealed underlying heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 204 (25.2%) and underlying homogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 607 (74.8%). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the diagnostic performance of pre-operative staging US in predicting unilateral multi-focality and bilaterality. Underlying heterogeneous echogenicity in a thyroid gland with Hashimoto's thyroiditis does not significantly influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid cancer on pre-operative US staging.

  8. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  9. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs. RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01 and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01 suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.

  10. The role of thyrotropin suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deasy, J

    2010-07-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the commonest endocrine malignancy. The majority of these are differentiated thyroid carcinomas, which have a good overall prognosis. Treatment includes surgical excision, radio-iodine ablation and long-term thyrotropin suppression. The degree and length of suppression required, as well as the potential side-effect remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the degree of thyrotropin suppression achieved in a cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A retrospective review was performed of a prospectively maintained database. All patients with a diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma between January 1998 and January 2008 were identified. Demographic data, pathological stage and the treatment that the patient received was documented. TSH and free T4 levels were identified at specific time points post-operatively. Eighty-eight patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were identified. Seventy patients (79.5%) were female. The mean age was 55, with a range of 18 to 79 years. The majority of patients underwent a total thyroidectomy (n=79; 89.7%) and of those 29 (32.9%) had an associated modified neck dissection. Accurate follow-up was available on forty-nine patients. TSH and free T4 were measured at 3 and 6 months, as well as at 1 and 2 years post-operatively. Adequate TSH suppression was taken at a level < 0.1 mU\\/L. The majority of patients (69.5%) had achieved adequate TSH suppression at 2 years. However, 65% of these same patients had a high free T4 at 2 years indicating a degree of hyperthyroidism. This study has demonstrated that TSH suppression is being adequately achieved in the majority of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, this must be carefully weighed against the potential detrimental side-effects of long-term sub-clinical hyperthyroidism.

  11. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: ultrasound features with histopathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J.Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E.-K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ekkim@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, S.W. [Departments of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, K.K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C.S. [Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, W.Y. [Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Aim: To evaluate the ultrasound (US) features of the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma (DSVPC) of the thyroid, with histopathological correlations. Materials and methods: The US and histopathological findings of six patients with surgically proven DSVPC of the thyroid were retrospectively assessed. Results: Most of cases showed diffuse, scattered microcalcifications with or without associated masses and underlying heterogeneous hypoechogenicity at the site of the DSVPC in the thyroid. At ultrasound, scattered microcalcifications and heterogeneous hypoechogenicity seen in the DSVPC correlated to psammoma bodies and lymphocytic infiltration at histopathological review. Conclusion: DSVPC of the thyroid usually manifested as diffuse scattered microcalcifications and associated suspicious mass on ultrasound. These findings are not specific for the DSVPC of the thyroid. However, in relatively young patients with suspicious masses associated with underlying diffuse scattered microcalcifications on US, the possibility of DSVPC should be included in differential diagnosis.

  12. A Case of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma with de novo V804M RET Germline Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young Sik; Kwon, Hye Jung; Kim, Bu Kyung; Kwon, Su Kyoung; Park, Yo Han; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Sang Bong; Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Seong Keun; UCHINO, SHINYA

    2013-01-01

    Many cases of RET proto-oncogene mutations of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have been reported in Korea. However, MTC with V804M RET proto-oncogene germline mutations have not been reported in Korea. A 33-yr-old man was diagnosed with a 0.7-cm sized thyroid nodule. Laboratory testing revealed serum calcitonin was elevated. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection for the thyroid tumor. RET gene analysis was performed in both the index p...

  13. Pentagastrin, calcium and whisky stimulated serum calcitonin in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmertsen, K K; Nielsen, H E; Mosekilde, L; Hansen, H H

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency of pentagastrin, calcium and whisky in raising serum immunoreactive calcitonin (S-iCT) concentrations was analysed in 6 patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and in 8 healthy controls. All 6 patients responded to pentagastrin with a significant increase in S-iCT, 5 responded to calcium and only 3 to whisky. In the 8 controls no or only a modest increase in S-iCT occurred following pentagastrin, calcium and whisky with no difference between the three. It is concluded that pentagastrin is the most useful stimulative agent for ICT secretion in patients with C-cell neoplasms. In selected cases the additional use of calcium could be advantageous.

  14. [Clinical guideline for management of patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Oleaga, Amelia; Álvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Martín, Tomás; Galofré, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in Spain and worldwide. Overall thyroid cancer survival is very high, and stratification systems to reliably identify patients with worse prognosis have been developed. However, marked differences exist between the different specialists in clinical management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma. Almost half of all papillary thyroid carcinomas are microcarcinomas, and 90% are tumors < 2 cm that have a particularly good prognosis. However, they are usually treated more aggressively than needed, despite the lack of adequate scientific support. Surgery remains the gold standard treatment for these tumors. However, lobectomy may be adequate in most patients, without the need for total thyroidectomy. Similarly, prophylactic lymph node dissection of the central compartment is not required in most cases. This more conservative approach prevents postoperative complications such as hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation and strict suppression of serum thyrotropin, although effective for the more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer, have not been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of low risk patients, and may impair their quality of life. This guideline provides recommendations from the task force on thyroid cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition for adequate management of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer.

  15. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (2015) Radiation Safety in the Treatment of Patients with Thyroid Diseases by Radioiodine 131 I: Practice Recommendations of the ...

  16. THE UNILATERAL BIG HOCKEY STICK INCISION FOR NECK DISSECTION IN THYROID CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝国; 刘伟; 顾晋

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and advantages of the unilateral big hockey stick incision in thyroid carcinoma. Method: Neck dissection using the unilateral big hockey stick incision was performed on 23 patients with thyroid carcinoma. Results: The big hockey stick incision results in a cosmetic scar which is barely visible and easily covered by hair or clothing, while it provides sufficient exposure of the operation field. A small area of marginal necrosis is occasionally seen at the apex of the skin flap due to preoperative radiotherapy. Conclusion: The unilateral big hockey stick incision has adequate surgical access, good healing of skin flaps, and a good cosmetic result.

  17. Cytologic Findings of Thyroid Carcinoma Showing Thymus-like Differentiation: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sunhee; Joo, Mee; Kim, Hanseong

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare carcinoma of the thyroid or adjacent soft tissue of the neck with a histologic resemblance to thymic epithelial tumors. Although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a central role in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, few reports about the cytologic findings of CASTLE have been found according to a review of literatures. We report cytologic findings of a case of CASTLE. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-month his...

  18. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  19. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  20. Copper as ancillary diagnostic tool in preoperative evaluation of possible papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with benign thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragutinović, Vesna V; Tatić, Svetislav B; Nikolić-Mandić, Snežana D; Tripković, Tatjana M; Dunđerović, Duško M; Paunović, Ivan R

    2014-09-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) comprises numerous diagnostic procedures which are mostly applicable in tertiary institutions. Normal thyroid function depends on the presence of many trace elements and copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are some of those. The study is based on retrospective review of 118 patients with preoperatively diagnosed benign thyroid disease (BTD) and 12 with PTC, who underwent thyroid surgery at the Center for Endocrine Surgery Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to evaluate concentrations of Cu and Zn in serum as possible prediction markers for PTC in patients who underwent surgery for preoperatively diagnosed BTD. Concentrations of Cu and Zn ions in serum were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using methods of descriptive statistics, Anova and t-test (p papillary microcarcinoma-mPTC in 13 (11.0%) of BTD patients. The concentrations of Cu ions in serum of PTC patients as well as in serum of patients with mPTC were significantly higher than in serum of BTD patients (p thyroid surgery can be useful, easy available, and a low-cost tool in prediction of preoperatively undiagnosed PTC in patients with BTD.

  1. Ultrasonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinoma and their diagnostic values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Sheng; JIANG Yu-xin; LIU He; LI Wen-bo; OUYANG Yun-shu; ZHANG Bo; LI Peng; WANG Xue-lian; ZHANG Xiao-yan; LI Jian-chu

    2010-01-01

    Background Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignant tumour and usually difficult to diagnose with ultrasound. The aim of the study is to summarize the sonographic features of MTC and evaluate their diagnostic values.Methods We analyzed the sonographic features of 35 MTCs and 50 benign nodules with respect to nodular size,echogenecity, internal content, shape, height/width, border, peripheral halo, calcifications and colour flow pattern. The ratio of long to short axis, echogenecity, internal content and calcifications were also assessed in cervical lymph nodes.The differences in sonographic features between MTCs and benign nodules were analyzed with Chi square test. The diagnostic efficiency of each sonographic feature was determined.Results The main sonographic features of MTC were hypoechogenicity (including marked hypoechogenicity) (n=34,97%), internal solid content (n=29, 83%), taller than wide (n=34, 97%), well defined border (n=24, 69%),microcalcifications or macrocalcifications (n=23, 66%). The echogenicity, internal content, shape, peripheral halo and calcifications were significantly different between these two groups, while the tall/wide, border, and pednodular and intranodular vascularisation were not significantly different. Among all the individual sonographic features, irregular shape had the highest diagnostic efficiency with a sensitivity of 51% and specificity of 92%. The combination of marked hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, and irregular shape yielded a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 86%.Conclusions The typical sonographic features of MTC are hypoechogenicity, predominantly solid, irregularly shaped with intranodular micro- or macro-calcifications. The combination of multiple sonographic features is helpful, but not definitive, for the diagnosis of MTC.

  2. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  3. Significance of IMP3, nucleophosmin, and Ki-67 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorukoglu, Aygun; Yalcin, Nagihan; Avci, Arzu; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya; Yaylali, Guzin; Akin, Fulya; Haciyanli, Mehmet; Ozden, Akin

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic value of expression of IMP3, nucleophosmin, and correlation of these markers with Ki-67 proliferation index in papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign neoplasms of thyroid gland. The aim was also to investigate whether there is a difference between papillary and micropapillary carcinomas with regard to clinicopathologic parameters beside IMP3, nucleophosmin, and Ki-67 proliferation index. It was concluded that IMP3 and nucleophosmin cannot be a routine diagnostic marker for discrimination of papillary carcinomas and benign lesions. IMP3 positive staining was quite scarce in IMP3 positive papillary carcinomas although specifity of IMP3 is 100%. A statistically significant correlation was not detected between nucleophosmin, IMP-3, and Ki-67 proliferation index. A statistically significant correlation was found between tumor size, lymphovascular embolism, and Ki-67 proliferation index. There was also significant correlation between tumor size and lymphovascular embolism.

  4. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a review on ethical considerations in treatment of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozhat, Zahra; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system and it accounts approximately 1%-3% of all human cancers. Among the three subtypes of thyroid cancers, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is the most common cause of death in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (MEN2A), MEN type 2B (MEN2B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Generally, MTC accounts for up to 10% of all types of thyroid cancers. It is one of the aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma which is manifested in childhood ages more than adults, and it comprises about 17% of all pediatric thyroid cancer. Like the other cancers, prevention of MTC is easier than its cure. In the recent decades (from 1993) the diagnosis of asymptomatic child carrying RET mutations in the affected families by MTC, has been provided by genetic screening, and prophylactic thyroidectomy is an efficacy therapeutic procedure. On the one hand, according to near the complete penetrance of the disease and its onset in the early years of life, it is required to accelerate the protection of at-risk children with relative affected by MTC and on the other hand, there are several obstructions to MTC treatment including: 1) the proband's refusal to disclose the RET mutation genetic testing results, 2) children's vulnerability because of their inability to participate in the informed consent, and 3) the existence of conflict between physicians and children's guardian. In this review article, the recommendations and ethical issues of MTC treatment in asymptomatic and at-risk children have been summarized. PMID:26974132

  5. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and TSH as Risk Factors or Prognostic Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, Debora Lucia Seguro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Fabri, Amanda Wictky; Santana, Nathalie Oliveira; Kulcsar, Marco Aurelio; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Marui, Suemi; Hoff, Ana Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective The increasing incidence of thyroid nodules demands identification of risk factors for malignant disease. Several studies suggested the association of higher TSH levels with cancer, but influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is controversial. This study aimed to identify the relationship of thyroid cancer with higher TSH levels and hypovitaminosis D and to evaluate their influence on prognostic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Methods We retrospectively evaluated 433 patients submitted to thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules. Patients were categorized according to quartiles of TSH and 25OHD levels. Clinicopathological features were analyzed. Results Subjects with thyroid carcinomas were more frequently male and younger compared to those with benign disease. Their median TSH levels were higher and adjusted odds-ratio (OR) for cancer in the highest-quartile of TSH (> 2.4 mUI/mL) was 2.36 (1.36–4.09). Although vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was prevalent in our cohort (84%), no significant differences in 25OHD levels or quartile distribution were observed between benign and malignant cases. Among 187 patients with PTC, analyses of prognostic features revealed increased risk of lymph nodes metastases for subjects with highest-quartile TSH levels (OR = 3.7, p = 0.029). Decreased 25OHD levels were not overtly associated with poor prognosis in PTC. Conclusions In this cross-sectional cohort, higher TSH levels increased the risk of cancer in thyroid nodules and influenced its prognosis, particularly favoring lymph nodes metastases. On the other hand, no association was found between 25OHD levels and thyroid carcinoma risk or prognosis, suggesting that serum 25OHD determination may not contribute to risk assessment workup of thyroid nodules. PMID:27737011

  6. Differential expression of two activating transcription factor 5 isoforms in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Luisa; La Rosa, Cristina; Forte, Stefano; Calabrese, Giovanna; Colarossi, Cristina; Aiello, Eleonora; Salluzzo, Salvatore; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the activating transcription/cAMP response element-binding protein family of basic leucine zipper proteins that plays an important role in cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The ATF5 gene generates two transcripts: ATF5 isoform 1 and ATF5 isoform 2. A number of studies indicate that ATF5 could be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in several tumor types; however, so far, the role of ATF5 has not been investigated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immuno-histochemical staining were used to study ATF5 mRNA and protein expression in PTC. Results We report here that ATF5 is expressed more in PTC tissue than in normal thyroid tissue. Furthermore, this is the first study that describes the presence of both ATF5 isoforms in PTC. Conclusion These findings could provide potential applications in PTC cancer treatment.

  7. Carcinoma folicular de tireóide: estudo retrospectivo Follicular thyroid carcinoma: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergilius J. F. Araújo Filho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Abordar o diagnóstico, tratamento e evolução do carcinoma folicular da tireóide. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados de 38 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia por carcinoma folicular puro, num período de 10 anos no HC-FMUSP. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de três anos e três meses. Nove pacientes eram do sexo masculino (23,7% e 29 do sexo feminino (76,3%, com idades entre 19 e 87 anos (média=49,5. RESULTADOS: Em 17 (58,6% dos doentes, observou-se nódulo único à ultra-sonografia, e 23 (79,3% tinham nódulos frios à cintilografia. Sintomatologia esteve presente em 33 pacientes (86,8%. A punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF, realizada em 27 pacientes, revelou padrão folicular em 24 (88,9%, carcinoma papilífero em 2 (7,4% e bócio em 1 (3,7%. Tireoidectomia total foi o tratamento final em 34 pacientes e esvaziamento cervical foi realizado em três casos. Apenas 5 (13,1% obtiveram confirmação diagnóstica ao exame de congelação intra-operatória. Houve 2 (5,2% óbitos pela doença e 5 (13,1% pacientes apresentam-se vivos com doença. O aumento da tireoglobulina (TG correlacionou-se com o aparecimento de metástase em 100% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Concluímos que pacientes com carcinoma folicular de tireóide geralmente apresentam-se com nódulo único ou predominante ao primeiro exame, cuja PAAF é de padrão folicular. O exame de congelação raramente confirma o diagnóstico. Em nosso serviço, o tratamento de escolha é a tireoidectomia total, permitindo um seguimento mais adequado e confiável do paciente e prevenindo o crescimento de lesões subclínicas no lobo contralateral. A evolução geralmente é favorável.BACKGROUND: Unlike papillary carcinoma, there are limited data regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on 38 patients submitted to thyroidectomy for exclusive follicular carcinoma over a 10 years

  8. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  9. Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7±54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in 131I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3±9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5±3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to 131I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after 131I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after 131I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several 131I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that 131I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Estrogen Receptor- and Progesterone Receptor-Positive Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kinoshita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSV-PTC is a relatively rare tumor. We herein report the case of young woman with DSV-PTC who developed cervical lymph node recurrence 7 years after the initial surgery. A 15-year-old female patient with no medical or family history of thyroid tumors developed a thyroid neoplasm in the right lobe. Right thyroidectomy and regional lymphadenectomy were performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as DSV-PTC. She was followed up as an outpatient. Seven years after the surgery, cervical lymph node recurrence developed. On microscopic examination, the thyroid tumor showed a papillary growth pattern with numerous psammoma bodies and distinct fibrosis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positive with reduced membranous expression of E-cadherin and were intermingled with S-100-positive dendritic/Langerhans cells. DSV-PTC is characterized by a strong tendency for invasion and metastasis. Thus, accurate diagnosis is clinically important, and a morphological and immunohistochemical understanding of DSV-PTC is necessary.

  11. Prognostic impact of extent of vascular invasion in low-grade encapsulated follicular cell–derived thyroid carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 276 cases☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Laura; Tuttle, R. Michael; Ganly, Ian; Ghossein, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Summary Continuous controversy surrounds the predictive value of the degree of vascular invasion (VI) in low-grade encapsulated follicular cell–derived thyroid carcinomas (LGEFCs). Some guidelines advocate conservative therapy in LGEFCs with focal VI. There is therefore a need to assess the survival rates of LGEFC patients with various degrees of VI to better stratify patients for subsequent therapy. Furthermore, the prognostic effect of VI within the different histotypes of LGEFCs is not well known. A total of 276 patients with LGEFCs were subjected to a meticulous histopathologic analysis. They were classified as encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma, encapsulated follicular carcinoma (EFC), and encapsulated Hurthle cell carcinoma (EHCC). Of the 276 patients, 24 had extensive VI (EVI) (≥4 foci) and 28 displayed focal (thyroid carcinoma. Median follow-up was 6 years. All 14 tumors with adverse behavior harbored distant metastases (DMs), of which 9 had DMs at presentation. All 3 patients without EVI who had aggressive carcinomas harbored DMs at presentation. EVI was an independent predictor of poor recurrence-free survival. Excluding cases with DMs at presentation, only patients with EVI had recurrence, and all relapsed cases were EHCC. EVI is an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival in LGEFCs. EHCC with EVI has a particularly high risk of recurrence. When DMs are not found at presentation, patients with focal VI are at a very low risk of recurrence even if not treated with radioactive iodine. PMID:26482605

  12. Sentinel Node Detection in Patients with Thyroid Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, P.; Paul, M.; Lips, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to review the diagnostic performance of sentinel node (SN) detection for assessment of the nodal status in thyroid carcinoma patients and to determine the technique (using blue dye or Technetium-99m colloid (99mTc)) that demonstrated the highest success rate with r

  13. [Postradial sialozoadenitis in patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, V A; Kopchak, A V; Kovalenko, A E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the results of investigation of 42 patients with salivary gland dysfunction after radioactive iodine-131 ablation therapy concerning papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical manifestations of postradial sialodenitis with secretory insufficiency of different degree were revealed. These side effects required an application of the special therapy.

  14. Medical evaluations of ionizing radiation effects during I131 therapy in patients after thyroid carcinoma surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study shows the para-clinical studies on a 39 years old patient who was operated on of a thyroid carcinoma and who, under the beirwaltes medical record (in use in our country), received in the post surgical stage, a Iodine-131 dose of about 2960 MBq (80 mCi) for ablation, having been noted subsequently her pregnancy condition. (author). 6 refs

  15. Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma : The EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Tikk, Kaja; Fortner, Renee T.; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as); Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Argueelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandstrom, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Schmidt, Julie A.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Byrnes, Graham; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) is threefold more common in women than in men and, therefore, a role of female hormones in the etiology of differentiated TC has been suggested. We assessed these hypotheses in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among

  16. Is outcome of differentiated thyroid carcinoma influenced by tumor stage at diagnosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.; Kremer, L.C.; Links, T.P.; Mulder, R.L.; Ronckers, C.M.; Eck-Smit, B.L. van; Rijn, R.R. van; Pal, H.J. van der; Tissing, W.J.; Janssens, G.O.R.J.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M. van den; Neggers, S.J.; Dijkum, E.J. van; Peeters, R.P.; Santen, H.M. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no international consensus on surveillance strategies for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. Ultrasonography could allow for early detection of DTC, however, its value is yet unclear since the prognosis of DTC is excellent. We address

  17. Is outcome of differentiated thyroid carcinoma influenced by tumor stage at diagnosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.; Kremer, L.C.M.; Links, T.P.; Mulder, R.L.; Ronckers, C.M.; van Eck-Smit, B.L.; van Rijn, R.R.; Pal van der, H.J.H.; Tissing, W.J.E.; Janssens, G.O.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M.; Neggers, S.J.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E.J.; Peeters, R.P.; van Santen, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no international consensus on surveillance strategies for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. Ultrasonography could allow for early detection of DTC, however, its value is yet unclear since the prognosis of DTC is excellent. We address

  18. Increased Risk of Atrial Fibrillation After Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Schuurmans, Edwin P.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Groen, Bart; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Rienstra, Michiel; Links, Thera P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) have a favorable prognosis after treatment with thyroidectomy, radioiodine, and TSH suppression. However, treatment is associated with long-term cardiovascular toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an increas

  19. Is thyroidectomy necessary in RET mutations carriers of the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Torring, H; Godballe, C;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results and consequences of genetic testing in a family with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are described. METHODS: In the screening of relatives, serum calcitonin is replaced by RET mutation analysis that was performed in families suspected of hereditary medullary th...

  20. Dosimetrically determined doses of radioiodine for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, Douglas; Atkins, Frank; Yeganeh, Fred; Acio, Elmo; Bursaw, Randy; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-02-01

    In the absence of definitive studies relating radioiodine dose to outcomes, selection of a dose of radioiodine to treat metastatic thyroid carcinoma is problematic, and several approaches have been used. These include empiric fixed doses and doses used on dosimetric approaches specific for each patient. This paper is a review of the rationale and technique for dosimetrically-determined doses of radioiodine for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. This review (1) discusses the alternatives for selection of a dose, (2) discusses the two major approaches for determining radioiodine doses dosimetrically, (3) briefly reviews several modifications of these approaches, (4) reviews the literature regarding the results, (5) discusses the side effects of these different approaches, and (6) concludes with recommendations for patient management and future research. This review does not address use of dosimetrically-determined doses of radioiodine for the initial ablation of thyroid tissue postoperatively.

  1. An unusual presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism: multiple brown tumors and coexisting thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Y; Ince, S; Alagoz, E; Meric, C; Taslipinar, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a patient with a complex clinical picture of primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple destructive skeletal lesions suspicious of bone metastases and concomitant multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma with a metastatic central lymph node. He presented with progressively worsening right hip pain and restricted motion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple lytic lesions involving predominantly the right trochanter minor and the left inferior and posterior pubic rami. Biochemical tests were consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. Neck ultrasound and parathyroid scintigraphy revealed a single parathyroid adenoma and a thyroid nodule, preoperative cytology of which confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma, as did the final surgical specimen. Biochemical results, regarding hyperparathyroidism, declined to normal levels and his complaints gradually decreased after surgery. Postoperative whole body bone scintigraphy showed increased tracer uptakes at multiple sites, but they were proved to be metabolically inactive by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. PMID:27036887

  2. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: Claudius-Regaud center's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From June 1971 to September 1989, 38 patients had been treated for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT). Four patients were excluded from the study, because they were rapidly lost of follow up. We have distinguished three groups: i) group 1 (infra-clinic tumor diagnosed at the time of family investigation): four cases treated by radical thyroidectomy and bilateral cervical evidement; ii) group 2 (bulky cervical tumor with metastatic spread): three patients treated with a palliative intent; iii) group 3 (bulky cervical tumor with metastatic spread): 27 patients treated by thyroidectomy (with cervical lymph mode dissection in 23 cases) and post-operative radiotherapy for 20 patients who had histopathologic invading nodes or a large extracapsular spreading. All patients from the group 1 are alive free of recurrence and the median follow up time is 35 months. In group 2: two patients died from the disease three and 10 months after initial therapy and one patient is alive with disease after 72 months of follow up. In group 3: median follow up time is 79 months. Ten patients (37%) had a local and locoregional failure (isolated nodal recurrence: three patients local and/or nodal relapse with metastatic failure: seven patients). For teen per cent of the irradiated patients relapsed in the target volume. Nine patients (33%) had a metastatic relapse without evidence of cervical recurrence. Median period of metastatic recurrence is 47 months. Specific survival and disease free survival of 65 and 45% at 5 years, 54 and 26% at 10 years respectively. From nine prognosis parameters considered, the post-therapy increasing of tumor markers (thyrocalcitonin and/or CE/A) had significant influence on disease free survival (P<0.02). Histological nodal status had no significant influence on actuarial metastatic rate, but 93% of metastatic patients were N+, and 65% of patients with N+ became M+. This study confirms that metastatic dissemination in patients with nodal invading is a

  3. A comparisonof lymphocytic thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma showing suspicious ultrasonographic findings in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sang Yu; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Hahn, Soo Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medicine Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to compare ultrasonographic features in patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) having suspicious thyroid nodule(s) in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma and to determine the clinical and radiological predictors of malignancy. We reviewed the cases of 100 patients who underwent ultrasonography between April 2011 and October 2012, and showed suspicious thyroid nodule(s) in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma. Eight patients who did not undergo ultrasonography-guided fineneedle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and 34 cases of follow-up ultrasonography after initial FNAC were excluded. We compared the benign and malignant nodules in terms of their clinical and radiological factors. For the 58 nodules including 31 LTs (53.4%) and 27 PTCs (46.6%), the mean tumor sizes of the two groups were 0.96 cm for LT and 0.97 cm for PTC. A univariate analysis revealed that PTCs were more frequent in patients younger than 45 years and having microcalcifications than was LT. An independent predictor of PTC after adjustment was an age of <45 years. LT mimics malignancy in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma on ultrasonography. A young age of <45 years is the most important predictor of malignancy in this condition.

  4. Expression of ARE-binding proteins AUF1 and HuR in follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, B; Sekulla, C; Dralle, H; Hoang-Vu, C

    2016-01-01

    Both adenylate-uridylate rich elements binding proteins AUF1 and HuR may participate in thyroid carcinoma progression. In this study we investigated the expression of both factors on a protein level with a special focus on follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. By employment of immunofluorescence and western blot on 68 thyroid tissues including 7 goiter, 16 follicular adenoma (4 adenomatous hyperplasia), 19 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 13 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 14 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas we investigated protein expression of AUF1 and HuR. In addition to previous results we demonstrated that AUF1 and HuR are significantly up-regulated in carcinoma tissues as compared with follicular adenoma or goiter tissues. Furthermore, by evaluation of AUF1 or HuR expression, or combination of both proteins on total tissue lysates, we were able to demonstrate a significant difference between follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Overexpression of AUF1 and HuR is a common finding observed in thyroid malignancy. Analysis of the tissues obtained by surgical resection as demonstrated in this study is comparable to a fine needle aspiration and in combination with AUF1/HuR immuno-analysis may support the conventional immunohistological investigations. The promising results of this study were performed on relatively small collective, but justify future development of a quick thyroid diagnostic test on larger cohort of the patients, especially for thyroid samples which are inadequate for histological examinations.

  5. Difference between papillar y and follicular thyroid carcinoma outcomes:an experience from Egyptian institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engy M Aboelnaga; Rehab Allah Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) are classiifed into papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). DTCs are analyzed as a single group in clinical studies that investigated the prognostic factors and prognosis of these malignancies. However, the biological behaviors of these carcinomas signiifcantly differ. In the present study, we aimed to detect differences in the outcomes between PTC and FTC in Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt. Methods:A total of 558 patients with histologically proven thyroid carcinomas from January 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. hTe clinical and pathological data of patients were reviewed. Results:Large primary tumor size, lymph node involvement, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis were signiifcant poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in old PTC patients. Cox hazard analysis showed that the patient’s age, extra thyroid extension, and distant metastasis were the only independent prognostic factors. In FTC patients, only the distant metastasis and degree of tumor invasion were signiifcant poor prognostic factors in OS univariate analysis. However, these factors were nonsignificant in multivariate analysis. The 10-year OS rates were 97%and 89%for PTC and FTC, respectively (P=0.003). hTe 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.2%in PTC vs. 65%in FTC (P=0.179). Conclusion:hTe signiifcant prognostic factors vary between the two types of DTCs. hTerefore, PTC and FTC patients need to be analyzed and reported independently. PTC survival is widely and signiifcantly affected by age, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis. By contrast, these factors were nonsigniifcant in FTC, which showed poorer survival than PTC.

  6. Difference between papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma outcomes: an experience from Egyptian institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) are classified into papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). DTCs are analyzed as a single group in clinical studies that investigated the prognostic factors and prognosis of these malignancies. However, the biological behaviors of these carcinomas significantly differ. In the present study, we aimed to detect differences in the outcomes between PTC and FTC in Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt. A total of 558 patients with histologically proven thyroid carcinomas from January 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. The clinical and pathological data of patients were reviewed. Large primary tumor size, lymph node involvement, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis were significant poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in old PTC patients. Cox hazard analysis showed that the patient’s age, extra thyroid extension, and distant metastasis were the only independent prognostic factors. In FTC patients, only the distant metastasis and degree of tumor invasion were significant poor prognostic factors in OS univariate analysis. However, these factors were nonsignificant in multivariate analysis. The 10-year OS rates were 97% and 89% for PTC and FTC, respectively (P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.2% in PTC vs. 65% in FTC (P=0.179). The significant prognostic factors vary between the two types of DTCs. Therefore, PTC and FTC patients need to be analyzed and reported independently. PTC survival is widely and significantly affected by age, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis. By contrast, these factors were nonsignificant in FTC, which showed poorer survival than PTC

  7. Synchronous parathyroid adenoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Iakovou, Ioannis P; Konstantinidis, Iordanis E; Chrisoulidou, Alexandra I; Doumas, Argyrios S

    2009-01-01

    A 51-year-old female patient presented with atypical chest pain, laryngo-oesophageal reflux, increased levels of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone. Ultrasonography showed a multinodular goiter with a prominent solid nodule in the lower left thyroid lobe and a solid hypoechoic nodule outside this area. Tc99m-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy was performed to investigate a primary hyperparathyroidism, revealing an area with increased uptake in the lower left thyroid lobe and another area w...

  8. Papillary thyroid carcinoma risk factors in the Yunnan plateau of southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong; Shou, Tao; Yang, Kun-xian; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Jin-ping; Zuo, Rong-xia; Zheng, Yong-qing; Yan, Xin-ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics and risk factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients’ native to Yunnan plateau in southwestern China. Methods Clinical data from 1,198 patients diagnosed with PTC (n=578) and control subjects (n=620) with benign thyroid disease (ie, thyroid nodule disease, benign thyroid diseases [BTD]) in Yunnan province were analyzed retrospectively. Results The mean patient age was lower for PTC than for BTD. Positive ratios of thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) were higher in PTC than in BTD patients. The ratio of PTC coexisting with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) or with lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher than that of BTD. The number of patients whose age at menarche was ≤13 years, who had given birth to less than or equal to two children, or who were in premenopause were higher in the PTC than in the BTD group. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that age >45 years, nodal size >1 cm, and elevated TG levels were protective factors against PTC. Abnormally elevated TGAb and TRAb levels were independent risk factors for PTC in females. Conclusion HT was not an independent risk factor for but was associated with PTC. TRAb is a risk factor for PTC in individuals living in the Yunnan plateau, but not for those in the plains region. PMID:27418831

  9. Anaplastic transformation of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma at shoulder mimicking soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kaushal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman presented with fracture upper end of the left humerus after trivial trauma and aspiration cytology from the lytic lesion in the upper humerus seen on X-ray revealed a metastatic papillary carcinoma from the thyroid. Total thyroidectomy confirmed the papillary carcinoma thyroid. Post-operatively, she was given radioactive iodine (I-131 ablation therapy for 8 years and was asymptomatic during this period; however, for the last 1 year, she has been complaining of swelling in the shoulder, which did not respond to palliative radiotherapy and rapidly increased in size. Disarticulation of the shoulder joint was performed, which showed anaplastic carcinoma on histopathological examination. Anaplastic transformation of papillary carcinoma at the metastatic sites is well documented in the literature and is rare. However, the same has not been reported at the shoulder and from India before. Although soft tissue sarcomas are most common at this site, however, the possibility of anaplastic transformation should be kept in the differential diagnosis of rapidly enlarging painful mass in a known case of metastatic thyroid carcinoma to prevent misdiagnosis.

  10. Clinical study on radiofrequency combined with 131I therapy for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas%射频联合131I治疗失分化甲状腺癌的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengping Li; Qinjiang Liu; Feng Dong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore clinical efficiency of radio frequency combined with 131I therapy for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods:All patients have been treated by radiofrequency connected with 1311 in 29 cases of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma which performed radionuclide imaging and Ig array of blood serum before and after therapy, respectively. Results: There were 4 (4/29) positive cases of radionuclide imaging before treatment and 19 (19/29) cases 2 weeks after therapy, 25 (25/29) cases of overall efficacy and 15 (15/29) curative cases. Conclusion: Radiofrequency connected with 131I improve clinical efficacy of 131I treatment for dedifferentiated thyroid cancer of thyroid in view of higher absorbing 131I of thyroid cancerous cell.

  11. [Case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Hamaguchi, Noriko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miyamura, Tomotaka; Nakamura, Satoshi; Otsu, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and cervical lymph node metastases with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitis that was diagnosed preoperatively. A 35-year-old woman presented with multiple lymph node swellings and an anterior neck mass. No findings suggesting the coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis were present. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with bilateral neck dissection together with medication. Measures to prevent tuberculosis were undertaken during the perioperative period. The histopathological diagnosis was papillary carcinoma with both metastatic and tuberculous lymphadenitis of the lymph nodes in the neck. The possible coexistence of tuberculous lymphadenitis must be ruled out when lymph node swellings are observed in patients with head and neck cancer, including thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minokadeh, Ardalan; Wulkan, Adam J; Beer, Kenneth; Waibel, Jill S

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old man presented for evaluation with a 1-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic pink nodule on his forearm. Biopsy results of the lesion demonstrated pathology consistent with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Immunohistochemical studies displayed positive cytoplasmic staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, positive dot-like perinuclear staining for cytokeratin-20, diffuse cytoplasmic staining for neuron specific enolase, and no significant staining for S-100. Subsequent positron emission tomography did not reveal evidence of metastatic disease. Wide excision of the lesion was performed along with a sentinel node biopsy of his left axilla. The sentinel nodes were negative for MCC. Adjuvant radiation treatment of the tumor site was provided because the pathologist noted MCC within 2 mm of the deep margin. PMID:24933855

  13. Detection of medullary carcinoma of thyroid, with liver metastasis, using 99mTc DMSA(V scintigraphy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikare S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A sixty year old female referred for thyroid and liver scintigraphy had a clinical history of progressive swelling in the neck with hepatomegaly. A large cold area was detected in the right thyroid lobe using 99mTc pertechnetate and in the right lobe of liver using 99mTc phytate. Subsequent whole body scan with 99mTC DMSA(V showed avid tracer uptake in right lobe of thyroid and liver. Aspiration cytology of thyroid and liver showed medullary carcinoma of thyroid with its metastasis in liver. Histopathology following thyroidectomy confirmed the diagnosis. Thus 99mTc pentavalent DMSA contributes specificity to diagnose medullary carcinoma of thyroid and metastatic lesions.

  14. Update on epidemiology classification, and management of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitham Gheriani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer represents approximately 0.5–1% of all human malignancy1. In the UK the incidence of thyroid cancer is 2-3 per 100,000 populations 2. In geographical areas of low iodine intake and in areas exposed to nuclear disasters the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher. Benign thyroid conditions are much more common. In the UK approximately 8 % of the population have nodular thyroid disease2. Nodular thyroid disease increases with age and is also more common in females and in geographical areas of low iodine intake. Primary thyroid malignancy can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first group, which generally have much better prognosis, are the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and Hürthle cell tumours. The second group includes the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma like medullary thyroid carcinoma and the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other rare tumours such as sarcomas, lymphomas and the extremely rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid should be included in the second group. Secondary or metastatic thyroid cancer can be from breast, lung, colon and kidney malignancies.

  15. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed.

  16. Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mehdi Tazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion. Case Report: We report a case of a 41-year old man presented with a solid mass located in the left temporo-occipital region. The 3D computed tomography showed a large solid mass with high vascularity, skull erosion and supra-infratentorial epidural mass effect. After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI a suspect diagnosis of meningioma was made. The patient underwent surgery where a soft mass with transverse sinus invasion was encountered; the tumour was successfully resected employing microsurgical techniques. Histological examination revealed a thyroid follicular neoplasm with positive staining for follicular carcinoma in immunohistochemical analysis. Postoperatively levels of thyroid hormones were normal. Treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, patient receiving 6 courses of chemotherapy including paclitaxel. Conclusions: The present case emphasizes that although they are uncommon, dural metastasis can be mistaken for meningiomas. The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis. Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions.

  17. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Malmlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats.

  18. Aggressive Disease Course of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Focal Undifferentiated Component: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Riaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report an aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC with focal undifferentiated component in a 32-year-old female. She had limited disease confined within the thyroid gland at diagnosis. Within 12 months of thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, thyroglobulin (Tg levels were elevated. Second radioiodine ablative dose was given, however, stimulated Tg levels showed an upward trend with negative iodine scan within 12 months. An 18F fludeoxyglucose-avid solitary pulmonary nodule that was detected on positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was resected followed by empiric radioiodine therapy. Within the next 10 months she developed multifocal bone metastases. The multifocal disease was rendered inoperable and treated with external beam radiation. The patient is on follow-up, and the Tg level continues to rise with local disease progression. In a small percentage of patients, PTC behaves as a very aggressive disease despite treatment. Focally undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma is an expression of the extreme end of the spectrum of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Expression and significance of ER and PR in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoming Zhang; Weihua Li; Xiaodong Zhao; Yanpeng Zhu; Huiwen Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between expressions of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and gender, age, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, capsular invasion and histological type of dif erentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods:Seventy cases of DTC who received surgery in our hospital (No. 401 Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Qingdao, China) between January 2008 and December 2011 were selected. Among them, 61 cases were papil ary carcinoma and 9 cases were fol icular carcinoma. Twenty cases were normal thyroid tissue adjacent to the tumor which was used as control. Immunohistochemical SP method was employed to detect the expression of ER and PR. Results:The positive rates of ER and PR in tumor tissues of DTC patients were 21.4%(15/70) and 31.4%(22/70), respectively, and no expression of ER or PR were founded in normal thyroid tissue (P0.05) of DTC patients. Conclusion:The expression levels of ER and PR in the tumor tissue of DTC patients were higher than those in the normal thyroid tissue nearby the tumor. Therefore, ER and PR expression might be clinical markers for DTC and its prognosis.

  20. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) Contributes to Non-thyroidal Illness Syndrome (NTIS) Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)*

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Robertson, Chadia L.; Gredler, Rachel; Siddiq, Ayesha; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Akiel, Maaged A; Emdad, Luni; Mas, Valeria; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; FISHER, PAUL B.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) inhibits retinoid X receptor (RXR) function and is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is associated with non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS).

  1. Extrathyroidal Implantation of Thyroid Hyperplastic/neoplastic Cells after Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xi; Xie-qun Xu; Tao Hong; Bing-lu Li; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a case of the implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic tissue after endoscopic thyroidectomy and discuss this complication in aspects of prevalence, pathogenesis, protection, and therapies. Methods A systematic search of literature from the PubMed database was conducted for identifying eligible studies on implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells after endoscopic thyroid surgery. Results Overall, 5 reported cases on patients suffering from endoscopic thyroid surgery with implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells were included in the systematic review. Conclusions Unskilled surgeons, rough intraoperative surgical treatment, scarification or rupture of tumor, contamination of instruments, chimney effect, aerosolization of tumor cells may be associated with the implantation after endoscopic thyroidectomy. To minimize the risk of such complication, we should be more meticulous and strict the endoscopic surgery indications.

  2. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  3. Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma of the Kidney in a Patient with Skull and Meningeal Metastasis: A Unique Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Huang, Jiayu; Huang, Luke; Shi, Oumin; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Haige; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK) is an extremely rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma with close resemblance to the well-differentiated thyroid follicular neoplasms. TLFCK has not been included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification due to the limited data available. Only 27 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Herein, we report a unique case of TLFCK that presented as a striking skull and meningeal metastasis 5 years after the initial diagnosis; this is the first case of TLFCK with such a novel metastasis pattern. A 68-year-old woman was found to have a right renal lesion using computed tomography (CT) during her regular clinical follow-up visit for bladder cancer, but she exhibited no obvious clinical symptoms. The CT scan showed a 4.4-cm diameter, slightly lobulated soft tissue mass in the right lower kidney, the pathological findings of which showed a TLFCK. Five years later, the patient had progressed to skull and meningeal metastasis. Both the renal tumor and the metastasis lesion were composed almost entirely of follicles with a dense, colloid-like material that resembled thyroid follicular carcinoma. However, no lesion was found in the thyroid gland. The neoplastic epithelial cells were strongly immunoreactive for cytokeratin 7 (and vimentin but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin. This is the first reported case of TLFCK to consist of widespread metastases to the skull and meninges and provides evidence that this rare variant of renal cell carcinoma has uncertain malignant potential and can be more clinically aggressive than previously believed. PMID:27082575

  4. AHR over-expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical and molecular assessments in a series of Italian acromegalic patients with a long-term follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Mian

    Full Text Available Acromegaly reportedly carries an increased risk of malignant and benign thyroid tumors, with a prevalence of thyroid cancer of around 3-7%. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR interacting protein (AIP have been identified in familial forms of acromegaly. The molecular and endocrine relationships between follicular thyroid growth and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma have yet to be fully established. Our aim was to study the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC in acromegaly, focusing on the role of genetic events responsible for the onset of thyroid cancer.Germline mutations in the AIP gene were assessed in all patients; BRAF and H-N-K RAS status was analyzed by direct sequencing in thyroid specimens, while immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the protein expression of AIP and AHR. A set of PTCs unrelated to acromegaly was also studied.12 DTCs (10 papillary and 2 follicular carcinomas were identified in a cohort of 113 acromegalic patients. No differences in GH/IGF-1 levels or disease activity emerged between patients with and without DTC, but the former were older and more often female. BRAF V600E was found in 70% of the papillary thyroid cancers; there were no RAS mutations. AIP protein expression was similar in neoplastic and normal cells, while AHR protein was expressed more in PTCs carrying BRAF mutations than in normal tissue, irrespective of acromegaly status.The prevalence of DTC in acromegaly is around 11% and endocrinologists should bear this in mind, especially when examining elderly female patients with uninodular goiter. The DTC risk does not seem to correlate with GH/IGF-1 levels, while it may be associated with BRAF mutations and AHR over-expression. Genetic or epigenetic events probably play a part in promoting thyroid carcinoma.

  5. AHR Over-Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical and Molecular Assessments in a Series of Italian Acromegalic Patients with a Long-Term Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Caterina; Ceccato, Filippo; Barollo, Susi; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Albiger, Nora; Regazzo, Daniela; de Lazzari, Paola; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Rotondi, Sandra; Nacamulli, Davide; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Grimaldi, Franco; Occhi, Gianluca; Scaroni, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Aim Acromegaly reportedly carries an increased risk of malignant and benign thyroid tumors, with a prevalence of thyroid cancer of around 3–7%. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacting protein (AIP) have been identified in familial forms of acromegaly. The molecular and endocrine relationships between follicular thyroid growth and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma have yet to be fully established. Our aim was to study the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in acromegaly, focusing on the role of genetic events responsible for the onset of thyroid cancer. Methods Germline mutations in the AIP gene were assessed in all patients; BRAF and H-N-K RAS status was analyzed by direct sequencing in thyroid specimens, while immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the protein expression of AIP and AHR. A set of PTCs unrelated to acromegaly was also studied. Results 12 DTCs (10 papillary and 2 follicular carcinomas) were identified in a cohort of 113 acromegalic patients. No differences in GH/IGF-1 levels or disease activity emerged between patients with and without DTC, but the former were older and more often female. BRAF V600E was found in 70% of the papillary thyroid cancers; there were no RAS mutations. AIP protein expression was similar in neoplastic and normal cells, while AHR protein was expressed more in PTCs carrying BRAF mutations than in normal tissue, irrespective of acromegaly status. Conclusions The prevalence of DTC in acromegaly is around 11% and endocrinologists should bear this in mind, especially when examining elderly female patients with uninodular goiter. The DTC risk does not seem to correlate with GH/IGF-1 levels, while it may be associated with BRAF mutations and AHR over-expression. Genetic or epigenetic events probably play a part in promoting thyroid carcinoma. PMID:25019383

  6. Quadruple Cancers of Non-producing Multiple Myeloma, Cholangiocellular Carcinoma, and Two Different Thyroid Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kuroda, Junya; Sasaki, Nana; Kiyota, Miki; Tatekawa, Shotaro; Tsukamoto, Taku; Maegawa, Saori; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Yuji; Nagoshi, Hisao; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Horiike, Shigeo; Tando, So; Fushiki, Shinji; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with non-producing multiple myeloma (MM) with three additional concomitant solid tumors that were identified by postmortem autopsy. The disease was refractory to anti-MM therapy including bortezomib and lenalidomide, and he finally died of bacterial pneumonia with diffuse alveolar damage 8 months after the diagnosis. An autopsy revealed that he was also affected by three other solid cancers, cholangiocellular carcinoma, medullary thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer that were clinically asymptomatic and remained undiagnosed before death. A review of the literature suggests that primary quadruple cancers including MM are extremely rare. PMID:27150876

  7. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ash Gargya; Elizabeth Chua

    2012-01-01

    Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an und...

  8. 甲状腺癌中Tiam 1的表达及临床意义%Expression and clinical significance of Tiam 1 in thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化修

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨T淋巴瘤侵袭转移诱导因子1的表达与甲状腺癌侵袭转移的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学S-P法检测Tiam 1在89例甲状腺癌及其淋巴结转移癌的石蜡组织标本中的表达.结果 淋巴结转移癌组织中Tiam 1的表达显著高于甲状腺癌原发灶中的表达(P<0.05);伴发转移的甲状腺癌组织比未发生转移的甲状腺癌组织的Tiam 1表达明显增强(P<0.05);甲状腺髓样癌、未分化癌组织中Tiam 1的表达显著高于乳头状癌、滤泡癌中的表达(P<0.05);高临床分期(Ⅲ、Ⅳ期)甲状腺癌组织中的Tiam 1表达明显高于低临床分期(Ⅰ、Ⅱ期)中的表达(P<0.05).结论 Tiam 1 的表达与甲状腺癌的侵袭转移密切相关,提示Tiam 1 在甲状腺癌的侵袭转移中起重要作用.%[Objective]To investigate the expression of T lymphoma invasion and metastasis inducing factor 1 (Tiam 1) in tissues of thyroid carcinoma,and to analyze the relation between its expression and invasion and metastasis of thyroid carcinoma. [Methods]Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Tiam 1 expression in 89 Cases of primary tumor and metastatic lymph node of thyroid carcinoma. [Results]Tiam 1 expression Was significantly stronger in lymphatic metastasis in comparison with thyroid carcinoma(P<0.05);the positive expression of Tiam 1 in clinical stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ,as well as in tumor with metastasis,was higher than those in clinical stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ,as well as in tumor with non-metastasis (P<0.05),the expression of Tiam 1 in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma(UTC)was significantly higher than that in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma(PTC).[Conclusion]Overexpression of Tiam 1 is correlated with invasion and metastasis in thyroid carcinoma,Tiam l may play an important role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis of thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB/sup 131/I) after /sup 131/I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (/sup 131/I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each /sup 131/I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis.

  10. Pourfour du Petit Syndrome in a Patient with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Martinez-Ramirez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of Pourfour du Petit syndrome (PdPs is the opposite of Horner syndrome. Although all disorders underlying Horner syndrome may potentially present as PdPs, very few cases of the latter have been described in the literature. We report a patient with PdPs due to carotid compression by a thyroid tumor.

  11. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in Denmark 1996-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    A rise in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in several countries, and the increase is only seen in the papillary type. Increased detection due to higher resolution ultrasound and fine needle aspiration has been proposed as the explanation, recent registry studies however question...

  12. Somatic VHL gene alterations in MEN2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutations in RET are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma. Recent studies suggest a 'second hit' mechanism resulting in amplification of mutant RET. Somatic VHL gene alterations are implicated in the pathogenesis of MEN2 pheochromocytomas. We hypothesized that somatic VHL gene alterations are also important in the pathogenesis of MEN2-associated MTC. We analyzed 6 MTCs and 1 C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) specimen from 7 patients with MEN2A and RET germline mutations in codons 609, 618, 620, or 634, using microdissection, microsatellite analysis, phosphorimage densitometry, and VHL mutation analysis. First, we searched for allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET by using the polymorphic markers D10S677, D10S1239, and RET on thyroid tissue from these patients. Evidence for RET amplification by this technique could be demonstrated in 3 of 6 MTCs. We then performed LOH analysis using D3S1038 and D3S1110 which map to the VHL gene locus at 3p25/26. VHL gene deletion was present in 3 MTCs. These 3 MTCs also had an allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET. Mutation analysis of the VHL gene showed a somatic frameshift mutation in 1 MTC that also demonstrated LOH at 3p25/26. In the 2 other MTCs with allelic imbalance of RET and somatic VHL gene deletion, no somatic VHL mutation could be detected. The CCH specimen did neither reveal RET imbalance nor somatic VHL gene alterations. These data suggest that a RET germline mutation is necessary for development of CCH, that allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET may set off tumorigenesis, and that somatic VHL gene alterations may not play a major role in tumorigenesis of MEN2A-associated MTC

  13. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  14. Secretion of calcitonin and gastrin in rats with transplanted medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats transplanted with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MCT) were followed with radio-immuno assay of serum calcitonin (iCT) using antisera to human CT and I125 labelled calcitonin-M. From the 4th month after transplantation, serum from the tumour rats contained iCT in concentrations 8-10 fold higher than serum from the control rats. The tumour cells had retained their ability to react on pentagastrin and calcium injections with increased CT release. It was further shown that the tumour bearing rats had elevated basal gastrin concentrations in serum. While calcium injection lead to a rise in the serum gastrin concentration in the control group, the adverse effect was seen in the tumour bearing rats. The morphological features and the responsiveness of the rat tumour cells to physiological secretagogues make this tumour a suitable animal model for the study of interactions between CT and gastro-intestinal factors. It is suggested that the gastrin response to calcium might be of interest also in the diagnosis of human MCT. (author)

  15. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  16. Aberrant Activation of Notch Signaling Inhibits PROX1 Activity to Enhance the Malignant Behavior of Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwon; Ramu, Swapnika; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Yang, Sara; Jung, Wonhyeuk; Choi, Inho; Lee, Sunju; Kim, Kyu Eui; Seong, Young Jin; Hong, Mingu; Daghlian, George; Kim, Daniel; Shin, Eugene; Seo, Jung In; Khatchadourian, Vicken; Zou, Mengchen; Li, Wei; De Filippo, Roger; Kokorowski, Paul; Chang, Andy; Kim, Steve; Bertoni, Ana; Furlanetto, Tania Weber; Shin, Sung; Li, Meng; Chen, Yibu; Wong, Alex; Koh, Chester; Geliebter, Jan; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although multiple studies have contributed to a better understanding of the genetic alterations underlying this frequently arising disease, the downstream molecular effectors that impact PTC pathogenesis remain to be further defined. Here, we report that the regulator of cell fate specification, PROX1, becomes inactivated in PTC through mRNA downregulation and cytoplasmic mislocalization. Expression studies in clinical specimens revealed that aberrantly activated NOTCH signaling promoted PROX1 downregulation and that cytoplasmic mislocalization significantly altered PROX1 protein stability. Importantly, restoration of PROX1 activity in thyroid carcinoma cells revealed that PROX1 not only enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling but also regulated several genes known to be associated with PTC, including thyroid cancer protein (TC)-1, SERPINA1, and FABP4. Furthermore, PROX1 reexpression suppressed the malignant phenotypes of thyroid carcinoma cells, such as proliferation, motility, adhesion, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and polyploidy. Moreover, animal xenograft studies demonstrated that restoration of PROX1 severely impeded tumor formation and suppressed the invasiveness and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of PTC cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that NOTCH-induced PROX1 inactivation significantly promotes the malignant behavior of thyroid carcinoma and suggest that PROX1 reactivation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate disease progression. PMID:26609053

  17. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for invasive thyroid carcinoma in dogs: a retrospective analysis of survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen dogs with invasive thyroid carcinoma (WHO classification T2b or T3b) seen between January 1991 and October 1997 were treated by external beam Irradiation. Four once-weekly fractions of 9 gray of 4 MeV X-rays were administered. Four of the dogs died of progression of the primary disease and four from metastatic spread. Of the remaining dogs, three died of unrelated problems, although two were still alive at the time of the censor. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the survival time from first dose to death from either primary or metastatic disease gave a median survival time of 96 weeks (mean 85 weeks, range six to 247 weeks). Radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastatic disease at presentation had no prognostic value whereas crude growth rate was a highly significant factor. The present series Indicates that radiation therapy should be considered an important modality for the control of invasive thyroid carcinoma in the dog

  18. Seric thyroglobulin behavior in thyroid carcinoma patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid carcinomas, mainly the differentiated ones, for involving originally young patients and for showing relatively benign course, require a long term follow-up. So, every new available method that may be useful for the follow-up of these patients soon becomes very important. The advent of radioimmunoassay made the determination of thyroglobulin seric levels possible and this practice has been incorporated into medical routine in the past few years. The analysis of the results permit to conclude that the administration of 131I therapeutic dose to differentiated and medular thyroid carcinoma patients is followed by imediate and transitory rise in circulating thyroglobulin levels. It denotes immediate effect of the 131I that can be observed in a short period of time independently of L-T3 administration and endogen TSH levels. After this period the thyroglobulin is at least in a partial way, TSH-dependent. (author)

  19. Ectopic ACTH Production Leading to Diagnosis of Underlying Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Leslee N; Wilson, Jessica R; Baum, Howard B A

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been described as a source of ectopic ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's syndrome. This is an infrequent association, occurring in less than 1% of MTC cases. Among these, it is even more unusual for an initial diagnosis of hypercortisolism to lead to the discovery of underlying MTC. Here we present a case of a patient with weakness, diarrhea, and hypokalemia who was found first to have Cushing's syndrome and later diagnosed with metastatic MTC. The patient was treated initially with oral agents to control his hypercortisolism, then with an etomidate infusion after experiencing intestinal perforation. He also received vandetanib therapy targeting his underlying malignancy, as this has been shown to reverse clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome in patients with MTC and subsequent ectopic ACTH secretion. Bilateral adrenalectomy was ultimately required. Medullary thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients presenting with Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, and a multimodality treatment approach is often required. PMID:27141514

  20. In vivo visualization of expression and function of miR221 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Soon Hag; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    MicroRNA 221 has been known to be one of up-regulated miRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma. To evaluate the expression and function of miR221, we measured the quantities of primary or mature miR221 in normal thyroid or papillary cancer cells and examined the gene expression of Gaussian luciferase (Glue) regulated by miR221. Total RNA and small RNA were isolated from normal thyroid cells (HT-ori3) and papillary thyroid cancer cells (NPA, TPC-1). The quantities of primary miR221 or mature miR221 in cells were measured by qRT-PCR. We constructed a CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 including 3 times repeated perfect target sequences of miR221 in the 3'UTR of Gluc. CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 was transfected into HT-ori3, NPA, and TPC-1, CMV/Gluc was used as a control. Also, precursor miR221 or anti-miR221 were co-transfected with CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 into each cells and compared the Gluc activities by luciferase assay and in vivo bioluminescence image. The quantities of primary miR221 of NPA or TPC-1 were 2.24 or 1.5 times more than that of HT-ori3, and quantities of mature miR221 in NPA or TPC-1 were 17 or 7 times more than that of HT-ori3, respectively. Gluc activities in NPA or TPC-1 transfected with CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 were repressed 2 times or more than those of CMV/Gluc, respectively. Also, Gluc activities in NPA or TPC-1 co-transfected with pre-miR221 and CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 were repressed 5 times or more down-regulated than those of CMV/Gluc, respectively. The other hand, Gluc activities in NPA or TPC-1 co-transfected with anti-miR221 and CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 were retrieved as those of CMV/Gluc. In vivo bioluminescence images also showed that Gluc activities were repressed by pre.miR221 and retrieved by anti-miR221. These results suggest that CMV/Gluc-3xPT{sub m}iR221 system may be a useful tool for monitoring the quantities of miR221 and gene regulation by miR221 in a living animal.

  1. Shifted termination assay (STA) fragment analysis to detect BRAF V600 mutations in papillary thyroid carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, So Young; Ahn, Soomin; Lee, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Ji Yun; Sung, Ji-Youn; Oh, Young Lyun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2013-01-01

    Background BRAF mutation is an important diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To be applicable in clinical laboratories with limited equipment, diverse testing methods are required to detect BRAF mutation. Methods A shifted termination assay (STA) fragment analysis was used to detect common V600 BRAF mutations in 159 PTCs with DNAs extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. The results of STA fragment analysis were compared to...

  2. Comparison of three radiolabelled peptide analogues for CCK-2 receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Alida; De Jong, Marion; Nock, Berthold; Breeman, Wouter; Erion, Jack; Maina, Theodosia; Verdijsseldonck, Marion; De Herder, Wouter; Lugt, Aad; Kooij, Peter; Krenning, Eric

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in a high percentage of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Analogous to somatostatin receptors, CCK-2 receptors might be viable targets for radionuclide scintigraphy and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed, and some have been carried through into clinical studies. However, these studies are mostly limited and difficult to compare. The aim of this ...

  3. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S.; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial– mesenchymal transition. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of S...

  4. Papillary thyroid carcinoma risk factors in the Yunnan plateau of southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rong Zeng,1–3 Tao Shou,3 Kun-xian Yang,4 Tao Shen,5 Jin-ping Zhang,5 Rong-xia Zuo,5 Yong-qing Zheng,5 Xin-ming Yan5 1Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 3Medical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 4Surgical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Yunnan Province Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 5Institute of Clinical and Basic Medicine Research, The Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China Objective: This study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics and risk factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC patients’ native to Yunnan plateau in southwestern China. Methods: Clinical data from 1,198 patients diagnosed with PTC (n=578 and control subjects (n=620 with benign thyroid disease (ie, thyroid nodule disease, benign thyroid diseases [BTD] in Yunnan province were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The mean patient age was lower for PTC than for BTD. Positive ratios of thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb, and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb were higher in PTC than in BTD patients. The ratio of PTC coexisting with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT or with lymphocytic thyroiditis was higher than that of BTD. The number of patients whose age at menarche was ≤13 years, who had given birth to less than or equal to two children, or who were in premenopause were higher in the PTC than in the BTD group. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that age >45 years, nodal size >1 cm, and elevated TG levels were protective factors against PTC. Abnormally elevated TGAb and TRAb levels were independent risk factors for PTC in females

  5. MAPK and SHH pathways modulate type 3 deiodinase expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romitti, Mírian; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Ceolin, Lucieli; Ferreira, Carla Vaz; Ribeiro, Rafaela Vanin Pinto; Rohenkohl, Helena Cecin; Weber, Shana de Souto; Lopez, Patrícia Luciana da Costa; Fuziwara, Cesar Seigi; Kimura, Edna Teruko; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2016-03-01

    Type 3 deiodinase (DIO3, D3) is reactivated in human neoplasias. Increased D3 levels in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have been associated with tumor size and metastatic disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the signaling pathways involved in DIO3 upregulation in PTC. Experiments were performed in human PTC cell lines (K1 and TPC-1 cells) or tumor samples. DIO3 mRNA and activity were evaluated by real-time PCR and ion-exchange column chromatography respectively. Western blot analysis was used to determine the levels of D3 protein. DIO3 gene silencing was performed via siRNA transfection. DIO3 mRNA levels and activity were readily detected in K1 (BRAF(V6) (0) (0E)) and, at lower levels, in TPC-1 (RET/PTC1) cells (PmRNA levels were higher in PTC samples harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation as compared with those with RET/PTC1 rearrangement or negative for these mutations (Phedgehog (SHH) pathway by cyclopamine (10  μM) resulted in markedly decreases in DIO3 mRNA levels. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated DIO3 silencing induced decreases on cyclin D1 expression and partial G1 phase cell cycle arrest, thereby downregulating cell proliferation. In conclusion, sustained activation of the MAPK and SHH pathways modulate the levels of DIO3 expression in PTC. Importantly, DIO3 silencing was associated with decreases in cell proliferation, thus suggesting a D3 role in tumor growth and aggressiveness. PMID:26825960

  6. Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as metastatic skin nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC metastasizes most commonly to the lungs and non-cranial bones. Skull and skin are uncommon sites and usually manifest well after the diagnosis of primary malignancy. Metastasis to skull and skin as the presenting feature of FTC is infrequently reported in the literature. Case presentation: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of thyroid nodule presented with the complaint of rapidly growing skull nodules which had been present for 3 years but were stable previously. She denied any fevers, chills, history of trauma, or weight loss. She denied any history of smoking or head and neck irradiation. On physical examination, she had two non-tender gray cystic lesions – one on her left temporal region and the other on the right parietal region. Biopsy was consistent with metastatic FTC. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated 7.1×3.8 cm and 3.7×4.5 cm fairly homogeneous, enhancing, relatively well-defined masses centered in the posterior and left anterior lateral calvarium with intracranial and extracranial extensions but without any vasogenic edema or mass effect on the brain. Thyroid ultrasound showed numerous nodules in both lobes. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Histopathological studies of the thyroid gland revealed a well-differentiated FTC in the left lobe. Then she underwent resection of the tumor in multiple stages. She did not have any recurrence of the FTC or metastases during the follow-up period and will be receiving radioactive iodine treatment. Conclusion: Bone and lung are the common sites of metastasis from FTC, but involvement of skull or skin is unusual, particularly as the presenting feature. Metastases from FTC should be in the differential of patients with new osteolytic hypervascular skull lesions or cutaneous lesions in head and neck area.

  7. Dramatic response of follicular thyroid carcinoma with superior vena cava syndrome and tracheal obstruction to external-beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilford, M.R.; Chertow, B.S.; Lepanto, P.B.; Leidy, J.W. Jr. (Section of Endocrinology, Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, West Virginia (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We report a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma progressing to superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome and tracheal obstruction despite multiple doses of radioactive iodine therapy but subsequently responding dramatically to external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Although RT is not considered to be the treatment of choice for follicular carcinoma, RT in our patient produced unequivocal improvement of SVC syndrome and tracheal obstruction.

  8. THE EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF P53 AND P21(WAF1/CIP1) IN THYROID CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Xiongwei; Ma Qingyong; Gao Yanfeng; Sun Xuejun; Liu Hao; Sheng Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression of P53 and P21 (WAF1/CIP1) in thyroid carcinomas and its relationship with development and prognosis of the carcinoma. Methods 90 cases of thyroid tissues (60 thyroid carcinomas, 10 thyroid adenomas, 10 goitres and 10 normal thyroid tissues) were studied by SP immunohistochemical method. Results Positive immunoreactivity of P53 and P21(WAF1/CIP1) was found only in thyroid carcinomas. The positive rate of the P53 and P21 is 53.3% and 41.7% respectively. The positive-staining rates of P53 were higher in cases of undifferentiated carcinomas, positive metastasis lymph nodes or in stage Ⅲ, Ⅳ than those in the cases of well-differentiated, no metastasis lymph nodes, or in stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ. In addition, the positive-staining of P21(WAF1/CIP1) were lower in cases of undifferentiated carcinomas, positive metastasis lymph nodes or stage Ⅲ, Ⅳ than that in the cases of well-differentiated, no metastasis lymph nodes or in stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ. The P21 (WAF1/CIP1) expression rate in the P53 positive group was lower than that in the P53 negative group (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of P21(WAF1/CIP1) protein in thyroid cancer is related to P53-depend pathway and P53-independent pathway, mainly the P53-depend pathway. Examination of expression of P53 and P21 (WAF1/ CIP1) proteins may be helpful to judge the thyroid cancers behavior and prognosis.

  9. Identification of new biomarkers for human papillary thyroid carcinoma employing NanoString analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitikova, Zhanna; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Makhlouf, Anne-Marie; Berczy, Margaret; Delucinge-Vivier, Celine; Triponez, Frederic; Meyer, Patrick; Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2015-05-10

    We previously reported an upregulation of the clock transcript BMAL1, correlating with TIMP1 expression in fresh-frozen samples from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Since frozen postoperative biopsy samples are difficult to obtain, we aimed to validate the application of high-precision NanoString analysis for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) thyroid nodule samples and to screen for potential biomarkers associated with PTC. No significant differences were detected between fresh-frozen and FFPE samples. NanoString analysis of 51 transcripts in 17 PTC and 17 benign nodule samples obtained from different donors and in 24 pairs of benign and PTC nodules, obtained from the same donor (multinodular goiters), confirmed significant alterations in the levels of BMAL1, c-MET, c-KIT, TIMP1, and other transcripts. Moreover, we identified for the first time alterations in CHEK1 and BCL2 levels in PTC. A predictive score was established for each sample, based on the combined expression levels of BMAL1, CHEK1, c-MET, c-KIT and TIMP1. In combination with BRAF mutation analysis, this predictive score closely correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the analyzed thyroid nodules. Our study identified new thyroid transcripts with altered levels in PTC using the NanoString approach. A predictive score correlation coefficient might contribute to improve the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

  10. Epigenetic modifications in human thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Faam, Bita; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Ghadiri, Ata; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy of the endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has steadily increased over the last decade. Over 95% of thyroid carcinoma is derived from follicular cells that have a spectrum of differentiation to the most invasive malignancy. The molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer remains to be clarified, although activating the RET, RAS and BRAF oncogenes have been well characterized. Increasing evidence from previous studies demonstrates tha...

  11. 甲状腺髓样癌与RET基因%Medullary thyroid carcinoma and RET proto-oncogene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军轶

    2010-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma originates from parafollicular cells. Its prognosis is worse than that of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgery is the best treatment for early stage diseases. In the past decade, dominant activating mutations in the RET pro-oncogene have been identified as the main cause of MTC. Mutation analysis of the RET proto-oncogene has been used in the early diagnosis, prophylactic surgery and targeted therapy of MTC.%甲状腺髓样癌(MTC)源于甲状腺滤泡旁细胞,预后较分化型甲状腺癌为差,早期手术是最为有效的治疗方法.近年发现RET基因突变是MTC的主要分子病因学基础,对RET基因突变的研究成果已经用于临床早期诊断、指导预防性外科干预以及生物靶向治疗等方面.

  12. Onco-lncRNA HOTAIR and its functional genetic variants in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Lv, Zheng; An, Changming; Shi, Meng; Pan, Wenting; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Wenjun; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) and its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still largely unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of lncRNA HOTAIR and its three haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) in PTC. There was higher expression of HOTAIR in PTC tissues compared to normal tissues. A series of gain-loss assays demonstrated that HOTAIR acts as a PTC oncogene via promoting tumorigenic properties of PTC cells. Additionally, the functional HOTAIR rs920778 genetic variant was a PTC susceptibility SNP. Subjects with the HOTAIR rs920778 TT genotype had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.88, 1.25 and 1.61 (P = 6.0 × 10−6, P = 0.028 and P = 3.2 × 10−5) for developing PTC in Shandong, Jiangsu and Jilin case-control sets compared with subjects with the CC genotype. This statistically significant associations were only found between the rs920778 genetic polymorphism and PTC risk in females but not in males. The allele-specific regulation on HOTAIR expression by the rs920778 SNP was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that functional SNPs influencing lncRNA regulation may explain a part of PTC genetic basis. PMID:27549736

  13. Carcinoma papilífero da tireoide associado à tireoidite de Hashimoto: frequência e aspectos histopatológicos Papillary thyroid carcinoma associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis: frequency and histopathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cruz Camboim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma papilífero é o tipo mais comum de câncer da tireoide e a tireoidite de Hashimoto é a causa mais frequente de hipotireoidismo em áreas onde os níveis de iodo são adequados. Vários investigadores detectaram incidência aumentada de carcinoma papilífero da tireoide em pacientes com tireoidite de Hashimoto. Na rotina de diagnósticos histopatológicos há uma aparente associação entre as duas patologias. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre tireoidite de Hashimoto e carcinoma papilífero de tireoide, avaliando os aspectos histomorfológicos, quando concomitantes ou apresentando-se de forma isolada. MÉTODO: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo a partir dos dados do arquivo do Serviço de Patologia do Hospital Barão de Lucena, afiliado ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS (Recife-PE, incluindo 95 casos, entre 472 cirurgias de tireoide realizadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2005. RESULTADOS: Houve 35 casos (7,4% de tireoidite de Hashimoto, 48 (10,2% de carcinoma papilífero e 12 (2,5% de associação significativa (p INTRODUCTION: Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in areas where iodine levels are adequate. Several investigators have detected an increased incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In histopathological diagnosis routine, there is an apparent association between these two pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma, evaluating the histopathological aspects, when concomitantly present or isolated. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out with data from the archives of the Pathology Service at hospital Barão de Lucena, SUS (Recife-PE, Brazil, which included 95 cases amongst 472 thyroid surgeries performed from January 1995 through January 2005. RESULTS: There were 35 cases

  14. Sensitivity to radiation of human normal, hyperthyroid, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of thyroid tissue removed surgically from 63 patients were cultured in vitro and X-irradiated to investigate the radiosensitivities of various types of thyroid epithelial cells. A total of 76 samples were obtained, including neoplastic cells from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) or follicular adenoma (FA), cells from hyperthyroidism (HY) patients, and normal cells from the surgical margins of PC and FA patients. Culturing of the cells was performed in a manner which has been shown to yield a predominance of epithelial cells. Results of colony formation assays indicated that cells from HY and FA patients were the least radiosensitive: when adjusted to the overall geometric mean plating efficiency of 5.5 %, the average mean lethal dose D0 was 97.6 cGy for HY cells, and 96.7 cGy and 94.3 cGy, respectively, for neoplastic and normal cells from FA patients. Cells from PC patients were more radiosensitive, normal cells having an adjusted average D0 of 85.0 cGy and PC cells a significantly (p = .001) lower average D0 of 74.4 cGy. After allowing for this variation by cell type, in vitro radiosensitivity was not significantly related to age at surgery (p = .82) or sex (p = .10). These results suggest that malignant thyroid cells may be especially radiosensitive. (author)

  15. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  16. Oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis%甲状腺乳头状癌嗜酸细胞变异型伴桥本甲状腺炎临床病理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀平; 宦大为; 王翠芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨甲状腺乳头状癌嗜酸细胞变异型伴桥本甲状腺炎的病理形态学特征.方法 对1例甲状腺乳头状癌嗜酸细胞变异型伴桥本甲状腺炎进行病理形态学及免疫组化分析,复习该病变的相关文献并讨论其诊断及鉴别诊断要点.结果 组织学形态主要表现为乳头状癌间质中有大量淋巴细胞、浆细胞浸润,癌细胞嗜酸性变.免疫组化示肿瘤组织CK19、HBME-1、CK、TG、TTF-1和EMA呈弥漫或大部分(+),calcitonin、p53和Ki-67均(-).结论 甲状腺乳头状癌嗜酸细胞变异型伴桥本甲状腺炎具有比较独特的组织学形态,在临床病理诊断中很容易误诊为桥本甲状腺炎伴滤泡上皮嗜酸变等形态结构相近的良、恶性病变.形态学上乳头状癌癌细胞特征性核改变及免疫组化CK19和HBME-1(+)有助于其诊断和鉴别诊断.%Objective To review and discuss the pathological features of oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto 's thyroiditis. Methods One case of oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was investigated with pathological morphology and immunohistochemistry methods. Relevant literatures were reviewed. Discussion was focused on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MFPTC. Results The histological characteristics of oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis included papillary carcinoma of interstitial infiltration of large number of lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophilic cell change. Immunohistochemical staining of CK19, HBME1 , CK, TG, TTF-1 and EMA showed simultaneous expression with diffusely or mostly positive pattern. Calcitonin, P53 and KJ67 were negative. Conclusion Oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis has a relatively unique histological feature. In the clinical setting, this tumor can easily be misdiagnosed as

  17. Thyroid Regeneration: Characterization of Clear Cells After Partial Thyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozaki, Takashi; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Okamoto, Minoru; Nagashima, Kunio; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Hayase, Suguru; Murata, Tsubasa; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Hanson, Jeffrey; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Kakudo, Kennichi; Refetoff, Samuel; Kimura, Shioko

    2012-01-01

    Although having the capacity to grow in response to a stimulus that perturbs the pituitary-thyroid axis, the thyroid gland is considered not a regenerative organ. In this study, partial thyroidectomy (PTx) was used to produce a condition for thyroid regeneration. In the intact thyroid gland, the central areas of both lobes served as the proliferative centers where microfollicles, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive and/or C cells, were localized. Two weeks after PTx, the number of BrdU-posi...

  18. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  19. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma